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Sample records for random-source cats fed

  1. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.133 Certification for random source... of birth or, if unknown, then the approximate age; (iv) The color and any distinctive markings; and...

  2. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Ugarte, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats (Felis catus) maintain greater blood Se concentrations compared with dogs (Canis familiaris) and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 μg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to

  3. Selenium status in adult cats and dogs fed high levels of dietary inorganic and organic selenium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todd, S.E.; Thomas, D.G.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cats maintain higher blood Se concentrations compared to dogs and, unlike dogs, show no signs of chronic Se toxicity (selenosis) when fed dietary organic Se (selenomethionine) concentrations of 10 µg/g DM. This study investigated the response of cats and dogs to high dietary concentrations of sodium

  4. Tissue deposition of polychlorinated biphenyls in cats fed Atlantic Ocean bluefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, L G; Alo, D K; Scarlett, J M; Gutenmann, W H; Lisk, D J

    1991-07-01

    Bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix), a very popular marine sport fish caught in Atlantic coastal waters, contain significant levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since fish can be an appreciable portion of human and feline diets, a feeding study was conducted with cats fed exclusively bluefish for 86 days with determination of tissue concentrations of PCBs. The concentrations of PCBs in brain, liver, and fat were significantly higher (p = 0.01) in the fish-fed cats than in the control group using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The highest PCB levels were in fat, the median concentrations being 48 and 0.61 ppm (dry weight) in the fish-fed and control cats, respectively. The significance of the results is discussed.

  5. Vitamin D toxicity of dietary origin in cats fed a natural complementary kitten food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J Crossley

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary This case series describes two young sibling cats and an additional unrelated cat, from two separate households, that developed hypercalcaemia associated with hypervitaminosis D. Excessive vitamin D concentrations were identified in a natural complementary tinned kitten food that was fed to all three cats as part of their diet. In one of the cases, there was clinical evidence of soft tissue mineralisation. The hypercalcaemia and soft tissue mineralisation resolved following withdrawal of the affected food and medical management of the hypercalcaemia. Relevance and novel information This case series demonstrates the importance of obtaining a thorough dietary history in patients presenting with hypercalcaemia and the measurement of vitamin D metabolites when investigating such cases. Complementary foods may have the potential to induce nutritional toxicity even when fed with complete, nutritionally balanced diets.

  6. Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... pets CDC Podcasts Zoonoses in the Bedroom CDC People Can Catch Diseases from Their Pets CDC Helpful books and references Cat-associated outbreaks ...

  7. When fed foods with similar palatability, healthy adult dogs and cats choose different macronutrient compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Vondran, Jodi C; Vanchina, Melissa A; Jewell, Dennis E

    2018-05-17

    Dogs and cats make short-term food choices based on palatability. We hypothesized that if palatability were masked, long-term food choices would be based on physiologic requirements, and circulating metabolite concentrations would reflect those choices. Four experimental foods with similar palatability, but varying in macronutrient composition, were prepared for healthy adult dogs (n=17) and cats (n=27). Food 1 was high protein; Food 2 was high fat; Food 3 was high carbohydrates; and Food 4 was balanced for macronutrients. By choosing any combination of foods, dogs and cats could individually set their macronutrient intake. Plasma metabolomic profiles were determined at baseline and after animals had consumed their food intake of choice for 28 days. Based on food intake calculations over 28 days, dogs on average chose to consume most of their calories from fat (41.1±4.3%) and then carbohydrate (35.8±3.7%), whereas cats on average chose to consume most of their calories from carbohydrate (43.1±4.0%) and then protein (30.3±3.9%; all P foods with similar palatability, dogs and cats consume different macronutrient compositions, and concentrations of circulating metabolites in cats reflect food choices. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Cats in Positive Energy Balance Have Lower Rates of Adipose Gain When Fed Diets Containing 188 versus 121 ppm L-Carnitine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gooding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available L-carnitine (LC is included in select adult feline diets for weight management. This study investigated whether feeding adult cats with diets containing either 188 ppm of LC (LC188 or 121 ppm of LC (LC121 and feeding them 120% of maintenance energy requirement (MER resulted in differences in total energy expenditure (EE, metabolic fuel selection, BW, body composition, and behavior. Cats (n=20, 4±1.2 yrs were stratified for BCS and randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments and fed for 16 weeks. BW was measured weekly, and indirect calorimetry, body composition, physical activity, play motivation, and cognition were measured at baseline and throughout the study. A mixed, repeated measures, ANCOVA model was used. Cats in both treatments gained BW (P0.05. There were no differences in body composition between groups at baseline; however, body fat (g and body fat : lean mass ratio were greater in cats fed LC121 in contrast to cats fed LC188 (P0.05. Supplying dietary LC at a dose of at least 188 ppm may be beneficial for the health and well-being of cats fed above MER.

  9. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  10. Cats during gestation and lactation fed with canned food ad libitum: energy and protein intake, development of body weight and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichert, B; Signer, M; Uebelhart, D

    2012-12-01

    The NRC recommendations for cats for energy and protein supply during gestation and lactation are based on limited data. This study aimed to answer the question: Can the energy requirement be met with canned food or is the volume restrictive? Therefore, balance trials were conducted in 10 queens before mating, during the 4th and 7th week of gestation and during the 2nd and 6th week of lactation. The cats were fed with canned food ad libitum. Additionally, the body composition of the queens was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Dexa) before mating, after parturition and after weaning. Eight of 10 cats presented increased body fat content and lean body mass during gestation. The weight loss during lactation led to a loss of lean body mass, but only six cats lost body fat of widely differing amounts. It was evident that the queens' dry matter intake was consistent with that of queens fed ad libitum with dry food. The cats lost lean body mass during lactation and had negative protein balances in the 2nd week of lactation. This seems to be physiological in early lactation. Nevertheless, the protein recommendations for lactation seem to be too low. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Expression profiles of miRNA-122 and its target CAT1 in minipigs (Sus scrofa) fed a high-cholesterol diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2010-01-01

    The Göttingen minipig is an excellent model for studying effects of dietary high-fat intake on obesity. In this study, we analyzed the expression level of microRNA-122 (miRNA-122) and its target mRNA, CAT1, in intact young male minipigs fed either high-cholesterol or standard diet for 11 wk. Mi...... with a decrease in the expression of miRNA-122, confirming the implication of this microRNA in obesity. Gene expression levels of CAT1 did not differ between groups.......RNA-122 and CAT1 are known to be important regulators of lipid metabolism. The weight of the young minipigs was monitored once a week during the feeding period; measurements of total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoproteins, and low-density lipoproteins were recorded at 4 time points (8, 14...

  12. Schroedinger's cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubkin, E [Wisconsin Univ., Madison (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1979-08-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a matrix format (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and Schroedinger's cat symbolizes this broader perspective.

  13. Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubkin, E.

    1979-01-01

    The issue is to seek quantum interference effects in an arbitrary field, in particular in psychology. For this a digest of quantum mechanics over finite-n-dimensional Hilbert space is invented. In order to match crude data not only von Neumann's mixed states are used but also a parallel notion of unsharp tests. The mathematically styled text (and earlier work on multibin tests, designated MB) deals largely with these new tests. Quantum psychology itself is only given a foundation. It readily engenders objections; its plausibility is developed gradually, in interlocking essays. There is also the empirically definite proposal that (state, test, outcome)-indexed counts be gathered to record data, then fed to a 'matrix format' (MF) search for quantum models. A previously proposed experiment in visual perception which has since failed to find significant quantum correlations, is discussed. The suspicion that quantum mechanics is all around goes beyond MF, and 'Schroedinger's cat' symbolizes this broader perspective. (author)

  14. Dietary dissolution of urinary calculi in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A young adult, castrated male DSH cat was admitted for pollakiuria, hematuria and dysuria. The cat was being fed a commercial dry grocery brand cat food. Radiographs demonstrated multiple radiodense cystic calculi and urinalysis showed hematuria but no crystalluria. A tentative diagnosis of struvite urolithiasis was made. The cat was fed s/d® Feline food exclusively. Clinical signs disappeared within a week and no calculi were visible radiographically within three weeks. s/d® Feline food was continued an additional two weeks. This case study shows that s/d® Feline therapeutic food can be used to successfully manage struvite urolithiasis in cats

  15. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats...

