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Sample records for randomized ethnobotanical survey

  1. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

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    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  2. Probability sampling design in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants

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    Mariano Martinez Espinosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-probability sampling design can be used in ethnobotanical surveys of medicinal plants. However, this method does not allow statistical inferences to be made from the data generated. The aim of this paper is to present a probability sampling design that is applicable in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants. The sampling design employed in the research titled "Ethnobotanical knowledge of medicinal plants used by traditional communities of Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo district (NSACD, Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil" was used as a case study. Probability sampling methods (simple random and stratified sampling were used in this study. In order to determine the sample size, the following data were considered: population size (N of 1179 families; confidence coefficient, 95%; sample error (d, 0.05; and a proportion (p, 0.5. The application of this sampling method resulted in a sample size (n of at least 290 families in the district. The present study concludes that probability sampling methods necessarily have to be employed in ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants, particularly where statistical inferences have to be made using data obtained. This can be achieved by applying different existing probability sampling methods, or better still, a combination of such methods.

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the management of hypertension in the Maritime region of Togo. Holaly E. Gbekley, Simplice D. Karou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Tchadjobo Tchacondo, Komlan Batawila, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Jacques Simpore ...

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous flora for treating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used locally for treating tuberculosis (TB) and other respiratory diseases was conducted from November 2004 to March 2005 in Niger State-Nigeria. The survey was aimed at identifying plants used in traditional medicine for treating TB and other pulmonary ailments in Niger ...

  5. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the naming and use of plants by Taita who live at Mount Kasigau in Kenya's Eastern Arc Mountains. Plant vouchers and ethnobotanical data were compiled from transects and within 55 ecological plots, and during participant observations, home surveys, and semi-structured interviews with residents.

  6. Ethnobotanical Survey Of Anti-Asthmatic Plants In South Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper presents the results of an ethnobotanical survey of plants used in the treatment of asthma in Ogun, Osun and Oyo states. Twenty markets were visited and forty-six plants belonging to thirty-three different families were collected. The plants\\' families represented in the colle ction include,Amaryllidaceae, ...

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of plants used for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constipation is the commonest gastrointestinal complaint in most developed and poor countries including South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by herbalists, traditional healers and rural dwellers for the treatment of constipation was conducted in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape Province of South ...

  8. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad

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    Clement, Y. N.; Baksh-Comeau, Y. S.; Seaforth, C. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. Methods A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using...

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Trinidad.

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    Clement, Y N; Baksh-Comeau, Y S; Seaforth, C E

    2015-09-15

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted on the Caribbean island of Trinidad to identify medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of medical conditions. A pilot survey was conducted to identify the top ten most common ailments where medicinal plants were used. The results of the foregoing study guided a wider national survey conducted between October 2007 and July 2008. A total of 450 households from 50 rural communities were interviewed using the TRAMIL (Traditional Medicine in the Islands) questionnaire for data collection. Details of plants, part(s) used, and remedy formulations were elicited from informants and voucher specimens collected for identification at the National Herbarium of Trinidad and Tobago. The TRAMIL methodology set a limit of a plant with 20 % or more citations for any particular ailment as having significant or popular use. At the end of the survey 917 single plant remedies were identified. The majority of species were from the following families; Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminosae, Verbenaceae and Poaceae. Applying the TRAMIL 20 % citation of a plant for popular use as significant, Leonotis nepetifolia (for cough/common cold), Gomphrena globosa (for "stoppage-of-water"), Curcuma longa and Senna occidentalis (for "afterbirth"), Cymbopogon citratus and Neurolaena lobata (for fever), and Citrus limon (for kidney stones) qualified in our study. Those not reaching the TRAMIL 20 % significant (popular) use were Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl, Senna alata (L.) Roxb.and Momordica charantia L. which were widely used as "'cooling/cleanser'" in our survey. Our survey showed significant retention of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in rural Trinidad. More interestingly, a large remnant of medico-cultural concepts such as "cooling/cleanser", "afterbirth", "stoppage-of-water" and "womb infection" persist in the rural population. Although the scientific literature show that some of the cited plants possessed

  10. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration. A questionnaire was used as a survey instrument to obtain desired data. For this study, 10 villages were randomly ...

  11. A bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants from Nigeria, west Africa.

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    Lifongo, Lydia L; Simoben, Conrad V; Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Babiaka, Smith B; Judson, Philip N

    2014-02-01

    Traditional medicinal practices play a key role in health care systems in countries with developing economies. The aim of this survey was to validate the use of traditional medicine within local Nigerian communities. In this review, we examine the ethnobotanical uses of selected plant species from the Nigerian flora and attempt to correlate the activities of the isolated bioactive principles with known uses of the plant species in African traditional medicine. Thirty-three (33) plant species were identified and about 100 out of the 120 compounds identified with these plants matched with the ethnobotanical uses of the plants.

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of plants of veterinary importance in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the survey was to document and analyze information on the traditional use of medicinal plants by farmers in Ofla and Raya-Azebo woredas of South Tigray Zone for the treatment and prevention of livestock ailments. Data were collected mainly through interviews carried out with randomly selected farmers of ...

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe, Ecuador.

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    Tene, Vicente; Malagón, Omar; Finzi, Paola Vita; Vidari, Giovanni; Armijos, Chabaco; Zaragoza, Tomás

    2007-04-20

    This paper reports the results of an ethnobotanical survey on the uses of medicinal plants by inhabitants of two southern Ecuadorian provinces, namely, Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this region, two surviving ethnic groups, the Saraguros and the Shuars, and the descendants of a now extinct culture, the Paltas, have been identified. The present study reports a total of 275 plant species, having 68 different therapeutical uses.

  14. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Department of Botany, Post Graduate College Abbottabad, Pakistan. Accepted 17 March, 2011. A survey was conducted to explore the fuel wood species and timber producing species of Kaghan valleys, Pakistan. Consumption pattern and impact on the forest resources were also taken into consideration.

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore.

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    Siew, Yin-Yin; Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Seetoh, Wei-Guang; Neo, Soek-Ying; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-09-29

    The use of medicinal plants in human health has been documented since ancient times and they provide a useful source of new therapeutics. In Singapore, despite the accessibility to modern healthcare, there still exist pockets of the population who choose to use locally grown fresh medicinal plants for health promotion and even therapeutic purposes. However to date, there is no published report of first-hand account of their usage in Singapore. As land is scarce and rapidly used for re-development, such important knowledge may be lost if not properly documented in time. This work safeguards the local folk knowledge, and provides information on common and scarcely reported fresh medicinal plants. The objective of this study is to gather information regarding the usage of fresh medicinal plants in Singapore through face-to-face interviews. Information on demographic data and plant-use methods were collated via face-to-face interviews of 200 fresh medicinal plant users who have used fresh medicinal plants in the last five years. The survey protocol was approved by the National University of Singapore Institutional Review Board and informed consent was obtained from every participant. A total of 414 plants represented by 104 plant species from 44 families were reportedly used by the 200 participants. The five most commonly used plants were Clinacanthus nutans (34 users), Strobilanthes crispus (31 users), Pereskia bleo (25 users), Aloe vera (18 users) and Zingiber officinale (16 users). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part while preparing a decoction was the most common method of preparation. The majority of interviewees used plants for general health purposes and to treat diseases related to the respiratory system and cancer. Our survey has successfully documented the rich wealth of traditional usage and knowledge on 414 fresh medicinal plants grown in Singapore through face-to-face interviews with 200 users. This study will serve as a useful resource for

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in northeastern of Algeria.

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    Bouasla, Asma; Bouasla, Ihcène

    2017-12-01

    In order to document medicinal uses of plants in the northeastern of Algeria, preserve traditional heritage and highlighted the risks of excessive human exploitation on flora and biodiversity of the region, an inventory of medicinal species existed in the traditional pharmacopoeia in Skikda region (north-east of Algeria) was made. The survey was carried out during the year (2015-2016), through face to face interviews, using pre-prepared questionnaire. The form contains: sociodemorgaphic profile of each respondent (sex, age, educational level and monthly income), local name of medicinal species used, uses, used parts and methods of preparations. A total of 90 species belonging to 42 botanical families, were listed. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the frequency of use of medicinal plants is related to the age, sex, educational level and monthly income of our respondents. It was recorded that the majority of remedies are prepared in the form of a decoctate from the leaves of the different species, in order to treat a wide range of diseases especially those of the digestive tract. Local population has a rich indigenous knowledge, but is always stays not adequately documented. It should be noted that some listed species are suffering from surexploitation which can subjects to the disappearance of the most vulnerable species. It will be urgent and essential to adopt a sustainable management strategy to avoid the degradation of biodiversity of the region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Socially responsible ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region: ethical principles, methodology and quantification of data

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    Ben-Erik Van Wyk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A broad overview of published and unpublished ethnobotanical surveys in the Cape Floristic Region (the traditional home of the San and Khoi communities shows that the data is incomplete. There is an urgent need to record the rich indigenous knowledge about plants in a systematic and social responsible manner in order to preserve this cultural and scientific heritage for future generations. Improved methods for quantifying data are introduced, with special reference to the simplicity and benefits of the new Matrix Method. This methodology prevents or reduces the number of false negatives, and also ensures the participation of elderly people who might be immobile. It also makes it possible to compare plant uses in different local communities. This method enables the researcher to quantify the knowledge on plant use that was preserved in a community, and to determine the relative importance of a specific plant in a more objective way. Ethical considerations for such ethnobotanical surveys are discussed, through the lens of current ethical codes and international conventions. This is an accessible approach, which can also be used in the life sciences classroom.

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used as anthelmintic remedies in Gabon.

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    Bajin Ba Ndob, Idensi; Mengome, Line Edwige; Bourobou Bourobou, Henri-Paul; Lossangoye Banfora, Yvon; Bivigou, Francis

    2016-09-15

    In this article, we report on an ethnobotanical survey realized at the Peyrie market in Libreville on Gabonese medicinal plants used to treat helminthiasis. While several alerts about cases of resistance to conventional anthelmintic treatments are causing to fear a public and animal health issue, the search for new sources of active compounds becomes an urgent issue. In Gabon like in many developing countries, people regularly turn to traditional medicine in case of physical ailments and/or spiritual healing therapies. To determine which medicinal plants are traditionally used by the populations of Libreville to fight against nematodes, medicinal plant traders were interviewed with standardized questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the main market of Libreville. Ethnobotanical data such as frequency and percentage of families, species, administrations pathways, modes of preparations and parts of plants used were analyzed and summarized. Thirty-four (34) traders were interviewed belonging to five (5) different ethnic groups. Twenty-four 24 plants used to treat intestinal, cutaneous and ocular helminthiasis were listed. The healers mainly turned towards to ligneous species. The parts of the plant used are mostly leaves and trunk bark. Most of the traditional remedies are prepared directly in water and four (4) principal routes were used for administration namely, oral, rectal, ocular and dermal. This study allowed us to list anthelmintic species which will be subjected to a series of chemical and pharmacological assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of galactogenic plants of Berhoum district (M'sila, Algeria

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    Sarri Madani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: This work aimed an ethnobatanical study on the galactogenic plants used in the Berhoum region (East of M’sila, Algeria; as a part of different studies on the medicinal plants related to M’sila region. Methods: The fieldwork was undertaken as an ethnobotanical survey involving 76 informants (mean age: 50; 64% women, 36% men. Used the medicinal plants were identified and the results were analyzed according to literature investigation dealing with ethnobotany. Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL, and informant consensus factor (FIC were used to analyze the obtained data. Results: A total of 29 plant species belonging to 29 genera and 12 families (mainly Apiaceae and Fabaceae has been registered. Fruits and seeds were the most commonly used plant part (80%. The used plants are mainly prepared as an infusion and decoction (69%. Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV = 0.58 was the species most commonly used by local healers. The FIC factors ranging from 0.45 to 0.89 for the six uses categories retained for this study. The ICF (0.65 was registered for the use galactogenic category with 29 species. Conclusion: This work showed that the population of Berhoum district uses various medicinal plants for galactogenic purposes. Furthermore, ethnobotanical analysis will provide data on sustainable use and valorization of this plant heritage for ethnopharmacological and phytochemical studies. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(3.000: 311-315

  20. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and edible plants of Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state, Ethiopia.

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    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2017-07-05

    The Afar people inhabit the sub-arid and arid part of Ethiopia. Recurrent drought and invasive encroaching plants are taking out plants that have cultural importance, and threaten the biodiversity and the associated traditional knowledge. Thus, the aim of the current study is to conduct an ethnobotanical survey and document medicinal and edible plants in Yalo Woreda in Afar regional state. A cross-sectional ethnobotanical study was carried out in eight kebeles of Yalo Woreda from October 2015 to December 2016. One hundred sixty informants were selected using purposive sampling. The data on diseases, medicinal and edible plants were collected using semi-structure interview and group discussion. The statistical methods, informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and preference ranking were conducted to analyze the data. One hundred and six plants were reported; gender and age differences had implication on the number of plants reported by informants. The knowledge of medicinal plants among informants of each kebele was not different (p medicinal and edible plants affects the traditional use of plants in the Yalo Woreda. The conservation of the plants in the home garden and natural habitat and integration of edible plants into agroforestry development programs in sub-arid and arid regions has to be encouraged to conserve plants of medical and economic importance.

  1. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by nomadic peoples in the Algerian steppe.

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    Miara, Mohamed Djamel; Bendif, Hamdi; Ait Hammou, Mohammed; Teixidor-Toneu, Irene

    2018-06-12

    This study is the first ethnobotanical survey focusing on the herbal medicines traditionally used by the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, identifying new medicinal plants and uses from one of the most characteristic indigenous populations in Algeria. Moreover, the study contributes to the understanding of transmission of medicinal plant knowledge in the Mediterranean basin. This work aims to document the phytotherapeutical knowledge and practice of the nomadic community of the Algerian steppe, and compare it with neighbouring sedentary populations and Mediterranean historical texts. Through this, the study strives to evaluate processes of transmission of knowledge among this population, for whom written sources have been largely unavailable. Ethnobotanical surveys were carried out during two years (2015-2017). In total, 73 informants from nomadic populations were interviewed in several steppe regions including areas in the administrative departments of Tiaret, Saida, Naama, Djelfa and M'sila. Structured interviews about medicinal plant knowledge were combined with guided tours with the informants. Prior informed consent was always obtained. The surveys allowed for the collection of sociodemographic data and traditional knowledge about medicinal plants and their uses. Informant Consensus Factor (F IC ) was calculated to evaluate agreement among informants. Results were compared to existing literature to evaluate similarities between this nomadic medicinal flora, that of neighbouring communities and historical texts and identify new plant citations and uses. Among Algerian nomadic communities, herbal remedies are used mostly by women and elders, who are often illiterate. We identified 97 taxa of medicinal plants belonging to 42 botanical families, importantly Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Apiaceae, like in neighbouring communities. The most common plant parts and method of preparation are also shared with neighbouring populations. New uses are described for 25

  2. Traditional uses of herbal vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India: an ethnobotanical survey.

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    Ningthoujam, Sanjoy Singh; Das Talukdar, Anupam; Potsangbam, Kumar Singh; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta

    2013-05-02

    Vapour-based medicines are an aspect of traditional medicine in North East India. However, no collective studies on this therapy in the region have been attempted. With the changing perception of traditional knowledge, documenting these herbal preparations and the subsequent development of baseline data for applications in further ethnopharmacological research are needed. To survey and document the plant species associated with vapour therapy in Manipur, North East India, and to evaluate these traditional practices. Semi-structured questionnaires were used to collect information from the Meitei community in the Imphal valley and the Jiribam area in Manipur. Traditional disease concepts were studied along with their corresponding medical terminologies. Plant samples collected from fields, healers' private collections and home gardens were identified. Evaluation of the ethnobotanical data was performed with a modified fidelity level index. In the study, 41 traditional disease complexes were treated by 13 different routes of administration using 48 mono-ingredient and 17 multi-ingredient compositions. Preparation methods included boiling in water (28%), burning the materials (48%), crushing the materials to release the aroma (21%) and slight heating of the materials (3%). Some of the mono-ingredient recipes reported in the study were observed to have similar uses in other parts of the world, whereas polyherbal remedies were found to be unique without any similar report. Many compositions mentioned in the paper are still used by the Meitei community. Traditional healers follow their own criteria for selecting medicinal plants. Plants recorded in this ethnobotanical study can suggest methods for selecting and identifying potentially effective plants for future drug candidates. Scientific characterisation of the herbal remedies can contribute to the endorsement of traditional vapour-based therapies in the modern health care systems. Findings from these "new usage

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of the medicinal flora used by the Caribs of Guatemala.

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    Girón, L M; Freire, V; Alonzo, A; Cáceres, A

    1991-09-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was conducted among the Carib population of Guatemala in 1988-1989. In general terms, the sample surveyed possessed a relatively good standard of living. Results indicated that health services were utilized by the population, and that domestic medicine, mainly plants (96.9%) was used by 15% of the population. One hundred and nineteen plants used for medicinal purposes were collected, of which 102 (85.7%) could be identified; a list of these together with the information provided for each plant is presented. The most frequently reported plants used as medicine are: Acalypha arvensis, Cassia alata, Cymbopogon citratus, Melampodium divaricatum. Momordica charantia, Neurolaena lobata, Ocimum basilicum, Petiveria alliacea and Solanum nigrescens. Most of these plants are found in the region, but some are brought from the Highlands or outside of the country, such as Malva parviflora, Matricaria chamomilla, Peumus boldus, Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis and Tagetes lucida. This survey demonstrated that the Carib population of Guatemala has survived in a transcultural environment of African and native Amerindian beliefs.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania.

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    Mbunde, Mourice Victor Nyangabo; Innocent, Ester; Mabiki, Faith; Andersson, Pher G

    2017-01-01

    Some of the antifungal drugs used in the current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents' information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using brine shrimp lethality test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 program. During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea , Aloe nutii , Aloe lateritia , Zanthoxylum chalybeum , Zanthoxylum deremense , and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were nontoxic with LC 50 > 100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachyus recorded the highest with LC 50 value 12.94 µg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery.

  5. Ethnobotanical survey and toxicity evaluation of medicinal plants used for fungal remedy in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania

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    Mourice Victor Nyangabo Mbunde

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Some of the antifungal drugs used in current treatments regime are responding to antimicrobial resistance. In rural areas of Southern Tanzania, indigenous people use antifungal drugs alone or together with medicinal plants to curb the effects of antibiotic resistance. This study documented ethnobotanical information of medicinal plants used for managing fungal infections in the Southern highlands of Tanzania and further assess their safety. Methods: Ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Makete and Mufindi districts between July 2014 and December 2015 using semi-structured questionnaires followed by two focus group discussions to verify respondents’ information. Cytotoxicity study was conducted on extracts of collected plants using Brine Shrimp Lethality Test and analyzed by MS Excel 2013 programme. Results: During this survey about 46 plant species belonging to 28 families of angiosperms were reported to be traditionally useful in managing fungal and other health conditions. Among these, Terminalia sericea, Aloe nutii, Aloe lateritia, Zanthoxylum chalybeum, Zanthoxym deremense and Kigelia africana were frequently mentioned to be used for managing fungal infections. The preparation of these herbals was mostly by boiling plant parts especially the leaves and roots. Cytotoxicity study revealed that most of the plants tested were non-toxic with LC¬50¬ >100 which implies that most compounds from these plants are safe for therapeutic use. The dichloromethane extract of Croton macrostachys recorded the highest with LC50 value 12.94 μg/ml. The ethnobotanical survey correlated well with documented literature from elsewhere about the bioactivity of most plants. Conclusions: The ethnobotanical survey has revealed that traditional healers are rich of knowledge to build on for therapeutic studies. Most of the plants are safe for use; and thus can be considered for further studies on drug discovery. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(1.000: 84-96

  6. Medicinal plants at Rio Jauaperi, Brazilian Amazon: Ethnobotanical survey and environmental conservation.

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    Pedrollo, Camilo Tomazini; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Shepard, Glenn; Heinrich, Michael

    2016-06-20

    The Amazon basin is a mosaic of different environments. Flooded riparian and upland forests play a significant role for the establishment of human settlements. Riparian communities in the Amazon have evolved depending on the use of plants applied for therapeutic purposes, thus developing important knowledge about their management and preparation. This paper describes and analyzes the use and management of medicinal plants in order to establish links to environmental conservation. The categorization of habitats of occurrence and categories of diseases were held in five riparian communities at Rio Jauaperi, in the border between Roraima and Amazonas states in Brazil. The study sight is poorly investigated in terms of scientific research. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including observations, individual and focus group discussions, individual interviews, preference ranking by free listing tasks, guided tours and community mapping were applied. Sutrop's cognitive salience index was applied in order to check the most important ethnospecies and diseases. The survey was conducted from February to December 2012. A total of 62 informants were interviewed, resulting in 119 botanical species documented. The most salient medicinal species are usually wide distributed and recognized transculturally. Arboreal habit was the most important corresponding to 47% of total species used. The most frequent accessed environments were terra-firme (upland forest), vargeado (flooded forest), poultry (regenerating forest) and restinga (seasonally flooded forest) which together provides 59% of the total medicinal plant species. Exotic species played a secondary role with only 20% of the total. Thirty seven percent of the species were cultivated. Plants at homegardens are usually associated with children's or women's disease. Xixuaú is the community with improved ability to environmental preservation using more forestry species. The most

  7. Traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in rural and urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh--an ethnobotanical survey.

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    Ocvirk, Soeren; Kistler, Martin; Khan, Shusmita; Talukder, Shamim Hayder; Hauner, Hans

    2013-06-24

    The usage of medicinal plants is traditionally rooted in Bangladesh and still an essential part of public healthcare. Recently, a dramatically increasing prevalence brought diabetes mellitus and its therapy to the focus of public health interests in Bangladesh. We conducted an ethnobotanical survey to identify the traditional medicinal plants being used to treat diabetes in Bangladesh and to critically assess their anti-diabetic potentials with focus on evidence-based criteria. In an ethnobotanical survey in defined rural and urban areas 63 randomly chosen individuals (health professionals, diabetic patients), identified to use traditional medicinal plants to treat diabetes, were interviewed in a structured manner about their administration or use of plants for treating diabetes. In total 37 medicinal plants belonging to 25 families were reported as being used for the treatment of diabetes in Bangladesh. The most frequently mentioned plants were Coccinia indica, Azadirachta indica, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula, Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Swietenia mahagoni. Traditional medicinal plants are commonly used in Bangladesh to treat diabetes. The available data regarding the anti-diabetic activity of the detected plants is not sufficient to adequately evaluate or recommend their use. Clinical intervention studies are required to provide evidence for a safe and effective use of the identified plants in the treatment of diabetes.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of cosmetic plants used in Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia).

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    Jost, Xénia; Ansel, Jean-Luc; Lecellier, Gaël; Raharivelomanana, Phila; Butaud, Jean-François

    2016-11-29

    Cosmetic plants and their uses have often been neglected in ethnobotanical surveys which focus mainly on plants with medicinal or food uses. Thus, this survey was carried out to specifically investigate cosmetics in a small community and to establish a cosmetopoeia, based on the model of pharmacopoeia for medicinal plants. The geographic spread of the survey covered the Marquesas Islands, one of the five archipelagos of French Polynesia (Pacific Ocean). This archipelago was also recently investigated for its pharmacopoeia. This survey is based on individual interviews of Marquesan informants on the islands of Tahiti (Society archipelago) and Nuku Hiva (Marquesas archipelago). The methodological approach was semi-directive with open-ended questions based on cosmetic criteria (application area, cosmetic use, plant). Before each interview, researchers and the informant signed a Prior Informed Consent (PIC). Quantitative analyses were performed using basic statistics and the indice of Fidelity Level (FL). Twenty-eight informants from five of the six inhabited Marquesan islands were interviewed and yielded more than 500 cosmetic recipes. Marquesan cosmetopoeia included 79 plant taxa, of which 5% are Marquesan endemics, 23% are indigenous, 28% are Polynesian introductions and 44% are modern introductions. Among the introduced species, half were cultivated whereas the other half were weedy species. Most of the plants were abundant and only eight species were considered rare, of which four were Marquesan endemics. Main cosmetic plants were identified through informant citations and fidelity levels, and included Calophyllum inophyllum, Cananga odorata, Citrus aurantiifolia, Cocos nucifera, Curcuma longa, Gardenia taitensis, Mentha spp., Ocimum basilicum, Rauvolfia nukuhivensis and Santalum insulare var. marchionense. The most referred application areas were skin, hair and private parts whereas the main cosmetic uses were perfume, hydration, medicinal care and healing

  9. Ethno-Botanical Survey Of Medicinal Plants In The Plant Genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethno-botanical uses and mode of administration of twenty-nine medicinal plants found in the arboretum of the Plant Genetic Resource Centre located at Bunso in the Eastern region of Ghana against some disease conditions are hereby documented. Key words: Ethnobotany, medicinal plants, arboretum, Ghana. Nig.

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of indigenous medicinal plants in Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan

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    Umair, Muhammad; Altaf, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Present paper offers considerable information on traditional uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of Hafizabad district, Punjab-Pakistan. This is the first quantitative ethnobotanical study from the area comprising popularity level of medicinal plant species intendedby using relative popularity level (RPL) and rank order priority (ROP) indices.Ethnobotanical data were collected by interviewing 166 local informants and 35 traditional health practioners (THPs) from different localities of Hafizabad district. Demographic features of informants; life form, part used, methods of preparation, modes of application and ethnomedicinal uses were documented. Ethnobotanical data were analyzed using quantitative tools, i.e. Relative frequency citation (RFC), use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) fidelity level (FL), RPL and ROP indices. A total of 85 species belonging to 71 genera and 34 families were documented along with ethnomedicinal uses. Solanum surattense, Withania somnifera, Cyperus rotundus, Solanum nigrum and Melia azedarach were the most utilized medicinal plant species with highest used value. The reported ailments were classified into 11 disease categories based on ICF values and highest number of plant species was reported to treat dermatological and gastrointestinal disorders. Withania somnifera and Ranunculus sceleratus with maximum FL (100%), were used against gastrointestinal and urinary disorders, respectively. The RPL and ROP values were calculated to recognize the folk medicinal plant wealth; six out of 32 plant species (19%) were found popular, based on citation by more than half of the maximum number of informant viz. 26. Consequently, the ROP value for these species was more than 75. The comparative assessment with reported literature revealed 15% resemblance and 6% variation to previous data;however79% uses of the reported species were recorded for the first time. The diversity of medicinal plant species and associated traditional

  11. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Laos toward the discovery of bioactive compounds as potential candidates for pharmaceutical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Kadushin, M.R.; Southavong, B.; Sydara, K.; Bouamanivong, S.; Xaiveu, M.; Zhang, H.-J.; Franzblau, S.G.; Tan, Ghee T.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Riley, M.C.; Elkington, B.G.; Waller, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 8000–11,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria. PMID:22136442

  12. An ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants on Suva planina mountain (south-eastern Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarić, Snežana; Mačukanović-Jocić, Marina; Djurdjević, Lola; Mitrović, Miroslava; Kostić, Olga; Karadžić, Branko; Pavlović, Pavle

    2015-12-04

    This study documents the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal importance of plants in the Suva planina mountain region (south-eastern Serbia). It is reflected in their high diversity and their wide range of uses in the treatment of the local population. The aim of this study was a comparative analysis of data collected in the Suva planina region with relevant data from the Western Balkans, which included identifying the 'most popular' plants, as well as those species which are used specifically for treatment solely in the research area. Ethnobotanical research was carried out between 2012 and 2014 and data was collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with locals. A total of 66 people were interviewed (37 women and 29 men), aged between 49 and 90 (with a mean age of 71). This study identified 128 plants and 2 fungi which are used in ethnomedicine, 5 plant species used in ethnoveterinary medicine, and 16 plants used for 'other' purposes. Lamiaceae (20), Asteraceae (17), Rosaceae (16), Brassicaceae (5), Alliaceae (4) and Apiaceae (4) have the greatest diversity of species. Results showed that Achillea mellefolium, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Arctostaphyllos uva-ursi, Gentiana lutea, Hypericum perforatum, Juglans regia, Matricaria chamomilla, Mentha piperita, Plantago lanceolata, Plantago major, Salvia officinalis, Sempervivum tectorum, Tilia cordata and Thymus sepyllum are the 'most popular' medicinal plants (UV=1). Those plants with the most phytotherapeutic uses are Gentiana cruciata (14), H. perforatum (11) and A. sativum (10), while the most common conditions treated with medicinal plants are respiratory (79), urogenital (53), gastrointestinal (51), skin (43) and those relating to the circulatory system (35). A comparative analysis of the data collected in the research area and that from other parts of the Western Balkans showed that there are great similarities within Serbia between Suva planina and the Zlatibor region (37.2%) and Kopaonik Mt. (32

  13. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plant species used by communities around Mabira Central Forest Reserve, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Patience; Kakudidi, Esezah K; Buyinza, Mukadasi; Namaalwa, Justine; Kamatenesi, Maud; Mucunguzi, Patrick; Kalema, James

    2016-01-13

    An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants was carried out in 14 villages adjacent to Mabira Central Forest Reserve (CFR) in Central Uganda between August 2013 and March 2014. Information was obtained through interviews using semi- structured questionnaires. Field excursions with traditional healers and herbal medicine collectors were carried out. Descriptive statistics were used to present the data. Fidelity ratios and Informant consensus agreements were calculated. A total of 190 plant species in 61 families and 152 genera were reported in the treatment of various health conditions. Family Fabaceae was dominant representing 14 % of the plant species documented. Vernonia amygdalina was the preferred species for treating malaria. Leaves (68 %) were the most frequently used parts in preparing herbal remedies. Decoctions (29 %) and oral route (53 %) of administration were commonly used method of herbal medicine preparation and administration respectively. Fifty-eight health conditions grouped in 25 categories were treated using medicinal plants. Informant consensus agreement was highest for blood system disorders (0.9) that included anaemia, hypertension and blood cleansing indicating homogeneity of informant's knowledge about remedies used. Vernonia amygdalina and Erythrina abyssinica had 100 % fidelity level for treatment of malaria and vomiting respectively. The diversity of medicinal plant species used and the associated indigenous knowledge are of great value to the local community and their conservation and preservation is paramount. The therapeutic uses of the documented plants provides basic data for further research focused on pharmacological studies and conservation of the most important species.

  14. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

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    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  15. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

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    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed in the municipality of Uruará, Pará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Lucas Cajaiba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n1p115 The present study aimed to perform an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants marketed by the population of the municipality of Uruará, Pará, and its main districts. The respondents mentioned 63 species distributed in 36 botanical families. The most representative families were Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rutaceae. The species with the highest Use Value were capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, UV = 0.90, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, UV = 0.83 and hortelã (Mentha sp., UV = 0.79, while capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus and picão (Bidens pilosa had a higher indicator value, and were indicated as a tranquilizer/painkiller and for treating kidney disease, respectively. Among the main disorders treated with medicinal plants, diseases of the digestive system, infections/inflammations, colds and respiratory system diseases were the most cited. There was no significant difference between the number of species mentioned and the number of individuals per family or the distance of households to the urban zone. There was also no difference between the number of species mentioned and education level. Most medicinal plants marketed in the municipality are herbs, leaves are the most used parts and the most common form of preparation is tea.

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by people in Oriental Morocco to manage various ailments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamila, Fakchich; Mostafa, Elachouri

    2014-05-28

    This document presents the uses of plants in traditional herbal medicines in Oriental Morocco. It also determines the homogeneity of informant knowledge in medicinal plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each illness category in the study area. The ethnobotanical information was obtained from 3151 inhabitants who were 20 years and older in five different areas of Oriental Morocco region. The data were analyzed through informant consensus factor (ICF) and frequency of uses (FC). The results indicated that 65.7% of the participants interviewed used medicinal plants to treat 23 ailments. The inventory of medicinal plants is summarized in a synoptic table, which contains the scientific and vernacular names of the plant, the part of the plant and the preparation used and the therapeutic indication. Extensive investigations have brought to light 148 medicinal plants belonging to 60 families; of these, 108 are used for the disorders of the digestive system, 74 for diabetes, 73 for dermatological problems, 66 for allergy, 66 for cardiovascular disorders and 63 for respiratory problems. In this region, the most frequently used plants including Origanum compactum Benth., Trigonella foenum graecum L., Lavandula dentata L., Mentha pulegium L., Nigella sativa L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lippia citriodora L., Tetraclinis articulata Benth., and Atemisia herba-alba Asso. Lamiaceae and Asteraceae are the dominant locally used families. Most medicines were prepared in the form of powder and used orally. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part. Gastro-intestinal ailments have high ICF (0.92) whereas pathologies of the circulatory and ophthalmological uses have low ICF (0.22 and 0.24, respectively). Oriental Morocco boasts an extensive phytotherapy knowledge base and ICF values indicated that there was high agreement in the use of plants in gastro-intestinal ailment category among the users. The frequency use

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Maseru district of Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleteng Kose, Lerato; Moteetee, Annah; Van Vuuren, Sandy

    2015-07-21

    Ethnobotanical knowledge in Lesotho is passed on orally from one generation to another. As a result it has not been well documented. Existing publications have relied on previous literature and are limited either in terms of scope or coverage. Furthermore, some of them are out of print. Therefore, there are gaps in the documentation of medicinal plants used in Lesotho. The purpose of the current study is to investigate common ailments in Lesotho's traditional medicine and document plants that are used in treating such ailments. Interviews were conducted in five urban and four rural areas of the capital town of Maseru, by means of questionnaires to elicit information on medicinal plant use to cure common ailments. The informants were 20 males and seven females comprising 15 traditional healers, 11 herbalists and one pharmacist. Reproductive ailments were found to be the most commonly treated, followed by respiratory, degenerative and digestive problems. A list of the 80 plants used for treating the common ailments is given. A total of 44 families is represented, with Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Asphodelaceae and Poaceae families having the highest number of species used for medicinal purposes. The most frequently mentioned medicinal plants in interviews include; Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Pentanisia prunelloides, Hypoxis hermerocallidea, Eriocephalus sp., Salvia runcinata, Scabiosa columbaria, Dicoma anomala, Morella serrata, Xysmalobium undulatum, and Leobordea lanceolata. Due to the high demand of medicinal plants, some species such as L. lanceolata, Tephrosia capensis, E. elephantina, D. anomala and P. prunelloides were reported as over-harvested. In some cases animal products are added to the medicinal plants to enhance their curative abilities. A total of 80 plants were recorded in the study as treating 38 common ailments in the Maseru district of Lesotho. Records of eight medicinal plants and 146 new medicinal uses of 34 plants that were not recorded elsewhere in

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of wild food plants traditionally collected and consumed in the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansanelli, Sabrina; Ferri, Maura; Salinitro, Mirko; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2017-09-06

    This research was carried out in a scarcely populated area of the Middle Agri Valley (Basilicata region, southern Italy). The aim of the study was to record local knowledge on the traditional uses of wild food plants, as well as to collect information regarding the practices (gathering, processing and cooking) and the medicinal uses related to these plants. Fifty-eight people still possessing traditional local knowledge (TLK), 74% women and 26% men, were interviewed between May-August 2012 and January 2013, using open and semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews. For each described plant species, the botanical family, the Italian common and folk names, the plant parts used, the culinary preparation and, when present, the medicinal use, were recorded and the relative frequency of citation index (RFC) was determined. The 52 plant species mentioned by the respondents belong to 23 botanical families, with Asteraceae (12 plants) and Rosaceae (7 plants) being most frequently cited. The species with the highest RFC index is Cichorium intybus L. (0.95), followed by Sonchus spp. (S. oleraceus L., S. asper L. and S. arvensis L.) (0.76). The plant parts preferably used are leaves (22 plants), fruits (12) and stems (7). Only six wild plants were indicated as having both food use and therapeutic effect. The survey conducted on the traditional use of wild food plants in the Middle Agri Valley revealed that this cultural heritage is only partially retained by the population. Over the last few decades, this knowledge has been in fact quickly disappearing along with the people and, even in the rural context of the study area, is less and less handed down to younger generations. Nevertheless, data also revealed that the use of wild plants is recently being revaluated in a way closely related to local habits and traditions.

  20. Medicinal plants of the Achuar (Jivaro) of Amazonian Ecuador: ethnobotanical survey and comparison with other Amazonian pharmacopoeias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Peter

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents the first ethnobotanical survey conducted among the Achuar (Jivaro), indigenous people living in Amazonian Ecuador and Peru. The aims of this study are: (a) to present and discuss Achuar medicinal plant knowledge in the context of the epidemiology of this population (b) to compare the use of Achuar medicinal plants with the uses reported among the Shuar Jivaro and other Amazonian peoples. The author conducted field research in 9 indigenous villages in the region of Morona Santiago and Pastaza in Ecuador. Semi-structured interviews on local illnesses and herbal remedies were carried out with 82 informants and plant specimens were collected and later identified in Quito. A literature research was conducted on the medicinal species reported by Achuar people during this study. The most reported medicinal plants are species used by the Achuar to treat diarrhoea, parasites infection, fractures, wounds, and snakebites. Informants reported the use of 134 medicinal species for a total of 733 recorded use-reports. Of these 134 species, 44 are reported at least 3 times for one or more specific disease condition for a total of 56 uses. These species are considered a core kit of medicinal plants of the Achuar of Ecuador. Most of these medicinal species are widely used in the Amazon rainforest and in many other parts of Latin America. The author documented a core kit of 44 medicinal plants used among the Achuar of Ecuador and found that this core set of medicinal plants reflects local epidemiological concerns and the pharmacopoeias of the Shuar and other Amazonian groups. These findings suggest that inter-group diffusion of medicinal plant knowledge had a prominent role in the acquisition of current Achuar knowledge of medicinal plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the East Sepik province of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael; Kehop, Dickson Andrew; Kinminja, Boniface; Sabak, Malcolm; Wavimbukie, Graham; Barrows, Katherine M; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R; Rai, Prem P

    2015-11-14

    Rapid modernization in the East Sepik (ES) Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is resulting in a decrease in individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. Here we report a synthesis and comparison of traditional medicinal plant use from four ethnically distinct locations in the ES Province and furthermore compare them to two other previous reports of traditional plant use from different provinces of PNG. This manuscript is based on an annotated combination of four Traditional Medicines (TM) survey reports generated by University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) trainees. The surveys utilized a questionnaire titled "Information sheet on traditional herbal preparations and medicinal plants of PNG", administered in the context of the TM survey project which is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Regional and transregional comparison of medicinal plant utilization was facilitated by using existing plant databases: the UPNG TM Database and the PNG Plant Database (PNG Plants) using Bayesian statistical analysis. Medicinal plant use between four distinct dialect study areas in the ES Province of PNG showed that only a small fraction of plants had shared use in each area, however usually utilizing different plant parts, being prepared differently and to treat different medical conditions. Several instances of previously unreported medicinal plants could be located. Medicinally under- and over-utilized plants were found both in the regional reports and in a transregional analysis, thus showing that these medicinal utilization frequencies differ between provinces. Documentation of consistent plant use argues for efficacy and is particularly important since established and effective herbal medicinal interventions are sorely needed in the rural areas of PNG, and unfortunately clinical validation for the same is often lacking. Despite the existence of a large corpus of medical annotation of plants for PNG, previously unknown medical

  2. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Nkechi V; Makama, Sunday; Elisha, Ishaku L; Makoshi, Micah S; Gotep, Jurbe G; Dawurung, Christiana J; Oladipo, Olusola O; Lohlum, Ann S; Shamaki, David

    2011-07-11

    The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed

  3. Ethnobotanical survey of plants with toxic active constituents, grown in the municipality of Cuité, Paraíba, Brazil

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    Diégina Araújo FERNANDES

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Incidents involving plants have been a major problem for public health over the years and represent the fourth leading cause of poisoning in Brazil, leading to death many people, especially children. This study aimed to carry out an ethnobotanical survey of plants with toxic active constituents, grown in the municipality of Cuité, Paraíba, correlating the popular and scientific knowledge. This study conducted an exploratory and descriptive field research by applying semi-structured questionnaires to city dwellers who maintained frequent contact with plants. The identification of 19 toxic species and 18 potentially poisonous species was possible. Prevalent plants in homes were ornamental. Most respondents were senior women who carried out this practice over ten years, and this interest in cultivation had come through relatives. The survey showed that most interviewees unaware the toxic potential of cited plants, which indicates the need to carry out educational and preventive work among the population.

  4. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Sofia; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Sultana, Shazia; Ayub, Muhammad; Khan, Mir Ajab; Yaseen, Ghulam

    2015-05-26

    Present study was commenced with an aim to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinally important shrubs and trees of Himalayan region of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan. This is the first contribution to the quantitative ethnobotany of this region, as no reported data focusing on shrubs and trees from the area have been published. Study reported the ethnobotanical significance of medicinal plants for the treatment of various diseases. Study was conducted during 2012-2014 following standard ethnobotanical methods. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through informed consent semi- structured interviews of 160 key informants. Documented data was analyzed by using quantitative indices of informant consensus factor (ICF), fidelity level (FL), use value (UV) and relative frequency citation (RFC). A total of 73 shrub and tree species belonging to 56 genera and 37 families were reported to be used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various ailments. Medicinal plant diversity showed that Rosaceae was dominating family with (9 spp.) followed by Moraceae (7 spp.), Euphorbiaceae, Mimosaceae, Pinaceae, Rhamnaceae (4 spp. each), Oleaceae (3 spp.), Apocynaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Ebenaceae, Fagaceae, Lythraceae, Papilionaceae, Acanthaceae, Verbenaceae (2 spp. each) while remaining 22 families were represented by one species each. Leaves (23%) were highly utilized plant parts, followed by fruits (22%), bark (18%), seeds (10%), roots (9%), flowers (8%), whole plant and aerial parts (4% each) and stem (2%). Modes of preparation fall into 14 categories including powder (33 reports) followed by decoction (29 reports), paste (22 reports), juice (18 reports), infusion (12 reports), raw (8 reports), extract and latex (5 reports each), gum and oil (4 reports each), fresh part and pulp (2 reports each), chewed and cooked (1 report each). The highest FIC was recorded for Gastro-intestinal disorders (0.58) followed by nail, skin and hair disorders (0.44). Maximum fidelity level (FL

  5. Quantitative ethnobotanical study of common herbal remedies used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    standing use of herbal remedies. The present ethnobotanical survey was geared towards documenting and preserving local knowledge pertaining to common medicinal plants (MP) used as therapeutic agents in Mauritius. Methods: Interviews were ...