  16. Salinomycin-induced polyneuropathy in cats: Morphologic and epidemiologic data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linde-Sipman, J.S. van der; Inch, T.S.G.A.M. van den; Nes, J.J. van; Verhagen, H.; Kersten, J.G.T.M.; Beynen, A.C.; Plekkringa, R.

    1999-01-01

    In April 1996, an outbreak of toxic polyneuropathy in cats occurred in the Netherlands. All cats had been fed one of two brands of dry cat food from one manufacturer. Chemical analyses of these foods, stomach contents, and liver and kidney of affected cats revealed contamination with the ionophor

  17. TAURINE DEFICIENCY IN COLLARED-ANTEATER (TAMANDUA TERTRADACTYLA FED WITH DOGS AND CATS MILK SUBSTITUTES DEFICIÊNCIA DE TAURINA EM FILHOTE DE TAMANDUÁ-MIRIM (Tamandua tetradactyla ALIMENTADO COM SUBSTITUTOS DE LEITE PARA CÃES E GATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Otávio Cançado Motta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available  The taurine is a sulphur amino acid that in most of the mammals produced in enough amounts in the liver, from metionine and cysteine, using the enzyme cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase. However, for felines are considered an essential amino acid, needing to be ingested as a supplement of the organism requirements. For anteaters the condition is not yet elucidated, but these animals have developed disease when fed with diet poor in this amino acid. The most frequent clinical sings observed in cats are dilated cardiomyopathy, retina degeneration, reproductive and development anomalies, increase of plaquetary aggregation, leucopenia and neurological disturbs. In the present case, a hand-hearing of collared-anteater (Tamandua tetradactyla feeding milk substitutes for dogs and cats, presented taurine deficiency, characterized mainly for loss of coats and seizures. The diagnosis was based in reply of the animal to the supplement, after which gad regression of the clinical sings without return.

    KEY WORDS: Collared-anteater, Tamandua tetradactyla, taurine. A taurina é um aminoácido sulfurado e, na maioria dos mamíferos, produzida em quantidades suficientes no fígado a partir de metionina e cisteína, utilizando a enzima decarboxilase do ácido cistéico sulfínico. Para felinos é considerado um aminoácido essencial, necessitando ser ingerido para suprimento às necessidades do organismo. Em tamanduás, esta condição não está bem definida, entretanto, animais alimentados com dietas carentes nesse aminoácido têm demonstrado sinais clínicos compatíveis com deficiência de taurina. Em gatos as alterações mais freqüentes são cardiomiopatia dilatada, degeneração da retina, anormalidades reprodutivas e de desenvolvimento, aumento da agregação plaquetária, leucopenia e distúrbios neurológicos. No presente caso, um filhote de tamanduá-mirim (Tamandua tetradactyla criado em cativeiro com substitutos de leite para c

  18. Domestic cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffendorfer, James E.

    2017-01-01

    The familiar domestic cat is not native to southern California and is considered an invasive spe-cies by biologists and conservation organizations. When owners abandon their cats, wild or feral populations may arise, as they have in San Diego County. Cats’ pelage color, tail length, and hair thickness vary widely, given human fascination with breeding diverse phenotypes, but all have a typical felid body with upright ears, forward-looking eyes adapted for nocturnal foraging, protractible claws, and a sinuous, flexible body. Cats allowed outdoors and feral cats kill and eat a wide variety of vertebrates such as small mammals, birds, and reptiles

  19. Blind Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arka Chattopadhyay

    2015-08-01

    There’s no way to know whether he was blind from birth or blindness was something he had picked up from his fights with other cats. He wasn’t an urban cat. He lived in a little village, soaked in the smell of fish with a river running right beside it. Cats like these have stories of a different kind. The two-storied hotel where he lived had a wooden floor. It stood right on the riverbank and had more than a tilt towards the river, as if deliberately leaning on the water.

  20. Katsvanga, CAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Katsvanga, CAT. Vol 1, No 2 (2006) - Articles Eucalyptus species performance under short rotation conditions on the Vumba highlands in Zimbabwe Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1819-3692. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners ...

  1. Overweight adult cats have significantly lower voluntary physical activity than adult lean cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Maria Rc; Shoveller, Anna K

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of the current pilot study were to evaluate whether body condition score (BCS) and body weight are significantly related to physical activity counts, and to evaluate potential interaction between BCS and voluntary physical activity measured over a 14 day period. Methods Ten (five lean, five overweight), neutered, adult American Shorthair cats were selected for this study (median age 4 ± 0.5 years). Cats with a BCS of ⩽3.0 were considered lean, whereas cats with a BCS >3.0 were considered overweight, using a 5-point scale. Cats were housed in a free-living environment with indoor/outdoor access and were individually fed once daily a commercially available dry extruded diet and allowed 1 h to eat. Voluntary physical activity was measured consecutively for 14 days using the Actical Activity Monitors that were worn parallel to the ribs and attached via a harness. Results Lean cats had a greater mean total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0059), and a greater voluntary physical activity during light ( P = 0.0023) and dark ( P = 0.0446) periods, with overweight cats having 60% of the physical activity of lean cats. Lean cats were more active before feeding and during animal care procedures. These data suggest that lean cats have a greater anticipatory physical activity prior to feeding and are more eager to have social interaction with humans than overweight cats. A significant interaction was observed between day of physical activity measurement and BCS for total daily voluntary physical activity ( P = 0.0133) and activity during the light period ( P = 0.0016) where lean cats were consistently more active than overweight cats. In general, cats were more active during weekdays vs weekends. Conclusions and relevance The results of this study suggest that overweight cats are less active than lean cats and that voluntary physical activity level appears to be influenced by social interaction with humans.

  2. Effects of feeding frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in healthy adult cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, P; Iwazaki, E; Suchy, S A; Pallotto, M R; Swanson, K S

    2014-03-01

    Low physical activity has been identified as a major risk factor for the development of feline obesity and diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of increased meal frequency and dietary water content on voluntary physical activity in cats fed to maintain BW. Ten adult lean neutered male cats were used in 2 tests, both crossover studies composed of a 14-d adaptation period, followed by a 7-d measurement of physical activity from d 15 to d 22 using Actical activity collars. Cats were group housed for most of the day, except for times when they were individually housed in cages to access their diet under a 16:8 h light:dark cycle. In Exp. 1, the difference in voluntary physical activity among cats fed 1, 2, 4, or a random number of meals per day were tested in a 4 × 4 Latin square design in 4 individual rooms. In Exp. 2, the effect of increasing dietary water content on voluntary physical activity was tested in a crossover design including a 5-d phase for fecal and urine collection from d 22 to 27. Cats were randomly assigned to 2 rooms and fed a dry commercial diet with or without added water (70% hydrated) twice daily. Activity levels were expressed as "activity counts" per epoch (15 s). In Exp. 1, average daily activity level for 1-meal-fed cats was lower than 4-meal-fed (P = 0.004) and random-meal-fed (P = 0.02) cats, especially during the light period. The activity level of cats during the dark period was greater in 1-meal-fed cats compared with cats fed 2 meals (P = 0.008) or 4 meals (P = 0.007) daily. Two-hour food anticipatory activity (FAA) before scheduled meal times for 1-meal-fed cats was lower (P meal-fed cats. In Exp. 2, average daily activity level of cats fed the 70% hydrated diet tended to be higher (P = 0.06) than cats fed the dry diet, especially during the dark period (P = 0.007). Two-hour FAA before the afternoon meal for cats fed the 70% hydrated diet was lower (P frequency and dietary water content, without changing energy intake or

  3. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception. Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59% fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception was proposed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. This model consisted of a set of variables proposed as directly or indirectly influencing ownership perception, with connecting arrows to indicate proposed causal relationships. Understanding ownership perception and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intake is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats.

  4. Life cycle of Cystoisospora felis (Coccidia: Apicomplexa) in cats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystoisospora felis is a ubiquitous apicomplexan protozoon of cats. The endogenous development of C. felis was studied in cats after feeding them infected mice. For this, 5 newborn cats were killed at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h after having been fed mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens of mice that wer...

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  6. Positive Impact of Nutritional Interventions on Serum Symmetric Dimethylarginine and Creatinine Concentrations in Client-Owned Geriatric Cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available A prospective study was conducted in client-owned geriatric cats to evaluate the short- term effects of a test food on serum symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA and creatinine (Cr concentrations. Test food contained functional lipids (fish oil, antioxidants (vitamins C and E, L-carnitine, botanicals (vegetables, highly bioavailable protein, and amino acid supplements. Cats (n = 80 were fed either test food or owner's-choice foods (non-nutritionally controlled cohort. Cats were included based on age (≥ 9 years, indoor only, neutered, and free of chronic disease. At baseline, all cats had serum Cr concentrations within the reference interval. Renal function biomarkers and urinalysis results at baseline and after consuming test food or owner's-choice foods for 3 and 6 months were evaluated. Cats consuming test food showed significant decreases in serum Cr and BUN concentrations across time. Overall, cats consuming owner's-choice foods showed significant increases in serum SDMA concentrations at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline (P ≤ 0.05, whereas in cats consuming test food serum SDMA concentrations did not change. At baseline or during the 6-month feeding trial, 23 (28.8% cats had increased serum SDMA, but normal serum Cr consistent with IRIS Stage 1 chronic kidney disease. This included 6 cats fed test food and 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods. In the 6 cats fed test food, serum SDMA decreased in 3 cats and remained stable in 1 cat, whereas in the 17 cats fed owner's-choice foods, serum SDMA increased in 13 cats and decreased or remained stable in 4 cats. The increase in serum SDMA concentration was significant (P = 0.02 only for cats fed owner's-choice foods. These results suggest that nonazotemic cats with elevated serum SDMA (early renal insufficiency when fed a food designed to promote healthy aging are more likely to demonstrate stable renal function compared with cats fed owner's-choice foods. Cats fed owner's-choice foods were more

  7. Surrenderers’ Relationships with Cats Admitted to Four Australian Animal Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Human caretaking of cats was explored in a sample of people surrendering cats to shelters in Australia. At the shelters surrenderers classified themselves as owners or non-owners and a questionnaire identified that this was related to their method of acquisition of the cat, their association time with the cat, the closeness of their relationship with the cat and their degree of responsibility for the cat’s care. A model of ownership perception was developed to provide a better understanding of factors influencing ownership perception. Understanding ownership perceptions in cats surrendered to shelters is important as these can inform the development of more targeted and effective intervention strategies to reduce numbers of unwanted cats. Abstract The surrender of cats to animal shelters results in financial, social and moral burdens for the community. Correlations of caretaking and interactions with surrendered cats were calculated, to understand more about humans’ relationships with surrendered cats and the contribution of semi-owned cats to shelter intakes. A questionnaire was used to collect detailed information about 100 surrenderers’ relationships with cats they surrendered to four animal shelters in Australia, with each surrenderer classifying themselves as being either the owner or a non-owner of the surrendered cat (ownership perception). Method of acquisition of the cat, association time, closeness of the relationship with the cat and degree of responsibility for the cat’s care were all associated with ownership perception. Many non-owners (59%) fed and interacted with the cat they surrendered but rarely displayed other caretaking behaviours. However, most surrenderers of owned and unowned cats were attached to and felt responsible for the cat. Based on these results and other evidence, a causal model of ownership perception

  8. Inverse random source scattering for the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an inverse random source scattering problem in an inhomogeneous background medium. The wave propagation is modeled by the stochastic Helmholtz equation with the source driven by additive white noise. The goal is to reconstruct the statistical properties of the random source such as the mean and variance from the boundary measurement of the radiated random wave field at multiple frequencies. Both the direct and inverse problems are considered. We show that the direct problem has a unique mild solution by a constructive proof. For the inverse problem, we derive Fredholm integral equations, which connect the boundary measurement of the radiated wave field with the unknown source function. A regularized block Kaczmarz method is developed to solve the ill-posed integral equations. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Discospondylitis in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, E.; Roberts, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    The incidence and causative agents of discospondylitis in cats are unknown. This report describes a cat with radiologic changes consistent with discospondylitis and concurrent urinary tract infection. As in dogs, discospondylitis should be the primary rule out for vertebral end plate lysis in cats

  10. Astaxanthin uptake in domestic dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimino Stefan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the uptake and transport of astaxanthin is lacking in most species. We studied the uptake of astaxanthin by plasma, lipoproteins and leukocytes in domestic dogs and cats. Methods Mature female Beagle dogs (18 to 19 mo old; 11 to 14 kg BW were dosed orally with 0, 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 10 or 40 mg astaxanthin and blood taken at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 h post-administration (n = 8/treatment. Similarly, mature domestic short hair cats (12 mo old; 3 to 3.5 kg body weight were fed a single dose of 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.4, 2, 5, or 10 mg astaxanthin and blood taken (n = 8/treatment at the same interval. Results Both dogs and cats showed similar biokinetic profiles. Maximal astaxanthin concentration in plasma was approximately 0.14 μmol/L in both species, and was observed at 6 h post-dosing. The plasma astaxanthin elimination half-life was 9 to 18 h. Astaxanthin was still detectable by 24 h in both species. In a subsequent study, dogs and cats were fed similar doses of astaxanthin daily for 15 to 16 d and astaxanthin uptake by plasma, lipoproteins, and leukocytes studied. In both species, plasma astaxanthin concentrations generally continued to increase through d 15 or 16 of supplementation. The astaxanthin was mainly associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL. In blood leukocytes, approximately half of the total astaxanthin was found in the mitochondria, with significant amounts also associated with the microsomes and nuclei. Conclusion Dogs and cats absorb astaxanthin from the diet. In the blood, the astaxanthin is mainly associated with HDL, and is taken up by blood leukocytes, where it is distributed to all subcellular organelles. Certain aspects of the biokinetic uptake of astaxanthin in dogs and cats are similar to that in humans.

  11. Feeders of free-roaming cats: personal characteristics, feeding practices and data on cat health and welfare in an urban setting of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idit eGunther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRC and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to five cats; group 2: fed six to 10 cats; group 3: fed 11-20 cats; group 4: fed ≥21 cats. Most feeders were women (81%, with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81. The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3,337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised of 15.31% (n=34 of all feeders, but fed 56% (n=1869 of the FRC in 37.42% (n=128 of the feeding locations. 'Heavy' feeders (groups 3 and 4 reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, 'heavy' feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337 cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337 were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337 of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337 suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337 had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337 were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were significantly and

  12. Feeders of Free-Roaming Cats: Personal Characteristics, Feeding Practices, and Data on Cat Health and Welfare in an Urban Setting of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, Idit; Raz, Tal; Even Zor, Yehonatan; Bachowski, Yuval; Klement, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Cat feeders serve as an important source of available food for free-roaming cats (FRCs) and can play a central role in providing data on FRC distribution, welfare, and health. Data on cat feeder personalities as well as a better understanding of their feeding practices offer relevance for decision making concerning FRC population control strategies. The current study surveyed 222 FRC feeders who responded to a municipal trap-neuter-return (TNR) campaign in an Israeli central urban setting. The aim of the study was to describe their personal characteristics, feeding practices, and the FRC populations they feed. Feeders were divided into four groups according to the number of cats they claimed to feed per day (group 1: fed up to 5 cats, group 2: fed 6-10 cats, group 3: fed 11-20 cats, and group 4: fed ≥21 cats). Most feeders were women (81%), with a median age of 58 years (range 18-81). The feeders reported an overall feeding of 3337 cats in 342 different feeding locations. Feeders of group 4 comprised 15.31% (n = 34) of all feeders but fed 56% (n = 1869) of the FRC in 37.42% (n = 128) of the feeding locations. "Heavy" feeders (groups 3 and 4) reported that they traveled significantly longer distances in order to feed the cats. Commercial dry food consisted of 90% of the food they provided, with 66% of them feeding once a day, with less food per cat per day than the other feeder groups. Interestingly, "heavy" feeders were usually singles, had on average fewer siblings, a clear preference for owning cats as pets, and lived in lower income neighborhoods. According to the feeders' reports on the FRC populations they fed, 69.7% (2325/3337) cats were neutered and 11.8% (395/3337) were kittens. In addition, they reported that 1.6% (54/3337) of the cats were limping, 2% (67/3337) suffered from a systemic disease, 4% (135/3337) had skin lesions, and 3.9% (130/3337) were suffering from a chronic disability. Abundance of kittens and morbidity rate were