  6. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. Abstract ... estimation of each phytochemical present showed that the leaf extract contained ... saponins. Ethnobotanical survey showed that Talinum triangulare has a number of.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey, chemical composition, and antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of the root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouki, Farid; Haubner, Roswitha; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2011-11-01

    The root bark of Annona cuneata Oliv. is traditionally used in the Democratic Republic of Congo to treat several debilitating conditions, such as hernia, female sterility, sexual asthenia, and parasitic infections. However, little is known about the composition of the secondary plant substances, which may contribute to these traditional medicinal effects. We conducted an ethnobotanical study and then evaluated the composition of the secondary plant substances in extracts of the root bark by using spectroscopic methods. After delipidation, the root bark was lixiviated in methanol, and components in the extract were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-electrospray ionization-MS and nano-electrospray ionization-MS-MS. These methods identified 13 secondary plant substances (almost exclusively phenolic compounds): p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (I), vanillin (II), tyrosol (III), 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (IV), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (V), vanillyl alcohol (VI), syringaldehyde (VII), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanol (VIII), vanillic acid (IX), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (X), syringic acid (XI), and ferulic acid (XII), along with the phytosterol squalene (XIII). In the HPLC-based hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase antioxidant assay system, the methanolic extract exhibited potent antioxidant capacity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 72 μL, equivalent to 1.38 mg/mL of raw extract. Thus, a methanol extract of A. cuneata Oliv. contained a range of polyphenolic compounds, which may be partly responsible for its known traditional medicinal effects. More detailed studies on the phytochemistry of this important plant species are therefore warranted.

  8. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used plants in human therapy of east, north and north-east Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarić-Kundalić, Broza; Dobeš, Christoph; Klatte-Asselmeyer, Valerie; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-02-16

    The study aims to provide a systematical revision of the traditional use of wild and cultivated plants in north-eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina (Western Balkan Peninsula; Southeast Europe). Thereby, it will extend and complement a recent previous study carried out in middle, southern and western Bosnia and Herzegovina. Information was collected by performing so called open ethnobotanical interviews. The following data were recorded and systematically assembled in a database: name, age and occupation of the interviewed person; the geographic locality and date of the interview; the name of the used plant; plant parts used; prescription background and preparation procedure as well as indication. Plants mentioned to be used by the informants were collected during field trips done together with the informants and taxonomically determined. The corresponding material was finally deposited in the herbarium of the Department of Pharmacognosy of the University of Vienna for the purpose of documentation. In total, 45 places including villages and mountain areas were visited and 84 persons questioned. 254 wild and cultivated species and 1655 different preparations for the use in traditional human therapy were recorded. The most frequently mentioned indications were disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urogenital tract, skin, blood system, cardiovascular system, nervous system as well as rheumatism. Infusions were the most frequently prepared formulation. Other applied preparations mentioned with decreasing frequency were decocts, sirups, tinctures, collars, direct application of plants without prior preparation, ointments, freshly pressed juices, oils, powders, fluid unctions, macerations and finally suppositories. Special preparations, typical only for the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina were "mehlems" and some kind of sirup called "đulbe šećer" (eng. đulbe sugar). While "mehlems" were already recognized and accordingly discussed for the central

  9. Ethnobotanical survey of Leepa valley

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.M.Ishtiaq Ch.

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... Illicit export, incessant agriculture expansion ... China, homeopathic medicine system (HMS) of Pakistan, ayurvedic ...... exponential growth of population but not increase in income or ... Leaf Epidermal Anatomy of. Medicinal ...

  10. Ethnobotanical profiling of Asparagus aethiopicus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaddeyya Gandipilli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An ethnobotanical survey was conducted to collect the information and medicinal properties of Asparagus aethiopicus, a perennial monocot herb of Asparagaceae family. The plants were collected from the fields of Visakhapatnam District in the Andhra Pradesh state of India. The live specimens were used for the description of plants and some of the plant material was dried and stored for long term preservation of the species and for further study. The present study aimed to describe botanical aspects and medicinal value of the species.

  11. Ethnobotanical and biological activities of Leptadenia pyrotechnica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This review includes the substance of different ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and exclusive capability of this plant in the field of anti-microbial and human disease activities. Key words: Leptadenia pyrotechnica, Biological activities, Desert plant, Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical activity, phytochemistry.

  12. Phytochemical And Ethnobotanical Evaluation Of The Leaves Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical analysis and ethnobotanical survey of the leaves of Talinum triangulare (Jacq) Wild were investigated. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenols, flavonoids and saponins while the leaf extract was devoid of glycosides, steroids and carbohydrates. Quantitative ...

  13. Survey of random surface theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.

    1985-01-01

    The author describes some recent results in random surface theory. Attention is focused on those developments which are relevant for a quantum theory of strings. Some general remarks on the status of mathematical quantum field theory are included at the beginning. (orig.)

  14. Ethnobotanical Survey, Preliminary Physico-Chemical and Phytochemical Screening of Salvia argentea (L.) Used by Herbalists of the Saïda Province in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabdesslem, Yasmina; Hachem, Kadda; Kahloula, Khaled; Slimani, Miloud

    2017-12-05

    An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the Saïda region among herbalists to evaluate the use of Salvia argentea (L.), a plant species native from North Africa belonging to the Lamiaceae family. Forty-two herbalists were interviewed individually, aged between 30 and 70 years, all males, 52.38% of them having received a secondary education level and having performing their duties for more than a decade. This study showed that Salvia argentea is used specifically in the treatment of diseases of the respiratory system. The leaves are the most commonly used part, usually in the form of powder and exclusively administered orally. The preliminary results of the physicochemical characterization and the phytochemical screening of the powdered leaves of Salvia argentea attest to their safety and confer them a guarantee of phytotherapeutic quality.

  15. Ethnobotanical Knowledge Studied in Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pendem SAIDULU; Sateesh SUTHARI; Ramesh KANDAGATLA; Ragan AJMEERA; Raju S. VATSAVAYA

    2015-01-01

    A survey was conducted in 31 fringe villages of Pocharam wildlife sanctuary, Telangana, India, during 2010 to 2012, in order to explore and document the ethnobotanical knowledge of Yerukulas and Lambadis communities. There was revealed the use of 173 Angiosperm species. The pattern of the plant use as per habitat (terrestrial/aquatic), habit (growth form), plant part (organ) and taxonomic category (families), nativity and occurrence (wild/cultivated) were established. Dicots contribute more t...

  16. Ethnobotanical survey of traditionally used medicinal plants for infections of skin, gastrointestinal tract, urinary tract and the oral cavity in Borabu sub-county, Nyamira county, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwenga, E O; Hensel, A; Shitandi, A; Goycoolea, F M

    2015-12-24

    Different communities throughout the world have specialized and profound knowledge on the use medicinal plants for various diseases. However, the detailed information on the respective use may extinct in near future as this knowledge is passed only orally among generations in most of the communities. The present survey aimed to document the use of medicinal plants by traditional healers from the Kisii community, Borabu sub-county in Nyamira county, Kenya, to treat infections of the urinary tract, oral cavity, gastrointestinal system and the skin and to evaluate the social context in which the healers work and practice. Validated questionnaires were applied to 50 traditional healers in the study region, followed by interviews and structured conversations. Information on the relevant traditionally used medicinal plants and their use were documented, including sampling and identification of voucher specimens. The ethnopharmacological survey revealed 25 medicinal plant species belonging to 19 families. It got evident that most of these species will be extinct in the near future unless appropriate measures are taken, as it turned out difficult to collect some of the wild growing species. Elaeodendron buchananii Loes, Erlangea marginata S. Moore, Acacia gerrardii Benth., Balanites orbicularis Sprague, Solanum renschii Vatke and Orthosiphon hildebrandtii Vatke have not been described before for its medicinal use. Among the 25 species collected from the various regions of Borabu sub-county Urtica dioica L. was the only medicinal plant that was collected from all regions. In contrast Erythrina abyssinica and Rhus natalensis were found in only two regions of the study area. The traditional medicinal use of the reported plants for infections should be documented and a great need of awareness from scientists and local government for improved preservation or field cultivation of some species is obvious. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medicinal plants used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area, south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria: An ethnobotanical survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoh, Uchenna E; Uzor, Philip F; Eze, Chidimma L; Akunne, Theophine C; Onyegbulam, Chukwuma M; Osadebe, Patience O

    2018-05-23

    Malaria is a serious public health problem especially in sub-Saharan African countries such as Nigeria. The causative parasite is increasingly developing resistance to the existing drugs. There is urgent need for alternative and affordable therapy from medicinal plants which have been used by the indigenous people for many years. This study was conducted to document the medicinal plant species traditionally used by the people of Nsukka Local Government Area in south-eastern Nigeria for the treatment of malaria. A total of 213 respondents, represented by women (59.2%) and men (40.8%), were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The results were analysed and discussed in the context of previously published information on anti-malarial and phytochemical studies of the identified plants. The survey revealed that 50 plant species belonging to 30 botanical families were used in this region for the treatment of malaria. The most cited families were Apocynaceae (13.3%), Annonaceae (10.0%), Asteraceae (10.0%), Lamiaceae (10.0%), Poaceae (10.0%), Rubiaceae (10.0%) and Rutaceae (10.0%). The most cited plant species were Azadirachta indica (11.3%), Mangifera indica (9.1%), Carica papaya (8.5%), Cymbopogon citratus (8.5%) and Psidium guajava (8.5%). The present findings showed that the people of Nsukka use a large variety of plants for the treatment of malaria. The identified plants are currently undergoing screening for anti-malarial, toxicity and chemical studies in our laboratory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Denver; Gibson, Diana; Johnson, Quinton

    2016-12-24

    The aim of this study was to identify and document medicinal plants used to manage High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Bitterfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa. One hundred and twelve (112) respondents were interviewed between August 2014 and September 2015 through semi-structured surveys to gather data on the percentage of people who had been diagnosed with High Blood Pressure and/or Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and to determine the frequency of medicinal plant and allopathic medicine use. Twelve (12) key respondents were subsequently selected, using a non-probability snowball sampling method. They were interviewed in-depth concerning their plant practices and assisted with plant collection. Twenty-four plant (24) species belonging to 15 families were identified for the management of High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The most frequently reported families were Asteraceae (20.8%), Lamiaceae (16.67%), Crassulaceae (8.33%) and Aizoaceae (8.33%). The remaining (45.54%) were evenly split over eleven families- Fabaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Anacardiaceae, Capparaceae, Geraniaceae, Apiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Apocynaceae, Rutaceae, Asphodelaceae and Thymelaeaceae. The most commonly used plant species overall was Lessertia frutescens (96.55%). The most frequently used plant parts included leaves (57.63%) roots/bulbs (15.25%) and stems (11.86%), mostly prepared as infusions or decoctions for oral administration. Medicinal plants are widely used by High Blood Pressure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus sufferers. They employ diverse plant species to manage both conditions. In addition, some sufferers often use prescribed allopathic medication, as well as medicinal plants, but at different intervals. Despite high usage the plants identified are not currently threatened (Red Data list status: least concern). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  20. Structural and ethnobotanical characterization of velvet tamarind ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense Willd) is one of the key species for domestication in Sub-Saharan Africa. In order to help the sustainable management and conservation of this species, its structural characteristics and ethnobotanical traits were studied in the 4 vegetation types (typical dense forest, degraded dense ...

  1. Ethnobotanical Knowledge Studied in Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary, Telangana, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendem SAIDULU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in 31 fringe villages of Pocharam wildlife sanctuary, Telangana, India, during 2010 to 2012, in order to explore and document the ethnobotanical knowledge of Yerukulas and Lambadis communities. There was revealed the use of 173 Angiosperm species. The pattern of the plant use as per habitat (terrestrial/aquatic, habit (growth form, plant part (organ and taxonomic category (families, nativity and occurrence (wild/cultivated were established. Dicots contribute more than Monocots to the medicinal and ethnobotanical use. This might be due to the species strength in the region. When the plant use-data were analyzed, trees contributed with 68 uses, followed by herbs (51, climbers (32 and shrubs (22. Perhaps this was a reflection of the floristic composition and the prevailing Phanero-therophytic climate. Out of the 173 plant taxa that were noted as being utilized by the ethnic people in the sanctuary, the greatest number (154; 89.1% were indigenous and wild. The introduced species were the crops under cultivation and planted. Although the local people use plants for various purposes, they largely serve medicinal scopes (83.24% and for subsistence (21.96%.

  2. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  3. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  4. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses. PMID:28074189

  5. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Ballesteros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  6. Ethnobotanical Research at the Kutukú Scientific Station, Morona-Santiago, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Jose Luis; Bracco, Francesco; Cerna, Marco; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This work features the results of an ethnobotanical study on the uses of medicinal plants by the inhabitants of the region near to the Kutukú Scientific Station of Universidad Politécnica Salesiana, located in the Morona-Santiago province, southeast of Ecuador. In the surroundings of the station, one ethnic group, the Shuar, has been identified. The survey hereafter reports a total of 131 plant species, with 73 different therapeutic uses.

  7. Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to reveal and document ethnobotanical knowledge and practices of traditional healers in selected sites of Eastern Hararghie. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews and field observation from 9 traditional healers in 4 study sites of Eastern Hararghie. Data were ...

  8. Ethno-botanical studies from northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, S.; Afzal, N.

    2009-01-01

    In this research paper efforts have been made to document the ethno-botanical knowledge of important plant species found in Northern Pakistan. It includes Thandiani, Galiat, Kaghan, Swat, Buner, Dir, Chitral and Northern Areas of Pakistan. The area has many climatic and vegetation zones or biomes. Locals residing in mountainous areas belonging to various ethnic groups are traditionally utilizing plants over many generations; these ethnic groups have their distinct life style, belief, traditions and cultural heritage. Plant collection and data regarding traditional uses in various areas of Northern Pakistan has been done periodically in different flowering /fruiting seasons. Locals of old age belonging to various ethnic groups were personally interviewed for establishing uses of plants. Photography is done for easy identification and habitat recognition. Collected plant specimens and seeds were preserved. Plant species were dried, mounted, identified and authenticated. Seventy six species were known to have traditional and ethno botanical uses. Plants have been utilized for many generations. Ethnic groups have distinct life style and have different economic uses for these plants. Due to unsustainable exploitation of natural habitats scarcity of drug plants has occurred. As consequence some species are depleting and may become extinct in near future, e. g. Morchella esculenta, Colchicum lueteum and Viola serpens are just a few of these. Although some sporadic information is available about the flora of this region but very little documented record of the ethno-botanically important plants has been established. It is expected that this research paper will be beneficial for students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public. On the basis of data obtained it is concluded that ethno-botanical Flora of Northern Pakistan is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. (author)

  9. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH. Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities,  a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  10. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Masaai people of Losho, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Mutiso Chalo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species in Losho, Narok County, Kenya was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants.Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2012. Information was gathered from traditional practitioners who lived and practised in Losho, Narok County, Kenya using semi-structured questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of taxonomist and voucher specimens deposited at the University of Nairobi Herbarium.Results: Twenty six (26 herbalists between the ages 20-69 years (10 men and 16 women were purposively selected and interviewed. The present investigation reported medicinal information for 33 species, belonging to 21 plant families. The most represented plant family was Asteraceae followed by Oleaceae and Rhamnaceae. 36 % of the species were used to manage stomach ache and stomach related ailments while 30% of the plant species were used to treat malaria.Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facility Losho Dispensary but a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

  11. An ethnobotanical analysis of parasitic plants (Parijibi) in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alexander Robert; Rana, Santosh Kumar

    2016-02-24

    Indigenous biocultural knowledge is a vital part of Nepalese environmental management strategies; however, much of it may soon be lost given Nepal's rapidly changing socio-ecological climate. This is particularly true for knowledge surrounding parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species, which are well represented throughout the Central-Eastern Himalayas but lack a collated record. Our study addresses this disparity by analyzing parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species diversity in Nepal as well as the ethnobotanical knowledge that surrounds them. Botanical texts, online databases, and herbarium records were reviewed to create an authoritative compendium of parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species native or naturalized to the Nepal Central-Eastern Himalaya. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with 141 informants to better understand the biocultural context of these species, emphasizing ethnobotanical uses, in 12 districts of Central-Eastern Nepal. Nepal is a hotspot of botanical diversity, housing 15 families and 29 genera of plants that exhibit parasitic or mycoheterotrophic habit. Over 150 of the known 4500 parasitic plant species (~3 %) and 28 of the 160 mycoheterotrophic species (~18 %) are native or naturalized to Nepal; 13 of our surveyed parasitic species are endemic. Of all species documented, approximately 17 % of parasitic and 7 % of mycoheterotrophic plants have ethnobotanical uses as medicine (41 %), fodder (23 %), food (17 %), ritual objects (11 %), or material (8 %). Parasitic and mycoheterotrophic plant species exhibit high diversity in the Nepal Central-Eastern Himalaya and are the fodder for biocultural relationships that may help inform future environmental management projects in the region.

  12. 105-114, 2014 105 Ethnobotanical study of nedicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from November, 2011 to May, 2012 using Ethnobotanical study approach. A total of 165 ... approach. Awareness creation, motivating tradition- ... used, methods of preparation, route of administration, human and /or ..... knowledge on medicinal plants and Dakon Abiy Ti- lahun for ... In: RELMA in ICRAF Project World Agro.

  13. Appraisal of ethnobotanical uses of the wetland plants of Punjab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Aquatic and semiaquatic plants have a multiplicity of traditional and ethnopharmacological uses ranging from medicinal, famine food to fodder and others. Therefore, the present study was carried out during the years 2008-2011 to document the locally used medicinal, ethnobotanical and traditional data of ...

  14. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam ...

  15. Ethnobotanical observations on the tribals of chinnar wildlife sanctuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeev, K K; Sasidharan, N

    1997-04-01

    Studies on the flora and ethnobotany of the tribals of chinnar wildlife sanctuary were carried out. Though the sancturary has over 200 species of medicinal plants, the tribals are using 55 species, Ethnobotanical details of 64 species used by the tribals in the sanctuary are presented in this paper.

  16. An Ethnobotanical Survey on Fuel Wood and Timber plant Species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... zones with very low precipitation to support tree growth ... Its ruthless exploitation greatly damages the land and ... 3 2 Bark and seeds are restorative and astringent .... 1 Used in leprosy and in solution to remove freckles.

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of tree species used for wound healing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-one plants out of which sixty-five were tree species belonging to thirty angiosperm families were identified as plant species used for the treatment of wound and related skin disorders. Some of the most frequently used tree species mentioned by the respondents are: Khaya grandifoliola C. D. C., Vitellaria paradoxa ...

  18. Ethnobotanical survey of Phoenix dactylifera L. Pollen used for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Phoenix dactylifera L. (date palm) is known for its traditional medicinal properties across the history of native population in Algerian Sahara. There is a large trend of consumption of date palm pollen preparations in many human infertility cases in our country. However, the validity has not been scientifically ...

  19. Ethnobotanical survey of \\'wild\\' woody plant resources at Mount ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kasigau Taita named 252 of these plants and described 758 material uses or ecosystem services for 205 plants. Most plants with uses occurred in montane woodland (650–1000 m), the bushland (1000 m) had a described use.

  20. Ethnobotanical knowledge of Apiaceae family in Iran: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Amiri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Apiaceae (Umbelliferae family is one of the biggest plant families on the earth. Iran has  a huge diversity of Apiaceae members . This family possesses a range of compounds that have many biological activities. The members of this family are well known as vegetables, culinary and medicinal plants. Here, we present a review of ethnobotanical uses of Apiaceae plants by the Iranian people in order to provide a comprehensive documentation for future investigations. Materials and Methods: We checked scientific studies published in books and journals in various electronic databases (Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus and Google Scholar websites from 1937 to 2015 and reviewed a total of 52 publications that provided information about different applications of these plant species in human and livestock. Results: As a result of this review, several ethnobotanical usages of 70 taxa, 17 of which were endemic, have been determined. These plants were used for medicinal and non-medicinal purposes. The most commonly used parts were fruits, leaves, aerial parts and gums. The most common methods of preparation were decoction, infusion and poultice. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this paper represents a comprehensive literature search of ethnobotanical uses of Apiaceae reported from Iran. This study highlights the rich traditional knowledge of this family that has remained in Iran. However, most of this knowledge survive only as memories from the past in the minds of the elderly, and will probably vanish in a few decades. Thus, we compiled these scattered data together in a single document for the next scientific works with ethnobotanical interests.

  1. Evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome in ethnobotanical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanazaki, Natalia; Herbst, Dannieli Firme; Marques, Mel Simionato; Vandebroek, Ina

    2013-11-14

    The shifting baseline syndrome is a concept from ecology that can be analyzed in the context of ethnobotanical research. Evidence of shifting baseline syndrome can be found in studies dealing with intracultural variation of knowledge, when knowledge from different generations is compared and combined with information about changes in the environment and/or natural resources. We reviewed 84 studies published between 1993 and 2012 that made comparisons of ethnobotanical knowledge according to different age classes. After analyzing these studies for evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome (lower knowledge levels in younger generations and mention of declining abundance of local natural resources), we searched within these studies for the use of the expressions "cultural erosion", "loss of knowledge", or "acculturation". The studies focused on different groups of plants (e.g. medicinal plants, foods, plants used for general purposes, or the uses of specific important species). More than half of all 84 studies (57%) mentioned a concern towards cultural erosion or knowledge loss; 54% of the studies showed evidence of the shifting baseline syndrome; and 37% of the studies did not provide any evidence of shifting baselines (intergenerational knowledge differences but no information available about the abundance of natural resources). The general perception of knowledge loss among young people when comparing ethnobotanical repertoires among different age groups should be analyzed with caution. Changes in the landscape or in the abundance of plant resources may be associated with changes in ethnobotanical repertoires held by people of different age groups. Also, the relationship between the availability of resources and current plant use practices rely on a complexity of factors. Fluctuations in these variables can cause changes in the reference (baseline) of different generations and consequently be responsible for differences in intergenerational knowledge. Unraveling

  2. Ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicine studies: some experiences from Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng-Ji, P

    2001-01-01

    Ethnobotany, as a research field of science, has been widely used for the documentation of indigenous knowledge on the use of plants and for providing an inventory of useful plants from local flora in Asian countries. Plants that are used for traditional herbal medicine in different countries are an important part of these studies. However, in some countries in recent years, ethnobotanical studies have been used for the discovery of new drugs and new drug development. In general, experiences gained from ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicinal studies in China and Himalayan countries have helped drug production and new drug development. At the same time, in many cases, over-harvesting, degradation of medical plants, and loss of traditional medical knowledge in local communities are common problems in these resource areas. Issues of indigenous knowledge, intellectual property rights, and uncontrolled transboundary trade in medicinal plants occur frequently in the region. This paper discusses ethnobotanical approaches of traditional medicinal studies, in reference to experiences from China and Himalayan countries, with an emphasis on the conservation of traditional medical knowledge and medical plant resources.

  3. Ethnobotanical study in the highland of Alvand and Tuyserkan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mosaddegh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Medicinal plants are widely used by people in the treatment of various diseases. These resources are usually regarded as part of cultural traditional knowledge. The aim of this study was to identify the information about the medicinal plants used by indigenous people of some regions of Hamedan province, Iran. Methods: The present ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Alvand mountainous area of Hamedan and Tuyserkan. Interviews were done in 27 villages and totally 53 informants were interviewed. Ethnobotanical indices like relative frequency of citation (RFC and cultural importance index (CI were calculated. Results: Our study reports 80 traditionally used plant species, belonging to 31 plant families. Asteraceae with 12 species was the most used family in this area. The most used parts were aerial parts (18.57%, leaves (21.42%, and flowers (17.14%, respectively. The most treated ailments were digestive problems. The highest number of ethnobotanical indices RFC and CI were observed in Stachys lavandulifolia   Vahl. and Thymus lancifolius  Celak., respectively. Conclusions: Hamedan provincepossesses considerable knowledge about medicinal plants for treating common health problems.

  4. Ethnobotanical study of plants used for therapeutic purposes in the Atlantic Forest region, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribess, Bianca; Pintarelli, Gabrielli Melatto; Bini, Larissa Alida; Camargo, Anderson; Funez, Luís Adriano; de Gasper, André Luís; Zeni, Ana Lúcia Bertarello

    2015-04-22

    Atlantic Forest is a biome in dangerous situation and it lacks wider information on species with medicinal purposes used by people in this area. In this study an ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Apiúna district, Brazil with the goal of assessing traditional knowledge of medicinal plants used by rural communities in a region covered by Atlantic Forest. The ethnobotanical data were collected through semi-structured interviews and a free list of plants used for medicinal purposes. The respondents were selected by snow ball method. Therefore, the therapeutic use of plants was investigated and the species cited was collected and identified. Local plant uses were evaluated using ethnobotanical indices of diversity and equitability, and then compared with those obtained in other regions of Atlantic Forest in Brazil. Besides, the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated. A total of 162 species belonging to 61 families were recorded, mainly Asteraceae and Lamiaceae. Furthermore, the species cited, 45.06% were native and 54.94% were considered exotic. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were the symptoms and signs (17.42%), digestive system (15.33%) and, infectious and parasitic diseases (12.73%). Although, the ICF calculation showed that mental and behavioral (0.85), respiratory system (0.79) and, digestive and genitourinary system diseases (0.78 for both) were the categories with higher values reached. Usually, the administration is oral from leaves preparations. Folk medicine in rural communities in this region of Atlantic Forest is an important source of primary health care. The results indicate an available knowledge of medicinal plants uses in this area, when compared to other regions previously studied. The fact that this research was conducted next to a conservation area makes it possible to dispose the knowledge organized here into a tool for environmental education as well as preservation. Moreover, the pharmacological information will further

  5. On the pertinence to Physics of random walks induced by random dynamical systems: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petritis, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    Let be an abstract space and a denumerable (finite or infinite) alphabet. Suppose that is a family of functions such that for all we have and a family of transformations . The pair (( S_a)_a , ( p_a)_a ) is termed an iterated function system with place dependent probabilities. Such systems can be thought as generalisations of random dynamical systems. As a matter of fact, suppose we start from a given ; we pick then randomly, with probability p_a (x) , the transformation S_a and evolve to S_a (x) . We are interested in the behaviour of the system when the iteration continues indefinitely. Random walks of the above type are omnipresent in both classical and quantum Physics. To give a small sample of occurrences we mention: random walks on the affine group, random walks on Penrose lattices, random walks on partially directed lattices, evolution of density matrices induced by repeated quantum measurements, quantum channels, quantum random walks, etc. In this article, we review some basic properties of such systems and provide with a pathfinder in the extensive bibliography (both on mathematical and physical sides) where the main results have been originally published. (paper)

  6. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by tribal and native people of Madhupur forest area, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Khirul; Saha, Sanjib; Mahmud, Imran; Mohamad, Khalit; Awang, Khalijah; Jamal Uddin, Shaikh; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Shilpi, Jamil A

    2014-02-03

    Madhupur forest area, Tangail is one of early human settlements in Bangladesh. Having abode in the vicinity of the forest, a strong ethnobotanical practice has prevailed in this area since ancient time. Due to the rapid deforestation during the last few decades, many plants have already disappeared or are facing extinction. Thus we attempted to document the medicinal plant use of Madhupur forest area with a view to preserve the ethnobotanical knowledge and in order to protect the biodiversity of this area. The fieldwork was conducted during a period of 1 year. Data was collected by interview, questionnaire, and group discussion with randomly selected informants including indigenous, tribal people, and Traditional Health Practitioners (THPs) living in the study area. Recorded plants are listed along with their indication, part used, form of preparation and use value (UV). Results were also analysed to determine informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL) of the plants on the basis of their use under various ailment categories. The present study has documented 78 medicinal plant species from 45 families used for the treatment of at least 77 different major and minor ailments and conditions. Medicinal plant species were categorised as tree, shrub, tuber, herb, and climber. Leaves were found to be the most frequently used plant part while decoction is the major form of preparation. In most cases preparations are either administered orally or applied topically. The present study revealed that some of the well-known medicinal plants are used extensively demonstrating an effective ethnobotanical practice in the study area. Plants with high ICF and FL values can be subjected to bioassay guided investigation while plants which scored low UVs require bioactivity screening to justify their use for the reported ailment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-11-15

    Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.

  8. Ethnobotanical study of Loloh: Traditional herbal drinks from Bali (Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary Prihardhyanto; Savo, Valentina; Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Caneva, Giulia

    2015-07-01

    Loloh are herbal drinks produced and consumed exclusively in Bali (Indonesia) to prevent and treat different ailments. This is the first study to document plants species used as Loloh, reporting the phytochemical components and pharmacological properties of the most cited plants. Documenting the plants used in herbal drinks in Bali by local communities to treat various ailments (providing some information on phytochemistry and pharmacology of the most interesting plants). Ethnobotanical data were obtained through semi-structured interviews (individual and group discussions) and questionnaires. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium vouchers. A total of 51 plants species (belonging to 32 families) have been documented for their use in the various preparation of Loloh. Different plants and plant parts are used to prepare Loloh to treat heartburn, fever, diarrhea, hypertension, aphthous stomatitis (canker sores), and other minor health problems. These plants are mainly prepared as decoctions, are juiced or simply added to the preparation. The most cited plants (>30 informants) are Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Br., Blumea balsamifera (L.) DC., Cinnamomum burmanni Nees ex Bl., and Piper betle L. These plants are well studied with multiple demonstrated pharmacological activities (e.g., antimicrobial, anticancer, antidiabetic). The Balinese communities still preserve a rich ethnobotanical knowledge. Several species are well known for their pharmacological properties, but some [such as Pneumatopteris callosa (Blume) Nakai and Dendrocnide stimulans (L. f.) Chew] are understudied and could be promising candidates for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  10. Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random survey of the microbial quality of bottled water in South Africa. Marthie M Ehlers, Walda B Van Zyl, Dobromir N Pavlov, Etienne E Muller. Abstract. Due to the increased demand and consumption of bottled water in South Africa, there has been a growing concern about the microbiological quality of this product.

  11. Comparison of Herbarium Label Data and Published Medicinal Use: Herbaria as an Underutilized Source of Ethnobotanical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E N F; Hawkins, J A

    2017-01-01

    The use of herbarium specimens as vouchers to support ethnobotanical surveys is well established. However, herbaria may be underutilized resources for ethnobotanical research that depends on the analysis of large datasets compiled across multiple sites. Here, we compare two medicinal use datasets, one sourced from published papers and the other from online herbaria to determine whether herbarium and published data are comparable and to what extent herbarium specimens add new data and fill gaps in our knowledge of geographical extent of plant use. Using Brazilian legumes as a case study, we compiled 1400 use reports from 105 publications and 15 Brazilian herbaria. Of the 319 species in 107 genera with cited medicinal uses, 165 (51%) were recorded only in the literature and 55 (17%) only on herbarium labels. Mode of application, plant part used, or therapeutic use was less often documented by herbarium specimen labels (17% with information) than publications (70%). However, medicinal use of 21 of the 128 species known from only one report in the literature was substantiated from independently collected herbarium specimens, and 58 new therapeutic applications, 25 new plant parts, and 16 new modes of application were added for species known from the literature. Thus, when literature reports are few or information-poor, herbarium data can both validate and augment these reports. Herbarium data can also provide insights into the history and geographical extent of use that are not captured in publications.

  12. ETHNOBOTANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF FOREST ESSENCES WITH MEDICINAL PROPERTIES USED BY THE XIPAYA ETHNICITY IN THE CITY OF ALTAMIRA-PA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joielan Xipaia dos Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to carry out an ethnobotanical characterization of forest essences with medicinal properties used by the Xipaya ethnicity from Tukamã village in PA. For this, traditional methods for ethnobotanical surveys were used, such as the application of descriptive and qualitative questionnaires, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity indexes, and Pielou’s evenness and agreement of main use (AMU indexes. The most cited botanical families were Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lecythidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Lauraceae. It was observed that the preparation methods weredifferent, and the parts of the plant that were used were also different. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.24. The Pielou’s evenness index was 0.97, and the Simpson diversity index was 0.04. All were considered significant. The species with precious bark (Aniba canelilla, red cedar (Cedrela odorata, Genipa (Genipa Americana, Pink Ipê (Tabebuia impetiginosa, Mulungu (Erythrina mulungu, Quassia (Quassia amara, and dragon's blood (Croton urucurana were unanimous regarding AMU. Therefore, we observed that the Xipaya community, from the Tukamã village, still hold enough information on medicinal forest essences, the women being the main key holders of these practices and thus contributing to the education, culture, and lifestyle of this community. Keywords: Indigenous women, biodiversity of species, medicinal plants.

  13. Ethnobotanical study on wild plants used by Lhoba people in Milin County, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feifei; Zhuo, Jingxian; Liu, Bo; Jarvis, Devra; Long, Chunlin

    2015-03-24

    The Lhoba are a small ethnic group, located in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China. Until 1960, their livelihood was predominantly based on swidden agriculture, hunting, and gathering. To investigate and document the plant species used by the Lhoba, ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in three villages of Nanyi Township in Milin County, Tibet, China. Ethnobotanical surveys were conducted in three Lhoba villages using key informant interviews and semi-structured interviews. Plants traditionally used by the Lhoba were documented. Data obtained were analyzed through informant consensus factor analysis (FIC) to determine the homogeneity of the informants' knowledge of medicinal plants. Fifty-nine plant species belonging to 49 genera and 28 families were recorded and collected. Twenty-eight species are ethnomedicinal plants, 29 are local edible plants, and 23 are used for other purposes in Lhoba daily life. The medicinal plant species are used for treating eight categories of illness. Most medicinal plants are herbs (71.4%) or roots (39.2%). Nutrition adjustment (FIC = 0.76) and dermatological infections (FIC = 0.56) showed the highest FIC, indicating that the Lhoba had the highest level of agreement about the use of plants for these two illness categories. Fruit is the most frequently used part of the edible plants. Nine edible plant species are used as herbal medicine. Plant species used for other purposes include, six species for fuel, five for dye material, six for religious use, four for timber, two for tobacco substitutes, and one for fodder. Some traditional technologies and customs of Lhoba, such as dyeing and bamboo weaving, have remained the same for centuries. In contrast, the Lhoba's knowledge of ethnomedicine has been recently influenced by traditional Tibetan and Chinese medicine, resulting in the loss of traditional knowledge in this sector. In addition, the development of tourism has influenced a change in the Lhoba lifestyle and their production of

  14. Ethnobotanical relevance in tribal life: A study on Warli tribe of Thane district, Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pereira, N.

    An ethnobotanical study of Warli tribe belonging to the Thane district of Maharashtra, India was conducted. Plants of social, religious, medicinal as well as domestic uses were studied. Totally 59 species of plants are documented. Of these, 23...

  15. Ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat asthma in the maritime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnobotanical study of plants used to treat asthma in the maritime region in Togo. Holaly E. Gbekley, Gnatoulma Katawa, Simplice D. Karou, Kokou Anani, Tchacondo Tchadjobo, Yaovi Ameyapoh, Komlan Batawila, Jacques Simpore ...

  16. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and toxicological studies of Xanthium strumarium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rashedul; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Rahman, Mohammad Sharifur; Tutul, Ershad; Rahman, Mohammed Zakiur; Hassan, Md Abul; Faiz, M A; Hossain, Moazzem; Hussain, Maleeha; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur

    2009-12-01

    The present study describes the ethnobotanical, phytochemical, and toxicological evaluations of Xanthium strumarium L. growing in Bangladesh. In toxicity evaluation on rats, the methanol extract of seedlings showed mortality, while both seedling and mature plant extracts raised the serum alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase values and produced significant abnormalities in the histopathology of liver and kidney of rats. On the other hand, the aqueous soluble fraction of methanol extract of mature plant (LC50 = 0.352 microg/mL) and methanol crude extract of seedlings (LC50 = 0.656 microg/mL) demonstrated significant toxicity in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A total of four compounds were purified and characterized as stigmasterol (1), 11-hydroxy-11-carboxy-4-oxo-1(5),2(Z)-xanthadien-12,8-olide (2), daucosterol (3) and lasidiol-10-anisate (4). The present study suggests that X. strumarium is toxic to animal.

  17. Ethnobotanical Study of Tehsil Kabal, Swat District, KPK, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtiaz Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 140 plants have been reported ethnobotanically from Tehsil Kabal, Swat District. These include the 133 plants (95% of angiosperms, 3 (2.14% of gymnosperms, and 2 (1.42% each of pteridophytes and fungi. The largest family is Lamiaceae represented by 11 species followed by Rosaceae represented by 9 species. Among angiosperms 76 (55.63% were herbs, 17 (12.78% were shrubs, and 40 (30.07% were trees; 127 plants (95.48% were dicot while 6 plants (4.51% were monocot. Most of the plants were used for more than one purpose. Generally the plants were used for medicinal, fuel, timber wood, food, and fodder for cattle purposes.

  18. Ethnobotanical study of some Ghanaian anti-malarial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asase, Alex; Oteng-Yeboah, Alfred A; Odamtten, George T; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2005-06-03

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted in the Wechiau Community Hippopotamus Sanctuary area in Ghana, through interviews and quadrate studies, to investigate the range and abundance of species used in the treatment of malaria. Forty-one species belonging to 17 families were encountered during the study. Of the 17 families studied Leguminosae and Anacardiaceae predominated in terms of number of species used to treat malaria. Eight plant species namely, Afraegle paniculata (Rutaceae), Haematostaphis barteri (Anacardiaceae), Indigo era pulchra (Leguminosae), Monanthotaxis sp. (Annonaceae), Ozoroa insignis (Anacardiaceae), Strychnos innocua (Loganiaceae), Strychnos spinosa (Loganiaceae) and Xeroderris stuhlmannii (Leguminosae) have not previously been documented for the treatment of malaria in Ghana. The results are discussed and recommendations made for future research to support the conservation and sustainable harvesting of the species reported to have medicinal properties.

  19. Triatoma dimidiata infestation in Chagas disease endemic regions of Guatemala: comparison of random and targeted cross-sectional surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guatemala is presently engaged in the Central America Initiative to interrupt Chagas disease transmission by reducing intradomiciliary prevalence of Triatoma dimidiata, using targeted cross-sectional surveys to direct control measures to villages exceeding the 5% control threshold. The use of targeted surveys to guide disease control programs has not been evaluated. Here, we compare the findings from the targeted surveys to concurrent random cross-sectional surveys in two primary foci of Chagas disease transmission in central and southeastern Guatemala. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Survey prevalences of T. dimidiata intradomiciliary infestation by village and region were compared. Univariate logistic regression was used to assess the use of risk factors to target surveys and to evaluate indicators associated with village level intradomiciliary prevalences >5% by survey and region. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to assess the ability of random and targeted surveys to target villages with intradomiciliary prevalence exceeding the control threshold within each region. Regional prevalences did not vary by survey; however, village prevalences were significantly greater in random surveys in central (13.0% versus 8.7% and southeastern (22.7% versus 6.9% Guatemala. The number of significant risk factors detected did not vary by survey in central Guatemala but differed considerably in the southeast with a greater number of significant risk factors in the random survey (e.g. land surface temperature, relative humidity, cropland, grassland, tile flooring, and stick and mud and palm and straw walls. Differences in the direction of risk factor associations were observed between regions in both survey types. The overall discriminative capacity was significantly greater in the random surveys in central and southeastern Guatemala, with an area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC of 0.84 in the random surveys and

  20. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSI KRESNATITA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to determine the diversity of indigenous vegetables in Central Kalimantan, its use as a vegetable and nutrient content some vegetables. The method used was the exploration and interviews. Exploration carried out in three districts namely Palangkaraya, Pulang Pisau, and Seruyan. Sampling of plants was randomly and selectively. Data analysis was performed descriptively. The results showed that we recorded 42 plant species belonging to 30 families. There were many vegetables processing: stir-fry, clear soup, a light coconut milk soup, acidic soup, or just consumed as fresh vegetables. The result of nutritional value analyzed, Helminthostachys zeylanica (L. Hook had a potential to further develop whether as vegetables or medicinal plant. It had the highest protein, carbohydrate and mineral P, Fe, Na and K content among the vegetables analyzed.

  1. Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Sharma, O M Prakash; Raina, Narinder Singh; Sehgal, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region.

  2. AN ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN VILLAGES UNDER JONGILANGA TRIBAL COUNCIL, MPUMALANGA, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mophuting, Boikanyo Calvin; Mahore, James; Winterboer, Stefan; Lall, Namrita

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants remain an integral part of the lives of people in rural areas. The aim of this study was to document information about the medicinal plants used by Shangaan people in villages under Jongilanga tribal council, Bushbuckridge municipality, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire with 15 traditional healers as informants; one of them also served as a field guide during data collection. Results were analysed by using various quantitative indices of information consensus factor (ICF), use report (UR), frequency citation (FC) and relative frequency citation (RFC). The study reported 86 medicinal plants used in villages for the treatment of various ailments, the majority (25 species) of which were used for urino-genital disorders. The Fabaceae family was the most represented family (17 species) of all the medicinal plants recorded in this study. The roots were the most frequently used plant part, accounting for 56% of the plants reported, and decoctions were often used in the preparation of herbal remedies. Respiratory diseases had the highest ICF value recorded among the 8 categories of ailments. The highest use report was reported for Combretum collinum (4), while the FC and RFC values (15) were highest in 12 plant species. The study revealed that medicinal plants are still widely used in rural areas and this documentation can serve as an ethno pharmacological basis for selecting plants with potential pharmaceutical properties.

  3. Application of QMC methods to PDEs with random coefficients : a survey of analysis and implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Frances

    2016-01-05

    In this talk I will provide a survey of recent research efforts on the application of quasi-Monte Carlo (QMC) methods to PDEs with random coefficients. Such PDE problems occur in the area of uncertainty quantification. In recent years many papers have been written on this topic using a variety of methods. QMC methods are relatively new to this application area. I will consider different models for the randomness (uniform versus lognormal) and contrast different QMC algorithms (single-level versus multilevel, first order versus higher order, deterministic versus randomized). I will give a summary of the QMC error analysis and proof techniques in a unified view, and provide a practical guide to the software for constructing QMC points tailored to the PDE problems.

  4. Improving Standard Poststratification Techniques For Random-Digit-Dialing Telephone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Battaglia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Random-digit-dialing surveys in the United States such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS typically poststratify on age, gender and race/ethnicity using control totals from an appropriate source such as the 2000 Census, the Current Population Survey, or the American Community Survey. Using logistic regression and interaction detection software we identified key "main effect" socio-demographic variables and important two-factor interactions associated with several health risk factor outcomes measured in the BRFSS, one of the largest annual RDD surveys in the United States. A procedure was developed to construct control totals, which were consistent with estimates of age, gender, and race/ethnicity obtained from a commercial source and distributions of other demographic variables from the Current Population Survey. Raking was used to incorporate main effects and two-factor interaction margins into the weighting of the BRFSS survey data. The resulting risk factor estimates were then compared with those based on the current BRFSS weighting methodology and mean squared error estimates were developed. The research demonstrates that by identifying socio-demographic variables associated with key outcome variables and including these variables in the weighting methodology, nonresponse bias can be substantially reduced.