  13. Earliest evidence for commensal processes of cat domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaowu; Hu, Songmei; Wang, Weilin; Wu, Xiaohong; Marshall, Fiona B; Chen, Xianglong; Hou, Liangliang; Wang, Changsui

    2014-01-07

    Domestic cats are one of the most popular pets globally, but the process of their domestication is not well understood. Near Eastern wildcats are thought to have been attracted to food sources in early agricultural settlements, following a commensal pathway to domestication. Early evidence for close human-cat relationships comes from a wildcat interred near a human on Cyprus ca. 9,500 y ago, but the earliest domestic cats are known only from Egyptian art dating to 4,000 y ago. Evidence is lacking from the key period of cat domestication 9,500-4,000 y ago. We report on the presence of cats directly dated between 5560-5280 cal B.P. in the early agricultural village of Quanhucun in Shaanxi, China. These cats were outside the wild range of Near Eastern wildcats and biometrically smaller, but within the size-range of domestic cats. The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of human and animal bone collagen revealed substantial consumption of millet-based foods by humans, rodents, and cats. Ceramic storage containers designed to exclude rodents indicated a threat to stored grain in Yangshao villages. Taken together, isotopic and archaeological data demonstrate that cats were advantageous for ancient farmers. Isotopic data also show that one cat ate less meat and consumed more millet-based foods than expected, indicating that it scavenged among or was fed by people. This study offers fresh perspectives on cat domestication, providing the earliest known evidence for commensal relationships between people and cats.

  14. A tortoiseshell male cat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A. S.; Berg, Lise Charlotte; Almstrup, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    Tortoiseshell coat color is normally restricted to female cats due to X-linkage of the gene that encodes the orange coat color. Tortoiseshell male cats do, however, occur at a low frequency among tortoiseshell cats because of chromosome aberrations similar to the Klinefelter syndrome in man...... tissue from a tortoiseshell male cat referred to us. Chromosome analysis using RBA-banding consistently revealed a 39,XXY karyotype. Histological examinations of testis biopsies from this cat showed degeneration of the tubules, hyperplasia of the interstitial tissue, and complete loss of germ cells....... Immunostaining using anti-vimentin and anti-VASA (DDX4) showed that only Sertoli cells and no germ cells were observed in the testicular tubules. As no sign of spermatogenesis was detected, we conclude that this is a classic case of a sterile, male tortoiseshell cat with a 39,XXY chromosome complement. © 2013 S...

  15. Megaesophagus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Mahaffey, M B; Parnell, P G; Styles, M E

    1990-03-01

    Megaesophagus was diagnosed in 2 cats. Both had a history of regurgitation, and one was dyspneic. Radiography of the thorax and abdomen revealed generalized megaesophagus and gastric distention with gas. There was no esophageal motility during fluoroscopic observation. The prognosis for cats with megaesophagus is guarded. Although they may be satisfactory pets, cats with this condition should not be used for breeding because the condition is believed to be inherited through recessive genes.

  16. Spontaneous occurrence of hepatic lipidosis in a group of laboratory cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V; Pion, P; Lewis, J; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1993-01-01

    Clinical signs consistent with hepatic lipidosis occurred in six obese adult laboratory cats, housed in a group cage, 6 to 7 weeks after changing their diet from a commercial to a purified diet. The affected cats lost 30 to 40% of their body weight in this time period. This rate of weight loss is compatible with little or no food intake. For treatment, 5 cats were tube-fed three or four times daily with a high-fat liquid diet supplemented with L-citrulline and choline. All cats tolerated the diet, which contained 35% protein on an energy basis. Substantial voluntary food intake resumed 12 to 16 days after initiating treatment. The sixth cat was euthanatized. These observations suggest that 6 to 7 weeks of anorexia, associated with 30 to 40% weight loss, can induce hepatic lipidosis in obese but otherwise healthy cats, and confirm that with appropriate management the prognosis for cats with hepatic lipidosis is favorable.

  17. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Cat-Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Healthy Pets, Healthy People About Pets & People Pets & Other Animals Birds Cats Dogs Farm Animals Backyard ... to have CSD and spread it to people, persons with a weakened immune system should ... Play rough with your pets because they may scratch and bite. Allow cats ...

  19. That Fat Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Phyllis Gilchrist

    2012-01-01

    This activity began with a picture book, Nurit Karlin's "Fat Cat On a Mat" (HarperCollins; 1998). The author and her students started their project with a 5-inch circular template for the head of their cats. They reviewed shapes as they drew the head and then added the ears and nose, which were triangles. Details to the face were added when…

  20. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-01-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively. (paper)

  1. CAT questions and answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document, prepared in February 1993, addresses the most common questions asked by APS Collaborative Access Teams (CATs). The answers represent the best judgment on the part of the APS at this time. In some cases, details are provided in separate documents to be supplied by the APS. Some of the answers are brief because details are not yet available. The questions are separated into five categories representing different aspects of CAT interactions with the APS: (1) Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), (2) CAT Beamline Review and Construction, (3) CAT Beamline Safety, (4) CAT Beamline Operations, and (5) Miscellaneous. The APS plans to generate similar documents as needed to both address new questions and clarify answers to present questions

  2. Overweight in adult cats: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öhlund, Malin; Palmgren, Malin; Holst, Bodil Ström

    2018-01-19

    this type of food is commonly fed to cats worldwide, and warrants further attention. Drawbacks related to the study design need to be acknowledged when interpreting the results, such as a potential for selection bias for cats visiting an animal hospital, and an information bias for questionnaire data. The high occurrence of overweight in cats needs to be addressed because it negatively affects their health.

  3. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2016-06-09

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We undertook a pilot study to assess if lifelong feeding of dry extruded kibble or wet (canned and/or fresh meat combinations) diets to cats (n = 10) with variable oral health affected the microbiome. Oral microbiome composition was assessed by amplifying the V1-V3 region of the 16S gene from supragingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were sequenced using Illumina technology. This deep sequencing revealed the feline oral microbiome to be diverse, containing 411 bacterial species from 14 phyla. We found that diet had a significant influence on the overall diversity and abundance of specific bacteria in the oral environment. Cats fed a dry diet exclusively had higher bacterial diversity in their oral microbiome than wet-food diet cats (p microbiome between cats on the two diets assessed, the relationship between these differences and gingival health was unclear. Our preliminary results indicate that further analysis of the influence of dietary constituents and texture on the feline oral microbiome is required to reveal the relationship between diet, the oral microbiome and gingival health in cats.

  4. Computerised Axial Tomography (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    Ministry of’ Defence, Defence Research Information Centre, UK. Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) Report Secufty C"uMiauion tide Onadtiicadon (U. R, Cor S...DRIC T 8485 COMPUTERISED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY ( CAT ) F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA, V. TRO1* ISS R 78/4.Rome, 1.5 Mlarch 1978 (from Italian) B Distribution(f...dello Radiazioni ISSN 0390--6477 F.P. GENTILE, F. SABETTA. V. TROI Computerised Axial Tomography ( CAT ) March 15, 1978). This paper is a review of

  5. Management Practices of Cats Owned by Faculty, Staff, and Students at Two Midwest Veterinary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cat owners’ housing, care, and management practices is important for promoting cat welfare. A survey study was conducted on the housing and management practices used for cats by students, faculty, and staff of The Ohio State University and Purdue University veterinary colleges. Subjects were 138 cat-owner dyads. Most cats (74% were housed strictly indoors in keeping with common US veterinary recommendations. However, many did not implement best practices outlined for behavior and other welfare needs of indoor cats. The percentage of respondents placing resources where cats could be disrupted while using them was 31%, 53%, and 30% for resting areas, food/water dishes, and litter boxes, respectively. Many cats were not provided a litter box in a private area (35%, in multiple areas of the house (51%, or that was regularly washed (73%. Horizontal scratching opportunities were not provided to 38% of cats; 32% were not provided toys that mimic prey and 91% of cats were fed a diet consisting of >75% dry food. These findings suggest a need for more concerted efforts to educate owners about meeting their cats’ welfare needs so as to attenuate risks and improve cat physical and behavioral welfare outcomes.

  6. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  7. IndexCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — IndexCat provides access to the digitized version of the printed Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon General's Office; eTK for medieval Latin texts; and...

  8. Vitamin D status predicts 30 day mortality in hospitalised cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Titmarsh

    Full Text Available Vitamin D insufficiency, defined as low serum concentrations of the major circulating form of vitamin D, 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, has been associated with the development of numerous infectious, inflammatory, and neoplastic disorders in humans. In addition, vitamin D insufficiency has been found to be predictive of mortality for many disorders. However, interpretation of human studies is difficult since vitamin D status is influenced by many factors, including diet, season, latitude, and exposure to UV radiation. In contrast, domesticated cats do not produce vitamin D cutaneously, and most cats are fed a commercial diet containing a relatively standard amount of vitamin D. Consequently, domesticated cats are an attractive model system in which to examine the relationship between serum 25(OHD and health outcomes. The hypothesis of this study was that vitamin D status would predict short term, all-cause mortality in domesticated cats. Serum concentrations of 25(OHD, together with a wide range of other clinical, hematological, and biochemical parameters, were measured in 99 consecutively hospitalised cats. Cats which died within 30 days of initial assessment had significantly lower serum 25(OHD concentrations than cats which survived. In a linear regression model including 12 clinical variables, serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile was significantly predictive of mortality. The odds ratio of mortality within 30 days was 8.27 (95% confidence interval 2.54-31.52 for cats with a serum 25(OHD concentration in the lower tertile. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that low serum 25(OHD concentration status is an independent predictor of short term mortality in cats.

  9. Assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid toxicity in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H; Lowenstine, Linda J; Filigenzi, Michael S; Pesavento, Patricia A

    2007-11-01

    The major pet food recall associated with acute renal failure in dogs and cats focused initially on melamine as the suspect toxicant. In the course of the investigation, cyanuric acid was identified in addition to melamine in the offending food. The purpose of this study was to characterize the toxicity potential of melamine, cyanuric acid, and a combination of melamine and cyanuric acid in cats. In this pilot study, melamine was added to the diet of 2 cats at 0.5% and 1%, respectively. Cyanuric acid was added to the diet of 1 cat at increasing doses of 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1% over the course of 10 days. Melamine and cyanuric acid were administered together at 0%, 0.2%, 0.5%, and 1% to 1 cat per dose group. No effect on renal function was observed in cats fed with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Cats dosed with a combination were euthanized at 48 hours after dosing because of acute renal failure. Urine and touch impressions of kidneys from all cats dosed with the combination revealed the presence of fan-shaped, birefringent crystals. Histopathologic findings were limited to the kidneys and included crystals primarily within tubules of the distal nephron, severe renal interstitial edema, and hemorrhage at the corticomedullary junction. The kidneys contained estimated melamine concentrations of 496 to 734 mg/kg wet weight and estimated cyanuric acid concentrations of 487 to 690 mg/kg wet weight. The results demonstrate that the combination of melamine and cyanuric acid is responsible for acute renal failure in cats.

  10. The Feline Mystique: Dispelling the Myth of the Independent Cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Describes learning activities about cats for primary and intermediate grades. Primary grade activity subjects include cat behavior, needs, breeds, storybook cats, and celestial cats. Intermediate grade activity subjects include cat history, care, language, literary cats, and cats in art. (BC)

  11. Bell inequalities with Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    In the Schrodinger cat gedanken experiment a ''cat'' is in a quantum superposition of two macroscopically distinct states. There is the apparent interpretation that the ''cat'' is not in one state or the other, ''alive'' or ''dead''. Here this interpretation is proved objectively. I propose the following definition of macroscopic reality: first, that the ''cat'' is either dead or alive, the measurement revealing which; second, that measurements on other ''cats'' some distance away cannot induce the macroscopic change, ''dead'' to ''alive'' and vice versa, to the ''cat''. The predictions of quantum mechanics are shown to be incompatible with this premise. (orig.)

  12. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, M; Lakritz, J; Halaney, A; Branson, K; Gupta, G D; Kreeger, J; Marsh, A E

    2002-07-29

    Sarcocystis neurona is the parasite most commonly associated with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Recently, cats (Felis domesticus) have been demonstrated to be an experimental intermediate host in the life cycle of S. neurona. This study was performed to determine if cats experimentally inoculated with culture-derived S. neurona merozoites develop tissue sarcocysts infectious to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), the definitive host of S. neurona. Four cats were inoculated with S. neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites and all developed antibodies reacting to S. neurona merozoite antigens, but tissue sarcocysts were detected in only two cats. Muscle tissues from the experimentally inoculated cats with and without detectable sarcocysts were fed to laboratory-reared opossums. Sporocysts were detected in gastrointestinal (GI) scrapings of one opossum fed experimentally infected feline tissues. The study results suggest that cats can develop tissue cysts following inoculation with culture-derived Sarcocystis sp. merozoites in which the particular isolate was originally derived from a naturally infected cat with tissue sarcocysts. This is in contrast to cats which did not develop tissue cysts when inoculated with S. neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2.

  13. Crystallized Schroedinger cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanos, O.; Lopez-Pena, R.; Man'ko, V.I.

    1995-01-01

    Crystallized Schroedinger cat states (male and female) are introduced on the base of extension of group construction for the even and odd coherent states of the electromagnetic field oscillator. The Wigner and Q functions are calculated and some are plotted for C 2 , C 3 , C 4 , C 5 , C 3v Schroedinger cat states. Quadrature means and dispersions for these states are calculated and squeezing and correlation phenomena are studied. Photon distribution functions for these states are given explicitly and are plotted for several examples. A strong oscillatory behavior of the photon distribution function for some field amplitudes is found in the new type of states

  14. E-Z-CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, U.; Dinnetz, G.; Andersson, I.

    1984-01-01

    A new barium sulphate suspension, E-Z-CAT, for use as an oral contrast medium at computed tomography of the abdomen has been compared with the commonly used water-soluble iodinated contrast medium Gastrografin as regards patient tolerance and diagnostic information. The investigation was conducted as an unpaired randomized single-blind study in 100 consecutive patients. E-Z-CAT seems to be preferred because of its better taste, its lesser tendency to cause diarrhoea, and for usage in patients who are known to be hypersensitive to iodinated contrast media. The diagnostic information was the same for both contrast media. (Auth.)

  15. Juvenile hyperthyroidism in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jana M; Ehrhart, E J; Sisson, D D; Jones, M A

    2003-01-01

    An 8-month-old, male domestic shorthaired cat presented for chronic weight loss, intermittent dyspnea, chronic diarrhea, hyperactivity, and weakness. The cat had a palpable thyroid nodule and increased serum total thyroxine and 3,5,3' triiodothyronine levels. The cat was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, and a unilateral thyroidectomy was performed followed by radioactive iodine at a later date. The clinical signs resolved following radioactive iodine, and the cat subsequently developed clinical hypothyroidism.

  16. Tracheal collapse in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.C.; O'Brien, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Two cats examined bronchoscopically to discover the cause of tracheal collapse were found to have tracheal obstruction cranial to the collapse. Cats with this unusual sign should be examined bronchoscopically to ascertain whether there is an obstruction, as the cause in these 2 cats was distinct from the diffuse airway abnormality that causes tracheal collapse in dogs

  17. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Sustainable Ecosystems: Domestic cats and their effect on wildlife populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, S E

    2015-03-01

    Domestic cats are estimated to kill billions of small mammals and birds each year. In certain areas of the world, it is not uncommon for either feral or free-ranging cats to have high population densities, creating concern regarding their level of hunting. Many cats are considered to be subsidized predators, as they receive care and food from humans. Arguments abound regarding the presence of cats in the habitats of native small mammals and birds and whether or not local ecosystems can sustain this predator-prey relationship. The effects of cats on native wildlife can depend on several factors, including cat classification (feral vs. free ranging vs. indoor-outdoor), geographical location (islands vs. mainland), and type of habitat (rural vs. suburban vs. urban). Feral and free-ranging cats may have a greater impact on native species on islands because habitat is severely limited. Continued urbanization and development of rural areas also creates fragmented habitats, and native species may struggle to survive with the added pressure of hunting by domestic cats. Additionally, cats in rural areas are frequently fed by humans, which can support high population densities and intensify pressure on native species. Species targeted by cats may also vary based on prey availability in different areas, but small mammals are generally preferred over birds, reptiles, or invertebrates. Domestic cats certainly have the potential to roam and hunt in very large areas inhabited by native species and loss of biodiversity is a major concern. Therefore, it is possible that ecosystems may not be able to sustain hunting by domestic cats. Because this predator-prey relationship is probably not sustainable, it is necessary to responsibly manage outdoor domestic cats.