  5. Ethnobotanical Knowledge Is Vastly Under-Documented in Northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Paniagua-Zambrana, Narel; Balslev, Henrik; Macía, Manuel J.

    2014-01-01

    A main objective of ethnobotany is to document traditional knowledge about plants before it disappears. However, little is known about the coverage of past ethnobotanical studies and thus about how well the existing literature covers the overall traditional knowledge of different human groups. To bridge this gap, we investigated ethnobotanical data-collecting efforts across four countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia), three ecoregions (Amazon, Andes, Chocó), and several human groups (including Amerindians, mestizos, and Afro-Americans). We used palms (Arecaceae) as our model group because of their usefulness and pervasiveness in the ethnobotanical literature. We carried out a large number of field interviews (n = 2201) to determine the coverage and quality of palm ethnobotanical data in the existing ethnobotanical literature (n = 255) published over the past 60 years. In our fieldwork in 68 communities, we collected 87,886 use reports and documented 2262 different palm uses and 140 useful palm species. We demonstrate that traditional knowledge on palm uses is vastly under-documented across ecoregions, countries, and human groups. We suggest that the use of standardized data-collecting protocols in wide-ranging ethnobotanical fieldwork is a promising approach for filling critical information gaps. Our work contributes to the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and emphasizes the need for signatory nations to the Convention on Biological Diversity to respond to these information gaps. Given our findings, we hope to stimulate the formulation of clear plans to systematically document ethnobotanical knowledge in northwestern South America and elsewhere before it vanishes. PMID:24416449

  6. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene C. Hargrove

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  7. Ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants of Slovakia

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    Łukasz Łuczaj

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an ethnobotanical review of wild edible plants gathered for consumption from the 19th century to the present day, within the present borders of Slovakia. Twenty-four sources (mainly ethnographic documenting the culinary use of wild plants were analysed. The use of 106 species (over 3% of the Slovak flora has been recorded. Nowadays most of them are no longer used, or used rarely, apart from a few species of wild fruits. The most frequently used plants include the fruits of Rubus idaeus, Fragaria spp., Rubus subgenus Rubus, Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, Fagus sylvatica, Corylus avellana, Prunus spinosa, Pyrus spp., Malus spp., Crataegus spp. and the leaves of Urtica dioica, Rumex acetosa, Chenopodiaceae species, Cardamine amara, Glechoma spp., Taraxacum spp. and Oxalis acetosella. The most commonly used wild food taxa are nearly identical to those used in Poland, and the same negative association of wild vegetables with famine exists in Slovakia, resulting in their near complete disappearance from the present-day diet.

  8. Aboriginal uses and management of ethnobotanical species in deciduous forests of Chhattisgarh state in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chandra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A study on the native uses of ethnobotanical species was carried out in the south Surguja district of Chhattisgarh state in India with the major objective of identifying different food and medicinal plant species and also to understand their ongoing management and conservation. Through questionnaire and personal interviews, a total of 73 ethnobotanical species used by tribal and non-tribal communities were documented, of these 36 species were used in curing different types of diseases and 22 were used as edible food plants. This rich traditional knowledge of local people has an immense potential for pharmacological studies. The outside forces, at present, were mainly blamed to change the traditional system of harvesting and management of ethnobotanical species. The destructive harvesting practices have damaged the existing populations of many ethnobotanical species viz., Asparagus racemosus, Dioscorea bulbifera, Boswellia serrata, Buchnania lanzan, Sterculia urens and Anogeissus latifolia. The sustainable harvesting and management issues of ethnobotanical species are discussed in view of their conservation and management.

  9. Combining Internet-Based and Postal Survey Methods in a Survey among Gynecologists: Results of a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Sinja Alexandra; Brand, Tilman; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Zeeb, Hajo

    2018-04-01

    To assess whether a combination of Internet-based and postal survey methods (mixed-mode) compared to postal-only survey methods (postal-only) leads to improved response rates in a physician survey, and to compare the cost implications of the different recruitment strategies. All primary care gynecologists in Bremen and Lower Saxony, Germany, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional survey from January to July 2014. The sample was divided into two strata (A; B) depending on availability of an email address. Within each stratum, potential participants were randomly assigned to mixed-mode or postal-only group. In Stratum A, the mixed-mode group had a lower response rate compared to the postal-only group (12.5 vs. 20.2 percent; RR = 0.61, 95 percent CI: 0.44-0.87). In stratum B, no significant differences were found (15.6 vs. 16.2 percent; RR = 0.95, 95 percent CI: 0.62-1.44). Total costs (in €) per valid questionnaire returned (Stratum A: 399.72 vs. 248.85; Stratum B: 496.37 vs. 455.15) and per percentage point of response (Stratum A: 1,379.02 vs. 861.02; Stratum B 1,116.82 vs. 1,024.09) were higher, whereas variable costs were lower in mixed-mode compared to the respective postal-only groups (Stratum A cost ratio: 0.47, Stratum B cost ratio: 0.71). In this study, primary care gynecologists were more likely to participate by traditional postal-only than by mixed-mode survey methods that first offered an Internet option. However, the lower response rate for the mixed-mode method may be partly due to the older age structure of the responding gynecologists. Variable costs per returned questionnaire were substantially lower in mixed-mode groups and indicate the potential for cost savings if the sample population is sufficiently large. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Ethno-botanical study of the African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don in the Southern Benin (West Africa

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    Houessou Laurent G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In addition to plant species biology and ecology, understanding the folk knowledge systems related to the use of plant species and how this knowledge system influences the conservation of plant species is an important issue in the implementation of sustainable strategies of biodiversity conservation programs. This study aimed at providing information on the use and local knowledge variation on Chrysophyllum albidum G. Don a multipurpose tree species widely used in southern Benin. Methods Data was collected through 210 structured interviews. Informants were randomly selected from ten villages. The fidelity level and use value of different plant parts of C. albidum were estimated. The variation in ethnobotanical knowledge was assessed by comparing the use value between ethnic, gender and age groups. In order to assess the use pattern of the different plant parts in folk medicine, a correspondence analysis was carried out on the frequency citation of plant parts. Results Four categories of use (food, medicine, firewood and timber were recorded for C. albidum. With respect to the different plant parts, the fleshy pulp of the African star apple fruit showed high consensus degree as food among the informants. Fifteen diseases were reported to be treated by the different parts of C. albidum in the region. Correspondence analysis revealed the specificity of each part in disease treatment. There was no significant difference among ethnic groups regarding the ethno-botanical use value of C. albidum. However, significant difference existed between genders and among age groups regarding the knowledge of the medical properties of this species. Conclusions C. albidum is well integrated in the traditional agroforestry system of the southern Benin. Despite its multipurpose character, this species remains underutilized in the region. Considering the current threat of habitat degradation, action is needed in order to ensure the long term

  11. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  12. Utility and Cost-Effectiveness of Motivational Messaging to Increase Survey Response in Physicians: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Randolph C. H.; Mak, Winnie W. S.; Pang, Ingrid H. Y.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Tang, Wai Kwong; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Woo, Jean; Lee, Diana T. F.; Cheung, Fanny M.

    2018-01-01

    The present study examined whether, when, and how motivational messaging can boost the response rate of postal surveys for physicians based on Higgin's regulatory focus theory, accounting for its cost-effectiveness. A three-arm, blinded, randomized controlled design was used. A total of 3,270 doctors were randomly selected from the registration…

  13. Ethnobotanical magnitude towards sustainable utilization of wild foliage in Arabian Desert

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    Prakash C. Phondani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was deals with identifying traditional uses of medicinal plants for curing a variety of ailments and degree of religious conservation for retention of ethnobotanical knowledge. The study was carried out in the State of Qatar to document the ethnobotanical uses of 58 medicinally important plant species including identification, botanical name, Arabic name, family, habit, habitat, distribution pattern, and the plant parts used for curing variety of ailments. The documented species belong to 54 plant genera and 30 botanical families. They have been used to cure more than 38 different kinds of human ailments. A majority of ethnobotanical plant species belonging to shrubs (41.38% followed by perennial herbs (31.04%, annual herbs (18.96% and trees (8.62% respectively. The frequency of ethnobotanical plant species were recorded maximum in fabaceae (13.79%, followed by lamiaceae, chenopodiaceae (6.89% each, asteraceae, capparaceae, polygonaceae, boraginaceae, aizooaceae (5.17% each, brassicaceae, asclepiadaceae, convolvulaceae, zygophyllaceae, solanaceae (3.44% each while, remaining 17 families had one (1.72% species each. Perception of stakeholders concerning prioritization and categorization of potential native plants and 25 ethnobotanical species were prioritized and ranked on the basis of their multipurpose use value, feasibility climatic conditions and Global Sustainability Assessment System (GSAS criteria measures i.e. drought resistant, low water requirement, growth performance, survival rate, canopy size, adaptation potential, low maintenance and use value for sustainability and landscaping. The analysis emphasized the potentials of ethnomedicinal research, sustainable utilization, conservation initiatives, and urgent need to document ethnobotanical knowledge for sustainability and scientific validation to prevent their losses.

  14. Ethnobotanical, micrographic and pharmacological features of plant-based weight-loss products sold in naturist stores in Mexico City: the need for better quality control

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    Patricia Marta Arenas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of dietary supplements and herbal mixtures to promote weight loss is a common practice in the West. This study was undertaken in Mexico City, surveying stores selling "natural products" at subway stations. The aims of this paper were as follows: to compile a record of plant products marketed as slimming aids and of retailer perceptions of these products; to review the pharmacological and ethnobotanical literature on the species declared; and to create an optical micrograph of a subset of products to verify the accuracy of the list of component plant species shown on the labels. We applied the techniques of observation, semi-structured interviews and free-listing at the retail stores. Results are presented for the 75 species recorded in the 41 weight-loss products surveyed, showing which plant parts are used, the geographical distribution of the species, pharmacological effects, dosage, route of administration and method of preparation, as well as ethnobotanical information derived from fieldwork. We discuss the values assigned to the species used. Microscopic analyses revealed that many of the plant ingredients declared were absent, highlighting the need for greater quality control and safety of these herbal remedies.

  15. Factors influencing local ecological knowledge of forage resources: Ethnobotanical evidence from West Africa's savannas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naah, John-Baptist S N; Guuroh, Reginald T

    2017-03-01

    Recording local ecological knowledge (LEK) is a useful approach to understanding interactions of the complex social-ecological systems. In spite of the recent growing interest in LEK studies on the effects of climate and land use changes, livestock mobility decisions and other aspects of agro-pastoral systems, LEK on forage plants has still been vastly under-documented in the West African savannas. Using a study area ranging from northern Ghana to central Burkina Faso, we thus aimed at exploring how aridity and socio-demographic factors drive the distributional patterns of forage-related LEK among its holders. With stratified random sampling, we elicited LEK among 450 informants in 15 villages (seven in Ghana and eight in Burkina Faso) via free list tasks coupled with ethnobotanical walks and direct field observations. We performed generalized linear mixed-effects models (aridity- and ethnicity-based models) and robust model selection procedures. Our findings revealed that LEK for woody and herbaceous forage plants was strongly influenced by the ethnicity-based model, while aridity-based model performed better for LEK on overall forage resources and crop-related forage plants. We also found that climatic aridity had negative effect on the forage-related LEK across gender and age groups, while agro- and floristic diversity had positive effect on the body of LEK. About 135 species belonging to 95 genera and 52 families were cited. Our findings shed more light on how ethnicity and environmental harshness can markedly shape the body of LEK in the face of global climate change. Better understanding of such a place-based knowledge system is relevant for sustainable forage plants utilization and livestock production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-03-14

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of ailments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 ailments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific ailment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of ailments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana).

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

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    Giday Mirutse

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb (42%. The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8% followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%. The administration routes are oral (51.4%, external (38.6%, nasal (7.9%, and ear (2.1%. The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80 had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana.

  18. Recruitment barriers in a randomized controlled trial from the physicians' perspective – A postal survey

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    Karrer Werner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The feasibility of randomized trials often depends on successful patient recruitment. Although numerous recruitment barriers have been identified it is unclear which of them complicate recruitment most. Also, most surveys have focused on the patients' perspective of recruitment barriers whereas the perspective of recruiting physicians has received less attention. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a postal survey among recruiting physicians of a multi-center trial to weigh barriers according to their impact on recruitment. Methods We identified any potential recruitment barriers from the literature and from our own experience with a multi-center trial of respiratory rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We developed and pilot-tested a self-administered questionnaire where recruiting physicians were asked to express their agreement with statements about recruitment barriers on a Likert-type scale from 1 (full agreement with statement = very substantial recruitment barrier to 7 (no agreement with statement = no recruitment barrier. Results 38 of 55 recruiting physicians returned questionnaires (69% response rate, of which 35 could be analyzed (64% useable response rate. Recruiting physicians reported that "time constraints" (median agreement of 3, interquartile range 2–5 had the most negative impact on recruitment followed by "difficulties including identified eligible patients" (median agreement of 5, IQR 3–6. Other barriers such as "trial design barriers", "lack of access to treatment", "individual barriers of recruiting physicians" or "insufficient training of recruiting physicians" were perceived to have little or no impact on patient recruitment. Conclusion Physicians perceived time constraints as the most relevant recruitment barrier in a randomized trial. To overcome recruitment barriers interventions, that are affordable for both industry- and investigator-driven trials, need to be

  19. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers from South-west Algeria: an ethnobotanical study

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    Bachir Benarba

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to document and analyze the local knowledge of medicinal plants’ use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, twenty-two local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV, fidelity level (FL and Informant Consensus Factor (FIC were used to analyze the obtained data. Our results showed that 83 medicinal plants species belonging to 38 families are used by traditional healers from South-west of Algeria to treat several ailments. Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Fabaceae were the most dominant families with 13, 8, 6 and 4 species respectively. Leaves were the plant parts mostly used (36%, followed by seeds (18%, aerial parts (17% and roots (12%. Furthermore, decoction was the major mode of preparation (49% and oral administration was the most preferred (80%. Thymus vulgaris L. (UV=1.045, Zingiber officinale (UV=0.863, Trigonella foenum-graecum L. (UV=0.590, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (UV=0.545 and Ruta chalepensis L. (UV=0.5 were the most frequently species used by local healers. A great informant consensus has been demonstrated for kidney (0.727, cancer (0.687, digestive (0.603 and respiratory diseases. The present study revealed rich ethnomedicinal knowledge in South-west Algeria. The reported species with high use-value, fidelity level and informant consensus factor could be of great interest for further pharmacological studies. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(4.000: 320-330

  20. Ethnobotanical study of traditional edible plants used by the Naxi people during droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingling; Chai, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yu; Geng, Yanfei; Wang, Yuahua

    2016-09-12

    Since 2009, millions of people have been forced to live under food shortage by the continuous drought in Southwestern China. The market was the primary source of aid grains, and fears that the market will be unable to provide sufficient food make safeguarding food security in the face of climate change crucial. Traditional adaptive strategies of pre-market indigenous people are a potential source of innovation. We studied three questions among the Naxi people: 1) What edible plants did they consume during droughts? 2) How did they produce enough food? 3) How did they consume these plants? This study investigates and documents traditional Naxi food knowledge to safeguard food security during drought and facilitate Chinese policy decisions. Ethnobotanical investigation was conducted through literature review, semi-structured interviews, collaborative fieldwork and group discussions in three Naxi villages. 89 informants (including 35 key informants) were surveyed from 2012 to 2013. Significant Index (SI) was adopted to evaluate each edible plant's food supply significance. Voucher specimens were collected for taxonomic identification. 1) In total, 141 edible plants (38 cultivated and 103 wild) were consumed-primarily landrace crops, supplementary edible plants and famine plants. 2) Naxi people produced sufficient food through widespread food production systems, strong landrace crop resilience, and diversity in wild edible plants. 3) Through a diverse diet and consuming almost all edible parts of the plant, the Naxi used edible plants fully to meet food and nutrition needs during drought. Edible plant diversity is a cornerstone of drought food security. Cultivated crops (especially landrace plants) and wild edible plants were both important. Naxi people protect edible plant diversity through ecological morality and traditional ecological knowledge (TEK). National inventories of edible plant diversity and studies of the TEK of other Chinese indigenous peoples should be

  1. Developing a survey of barriers and facilitators to recruitment in randomized controlled trials

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    Kaur Geetinder

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recruitment to randomized controlled trials is known to be challenging. It is important to understand and identify predictors of good or poor accrual to a clinical trial so that appropriate strategies can be put in place to overcome these problems and facilitate successful trial completion. We have developed a survey tool to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams regarding facilitators and barriers to recruitment in a clinical trial and describe herein the method of developing the questionnaire. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify studies that have explored facilitators and barriers to recruitment, and a list of potential factors affecting recruitment to a clinical trial was generated. These factors were categorized in terms relating to the (i trial, (ii site, (iii patient, (iv clinical team, (v information and consent and (vi study team. A list was provided for responders to grade these factors as weak, intermediate or strong facilitators or barriers to recruitment. Results A web-based survey questionnaire was developed. This survey was designed to establish the recruitment experience of clinical teams with regard to the perceived facilitators and barriers to recruitment, to identify strategies applied to overcome these problems, and to obtain suggestions for change in the organization of future trials. The survey tool can be used to assess the recruitment experience of clinical teams in a single/multicenter trial in any clinical setting or speciality involving adults or children either in an ongoing trial or at trial completion. The questionnaire is short, easy to administer and to complete, with an estimated completion time of 11 minutes. Conclusions We have presented a robust methodology for developing this survey tool that provides an evidence-based list of potential factors that can affect recruitment to a clinical trial. We recommend that all clinical trialists should consider using

  2. An ethnobotanical study of plants used for the treatment of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the commonest diseases affecting the citizens of both developed and poor countries. In South Africa, the number of people suffering from diabetes is believed to be rising steadily. An ethnobotanical study of plants used by the traditional healers, herbalists and rural dwellers for the treatment of ...

  3. Ethnobotanicals for management of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a study to assess the effect of ethnobotanical products on the behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the main vector of East Coast fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu people in western Kenya on tick control and

  4. Migration and Ethnobotanical Practices: The Case of Tifey Among Haitian Immigrants in Cuba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Godinez, D.; Beyra, A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnobotanical knowledge and practices are dynamic and they change as they are transferred and appropriated by people who are adapting to new surroundings and changing environments. Using tifey, a multispecies drink, as a case study, we discuss the changes that emigration brought about related to

  5. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Ribeirinhos in the North Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Reginaldo Vicente; Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Balogun, Sikiru Olaitan; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira

    2017-06-09

    Currently, in many traditional communities, such as the riverine community in the North Araguaia microregion (Mato Grosso, Brazil), plant knowledge and use represent the main, if not the only, therapeutic resource for the maintenance of health and/or treatment of diseases. This study aimed to identify and document species of medicinal plants used by local experts from riverine communities in the North Araguaia microregion in Mato Grosso State, and to further chemical and pharmacological studies on species selected based on searches in the relevant literature. This is a cross-sectional ethnobotanical study, with non-probabilistic sampling (n =60), that applied the snowball method to select local riverine experts who understand medicinal plant use. Socio-demographic, ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological data (vernacular name, uses, geographical origin, habit, method of preparation and part used) on medicinal plants were collected during semi-structured interviews. The results were analyzed by descriptive and quantitative means: indices of use-report (UR) were used to select plant species with therapeutic potential. In total, 309 plant species belonging to 86 botanical families were cited; 73% were native to Brazil, and Fabaceae was the most representative family (11.3%). Arboreal was the predominant life form (37.2%). The leaf was the most used part (28.9%). Infusion was the most commonly reported method of preparation (31.3%). The plants reported in the survey were indicated for 18 of the 22 ICD-10 disease categories. The disease categories most commonly cited were the infectious and parasitic diseases (IPD, 718 UR), digestive system diseases (DSD, 565 UR) and respiratory system diseases (RSD, 504 UR), representing 16.6%, 13.1% and 11.7%, respectively of the total UR. Dysphania ambrosioides L. was the most sighted in the IPD category 50 UR. Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (133), Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (131), and Cecropia pachystachya Trécul (126) were the

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

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    Dramane Pare

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO, in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.. Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North and Nayala (Northwest to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55 respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61 plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31 families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main

  7. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  8. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  9. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal flora utilised by traditional healers in the management of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia

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    K.C. Chinsembu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Since many rural-poor Lozi people of Sesheke District (Western Province, Zambia that suffer from sexually transmitted infections do not usually access public health facilities; they turn to traditional healers who administer remedies extracted from medicinal plants. However, the medicinal plants used for sexually transmitted infections and data on the usage of plants in Sesheke District in particular and Western Province in general have not been documented. In this study, an ethnobotanical survey was conducted to document the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants that alleviate symptoms of sexually transmitted infections in Sesheke District, Western Province, Zambia. Using semi-structured interviews and questionnaires, ethnobotanical data were collected from twenty traditional healers that manage patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections. The results showed that 52 plant species in 25 families and 43 genera were used to treat gonorrhoea, syphilis, chancroid, chlamydia, genital herpes, and ano-genital warts. Sexually transmitted infections were frequently managed using the following plants: Terminalia sericea, Strychnos cocculoides, Ximenia caffra, Cassia abbreviata, Cassia occidentalis, Combretum hereroense, Combretum imberbe, Dichrostachys cinerea, Boscia albitrunca, Momordica balsamina and Peltophorum africanum. Many of these plants have putative antimicrobial activities which may justify their roles as natural remedies for sexually transmitted infections. Further studies are needed to determine the dosages, minimum inhibitory concentrations, biological activities and toxicities, and characterise the plants' chemical compounds.

  10. Self-reported recognition of undiagnosed life threatening conditions in chiropractic practice: a random survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Dwain M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to identify the type and frequency of previously undiagnosed life threatening conditions (LTC, based on self-reports of chiropractic physicians, which were first recognized by the chiropractic physician. Additionally this information may have a preliminary role in determining whether chiropractic education provides the knowledge necessary to recognize these events. Methods The study design was a postal, cross-sectional, epidemiological self-administered survey. Two thousand Doctors of Chiropractic in the US were randomly selected from a list of 57878. The survey asked respondents to state the number of cases from the list where they were the first physician to recognize the condition over the course of their practice careers. Space was provided for unlisted conditions. Results The response rate was 29.9%. Respondents represented 11442 years in practice and included 3861 patients with a reported undiagnosed LTC. The most commonly presenting conditions were in rank order: carcinoma, abdominal aneurysm, deep vein thrombosis, stroke, myocardial infarction, subdural hematoma and a large group of other diagnoses. The occurrence of a previously undiagnosed LTC can be expected to present to the chiropractic physician every 2.5 years based on the responding doctors reports. Conclusion Based on this survey chiropractic physicians report encountering undiagnosed LTC’s in the normal course of practice. The findings of this study are of importance to the chiropractic profession and chiropractic education. Increased awareness and emphasis on recognition of LTC is a critical part of the education process and practice life.

  11. Asymptotic Modeling of Coherent Scattering from Random Rough Layers: Application to Road Survey by GPR at Nadir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pinel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the coherent scattering from random rough layers made up of two uncorrelated random rough surfaces, by considering 2D problems. The results from a rigorous electromagnetic method called PILE (propagation-inside-layer expansion are used as a reference. Also, two asymptotic analytical approaches are presented and compared to the numerical model for comparison. The cases of surfaces with both Gaussian and exponential correlations are studied. This approach is applied to road survey by GPR at nadir.

  12. The Effect of Price on Surgeons' Choice of Implants: A Randomized Controlled Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Melamed, Eitan; Bello, Ricardo; Karia, Raj; Capo, John T

    2017-08-01

    Surgical costs are under scrutiny and surgeons are being held increasingly responsible for cost containment. In some instances, implants are the largest component of total procedure cost, yet previous studies reveal that surgeons' knowledge of implant prices is poor. Our study aims to (1) understand drivers behind implant selection and (2) assess whether educating surgeons about implant costs affects implant selection. We surveyed 226 orthopedic surgeons across 6 continents. The survey presented 8 clinical cases of upper extremity fractures with history, radiographs, and implant options. Surgeons were randomized to receive either a version with each implant's average selling price ("price-aware" group), or a version without prices ("price-naïve" group). Surgeons selected a surgical implant and ranked factors affecting implant choice. Descriptive statistics and univariate, multivariable, and subgroup analyses were performed. For cases offering implants within the same class (eg, volar locking plates), price-awareness reduced implant cost by 9% to 11%. When offered different models of distal radius volar locking plates, 25% of price-naïve surgeons selected the most expensive plate compared with only 7% of price-aware surgeons. For cases offering different classes of implants (eg, plate vs external fixator), there was no difference in implant choice between price-aware and price-naïve surgeons. Familiarity with the implant was the most common reason for choosing an implant in both groups (35% vs 46%). Price-aware surgeons were more likely to rank cost as a factor (29% vs 21%). Price awareness significantly influences surgeons' choice of a specific model within the same implant class. Merely including prices with a list of implants leads surgeons to select less expensive implants. This implies that an untapped opportunity exists to reduce surgical expenditures simply by enhancing surgeons' cost awareness. Economic/Decision Analyses I. Copyright © 2017 American

  13. Doping in Two Elite Athletics Competitions Assessed by Randomized-Response Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Pope, Harrison G; Cléret, Léa; Petróczi, Andrea; Nepusz, Tamás; Schaffer, Jay; Kanayama, Gen; Comstock, R Dawn; Simon, Perikles

    2018-01-01

    Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown. We surveyed 2167 athletes at two sporting events: the 13th International Association of Athletics Federations Word Championships in Athletics (WCA) in Daegu, South Korea in August 2011 and the 12th Quadrennial Pan-Arab Games (PAG) in Doha, Qatar in December 2011. To estimate the prevalence of doping, we utilized a "randomized response technique," which guarantees anonymity for individuals when answering a sensitive question. We also administered a control question at PAG assessing past-year use of supplements. The estimated prevalence of past-year doping was 43.6% (95% confidence interval 39.4-47.9) at WCA and 57.1% (52.4-61.8) at PAG. The estimated prevalence of past-year supplement use at PAG was 70.1% (65.6-74.7%). Sensitivity analyses, assessing the robustness of these estimates under numerous hypothetical scenarios of intentional or unintentional noncompliance by respondents, suggested that we were unlikely to have overestimated the true prevalence of doping. Doping appears remarkably widespread among elite athletes, and remains largely unchecked despite current biological testing. The survey technique presented here will allow future investigators to generate continued reference estimates of the prevalence of doping.

  14. Patterns of Cancer Genetic Testing: A Randomized Survey of Oregon Clinicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, S. L.; Zlot, A. I.; Silvey, S. K.; Silvey, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Appropriate use of genetic tests for population-based cancer screening, diagnosis of inherited cancers, and guidance of cancer treatment can improve health outcomes. We investigated clinicians’ use and knowledge of eight breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer genetic tests. Methods. We conducted a randomized survey of 2,191 Oregon providers, asking about their experience with fecal DNA, OncoVue, BRCA, MMR, CYP2D6, tumor gene expression profiling, UGT1A1, and KRAS. Results. Clinicians reported low confidence in their knowledge of medical genetics; most confident were OB-GYNs and specialists. Clinicians were more likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA and MMR than the other tests, and OB-GYNs were twice as likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA testing than primary care providers. Less than 10% of providers ordered/recommended OncoVue, fecal DNA, CYP2D6, or UGT1A1; less than 30% ordered/recommended tumor gene expression profiles or KRAS. The most common reason for not ordering/recommending these tests was lack of familiarity. Conclusions. Use of appropriate, evidence-based testing can help reduce incidence and mortality of certain cancers, but these tests need to be better integrated into clinical practice. Continued evaluation of emerging technologies, dissemination of findings, and an increase in provider confidence and knowledge are necessary to achieve this end.

  15. The exclusion from welfare benefits: Resentment and survey attrition in a randomized controlled trial in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklov, Guy; Weinreb, Alexander; Winters, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Public policy programs must often impose limits on who may be eligible for benefits. Despite research on the impact of exclusion in developed countries, there is little evidence on how people react to being excluded from benefits in developing societies. Utilizing repeated waves of data from an experimental evaluation of Mexico's foundational PROGRESA antipoverty program, we examine the impact of exclusion and distinguish two separate forms. "Statistical exclusion" occurs where determination of benefits is based on randomized assignment to a treatment and control group. "Needs-based exclusion" occurs when benefits programs are designed to be selective rather than universal, basing eligibility on characteristics, like relative poverty, that are difficult to measure simply and accurately. Focusing on temporal variation in survey non-response as our behavioral outcome, we show that needs-based exclusion has much greater negative effects on continued participation than statistical exclusion. We also show that these effects are concentrated among the wealthy, that is, those furthest from the eligibility cut-off line. These findings reinforce general concerns about the validity of evaluation studies when incentives are at work. We discuss both the behavioral explanations that might underlie these findings as well as some potential approaches to reduce threats to evaluation validity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. COPD prevalence in a random population survey: a matter of definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirtcliffe, P; Weatherall, M; Marsh, S; Travers, J; Hansell, A; McNaughton, A; Aldington, S; Muellerova, H; Beasley, R

    2007-08-01

    A recent American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society joint Task Force report recommends using a lower limit of normal (LLN) of forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity as opposed to a fixed ratio of definitions of airflow obstruction based on post-bronchodilator spirometry is not known. Detailed written questionnaires, full pulmonary function tests (including pre- and post-bronchodilator flow-volume loops) and atopy testing were completed in 749 subjects recruited from a random population sample. The GOLD-defined, age-adjusted prevalence (95% confidence interval) for adults aged >or=40 yrs was 14.2 (11.0-17.0)% compared with an LLN-defined, age-adjusted, post-bronchodilator prevalence in the same group of 9.0 (6.7-11.3)%. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varied markedly depending on the definition used. Further research using longitudinal rather than cross-sectional data will help decide the preferred approach in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence surveys.

  17. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Belda, Antonio; Cort?s, Carolina; Peir?, Victoriano

    2013-01-01

    Background: The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic ...

  18. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUSI KRESNATITA; YULA MIRANDA; HASTIN E.N.C. CHOTIMAH

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Chotimah HENC, Kresnatita S, Miranda Y. 2013. Ethnobotanical study and nutrient content of indigenous vegetables consumed in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 14: 106-111. People in Central Kalimantan consume vegetables that collected from the wild or traditionally cultivated. Documentation effort of them is very important because of the diversity of local vegetable are threatened with extinction due to the conversion of peat land and forest fires. This study aims to dete...

  19. Toward An Ethics of Reciprocity: Ethnobotanical Knowledge and Medicinal Plants as Cancer Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Charles Ryan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article develops a reciprocity ethics of the environment through a discussion of ethnobotanical medicines used in the treatment of cancer. The moral virtue of reciprocity, defined as the returning of good when good is received or anticipated, is central to the posthumanist rethinking of human relationships to the plant world. As herbal medicines are used progressively more around the globe and as plant diversity decreases as a result of habitat loss and climate change, an ethics of reciprocity should be a concern for environmental philosophers and conservationists. Aldo Leopold’s land ethic and J. Baird Callicott’s distinction between deontological and prudential environmental ethics provide theoretical contexts for the development of a reciprocity ethics vis-à-vis ethnobotanical species. While this article does not necessarily specify modes or forms of reciprocity, it does outline some of the more prominent ethnobotanical species used in the treatment of cancer, including those from Native American, African, Chinese, and Indian traditions. In the form of a dialogue between the fields of ethnobotany, herbal medicine, and environmental philosophy, this article presents a position from which further articulations of reciprocity can be developed, particularly those involving the rights of indigenous cultures and plants.

  20. The ethnobotanical, phytochemical and mineral analyses of phragmanthera incana (klotzsch), a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts in South-Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunmefun, O T; Fasola, T R; Saba, A B; Oridupa, O A

    2013-03-01

    Mistletoe is collected wildly on various plants and Phragmanthera incana is noted to grow on different plant hosts. This study was designed to carry out the ethnobotanical survey, phytochemical and mineral analyses of Phragmanthera incana, a species of mistletoe growing on three plant hosts namely Cocoa (Theobroma cacao), Kolanut (Cola nitida) and Bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis). Mistletoe samples were identified at the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria Herbarium. Phragmanthera incana was screened for its phytochemical constituents and mineral cations along its hosts following standard methods and to confirm if the mistletoe species is host specific. The powdered samples of the mistletoe species (Phragmanthera incana) was used for both the phytochemical screening and the cation mineral analysis. The uses and the harvesting methods of mistletoe were also reviewed extensively in this paper.

  1. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  2. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  3. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  4. Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile: geographical distribution and ethnobotanical knowledge by local populations in the Ferlo (north Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagna, MB.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Balanites aegyptiaca (L. Delile is a species of tropical flora for which the variety aegyptiaca is adapted to Sahelian climate. The species is among those chosen for the restoration of Sahelian ecosystems in the context of the pan-African reforestation project, the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and Sahel Initiative (GGW. This study redefines the distribution range and its ecology and studies its uses in the Ferlo region in the north of Senegal using surveys carried out among the local population. The eco-geographical study shows that the species occupies several Sahel-Saharan regions of Africa and the Middle East. With broad ecological amplitude, it is very resistant to drought and relatively indifferent to the type of soil. Results of the ethno-botanical survey show that local people in the Ferlo region have a wealth of knowledge and expertise on B. aegyptiaca. These surveys also revealed the extent to which local populations rely on the tree for food, fodder, construction and medicine. The fruit and wood are the most highly prized parts of the tree, with the greatest use of the fruit in people's diets. In medicinal terms, B. aegyptiaca is used to treat several affections. Marketing the fruits could be of socio-economic interest for local people, and in particular, for women. This study is particularly opportune since B. aegyptiaca var. aegyptiaca is currently being planted in large numbers within the Great Green Wall for the Sahara and the Sahel Initiative (GGW. It also provides information that could help in better management of this natural resource, adapted both to the hostile Sahelian climate and of great use to Mankind.

  5. Allowing Physicians to Choose the Value of Compensation for Participation in a Web-Based Survey: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Alison E; O'Connor, Cristi L; Lau, Bryan; Halpern, Scott D; Needham, Dale M

    2015-07-29

    Survey response rates among physicians are declining, and determining an appropriate level of compensation to motivate participation poses a major challenge. To estimate the effect of permitting intensive care physicians to select their preferred level of compensation for completing a short Web-based survey on physician (1) response rate, (2) survey completion rate, (3) time to response, and (4) time spent completing the survey. A total of 1850 US intensivists from an existing database were randomized to receive a survey invitation email with or without an Amazon.com incentive available to the first 100 respondents. The incentive could be instantly redeemed for an amount chosen by the respondent, up to a maximum of US $50. The overall response rate was 35.90% (630/1755). Among the 35.4% (111/314) of eligible participants choosing the incentive, 80.2% (89/111) selected the maximum value. Among intensivists offered an incentive, the response was 6.0% higher (95% CI 1.5-10.5, P=.01), survey completion was marginally greater (807/859, 94.0% vs 892/991, 90.0%; P=.06), and the median number of days to survey response was shorter (0.8, interquartile range [IQR] 0.2-14.4 vs 6.6, IQR 0.3-22.3; P=.001), with no difference in time spent completing the survey. Permitting intensive care physicians to determine compensation level for completing a short Web-based survey modestly increased response rate and substantially decreased response time without decreasing the time spent on survey completion.

  6. Ethnobotanical investigation of indigenous plants used in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Information was gathered using periodic open-ended questionnaire and personal interview. The respondents were randomly selected and consist, fifteen (15) women ... A particular brand of bottle water was preferable for herbal preparation. Other ingredients cited include soft traditional black soap, sulphur, Shea ...

  7. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  8. The effect of a monetary incentive for administrative assistants on the survey response rate: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnav Agarwal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient evidence that monetary incentives are effective in increasing survey response rates in the general population as well as with physicians. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of a monetary incentive intended for administrative assistants on the survey response rate of physicians in leadership positions. Methods This was an ancillary study to a national survey of chairs of academic Departments of Medicine in the United States about measuring faculty productivity. We randomized survey participants to receive or not receive a $5 gift card enclosed in the survey package. The cover letter explained that the gift card was intended for the administrative assistants as a “thank you for their time.” We compared the response rates between the 2 study arms using the Chi-square test. Results Out of 152 participants to whom survey packages were mailed to, a total of 78 responses were received (51 % response rate. The response rates were 59 % in the incentive arm and 46 % in the no incentive arm. The relative effect of the incentive compared to no monetary incentive was borderline statistically significant (relative risk (RR = 1.36, 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.99 to 1.87; p = 0.055. Conclusion Monetary incentives intended for administrative assistants likely increase the response rate of physicians in leadership positions.

  9. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais em área de caatinga no município de São José de Espinharas, Paraíba, Brasil Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in a caatinga area in São José de Espinharas Municipality, Paraíba State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.V Marinho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar levantamento das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela comunidade de São José de Espinharas, a fim de registrar e preservar o conhecimento popular. A metodologia usada foi de entrevistas semi-estruturadas, com observações participantes, coleta e identificação do material botânico e preparação de exsicatas, resultando em lista de 82 espécies de 38 famílias diferentes. São fornecidas as informações nomenclatura popular e botânica, uso terapêutico, parte utilizada, forma de uso, modo de preparo e doenças tratadas. As raízes (30% foram ás partes mais utilizadas e a forma de preparo foi lambedor (32%. O conhecimento sobre os usos e modos de preparo provém em geral, dos familiares (85%. Com esses resultados, verifica-se a interação da população local com a flora e utilização relacionada a aspectos sociais, econômicos, culturais e às mudanças ambientais.The aim of this study was to perform a survey of medicinal plants used by the community of São José de Espinharas, Paraíba State, Brazil, in order to record and preserve the folk knowledge. The adopted methodology was based on semi-structured interviews, with participating observations, botanical material collection and identification, and voucher preparation, resulting in a list of 82 species of 38 different families. The following information was provided: folk and botanical nomenclature, therapeutic application, used plant part, forms of use, method of preparation and treated diseases. Roots (30% constituted the part most frequently used and syrup (32% was the predominant method of preparation. The knowledge of uses and methods of preparation are generally handed down in the family (85%. Based on those results, there is an interaction of the local population with the flora and its use is related to social, economical and cultural aspects and environmental changes.

  10. Application of QMC methods to PDEs with random coefficients : a survey of analysis and implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Kuo, Frances; Dick, Josef; Le Gia, Thong; Nichols, James; Sloan, Ian; Graham, Ivan; Scheichl, Robert; Nuyens, Dirk; Schwab, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    have been written on this topic using a variety of methods. QMC methods are relatively new to this application area. I will consider different models for the randomness (uniform versus lognormal) and contrast different QMC algorithms (single-level

  11. Extending the temporal context of ethnobotanical databases: the case study of the Campania region (southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollio Antonino

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical studies generally describe the traditional knowledge of a territory according to a "hic et nunc" principle. The need of approaching this field also embedding historical data has been frequently acknowledged. With their long history of civilization some regions of the Mediterranean basin seem to be particularly suited for an historical approach to be adopted. Campania, a region of southern Italy, has been selected for a database implementation containing present and past information on plant uses. Methods A relational database has been built on the basis of information gathered from different historical sources, including diaries, travel accounts, and treatises on medicinal plants, written by explorers, botanists, physicians, who travelled in Campania during the last three centuries. Moreover, ethnobotanical uses described in historical herbal collections and in Ancient and Medieval texts from the Mediterranean Region have been included in the database. Results 1672 different uses, ranging from medicinal, to alimentary, ceremonial, veterinary, have been recorded for 474 species listed in the data base. Information is not uniformly spread over the Campanian territory; Sannio being the most studied geographical area and Cilento the least one. About 50 plants have been continuously used in the last three centuries in the cure of the same affections. A comparison with the uses reported for the same species in Ancient treatises shows that the origin of present ethnomedicine from old learned medical doctrines needs a case-by-case confirmation. Conclusion The database is flexible enough to represent a useful tool for researchers who need to store and compare present and previous ethnobotanical uses from Mediterranean Countries.

  12. Palikur traditional roundwood construction in eastern French Guiana: ethnobotanical and cultural perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogeron, Clémence; Odonne, Guillaume; Cristinoi, Antonia; Engel, Julien; Grenand, Pierre; Beauchêne, Jacques; Clair, Bruno; Davy, Damien

    2018-04-24

    Palikur Amerindians live in the eastern part of French Guiana which is undergoing deep-seated changes due to the geographical and economic opening of the region. So far, Palikur's traditional ecological knowledge is poorly documented, apart from medicinal plants. The aim of this study was to document ethnobotanical practices related to traditional construction in the region. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. Thirty-nine Palikur men were interviewed in three localities (Saint-Georges de l'Oyapock, Regina and Trois-Palétuviers) between December 2013 and July 2014. Twenty-four inventories of wood species used in traditional buildings were conducted in the villages, as well as ethnobotanical walks in the neighboring forests, to complete data about usable species and to determine Linnaean names. After an ethnographic description of roundwood Palikur habitat, the in situ wood selection process of Palikur is precisely described. A total of 960 roundwood pieces were inventoried in situ according to Palikur taxonomy, of which 860 were beams and rafters, and 100 posts in 20 permanent and 4 temporary buildings. Twenty-seven folk species were identified. Sixty-three folk species used in construction were recorded during ethnobotanical walks. They correspond to 263 botanical species belonging to 25 families. Posts in permanent buildings were made of yawu (Minquartia guianensis) (51%) and wakap (Vouacapoua americana) (14%). Beams and rafters were made of wood from Annonaceae (79%) and Lecythidaceae (13%) families. The most frequently used species were kuukumwi priye (Oxandra asbeckii), kuukumwi seyne (Pseudoxandra cuspidata), and pukuu (Xylopia nitida and X. cayennensis). Although the Palikur's relationship with their habitat is undergoing significant changes, knowledge about construction wood is still very much alive in the Oyapock basin. Many people continue to construct traditional buildings alongside modern houses, using a wide array of species

  13. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in Karangwangi, District of Cianjur, West Java

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    Desak Made Malini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge and usage of plant as medicinal remedy by current generation are not as extensive as previous; therefore, many rural communities with restricted modern medical access still rely on traditional medicine. This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Karangwangi Village of Cianjur District, West Java Indonesia. This study aimed to identify plants collected for medical purposes by the local people as well as to document the local names, uses, preparation, and location of these plants. Ethno botanical data was recorded by opting people participation and key informant approach involving semi-structured interviews, group discussions and filling of questionnaires. The results showed a total of 114 medicinal plants belonging to 50 families were identified. Zingiberaceae was the most-frequently cited (nine species, followed by Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Fabaceae (seven species each. The most-used plant parts were leaves (51.8%, followed by stems (22.9% and the most common preparations were decoction, poultice and squeezed. Most of the plants were obtained from the house-yard and total of 30 medicinal uses were recorded. The ethnobotanical result documented in this study showed that this area is rich in medicinal plants and these plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes among the people in their daily lives. Ethnobotanical heritage should be preserved, however, there is a gradual loss of traditional knowledge about these plants in new generation. Further, the findings can be used as baseline information for further scientific investigation for analyzing phytochemical, pharmaceutical and other biological activities for future drug discovery.