  18. Coxofemoral luxations in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Aparicio, F.J.; Fjeld, T.O.

    1993-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 79 untreated luxations of the coxofemoral joint in cats were recorded over a 12-year period. Twenty-nine of these cases were available for follow-up, of which 13 were re-examined clinically and radiologically. It was found that the maximum incidence of the injury occurred from one to three years of age. Follow-up radiographs showed that the cats had developed nearthroses of various degrees located dorsally on the ilium. The degree of nearthrosis formation was not consistently correlated with the length of the observation time. Radiological signs of decreased bone density of the proximal femur may be caused by reduced weightbearing related to changes in biomechanical function and altered blood supply in the luxated limb. Almost two-thirds of the re-examined animals presented some kind of locomotor dysfunction on clinical examination. Limb function improved with time. The best clinical results appeared to be in cats that were immature at the time of injury and developed nearthrosis similar to a normal coxofemoral joint. All the cats available to this study showed acceptable functional results and had a normal level of activity according to the owners

  19. Prostatic carcinoma in two cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caney, S.M.A.; Holt, P.E.; Day, M.J.; Rudorf, H.; Gruffydd-Jones, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, radiological and pathological features of two cats with prostatic carcinoma are reported. In both cats the presenting history included signs of lower urinary tract disease with haematuria and dysuria. Prostatomegaly was visible radiographically in one cat; an irregular intraprostatic urethra was seen on retrograde contrast urethrography in both cats. In one of the cats, neoplasia was suspected on the basis of a transurethral catheter biopsy. Following a poor response to palliative treatment in both cases, euthanasia was performed with histological confirmation of the diagnosis

  20. Critical assessment of claims regarding management of feral cats by trap-neuter-return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longcore, Travis; Rich, Catherine; Sullivan, Lauren M

    2009-08-01

    Many jurisdictions have adopted programs to manage feral cats by trap-neuter-return (TNR), in which cats are trapped and sterilized, then returned to the environment to be fed and cared for by volunteer caretakers. Most conservation biologists probably do not realize the extent and growth of this practice and that the goal of some leading TNR advocates is that cats ultimately be recognized and treated as "protected wildlife." We compared the arguments put forth in support of TNR by many feral cat advocates with the scientific literature. Advocates promoting TNR often claim that feral cats harm wildlife only on islands and not on continents; fill a natural or realized niche; do not contribute to the decline of native species; and are insignificant vectors or reservoirs of disease. Advocates also frequently make claims about the effectiveness of TNR, including claims that colonies of feral cats are eventually eliminated by TNR and that managed colonies resist invasion by other cats. The scientific literature contradicts each of these claims. TNR of feral cats is primarily viewed and regulated as an animal welfare issue, but it should be seen as an environmental issue, and decisions to implement it should receive formal environmental assessment. Conservation scientists have a role to play by conducting additional research on the effects of feral cats on wildlife and by communicating sound scientific information about this problem to policy makers.

  1. Characterization of pica and chewing behaviors in privately owned cats: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontigny-Bédard, Isabelle; Beauchamp, Guy; Bélanger, Marie-Claude; Frank, Diane

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize pica behavior in cats. Cat owners were recruited to participate in a questionnaire survey on pica behavior exhibited by their cats. Emphasis was put on the type of item ingested. Questions on early history and environment, as well as general health and gastrointestinal signs, were asked. Owners of healthy cats not showing pica were also recruited into a control group. Associations between variables and groups were statistically tested. Pica was directed most commonly at shoelaces or threads, followed by plastic, fabric, other items, rubber, paper or cardboard and wood. Some cats ingested specific items but only chewed others. A significant positive association was found between sucking and ingesting fabric (P = 0.002). Ad libitum feeding was significantly lower in the pica group than the control group (P = 0.01). Prevalence of self-sucking behavior was significantly higher in the pica group than the control group (P = 0.001). Cats with pica vomited significantly more often than control cats (P = 0.01). Pica, the ingestion of inedible items, does not seem to be the consequence of a suboptimal environment or early weaning. Cats with pica were less commonly fed ad libitum than healthy cats. As frequently reported, pica and vomiting were related, but the causative association is not well established and thus warrants further investigation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The impact of obesity, sex, and diet on hepatic glucose production in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, Saskia; Hoenig, Margarethe; Glushka, John; Jin, Eunsook S; Burgess, Shawn C; Waldron, Mark; Jordan, Erin T; Prestegard, James H; Ferguson, Duncan C; Wu, Shaoxiong; Olson, Darin E

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in cats. The risk of developing diabetes is severalfold greater for male cats than for females, even after having been neutered early in life. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of different metabolic pathways in the regulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) during the fasted state considering these risk factors. A triple tracer protocol using (2)H(2)O, [U-(13)C(3)]propionate, and [3,4-(13)C(2)]glucose was applied in overnight-fasted cats (12 lean and 12 obese; equal sex distribution) fed three different diets. Compared with lean cats, obese cats had higher insulin (P mass index, and girth correlated negatively with EGP (P lean cats and are still capable of maintaining fasting euglycemia, despite the well-documented existence of peripheral insulin resistance in obese cats. Our data further suggest that sex-related differences exist in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in obese cats, suggesting that pyruvate cycling acts as a controlling mechanism to modulate EGP. Increased pyruvate cycling could therefore be an important factor in modulating the diabetes risk in female cats.

  3. High feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity in a cat with pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, J M; Steiner, J M; Williams, D A; Van Alstine, W G; Blevins, W

    1997-06-15

    A 1.5-year-old domestic shorthair cat was examined because of vomiting and icterus. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included high alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase activities and high total bilirubin concentration. During abdominal ultrasonography, the left limb and body of the pancreas appeared hypoechoic, and a small quantity of peritoneal effusion was seen. The liver was diffusely hyperechoic, with echogenicity similar to that of the spleen, indicating hepatic lipidosis. Feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity was high, suggesting that the cat also had pancreatitis. The cat was treated with crystalloid fluids and was fed a protein-restricted diet via a percutaneous endoscopically placed gastrostomy tube. The cat's condition continued to deteriorate despite medical treatment, and it was euthanatized. Necropsy confirmed the clinical suspicion of acute pancreatitis and hepatic lipidosis. This case suggests that measurement of trypsin-like immunoreactivity may be useful in cats suspected of having pancreatitis.

  4. Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism in two cats: evaluation of bone mineral density with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulou, M.; Kirpensteijn, J; Nielsen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Two three-month-old, intact female Abyssinian cats were presented with a history of lameness, constipation and ataxia. The cats had been fed a diet composed almost exclusively of meat. Both showed severe osteopenia and multiple pathological fractures on radiography. Following euthanasia of the more...

  5. Hybrid Cat Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Barrieu, Pauline; Louberge, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Natural catastrophes attract regularly the attention of media and have become a source of public concern. From a financial viewpoint, natural catastrophes represent idiosyncratic risks, diversifiable at the world level. But for reasons analyzed in this paper reinsurance markets are unable to cope with this risk completely. Insurance-linked securities, such as cat bonds, have been issued to complete the international risk transfer process, but their development is disappointing so far. This pa...