  14. A Randomized Trial Comparing Mail versus In-Office Distribution of the CAHPS Clinician and Group Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastario, Michael P; Rodriguez, Hector P; Gallagher, Patricia M; Cleary, Paul D; Shaller, Dale; Rogers, William H; Bogen, Karen; Safran, Dana Gelb

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of survey distribution protocol (mail versus handout) on data quality and measurement of patient care experiences. Data Sources/Study Setting Multisite randomized trial of survey distribution protocols. Analytic sample included 2,477 patients of 15 clinicians at three practice sites in New York State. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Mail and handout distribution modes were alternated weekly at each site for 6 weeks. Principal Findings Handout protocols yielded an incomplete distribution rate (74 percent) and lower overall response rates (40 percent versus 58 percent) compared with mail. Handout distribution rates decreased over time and resulted in more favorable survey scores compared with mailed surveys. There were significant mode–physician interaction effects, indicating that data cannot simply be pooled and adjusted for mode. Conclusions In-office survey distribution has the potential to bias measurement and comparison of physicians and sites on patient care experiences. Incomplete distribution rates observed in-office, together with between-office differences in distribution rates and declining rates over time suggest staff may be burdened by the process and selective in their choice of patients. Further testing with a larger physician and site sample is important to definitively establish the potential role for in-office distribution in obtaining reliable, valid assessment of patient care experiences. PMID:20579126

  15. Factors affecting ethnobotanical knowledge in a mestizo community of the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Rodríguez, Leonardo; Ortiz-Sánchez, Amanda; Mariano, Nestor A; Maldonado-Almanza, Belinda; Reyes-García, Victoria

    2014-01-27

    Worldwide, mestizo communities' ethnobotanical knowledge has been poorly studied. Based on a mestizo group in Mexico, this study assesses a) the use value (UV) of the local flora, b) gendered differences in plant species, and c) the association between socio-economic variables and ethnobotanical knowledge. To assess the degree of knowledge of plant resources, we conducted 41 interviews collecting information on knowledge of local plant resources and the socio-economic situation of the informant. We also collected free listings of useful plants by category of use to identify the UV of each species. With the support of key informants, we photographed and collected the plant material recorded during the interviews and free listings on five different habitats. Paired t-tests and a Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to determine differences in the number of species known by men and women. Differences in distribution were analyzed by means of the Shapiro-Wilk's W normality tests. To determine the association of socio-economic factors and ethnobotanical knowledge, we used a non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS). Informants listed 185 species. Medicinal plants constituted the most diverse group (90 species). Tropical deciduous forest is the habitat that concentrates the highest proportion of plant resources (80 species). The use-values were classified into three groups: A (4-6 UV; three species), B (0.35-1.37 UV; 39 species) and C (0-0.29 UV; 143 species). High-quality wood species and those associated to religious ceremonies had the highest UV. Women's and men's knowledge of plant species showed statistically significant differences at the interspecific and the intracategorical levels (Student's test, T15 = 4.8, p economic activities associated with the intracultural distribution of ethnobotanical knowledge among mestizo Mexican communities. It also provides information on plant resources and habitats and how local peasants value them. This information

  16. Ethnobotanical studies in the Ripollès district (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula

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    M. Rigat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the ethnobotanical prospection performed in the Ripollès district between 2004 and 2013. Through semistructured interviews with 163 informants born between 1915 and 1988, we obtained information on popular names and uses of 457 taxa (including species, subspecies and varieties, 15 of which have only been determined at the genus level. About these plants, the informants have produced 7192 use reports. In this article we provide general comments on the different uses (medicinal, food and others and we present, in two appendices, the complete catalogue of the district’s ethnoflora.

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across American Samoa in 2015 as a part of...

  18. Prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers based on random breath tests in a roadside survey in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcañiz, Manuela; Guillén, Montserrat; Santolino, Miguel; Sánchez-Moscona, Daniel; Llatje, Oscar; Ramon, Lluís

    2014-04-01

    Sobriety checkpoints are not usually randomly located by traffic authorities. As such, information provided by non-random alcohol tests cannot be used to infer the characteristics of the general driving population. In this paper a case study is presented in which the prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving is estimated for the general population of drivers. A stratified probabilistic sample was designed to represent vehicles circulating in non-urban areas of Catalonia (Spain), a region characterized by its complex transportation network and dense traffic around the metropolis of Barcelona. Random breath alcohol concentration tests were performed during spring 2012 on 7596 drivers. The estimated prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers was 1.29%, which is roughly a third of the rate obtained in non-random tests. Higher rates were found on weekends (1.90% on Saturdays and 4.29% on Sundays) and especially at night. The rate is higher for men (1.45%) than for women (0.64%) and it shows an increasing pattern with age. In vehicles with two occupants, the proportion of alcohol-impaired drivers is estimated at 2.62%, but when the driver was alone the rate drops to 0.84%, which might reflect the socialization of drinking habits. The results are compared with outcomes in previous surveys, showing a decreasing trend in the prevalence of alcohol-impaired drivers over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An ethnobotanical study of the less known wild edible figs (genus Ficus) native to Xishuangbanna, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yinxian; Hu, Huabin; Xu, Youkai; Liu, Aizhong

    2014-09-24

    The genus Ficus, collectively known as figs, is a key component of tropical forests and is well known for its ethnobotanical importance. In recent decades an increasing number of studies have shown the indigenous knowledge about wild edible Ficus species and their culinary or medicinal value. However, rather little is known about the role of these species in rural livelihoods, because of both species and cultural diversity. In this study we 1) collected the species and ethnic names of wild edible Ficus exploited by four cultural groups in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China, and 2) recorded the collection activities and modes of consumption through semi-structured interviews, 3) investigated the resource management by a statistical survey of their field distribution and cultivation, and 4) compared and estimated the usage intensities by the grading method. The young leaves, leaf buds and young or ripe syconia of 13 Ficus species or varieties are traditionally consumed. All the species had fixed and usually food-related ethnic names. All four cultural groups are experienced in the collection and use of edible Ficus species as vegetables, fruits or beverages, with the surplus sold for cash income. Different cultural groups use the Ficus species at different intensities because of differences in availability, forest dependency and cultural factors. Both the mountain and basin villagers make an effort to realize sustainable collection and meet their own and market needs by resource management in situ or cultivation. In comparison with reports from other parts of the world, ethnic groups in Xishuangbanna exploited more edible Ficus species for young leaves or leaf buds. Most of the edible species undergo a gradient of management intensities following a gradient of manipulation from simple field gathering to ex situ cultivation. This study contributes to our understanding of the origins and diffusion of the knowledge of perception, application and managing a group of

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of herbal tea plants from the traditional markets in Chaoshan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Lin; Zheng, Xi-Long; Duan, Lei; Deng, Shuang-Wen; Ye, Wen; Wang, Ai-Hua; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2017-06-09

    Herbal tea, which refers to "cooling tea", "cool beverage", or "liáng chá" in China, includes a range of drinks with heat-clearing and detoxification qualities. Herbal tea plants are great contributive to the health and prosperity of Chaoshan people. The aim of the study was to document herbal tea plant species used and commercialized as "liáng chá" in Chaoshan area, to facilitate the use and development of herbal tea enterprises, and to promote the further development of national herbal tea. Information and data were obtained from all 83 stall holders in 12 traditional markets, semi-structured informant interviews were carried out individually with the stall holders, 10 questions were asked. In this study, 186 species of herbal tea plants belonging to 65 families and 156 genera were indicated by 83 stall holders, with Asteraceae being the most prevalent family with 22 species. Herbs are main sources of herbal tea plants in Chaoshan area, with whole plants (97 species) being the most used parts. Herbal drinks are mostly consumed for heat-clearing and detoxification, and a large number of plant species were reported to treat coughs, colds, dysentery, dampness and sore throats. The most cited species were Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. (47 times mentioned), Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (46), Plantago asiatica L. (43), Houttuynia cordata Thunb (42), Centella asiatica (L.) Urban (36), Desmodium styracifolium (Osbeck) Merr. (35) and Morus alba L. (31), and 5 protected species were recorded in the list of the nationally protected species of China: Dendrobium officinale Kimura et Migo, Dendrobium nobile Lindl., Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, Bulbophyllum odoratissimum (J. E. Smith) Lindl. and Pholidota chinensis Lindl. The selling price of most fresh herbal tea plants in the market varied from¥10-16/kg, with the profit margin of sales ranging from 12.5% to 20%. The consumption of herbal tea for one family costs about ¥3-5/day. Chaoshan herbal teas, prepared by diverse plant species, are regarded as a long tradition inseparable part in daily life of local people. Although they can effectively prevent and treat different kinds of diseases, they are not suitable for everyone (e.g. the elderly, children, and pregnant or breastfeeding women), even in healthy people, improper use of herbal tea can lead to physical discomfort. Furthermore, in order to appropriately understand the function, efficacy, and safety of herbal tea plants, additional research of traditional practices and phytochemistry, nutrient, physiological and toxicity properties should be analyzed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than medical treatment. This study identified not only the wild plants collected for medical purposes by local people of Aladaglar/Nigde, but also the uses and local names of these plants. This paper helps to preserve valuable information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnobotanical review of the Mapuche medicinal flora: use patterns on a regional scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molares, Soledad; Ladio, Ana

    2009-03-18

    This paper aimed to present a quantitative review of information on Mapuche ethnobotany published for Argentina and Chile in the period 1955-2007. Sixteen ethnobotanical articles were studied quantitatively by utilizing ethnobotanical indices, non-parametric and multivariate tests. A total of 505 medicinal species, 304 native (60%) and 196 exotic (39%) were registered. Ailments were treated with both native and exotic species, although native showed higher values of consensus (between studies) than exotic, and were more frequently used in all cases. The most common ailments were gastro-intestinal pains (26%). Most cures used herbs (56%). Native species were obtained mainly by gathering in forests and ecotones (40%), and exotics by gathering in anthropogenic environments (28%). Our results demonstrate the existence of a common, shared body of knowledge of the medicinal flora at a regional level, integrating ancestral knowledge with foreign knowledge accumulated over time. Finally, reflecting cultural erosion, modern articles cited significantly fewer native plants than older articles; a trend not found with exotic species. The information offered can be used as a guide for future work on promising species for health care, and as background information for the development of bio-cultural conservation strategies.

  3. Do Natives' Beliefs About Refugees' Education Level Affect Attitudes Toward Refugees? Evidence from Randomized Survey Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Lergetporer, Philipp; Piopiunik, Marc; Simon, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Europe has experienced an unprecedented influx of refugees. While natives’ attitudes toward refugees are decisive for the political feasibility of asylum policies, little is known about how these attitudes are shaped by refugees’ characteristics. We conducted survey experiments with more than 5,000 university students in Germany in which we exogenously shifted participants’ beliefs about refugees’ education level through information provision. Consistent with economic theory,...

  4. An ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in Espiye and its surrounding (Giresun-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Rıdvan; Cakilcioglu, Ugur; Kaltalioğlu, Kaan; Ulusan, Musa Denizhan; Türkmen, Zafer

    2015-04-02

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in Espiye in the Black Sea Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Northern (Espiye-Giresun) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Espiye which is located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2012-2014). During this period, information about medicinal use of 55 wild and 15 cultivated plants were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. Through face-to-face interviews, we identified and recorded demographic characteristics of the respondents. We interviewed 128 persons who are over the age of 29. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 70 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 3 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, and Ericaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla crinita Buser, Stachys sylvatica L., and Thymus leucotrichus Hal. var. leucotrichus Hal. Names of local plants in Turkey vary especially due to vernaculars. The plants that the locals of Espiye use are called with the same or different local names in various parts of Anatolia. We found out that locals

  5. Reporting quality of randomized controlled trial abstracts: survey of leading general dental journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Deng, Lijia; Kau, Chung How; Jiang, Han; He, Hong; Walsh, Tanya

    2015-09-01

    The authors conducted a study to assess the reporting quality of randomized controlled trial (RCT) abstracts published in leading general dental journals, investigate any improvement after the release of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for Abstracts guidelines, and identify factors associated with better reporting quality. The authors searched PubMed for RCTs published in 10 leading general dental journals during the periods from 2005 to 2007 (pre-CONSORT period) and 2010 to 2012 (post-CONSORT period). The authors evaluated and scored the reporting quality of included abstracts by using the original 16-item CONSORT for Abstracts checklist. The authors used risk ratios and the t test to compare the adequate reporting rate of each item and the overall quality in the 2 periods. The authors used univariate and multivariate regressions to identify predictors of better reporting quality. The authors included and evaluated 276 RCT abstracts. Investigators reported significantly more checklist items during the post-CONSORT period (mean [standard deviation {SD}], 4.53 [1.69]) than during the pre-CONSORT period (mean [SD], 3.87 [1.10]; mean difference, -0.66 [95% confidence interval, -0.99 to -0.33]; P 80%). In contrast, the authors saw sufficient reporting of randomization, recruitment, outcome in the results section, and funding in none of the pre-CONSORT abstracts and less than 2% of the post-CONSORT abstracts. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, a higher impact factor (P general dental journals has improved significantly, but there is still room for improvement. Joint efforts by authors, reviewers, journal editors, and other stakeholders to improve the reporting of dental RCT abstracts are needed. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The use of ethnobotanicals in the management of inflammation in Nigeria: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TR Fasola

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, one of the leading health issues in recent times call for concern. Many plants used in the management and treatment of inflammation in various parts of Nigeria have not been properly harnessed hence this review. The result of this review revealed that plants commonly used for the treatment of inflammation include: Zingiber officinale, Alstonia boonei, Plumbago zeylanica, Ocimum basilicum, Parquetina nigrescens, Peperomia pellucida, Abrus precatorius, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Alchornea cordifolia, Terminalia ivorensis, Aspilia africana, Ageratum conyzoides and Hymenocardia acida. Altogether 74 plant species are ethnobotanicals used in the management and treatment of inflammation. The plants were enumerated with their family names, common and local names, possible chemical constituents, part(s used, route of administration and subsequent references where available.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12620 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2 2015: 1-18

  7. Prospecting for bioactive constituents from traditional medicinal plants through ethnobotanical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ronghui; Wang, Yuehu; Long, Bo; Kennelly, Edward; Wu, Shibiao; Liu, Bo; Li, Ping; Long, Chunlin

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologically active constituents from traditional medicinal plants have received great attention as sources of novel agents, pharmaceutical intermediates, and chemical entities for synthetic or semisynthetic drugs due to their potent pharmacological activities, low toxicity, and economic viability. Numerous components have been isolated from traditional medicinal plants, including alkaloids, flavonoids, and terpenoids, and clinical and experimental studies suggested that these components have useful pharmacological properties such as antiinfectious, antioxidative, and antiinflammatory effects. In this review, modern ethnobotanical approaches to explore folk medicinal plants as candidates for drug discovery with the greatest possibility of success are discussed. Determining the bioactive mechanisms and tracing structure-activity relationships will promote the discovery of new drugs and pharmacological agents.

  8. Ethnobotanical value of dry, fallen ovaries of Bombax ceiba L. (Bombacaceae: Malvales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopakumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the tropics, the traditional ecological knowledge regarding utilization of diverse Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs available with different human communities remains under-explored. Though not on an organized scale, the collection and sale of various NTFPs, help the members of tropical rural communities to sustain themselves. Bombax ceiba, a tropical moist deciduous tree has various ethnobotanical values. Semul gum is edible and possesses medicinal value. Immature fruits of this tree have value as an expectorant, stimulant and diuretic. Extracts of young roots are used for treating dysentery. Now the dry, fallen ovaries of this tree species have a new commercial value, and are being widely collected and traded by some local herbalists in Thrissur District of Kerala.

  9. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  10. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mostacero León

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5, Anacardiaceae (2, Annonaceae (2, Asteraceae (2, Berberidaceae (2, Rosaceae (2, and Solanaceae (2. Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam. Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  11. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Sabaots of Mt. Elgon Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, S V; Nyunja, R O; Netondo, G W; Onyango, J C

    2009-10-15

    Though the majority of people in Kenya and at Kopsiro Division in particular, rely on ethnomedicinal plant species to manage human ailments, the indigenous knowledge largely remains undocumented. Therefore, an ethnobotanical study was conducted on medicinal plant species used to manage human ailments at Kopsiro Division Mt. Elgon District Kenya. The objectives were to identify and document plants traditionally used for medicinal therapy by the Sabaots, to find out the method used for preparing and administering the drugs and to find out the conservation practices for the medicinal plants. Observations and semi-structured interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical data. 107 plants belonging to 56 families were identified and reported to be of medicinal value to the locals. Roots (47.3%) were the most frequently used parts of the plant followed by the bark (23.35%) then leaves (22.75%). The whole plant (1.8%), seed (1.2%), fruit (1.2%), sap (1.2%), flower (0.6%) and wood (0.6%) are least used in that order. The study revealed other hitherto undocumented medicinal plant species that may be new records for treating various ailments. Traditional medicine in Kopsiro division offers cheap, accessible and convenient remedy that suits the traditional lifestyle of the local community in comparison to the conventional medicine. Most medicinal plant species reported in this study were found to be under threat and this calls for urgent conservation measures so as to maximize the sustainable use of these vital resources in the study area.

  12. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-12-18

    Abstract : Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species : Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana , and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries.

  13. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Maonan people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liya; Guo, Zhiyong; Huang, Kunhui; Wei, Shanjun; Liu, Bo; Meng, Shaowu; Long, Chunlin

    2015-04-30

    This paper is based on an ethnobotanical investigation that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local Maonan people to treat human diseases in Maonan concentration regions. The Maonan people have relied on traditional medicine since ancient times, especially medicinal plants. The aim of this study is to document medicinal plants used by the Maonans and to report the status of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Ethnobotanical data were collected from June 2012 to September 2014 in Huanjiang Maonan Autonomous County, northern Guangxi, southwest China. In total, 118 knowledgeable informants were interviewed. Following statistically sampling method, eighteen villages from 5 townships were selected to conduct field investigations. Information was collected through the approache of participatory observation, semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and participatory rural appraisals. A total of 368 medicinal plant species were investigated and documented together with their medicinal uses by the Maonans, most of which were obtained from the wild ecosystems. The plants were used to treat 95 human diseases. Grinding was a widely used method to prepare traditional herbal medicines. There were significant relationships between gender and age, and between gender and informants' knowledge of medicinal plant use. Deforestation for agricultural purposes was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by drought and over-harvest. The species diversity of medicinal plants used by the Maonans in the study area was very rich. Medicinal plants played a significant role in healing various human disorders in the Maonan communities. However, the conflicts between traditional inheriting system and recent socio-economic changes (and other factors) resulted in the reduction or loss of both medicinal plants and associated indigenous knowledge. Thus, conservation efforts

  14. Preserving Traditional Botanical Knowledge: The Importance of Phytogeographic and Ethnobotanical Inventory of Peruvian Dye Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostacero León, José; López Medina, Segundo E.; Yabar, Helmut; De La Cruz Castillo, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Peru is a megadiverse country with native species of all kinds, including dye plants, which have been used for hundreds of years by the local population. Despite the fact that many of these natural dyes are of a superior quality compared to synthetic ones and do not have the harmful effects that the latter may cause to human health, due to the lack of documentation and dissemination, ethnobotanical knowledge is unfortunately being lost with the passing of generations. In order to preserve and spread such valuable knowledge, this study conducted a comprehensive taxonomic, phytogeographic, and ethnobotanical inventory of dye plants based on periodical botanical explorations in selected locations of Northern Peru during the span of two decades. A critical review of the specialized bibliography was then carried out and the findings were verified with the personal knowledge and experience of both the researchers and the local and regional people. The results of the inventory record 32 species of dye plants from Northern Peru distributed in 22 families, of which the following stand out due to the number of species: Fabaceae (5), Anacardiaceae (2), Annonaceae (2), Asteraceae (2), Berberidaceae (2), Rosaceae (2), and Solanaceae (2). Of the 32 dye species identified, four are considered endemic from Peru: Berberis buceronis J.F. Macbr., Caesalpinia paipai Ruiz & Pav., Coreopsis senaria S.F. Blake & Sherf., and Lomatia hirsuta (Lam.) Diels. The study also found that species such as Bixa orellana L., Indigofera suffruticosa Mill., Sambucus peruviana, and the lichen Usnea baileyi (Stirton) Zahlbr have not been commercially exploited in Peru despite the fact that they already constitute a great economic source for several countries. PMID:29258279

  15. Sex Differences in Civilian Injury in Baghdad From 2003 to 2014: Results of a Randomized Household Cluster Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaak, Kyle; Lafta, Riyadh; Stewart, Barclay T; Fowler, Thomas R; Al-Shatari, Sahar A Esa; Burnham, Gilbert; Cherewick, Megan; Wren, Sherry M; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L

    2018-06-01

    To examine sex differences in injury mechanisms, injury-related death, injury-related disability, and associated financial consequences in Baghdad since the 2003 invasion of Iraq to inform prevention initiatives, health policy, and relief planning. Reliable estimates of injury burden among civilians during conflict are lacking, particularly among vulnerable subpopulations, such as women. A 2-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was conducted in May 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury in Baghdad since 2003. Households were surveyed regarding injury mechanisms, healthcare required, disability, deaths, connection to conflict, and resultant financial hardship. We surveyed 900 households (5148 individuals), reporting 553 injuries, 162 (29%) of which were injuries among women. The mean age of injury was higher among women compared with men (34 ± 21.3 vs 27 ± 16.5 years; P < 0.001). More women than men were injured while in the home [104 (64%) vs 82 (21%); P < 0.001]. Fewer women than men died from injuries [11 (6.8%) vs 77 (20%); P < 0.001]; however, women were more likely than men to live with reduced function [101 (63%) vs 192 (49%); P = 0.005]. Of intentional injuries, women had higher rates of injury by shell fragments (41% vs 26%); more men were injured by gunshots [76 (41%) vs 6 (17.6%); P = .011). Women experienced fewer injuries than men in postinvasion Baghdad, but were more likely to suffer disability after injury. Efforts to improve conditions for injured women should focus on mitigating financial and provisional hardships, providing counseling services, and ensuring access to rehabilitation services.

  16. A randomized ethnomedicinal survey of snakebite treatment in southwestern parts of Bangladesh

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    Md. Nazmul Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well. Snake venom (蛇毒 shé dú has been the cause of innumerable deaths worldwide. However, antiserum does not provide enough protection against venom induced hemorrhage, necrosis, nephrotoxicity and hypersensitivity reactions. Informed consent was obtained from the practitioners prior to interviews. After the survey, it is concluded that the medicinal plants used by tribal medicinal practitioners in Bangladesh for treatment against snakebite are Acyranthes aspera L. (土牛膝 tǔ niú xī, Amaranthus Viridis L. (野莧菜 yě xiàng cài, Asparagus racemosus Willd (總序天冬 zǒng xù tiān dōng and Emblica officinalis Gaertn (油柑 yóu gān, while the non-tribal communities used 35 plant species among them, most of the plants reported as new species used against snakebite in the belonging family. The plants present a considerable potential for discovery of novel compounds with fewer side effects for treatment of antisnake venom and can, at least in Bangladesh, become a source of affordable and more easily available drugs.

  17. Forced migration and indigenous knowledge of displaced Emberá and Uitoto populations in Colombia: An ethnobotanical perspective

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    Victor Hugo Gonzalez Betancourt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relatively little attention has been given to documenting changes in the ethnobotanical knowledge of displaced indigenous groups in Colombia. Such information is highly valuable because it contributes to our understanding of the changes that occur during this process of displacement, cultural transformation and loss, and because it eventually could shed some light in designing social, economic, and educational policies that would facilitate their incorporation into main stream culture, through ways that validate their indigenous identity, knowledge, and traditions. Based on our on-going research, herein we summarize ethnobotanical information of two indigenous groups currently residing in the city of Florencia (capital of the Department of Caquetá in the Northwestern Amazon basin: the Emberá, originally from northwestern Colombia, and Uitoto, originally from the Colombian Amazon. By focusing in the indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge of these two displaced groups, we intend to show the revitalization of ethnobotanical knowledge, resilience, and multiple resources in form of ancestral knowledge that are brought and transmitted by these groups as they struggle for survival, in many times hostile urban environments. We hope to draw more attention to and encourage similar studies on other displaced indigenous populations in Colombia as well as in other areas of Latin America. Normal 0 21 false false false ES-MX X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";}

  18. ETHNOBOTANICAL USES OF LANTANA TRIFOLIA L. AND SIDA CUNEIFOLIA ROXB. IN MUKUNGWE AND WABINYONYI SUB-COUNTIES OF CENTRAL UGANDA

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    Rebecca Nalubega

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This was an ethnobotanical study that was carried out to establish the traditional uses of Lantana trifolia L. and Sida cuneifolia Roxb. plants in selected parts of Central Uganda. Methods: The ethnobotanical study was done in August and September, 2012 in Mukungwe and Wabinyonyi sub-counties in Masaka and Nakasongola Districts respectively located in Central Uganda. Study sites and respondents were purposefully selected and information was obtained through semi-structured interview guides, key informant interview guides as well as observations. Eighty respondents were considered for semi-structured interviews and 15 for key informant interviews. Results: Seven ethnobotanical uses for Lantana trifolia were cited by respondents and majority (46.25% of them used it as a herbal remedy. As a herbal remedy, Lantana trifolia managed 13 human disease conditions and mainly used in the management of cough and common colds by 22.5% of the respondents. Four ethnobotanical uses were cited for Sida cuneifolia and majority of the respondents (62.5% used it as a herbal remedy as well as sweeping brooms. As a herbal remedy, Sida cuneifolia was reported to be useful in management of 12 disease conditions, fractures and sprains (bone setting being mentioned by the majority of the of respondents (36.25 %. Conclusion: In conclusion, Lantana trifolia and Sida cuneifolia were culturally important ethnomedicines. Scientific validation of traditional claims as well as conservation of these plants should be encouraged in order to preserve and promote their use. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 155-164

  19. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  20. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): a database for ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S J; Erickson, Sean D; Tolopko, Andrew N; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E; Eisenberg, David M

    2011-05-17

    Ethnobotanically driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Traditional Medicine Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS): A Database for Ethnobotanically-Driven Drug-Discovery Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Eric S. J.; Erickson, Sean D.; Tolopko, Andrew N.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E.; Eisenberg, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Aim of the study. Ethnobotanically-driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plant collection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine-Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinal plants. Materials and Methods. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. Results. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. Conclusions. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinal plants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically-driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs. PMID:21420479

  2. Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Athena R; Hutson, Royce A

    2006-09-02

    Reliable evidence of the frequency and severity of human rights abuses in Haiti after the departure of the elected president in 2004 was scarce. We assessed data from a random survey of households in the greater Port-au-Prince area. Using random Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate sampling, 1260 households (5720 individuals) were sampled. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers about their experiences after the departure of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The response rate was 90.7%. Information on demographic characteristics, crime, and human rights violations was obtained. Our findings suggested that 8000 individuals were murdered in the greater Port-au-Prince area during the 22-month period assessed. Almost half of the identified perpetrators were government forces or outside political actors. Sexual assault of women and girls was common, with findings suggesting that 35,000 women were victimised in the area; more than half of all female victims were younger than 18 years. Criminals were the most identified perpetrators, but officers from the Haitian National Police accounted for 13.8% and armed anti-Lavalas groups accounted for 10.6% of identified perpetrators of sexual assault. Kidnappings and extrajudicial detentions, physical assaults, death threats, physical threats, and threats of sexual violence were also common. Our results indicate that crime and systematic abuse of human rights were common in Port-au-Prince. Although criminals were the most identified perpetrators of violations, political actors and UN soldiers were also frequently identified. These findings suggest the need for a systematic response from the newly elected Haitian government, the UN, and social service organisations to address the legal, medical, psychological, and economic consequences of widespread human rights abuses and crime.

  3. Burnout syndrome in the practice of oncology: results of a random survey of 1,000 oncologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whippen, D A; Canellos, G P

    1991-10-01

    Burnout, the end result of stress, can occur in any profession. We set out to determine the extent of burnout among a representative group of American oncologists. A questionnaire with 12 specific points was designed and prepared by the authors. It was mailed to 1,000 randomly selected physician subscribers to the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Five hundred ninety-eight completed surveys (60%) were returned before the cut-off date and included in the analysis. Overall, 56% of the respondents reported experiencing burnout in their professional life. No significance was found between the incidence of burnout and specialty within oncology, year medical training ended, or practice location. Significance was found, however, between type of practice and the incidence of burnout; institution- or university-based oncologists reported a lower incidence of burnout (47%) versus all other types of practice (66% burnout rate for oncology plus internal medicine, 63% for private adult oncology only, 39% for pediatric oncologists [there were too few pediatric oncologists for this rate to be significant], and 64% for others; P = .0003). Frustration or a sense of failure was the most frequently chosen (56%) description of burnout, and insufficient personal and/or vacation time was the most frequent reason (57%) chosen to explain the existence of burnout. To alleviate burnout, the majority (69%) of respondents indicated the need for more vacation or personal time. Administering palliative or terminal care, reimbursement issues, and a heavy work load were identified as contributing factors to burnout. Given the high response to the questionnaire and a 56% incidence of burnout in the surveyed population, it is concluded that further research on this issue is required.

  4. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in villages of Çatak (Van-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mükemre, Muzaffer; Behçet, Lütfi; Çakılcıoğlu, Uğur

    2015-05-26

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plants in the villages of Çatak in the Eastern Anatolia Region. Recording such data calls for urgency. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are carried out by means of FIC method in Eastern (Van) part of Turkey. This study aims to identify the wild plants collected for medicinal purposes by locals of Çatak which is located in the Eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, and to identify the uses and local names of these wild plants. A field study had been carried out for a period of approximately 2 years (2010-2012). During this period, 78 plants taxa were collected. Demographic characteristics of participants, names of the local plants, their utilized parts and preparation methods were investigated and recorded. The plant taxa were collected within the scope of the study; and herbarium materials were prepared. In addition, the relative significance value of the taxa was determined, and informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. We have found out in the literature review of the plants included in our study that 78 plant taxa are already used for medicinal purposes while 19 plants are not available among the records in the literature. The most common families are Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. We include in our study and report for the first time the medicinal uses of Alchemilla buseriana Rothm., Astragalus longifolius Lam., Cephalaria microcephala Boiss., Euphorbia grisophylla M.S. Khan, Fritillaria crassifolia Boiss. & Huet. subsp. kurdica (Boiss. & Noe) Rix, Fritillaria pinardii Boiss., Malabaila lasiocarpa Boiss., Nepeta betonicifolia C.A. Mey., Onobrychis altissima Grossh., Onobrychis carduchorum C.C. Townsend, Papaver bracteatum Lindl., Phlomis tuberosa L., Psephellus karduchorum (Boiss.) Wagenitz, Scutellaria orientalis L. subsp. pichleri

  5. Brief Alcohol Intervention by Newly Trained Workers Versus Leaflets: Comparison of Effect in Older Heavy Drinkers Identified in a Population Health Examination Survey: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Blædel Gottlieb; Becker, Ulrik; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To test if a brief motivational intervention (BMI) in a non-treatment seeking population of heavy drinkers results in a reduced alcohol intake. Methods: Screening of 12,364 participants in a Danish health examination survey led to 1026 heavy drinkers of whom 772 were included and randomized...

  6. Monitoring drug effectiveness in kala-azar in Bihar, India: cost and feasibility of periodic random surveys vs. a health service-based reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaviya, P; Singh, R P; Singh, S P; Hasker, E; Ostyn, B; Shankar, R; Boelaert, M; Sundar, S

    2011-09-01

    In 2009, a random survey was conducted in Muzaffarpur district to document the clinical outcomes of visceral leishmaniasis patients (VL) treated by the public health care system in 2008, to assess the effectiveness of miltefosine against VL. We analysed the operational feasibility and cost of such periodic random surveys as compared with health facility-based routine monitoring. A random sample of 150 patients was drawn from registers kept at Primary Health Care centres. Patient records were examined, and the patients were located at their residence. Patients and physicians were interviewed with the help of two specifically designed questionnaires by a team of one supervisor, one physician and one field worker. Costs incurred during this survey were properly documented, and vehicle log books maintained for analysis. Hundred and 39 (76.7%) of the patients could be located. Eleven patients were not traceable. Per patient, follow-up cost was US$ 15.51 and on average 2.27 patients could be visited per team-day. Human resource involvement constituted 75% of the total cost whereas involvement of physician costs 51% of the total cost. A random survey to document clinical outcomes is costly and labour intensive but gives probably the most accurate information on drug effectiveness. A health service-based retrospective cohort reporting system modelled on the monitoring system developed by tuberculosis programmes could be a better alternative. Involvement of community health workers in such monitoring would offer the additional advantage of treatment supervision and support. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. The genus Lycium as food and medicine: A botanical, ethnobotanical and historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruyu; Heinrich, Michael; Weckerle, Caroline S

    2018-02-15

    Lycium is widely distributed in the arid to semi-arid environments of North and South America, Africa, and Eurasia. In recent years, Lycium barbarum and L. chinense have been advertised as "superfood" with healthy properties. Despite of its popularity, there is a lack of an integrated and critical appraisal of the existing evidence for the use of Lycium. There is a need to understand: 1) Which species were used and how the uses of Lycium developed spatially and over time, 2) how uses differ among regions with different culture backgrounds, and 3) how traditional and current therapeutic and preventive health claims correlate with pharmacological findings. Information was retrieved from floras, taxonomic, botanical, and ethnobotanical databases, research articles, recent editions of historical Chinese herbals over the last 2000 years, and pharmacopoeias. Of totally 97 species, 31 have recorded uses as food and/or medicine worldwide. Usually the fruits are used. While 85% of the Lycium species occur in the Americas and Africa, 26% of them are used, but 9 out of 14 species in Eurasia. In China, seven species and two varieties of the genus Lycium occur, of which four species have been used by different ethnic groups. Only L. barbarum and L. chinense have been transformed into globally traded commodities. In China, based on the name ", their use can be traced back over the last two millennia. Lycium fruits for anti-aging, improving eyesight and nourishment were documented already in 500C.E. (Mingyi Bielu). Recent findings explain the pharmacological foundations of the traditional uses. Especially polysaccharides, zeaxanthin dipalmitate, vitamins, betaine, and mixed extracts were reported to be responsible for anti-aging, improving eyesight, and anti-fatigue effects. The integration of historical, ethnobotanical, botanical, phytochemical and pharmacological data has enabled a detailed understanding of Lycium and its wider potential. It highlights that the focus so far has

  8. Ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in the North-Western Ligurian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; La Rocca, Arianna; Terrizzano, Luca; Dente, Fulvio; Mariotti, Mauro Giorgio

    2014-08-08

    The ethnobotany of European alpine regions is much diversified and scarcely investigated. These regions retain a well-developed heritage culture and botanical traditional knowledge, favored by the isolated montane location. We carried out a study of therapeutic and traditional uses of native plants of a poorly explored area of the Western Italian Alps in the Ligurian region (NW Italy). The area has been the object of human activities since prehistoric ages, and an obliged crossroad for people moving across Provence, Liguria and Piemonte. The investigation was conducted in the upper Tanarello and Arroscia Valleys by using semi-structured, open interviews. Data were summarized by different indices--Relative Frequency of Citation (RFC), Cultural Value Index (CV), Ethnobotanicity Index (EI) and Informant Consensus Factor (Fic). A group of 65 informants were interviewed, yielding an inventory of 199 botanical taxa from 64 families, and a total of 2661 citations. A total of 13 categories of use were found, of which the most frequent ones were medicinal and food. In addition, 12 main medicinal subcategories were recorded. Botanicals were mainly used to treat digestive system, respiratory system, and the skin. A relevant role was played by plants with digestive and remineralizing properties. On the basis of quantitative analysis (RFC and CV indices) among the 30 most relevant plants are included rare and/or protected species, such as Achillea ligustica, Arnica montana, Gentiana ligustica, Gentiana lutea, and Achillea erba-rotta. An exhaustive prospect of the ethnobotanical knowledge in North-Western Ligurian Alps has been achieved through the recording of a large number of data. About 50% of the recorded uses have survived in the area. A great traditional importance is retained by species such as Artemisia absinthium, Lavandula angustifolia and Arnica montana which were formerly cultivated and marketed for their therapeutic virtues. A substantial role is also attributable

  9. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in

  10. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  11. Mental Health Impact of Hosting Disaster Refugees: Analyses from a Random Sample Survey Among Haitians Living in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Lacoste, Jérôme; Gokalsing, Erick; Shultz, James M; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Acuna, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the mental health of families hosting disaster refugees are lacking. This study compares participants in households that hosted 2010 Haitian earthquake disaster refugees with their nonhost counterparts. A random sample survey was conducted from October 2011 through December 2012 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Haitian participants were assessed regarding their 2010 earthquake exposure and impact on family and friends and whether they hosted earthquake refugees. Using standardized scores and thresholds, they were evaluated for symptoms of three common mental disorders (CMDs): posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants who hosted refugees (n = 51) had significantly higher percentages of scores beyond thresholds for MDD than those who did not host refugees (n = 365) and for at least one CMD, after adjusting for participants' earthquake exposures and effects on family and friends. Hosting refugees from a natural disaster appears to elevate the risk for MDD and possibly other CMDs, independent of risks posed by exposure to the disaster itself. Families hosting refugees deserve special attention.

  12. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants used by Li people in Ledong, Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper documents on the uses of traditional medicinal plants used for treating human ailments in three villages of Ledong, a county inhabited by Li ethnic group in the southwest of Hainan Province, China. Semi-structured interviews, key informant interviews and participatory observations were used to collect ethnobotanical data from February to March 2012 and in July 2013. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty native knowledgeable people were interviewed. The Li community uses 50 plant species in 36 families for medicinal purposes. The most common medicinal plant families were Leguminosae (14%, Compositae (6%, and Euphorbiaceae (6%, and the most common preparations methods were decoction (84%, crushing (38%, and poultice (34%. The traditional medicinal plants were mainly used for hemostasis (12.9%, body pains (11.4%, gastrointestinal disorders (11.4%, and trauma (10%. Twenty-four species of medicinal plants (48% have never been reported in the literature of Li medicines. In addition, 22 species (44% have already been studied by researchers and their extracts or compounds were good bio-actives. However, the rapid socio-economic development in the county is the main threat to the conservation of Li medicine and has resulted in the decrease in the abundance and use of medicinal plants and associated traditional knowledge. Other factors accounting for a decrease in the use of Li medicinal plants like loss of plant diversity, change of land use, and threatened traditional knowledge were equally discussed.

  13. Ethno-botanical studies of economically important plants from mountainous region of gilgit-baltistan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.R.; Khan, A.; Jamal, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ethno botanical studies of economically important plants from Gilgit-Baltistan were conducted during 2003-2006. Extensive field trips were conducted for collection of plants according to their flowering and fruiting period and ethno-botanical data obtained during field trips. This area has many ecological zones, lies between 3000ft to 29000ft above sea level. Due to difference in soil, climate, moisture contents, latitude, longitude, altitude and topography, great diversity of plants of economic importance were found in these areas. Locals belonging to different ethnic groups, like, sayed, Gujjar, Mughal, Sheen, Yaskuin, Wakhi, Tajik, Khowar, etc., are settled there. They have distinct life styles, beliefs, traditions, life style and culture. There is a great shortage medical treatment therefore locals use indigenous plants for treatment of various diseases at local level. Folklore treatment is considered the cheapest source of curing diseases at local level. Information regarding ethno-medicinal importance was obtained from local inhabitants of old age. These plants have been utilised over many generations by various ethnic groups. It was found that indigenous medicinal flora of the area is quite rich and is diverse, due to the difference in altitude, climate and other topographic conditions. It is expected that this paper will be beneficial for locals, students, researchers, farmers, foresters and general public alike. (author)

  14. An ethnobotanical perspective on traditional fermented plant foods and beverages in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea; Biró, Marianna; Dénes, Andrea; Dogan, Yunus; Hajdari, Avni; Kalle, Raivo; Reade, Benedict; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nedelcheva, Anely; Quave, Cassandra L; Łuczaj, Łukasz

    2015-07-21

    Fermented food and beverages represent an important part of the worldwide foodscape, medicinal food domain and domestic strategies of health care, yet relevant traditional knowledge in Europe is poorly documented. Review of primary ethnographic literature, archival sources and a few ad-hoc ethnobotanical field studies in seven selected Eastern European countries (Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Kosovo, and Poland) were conducted. Current or recently abandoned uses of 116 botanical taxa, belonging to 37 families in fermented food or medicinal food products were recorded. These findings demonstrate a rich bio-cultural diversity of use, and also a clear prevalence of the use of fruits of the tannin- and phenolic-rich Rosaceae species in alcoholic, lactic- and acetic acid fermented preparations. In the considered countries, fermentation still plays (or has played until recent years) a crucial role in folk cuisines and this heritage requires urgent and in-depth evaluation. Future studies should be aimed at further documenting and also bio-evaluating the ingredients and processes involved in the preparation of homemade fermented products, as this can be used to support local, community-based development efforts to foster food security, food sovereignty, and small-scale local food-based economies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

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    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  16. Variability in research ethics review of cluster randomized trials: a scenario-based survey in three countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cluster randomized trials (CRTs) present unique ethical challenges. In the absence of a uniform standard for their ethical design and conduct, problems such as variability in procedures and requirements by different research ethics committees will persist. We aimed to assess the need for ethics guidelines for CRTs among research ethics chairs internationally, investigate variability in procedures for research ethics review of CRTs within and among countries, and elicit research ethics chairs’ perspectives on specific ethical issues in CRTs, including the identification of research subjects. The proper identification of research subjects is a necessary requirement in the research ethics review process, to help ensure, on the one hand, that subjects are protected from harm and exploitation, and on the other, that reviews of CRTs are completed efficiently. Methods A web-based survey with closed- and open-ended questions was administered to research ethics chairs in Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The survey presented three scenarios of CRTs involving cluster-level, professional-level, and individual-level interventions. For each scenario, a series of questions was posed with respect to the type of review required (full, expedited, or no review) and the identification of research subjects at cluster and individual levels. Results A total of 189 (35%) of 542 chairs responded. Overall, 144 (84%, 95% CI 79 to 90%) agreed or strongly agreed that there is a need for ethics guidelines for CRTs and 158 (92%, 95% CI 88 to 96%) agreed or strongly agreed that research ethics committees could be better informed about distinct ethical issues surrounding CRTs. There was considerable variability among research ethics chairs with respect to the type of review required, as well as the identification of research subjects. The cluster-cluster and professional-cluster scenarios produced the most disagreement. Conclusions Research ethics committees

  17. Ethnomedical and ethnobotanical investigations on the response capacities of Guinean traditional health practioners in the management of outbreaks of infectious diseases: The case of the Ebola virus epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, A M; Traoré, M S; Baldé, M A; Barry, M S; Diallo, A; Camara, M; Traoré, S; Kouyaté, M; Traoré, S; Ouo-Ouo, S; Myanthé, A L; Keita, N; Haba, N L; Goumou, K; Bah, F; Camara, A; Diallo, M S T; Sylla, M; Baldé, E S; Diané, S; Pieters, L; Oularé, K

    2016-04-22

    The recent outbreak of Ebola virus infections has mostly remained confined to the West African countries Guinea-Conakry, Sierra-Leone and Liberia. Due to intense national and international mobilizations, a significant reduction in Ebola virus transmission has been recorded. While international efforts focus on new vaccines, medicines and diagnostics, no coherent national or international approach exists to integrate the potential of the traditional health practitioners (THPs) in the management of infectious diseases epidemics. Nevertheless, the first contact of most of the Ebola infected patients is with the THPs since the symptoms are similar to those of common traditionally treated diseases or symptoms such as malaria, hemorrhagic syndrome, typhoid or other gastrointestinal diseases, fever and vomiting. In an ethnomedical survey conducted in the 4 main Guinean regions contacts were established with a total of 113 THPs. The socio-demographic characteristics, the professional status and the traditional perception of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) were recorded. The traditional treatment of the main symptoms was based on 47 vegetal recipes which were focused on the treatment of diarrhea (22 recipes), fever (22 recipes), vomiting (2 recipes), external antiseptic (2 recipes), hemorrhagic syndrome (2 recipes), convulsion and dysentery (one recipe each). An ethnobotanical survey led to the collection of 54 plant species from which 44 identified belonging to 26 families. The most represented families were Euphorbiaceae, Caesalpiniaceae and Rubiaceae. Literature data on the twelve most cited plant species tends to corroborate their traditional use and to highlight their pharmacological potential. It is worth to document all available knowledge on the traditional management of EVD-like symptoms in order to evaluate systematically the anti-Ebola potential of Guinean plant species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An ethnobotanical study of anti-malarial plants among indigenous people on the upper Negro River in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frausin, Gina; Hidalgo, Ari de Freitas; Lima, Renata Braga Souza; Kinupp, Valdely Ferreira; Ming, Lin Chau; Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Milliken, William

    2015-11-04

    In this article we present the plants used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms in Santa Isabel do Rio Negro in the Brazilian Amazon. The region has important biological and cultural diversities including more than twenty indigenous ethnic groups and a strong history in traditional medicine. The aims of this study are to survey information in the Baniwa, Baré, Desana, Piratapuia, Tariana, Tukano, Tuyuca and Yanomami ethnic communities and among caboclos (mixed-ethnicity) on (a) plant species used for the treatment of malaria and associated symptoms, (b) dosage forms and (c) distribution of these anti-malarial plants in the Amazon. Information was obtained through classical ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological methods from interviews with 146 informants in Santa Isabel municipality on the upper Negro River, Brazil. Fifty-five mainly native neotropical plant species from 34 families were in use. The detailed uses of these plants were documented. The result was 187 records (64.5%) of plants for the specific treatment of malaria, 51 records (17.6%) of plants used in the treatment of liver problems and 29 records (10.0%) of plants used in the control of fevers associated with malaria. Other uses described were blood fortification ('dar sangue'), headache and prophylaxis. Most of the therapeutic preparations were decoctions and infusions based on stem bark, root bark and leaves. These were administered by mouth. In some cases, remedies were prepared with up to three different plant species. Also, plants were used together with other ingredients such as insects, mammals, gunpowder and milk. This is the first study on the anti-malarial plants from this region of the Amazon. Aspidosperma spp. and Ampelozizyphus amazonicus Ducke were the most cited species in the communities surveyed. These species have experimental proof supporting their anti-malarial efficacy. The dosage of the therapeutic preparations depends on the kind of plant, quantity of plant

  19. Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample

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    Hallett Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%, who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ≥ 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month. Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2 of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358

  20. Pseudo-random data acquisition geometry in 3D seismic survey; Sanjigen jishin tansa ni okeru giji random data shutoku reiauto ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minegishi, M; Tsuburaya, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Technology Research Center

    1996-10-01

    Influence of pseudo-random geometry on the imaging for 3D seismic exploration data acquisition has been investigate using a simple model by comparing with the regular geometry. When constituting wave front by the interference of elemental waves, pseudo-random geometry data did not always provide good results. In the case of a point diffractor, the imaging operation, where the constituted wave front was returned to the point diffractor by the interference of elemental waves for the spatial alias records, did not always give clear images. In the case of multi point diffractor, good images were obtained with less noise generation in spite of alias records. There are a lot of diffractors in the actual geological structures, which corresponds to the case of multi point diffractors. Finally, better images could be obtained by inputting records acquired using the pseudo-random geometry rather than by inputting spatial alias records acquired using the regular geometry. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. Improving biobank consent comprehension: a national randomized survey to assess the effect of a simplified form and review/retest intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Laura M.; Lin, Li; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Gao, Emily; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the individual and combined effects of a simplified form and a review/retest intervention on biobanking consent comprehension. Methods: We conducted a national online survey in which participants were randomized within four educational strata to review a simplified or traditional consent form. Participants then completed a comprehension quiz; for each item answered incorrectly, they reviewed the corresponding consent form section and answered another quiz item on that to...

  3. Ethnobotanical and phytomedicinal knowledge in a long-history protected area, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Italian Apennines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idolo, Marisa; Motti, Riccardo; Mazzoleni, Stefano

    2010-02-03

    This study reports on the ethnobotanical and phytomedical knowledge in one of the oldest European Parks, the Abruzzo, Lazio and Molise National Park (Central Italy). We selected this area because we judged the long history of nature preservation as an added value potentially encouraging the survival of uses possibly lost elsewhere. In all, we interviewed 60 key informants (30 men and 30 women) selected among those who, for their current or past occupation or specific interests, were most likely to report accurately on traditional use of plants. The average age of informants was 65 years (range 27-102 years). The ethnobotanical inventory we obtained included 145 taxa from 57 families, corresponding to 435 use-reports: 257 referred to medical applications, 112 to food, 29 to craft plants for domestic uses, 25 to veterinary applications, 6 to harvesting for trade and another 6 to animal food. The most common therapeutic uses in the folk tradition are those that are more easily prepared and/or administered such as external applications of fresh or dried plants, and decoctions. Of 90 species used for medical applications, key informants reported on 181 different uses, 136 of which known to have actual pharmacological properties. Of the uses recorded, 76 (42%) concern external applications, especially to treat wounds. Medical applications accounted for most current uses. Only 24% of the uses we recorded still occur in people's everyday life. Species no longer used include dye plants (Fraxinus ornus, Rubia tinctorum, Scabiosa purpurea, Rhus coriaria and Isatis tinctoria) and plants once employed during pregnancy, for parturition, nursing, abortion (Asplenium trichomanes, Ecballium elaterium, Juniperus sabina and Taxus baccata) or old magical practices (Rosa canina). Our study remarked the relationship existing between the high plant diversity recorded in this biodiversity hotspot of central Apennines and the rich ethnobotanical knowledge. The presence of some very

  4. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy

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    Impieri Massimo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy. Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly – engaged in farming and stock-raising activities – and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species, respiratory apparatus diseases (11, toothache, decay etc. (10 and rheumatic pains (8. The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants.

  5. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Antonio; Cortés, Carolina; Peiró, Victoriano

    2013-05-20

    The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called "sport pigeon", where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel (®) 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health.

  6. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in Algoz area (South Kordofan), Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Tahani Osman; Mohamed, Yahya Sulieman; Yagi, Sakina; Ahmed, Reem Hassan; Najeeb, Telal Mohammed; Makhawi, Abdelrafie Mohamed; Khider, Tarig Osman

    2018-04-27

    The inhabitants of western Sudan use traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments due to lack of medical doctors and unaffordable prices of pharmaceutical products. The present study is the first documentation of the traditional plant knowledge on medicinal uses of plants by healers in Algoz (South Kordofan), Sudan. Ethnobotanical data were collected over a period from March to November 2015 using semi-structured interviews with 30 healers (24 male and 6 female) living in the investigated area. Quantitative indices such as use categories, use value (UV) and informant consensus factor (ICF) were intended to evaluate the importance of medicinal plant species. A total of 94 medicinal plants, which belong to 45 families and 81 genera, were recorded in the study area. The most represented families are Leguminosae with 20 species followed by Combretaceae (6 species), Rubiaceae (5 species) and Asteraceae (4 species). The reported species were belonging to herbs (43%), trees (28%), shrubs (22%), climbers (4%) and parasites (3%). Root and stem (21% each) were the most plant parts used. A majority of remedies are administered orally (67%) where infusion (36%) and maceration (32%) are the most used methods. The highest ICF (0.87) was reported for poisonous animal bites followed by urinary system diseases (0.89), blood system disorders (0.88) and gynaecological diseases (0.87). Anastatica hierochuntica, Ctenolepis cerasiformis, Echinops longifolius, Cleome gynandra, Maerua pseudopetalosa, Martynia annua, Oldenlandia uniflora, Opuntia ficus-indica, Solanum dubium, Sonchus cornutus, Tribulus terrestris and Drimia maritima were reported for the first time in this study. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects evidence that Algoz area had a high diversity of medicinal plants which will continue to play an important role in the healthcare system in the study area.

  7. Recent research advances and ethno-botanical history of miang, a traditional fermented tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica of northern Thailand

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    Chartchai Khanongnuch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Miang is an ethnic fermented tea leaf (Camellia sinensis var. assamica from northern Thailand. It has a long history of sociocultural relationship with northern Thai people. Unlike other types of tea, miang is a unique product that is known as chewing tea or eating tea. In addition, it is also a specific food for traditional religious ceremonies and funerals. Although chewing of miang has become less popular among younger generations, there remains a demand for miang in specific areas of northern Thailand. The traditional fermentation mechanism for miang has not been well documented and the information is now being developed. Current studies indicated that the astringent miang possessed higher phenolic metabolites especially epigallocatechin gallate than the sour miang and fresh tea leaf used for making miang in general. The chemical constituents in miang are of interest and the scientific advances to understand and develop this ethnic tea product are rapidly emerging. Miang has many potential benefits and is proposed to be used for many applications such as foods, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Other valuable chemical constituents have not yet been widely reported and require further research. The current understanding of miang has been developed from literature on historic and sociocultural relationships of miang, current evidence scientific evidence, and personal interviews with local miang producers. From the plantation areas close to miang production, physiological, chemical, and microbiological analysis of miang were undertaken and integrated with current scientific literature and community surveys to build an evolving body of new knowledge. This paper provides important historic background of miang and its ethno-botanical relationship with northern Thai people. Traditional production of miang and its chemical and physical properties make miang different from other fermented tea leaves. Therefore, this unique miang with ethnic roots

  8. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in the environs of Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests of Libo Kemkem District, northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekole, Getnet; Asfaw, Zemede; Kelbessa, Ensermu

    2015-01-07

    Remnant forests found in areas that have long been converted to agricultural landscapes are refuges of wild useful plants; and societies inhabiting them are custodians of rich indigenous botanical knowledge. This study was undertaken to document the medicinal plants used by the people living in and around Tara-gedam and Amba remnant forests, northwestern Ethiopia, together with the associated ethnomedicinal knowledge. Data were collected from 105 informants through semi-structured interviews, guided field walk, market survey; and analyzed using standard ethnobotanical analytical tools including ranking and comparison. A total of 163 medicinal plant species in 145 genera and 67 families were recorded among which Zehneria scabra drew the highest community consensus. Seventy-one percent of the medicinal plants were those used for treating human ailments only, 21% for both human and livestock and 8% for livestock only. Asteraceae, with 14 species, had the highest number of medicinal plant species. The medicinal plants mainly (79.1%) belong to the shrub and herb categories and most of them were sourced from the wild habitats. Leaves and fresh plant materials were more frequently used for medicine preparation than other parts. Protected government and church forests as well as tree propagation in nurseries followed by planting them and local practices constitute the major forest conservation efforts that indirectly protect the medicinal plants in the area. Elders and healers knew more about the medicinal plants, their distribution, the local ethnomedicinal practices and knowledge transfer patterns. Though important for the local healthcare system and with potentials for modern drug discovery, both the plants and the knowledge pool are under threat. The diversity of medicinal plants and the associated indigenous knowledge of Tara-gedam and its environs are of a considerable value to the local community and beyond. There is, therefore, a need for conservation of the

  9. A community-based cluster randomized survey of noncommunicable disease and risk factors in a peri-urban shantytown in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzinger, Kristen; Montano, Silvia M; Hawes, Stephen E; Alarcón, Jorge O; Zunt, Joseph R

    2014-05-21

    An estimated 863 million people-a third of the world's urban population-live in slums, yet there is little information on the disease burden in these settings, particularly regarding chronic preventable diseases. From March to May 2012, we conducted a cluster randomized survey to estimate the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and associated risk factors in a peri-urban shantytown north of Lima, Peru. Field workers administered a questionnaire that included items from the WHO World Health Survey and the WHO STEPS survey of chronic disease risk factors. We used logistic regression to assess the associations of NCDs and related risk factors with age and gender. We accounted for sampling weights and the clustered sampling design using statistical survey methods. A total of 142 adults were surveyed and had a weighted mean age of 36 years (range 18-81). The most prevalent diseases were depression (12%) and chronic respiratory disease (8%), while lifetime prevalence of cancer, arthritis, myocardial infarction, and diabetes were all less than 5%. Fifteen percent of respondents were hypertensive and the majority (67%) was unaware of their condition. Being overweight or obese was common for both genders (53%), but abdominal obesity was more prevalent in women (54% vs. 10% in men, p Peru and suggests that prevention and treatment interventions could be optimized according to age and gender.

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Malaria in the Plateau Region, Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbodeka, Kodjovi; Gbekley, Holaly E; Karou, Simplice D; Anani, Kokou; Agbonon, Amegnona; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Batawila, Komlan; Simpore, Jacques; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-03-01

    In Togo, malaria constitutes a major public health problem but, until now, the population still mostly relies on herbal medicine for healing. This study aimed to document medicinal plants used for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of the country. Semi-structured questionnaire interviews were used to gather ethnobotanical and sociodemographic data from traditional healers of the study area. A total of 61 plants species belonging to 33 families were found to be in use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region. Caesalpiniaceae were the most represented family with 7 species, followed by Euphorbiaceae and Poaceae with 4 species each. According to the relative frequency of citation (RFC), Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC =0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC =0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC =0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC =0.40) were the most cited in the treatment of malaria in the traditional medicine in the Plateau region. The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves, or whole plants. The recipes also could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights the potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinal plants found in the Plateau region of Togo. Such results could be a starting point for in vitro antimalarial screenings. 61 plants species from 33 families are use for malaria therapy in the Plateau region of TogoThe main families are Caesalpiniaceae Euphorbiaceae and PoaceaeThe most used species are Newbouldia laevis Seem. (RFC = 0.52), Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A. Bruce (RFC = 0.48), Acanthospermum hispidum DC. (RFC = 0.43), and Senna siamea (Lam.) H.S. Irwin and Barneby (RFC = 0.40) Abbreviations Used: RFC: Relative frequency of citation, FC: Frequency of citation, Dec: Decoction, Orl: Oral route, Mac: Maceration, Jui: Juice, Inf: Infusion, Sau: Sauce, Kne: Kneading, Le: Leaves, Rt: Roots, Wp: Whole plant

  11. Ethnobotanical study of some of mosquito repellent plants in north-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenu Filemoni

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of plant repellents against nuisance biting insects is common and its potential for malaria vector control requires evaluation in areas with different level of malaria endemicity. The essential oils of Ocimum suave and Ocimum kilimandscharicum were evaluated against malaria vectors in north-eastern Tanzania. Methodology An ethnobotanical study was conducted at Moshi in Kilimanjaro region north-eastern Tanzania, through interviews, to investigate the range of species of plants used as insect repellents. Also, bioassays were used to evaluate the protective potential of selected plants extracts against mosquitoes. Results The plant species mostly used as repellent at night are: fresh or smoke of the leaves of O. suave and O. kilimandscharicum (Lamiaceae, Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae, Eucalyptus globules (Myrtaceae and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae. The most popular repellents were O. kilimandscharicum (OK and O. suave (OS used by 67% out of 120 households interviewed. Bioassay of essential oils of the two Ocimum plants was compared with citronella and DEET to study the repellence and feeding inhibition of untreated and treated arms of volunteers. Using filter papers impregnated with Ocimum extracts, knockdown effects and mortality was investigated on malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae, including a nuisance mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. High biting protection (83% to 91% and feeding inhibition (71.2% to 92.5% was observed against three species of mosquitoes. Likewise the extracts of Ocimum plants induced KD90 of longer time in mosquitoes than citronella, a standard botanical repellent. Mortality induced by standard dosage of 30 mg/m2 on filter papers, scored after 24 hours was 47.3% for OK and 57% for OS, compared with 67.7% for citronella. Conclusion The use of whole plants and their products as insect repellents is common among village communities of north-eastern Tanzania and the results

  12. Ethnobotanical investigation on medicinal plants in the Vesuvio National Park (Campania, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menale, Bruno; De Castro, Olga; Cascone, Ciro; Muoio, Rosa

    2016-11-04

    This paper illustrates the results of an ethnobotanical study carried out in the Vesuvio National Park (VNP) (Campania, Southern Italy). It describes the medicinal uses of the plants in an ancient area rich in ethnobiodiversity investigated for the first time. The main aim of the study was to understand at what extent current knowledge on medicinal plant uses is still alive in VNP. The informations were collected using semi-structured and unstructured interviews performed on 136 persons living in the investigated area from March to November 2014 and from April to October 2015. The age of the informants ranged from 47 to 85 years old; more than half of the informants aged between 61 and 70. Local plant uses were listed and analyzed in a table and compared with uses in other localities in Italy and in other regions of the Mediterranean basin. In VNP were recorded a total number of 132 plant species, belonging to 110 genera and 51 families mentioned for medicinal purposes. Among the recorded 132 plant species, 70 are spontaneous or subspontaneous and 62 are cultivated above all in the kitchen gardens or in the apartments, as food or as ornamental. Herbs represent the majority, followed by trees and shrubs or subshrubs. The investigated plants were used to cure 116 different human health diseases and 4 veterinary problems. The majority of plants are used in the treatment of gastrointestinal, skin and respiratory problems. The number of medicinal plants reported in this paper reflects a well-preserved traditional popular knowledge (TPK) of the elderly people living in the rural areas and in the small villages of VNP. The conservation of TPK is owed to the persistence of an oral tradition that safeguard the use of plants as herbal medicine. We realized that while the use of some wild plants is decreasing, people continue to gather some cultivated and invasive plants for preparing remedies. Researches like this are necessary to protect ancient memories, to promote the

  13. Ethnobotanical knowledge acquisition during daily chores: the firewood collection of pastoral Maasai girls in Southern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaojie

    2017-01-13

    Researchers considering children's traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) highlighted the importance of examining children's daily activities as empirical contexts for its acquisition. Many of them evaluated children's TEK acquisition linearly as gain or loss, and paid less attention to the adaptive nature of this knowledge system and the social relationships arising from its acquisition processes. This study approaches children's TEK acquisition considering these abovementioned aspects. I utilize pastoral Maasai girls' firewood collection as a case study, and analyze the personal, interpersonal and cultural institutional aspects of girls' Ethnobotanical knowledge (EK) acquisition within this chore. Participant observation and unstructured interviews were used for data collection. I joined 12 girls (6 to 15 years old) on day trips for firewood collection, and documented their participation and performance during this chore. I observed interactions among girls and between girls and women concerning this activity, and investigated girls' perceptions of local wood species via their descriptions. I also informally interviewed 15 women, between 20 and 80 years old on their evaluation of the wood species to be used as firewood. Current diet change and gender-age roles in chore participation in Maasai society require females to continually participate in firewood collection. Within this social context, girls intensively participated in day trips of firewood collection during the long-term vacation in the dry season. They collected a sizable amount from 24 plant species, and generated EK through personal sensual experiences, such as fragrance, hardness, and heaviness of different wood species. They acquired local taxonomy and terminology of different wood species, and learned others preferences for wood species used as fuel through interpersonal communication. These personal and interpersonal aspects, together with current diet change and division of labor within gender

  14. From arrow poison to herbal medicine--the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological significance of Cissampelos (Menispermaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro

    2014-09-11

    Cissampelos species have a rich history of traditional use, being used for both therapeutic and toxic properties. It is traditionally applied therapeutically in a diverse range of conditions and diseases including asthma, cough, fever, arthritis, obesity, dysentery, snakebite, jaundice and heart, blood pressure and skin-related problems. Conversely, it was traditionally included in preparations of curare applied as arrow poison during hunting to cause death of animals by asphyxiation. This review unites the ethnobotanical knowledge on Cissampelos with the phytochemistry and pharmacological activity which has been explored thus far. In addition, it identifies knowledge gaps and suggests further research opportunities. The available electronic literature on the genus Cissampelos was collected using database searches including Scopus, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Web of Science, etc. The searches were limited to peer-reviewed English journals with the exception of books and a few articles in foreign languages which were included. The literature revealed that pharmacological activity including analgesic and antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, bronchodilator, immunomodulatory, memory-enhancing, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antiparasitic, anti-ulcer, anticancer, anti-oxidant, cardiovascular, muscle-relaxant, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, antidiarrhoeal, antifertility, and antivenom activity have been confirmed in vitro and/or in vivo for various Cissampelos species. Cissampelos pareira L. and Cissampelos sympodialis Eichl. are the most explored species of this genus and the smallest number of studies have been conducted on Cissampelos laxiflora Moldenke and Cissampelos tenuipes Engl. Many alkaloids isolated from Cissampelos such as warifteine, methylwarifteine, berberine, hayatin and hayatidin showed promising anti-allergic, immunosuppressive, antidepressant, anticancer, vasodilatory and muscle-relaxant activities. The plants of

  15. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159148)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Mariana archipelago in 2014 as a...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across American Samoa in 2015 (NCEI Accession 0157752)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across American Samoa in 2015 as a part of...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: benthic cover derived from analysis of benthic images collected during stratified random surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0164295)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016 as a...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Hawaiian Archipelago in 2013 (NCEI Accession 0159140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2013 as a...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Benthic Cover Derived from Analysis of Benthic Images Collected during Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic photo-quadrat surveys conducted along transects at stratified random sites across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since...

  1. A stratified random survey of the proportion of poor quality oral artesunate sold at medicine outlets in the Lao PDR – implications for therapeutic failure and drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vongsack Latsamy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counterfeit oral artesunate has been a major public health problem in mainland SE Asia, impeding malaria control. A countrywide stratified random survey was performed to determine the availability and quality of oral artesunate in pharmacies and outlets (shops selling medicines in the Lao PDR (Laos. Methods In 2003, 'mystery' shoppers were asked to buy artesunate tablets from 180 outlets in 12 of the 18 Lao provinces. Outlets were selected using stratified random sampling by investigators not involved in sampling. Samples were analysed for packaging characteristics, by the Fast Red Dye test, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS, X-ray diffractometry and pollen analysis. Results Of 180 outlets sampled, 25 (13.9% sold oral artesunate. Outlets selling artesunate were more commonly found in the more malarious southern Laos. Of the 25 outlets, 22 (88%; 95%CI 68–97% sold counterfeit artesunate, as defined by packaging and chemistry. No artesunate was detected in the counterfeits by any of the chemical analysis techniques and analysis of the packaging demonstrated seven different counterfeit types. There was complete agreement between the Fast Red dye test, HPLC and MS analysis. A wide variety of wrong active ingredients were found by MS. Of great concern, 4/27 (14.8% fakes contained detectable amounts of artemisinin (0.26–115.7 mg/tablet. Conclusion This random survey confirms results from previous convenience surveys that counterfeit artesunate is a severe public health problem. The presence of artemisinin in counterfeits may encourage malaria resistance to artemisinin derivatives. With increasing accessibility of artemisinin-derivative combination therapy (ACT in Laos, the removal of artesunate monotherapy from pharmacies may be an effective intervention.

  2. Ethnobotany as a pharmacological research tool and recent developments in CNS-active natural products from ethnobotanical sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchey, Will C; Mahady, Gail B; Bennett, Bradley C; Shiels, Laura; Savo, Valentina

    2009-08-01

    The science of ethnobotany is reviewed in light of its multi-disciplinary contributions to natural product research for the development of pharmaceuticals and pharmacological tools. Some of the issues reviewed involve ethical and cultural perspectives of healthcare and medicinal plants. While these are not usually part of the discussion of pharmacology, cultural concerns potentially provide both challenges and insight for field and laboratory researchers. Plant evolutionary issues are also considered as they relate to development of plant chemistry and accessing this through ethnobotanical methods. The discussion includes presentation of a range of CNS-active medicinal plants that have been recently examined in the field, laboratory and/or clinic. Each of these plants is used to illustrate one or more aspects about the valuable roles of ethnobotany in pharmacological research. We conclude with consideration of mutually beneficial future collaborations between field ethnobotanists and pharmacologists.

  3. Ethno-botanical remedies used by pastoralists for the treatment of livestock diseases in Cholistan desert, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Muhammad Asif; Younas, Muhammad; Buerkert, Andreas; Schlecht, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Account of the traditional plant based viz. ethno-botanical remedies used by the pastoralists of Cholistan desert, Pakistan, for the control and treatment of livestock diseases and ailments. The study was conducted across five locations in Cholistan desert, Pakistan, using a structured questionnaire to collect data from 100 livestock farmers (LF) and 20 livestock healers (LH). From correlation analyses 3 least correlated variables were identified among 5, which were representative of LFs. Cluster analysis was performed on the basis of these 3 variables and LFs were grouped into 3 logically different clusters. Kruskal-Wallis test and crosstab analyses were used to detect significant differences between clusters and effects of various variables on their use of ethno-botanical remedies. Most of the male only interviewees (LF 78%; LH 70%) were married and illiterate (LF 66%; LH 70%). LH had larger herds (average 109 animals) than LF (average 85 animals) and were more experienced in livestock husbandry and management. LF spent about 162.5 Euros annually on the treatment of their livestock, but there was great variability in expenditures. Average animal treatment experience of LH was 29 years; all were experts in treatment of all types of diseases (100%) and animal species (70%). Eighty-six traditional remedies based on 64 plants belonging to 43 families were used. Capparaceae was the botanical family with the largest number of used species (4), followed by Chenopodiaceae, Poaceae, Solanaceae and Zygophyllaceae (3). Aerial parts (43%), leaves (26%), fruits (9%), seeds and seed oils (9%) were frequently used parts, while flowers, roots, bulbs and pods were less frequently used (medicinal plants against the most prevalent livestock diseases should be evaluated, in order to recommend effective preparations and treatments to this poor population group. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used against human ailments in Gubalafto District, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekole, Getnet

    2017-10-04

    Traditional medicinal plant species documentation is very crucial in Ethiopia for biodiversity conservation, bioactive chemical extractions and indigenous knowledge retention. Having first observed the inhabitants of Gubalafto District (Northern Ethiopia), the author gathered, recorded, and documented the human traditional medicinal plant species and the associated indigenous knowledge. The study was conducted from February 2013 to January 2015 and used descriptive field survey design. Eighty-four informants were selected from seven study kebeles (sub-districts) in the District through purposive, snowball, and random sampling techniques. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected through semi-structured interviews, guided field walks, demonstrations, and focus group discussions with the help of guided questions. Data were organized and analyzed by descriptive statistics with SPSS version 20 and Microsoft Office Excel 2007. A total of 135 medicinal plant species within 120 genera and 64 families were documented. Among the species, Ocimum lamiifolium and Rhamnus prinoides scored the highest informant citations and fidelity level value, respectively. In the study area, Asteraceae with 8.1% and herbs with 50.4% plant species were the most used sources for their medicinal uses. A total of 65 ailments were identified as being treated by traditional medicinal plants, among which stomachache (abdominal health problems) was frequently reported. Solanum incanum was reported for the treatment of many of the reported diseases. The leaf, fresh parts, and crushed forms of the medicinal plants were the most preferred in remedy preparations. Oral application was the highest reported administration for 110 preparations. A majority of medicinal plant species existed in the wild without any particular conservation effort. Few informants (about 5%) had only brief notes about the traditional medicinal plants. Ninety percent of the respondents have learned indigenous

  5. A randomized trial of the impact of survey design characteristics on response rates among nursing home providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa; Rogers, Michelle; Foster, Andrew; Dvorchak, Faye; Saadeh, Frances; Weaver, Jessica; Mor, Vincent

    2011-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to maximize participation of both the Director of Nursing (DoN) and the Administrator (ADMIN) in long-term care facilities. Providers in each of the 224 randomly selected facilities were randomly assigned to 1 of 16 conditions based on the combination of data collection mode (web vs. mail), questionnaire length (short vs. long), and incentive structure. Incentive structures were determined by amount compensated if the individual completed and an additional amount per individual if the pair completed (a) $30 individual/$5 pair/$35 total; (b) $10 individual/$25 pair/$35 total; (c) $30 individual/$20 pair/$50 total; and (d) $10 individual/$40 pair/$50 total. Overall, 47.4% of eligible respondents participated; both respondents participated in 29.3% of facilities. In multivariable analyses, there were no differences in the likelihood of both respondents participating by mode, questionnaire length, or incentive structure. Providing incentives contingent on participation by both providers of a facility was an ineffective strategy for significantly increasing response rates.

  6. Uncontrolled Web-based administration of surveys on factual health-related knowledge: a randomized study of untimed versus timed quizzing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Signori, Alessio; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Amicizia, Daniela; Gasparini, Roberto

    2015-04-13

    Health knowledge and literacy are among the main determinants of health. Assessment of these issues via Web-based surveys is growing continuously. Research has suggested that approximately one-fifth of respondents submit cribbed answers, or cheat, on factual knowledge items, which may lead to measurement error. However, little is known about methods of discouraging cheating in Web-based surveys on health knowledge. This study aimed at exploring the usefulness of imposing a survey time limit to prevent help-seeking and cheating. On the basis of sample size estimation, 94 undergraduate students were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to complete a Web-based survey on nutrition knowledge, with or without a time limit of 15 minutes (30 seconds per item); the topic of nutrition was chosen because of its particular relevance to public health. The questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first was the validated consumer-oriented nutrition knowledge scale (CoNKS) consisting of 20 true/false items; the second was an ad hoc questionnaire (AHQ) containing 10 questions that would be very difficult for people without health care qualifications to answer correctly. It therefore aimed at measuring cribbing and not nutrition knowledge. AHQ items were somewhat encyclopedic and amenable to Web searching, while CoNKS items had more complex wording, so that simple copying/pasting of a question in a search string would not produce an immediate correct answer. A total of 72 of the 94 subjects started the survey. Dropout rates were similar in both groups (11%, 4/35 and 14%, 5/37 in the untimed and timed groups, respectively). Most participants completed the survey from portable devices, such as mobile phones and tablets. To complete the survey, participants in the untimed group took a median 2.3 minutes longer than those in the timed group; the effect size was small (Cohen's r=.29). Subjects in the untimed group scored significantly higher on CoNKS (mean difference of 1.2 points, P=.008

  7. Ethnobotanical Investigation of Medicinal Flora used by Indigenous People in District Attock, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Irum Naz

    2014-01-01

    The Present Survey deals with ethno taxonomical observation of medicinal plants of district Attock. The study was designed to disseminate the dynamic of local knowledge, explore, conserve and document medicinal flora. During survey, traditional folk uses of medicinal flora were gathered via questionnaire, plant specimens were collected and photography was done for identification. Eighty medicinal plant species belonging to 64 genera reported to be used by local inhabitants for different disea...

  8. A Comparison of the Cheater Detection and the Unrelated Question Models: A Randomized Response Survey on Physical and Cognitive Doping in Recreational Triathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Hannes; Studzinski, Beatrix; Dietz, Pavel; Ulrich, Rolf; Striegel, Heiko; Simon, Perikles

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the prevalence of physical and cognitive doping in recreational triathletes with two different randomized response models, that is, the Cheater Detection Model (CDM) and the Unrelated Question Model (UQM). Since both models have been employed in assessing doping, the major objective of this study was to investigate whether the estimates of these two models converge. Material and Methods An anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2,967 athletes at two triathlon events (Frankfurt and Wiesbaden, Germany). Doping behavior was assessed either with the CDM (Frankfurt sample, one Wiesbaden subsample) or the UQM (one Wiesbaden subsample). A generalized likelihood-ratio test was employed to check whether the prevalence estimates differed significantly between models. In addition, we compared the prevalence rates of the present survey with those of a previous study on a comparable sample. Results After exclusion of incomplete questionnaires and outliers, the data of 2,017 athletes entered the final data analysis. Twelve-month prevalence for physical doping ranged from 4% (Wiesbaden, CDM and UQM) to 12% (Frankfurt CDM), and for cognitive doping from 1% (Wiesbaden, CDM) to 9% (Frankfurt CDM). The generalized likelihood-ratio test indicated no differences in prevalence rates between the two methods. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in prevalences between the present (undertaken in 2014) and the previous survey (undertaken in 2011), although the estimates tended to be smaller in the present survey. Discussion The results suggest that the two models can provide converging prevalence estimates. The high rate of cheaters estimated by the CDM, however, suggests that the present results must be seen as a lower bound and that the true prevalence of doping might be considerably higher. PMID:27218830

  9. Ethnopharmacological survey of Samburu district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaburia Humphrey F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnobotanical pharmacopoeia is confidently used in disease intervention and there is need for documentation and preservation of traditional medical knowledge to bolster the discovery of novel drugs. The objective of the present study was to document the indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and their extinction threats in Samburu District, Kenya. Methods Field research was conducted in six divisions of Samburu District in Kenya. We randomly sampled 100 consented interviewees stratified by age, gender, occupation and level of education. We collected plant use data through semi-structured questionnaires; transect walks, oral interviews and focus groups discussions. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were collected and deposited at University of Nairobi's botany herbarium. Results Data on plant use from the informants yielded 990 citations on 56 medicinal plant species, which are used to treat 54 different animal and human diseases including; malaria, digestive disorders, respiratory syndromes and ectoparasites. Conclusion The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the study area for treatment of both human and veterinary diseases. The local population has high ethnobotanical knowledge and has adopted sound management conservation practices. The major threatening factors reported were anthropogenic and natural. Ethnomedical documentation and sustainable plant utilization can support drug discovery efforts in developing countries.

  10. Ethnobotanical Study of Herbaceous Flora along an Altitudinal Gradient in Bharmour Forest Division, District Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehar S. Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in Holi (Deol, Kut, Dal, and Lahaud Dhar forest range and in Bharmor (Seri, Bharmour, Malkauta, Bharmani, Harsar, Dhancho, Sundrasi, Gorikund, and Manimahesh forest range to obtain information on the plants used by the local inhabitants for several purposes. A total of 54 plants were recorded in this study. The plants are employed to treat simple diseases (cough, cold, fever, and burns and some serious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, and kidney disease. Some of the plants are also used as incense for religious ceremonies and several other daily needs. But due to absence of scientific monitoring of plants, their cultivation, harvesting, and management techniques as well as sustainable use and lack of awareness of social factors, the availability of valuable plant resources is decreasing at an alarming rate. In addition, the indigenous knowledge regarding the use of lesser-known plants of this region is also rapidly declining. Therefore, the documentation of plant resources is a necessary step towards the goal of raising awareness in local communities about the importance of these plants and their further conservation.

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Herbaceous Flora along an Altitudinal Gradient in Bharmour Forest Division, District Chamba of Himachal Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kehar S; Kumar, Munesh; Bawa, Rajan; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2014-01-01

    The present ethnobotanical study was carried out in Holi (Deol, Kut, Dal, and Lahaud Dhar) forest range and in Bharmor (Seri, Bharmour, Malkauta, Bharmani, Harsar, Dhancho, Sundrasi, Gorikund, and Manimahesh) forest range to obtain information on the plants used by the local inhabitants for several purposes. A total of 54 plants were recorded in this study. The plants are employed to treat simple diseases (cough, cold, fever, and burns) and some serious diseases (typhoid, jaundice, and kidney disease). Some of the plants are also used as incense for religious ceremonies and several other daily needs. But due to absence of scientific monitoring of plants, their cultivation, harvesting, and management techniques as well as sustainable use and lack of awareness of social factors, the availability of valuable plant resources is decreasing at an alarming rate. In addition, the indigenous knowledge regarding the use of lesser-known plants of this region is also rapidly declining. Therefore, the documentation of plant resources is a necessary step towards the goal of raising awareness in local communities about the importance of these plants and their further conservation.

  12. Ethnobotanical knowledge of the Istro-Romanians of Zejane in Croatia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieroni, A.; Giusti, M.E.; Munz, H.; Lenzarini, C.; Turkovic, G.; Turkovic, A.

    2003-01-01

    An ethno-pharmacognostic survey was carried out in one of the smallest ethnic and linguistic groups in Europe: the Istro-Romanians of the village of Zejane (in Croatia), which has a population of approximately 140 persons, mainly elderly. Using an intensive field participant observation methodology,

  13. Survey Email Scheduling and Monitoring in eRCTs (SESAMe): A Digital Tool to Improve Data Collection in Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skonnord, Trygve; Steen, Finn; Skjeie, Holgeir; Fetveit, Arne; Brekke, Mette; Klovning, Atle

    2016-11-22

    Electronic questionnaires can ease data collection in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in clinical practice. We found no existing software that could automate the sending of emails to participants enrolled into an RCT at different study participant inclusion time points. Our aim was to develop suitable software to facilitate data collection in an ongoing multicenter RCT of low back pain (the Acuback study). For the Acuback study, we determined that we would need to send a total of 5130 emails to 270 patients recruited at different centers and at 19 different time points. The first version of the software was tested in a pilot study in November 2013 but was unable to deliver multiuser or Web-based access. We resolved these shortcomings in the next version, which we tested on the Web in February 2014. Our new version was able to schedule and send the required emails in the full-scale Acuback trial that started in March 2014. The system architecture evolved through an iterative, inductive process between the project study leader and the software programmer. The program was tested and updated when errors occurred. To evaluate the development of the software, we used a logbook, a research assistant dialogue, and Acuback trial participant queries. We have developed a Web-based app, Survey Email Scheduling and Monitoring in eRCTs (SESAMe), that monitors responses in electronic surveys and sends reminders by emails or text messages (short message service, SMS) to participants. The overall response rate for the 19 surveys in the Acuback study increased from 76.4% (655/857) before we introduced reminders to 93.11% (1149/1234) after the new function (P<.001). Further development will aim at securing encryption and data storage. The SESAMe software facilitates consecutive patient data collection in RCTs and can be used to increase response rates and quality of research, both in general practice and in other clinical trial settings. ©Trygve Skonnord, Finn Steen, Holgeir

  14. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  15. Improving biobank consent comprehension: a national randomized survey to assess the effect of a simplified form and review/retest intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beskow, Laura M.; Lin, Li; Dombeck, Carrie B.; Gao, Emily; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the individual and combined effects of a simplified form and a review/retest intervention on biobanking consent comprehension. Methods: We conducted a national online survey in which participants were randomized within four educational strata to review a simplified or traditional consent form. Participants then completed a comprehension quiz; for each item answered incorrectly, they reviewed the corresponding consent form section and answered another quiz item on that topic. Results: Consistent with our first hypothesis, comprehension among those who received the simplified form was not inferior to that among those who received the traditional form. Contrary to expectations, receipt of the simplified form did not result in significantly better comprehension compared with the traditional form among those in the lowest educational group. The review/retest procedure significantly improved quiz scores in every combination of consent form and education level. Although improved, comprehension remained a challenge in the lowest-education group. Higher quiz scores were significantly associated with willingness to participate. Conclusion: Ensuring consent comprehension remains a challenge, but simplified forms have virtues independent of their impact on understanding. A review/retest intervention may have a significant effect, but assessing comprehension raises complex questions about setting thresholds for understanding and consequences of not meeting them. Genet Med advance online publication 13 October 2016 PMID:27735922

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants administered for the treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharvand-Ahmadi, Babak; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Tajeddini, Pegah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Naghdi, Nasrollah

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is very high in human societies and their prevention and treatment are the most important priority in many countries. Hypertension makes an important contribution to the development of CVDs. This study aimed to collect the ethno-medicinal knowledge of the traditional healers of Shiraz on medicinal plants used in the treatment of hypertension. Ethno-medicinal data were collected from September 2012 to July 2013 through direct interview. Twenty-five healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and their traditional ethno-medicinal knowledge was recorded. Questionnaires were included apothecary personal information, plant local name, plant parts used, method of preparation, season of harvest and traditional use. Data collected from surveys and interviews were transferred to Microsoft Excel 2007 and analyzed. Analysis of data showed that, 27 medicinal plants from 22 families are used for the treatment of hypertension. The families with most antihypertensive species were Apiaceae (8%), Rosaceae (8%) and Papaveraceae (8%). The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (36%) followed by fruits (30%), aerial part (17%) and branches (7%). The most frequently used preparation method was decoction (95%). Borago officinalis (51.85%), Berberis vulgaris (51.58%) had the highest frequency of mention. The ethno-medicinal survey of medicinal plants recommended by traditional healers for the treatment of hypertension provides new areas of research on the antihypertensive effect of medicinal plants. In the case of safety and effectiveness, they can be refined and processed to produce natural drugs.