  6. Toxoplasma gondii: A study of oocyst re-shedding in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Sammi, Ana Sue; Dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Sasse, João Pedro; Martins, Thais Agostinho; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Cardim, Sérgio Tosi; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the re-shedding of T. gondii oocysts in cats fed tissue cysts of homologous and heterologous strains 12, 24 and 36 months after the first infection. Thirteen cats were used in the present study and were divided into four groups: G1 (n=2), G2 (n=3), G3 (n=5), and G4 (n=3). G1, G3 and G4 cats were infected with brain cysts of ME49 and G2 with TgDoveBr8, both genotype II strains of T. gondii. The G1 and G2 cats were re-infected after twelve months with brain cysts of VEG strain (genotype III), and G3 cats were re-infected with TgDoveBr1 (genotype II). The G3 cats were re-infected a third time after 24 months from the second infection, and the G4 cats were re-infected 36 months after the initial infection with cysts of the VEG strain. The cats' feces were evaluated using fecal flotation and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. The serological responses for IgM, IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. All cats shed oocysts after the initial infection. Only one G1 cat shed oocysts when re-infected after twelve months with the VEG strain. No G2 cats excreted oocysts after the second infection with VEG. G3 cats, when re-infected after twelve months with the TgDoveBr1 strain, did not shed oocysts. However, when challenged after a third time with the VEG strain, three out of four cats shed oocysts. In the G4 group, when re-infected after thirty-six months with the VEG strain, two out of three cats shed oocysts. All oocyst samples were genotyped and characterized as the same genotype from the inoculum. Protection against oocyst re-excretion occurred in 90%, 25%, and 33.4% of cats after 12, 24, and 36 months from the initial infection, respectively. Therefore, the environmental contamination by oocysts from re-infected adult cats is only 30% lower than from kittens. In conclusion, the excretion of T. gondii oocysts was higher in experimentally re-infected cats throughout the years, especially when a heterologous strain was used. Copyright © 2017

  7. Local cloning of CAT states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Ramij

    2011-01-01

    In this Letter we analyze the (im)possibility of the exact cloning of orthogonal three-qubit CAT states under local operation and classical communication (LOCC) with the help of a restricted entangled state. We also classify the three-qubit CAT states that can (not) be cloned under LOCC restrictions and extend the results to the n-qubit case. -- Highlights: → We analyze the (im)possibility of exact cloning of orthogonal CAT states under LOCC. → We also classify the set of CAT states that can(not) be cloned by LOCC. → No set of orthogonal CAT states can be cloned by LOCC with help of similar CAT state. → Any two orthogonal n-qubit GHZ-states can be cloned by LOCC with help of a GHZ state.

  8. Tolerability and efficacy of benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan N; Gunn-Moore, Danielle A; Tasker, Séverine; Gleadhill, Allison; Strehlau, Günther

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) benazepril in cats with chronic kidney disease (CKD). A total of 192 cats with CKD with an initial plasma creatinine concentration > or = 2 mg/dL (> or = 177 micromol/L) and urine specific gravity benazepril x HCl at a dosage of 0.5-1.0 mg/kg (n = 96) for up to 1,119 days. Most cats were fed exclusively a diet containing low amounts of phosphate, protein, and sodium. Benazepril produced a significant reduction in proteinuria, assessed by the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC, P = .005). This effect of benazepril was present in all subgroups tested, including cats with UPC benazepril as compared with placebo during treatment in cats with initial UPC benazepril and 520 +/- 323 days with placebo (P = .47). Mean +/- SD renal survival times in the 13 cats with initial UPC > or = 1 were 402 +/- 202 days with benazepril and 149 +/- 90 days with placebo (P = .27). Cats with initial UPC > or = 1 treated with benazepril had better appetite (P = .017) as compared with those treated with placebo. Benazepril was well tolerated. In conclusion, benazepril decreased proteinuria in cats with CKD.

  9. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna E Kitts-Morgan

    Full Text Available This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05 on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE or core home range size (50% KDE. Male cats tended (P = 0.08 to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha compared to female cats (0.64 ha. Reproductively intact cats (n = 2 had larger (P < 0.0001 diurnal and nocturnal home ranges as compared to altered cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  10. Free-ranging farm cats: home range size and predation on a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E; Caires, Kyle C; Bohannon, Lisa A; Parsons, Elizabeth I; Hilburn, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    This study's objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P ranges as compared to altered cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife.

  11. Free-Ranging Farm Cats: Home Range Size and Predation on a Livestock Unit In Northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E.; Caires, Kyle C.; Bohannon, Lisa A.; Parsons, Elizabeth I.; Hilburn, Katharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife. PMID:25894078

  12. Antioxidant capacity of meagre (Argyrossomus regius fed different lipid content and source, with and without selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sthelio Braga Fonseca

    2014-06-01

    Meagre (600 animals were kept in 24 tanks (80 L with constant renovation and aeration and maintained at 20.7 ± 0.7ºC and oxygen 8.8 ± 1.7 mg L-1. Fish were fed twice per day, six days per week, with eight different experimental diets for 60 days. Diets were formulated to have two different oil sources (fish or vegetable blend oils with 45% of linseed, 35% of rapeseed and 20% of soybean oil, two lipid levels (12 and 17% and two selenium supplementation (0 and 1 mg/kg diet. Lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, total glutathione (TG and catalase (CAT were analyzed in liver of fish. CAT, GPx and GR activities were not significantly altered in fish fed with diets with different oil sources. However, TG in fish fed with fish oil diet was higher than the levels observed in fish fed with vegetable blend oil. Furthermore, fish fed with fish oil diet showed lower lipid peroxidation when compared with fish fed vegetable blend oil diet (Table 1. Concerning the oil level in diet, it was observed that fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids had a higher level of total glutathione when compared to fish fed with a diet of 12% lipids. On the other hand, the fish fed with a diet with 12% lipids showed lower levels of lipid peroxidation when compared to fish fed with a diet of 17% lipids. Fish fed with diets supplemented with selenium showed a significantly increased activity of GPx when compared with fish fed without selenium. Three-way ANOVA analysis showed that dietary lipid level and the presence of selenium have a significant interaction on the activities of CAT and GR, as well as, levels of TG and LPO. A significant interaction between the source of oil and the presence of selenium on GR activities was observed. Interaction on source and level was observed to CAT. In conclusion, the antioxidant capacity of meagre is influenced by the source of oil, the level of lipids and the presence of selenium in their diet.

  13. Diprosopia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camón, J; Ruberte, J; Ordóñez, G

    1990-05-01

    A diprosopic cat is described. In the head, two snouts, three eyes and two pinnae were present. The mandible was single and immobile because labial skin of both upper lips and single lower lip was partly fused. Superimposition of upper and lower dental arches was impossible and the mouths remained permanently open. Two incomplete oral cavities were present and the two tongues were joined at their base. The brain was duplicated in part. In the cranium only occipital and temporal bones were normal, the basisphenoid was bifurcated and the remaining bones were duplicated. Embryological mechanisms are discussed.

  14. European bat Lyssavirus transmission among cats, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Mailles, Alexandra; Boisseleau, Didier; Delmas, Olivier; Biron, Charlotte; Bouchier, Christiane; Capek, Isabelle; Muller, Michel; Ilari, Frédéric; Lefranc, Tanguy; Raffi, François; Goudal, Maryvonne; Bourhy, Hervé

    2009-02-01

    We identified 2 cases of European bat lyssavirus subtype 1 transmission to domestic carnivores (cats) in France. Bat-to-cat transmission is suspected. Low amounts of virus antigen in cat brain made diagnosis difficult.

  15. Toxoplasmosis: An Important Message for Cat Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... role do cats play in the spread of toxoplasmosis? Cats get Toxoplasma infection by eating infected rodents, ... an infected cat may have defecated. What is toxoplasmosis? Toxoplasmosis is an infection caused by a microscopic ...