  17. Is there nothing new under the sun? The influence of herbals and pharmacopoeias on ethnobotanical traditions in Albacete (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Verde, Alonso; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Moreno, Candelaria; Egea, Teresa; Fajardo, José; Palazón, José Antonio; Valdés, Arturo; Signorini, Maria Adele; Bruschi, Piero

    2017-01-04

    This paper has two overarching aims: (1) presenting the results of studying the Albacete tariff of medicines of 1526 and (2) broadly analyzing the origin and influences of medicinal traditional knowledge in the region of Albacete, Spain. We use historical and modern literature that may have influenced this knowledge. Our primary goal was to determine the ingredients used in the pharmacy in the 16th century CE in Albacete through the analysis of the tariff, and our secondary goal was to investigate until when ingredients and uses present in pharmacy and herbals persisted in later periods. The identity of medicines and ingredients was determined by analyzing contemporary pharmacopoeias and classical pharmaceutical references. We analyzed further 21 sources (manuscripts, herbals, and books of medicines, pharmacopoeias, pharmacy inventories, and modern ethnobotanical records) for the presence/absence of ingredients and complex formulations of the tariff. Using factorial and cluster analysis and Bayesian inference applied to evolution models (reversible-jump Markov chain Monte Carlo), we compared textual sources. Finally, we analyzed the medicinal uses of the top 10 species in terms of frequency of citation to assess the dependence of modern ethnobotanical records on Renaissance pharmacy and herbals, and, ultimately, on Dioscorides. In Albacete 1526, we determined 101 medicines (29 simple drugs and 72 compound medicines) comprising 187 ingredients (85% botanical, 7.5% mineral, and 7.5% zoological substances). All composed medicines appear standardized in the pharmacopoeias, notably in the pharmacopoeia of Florence from 1498. However, most were no longer in use by 1750 in the pharmacy, and were completely absent in popular herbal medicine in Albacete 1995 as well as in Alta Valle del Reno (Italy) in 2014. Among the ingredients present in different formulation are the flowers of Rosa gallica, honey (Apis mellifera), the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi, and Convolvulus

  18. How accurate is our misinformation? A randomized comparison of four survey interview methods to measure risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic

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    Sigrid Vivo

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for

  19. Use of Videos Improves Informed Consent Comprehension in Web-Based Surveys Among Internet-Using Men Who Have Sex With Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Eric William; Sanchez, Travis H; Stein, Aryeh D; Stephenson, Rob; Zlotorzynska, Maria; Sineath, Robert Craig; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2017-03-06

    Web-based surveys are increasingly used to capture data essential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention research. However, there are challenges in ensuring the informed consent of Web-based research participants. The aim of our study was to develop and assess the efficacy of alternative methods of administering informed consent in Web-based HIV research with men who have sex with men (MSM). From July to September 2014, paid advertisements on Facebook were used to recruit adult MSM living in the United States for a Web-based survey about risk and preventive behaviors. Participants were randomized to one of the 4 methods of delivering informed consent: a professionally produced video, a study staff-produced video, a frequently asked questions (FAQs) text page, and a standard informed consent text page. Following the behavior survey, participants answered 15 questions about comprehension of consent information. Correct responses to each question were given a score of 1, for a total possible scale score of 15. General linear regression and post-hoc Tukey comparisons were used to assess difference (Pvideo, and 22.0% (146/665) received the staff video. The overall average consent comprehension score was 6.28 (SD=2.89). The average consent comprehension score differed significantly across consent type (Pvideo consent (score increase=1.79; 95% CI 1.02-2.55) and participants who received the staff video consent (score increase=1.79; 95% CI 0.99-2.59). There was no significant difference in comprehension for those who received the FAQ consent. Participants spent more time on the 2 video consents (staff video median time=117 seconds; professional video median time=115 seconds) than the FAQ (median=21 seconds) and standard consents (median=37 seconds). Mediation analysis showed that though time spent on the consent page was partially responsible for some of the differences in comprehension, the direct effects of the professional video (score increase=0.93; 95% CI 0

  20. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

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    Valéria Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic, etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain. We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. RESULTS: From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%, 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4% and 319 (25.2% of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3% were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6% were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5% used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%. However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2% than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%, cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8% and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%. When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%. The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%, gabapentine (43.9%, amiptriptylline (23.2% and duloxetine (18.2%. However, ibuprofen (11%, acetaminophen-codeine (29.5% and clonazepam (10% were still prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  1. Application of Ethnobotanical Indices on the Use of Traditional Medicines against Common Diseases

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    Imran Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at documenting the detailed ethnomedicinal knowledge of an unexplored area of Pakistan. Semistructured interviews were taken with 55 informants randomly chosen regarding detailed ethnomedicinal and sociocultural information. The study exposed 67 medicinal plant species used to prepare 110 recipes and the major modes of herbal formulation were decoction and powdering (20% each. The disease categories with the highest Fic values were gastrointestinal and dermatological (0.87 each. The study determined 3 plant species, i.e., Acacia modesta Wall., Caralluma tuberculata R.Br., and Withania somnifera (L. Dunal with a FL of 100%. DMR results showed that Olea ferruginea (Sol. Steud. ranked first, Morus alba L. ranked second, and Melia azedarach L. ranked third. Among the 55 informants, the male concentration was high (61% and most of them were over 40 years old while a leading quantity of respondents (45% was uneducated. There is a dire need to take necessary steps for the conservation of important medicinal plants by inhibiting overgrazing and providing alternate fuel resources. Young generations should be educated regarding the importance of ethnomedicinal knowledge and plants with high Fic and FL values should be further checked chemically and pharmacologically for future exploration of modern medicine.

  2. Data sharing and reanalysis of randomized controlled trials in leading biomedical journals with a full data sharing policy: survey of studies published in The BMJ and PLOS Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudet, Florian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Janiaud, Perrine; Cristea, Ioana; Fanelli, Daniele; Moher, David

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To explore the effectiveness of data sharing by randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in journals with a full data sharing policy and to describe potential difficulties encountered in the process of performing reanalyses of the primary outcomes. Design Survey of published RCTs. Setting PubMed/Medline. Eligibility criteria RCTs that had been submitted and published by The BMJ and PLOS Medicine subsequent to the adoption of data sharing policies by these journals. Main outcome measure The primary outcome was data availability, defined as the eventual receipt of complete data with clear labelling. Primary outcomes were reanalyzed to assess to what extent studies were reproduced. Difficulties encountered were described. Results 37 RCTs (21 from The BMJ and 16 from PLOS Medicine) published between 2013 and 2016 met the eligibility criteria. 17/37 (46%, 95% confidence interval 30% to 62%) satisfied the definition of data availability and 14 of the 17 (82%, 59% to 94%) were fully reproduced on all their primary outcomes. Of the remaining RCTs, errors were identified in two but reached similar conclusions and one paper did not provide enough information in the Methods section to reproduce the analyses. Difficulties identified included problems in contacting corresponding authors and lack of resources on their behalf in preparing the datasets. In addition, there was a range of different data sharing practices across study groups. Conclusions Data availability was not optimal in two journals with a strong policy for data sharing. When investigators shared data, most reanalyses largely reproduced the original results. Data sharing practices need to become more widespread and streamlined to allow meaningful reanalyses and reuse of data. Trial registration Open Science Framework osf.io/c4zke. PMID:29440066

  3. Ethnobotanical study on traditional uses of wild medicinal plants in Prokletije Mountains (Montenegro).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menković, N; Savikin, K; Tasić, S; Zdunić, G; Stesević, D; Milosavljević, S; Vincek, D

    2011-01-07

    The main objectives were to collect information on the use of wild growing medicinal plants by local people living in high mountain region of Montenegro and conduct local botanical and ecological surveys. Active ingredients of plant species officinal in European Pharmacopoeia 6.0 (Ph. Eur. 6.0) were studied and we assessed possibilities for commercial exploitation for local economic development. The 75 people that were interviewed (40-82 years old) identified 94 species for treatment of various human ailments. For each named species, the following elements are provided: botanical name, family, part(s) used, medicinal use and perceived property, listing in published pharmacopoeias, the relative abundance of each species and locality where the plant was collected. Chemical analyses were done according to prescriptions of Ph. Eur. 6.0 in order to estimate potential commercial use of native plants. The most common in traditional usage were Rosaceae (11 species) making 11.7%, Asteraceae (10 species) 10.6% and Lamiaceae (7 species) 7.4%. From 94 species reported, 35 (37.2%) are officinal in Ph. Eur. 6.0 and 12 in national pharmacopoeias (12.8%). Aerial parts were mostly used (43.6%). The most frequently reported medicinal uses were for treating gastrointestinal (57.4%) and respiratory diseases (41.5%). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

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    Panda Sujogya Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further.

  5. Antiparasitic activity in Asteraceae with special attention to ethnobotanical use by the tribes of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Sujogya Kumar; Luyten, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to survey the antiparasitic plants of the Asteraceae family and their applicability in the treatment of parasites. This review is divided into three major parts: (a) literature on traditional uses of Asteraceae plants for the treatment of parasites; (b) description of the major classes of chemical compounds from Asteraceae and their antiparasitic effects; and (c) antiparasitic activity with special reference to flavonoids and terpenoids. This review provides detailed information on the reported Asteraceae plant extracts found throughout the world and on isolated secondary metabolites that can inhibit protozoan parasites such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, and intestinal worms. Additionally, special attention is given to the Asteraceae plants of Odisha, used by the tribes of the area as antiparasitics. These plants are compared to the same plants used traditionally in other regions. Finally, we provide information on which plants identified in Odisha, India and related compounds show promise for the development of new drugs against parasitic diseases. For most of the plants discussed in this review, the active compounds still need to be isolated and tested further. PMID:29528842

  6. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in sacred groves of Kumaon Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India.

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    Singh, Harsh; Husain, Tariq; Agnihotri, Priyanka; Pande, P C; Khatoon, Sayyada

    2014-05-28

    International organizations recognize the importance of sacred groves and place them into the context of sustainable development and also emphasize to conserve biodiversity through protection of sacred groves and sties. The significance of medicinal plants from Himalayan region is well known to the world. Therefore, present study was conducted in identified sacred groves of Kumaon Himalaya to investigate and document the utilization of medicinal plants by various local communities and tribal people. The study was conducted during 2008-2011 in four seasons of the year. Information was collected from 70 locals from different sacred groves by using free listing interviews with randomly selected informants and semi-structured questionnaires; plant specimens were collected, identified and deposited at the CSIR-NBRI herbarium (LWG), Lucknow, India. Seven sacred groves viz., Dhwaj, Haat Kali, Hokra, Malay Nath, Nakuleshwar, Narayan Swami Ashram and Patal Bhuvneshwar were identified from the Pithoragarh district of Kumaon Himalaya. 89 medicinal plants belonging to 52 families and 77 genera of which, 2 are lichens, 4 are pteridophytes, 3 are gymnosperms and remaining 80 plant species are angiosperms. 6 plant species are reported with new therapeutic uses for the first time in this paper. Highest informant׳s consensus factor value was found in liver disorder (0.55) and least by body pains (0.23). 55 ethnomedicinal plants are showing 100% fidelity level against various diseases. Sacred groves in Kumaon region of Indian Himalaya are rich sources and best repository of ethno-medicinally important plants with many rare, endangered and threatened species. It is an excellent example of unique traditional way of in situ conservation of different plant species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across American Samoa since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across American Samoa in 2015. Juvenile colony surveys...

  8. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i4.9306

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    Edmar Antônio Correa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.  

  9. Ethnobotanical study of the medicinal plants from Tlanchinol, Hidalgo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo

    2009-02-25

    The people in Mexico still depend upon the use of medicinal plants to treat simple health problems, including those who live in regions like Tlanchinol Hidalgo, where it is still possible to find people who speak the pre-Hispanic Nahua language. This area is surrounded by rain forest, which is more or less well conserved, so ethnopharmacological field studies are quite relevant. The cultural knowledge about the use of medicinal plants converge with the richness in the surrounding flora making this region ideal for the selection of traditionally used medicinal plants. To present the results of an ethnopharmacological field survey conducted in the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo, Mexico analyzed with two different quantitative tools, with the aim of selecting the most important species used in traditional medicine. Direct interviews with the people were performed in several short visits to the municipality of Tlanchinol Hidalgo. The plants were collected, and the species were determined. The interviews were analyzed with two quantitative tools. First, the factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level defined as: the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. Furthermore, we analyzed the use-mentions for the plants. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the gastrointestinal category had the greatest agreement, followed by the respiratory and dermatological categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Coleus blumei, Plantago australis and Lippia dulcis for the gastrointestinal category; Borago officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Eucalyptus globulus for the respiratory category; and Ageratum houstonianum and Solanum nigrescens for the dermatological category. As a result of the present study, we recommend the plants listed in

  10. Ten Principles for Biocultural Conservation at the Southern Tip of the Americas: the Approach of the Omora Ethnobotanical Park

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    Ricardo Rozzi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although there is general agreement among conservation practitioners about the need for (1 social involvement on the part of scientists; (2 interdisciplinary approaches; (3 working on local, regional, and global levels; and (4 implementing international agreements on biodiversity and environmental protection, a major challenge we face in conservation today is how to integrate and implement these multiple dimensions. Few researchers have actually offered hands-on examples for showing in practical terms how such integration can be accomplished. To address this challenge we present an innovative case study: the Omora Ethnobotanical Park, a long-term biocultural conservation initiative at the southern extreme of the Americas. Located near Puerto Williams (55º S, Cape Horn Archipelago region, Chile, the Omora Park is a public-private reserve that provides material and conceptual foundations for three complementary conservation actions: (1 interdisciplinary scientific research; (2 informal and formal education, i.e., school, university, and training courses; and (3 biocultural conservation. The latter entails an actual reserve that protects biodiversity and the water quality of Puerto Williams' watershed, as well as programs on Yahgan traditional ecological knowledge and interdisciplinary activities, such as "field environmental ethics" and ecotourism, carried out in the reserve. Being at the "end of the world," and within one of the most remote and pristine ecoregions on the planet, Omora Park offers a "bio-cultural treasure." At the same time, its geographical and technological isolation presents a challenge for implementing and sustaining conservation actions. To achieve the general conservation goals, we have defined 10 principles that have guided the actions of Omora: (1 interinstitutional cooperation, (2 a participatory approach, (3 an interdisciplinary approach, (4 networking and international cooperation, (5 communication through the media

  11. What Are Probability Surveys used by the National Aquatic Resource Surveys?

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    The National Aquatic Resource Surveys (NARS) use probability-survey designs to assess the condition of the nation’s waters. In probability surveys (also known as sample-surveys or statistical surveys), sampling sites are selected randomly.

  12. A Web-Based Data Collection Platform for Multisite Randomized Behavioral Intervention Trials: Development, Key Software Features, and Results of a User Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Riddhi A; Mugavero, Michael J; Amico, Rivet K; Keruly, Jeanne; Quinlivan, Evelyn Byrd; Crane, Heidi M; Guzman, Alfredo; Zinski, Anne; Montue, Solange; Roytburd, Katya; Church, Anna; Willig, James H

    2017-06-16

    Meticulous tracking of study data must begin early in the study recruitment phase and must account for regulatory compliance, minimize missing data, and provide high information integrity and/or reduction of errors. In behavioral intervention trials, participants typically complete several study procedures at different time points. Among HIV-infected patients, behavioral interventions can favorably affect health outcomes. In order to empower newly diagnosed HIV positive individuals to learn skills to enhance retention in HIV care, we developed the behavioral health intervention Integrating ENGagement and Adherence Goals upon Entry (iENGAGE) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), where we deployed an in-clinic behavioral health intervention in 4 urban HIV outpatient clinics in the United States. To scale our intervention strategy homogenously across sites, we developed software that would function as a behavioral sciences research platform. This manuscript aimed to: (1) describe the design and implementation of a Web-based software application to facilitate deployment of a multisite behavioral science intervention; and (2) report on results of a survey to capture end-user perspectives of the impact of this platform on the conduct of a behavioral intervention trial. In order to support the implementation of the NIAID-funded trial iENGAGE, we developed software to deploy a 4-site behavioral intervention for new clinic patients with HIV/AIDS. We integrated the study coordinator into the informatics team to participate in the software development process. Here, we report the key software features and the results of the 25-item survey to evaluate user perspectives on research and intervention activities specific to the iENGAGE trial (N=13). The key features addressed are study enrollment, participant randomization, real-time data collection, facilitation of longitudinal workflow, reporting, and reusability. We found 100% user

  13. Plants and Humans in the Near East and the Caucasus: Ancient and Traditional Uses of Plants as Food and Medicine, a Diachronic Ethnobotanical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi F. Miller

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Review of Plants and Humans in the Near East and the Caucasus: Ancient and Traditional Uses of Plants as Food and Medicine, a Diachronic Ethnobotanical Review (2 vols. Vol. 1: The Landscapes. The Plants: Ferns and Gymnosperms. Vol. 2: The Plants: Angiosperms. Diego Rivera Núñez, Gonzalo Matilla Séiquer, Concepción Obón, Francisco Alcaraz Ariza. 2011. Ediciones de la Unverisdad de Murcia. Pp. 1056. EUR 23.76 (paperback. ISBN 978-84-15463-07-08 (2 vols., 978-84-15463-05-4 (vol. 1, 978-84-15463-06-1 (vol. 2.

  14. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  15. Ethnobotanical uses of neem (Azadirachta indica A.Juss.; Meliaceae) leaves in Bali (Indonesia) and the Indian subcontinent in relation with historical background and phytochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarwo, Wawan; Keim, Ary P; Caneva, Giulia; Toniolo, Chiara; Nicoletti, Marcello

    2016-08-02

    Neem (Azadirachta indica; Meliaceae) is widely known for its cold pressed seed oil, mainly used as insecticide, but also for cosmetic, medicinal and agricultural uses. The seed oil is widely employed in the Indian subcontinent, and the leaves seem to have a lower relevance, but the ethnobotanical information of Bali (Indonesia) considers the utilisation of leaves for medicinal properties. We report ethnopharmacological information about current uses of neem, in particular of the leaves, besides the insecticidal one, we discuss on the historical background of their uses. Ethnobotanical data were collected using both literature and scientific references and semi-structured interviews with 50 informants (ages ranged between 14 and 76 years old) through the snowball method in thirteen aga (indigenous Balinese) villages, following Ethic code procedures. The informants were asked to specify: which part of the plant was used, and how that plant part was used. Plant specimens were collected, identified and made into herbarium voucher. In consideration of the high variability and complex chemical constituent of neem, a HPTLC analysis of neem leaves coming from both the Indonesian island of Bali and the Indian subcontinent was carried out. The data on the medical use of traditional preparations from leaves of neem display a wide spectrum of applications. In the Indian subcontinent, neem leaves are used to treat dental and gastrointestinal disorders, malaria fevers, skin diseases, and as insects repellent, while the Balinese used neem leaves as a diuretic and for diabetes, headache, heartburn, and stimulating the appetite. Differences in utilisation cannot be related to chemical differences and other constituents besides limonoids must be investigated and related to the multipurpose activity of neem. This study revealed that neem leaves are believed to treat diabetes in both Balinese and Indian communities. Limonoids can not be considered the only responsible of digestive

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago since 2013. Juvenile...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas since 2014....

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa since 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago since 2014. Juvenile...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago since 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago since 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  2. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  3. Behavioral Risk Profile of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Beijing, China: Results from a Cross-sectional Survey with Randomized Response Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Zhu Geng

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study employed RRTs in a survey containing questions on sexual behavior among MSM, and the results showed that RRT might be a useful tool to obtain truthful feedback on sensitive information such as sexual behavior from the respondents, especially in traditional Chinese cultural settings.

  4. Wild medicinal and food plants used by communities living in Mopane woodlands of southern Angola: Results of an ethnobotanical field investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso, Valeria; Signorini, Maria Adele; Tonini, Matteo; Bruschi, Piero

    2016-01-11

    Mopane woodlands play an important role in the livelihood strategies of local populations; however, they have been scarcely investigated by ethnobiologists and very little is currently known about plants traditionally used by local communities, especially about medicinal plants. Our investigation was aimed to document ethnobotanical knowledge in seven communities living in conditions of extreme poverty in a Mopane area of southern Angola (Namibe province). We focused on plants used as medicines and/or food, in order to highlight the role of wild plants in the livelihood of local communities, and possibly to find out plants with potential pharmacological interest. Ethnobotanical data were recorded through semi-structured interviews, filed in a database and quantitatively analyzed. The following synthetic indexes were used: Cultural Importance index (CI), Informant Consensus Factor (FIC), Fidelity Level (FL). Sixty-six informants (26 males, 40 females) were interviewed. A total of 1247 citations were recorded, concerning 132 ethnospecies (folk taxonomic units not necessarily corresponding to single botanical species); 104 were identified at different taxonomic levels. For medicinal purposes, 116 ethnospecies and 20 different uses (650 citations) were reported; for food purposes, 33 ethnospecies and 8 different uses (597 citations). The main used parts resulted to be fruit (471 citations; 21 ethnospecies), followed by underground organs (288, 82) and leaves (175, 41). According to CI values, Berchemia discolor, Ximenia americana var. americana and Adansonia digitata have the highest cultural value in the investigated communities. All of them are woody plants, as well as most of the identified ethnospecies (trees 34.6%, shrubs 32.7%, perennials 21.2%, annuals 8.7%, others 2.8%). Medicinal plants are especially used to treat disorders of the gastrointestinal tract (52 ethnospecies, 205 citations), obstetric/gynecological troubles (27, 40) and colds and respiratory tract

  5. WITHDRAWN: Ethno-botanical survey and ecological study of anti-pathogenic organisms medicinal plants species used in the Congolese folk medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbolua, K N; Mpiana, P T; Mudogo, V; Tshibangu, D S T; Ngombe, N K; Ekutsu, E; Kabena, O N; Gbolo, B Z; Muanyishay, C L; Lassa, K

    2013-04-25

    This article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Levantamento etnobotânico de plantas medicinais na cidade de Ipameri - GO Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Ipameri City - Goiás State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Zucchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: identificar as espécies vegetais utilizadas com fins medicinais pela comunidade de Ipameri (Estado de Goiás; investigar as preferências com relação à produção e comercialização dessas plantas; e diagnosticar o perfil de gênero e as faixas etárias e salariais de seus usuários. Para isso, foram realizadas entrevistas estruturadas com 200 famílias da cidade e coletadas as plantas visando-se a sua correta identificação. O material foi herborizado, identificado e depositado no Herbário da Universidade Estadual de Goiás (HUEG. Das 200 famílias entrevistadas, 75 disseram não fazer uso de plantas com fins medicinais (37,5%, enquanto 125 afirmaram fazê-lo (62,5%. O grupo que utiliza relacionou 35 espécies mais empregadas: hortelã-rasteira (Mentha x villosa L., boldo-sete-dores (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., capim-cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., quebra-pedra (Phyllanthus niruri L., camomila (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., poejo (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., alfavacão (Ocimum gratissimum L., losna (Artemisia canphorata Vill., bálsamo (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., carqueja (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., funcho (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., babosa (Aloe vera L. e malva (Althaea officinalis L.. Todas as famílias consumidoras (100% afirmaram preferir as plantas cultivadas de forma orgânica, selecionando-as através da boa aparência (68% das famílias e consumindo-as in natura (sem beneficiamento, 100%. A utilização de plantas medicinais em Ipameri é independente do sexo (54%, mulheres e 46%, homens e se estende às várias faixas etárias e também sócio-econômicas, configurando-se assim, um bom mercado consumidor.The aims of this study were: to identify the plant species used for medicinal purposes by the community at Ipameri (Goiás State; to investigate the preferences with respect to the production and marketing of these plants; and to diagnose the gender profile and the age and wage ranges of users. Thus, structured interviews were conducted with 200 families in the city and plants were collected for their correct identification. The material was herborized, identified and deposited in the Herbarium of "Universidade Estadual de Goiás" (HUEG. Of the 200 families interviewed, 75 said they did not make use of plants for medicinal purposes (37.5%, while 125 said they do use them (62.5%. The latter group reported the 35 most used species: "hortelã-rasteira" (Mentha x villosa L., "boldo-sete-dores" (Plectranthus barbatus Andrews., lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf., "quebra-pedra" (Phyllanthus niruri L., chamomile (Chamomilla recutita (L. Rauschert., pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L., guaco (Mikania glomerata Spreng., mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides L., clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., wormwood (Artemisia canphorata Vill., balm (Eysenhardtia platycarpa Mich., broom (Baccharis trimera (Less. DC., fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., aloe (Aloe vera L. and mallow (Althaea officinalis L.. All consumer families (100% stated to prefer plants grown organically, to select the plants based on their good appearance (68% families and to eat them in natura (unprocessed, 100%. The use of medicinal plants in Ipameri is independent of gender (54% womem and 46% men and extends to several age and socioeconomic ranges, configuring thus a good consumer market.

  7. Ethnobotanical survey of antimalarial plants in Awash-Fentale District of Afar Region of Ethiopia and in vivo evaluation of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nega Alelign

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To document plants used in traditional treatment of malaria in the Awash-Fentale District, the Afar Region of Ethiopia, and to evaluate antimalarial activity of selected ones against Plasmodium berghei in mice. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with purposively selected informants in the District to gather information on plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria. Standard procedures were used to investigate acute toxicity and a four-day suppressive effect of crude aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of the two most frequently cited plants [Aloe trichosantha (A. trichosantha and Cadaba rotundifolia (C. rotundifolia] against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. Results: The informants cited a total of 17 plants used in the traditional treatment of malaria in Awash-Fentale District. Plant parts were prepared as infusions or decoctions. Leaf was the most commonly cited (44% plant part, followed by stem (22%. Shrubs were the most frequently cited (63% medicine source followed by trees (21%. Of the 17 plants, C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha were the most frequently mentioned plants in the district. Ethanol extracts of the leaves of C. rotundifolia and A. trichosantha suppressed P. berghei parasitaemia significantly accounting for 53.73% and 49.07%, respectively at 900 mg/kg. The plants were found to be non-toxic up to a dose of 1 500 mg/kg. Conclusions: Seventeen plant species were reported to be used for treatment of malaria in the Awash Fentale Distinct, among which A. trichosantha and C. rotundifolia were the most preferred ones. P. berghei suppressive activity of these plants may partly explain their common use in the community.

  8. Spiritual and ceremonial plants in North America: an assessment of Moerman's ethnobotanical database comparing Residual, Binomial, Bayesian and Imprecise Dirichlet Model (IDM) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, Christina E; Murch, Susan J

    2013-07-09

    Ethnobotanical research and the study of plants used for rituals, ceremonies and to connect with the spirit world have led to the discovery of many novel psychoactive compounds such as nicotine, caffeine, and cocaine. In North America, spiritual and ceremonial uses of plants are well documented and can be accessed online via the University of Michigan's Native American Ethnobotany Database. The objective of the study was to compare Residual, Bayesian, Binomial and Imprecise Dirichlet Model (IDM) analyses of ritual, ceremonial and spiritual plants in Moerman's ethnobotanical database and to identify genera that may be good candidates for the discovery of novel psychoactive compounds. The database was queried with the following format "Family Name AND Ceremonial OR Spiritual" for 263 North American botanical families. Spiritual and ceremonial flora consisted of 86 families with 517 species belonging to 292 genera. Spiritual taxa were then grouped further into ceremonial medicines and items categories. Residual, Bayesian, Binomial and IDM analysis were performed to identify over and under-utilized families. The 4 statistical approaches were in good agreement when identifying under-utilized families but large families (>393 species) were underemphasized by Binomial, Bayesian and IDM approaches for over-utilization. Residual, Binomial, and IDM analysis identified similar families as over-utilized in the medium (92-392 species) and small (<92 species) classes. The families Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Ericacea, Pinaceae and Salicaceae were identified as significantly over-utilized as ceremonial medicines in medium and large sized families. Analysis of genera within the Apiaceae and Asteraceae suggest that the genus Ligusticum and Artemisia are good candidates for facilitating the discovery of novel psychoactive compounds. The 4 statistical approaches were not consistent in the selection of over-utilization of flora. Residual analysis revealed overall trends that were supported

  9. A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14 by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Comes at the University Federico II in Naples, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Natale Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ethnobotanical Collection from the Libyan territories of the botanist Alessandro Trotter is included in the Oratio Comes Botanical Museum at the Faculty of Agraria at the University Federico II in Naples. Trotter explored different territories of Libya, mainly Tripolitania, between 1912-1924, collecting plant specimens and the drugs most frequently sold in the markets. The Libyan herbarium currently includes over 2300 sheets of mounted and accessioned plants. The drugs, mostly acquired by Trotter from Tripolitanian markets, were identified and packed in 87 paper sheets or boxes. Trotter added ethnobotanical information for each species when available. Methods A database of the herbarium species and the drugs has been carried out, after a taxonomic update. Nomenclature has been revised according to the African flowering plants database and the World Checklist of selected plant families, and a comparison with currently available ethnopharmacological data from North African has been attempted. Results In this study, ethnopharmacological data related to about 80 species of flowering plants and to 4 lichens are presented. The plants are mainly from Mediterranean or Sub-Saharan habitats and belong to 37 different families; Lamiaceae was the most cited family, with 10 accessions. Generally, the aerial parts of the plants are the most frequently used (28 species, followed by leaves (15 species, flowers and seeds (9 species, fruits (7 species and hypogean organs (roots, rhizomes, tubers: 5 species. Plants were generally processed in very simple ways: infusion or decoction of the plants were prepared and orally administered or used for topical applications. A wide range of conditions was treated, ranging from mental disorders to skin affections. All the organs of human body are considered, but the pathologies of gastro-intestinal tract, respiratory system and those related to traumatic accidents were the most frequently mentioned

  10. Survey of Synergistic Effect of L-carnitine with Glutamine on Body Composition and Dietary Intake in Soccer Players: A Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hozoori

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was conducted to investigate the possible effects of L-carnitine and glutamine and their synergistic effects on male soccer athletes. Methods: 28 male soccer players (21.1 ± 0.7 y were enrolled in a randomized pre and post intervention, double-blind design. Before the intervention, their performances were assessed by Bruce protocol, and their body composition was measured with the body composition analyzer. Then, athletes were randomly allocated into four groups: 2 g L-glutamine, 2 g L-carnitine, 2 g L-carnitine + 2 g L-glutamine and placebo. Supplements were prescribed for 21 days and after three weeks, athletes' performances and body composition were re-evaluated. Results: The results showed that body weight, body fat percentage, lean muscle mass, and dietary intake made no significant changes in different groups of athletes. In between groups comparison, results did not significantly change in any performance indices. However, in L-carnitine supplement group, the results of pre and post intervention showed that the running distance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max increased significantly while the subjective sense of fatigue decreased significantly. Conclusions: Based on our findings, a three-week prescription of separateor combined glutamine and L-carnitine, had no effects on body composition or dietary intake in soccer players. But, the athletes' energy intake was more than the one reported in other studies. Although further studies are required to assess these effects on athletic performance.

  11. Validation Study for the Brief Measure of Quality of Life and Quality of Care: A Questionnaire for the National Random Sampling Hospital Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Megumi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Kurihara, Miho; Sato, Kazuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Kato, Masashi; Miyashita, Mitsunori

    2017-08-01

    To monitor quality of life (QOL) for patients with cancer in a large population-based survey, we developed a short QOL and quality-of-care (QOC) questionnaire. To determine the validity and reliability of this new questionnaire for evaluating QOL in patients with cancer. Outpatients and inpatients at National Cancer Center Hospital East were administered a questionnaire, including the following items-the short QOL and QOC questionnaire (physical distress, pain, emotional distress, walk burden, and need for help with self-care; perceived general health status; and satisfaction with medical care and treatment by doctor, communication with doctor, support by health-care staff other than doctor, care for physical symptoms such as pain, and psychological care), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General (FACT-G), the Cancer Care Evaluation Scale (CCES) for patients, and demographic and medical data. We then readministered the short QOL and QOC questionnaire. In total, 329 outpatients and 239 inpatients completed the survey (response rates: 80% and 90%, respectively). Total Cronbach α for the short QOL and QOC questionnaire was 0.83 for outpatients and 0.82 for inpatients. Items of the questionnaire correlated with cancer-specific measurements, FACT-G, and CCES. Intraclass correlation coefficients for all items of the questionnaire were 0.79 and 0.89 in each setting. Items of QOL and QOC did not correlate with each other. The validity and reliability of the short QOL and QOC questionnaire appear sufficient. This questionnaire enables continuous monitoring of patient QOL in large population-based surveys.

  12. Survey of serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls in a small non-random sample of U.S. residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassman, J. [Brooklyn Coll. CUNY, Health and Nutrition Sciences, Brooklyn, New York, NY (United States); Patterson, D.G. Jr.; Needham, L.L. [National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States); Spencer, D.L.; Masten, S.A. [Environmental Toxicology Program, National Inst. of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2004-09-15

    This cross sectional assessment of serum dioxin concentrations was conducted as part of a larger study to examine the relationship between dioxin exposure and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Recent reports indicate that environmental levels of dioxins have declined since the mid-1980's. Except for the recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), there has been little systematic surveillance of serum dioxins levels in the US general population. Here, we report the serum concentrations of 22 congeners of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds and their relationship with age, sex, smoking, and meat consumption.

  13. The association of funding source on effect size in randomized controlled trials: 2013-2015 - a cross-sectional survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-03-14

    Trials financed by for-profit organizations have been associated with favorable outcomes of new treatments, although the effect size of funding source impact on outcome is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size for a favorable outcome in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), stratified by funding source, that have been published in general medical journals. Parallel-group RCTs published in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, and JAMA between 2013 and 2015 were identified. RCTs with binary primary endpoints were included. The primary outcome was the OR of patients' having a favorable outcome in the intervention group compared with the control group. The OR of a favorable outcome in each trial was calculated by the number of positive events that occurred in the intervention and control groups. A meta-analytic technique with random effects model was used to calculate summary OR. Data were stratified by funding source as for-profit, mixed, and nonprofit. Prespecified sensitivity, subgroup, and metaregression analyses were performed. Five hundred nine trials were included. The OR for a favorable outcome in for-profit-funded RCTs was 1.92 (95% CI 1.72-2.14), which was higher than mixed source-funded RCTs (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.43) and nonprofit-funded RCTs (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.26-1.39). The OR for a favorable outcome was higher for both clinical and surrogate endpoints in for-profit-funded trials than in RCTs with other funding sources. Excluding drug trials lowered the OR for a favorable outcome in for-profit-funded RCTs. The OR for a favorable surrogate outcome in drug trials was higher in for-profit-funded trials than in nonprofit-funded trials. For-profit-funded RCTs have a higher OR for a favorable outcome than nonprofit- and mixed source-funded RCTs. This difference is associated mainly with the use of surrogate endpoints in for-profit-financed drug trials.

  14. Random walk on random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilário, M.; Hollander, den W.Th.F.; Sidoravicius, V.; Soares dos Santos, R.; Teixeira, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study a random walk in a one-dimensional dynamic random environment consisting of a collection of independent particles performing simple symmetric random walks in a Poisson equilibrium with density ¿¿(0,8). At each step the random walk performs a nearest-neighbour jump, moving to

  15. A Comparison of the Number of Men Who Have Sex with Men among Rural-To-Urban Migrants with Non-Migrant Rural and Urban Residents in Wuhan, China: A GIS/GPS-Assisted Random Sample Survey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin; Zhou, Dunjin; Zhou, Wang; Gong, Jie; Li, Shiyue; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile populations and men who have sex with men (MSM) play an increasing role in the current HIV epidemic in China and across the globe. While considerable research has addressed both of these at-risk populations, more effective HIV control requires accurate data on the number of MSM at the population level, particularly MSM among migrant populations. Methods Survey data from a random sample of male rural-to-urban migrants (aged 18-45, n=572) in Wuhan, China were analyzed and compared with those of randomly selected non-migrant urban (n=566) and rural counterparts (580). The GIS/GPS technologies were used for sampling and the survey estimation method was used for data analysis. Results HIV-related risk behaviors among rural-to-urban migrants were similar to those among the two comparison groups. The estimated proportion of MSM among migrants [95% CI] was 5.8% [4.7, 6.8], higher than 2.8% [1.2, 4.5] for rural residents and 1.0% [0.0, 2.4] for urban residents, respectively. Among these migrants, the MSM were more likely than non-MSM to be older in age, married, and migrated to more cities. They were also more likely to co-habit with others in rental properties located in new town and neighborhoods with fewer old acquaintances and more entertainment establishments. In addition, they were more likely to engage in commercial sex and less likely to consistently use condoms. Conclusion Findings of this study indicate that compared to rural and urban populations, the migrant population in Wuhan consists of a higher proportion of MSM who also exhibit higher levels of HIV-related risk behaviors. More effective interventions should target this population with a focus on neighborhood factors, social capital and collective efficacy for risk reduction. PMID:26241900

  16. Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...

  17. Surveying Future Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlstrom, John E.

    2016-06-01

    The now standard model of cosmology has been tested and refined by the analysis of increasingly sensitive, large astronomical surveys, especially with statistically significant millimeter-wave surveys of the cosmic microwave background and optical surveys of the distribution of galaxies. This talk will offer a glimpse of the future, which promises an acceleration of this trend with cosmological information coming from new surveys across the electromagnetic spectrum as well as particles and even gravitational waves.

  18. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  19. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants in Albaha Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al Sokari, Saeed Salah; Gushash, Ahmed; Anwar, Sirajudheen; Al-Karani, Khalid; Al-Khulaidi, Abdulwali

    2017-01-01

    Local natural medicinal resource knowledge is important to define and elaborate usage of herbs, in systematic and organized manner. Until recently, there has been little scientifically written document regarding the traditional uses of medicinal plants in Al Bahah region. This pilot study aims to collect the ethnobotanical information from native populations regarding the benefits of medicinal plants of Al Bahah region, and determine if the traditional usage is scientifically established (proved) from literature. The survey collected data for 39 plant species recorded by informants for their medicinal benefits. The recorded species were distributed among 28 plant families. Leguminosae and Euphorbiaceae were represented each by 3 species, followed by Asteraceae (2 species), Lamiaceae (2 species), Apocynaceae (2 species), and Solanaceae (2 species). All the medicinal plants were reported in their local names. Analysis of ethnopharmacological data was done to obtain percentage of plant families, species, parts of plants used, mode of administration, and preparation types. Total 43 informants were interviewed, maximum number of species were used to cure skin diseases including burns (3), wounds (7), warts (1), Leishmania (7), topical hemostatic (2), followed by gastrointestinal system, rheumatism, respiratory tract problems, diabetes mellitus, anti-snake venom, malaria, and eye inflammation. The study covered Al Bahah city and its outskirts. Ten new ethnobotanical uses were recorded such as antirheumatic and anti-vitiligo uses for Clematis hirsute , leishmaniasis use of Commiphora gileadensis , antigout of Juniperus procera , removing warts for Ficus palmata . 39 plant species from 28 plant families are used for treating more than 20 types of diseases.Maximum number of species (23 species) was used for treating skin diseases (42.6%) including leishmaniasis, wound healing, dermatitis, psoriasis, vitiligo and warts.Ten ethnobotanical uses of 8 studied plants have not

  20. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir-Kheli, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A few simple problems relating to random magnetic systems are presented. Translational symmetry, only on the macroscopic scale, is assumed for these systems. A random set of parameters, on the microscopic scale, for the various regions of these systems is also assumed. A probability distribution for randomness is obeyed. Knowledge of the form of these probability distributions, is assumed in all cases [pt

  1. An ethnomedicinal survey of a Tashelhit-speaking community in the High Atlas, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixidor-Toneu, Irene; Martin, Gary J; Ouhammou, Ahmed; Puri, Rajindra K; Hawkins, Julie A

    2016-07-21

    Traditional knowledge about medicinal plants from a poorly studied region, the High Atlas in Morocco, is reported here for the first time; this permits consideration of efficacy and safety of current practises whilst highlighting species previously not known to have traditional medicinal use. Our study aims to document local medicinal plant knowledge among Tashelhit speaking communities through ethnobotanical survey, identifying preferred species and new medicinal plant citations and illuminating the relationship between emic and etic ailment classifications. Ethnobotanical data were collected using standard methods and with prior informed consent obtained before all interactions, data were characterized using descriptive indices and medicinal plants and healing strategies relevant to local livelihoods were identified. 151 vernacular names corresponding to 159 botanical species were found to be used to treat 36 folk ailments grouped in 14 biomedical use categories. Thirty-five (22%) are new medicinal plant records in Morocco, and 26 described as used for the first time anywhere. Fidelity levels (FL) revealed low specificity in plant use, particularly for the most commonly reported plants. Most plants are used in mixtures. Plant use is driven by local concepts of disease, including "hot" and "cold" classification and beliefs in supernatural forces. Local medicinal plant knowledge is rich in the High Atlas, where local populations still rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. We found experimental evidence of safe and effective use of medicinal plants in the High Atlas; but we highlight the use of eight poisonous species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in the community of Curral Velho, Luís Correia, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rodrigues Lemos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants as medication in the state of Piauí, Brazil, has been a common practice passed from generation to generation. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicinal plants by residents of the community Curral Velho, in the municipality of Luís Correia, northern Piauí, Brazil, contributing to register and preserve the traditional botanical knowledge of the community under study and, as a consequence, the state’s. The survey of plant species used as a therapeutic resource was conducted through interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire applied to 38 informants. The plants were collected for scientific identification. Use value (UV, informant consensus factor (ICF, and relative importance (RI of species were determined. We registered 62 species, belonging to 38 families and 57 genera, and the Fabaceae family stood out. Aristolochia triangularis, Petiveria alliaceae, and Stachytarpheta cayennensis had the highest use values (UV = 3.0, and Turnera subulata was the most versatile. Out of the 10 bodily systems identified, those with higher concentration of medicinal species are related to the most ordinary illnesses as general signs (inflammation, fever, respiratory tract diseases, and genitourinary tract diseases. This survey enabled the identification of some relevant aspects concerning the use and knowledge of medicinal plants in the community under study. The diversity of medicinal plants known and the availability of plants in the very community suggest a correlation between use/knowledge of medicinal plants and their availability.

  3. Ethnobotanical study on medicinal plants in the community of Curral Velho, Luís Correia, Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairla Lima Araujo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plants as medication in the state of Piauí, Brazil, has been a common practice passed from generation to generation. This study aimed to analyze the use of medicinal plants by residents of the community Curral Velho, in the municipality of Luís Correia, northern Piauí, Brazil, contributing to register and preserve the traditional botanical knowledge of the community under study and, as a consequence, the state’s. The survey of plant species used as a therapeutic resource was conducted through interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire applied to 38 informants. The plants were collected for scientific identification. Use value (UV, informant consensus factor (ICF, and relative importance (RI of species were determined. We registered 62 species, belonging to 38 families and 57 genera, and the Fabaceae family stood out. Aristolochia triangularis, Petiveria alliaceae, and Stachytarpheta cayennensis had the highest use values (UV = 3.0, and Turnera subulata was the most versatile. Out of the 10 bodily systems identified, those with higher concentration of medicinal species are related to the most ordinary illnesses as general signs (inflammation, fever, respiratory tract diseases, and genitourinary tract diseases. This survey enabled the identification of some relevant aspects concerning the use and knowledge of medicinal plants in the community under study. The diversity of medicinal plants known and the availability of plants in the very community suggest a correlation between use/knowledge of medicinal plants and their availability.

  4. Randomized random walk on a random walk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This paper discusses generalizations of the model introduced by Kehr and Kunter of the random walk of a particle on a one-dimensional chain which in turn has been constructed by a random walk procedure. The superimposed random walk is randomised in time according to the occurrences of a stochastic point process. The probability of finding the particle in a particular position at a certain instant is obtained explicitly in the transform domain. It is found that the asymptotic behaviour for large time of the mean-square displacement of the particle depends critically on the assumed structure of the basic random walk, giving a diffusion-like term for an asymmetric walk or a square root law if the walk is symmetric. Many results are obtained in closed form for the Poisson process case, and these agree with those given previously by Kehr and Kunter. (author)

  5. Effective herbs on the wound and skin disorders: a ethnobotanical study in Lorestan province, west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Delfan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify medicinal plants in Lorestan Province (west of Iran in treatment of wound healing and skin lesions. Methods: Questionnaire were made by health volunteers who were trained. The questionnaire about the beliefs and herbal therapy were filled by liaisons trained in the villages. Results: Questionnaire survey showed that 18 medicinal plants from 11 plant families were detected in the province for treating and healing skin lesions. Conclusions: The achieving information in the study reported that bioactive substances in some plants have pharmacologic effects in regulating biological processes which can accelerate healing, reducing inflammation and improving health effects. Suggested ideas in this study should be tested in clinical trials and the effectiveness of their therapeutic effects, their effective recognition and secondary materials in the form of natural medicine must be detected for releasing into the pharmaceutical market.

  6. The Status of Ethnobotanical Knowledge of Medicinal Plants and the Impacts of Resettlement in Delanta, Northwestern Wello, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meragiaw, Misganaw; Asfaw, Zemede; Argaw, Mekuria

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted in Delanta (Ethiopia) to examine the use of medicinal plants and investigate the impacts of the 1984/85 resettlement program on the local people's knowledge on herbal medicine and its uses. The research was conducted with 72 informants in six study sites through semistructured interviews, group discussion, and market survey. In this study, 133 species belonging to 116 genera and 57 families were documented. These plants were mentioned for uses in the treatment of about 76 human and livestock ailments. The family Asteraceae was represented by the highest number with 14 species. Herbs accounted for 52.6% of the total species and leaves (32.6%) were the most frequently used parts. The analysis showed that the resettlement program has both positive and negative impacts on nature rehabilitation and local knowledge along with many human induced threats. Most of the plant knowledge is held by traditional healers and permanent residents. The people's preference for some medicinal plants gave indications of continuity of the ethnomedicinal information among the inhabitants. The findings inform that efforts need to be directed to in situ conservation in two of the plant community types which could protect a good proportion (about 50%) of the medicinal plant species.

  7. Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmarcke, Erik

    1983-03-01

    Random variation over space and time is one of the few attributes that might safely be predicted as characterizing almost any given complex system. Random fields or "distributed disorder systems" confront astronomers, physicists, geologists, meteorologists, biologists, and other natural scientists. They appear in the artifacts developed by electrical, mechanical, civil, and other engineers. They even underlie the processes of social and economic change. The purpose of this book is to bring together existing and new methodologies of random field theory and indicate how they can be applied to these diverse areas where a "deterministic treatment is inefficient and conventional statistics insufficient." Many new results and methods are included. After outlining the extent and characteristics of the random field approach, the book reviews the classical theory of multidimensional random processes and introduces basic probability concepts and methods in the random field context. It next gives a concise amount of the second-order analysis of homogeneous random fields, in both the space-time domain and the wave number-frequency domain. This is followed by a chapter on spectral moments and related measures of disorder and on level excursions and extremes of Gaussian and related random fields. After developing a new framework of analysis based on local averages of one-, two-, and n-dimensional processes, the book concludes with a chapter discussing ramifications in the important areas of estimation, prediction, and control. The mathematical prerequisite has been held to basic college-level calculus.

  8. Levantamento randomizado sobre a prevalência de tabagismo nos maiores municípios do Brasil Random sample survey on the prevalence of smoking in the major cities of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sergio Leitão Filho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Divulgar os dados de um estudo transversal randomizado, realizado em 2001, pelo Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas. MÉTODOS: A população pesquisada neste levantamento incluiu indivíduos com 12-65 anos de idade, residentes nos 107 maiores municípios do Brasil (com mais de 200 mil habitantes, o que representou 27,7% da população brasileira na época, estimada em 169.799.170 habitantes. Foram realizadas no total 8.589 entrevistas. Utilizou-se o questionário Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, que foi traduzido e adaptado para o uso no Brasil. RESULTADOS: Do total, 41,1% dos entrevistados disseram já ter utilizado produtos derivados de tabaco alguma vez na vida. A prevalência de uso diário de tabaco foi de 17,4% da amostra (20,3% entre os homens e 14,8% entre as mulheres. Observou-se que 9% da população (10,1% entre os homens e 7,9% entre as mulheres são dependentes da nicotina, segundo os critérios do National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência do uso diário de tabaco, nos maiores municípios brasileiros, é significativamente menor na presente década do que a prevalência nacional ao final do século passado.OBJECTIVE: To provide access to the results of a randomized cross-sectional study conducted by the Brazilian Center for Information on Psychotropic Drugs in 2001. METHODS: This survey involved a random sample of individuals ranging from 12 to 65 years of age and residing in the 107 largest cities (over 200,000 inhabitants in Brazil, which represented 27.7% of the Brazilian population, estimated to be 169,799,170 inhabitants at the time. A total of 8,589 interviews were conducted. The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration questionnaire, translated and adapted for use in Brazil, was used in the interviews. RESULTS: Of the sample as a whole, 41.1% of the interviewees reported having experimented with tobacco products. The

  9. Random Constructions in Bell Inequalities: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazuelos, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Initially motivated by their relevance in foundations of quantum mechanics and more recently by their applications in different contexts of quantum information science, violations of Bell inequalities have been extensively studied during the last years. In particular, an important effort has been made in order to quantify such Bell violations. Probabilistic techniques have been heavily used in this context with two different purposes. First, to quantify how common the phenomenon of Bell violations is; and second, to find large Bell violations in order to better understand the possibilities and limitations of this phenomenon. However, the strong mathematical content of these results has discouraged some of the potentially interested readers. The aim of the present work is to review some of the recent results in this direction by focusing on the main ideas and removing most of the technical details, to make the previous study more accessible to a wide audience.

  10. Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal and nutritious plants used to manage opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Maud Kamatenesi; Asiimwe, Savina; Namutebi, Agnes; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin; Kakudidi, Esezah Kyomugisha

    2014-08-08

    Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the people of Uganda to treat a wide range of health problems. Our study presents results of an ethnobotanical inventory conducted to identify and document medicinal and nutritional plants used in the management of opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), the plant parts used, preparation and administration methods of herbal remedies. We performed semi-structured interviews with 79 respondents (women 78%, men 22%), who included specialists in medicinal plants (such as traditional birth attendants and herbalists) and non specialists with general knowledge of plant use. Respondents answered a semi-structured questionnaire regarding their knowledge of plants and general treatment practices including management of HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections. The reported plants were collected and identified. Data were analyzed using factor informant consensus and fidelity level to determine homogeneity of informants׳ knowledge on medicinal and nutritional plants suitable for different ailment categories and the most preferred plant species used to treat each ailment category in the study areas. The study revealed 148 plant species belonging to 54 families, most of which were herbs (50.7%). Leaves (61.6%) were the most frequently used parts in remedy preparations which were mainly administered orally (72%). The majority of plants (62%) were harvested from wild habitats. The most important species according to fidelity values are Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for anaemia, Mangifera indica L. for cough, Zehneria scabra (L. F.) Sond. for skin infections, Rhus natalensis Bernh.ex.Krauss for diarrhoea and Tarenna pavettoides (Harv.) Sim for appetite boosting. The factor informant consensus highlighted the agreement in the use of plants and showed that the respiratory infections category had the greatest agreement (0.60). Family Asteraceae accounted

  11. Analysing ethnobotanical and fishery-related importance of mangroves of the East-Godavari Delta (Andhra Pradesh, India for conservation and management purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar T

    2006-05-01

    zones, with significantly less perceptions of a decrease in the protected area, as compared to the adjacent non-protected area. A posteriori comparisons between sequential satellite imagery (retrospective till 1977 and respondents that were at least 15 years back then, revealed a mangrove decrease which was however perceived to different extents depending on the area with which the fishermen were familiar. While local needs had not been incorporated in the existing policy, we created a framework on how data on ethnobotanical traditions, fishery-related activities and local people's perceptions of change can be incorporated into management strategies.

  12. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Stolz, Eveline D.; Müller, Liz G.; Trojan-Rodrigues, Marilia; Baumhardt, Estela; Ritter, Mara R.; Rates, Stela M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil); we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the ...

  13. Random survey of HFC and R22 emission, refrigerants and leakage percentage in the dairy, meat and other food industries; Steekproefonderzoek HFK en R22-emissies, koudemiddelvulling en lekpercentage in de Zuivel, Vlees en Overige voedingsmiddelensectoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennartz, A.M.G.; Van den Bovenkamp, M.V. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    The EU member states are obliged to bring the EU F-gas and Ozone policy into operation, by minimalizing the R22 and F-gas emissions in cooperation with market parties. Factors that may guide the refrigerant emission policy are: leakage percentages per year (company level, sector, national level); emission quantities (company level, sector, national level); indirect indicators: knowledge, experience with refrigerating contractors, feed back to end users, proactive prevention by end users. At this moment there is no clear view of the emission percentages in practice with the end users. For this reason the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, by NL Agency, has initiated a random test survey in the Dairy, Meat and Other Food sectors. The main goal is to obtain data on the size and trends of R22 and HFK emissions in the period 2007-2010 [Dutch] De EU-lidstaten dienen uitvoering te geven aan het EU F-gas en Ozon-beleid, door met de markt te streven naar minimale R22 en F-gas emissies bij de eindgebruikers. Indicatoren (trends) om het koudemiddel emissiebeleid op te kunnen sturen zijn: jaarlijks optredende lekpercentages (per bedrijf, sector, totaal NL); emissiehoeveelheden (per bedrijf, sector, totaal NL); indirecte factoren: kennis/ervaring in lekkagepreventie bij koelinstallateurs, terugkoppeling naar de opdrachtgevers, preventiebeleid/prioriteit vanuit de opdrachtgevers. Tot nu toe ontbreekt een scherp beeld van de optredende lekpercentages (grootte, trends) bij de eindverbruikers. Daarom is door het Ministerie van IenM, via Agentschap NL een steekproefonderzoek uitgezet in de sectoren Zuivel, Vlees en Overige voedingsmiddelen. Doel is een beeld te krijgen van de omvang en trend van de R22 en HFK-emissies over 2007-2010.

  14. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0157594)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surveys were conducted in the course of a reef fish survey cruise conducted by the NOAA Coral Reef Ecosystem Program (CREP) at the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0159162)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake Island in 2014. Juvenile colony surveys...

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Jarvis Island from 2016-05-16 to 2016-05-22 (NCEI Accession 0159164)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Jarvis Island in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Rose Atoll from 2016-05-01 to 2016-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0159167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Rose Atoll in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  18. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1980-03-01

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined system as well as in random ones (e.g. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' we find the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt

  19. Random magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.

    1981-01-01

    The 'ingredients' which control a phase transition in well defined systems as well as in random ones (e.q. random magnetic systems) are listed and discussed within a somehow unifying perspective. Among these 'ingredients' the couplings and elements responsible for the cooperative phenomenon, the topological connectivity as well as possible topological incompatibilities, the influence of new degrees of freedom, the order parameter dimensionality, the ground state degeneracy and finally the 'quanticity' of the system are found. The general trends, though illustrated in magnetic systems, essentially hold for all phase transitions, and give a basis for connection of this area with Field theory, Theory of dynamical systems, etc. (Author) [pt

  20. Ethnobotanicals for Storage Pest Management: Effect of powdered leaves of Olax zeylanica in suppressing infestations of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachini Dinusha Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae is considered the major problem in stored rice in Sri Lanka. Due to the adverse effects of pesticide usage, research on the re-evaluation and use of many ethnobotanicals as alternative storage pest control agents has been intensified. Although plant materials with insecticidal properties provide small-scale farmers with a locally available, eco-friendly and inexpensive method of control of storage insect pests, lack of understanding and knowledge prevent their widespread application. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the botanical Olax zeylanica in controlling infestations of the rice weevil with the view of fulfilling this lack. In two separate bioassays, contact/feeding and fumigant toxicity of powdered leaves of O. zeylanica were tested against 1-7 days old adults under laboratory conditions. All experiments were conducted using a no-choice bioassay apparatus. Contact/feeding toxicity was tested by directly exposing weevils to 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g of leaf powder mixed with 100g of rice grains while fumigant toxicity was evaluated by using the same doses where weevils were exposed to fumes emitted from the leaf powders. In both bioassays 100% mortality of the weevils was observed within 18 hours of exposure to 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g doses of leaf powder. Percentage weevil mortality in treated rice tested with three doses of leaf powder at all the time intervals (except for 1.0g was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the corresponding control. No Contact/feeding toxicity was recorded when weevils were directly exposed to 1.0g leaf powder whereas only 14% weevil mortality was observed even after 24hours of exposure to fumes of leaf powder. Results also revealed that weevil mortality increased both with increasing dose and time of exposure. It is of interest to note that in both bioassays a 100% weevil mortality was obtained after 18 hours of exposure to

  1. Ethnomedicinal survey of various communities residing in Garo Hills of Durgapur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Arif; Islam, Md Khirul; Siraj, Md Afjalus; Saha, Sanjib; Barman, Apurba Kumar; Awang, Khalijah; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Shilpi, Jamil A; Jahan, Rownak; Islam, Erena; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2015-05-30

    Garo Hills represents one of earliest human habitation in Bangladesh preserving its ancient cultures due to the geographic location. It is situated in the most northern part of Durgapur sub-district having border with Meghalaya of India. Durgapur is rich in ethnic diversity with Garo and Hajong as the major ethnic groups along with Bangalee settlers from the mainstream population. Thus the ethnomedicinal practice in Garo Hills is considered rich as it encompasses three different groups. Present survey was undertaken to compile the medicinal plant usage among the various communities of the Garo Hills. The ethnomedicinal data was collected through open and focussed group discussions, and personal interviews using semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 185 people were interviewed, including the three community people and their traditional health practitioners (THPs). The usage of the plants were further analysed and are presented as use value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF) and fidelity level (FL). A total of 71 plants from 46 families and 64 genera were documented during our survey. Gastrointestinal disorders represented the major ailment category with the use of 36 plant species followed by dermatological problems (25 species). The ICF ranged from 0.90 to 0.99, with an average value of 0.96. Leaves (41) were the principle source of medication followed by fruits (27). Trees (33) were the major plant type used in the ethnobotanical practice. A total of 25 plants showed high FL (70.91 to 100 %) with 12 plants showing maximum FL (100 %). A number of the plants appear to have unique ethnomedicinal uses. Present investigation revealed a rich traditional practice in the studied region, which provides primary health care to the local community. This compilation of the ethnobotanical knowledge can help researchers to identify the uses of various medicinal plants that have a long history of use.

  2. Mahalanobis' Contributions to Sample Surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sample Survey started its operations in October 1950 under the ... and adopted random cuts for estimating the acreage under jute ... demographic factors relating to indebtedness, unemployment, ... traffic surveys, demand for currency coins and average life of .... Mahalanobis derived the optimum allocation in stratified.

  3. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J.C.; Ibrahim, S.R.; Brincker, Rune

    Abstraet Thispaper demansirates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification o flinear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing...

  4. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...

  5. Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, R.; Brincker, Rune

    1998-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how to use the Random Decrement (RD) technique for identification of linear structures subjected to ambient excitation. The theory behind the technique will be presented and guidelines how to choose the different variables will be given. This is done by introducing a new...

  6. Random dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1986-06-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)

  7. Random dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: Gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model. (orig.)

  8. Random Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, D. L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of random dynamics is the derivation of the laws of Nature as we know them (standard model) from inessential assumptions. The inessential assumptions made here are expressed as sets of general models at extremely high energies: gauge glass and spacetime foam. Both sets of models lead tentatively to the standard model.

  9. Redshift Survey Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. W.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Kaiser, N.

    1994-12-01

    In the first half of 1995, the Anglo-Australian Observatory is due to commission a wide field (2.1(deg) ), 400-fiber, double spectrograph system (2dF) at the f/3.3 prime focus of the AAT 3.9m bi-national facility. The instrument should be able to measure ~ 4000 galaxy redshifts (assuming a magnitude limit of b_J ~\\ 20) in a single dark night and is therefore ideally suited to studies of large-scale structure. We have carried out simple 3D numerical simulations to judge the relative merits of sparse surveys and contiguous surveys. We generate a survey volume and fill it randomly with particles according to a selection function which mimics a magnitude-limited survey at b_J = 19.7. Each of the particles is perturbed by a gaussian random field according to the dimensionless power spectrum k(3) P(k) / 2pi (2) determined by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994) from the IRAS QDOT survey. We introduce some redshift-space distortion as described by Kaiser (1987), a `thermal' component measured from pairwise velocities (Davis & Peebles 1983), and `fingers of god' due to rich clusters at random density enhancements. Our particular concern is to understand how the window function W(2(k)) of the survey geometry compromises the accuracy of statistical measures [e.g., P(k), xi (r), xi (r_sigma ,r_pi )] commonly used in the study of large-scale structure. We also examine the reliability of various tools (e.g. genus) for describing the topological structure within a contiguous region of the survey.

  10. Epidemia de dengue em Fortaleza, Ceará: inquérito soro-epidemiológico aleatório Dengue epidemic in a Northeastern Brazil: random epidemiological serum survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. C. Vasconcelos

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Seguindo-se à epidemia de dengue (DEN, em 1994, em Fortaleza, Ceará, causada pelo sorotipo 2 (DEN-2, realizou-se inquérito soro-epidemiológico aleatório para avaliar e dimensionar o impacto da mesma e a prevalência do dengue por distrito sanitário. MÉTODO: Foi aplicado questionário contendo informações gerais, condições socio-econômicas, informações sobre o quadro clínico e tempo de doença. A amostra foi calculada para estimar uma prevalência de 20%, com erro relativo de 10%, e intervalo de confiança de 95% (erro a de 5%. O sorteio e as análises foram realizadas por meio de computador usando programas apropriados. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: Foram colhidas 1.341 amostras de soro de 9 distritos sanitários, testadas por inibição da hemaglutinação, sendo classificadas como negativas e positivas (respostas primária - RP e secundária - RS. Foram reativas 588 (44% amostras, sendo 93 (7% RP e 495 (37% RS. A prevalência global em Fortaleza variou de 21% a 71%. Houve 41% (243/588 de infecções assintomáticas (IA e 59% (346/588 sintomáticas (IS. Não houve diferença da prevalência quanto ao sexo, faixa etária e escolaridade, ao contrário da condição socioeconômica que apresentou diferenças estatisticamente significantes (p OBJECTIVE: A seroepidemiological random survey was carried out in Fortaleza city, State of Ceará, Brazil, following an epidemic of dengue virus type 2 (DEN 2, with the purpose of evaluating the frequency of clinical manifestations (signs and symptoms and the prevalence of dengue infection. METHOD: A questionnaire calling for information on address, sex, age, clinical, epidemiological and economic status was applied to the population, followed by venupuncture collection of 5-10 ml of blood for testing by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI. The sample was calculated to obtain a prevalence of 20% with relative risk of 10% and confidence interval of 95%. All information obtained was analyzed by

  11. Random walks and diffusion on networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Naoki; Porter, Mason A.; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2017-11-01

    Random walks are ubiquitous in the sciences, and they are interesting from both theoretical and practical perspectives. They are one of the most fundamental types of stochastic processes; can be used to model numerous phenomena, including diffusion, interactions, and opinions among humans and animals; and can be used to extract information about important entities or dense groups of entities in a network. Random walks have been studied for many decades on both regular lattices and (especially in the last couple of decades) on networks with a variety of structures. In the present article, we survey the theory and applications of random walks on networks, restricting ourselves to simple cases of single and non-adaptive random walkers. We distinguish three main types of random walks: discrete-time random walks, node-centric continuous-time random walks, and edge-centric continuous-time random walks. We first briefly survey random walks on a line, and then we consider random walks on various types of networks. We extensively discuss applications of random walks, including ranking of nodes (e.g., PageRank), community detection, respondent-driven sampling, and opinion models such as voter models.

  12. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  13. "Suntelligence" Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to the American Academy of Dermatology's "Suntelligence" sun-smart survey. Please answer the following questions to measure ... be able to view a ranking of major cities suntelligence based on residents' responses to this survey. ...

  14. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the U.S. Pacific Reefs from 2008-01-27 to 2012-09-13 (NCEI Accession 0162472)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (nSPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  15. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163743)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Wake, Baker, Howland and Jarvis in 2017....

  16. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa from 2016-04-15 to 2016-05-05 (NCEI Accession 0157597)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  17. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of American Samoa from 2015-02-15 to 2015-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0157588)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  18. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Wake Island from 2014-03-16 to 2014-03-20 (NCEI Accession 0157572)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  19. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-03 to 2017-06-20 (NCEI Accession 0166381)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  20. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of Guam from 2014-09-29 to 2014-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  1. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Jarvis and Wake from 2017-04-02 to 2017-04-23 (NCEI Accession 0163747)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  2. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Main Hawaiian Islands from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0159147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Main Hawaiian Islands in 2013. Juvenile...

  3. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2015-0614 to 2015-08-13 (NCEI Accession 0157591)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  4. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0157590)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  5. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-01-26 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0157595)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  6. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data of the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2013-08-02 to 2013-10-31 (NCEI Accession 0157589)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (SPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  7. Pacific Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Reef Fish, including Benthic Estimate Data at Coral Reef Sites across the Pacific Ocean from 2008 to 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The stationary point count (nSPC) method is used to conduct reef fish surveys in the Hawaiian and Mariana Archipelagos, American Samoa, and the Pacific Remote Island...

  8. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2014-03-25 to 2014-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0159166)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana Archipelago in 2014. Juvenile colony...

  9. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Hawaiian Archipelago from 2016-07-13 to 2016-09-27 (NCEI Accession 0159163)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Hawaiian archipelago in 2016. Juvenile...

  10. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas from 2015-0126 to 2015-04-28 (NCEI Accession 0159161)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2015....

  11. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across the Mariana Archipelago from 2017-05-05 to 2017-06-21 (NCEI Accession 0166383)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across the Mariana archipelago in 2017. Juvenile colony...

  12. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  13. Random matrices and random difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models

  14. Survey research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Amy K; Salem, Barbara

    2010-10-01

    Survey research is a unique methodology that can provide insight into individuals' perspectives and experiences and can be collected on a large population-based sample. Specifically, in plastic surgery, survey research can provide patients and providers with accurate and reproducible information to assist with medical decision-making. When using survey methods in research, researchers should develop a conceptual model that explains the relationships of the independent and dependent variables. The items of the survey are of primary importance. Collected data are only useful if they accurately measure the concepts of interest. In addition, administration of the survey must follow basic principles to ensure an adequate response rate and representation of the intended target sample. In this article, the authors review some general concepts important for successful survey research and discuss the many advantages this methodology has for obtaining limitless amounts of valuable information.

  15. Topics in random walks in random environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznitman, A.-S.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last twenty-five years random motions in random media have been intensively investigated and some new general methods and paradigms have by now emerged. Random walks in random environment constitute one of the canonical models of the field. However in dimension bigger than one they are still poorly understood and many of the basic issues remain to this day unresolved. The present series of lectures attempt to give an account of the progresses which have been made over the last few years, especially in the study of multi-dimensional random walks in random environment with ballistic behavior. (author)

  16. Surveys & Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My residential construction. Business Dynamics Statistics (BDS) Provides measures of openings and closings, job

  17. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  18. Can Weighting Compensate for Sampling Issues in Internet Surveys?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaske, J.J.; Jacobs, M.H.; Sijtsma, M.T.J.; Beaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    While Internet surveys have increased in popularity, results may not be representative of target populations. Weighting is commonly used to compensate for sampling issues. This article compared two surveys conducted in the Netherlands—a random mail survey (n = 353) and a convenience Internet survey

  19. Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Cleaned and QCd data for the Fishing Effort Survey. Questions on fishing and other out are asked on weather and outdoor activity, including fishing trips. Used for...

  20. Surveying Humaness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Randi; Gad, Christopher

    carried out in a Danish county in order to improve treatment of people who have suffered from long-term illnesses. The surveys concern not only feed back on how people experience their present and past interaction with the social services and health care system; they also ask people to indicate the state......Christopher Gad. Ph.d. Dept. of Information and Media Studies Randi Markussen. Associate Professor, Dept. of Information and Media Studies. rmark@imv.au.dk   Abstract:   Surveying humanness -politics of care improvement   For various reasons we both were subjected to a specific survey procedure...... and development of a large collection of biological and psychological symptoms and psycho-social problems. However, the surveys say nothing about how the information will be of use to the people who answer the procedure or how this scientific intervention will be put to use more specifically within the public...

  1. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  2. Folk medicine in Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State: an ethnobotanical approach=Medicina popular em Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná: uma abordagem etnobotânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Caroline Novakowski

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present results from an ethnobotanical study (from February to August 2009 aiming the improvement and rationalization of medical practices, based on popular use of plants. We applied semi-structured interviews to 220 families from the urban area of Mandaguaçu municipality, Paraná State. During the interviews we recorded the following information about the used plants: common name; plant part used; method of preparation; collection site; therapeutic indication, and known adverse effects. Additionally, we compared the data obtained in the interviews with the literature in order to identify contradiction in use and application. Among the interviewees, 90% use medicinal plants, obtained especially from the backyards. We recorded 44 ethnobotanical citations, comprising 47 species (22 families. The species most frequently mentioned in the interviews were, respectively, Cymbopogon citrates (DC Stapf. (Lemon grass, Mentha sp. (Mint, Plectranthus barbatus Andrews (False Boldo and Plectranthus ornatus Codd (Dog bane. The applications most cited were: the treatment of diseases from the digestive tract (122 citations, respiratory (67 citations and nervous system (40 citations. In general, the population knows the correct method for preparing the medicinal plants. However, they report that do not know any adverse effect caused by these plants. This scenario is worrying because some species are recognized in the literature as potentially toxic or responsible for adverse effects.Apresenta-se resultado de estudo etnobotânico (fevereiro a agosto/2009 visando melhoramento e racionalização das práticas medicinais populares fundamentadas no uso de plantas. Foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas a 220 famílias pertencentes à zona urbana do município de Mandaguaçu, Estado do Paraná. Durante as entrevistas foram registradas as seguintes informações das plantas utilizadas: nome comum, parte usada, modo de preparo, local de coleta, indica

  3. Survey Methods, Traditional, Public Opinion Polling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmelund-Præstekær, Christian; Hopmann, David Nicolas; Pedersen, Rasmus Tue

    2017-01-01

    Traditional public opinion polls are surveys in which a random sample of a given population is asked questions about their attitudes, knowledge, or behavior. If conducted properly, the answers from such surveys are approximately representative of the entire population. Traditional public opinion...... polling is typically based on four different methods of data gathering, or combinations hereof: face-to-face, postal surveys, phone surveys, and web surveys. Given that opinion polls are based on a sample, we cannot be sure that the sample reflects public opinion perfectly, however—even if randomness...... is perfect. Moreover, responses may be highly dependent on the contextual information provided with the question. Also, it may be difficult to capture past or complex causes of attitudes or behavior. In short, surveys are a precise way of measuring public opinion, but they do not come without challenges....

  4. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  5. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  6. Quantumness, Randomness and Computability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness plays a central role in the quantum mechanical description of our interactions. We review the relationship between the violation of Bell inequalities, non signaling and randomness. We discuss the challenge in defining a random string, and show that algorithmic information theory provides a necessary condition for randomness using Borel normality. We close with a view on incomputablity and its implications in physics. (paper)

  7. Surveying Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2009-01-01

    In relation to surveying education there is one big question to be asked: Is the role of the surveyors changing? In a global perspective the answer will be "Yes". There is a big swing that could be entitled "From Measurement to Management". This does not imply that measurement is no longer....... In surveying education there are a range of other challenges to be faced. These relate to the focus on learning to learn; the need for flexible curriculum to deal with constant change; the move towards introducing virtual academy; the demand for creating a quality culture; and the perspective of lifelong...... on an efficient interaction between education, research, and professional practice....

  8. How random is a random vector?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-12-01

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the "generalized variance" of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the "Wilks standard deviation" -the square root of the generalized variance-is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the "uncorrelation index" -a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation-is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: "randomness measures" and "independence indices" of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to "randomness diagrams"-tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of "independence indices" yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  9. How random is a random vector?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-01-01

    Over 80 years ago Samuel Wilks proposed that the “generalized variance” of a random vector is the determinant of its covariance matrix. To date, the notion and use of the generalized variance is confined only to very specific niches in statistics. In this paper we establish that the “Wilks standard deviation” –the square root of the generalized variance–is indeed the standard deviation of a random vector. We further establish that the “uncorrelation index” –a derivative of the Wilks standard deviation–is a measure of the overall correlation between the components of a random vector. Both the Wilks standard deviation and the uncorrelation index are, respectively, special cases of two general notions that we introduce: “randomness measures” and “independence indices” of random vectors. In turn, these general notions give rise to “randomness diagrams”—tangible planar visualizations that answer the question: How random is a random vector? The notion of “independence indices” yields a novel measure of correlation for Lévy laws. In general, the concepts and results presented in this paper are applicable to any field of science and engineering with random-vectors empirical data.

  10. Groups, graphs and random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Salvatori, Maura; Sava-Huss, Ecaterina

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and panoramic account of the theory of random walks on groups and graphs, stressing the strong connections of the theory with other branches of mathematics, including geometric and combinatorial group theory, potential analysis, and theoretical computer science. This volume brings together original surveys and research-expository papers from renowned and leading experts, many of whom spoke at the workshop 'Groups, Graphs and Random Walks' celebrating the sixtieth birthday of Wolfgang Woess in Cortona, Italy. Topics include: growth and amenability of groups; Schrödinger operators and symbolic dynamics; ergodic theorems; Thompson's group F; Poisson boundaries; probability theory on buildings and groups of Lie type; structure trees for edge cuts in networks; and mathematical crystallography. In what is currently a fast-growing area of mathematics, this book provides an up-to-date and valuable reference for both researchers and graduate students, from which future research activities will undoubted...

  11. Environmental surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Ribeiro, C.

    1977-01-01

    An environmental survey conducted in high natural radioactivity areas and methods used to evaluated radiation doses received by the population are presented. It is shown doses absorved due to ingestion of radioactively contaminated food and water. Exposure to external gamma radiation fields or inhalation of abnormal quantities of natural airborne radioactivity are discussed [pt

  12. Survey < > Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The project, Survey Creation suggests that point cloud models from 3D scans of an existing space can be the source for explorative drawings. By probing into the procedure of 3D laser scanning, it became possible to make use of the available point clouds to both access geometric representation......) and the creation drawing (of the anticipated)....

  13. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by indigenous people in and around Dirre Sheikh Hussein heritage site of South-eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demie, Gadisa; Negash, Mesele; Awas, Tesfaye

    2018-06-28

    The uses of medicinal plants have a long history and become important sources of the health cares in Ethiopia. These medicinal plants and their associated indigenous knowledge are being seriously depleted due to rapid change in environment and socioeconomic conditions of the country. However, as to the knowledge of the present researchers, limited studies have been done to identify these medicinal plants and to preserve the communities' indigenous knowledge on these plants. This study aimed at assessing and documenting traditional medicinal plant species, mode of preparation and delivery, and parts used in and around Dirre Sheikh Hussein heritage site of South-eastern Ethiopia. The study was also meant to explore related indigenous knowledge of the communities on the utilization of medicinal plants. The data were collected using household survey, in-depth interviews of key informants, focus group discussion and field observation. The number of informants involved in the survey was 194 (one hundred ninety-four). A total of 87 medicinal plants belonging to 77 genera and 51 families were identified. These medicinal plants were comprised of shrubs (33%), trees (31%), herbs (29%) and climbers (7%). Of the total number of medicinal plants found out in the study, 43 were used to treat human diseases, 8 were used to cure animal diseases and 36 were used to treat both human and live stock ailments. Of the identified plant species, about 83% species were proved that they are commonly known and used elsewhere whereas, the uses of remainder ones are limited to the study area. Most of the medicinal plants (60%) were sourced from the forest and the rest were found from both the forest garden. The study also revealed that leaves were the most frequently mentioned (36%) plant part used in preparing remedies. Crushing (20%) and oral route of administration (59%) were commonly mentioned mode of preparation and administration, respectively The study also indicated that peoples

  14. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.

    2013-01-01

    Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to

  15. Afrika Statistika ISSN 2316-090X Improved Randomized Response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Efficiency, Proportion Estimation, Randomized Response ... as drunk driving, abortion, alcoholism, illicit drugs usage, tax evasion, illegal possession of arms are ... is the impact of the response distortion on the survey or test results.

  16. Readership survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article reviews the last readership survey, which helped to check readers' reactions and the level and style of the journal. The majority of readers (32 per cent), not surprisingly, work in high energy physics. In fact, if the estimate of the world high energy physics population as some 5000 people is correct, CERN Courier reaches every one of them. The next large category of readers is the teaching profession (21 percent), with industrialists (12 per cent) in third place

  17. Practical guidelines for developing a smartphone-based survey instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    The increasing relevance of mobile surveys makes it important to gather empirical evidence on designs of such surveys. This research note presents the results of a test study conducted to identify the best set-up for a smartphone-based survey. We base our analysis on a random sample of Danish...

  18. The use of random walk in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydges, D.

    1984-01-01

    Ferromagnetic spin systems and gauge theories where the gauge group is topologically a sphere, e.g. Z 2 , U(1) and SU(2) are related to the theory of random walk and random surfaces respectively. I survey some applications of this theme to the phi 4 field theories. (orig.)

  19. Total Survey Error for Longitudinal Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynn, Peter; Lugtig, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the application of the total survey error paradigm to longitudinal surveys. Several aspects of survey error, and of the interactions between different types of error, are distinct in the longitudinal survey context. Furthermore, error trade-off decisions in survey design and

  20. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  1. On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random dynamic load. ... In this paper, we investigate a dynamical system in a random setting of dual ... characterization of the random process for determining the dynamic buckling load ...

  2. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Ethnopharmacological survey of plant species used in folk medicine against central nervous system disorders in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantati, Yendube T; Kodjo, K Magloire; Dogbeavou, Koffi S; Vaudry, David; Leprince, Jérôme; Gbeassor, Messanvi

    2016-04-02

    Neurological diseases are rising all around the world. In a developing country such as Togo, although plant-based medicines are the only means, still very little is known regarding the nature and efficiency of medicinal plants used by indigenous people to manage central nervous system (CNS) disorders. This study, an ethnobotanical survey, aimed to report plant species used in traditional medicine (TM) for the management of various CNS disorders in Togo. 52 traditional actors (TA) including 33 traditional healers (TH) and 19 medicinal plant sellers (MPS) were interviewed, using a questionnaire mentioning informants' general data and uses of medicinal plants. The present study reports 44 medicinal plant species distributed into 26 families, mentioning scientific and common local names, plant organs used, preparation method, root of administration and putative applications. It appears that there is a real knowledge on medicinal plants used for traditional treatment of CNS disorders in Togo and that the local flora abounds of potentially neuroactive plants which could be useful for the discovery of antipsychotic or neuroprotective molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reader survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-10-15

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big.

  5. Reader survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Many, thanks to the hundreds of people who took the time to reply to the CERN Courier readership survey questionnaire published in our May issue. Bringing out a monthly journal is a lonely business. Issue after issue goes out, and the only response is when there's an occasional factual error. Send out a readership survey and a faint echo comes back. Most striking was the sheer enthusiasm of the replies. Despite the current erosion of support in the US (see page 2), subatomic physics has significant world-wide box-office appeal. Most important was to find out who our readers are. 61% of the replies came from Europe, 21% from the USA, 14% from elsewhere, (including the former Soviet Union), and 4% from inside CERN. Not surprisingly, the main audience (37%) is in the high energy physics sector. Then comes teaching (31%), followed closely by accelerators operations and design (12%) and industry (11%). Apart from detailed breakdowns of readership and feedback on the journal's content and style, the replies revealed several major features. Firstly, the CERN Courier is widely read and appreciated. There are a lot of people outside the immediate research field who want to keep broadly up to date with the latest developments in high energy physics and related fields, without getting too involved in details. It was gratifying to receive replies from far-flung places (Nepal, Indonesia,....), and learn how much distant readers appreciate getting such regular information. 'It helps us feel part of the world scene,' was a typical such reply, from Australia. Despite jet airplanes, fax and electronic mail, our planet is still big

  6. Improving Survey Response Rates in Online Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Jin; Nielsen, Christian Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    Identifying ways to efficiently maximize the response rate to surveys is important to survey-based research. However, evidence on the response rate effect of donation incentives and especially altruistic and egotistic-type text appeal interventions is sparse and ambiguous. By a randomized survey...... experiment among 6,162 members of an online survey panel, this article shows how low-cost incentives and cost-free text appeal interventions may impact the survey response rate in online panels. The experimental treatments comprise (a) a cash prize lottery incentive, (b) two donation incentives equating...... survey response with a monetary donation to a good cause, (c) an egotistic-type text appeal, and (d) an altruistic-type text appeal. Relative to a control group, we find higher response rates among the recipients of the egotistic-type text appeal and the lottery incentive. Donation incentives yield lower...

  7. Misuse of randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jianping; Kjaergard, Lise Lotte; Gluud, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The quality of randomization of Chinese randomized trials on herbal medicines for hepatitis B was assessed. Search strategy and inclusion criteria were based on the published protocol. One hundred and seventy-six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving 20,452 patients with chronic hepatitis B...... virus (HBV) infection were identified that tested Chinese medicinal herbs. They were published in 49 Chinese journals. Only 10% (18/176) of the studies reported the method by which they randomized patients. Only two reported allocation concealment and were considered as adequate. Twenty percent (30...

  8. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  9. Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical and Pharmacological Aspects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Department of Chemistry, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad-22060, KPK, 2School of Chemical and. Material Engineering, 3USAID Funded Center for Advanced Studies in Energy at NUST, ... different languages.

  10. ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES OF WEST AFRICAN OKRA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    18-87 years old. Of this number, 259 (48%) ... Traditional uses of the crop include food (100%) and non- ... inter-relationship studies between people and plants in the ..... of economic plants sold in the market of Benin City (Edo State). Nigeria.

  11. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electronic search engines such as Google, Google scholar, publishing sites such as Elsevier .... A number of pharmacological activities of C. bulbispermum have been ..... bulbispermum using the direct plate method and minimum inhibitory ...

  12. Diuretic plants in the Bible: ethnobotanical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliotta, Giovanni; De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Iorio, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Besides its religious importance, the Bible, because of its ancient origin represents a relevant witness of the way of life of the people mentioned in it. The Holy Scripture is also the first text revealing the utility of plants for man, as natural sources of food, wood, fibers, oils and medicinal herbs. In the last 60 years, several distinguished botanists have attempted to identify the scientific names of the plants cited in the Bible. Nonetheless, these scholars have provided different lists of plants appearing in the Bible, none of which could be accepted as indisputable. The authors have combined their expertise to focus on the identification of the diuretic plants, through an historical analysis of the literature on this issue.

  13. Review of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological evidences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ethiopia is endowed with enormous diversity of plants. However, the majority of these plants have not been scientifically investigated. Traditional knowledge on the use of plants as medicinal agents has been transferred from generation to generation, as guarded secrets, through the word of mouth, and ...

  14. Ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To present an overview of the ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Crinum bulbispermum so as to understand its importance and potential in primary healthcare systems. Methods: A review of the literature was undertaken and an in-depth analysis of previous research on ethnobotany, phytochemistry ...

  15. Review of Ethnobotanical and Ethnopharmacological Evidences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    additives to treat symptomatic cancer in some parts of the country ... potent antiangiogenic effect against human prostate cancer cell ... Toxicity: Plants produce biologically active ...... nutritional value of extracts of the seed of Glinus lotoides.

  16. Random surfaces and strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.

    1987-08-01

    The theory of strings is the theory of random surfaces. I review the present attempts to regularize the world sheet of the string by triangulation. The corresponding statistical theory of triangulated random surfaces has a surprising rich structure, but the connection to conventional string theory seems non-trivial. (orig.)

  17. Derandomizing from random strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Fortnow, L.; Koucký, M.; Loff, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we show that BPP is truth-table reducible to the set of Kolmogorov random strings R(K). It was previously known that PSPACE, and hence BPP is Turing-reducible to R(K). The earlier proof relied on the adaptivity of the Turing-reduction to find a Kolmogorov-random string of polynomial

  18. Precision in systematic trawl surveys as assessed from replicate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local variability was analysed as random noise, modelled and later reapplied ... The main statistical techniques applied were less susceptible to outlier catches ... be used to estimate the vessel factor when intercalibrating trawl survey vessels.

  19. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  20. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  1. Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloulian, George K.; Woo, Simon S.; Chow, Edward T.

    2013-01-01

    Net-centric networking environments are often faced with limited resources and must utilize bandwidth as efficiently as possible. In networking environments that span wide areas, the data transmission has to be efficient without any redundant or exuberant metadata. The Autonomous Byte Stream Randomizer software provides an extra level of security on top of existing data encryption methods. Randomizing the data s byte stream adds an extra layer to existing data protection methods, thus making it harder for an attacker to decrypt protected data. Based on a generated crypto-graphically secure random seed, a random sequence of numbers is used to intelligently and efficiently swap the organization of bytes in data using the unbiased and memory-efficient in-place Fisher-Yates shuffle method. Swapping bytes and reorganizing the crucial structure of the byte data renders the data file unreadable and leaves the data in a deconstructed state. This deconstruction adds an extra level of security requiring the byte stream to be reconstructed with the random seed in order to be readable. Once the data byte stream has been randomized, the software enables the data to be distributed to N nodes in an environment. Each piece of the data in randomized and distributed form is a separate entity unreadable on its own right, but when combined with all N pieces, is able to be reconstructed back to one. Reconstruction requires possession of the key used for randomizing the bytes, leading to the generation of the same cryptographically secure random sequence of numbers used to randomize the data. This software is a cornerstone capability possessing the ability to generate the same cryptographically secure sequence on different machines and time intervals, thus allowing this software to be used more heavily in net-centric environments where data transfer bandwidth is limited.

  2. Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kota, V K B

    2014-01-01

    Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles.  The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...

  3. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  4. Quantum random access memory

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Lloyd, Seth; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    A random access memory (RAM) uses n bits to randomly address N=2^n distinct memory cells. A quantum random access memory (qRAM) uses n qubits to address any quantum superposition of N memory cells. We present an architecture that exponentially reduces the requirements for a memory call: O(log N) switches need be thrown instead of the N used in conventional (classical or quantum) RAM designs. This yields a more robust qRAM algorithm, as it in general requires entanglement among exponentially l...

  5. Randomization of inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    As the numbers and complexity of nuclear facilities increase, limitations on resources for international safeguards may restrict attainment of safeguards goals. One option for improving the efficiency of limited resources is to expand the current inspection regime to include random allocation of the amount and frequency of inspection effort to material strata or to facilities. This paper identifies the changes in safeguards policy, administrative procedures, and operational procedures that would be necessary to accommodate randomized inspections and identifies those situations where randomization can improve inspection efficiency and those situations where the current nonrandom inspections should be maintained. 9 refs., 1 tab

  6. Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)

    1963-07-01

    This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.