  16. [Evaluation of nutritional characteristics of commercial canned cat diets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rückert, Cornelia; Braun, Conny; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2017-08-10

    To evaluate commercial complete canned cat foods according to their composition, labeling and nutritional characteristics. A total of 21 commercial complete canned compound feeds for adult cats were analyzed for crude nutrients, minerals, vitamins, selected amino acids and taurine. The analyzed parameters were compared to the internal set of standards of the European Pet Food Industry Federation (FEDIAF). The energy content was calculated and compared with the labeled recommendations regarding the amounts of diet that should be fed. Analyzed nutrients were compared with the labeled nutrients according to the regulations of the EU food and feed law (directive EU regulation 767/2009). In many cases, the labeled feeding protocols did not match the calculated daily energy requirements. In eight complete foods, the recommended daily feed amounts were underestimated and four recommendations exceeded energy requirements of adult cats. In 12 complete foods, the calcium and phosphorus contents were threefold higher than the respective requirement. In 16 of 21 complete foods, substantial discrepancies were observed between the recommendations and the analyzed trace elements. In particular, selenium contents exceeded the selenium requirement more than threefold. The vitamin, arginine and taurine contents showed no significant discrepancies to the recommendations. With respect to the labeled nutrients, there were only minor deviations from the regulations of the European law. In general, healthy adult cats are adequately supplied with energy and nutrients when feeding commercial canned complete diets for cats. In cases of body weight loss or gain, the labelled feed amounts should be questioned. The high phosphorus contents are an issue of concern, because a high phosphorus intake can potentially increase the risk for urinary stones and particularly for older cats the risk for renal insufficiency. Furthermore, it is recommended to decrease the high selenium levels by the

  17. Systemic Cat Scratch Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Min Liao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic cat scratch disease (CSD is often associated with prolonged fever and microabscesses in the liver and/or spleen. We report a case of systemic CSD with hepatic, splenic and renal involvement in an aboriginal child in Taiwan. A previously healthy 9-year-old girl had an intermittent fever for about 17 days, and complained of abdominal pain, headache and weight loss. Abdominal computed tomography showed multiple tiny hypodense nodular lesions in the spleen and both kidneys. Laparotomy revealed multiple soft, whitishtan lesions on the surface of the liver and spleen. Histopathologic examination of a biopsy specimen of the spleen showed necrotizing granulomatous inflammation with central necrosis surrounded by epithelioid cells and occasional Langhans' giant cells, strongly suggestive of Bartonella henselae infection. History revealed close contact with a cat. B. henselae DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the tissue specimen, and the single antibody titer against B. henselae was greater than 1:2048. These results confirmed the diagnosis of visceral CSD caused by B. henselae. The patient's symptoms resolved after treatment with rifampin and tetracycline. This case illustrates the need for inclusion of systemic CSD in patients with fever of unknown origin and abdominal pain.

  18. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  19. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle C Hybki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis.

  20. College Students and Their Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Alexander, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-two Siamese and 32 mixed breed cats' personalities were rated by their respective college student owners and compared. Further, the owners' self rated personality traits were correlated with the pets'; significant Siamese and Mixed differences and correlations were obtained. These are the first data to examine breed of cat on a personality…

  1. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  2. Toxoplasmosis : Beware of Cats !!!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Kumari Baithalu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Anthropozoonotic parasite Toxoplasma gondii causes widespread human and animal diseases, mostly involving central nervous system. Human acquires toxoplasmosis from cats, from consuming raw or undercooked meat and from vertical transmission to the fetus through placenta from mother during pregnancy. Socio-epidemiological as well as unique environmental factors also plays a significant role in transmission of this infection. Preventive measures should be taken into account the importance of culture, tradition, and beliefs of people in various communities more than solving poverty and giving health education. Therefore the focus of this article is to create public awareness regarding sense of responsibility of looking after pets to prevent such an important zoonotic disease. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 247-249

  3. CAT-D-T tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Blue, T.; Miley, G.H.

    1981-01-01

    The domains of plasma fuel cycles bounded by the D-T and Cat-D, and by the D-T and SCD modes of operation are examined. These domains, referred to as, respectively, the Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation, are characterized by the number (γ) of tritons per fusion neutron available from external (to the plasma) sources. Two external tritium sources are considered - the blankets of the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) reactors and fission reactors supported by the Cat-D-T (SCD-T) driven hybrid reactors. It is found that by using 6 Li for the active material of the control elements of the fission reactors, it is possible to achieve γ values close to unity. Cat-D-T tokamaks could be designed to have smaller size, higher power density, lower magnetic field and even lower plasma temperature than Cat-D tokamaks; the difference becomes significant for γ greater than or equal to .75. The SCD-T mode of operation appears to be even more attractive. Promising applications identified for these Cat-D-T and SCD-T modes of operation include hybrid reactors, fusion synfuel factories and fusion reactors which have difficulty in providing all their tritium needs

  4. A subjective domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) temperament assessment results in six independent dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Daniel; Ha, James

    2017-08-01

    The study of personality or temperament is well developed in many species, but in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) it has lagged behind. We applied one common methodology, subjective surveys, performed by their owners, to investigate the dimensions of cat temperament. To do this, we developed an eighteen question survey covering common behavioral traits of cats, and had the evaluators rank their cat on a seven point Likert scale for trait. The responses were analyzed with factor analysis, and resulted in six significant dimensions of temperament across the 251 surveys. The six dimensions, in order of importance, are: Cat Social, Active, Human Nonsocial, Human Aggressive, and Intense. Supplemental questions were also included in all the surveys, and MANOVA analysis of these showed that outdoor usage, feeding style (ad-lib vs. meal fed), living with other cats, sex, duration of ownership, and previous history as a stray all had effects on at least one of the dimensions of cat temperament. Future work is clearly needed to fully validate our model and to further investigate our findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sonography of cat scratch disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, David M; Jacobson, Jon A; Downie, Brian; Biermann, J Sybil; Kim, Sung Moon; Yablon, Corrie M

    2015-03-01

    To characterize the sonographic features of cat scratch disease and to identify features that allow differentiation from other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. After Institutional Review Board approval was obtained, patients who underwent sonography for a medial epitrochlear mass or lymph node were identified via the radiology information system. Patients were divided into 2 groups: cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease, based on pathologic results and clinical information. Sonograms were retrospectively reviewed and characterized with respect to dimension, shape (round, oval, or lobular), symmetry, location (subcutaneous or intramuscular), multiplicity, echogenicity (anechoic, hypoechoic, isoechoic, hyperechoic, or mixed), hyperechoic hilum (present or absent), adjacent anechoic or hypoechoic area, hyperemia (present or absent), pattern of hyperemia if present (central, peripheral, or mixed), increased posterior through-transmission (present or absent), and shadowing (present or absent). Sonographic findings were compared between the patients with and without cat scratch disease. The final patient group consisted of 5 cases of cat scratch disease and 16 cases of other causes of medial epitrochlear masses. The 2 sonographic findings that were significantly different between the cat scratch disease and non-cat scratch disease cases included mass asymmetry (P = .0062) and the presence of a hyperechoic hilum (P = .0075). The other sonographic findings showed no significant differences between the groups. The sonographic finding of an epitrochlear mass due to cat scratch disease most commonly is that of a hypoechoic lobular or oval mass with central hyperemia and a possible adjacent fluid collection; however, the presence of asymmetry and a hyperechoic hilum differentiate cat scratch disease from other etiologies. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  6. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  7. The Effect of Moderate Dietary Protein and Phosphate Restriction on Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Healthy Older Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, R F; Biourge, V; Chang, Y; Syme, H M; Elliott, J

    2016-09-01

    Dietary phosphate and protein restriction decreases plasma PTH and FGF-23 concentrations and improves survival time in azotemic cats, but has not been examined in cats that are not azotemic. Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet decreases PTH and FGF-23 in healthy older cats and thereby slows progression to azotemic CKD. A total of 54 healthy, client-owned cats (≥ 9 years). Prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. Cats were assigned to test diet (protein 76 g/Mcal and phosphate 1.6 g/Mcal) or control diet (protein 86 g/Mcal and phosphate 2.6 g/Mcal) and monitored for 18 months. Changes in variables over time and effect of diet were assessed by linear mixed models. A total of 26 cats ate test diet and 28 cats ate control diet. There was a significant effect of diet on urinary fractional excretion of phosphate (P = 0.045), plasma PTH (P = 0.005), and ionized calcium concentrations (P = 0.018), but not plasma phosphate, FGF-23, or creatinine concentrations. Plasma PTH concentrations did not significantly change in cats fed the test diet (P = 0.62) but increased over time in cats fed the control diet (P = 0.001). There