  7. Alumni Perspectives Survey, 2010. Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sabeen

    2010-01-01

    During the months of April and September of 2009, the Graduate Management Admission Council[R] (GMAC[R]) conducted the Alumni Perspectives Survey, a longitudinal study of prior respondents to the Global Management Education Graduate Survey of management students nearing graduation. A total of 3,708 alumni responded to the April 2009 survey,…

  8. USING STATISTICAL SURVEY IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia TESELIOS

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Statistical survey is an effective method of statistical investigation that involves gathering quantitative data, which is often preferred in statistical reports due to the information which can be obtained regarding the entire population studied by observing a part of it. Therefore, because of the information provided, polls are used in many research areas. In economics, statistics are used in the decision making process in choosing competitive strategies in the analysis of certain economic phenomena, the formulation of forecasts. Economic study presented in this paper is to illustrate how a simple random sampling is used to analyze the existing parking spaces situation in a given locality.

  9. Tunable random packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing η RLP ≅0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing η RCP ≅0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values is obtained under normal gravity in air, by adjusting a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the formation of the pile. Attractive and repulsive magnetic interactions are found to affect stongly the internal structure and the stability of sphere packing. After the formation of the pile, the induced cohesion is decreased continuously along a linear decreasing ramp. The controlled collapse of the pile is found to generate various and reproducible values of the random packing fraction η

  10. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  11. Theory of random sets

    CERN Document Server

    Molchanov, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph, now in a thoroughly revised second edition, offers the latest research on random sets. It has been extended to include substantial developments achieved since 2005, some of them motivated by applications of random sets to econometrics and finance. The present volume builds on the foundations laid by Matheron and others, including the vast advances in stochastic geometry, probability theory, set-valued analysis, and statistical inference. It shows the various interdisciplinary relationships of random set theory within other parts of mathematics, and at the same time fixes terminology and notation that often vary in the literature, establishing it as a natural part of modern probability theory and providing a platform for future development. It is completely self-contained, systematic and exhaustive, with the full proofs that are necessary to gain insight. Aimed at research level, Theory of Random Sets will be an invaluable reference for probabilists; mathematicians working in convex and integ...

  12. Lesotho - Enterprise Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The 2011 MCA-Lesotho baseline enterprise survey is a national survey of enterprises. The main objective of the survey was to assess the current status of businesses...

  13. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  14. Quantum randomness and unpredictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Gregg [Quantum Communication and Measurement Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Quantum mechanics is a physical theory supplying probabilities corresponding to expectation values for measurement outcomes. Indeed, its formalism can be constructed with measurement as a fundamental process, as was done by Schwinger, provided that individual measurements outcomes occur in a random way. The randomness appearing in quantum mechanics, as with other forms of randomness, has often been considered equivalent to a form of indeterminism. Here, it is argued that quantum randomness should instead be understood as a form of unpredictability because, amongst other things, indeterminism is not a necessary condition for randomness. For concreteness, an explication of the randomness of quantum mechanics as the unpredictability of quantum measurement outcomes is provided. Finally, it is shown how this view can be combined with the recently introduced view that the very appearance of individual quantum measurement outcomes can be grounded in the Plenitude principle of Leibniz, a principle variants of which have been utilized in physics by Dirac and Gell-Mann in relation to the fundamental processes. This move provides further support to Schwinger's ''symbolic'' derivation of quantum mechanics from measurement. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. An Exploratory Survey of Teachers' Attitudes toward Sex-Stereotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minix, Nancy A.; And Others

    This survey examined the attitudes of teachers in southwestern Kentucky toward sex-stereotyping in the classroom. A random sample of 35 teachers of grades kindergarten through adult completed a written survey instrument that asked them to read statements regarding sex-stereotyping and to rate themselves regarding their own classroom practices.…

  16. Understanding Sample Surveys: Selective Learning about Social Science Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin-Percival, Mary; Johnson, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We investigate differences in what students learn about survey methodology in a class on public opinion presented in two critically different ways: with the inclusion or exclusion of an original research project using a random-digit-dial telephone survey. Using a quasi-experimental design and data obtained from pretests and posttests in two public…

  17. Reconstructing random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeong, C.L.; Torquato, S.

    1998-01-01

    We formulate a procedure to reconstruct the structure of general random heterogeneous media from limited morphological information by extending the methodology of Rintoul and Torquato [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186, 467 (1997)] developed for dispersions. The procedure has the advantages that it is simple to implement and generally applicable to multidimensional, multiphase, and anisotropic structures. Furthermore, an extremely useful feature is that it can incorporate any type and number of correlation functions in order to provide as much morphological information as is necessary for accurate reconstruction. We consider a variety of one- and two-dimensional reconstructions, including periodic and random arrays of rods, various distribution of disks, Debye random media, and a Fontainebleau sandstone sample. We also use our algorithm to construct heterogeneous media from specified hypothetical correlation functions, including an exponentially damped, oscillating function as well as physically unrealizable ones. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  18. Using Electronic Surveys: Advice from Survey Professionals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Shannon

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reports the perceptions and recommendations of sixty-two experienced survey..researchers from the American Educational Research Association regarding the use of..electronic surveys. The most positive aspects cited for the use of electronic surveys were..reduction of costs (i.e., postage, phone charges, the use of electronic mail for pre-notification or..follow-up purposes, and the compatibility of data with existing software programs. These..professionals expressed limitations in using electronic surveys pertaining to the limited..sampling frame as well as issues of confidentiality, privacy, and the credibility of the sample...They advised that electronic surveys designed with the varied technological background and..capabilities of the respondent in mind, follow sound principles of survey construction, and be..administered to pre-notified, targeted populations with published email addresses.

  19. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  20. Random quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzda, Wojciech; Cappellini, Valerio; Sommers, Hans-Juergen; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2009-01-01

    We define a natural ensemble of trace preserving, completely positive quantum maps and present algorithms to generate them at random. Spectral properties of the superoperator Φ associated with a given quantum map are investigated and a quantum analogue of the Frobenius-Perron theorem is proved. We derive a general formula for the density of eigenvalues of Φ and show the connection with the Ginibre ensemble of real non-symmetric random matrices. Numerical investigations of the spectral gap imply that a generic state of the system iterated several times by a fixed generic map converges exponentially to an invariant state

  1. What role for qualitative methods in randomized experiments?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The vibrant debate on randomized experiments within international development has been slow to accept a role for qualitative methods within research designs. Whilst there are examples of how 'field visits' or descriptive analyses of context can play a complementary, but secondary, role...... history interviews have advantages over other qualitative methods, and offers one alternative to the conventional survey tool....... to quantitative methods, little attention has been paid to the possibility of randomized experiments that allow a primary role to qualitative methods. This paper assesses whether a range of qualitative methods compromise the internal and external validity criteria of randomized experiments. It suggests that life...

  2. Random a-adic groups and random net fractals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yin [Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: Lyjerry7788@hotmail.com; Su Weiyi [Department of Mathematics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: suqiu@nju.edu.cn

    2008-08-15

    Based on random a-adic groups, this paper investigates the relationship between the existence conditions of a positive flow in a random network and the estimation of the Hausdorff dimension of a proper random net fractal. Subsequently we describe some particular random fractals for which our results can be applied. Finally the Mauldin and Williams theorem is shown to be very important example for a random Cantor set with application in physics as shown in E-infinity theory.

  3. El análisis de narrativas en etnobotánica: el "yuchán" (Ceiba Chodatii, Bombacaceae en el discurso de los wichís del Chaco Semiárido salteño, Argentina Narrative analysis in ethnobotanical investigations: the "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae in the oral discourse of the Wichí of the Semiarid Chaco in Salta province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Suárez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio de caso referido a un árbol característico de los bosques chaquenos, el "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae, a fin de ilustrar la importancia del análisis de narrativas vernáculas para la investigación etnobotánica. Se trabajó articulando dos enfoques teórico-metódológicos: por un lado, se estudiaron los roles, usos y significados de la planta en el contexto sociocultural wichí desde una perspectiva etnobotánica; por otro, se analizaron tres discursos orales en base a métodos propios de disciplinas como la antropología sociocultural y lingüística, la etnografía del habla y la folklorística. Además de corroborar y profundizar los resultados que surgen de los datos etnobotánicos, el análisis de las narrativas aportó nueva y valiosa información. El conjunto de los resultados obtenidos demuestran que el estudio detallado de las narrativas locales es de suma importancia para cualquier investigación etnobotánica. Los aportes que brinda posibilitan una interpretación cabal de los datos etnobotánicos recopilados y una comprensión acabada de los saberes, creencias y significados de los diversos lugares y elementos del cosmos. En este marco, el trabajo con encuestas abiertas, el conocimiento de los entrevistados y su contexto sociocultural y el registro minucioso de los recursos expresivos utilizados en las conversaciones devienen cruciales.This article is a case study of the "yuchán" (Ceiba chodatii, Bombacaceae, a typical tree of the Chaco forest, and it illustrates the importance of analyzing vernacular narratives in ethnobotanical research. Two theoretical-methodological approaches were combined: firstly, the roles, uses and meanings of this plant in the Wichí socio-cultural context were studied from an ethnobotanical perspective; then, three oral discourses were examined using methods borrowed from disciplines such as linguistic and sociocultural anthropology, linguistic ethnography and

  4. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  5. On Random Numbers and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Morechai

    2004-01-01

    The term "random" is frequently used in discussion of the theory of evolution, even though the mathematical concept of randomness is problematic and of little relevance in the theory. Therefore, since the core concept of the theory of evolution is the non-random process of natural selection, the term random should not be used in teaching the…

  6. Random matrices and chaos in nuclear physics: Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenmueller, H. A.; Mitchell, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence for the applicability of random-matrix theory to nuclear spectra is reviewed. In analogy to systems with few degrees of freedom, one speaks of chaos (more accurately, quantum chaos) in nuclei whenever random-matrix predictions are fulfilled. An introduction into the basic concepts of random-matrix theory is followed by a survey over the extant experimental information on spectral fluctuations, including a discussion of the violation of a symmetry or invariance property. Chaos in nuclear models is discussed for the spherical shell model, for the deformed shell model, and for the interacting boson model. Evidence for chaos also comes from random-matrix ensembles patterned after the shell model such as the embedded two-body ensemble, the two-body random ensemble, and the constrained ensembles. All this evidence points to the fact that chaos is a generic property of nuclear spectra, except for the ground-state regions of strongly deformed nuclei.

  7. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  8. On randomly interrupted diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luczka, J.

    1993-01-01

    Processes driven by randomly interrupted Gaussian white noise are considered. An evolution equation for single-event probability distributions in presented. Stationary states are considered as a solution of a second-order ordinary differential equation with two imposed conditions. A linear model is analyzed and its stationary distributions are explicitly given. (author). 10 refs

  9. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered as ...

  10. Random eigenvalue problems revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    statistical distributions; linear stochastic systems. 1. ... dimensional multivariate Gaussian random vector with mean µ ∈ Rm and covariance ... 5, the proposed analytical methods are applied to a three degree-of-freedom system and the ...... The joint pdf ofω1 andω3 is however close to a bivariate Gaussian density function.

  11. Alzheimer random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Takashi; Kasuya, Keisuke

    2017-09-01

    Using the Monte Carlo simulation, we investigate a memory-impaired self-avoiding walk on a square lattice in which a random walker marks each of sites visited with a given probability p and makes a random walk avoiding the marked sites. Namely, p = 0 and p = 1 correspond to the simple random walk and the self-avoiding walk, respectively. When p> 0, there is a finite probability that the walker is trapped. We show that the trap time distribution can well be fitted by Stacy's Weibull distribution b(a/b){a+1}/{b}[Γ({a+1}/{b})]-1x^a\\exp(-a/bx^b)} where a and b are fitting parameters depending on p. We also find that the mean trap time diverges at p = 0 as p- α with α = 1.89. In order to produce sufficient number of long walks, we exploit the pivot algorithm and obtain the mean square displacement and its Flory exponent ν(p) as functions of p. We find that the exponent determined for 1000 step walks interpolates both limits ν(0) for the simple random walk and ν(1) for the self-avoiding walk as [ ν(p) - ν(0) ] / [ ν(1) - ν(0) ] = pβ with β = 0.388 when p ≪ 0.1 and β = 0.0822 when p ≫ 0.1. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  12. The environmental survey manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance to the Survey and Sampling and Analysis teams that conduct the one-time Environmental Survey of the major US Department of Energy (DOE) operating facilities. This manual includes a discussion of DOE's policy on environmental issues, a review of statutory guidance as it applies to the Survey, the procedures and protocols to be used by the Survey teams, criteria for the use of the Survey teams in evaluating existing environmental data for the Survey effort, generic technical checklists used in every Survey, health and safety guidelines for the personnel conducting the Survey, including the identification of potential hazards, prescribed protective equipment, and emergency procedures, the required formats for the Survey reports, guidance on identifying environmental problems that need immediate attention by the Operations Office responsible for the particular facility, and procedures and protocols for the conduct of sampling and analysis

  13. Aerial radiation surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jobst, J.

    1980-01-01

    A recent aerial radiation survey of the surroundings of the Vitro mill in Salt Lake City shows that uranium mill tailings have been removed to many locations outside their original boundary. To date, 52 remote sites have been discovered within a 100 square kilometer aerial survey perimeter surrounding the mill; 9 of these were discovered with the recent aerial survey map. Five additional sites, also discovered by aerial survey, contained uranium ore, milling equipment, or radioactive slag. Because of the success of this survey, plans are being made to extend the aerial survey program to other parts of the Salt Lake valley where diversions of Vitro tailings are also known to exist

  14. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Ma, Yue-hua; Zhao, Hai-bin; Lu, Xiao-ping

    2017-10-01

    With the increasing spectral and photometric data of asteroids, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. In combination with the present taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, and DeMeo, and the principal component analysis, we have classified 48642 asteroids according to their SDSS magnitudes at the g, r, i, and z wavebands. In this way, these asteroids are divided into 8 (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V) classes.

  15. Spectral Classification of Asteroids by Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.; Ma, Y. H.; Zhao, H. B.; Lu, X. P.

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing asteroid spectral and photometric data, a variety of classification methods for asteroids have been proposed. This paper classifies asteroids based on the observations of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Moving Object Catalogue (MOC) by using the random forest algorithm. With the training data derived from the taxonomies of Tholen, Bus, Lazzaro, DeMeo, and Principal Component Analysis, we classify 48642 asteroids according to g, r, i, and z SDSS magnitudes. In this way, asteroids are divided into 8 spectral classes (C, X, S, B, D, K, L, and V).

  16. Biodigester User Survey 2012 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Mansvelt, R.; Sras, Phanny; Pino, Mariela

    2012-03-15

    Based on a feasibility study executed in November 2004, The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of the Kingdom of Cambodia (MAFF) and The Netherlands Development Organisation (SNVCambodia) agreed to cooperate in the set-up and implementation of a National Biodigester Programme (NBP). The terms of this cooperation are laid down in a Memorandum of Understanding that was concluded in May 2005 and extended in January 2010 till December 2012. An implementation document for the programme period was compiled in early 2006 and agreed upon by MAFF and SNV during an official ceremony in March 2006. The duration of the first phase of the NBP is 7.5 years, of which the last 6 months of 2005 and the first 3 months of 2006 were used for preparation, and the years 2006-12 for implementation. The overall objective of the first phase of the NBP is 'The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia'. The programme is currently (February 2012) operational in 14 provinces, of which 8 are to be surveyed, after being started in 3 provinces in April 2006. The programme supported the construction of 16,000 domestic biodigester plants at the time of report writing. In order to identify the level of satisfaction of the biodigester owners and the effects that the technology brings to the household, the NBP has undertaken a Biodigester User Survey (BUS) with three main objectives: (1) To evaluate the effect of domestic biodigester installations, as perceived by the user, by conducting a representative quantitative random survey of 150 households using biodigesters constructed under the NBP in 8 provinces in Cambodia; (2) To evaluate how the users have experienced the programme activities such as promotion, construction, quality assurance, training and after-sales service; (3) To evaluate the impact of the programme and how it

  17. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  18. Free random variables

    CERN Document Server

    Voiculescu, Dan; Nica, Alexandru

    1992-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive introduction to free probability theory, a highly noncommutative probability theory with independence based on free products instead of tensor products. Basic examples of this kind of theory are provided by convolution operators on free groups and by the asymptotic behavior of large Gaussian random matrices. The probabilistic approach to free products has led to a recent surge of new results on the von Neumann algebras of free groups. The book is ideally suited as a textbook for an advanced graduate course and could also provide material for a seminar. In addition to researchers and graduate students in mathematics, this book will be of interest to physicists and others who use random matrices.

  19. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  20. On Complex Random Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Khurshid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, it is shown that a complex multivariate random variable  is a complex multivariate normal random variable of dimensionality if and only if all nondegenerate complex linear combinations of  have a complex univariate normal distribution. The characteristic function of  has been derived, and simpler forms of some theorems have been given using this characterization theorem without assuming that the variance-covariance matrix of the vector  is Hermitian positive definite. Marginal distributions of  have been given. In addition, a complex multivariate t-distribution has been defined and the density derived. A characterization of the complex multivariate t-distribution is given. A few possible uses of this distribution have been suggested.

  1. A Campbell random process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuss, J.D.; Misguich, J.H.

    1993-02-01

    The Campbell process is a stationary random process which can have various correlation functions, according to the choice of an elementary response function. The statistical properties of this process are presented. A numerical algorithm and a subroutine for generating such a process is built up and tested, for the physically interesting case of a Campbell process with Gaussian correlations. The (non-Gaussian) probability distribution appears to be similar to the Gamma distribution

  2. SURVEY, BUFFALO COUNTY, NE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. Patient survey (HCAHPS) - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The national average for the HCAHPS survey categories. HCAHPS is a national, standardized survey of hospital patients about their experiences during a recent...

  4. Survey, OCONEE COUNTY, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, DOUGLAS COUNTY, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. GDOT employee survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    The research team worked in collaboration with GDOT to conduct the 2016 GDOT Employee Survey. This research study aimed to increase the response rate and the usefulness of the feedback from the GDOT employee survey to support organizational decisions...

  7. SURVEY, KENAI PENINSULSA, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. SURVEY, BROADWATER COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  9. SURVEY, OSCEOLA COUNTY, FLORIDA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  10. SURVEY, POTTAWATTAMIE COUNTY, IA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  11. Large Pelagics Intercept Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Intercept Survey (LPIS) is a dockside survey of private and charterboat captains who have just completed fishing trips directed at large pelagic...

  12. MAX and Survey Linkages

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS is interested in linking MAX files with survey data, including four surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) - the National Health...

  13. SURVEY, LAKE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  14. NGS Survey Control Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Survey Control Map provides a map of the US which allows you to find and display geodetic survey control points stored in the database of the National...

  15. SURVEY, Lowndes County, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  16. SURVEY, REFUGIO COUNTY, TEXAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  17. SURVEY, FAIRFIELD COUNTY, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  18. Designing an Effective Survey

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasunic, Mark

    2005-01-01

    ... of them. However, to protect the validity of conclusions drawn from a survey, certain procedures must be followed throughout the process of designing, developing, and distributing the survey questionnaire...

  19. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  20. SURVEY, MISSOULA COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  1. SURVEY, Northumberland County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The field survey data for this coastal study includes a field report that exhibits photos and transect information collected in the field survey phase of the study....

  2. SURVEY, BARNSTABLE COUNTY, MA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  3. SURVEY, CASCADE COUNTY, MT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  4. SURVEY, NATCHITOCHES PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  5. SURVEY, HOLMES COUNTY, MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  6. Iowa Intensive Archaeological Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This shape file contains intensive level archaeological survey areas for the state of Iowa. All intensive Phase I surveys that are submitted to the State Historic...

  7. SURVEY, MONO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Survey data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary to digitally represent data collected in the survey phase of the study. (Source: FEMA Guidelines and...

  8. Certified randomness in quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-12-07

    The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.

  9. Cross over of recurrence networks to random graphs and random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-27

    Jan 27, 2017 ... that all recurrence networks can cross over to random geometric graphs by adding sufficient amount of noise to .... municative [19] or social [20], deviate from the random ..... He has shown that the spatial effects become.

  10. The RANDOM computer program: A linear congruential random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The RANDOM Computer Program is a FORTRAN program for generating random number sequences and testing linear congruential random number generators (LCGs). The linear congruential form of random number generator is discussed, and the selection of parameters of an LCG for a microcomputer described. This document describes the following: (1) The RANDOM Computer Program; (2) RANDOM.MOD, the computer code needed to implement an LCG in a FORTRAN program; and (3) The RANCYCLE and the ARITH Computer Programs that provide computational assistance in the selection of parameters for an LCG. The RANDOM, RANCYCLE, and ARITH Computer Programs are written in Microsoft FORTRAN for the IBM PC microcomputer and its compatibles. With only minor modifications, the RANDOM Computer Program and its LCG can be run on most micromputers or mainframe computers.

  11. A random number generator for continuous random variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, V. M.; Tapia, R. A.; Thompson, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    A FORTRAN 4 routine is given which may be used to generate random observations of a continuous real valued random variable. Normal distribution of F(x), X, E(akimas), and E(linear) is presented in tabular form.

  12. Primer on Health Surveys

    OpenAIRE

    David L Nordstrom; David L Nordstrom

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sam...

  13. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  14. GIS Readiness Survey 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Lise; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Hansen, Henning Sten

    2014-01-01

    The GIS Readiness Survey 2014 is a follow-up to the corresponding survey that was carried out among public institutions in Denmark in 2009. The present survey thus provides an updated image of status and challenges in relation to the use of spatial information, the construction of the com- mon...

  15. Conducting online surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selm, M. van; Jankowski, N.W.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web (WWW) is increasingly being used as a tool and platform for survey research. Two types of electronic or online surveys available for data collection are the email and Web based survey, and they constitute the focus of this paper. We address a multitude of issues researchers should

  16. On a randomly imperfect spherical cap pressurized by a random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we investigate a dynamical system in a random setting of dual randomness in space and time variables in which both the imperfection of the structure and the load function are considered random , each with a statistical zero-mean .The auto- covariance of the load is correlated as an exponentially decaying ...

  17. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  18. A comparison of random walks in dependent random environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Kroese, Dirk

    We provide exact computations for the drift of random walks in dependent random environments, including $k$-dependent and moving average environments. We show how the drift can be characterized and evaluated using Perron–Frobenius theory. Comparing random walks in various dependent environments, we

  19. Aspectos fitossociológicos, florísticos e etnobotânicos das palmeiras (Arecaceae de floresta secundária no município de Bragança, PA, Brasil Phytosociological, floristic, and ethnobotanical aspects of the palms (Arecaceae in a secondary forest in the Municipality of Bragança, Pará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Elielson Sousa da Rocha

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar um levantamento das palmeiras em seis fragmentos de floresta secundária, no município de Bragança, PA, Brasil. Registraram-se 14 espécies distribuídas em nove gêneros, com predominância para Maximiliana maripa (Aubl. Drude e Astrocaryum gynacanthum Mart. São apresentados chave de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, citações de material examinado, e de nomes populares, comentários taxonômicos e etnobotânicos dessas espécies.The purpose of this study was to conduct a floristic inventory of the palms in six fragments of secondary forest in the Municipality of Bragança, Pará State, Brazil. In this study 14 species (nine genera were identified. Maximiliana maripa (Aubl. Drude and Astrocaryum gynacanthum Mart. were the dominant species. We present ethnobotanical data, identification keys, descriptions, illustrations, specimens examined, common names, and general comments about the species.

  20. A Subaru galaxy redshift survey: WFMOS survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, M

    2008-01-01

    A planned galaxy redshift survey with the Subaru 8.2m telescope, the WFMOS survey, offers a unique opportunity for probing detailed properties of large-scale structure formation in the expanding universe by measuring clustering strength of galaxy distribution as a function of distance scale and redshift. In particular, the precise measurement of the galaxy power spectrum, combined with the cosmic microwave background experiments, allows us to obtain stringent constraints on or even determine absolute mass scales of the Big-Bang relic neutrinos as the neutrinos imprint characteristic scale- and redshift-dependent modifications onto the galaxy power spectrum shape. Here we describe the basic concept of how the galaxy clustering measurement can be used to explore the neutrino masses, with particular emphasis on advantages of the WFMOS survey over the existing low-redshift surveys such as SDSS

  1. Canadian survey on pandemic flu preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy CS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The management of pandemic influenza creates public health challenges. An ethical framework, 'Stand on Guard for Thee: ethical considerations in pandemic influenza preparedness' that served as a template for the World Health Organization's global consultation on pandemic planning, was transformed into a survey administered to a random sample of 500 Canadians to obtain opinions on key ethical issues in pandemic preparedness planning. Methods All framework authors and additional investigators created items that were pilot-tested with volunteers of both sexes and all socioeconomic strata. Surveys were telephone administered with random sampling achieved via random digit dialing (RDD. Eligible participants were adults, 18 years or older, with per province stratification equaling provincial percent of national population. Descriptive results were tabulated and logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether demographic factors were significantly associated with outcomes. Results 5464 calls identified 559 eligible participants of whom 88.5% completed surveys. Over 90% of subjects agreed the most important goal of pandemic influenza preparations was saving lives, with 41% endorsing saving lives solely in Canada and 50% endorsing saving lives globally as the highest priority. Older age (OR = 8.51, p Conclusions Results suggest trust in public health officials to make difficult decisions, providing emphasis on reciprocity and respect for individual rights.

  2. A two-phase sampling survey for nonresponse and its paradata to correct nonresponse bias in a health surveillance survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, G; Bénézet, L; Geoffroy-Perez, B; Bouyer, J; Guéguen, A

    2017-02-01

    The decline in participation rates in surveys, including epidemiological surveillance surveys, has become a real concern since it may increase nonresponse bias. The aim of this study is to estimate the contribution of a complementary survey among a subsample of nonrespondents, and the additional contribution of paradata in correcting for nonresponse bias in an occupational health surveillance survey. In 2010, 10,000 workers were randomly selected and sent a postal questionnaire. Sociodemographic data were available for the whole sample. After data collection of the questionnaires, a complementary survey among a random subsample of 500 nonrespondents was performed using a questionnaire administered by an interviewer. Paradata were collected for the complete subsample of the complementary survey. Nonresponse bias in the initial sample and in the combined samples were assessed using variables from administrative databases available for the whole sample, not subject to differential measurement errors. Corrected prevalences by reweighting technique were estimated by first using the initial survey alone and then the initial and complementary surveys combined, under several assumptions regarding the missing data process. Results were compared by computing relative errors. The response rates of the initial and complementary surveys were 23.6% and 62.6%, respectively. For the initial and the combined surveys, the relative errors decreased after correction for nonresponse on sociodemographic variables. For the combined surveys without paradata, relative errors decreased compared with the initial survey. The contribution of the paradata was weak. When a complex descriptive survey has a low response rate, a short complementary survey among nonrespondents with a protocol which aims to maximize the response rates, is useful. The contribution of sociodemographic variables in correcting for nonresponse bias is important whereas the additional contribution of paradata in

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  4. Primer on Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Nordstrom

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce novice researchers to surveys as a method of data collection. It starts with the definition of a survey, its major purposes and types as well as changes in the goals surveys have helped to achieve over time. Advantages and disadvantages of surveys over population censuses and medical examinations are discussed. Approaches to questionnaire construction are introduced along with properties that questionnaires are evaluated for. Modes of administration, sample size issues, and data analysis approaches are also introduced. The primer is illustrated with examples of surveys conducted in different countries with various public health purposes.

  5. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  6. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  7. Randomness at the root of things 1: Random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogborn, Jon; Collins, Simon; Brown, Mick

    2003-09-01

    This is the first of a pair of articles about randomness in physics. In this article, we use some variations on the idea of a `random walk' to consider first the path of a particle in Brownian motion, and then the random variation to be expected in radioactive decay. The arguments are set in the context of the general importance of randomness both in physics and in everyday life. We think that the ideas could usefully form part of students' A-level work on random decay and quantum phenomena, as well as being good for their general education. In the second article we offer a novel and simple approach to Poisson sequences.

  8. Developing the online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jeffry S; McNew, Ryan

    2008-12-01

    Institutions of higher education are now using Internet-based technology tools to conduct surveys for data collection. Research shows that the type and quality of responses one receives with online surveys are comparable with what one receives in paper-based surveys. Data collection can take place on Web-based surveys, e-mail-based surveys, and personal digital assistants/Smartphone devices. Web surveys can be subscription templates, software packages installed on one's own server, or created from scratch using Web programming development tools. All of these approaches have their advantages and disadvantages. The survey owner must make informed decisions as to the right technology to implement. The correct choice can save hours of work in sorting, organizing, and analyzing data.

  9. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  10. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

    2007-01-01

    A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

  11. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  12. Random walk loop soup

    OpenAIRE

    Lawler, Gregory F.; Ferreras, José A. Trujillo

    2004-01-01

    The Brownian loop soup introduced in Lawler and Werner (2004) is a Poissonian realization from a sigma-finite measure on unrooted loops. This measure satisfies both conformal invariance and a restriction property. In this paper, we define a random walk loop soup and show that it converges to the Brownian loop soup. In fact, we give a strong approximation result making use of the strong approximation result of Koml\\'os, Major, and Tusn\\'ady. To make the paper self-contained, we include a proof...

  13. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2009-01-01

    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  14. On random unitary channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audenaert, Koenraad M R; Scheel, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we provide necessary and sufficient conditions for a completely positive trace-preserving (CPT) map to be decomposable into a convex combination of unitary maps. Additionally, we set out to define a proper distance measure between a given CPT map and the set of random unitary maps, and methods for calculating it. In this way one could determine whether non-classical error mechanisms such as spontaneous decay or photon loss dominate over classical uncertainties, for example, in a phase parameter. The present paper is a step towards achieving this goal

  15. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...

  16. Explaining discrepancies in reproductive health indicators from population-based surveys and exit surveys: a case from Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekers, D; Ogada, E A

    2001-06-01

    Reproductive health programmes often need exit surveys and population-based surveys for monitoring and evaluation. This study investigates why such studies produce discrepant estimates of condom use, sexual behaviour and condom brand knowledge, and discusses the implications for future use of exit surveys for programme monitoring. Logistic regression is used to explain differences between a household survey of 1295 persons and an exit survey among a random sample of 2550 consumers at retail outlets in RWANDA: Discrepancies in ever use of condoms and risky sexual behaviours are due to differences in socioeconomic status of the two samples. After controls, exit surveys at most outlet types have the same results as the household survey. Only exit surveys at bars, nightclubs and hotels yield significantly different estimates. However, the above-average knowledge of Prudence Plus condoms in the exit interviews is not attributable to socioeconomic or demographic variables, most likely because respondents have seen the product at the outlets. Information about condom use and sexual behaviour obtained from exit surveys appears as accurate as that obtained through household surveys. Nevertheless, exit surveys must be used cautiously. Because exit surveys may include wealthier and better-educated respondents, they are not representative of the general population. The composition of exit survey samples should be validated through existing household surveys. Comparisons across survey types are generally unadvisable, unless they control for sample differences. When generalizing to the population at large is not needed (e.g. for studies aimed at identifying the characteristics and behaviour of users of particular products or services), exit surveys can provide an appropriate alternative to household surveys.

  17. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  18. Random-walk enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  19. Random ancestor trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a network growth model in which the genealogy controls the evolution. In this model, a new node selects a random target node and links either to this target node, or to its parent, or to its grandparent, etc; all nodes from the target node to its most ancient ancestor are equiprobable destinations. The emerging random ancestor tree is very shallow: the fraction g n of nodes at distance n from the root decreases super-exponentially with n, g n = e −1 /(n − 1)!. We find that a macroscopic hub at the root coexists with highly connected nodes at higher generations. The maximal degree of a node at the nth generation grows algebraically as N 1/β n , where N is the system size. We obtain the series of nontrivial exponents which are roots of transcendental equations: β 1 ≅1.351 746, β 2 ≅1.682 201, etc. As a consequence, the fraction p k of nodes with degree k has an algebraic tail, p k ∼ k −γ , with γ = β 1 + 1 = 2.351 746

  20. Lectures on random interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Funaki, Tadahisa

    2016-01-01

    Interfaces are created to separate two distinct phases in a situation in which phase coexistence occurs. This book discusses randomly fluctuating interfaces in several different settings and from several points of view: discrete/continuum, microscopic/macroscopic, and static/dynamic theories. The following four topics in particular are dealt with in the book. Assuming that the interface is represented as a height function measured from a fixed-reference discretized hyperplane, the system is governed by the Hamiltonian of gradient of the height functions. This is a kind of effective interface model called ∇φ-interface model. The scaling limits are studied for Gaussian (or non-Gaussian) random fields with a pinning effect under a situation in which the rate functional of the corresponding large deviation principle has non-unique minimizers. Young diagrams determine decreasing interfaces, and their dynamics are introduced. The large-scale behavior of such dynamics is studied from the points of view of the hyd...

  1. Random catalytic reaction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Peter F.; Fontana, Walter; Miller, John H.

    1993-03-01

    We study networks that are a generalization of replicator (or Lotka-Volterra) equations. They model the dynamics of a population of object types whose binary interactions determine the specific type of interaction product. Such a system always reduces its dimension to a subset that contains production pathways for all of its members. The network equation can be rewritten at a level of collectives in terms of two basic interaction patterns: replicator sets and cyclic transformation pathways among sets. Although the system contains well-known cases that exhibit very complicated dynamics, the generic behavior of randomly generated systems is found (numerically) to be extremely robust: convergence to a globally stable rest point. It is easy to tailor networks that display replicator interactions where the replicators are entire self-sustaining subsystems, rather than structureless units. A numerical scan of random systems highlights the special properties of elementary replicators: they reduce the effective interconnectedness of the system, resulting in enhanced competition, and strong correlations between the concentrations.

  2. Quincke random walkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradillo, Gerardo; Heintz, Aneesh; Vlahovska, Petia

    2017-11-01

    The spontaneous rotation of a sphere in an applied uniform DC electric field (Quincke effect) has been utilized to engineer self-propelled particles: if the sphere is initially resting on a surface, it rolls. The Quincke rollers have been widely used as a model system to study collective behavior in ``active'' suspensions. If the applied field is DC, an isolated Quincke roller follows a straight line trajectory. In this talk, we discuss the design of a Quincke roller that executes a random-walk-like behavior. We utilize AC field - upon reversal of the field direction a fluctuation in the axis of rotation (which is degenerate in the plane perpendicular to the field and parallel to the surface) introduces randomness in the direction of motion. The MSD of an isolated Quincke walker depends on frequency, amplitude, and waveform of the electric field. Experiment and theory are compared. We also investigate the collective behavior of Quincke walkers,the transport of inert particles in a bath of Quincke walkers, and the spontaneous motion of a drop containing Quincke active particle. supported by NSF Grant CBET 1437545.

  3. Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-06-01

    Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Solid-State Random Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Noginov, Mikhail A

    2005-01-01

    Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.

  5. Survey of plants popularly used for pain relief in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eveline D. Stolz

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical data can be an important tool in the search for new drugs. The Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency accepts the registration of herbal medicines based on ethnopharmacological and ethnobotanical studies. With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of potentially useful plants for the treatment of painful conditions, we analyzed the ethnobotanical studies carried out in Rio Grande do Sul state (RS-Southern Brazil; we had access to nineteen studies.To our knowledge, this is the first compilation of ethnobotanical studies that focus on pain relief carried out in RS. The species native to RS cited in at least nine (about 50% of these studies were selected. The search retrieved 28 native species cited as used to alleviate painful conditions, which are distributed in eighteen botanical families, being Asteraceae the most mentioned. The species more frequently cited for pain relief were Achyrocline satureioides, Baccharis articulata, Baccharis crispa, Lepidium didymum, Eugenia uniflora and Maytenus ilicifolia. The only species not reported in any pre-clinical study associated with pain relief was B. articulata. Among the six species cited, no studies on clinical efficacy were found. In conclusion, the folk use of native plants with therapeutic purposes is widespread in RS State (Brazil, being pain relief an important property.

  6. Web survey methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Callegaro, Mario; Vehovar, Asja

    2015-01-01

    Web Survey Methodology guides the reader through the past fifteen years of research in web survey methodology. It both provides practical guidance on the latest techniques for collecting valid and reliable data and offers a comprehensive overview of research issues. Core topics from preparation to questionnaire design, recruitment testing to analysis and survey software are all covered in a systematic and insightful way. The reader will be exposed to key concepts and key findings in the literature, covering measurement, non-response, adjustments, paradata, and cost issues. The book also discusses the hottest research topics in survey research today, such as internet panels, virtual interviewing, mobile surveys and the integration with passive measurements, e-social sciences, mixed modes and business intelligence. The book is intended for students, practitioners, and researchers in fields such as survey and market research, psychological research, official statistics and customer satisfaction research.

  7. How random are random numbers generated using photons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; Ramírez Alarcón, Roberto; Cruz Ramírez, Hector; U’Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G

    2015-01-01

    Randomness is fundamental in quantum theory, with many philosophical and practical implications. In this paper we discuss the concept of algorithmic randomness, which provides a quantitative method to assess the Borel normality of a given sequence of numbers, a necessary condition for it to be considered random. We use Borel normality as a tool to investigate the randomness of ten sequences of bits generated from the differences between detection times of photon pairs generated by spontaneous parametric downconversion. These sequences are shown to fulfil the randomness criteria without difficulties. As deviations from Borel normality for photon-generated random number sequences have been reported in previous work, a strategy to understand these diverging findings is outlined. (paper)

  8. Aerial radiation survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Aerial gamma spectrometry surveys are the most effective, comprehensive and preferred tool to delimit the large area surface contamination in a radiological emergency either due to a nuclear accident or following a nuclear strike. The airborne survey apart from providing rapid and economical evaluation of ground contamination over large areas due to larger ground clearance and higher speed, is the only technique to overcome difficulties posed by ground surveys of inaccessible region. The aerial survey technique can also be used for searching of lost radioactive sources, tracking of radioactive plume and generation of background data on the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) of nuclear installations

  9. Survey of photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-08-01

    In developing this survey of photovoltaic systems, the University of Alabama in Huntsville assembled a task team to perform an extensive telephone survey of all known photovoltaic manufacturers. Three US companies accounted for 77% of the total domestic sales in 1978. They are Solarex Corporation, Solar Power Croporation, and ARCO Solar, Inc. This survey of solar photovoltaic (P/V) manufacturers and suppliers consists of three parts: a catalog of suppliers arranged alphabetically, data sheets on specific products, and typical operating, installation, or maintenance instructions and procedures. This report does not recommend or endorse any company product or information presented within as the results of this survey.

  10. Management Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The Chief Human Capital Officers' Managers' Satisfaction Survey asks managers to rate their perception of workforce planning, interaction with and levels of support...

  11. Tailored Random Graph Ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, E S; Annibale, A; Coolen, A C C

    2013-01-01

    Tailored graph ensembles are a developing bridge between biological networks and statistical mechanics. The aim is to use this concept to generate a suite of rigorous tools that can be used to quantify and compare the topology of cellular signalling networks, such as protein-protein interaction networks and gene regulation networks. We calculate exact and explicit formulae for the leading orders in the system size of the Shannon entropies of random graph ensembles constrained with degree distribution and degree-degree correlation. We also construct an ergodic detailed balance Markov chain with non-trivial acceptance probabilities which converges to a strictly uniform measure and is based on edge swaps that conserve all degrees. The acceptance probabilities can be generalized to define Markov chains that target any alternative desired measure on the space of directed or undirected graphs, in order to generate graphs with more sophisticated topological features.

  12. Gossip in Random Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malarz, K.; Szvetelszky, Z.; Szekf, B.; Kulakowski, K.

    2006-11-01

    We consider the average probability X of being informed on a gossip in a given social network. The network is modeled within the random graph theory of Erd{õ}s and Rényi. In this theory, a network is characterized by two parameters: the size N and the link probability p. Our experimental data suggest three levels of social inclusion of friendship. The critical value pc, for which half of agents are informed, scales with the system size as N-gamma with gamma approx 0.68. Computer simulations show that the probability X varies with p as a sigmoidal curve. Influence of the correlations between neighbors is also evaluated: with increasing clustering coefficient C, X decreases.

  13. The random projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Vempala, Santosh S

    2005-01-01

    Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...

  14. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  15. Random Intercept and Random Slope 2-Level Multilevel Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehan Ahmad Khan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Random intercept model and random intercept & random slope model carrying two-levels of hierarchy in the population are presented and compared with the traditional regression approach. The impact of students’ satisfaction on their grade point average (GPA was explored with and without controlling teachers influence. The variation at level-1 can be controlled by introducing the higher levels of hierarchy in the model. The fanny movement of the fitted lines proves variation of student grades around teachers.

  16. Random walk of passive tracers among randomly moving obstacles

    OpenAIRE

    Gori, Matteo; Donato, Irene; Floriani, Elena; Nardecchia, Ilaria; Pettini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study is mainly motivated by the need of understanding how the diffusion behaviour of a biomolecule (or even of a larger object) is affected by other moving macromolecules, organelles, and so on, inside a living cell, whence the possibility of understanding whether or not a randomly walking biomolecule is also subject to a long-range force field driving it to its target. Method: By means of the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) technique the topic of random walk in random en...

  17. A Survey of the Innovation Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, Shangqin; Oxley, Les; McCann, Philip

    Both theoretical and conceptual understanding of innovation has developed significantly since the early 1980s. More noticeable, however, are the major changes that have been experienced in empirically-oriented innovation research as a result of the introduction of firm level innovation surveys.

  18. What do Americans think about federal tax options to support public transit, highways, and local streets and roads? results from year 3 of a national survey [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research brief summarizes the results of Year 3 of a national random-digit-dial survey that explored public support for raising federal transportation revenues through gas, mileage, and sales taxes. This years survey added a special focus on ...

  19. Random lasing in human tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, Randal C.; Vardeny, Z. Valy

    2004-01-01

    A random collection of scatterers in a gain medium can produce coherent laser emission lines dubbed 'random lasing'. We show that biological tissues, including human tissues, can support coherent random lasing when infiltrated with a concentrated laser dye solution. To extract a typical random resonator size within the tissue we average the power Fourier transform of random laser spectra collected from many excitation locations in the tissue; we verified this procedure by a computer simulation. Surprisingly, we found that malignant tissues show many more laser lines compared to healthy tissues taken from the same organ. Consequently, the obtained typical random resonator was found to be different for healthy and cancerous tissues, and this may lead to a technique for separating malignant from healthy tissues for diagnostic imaging

  20. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics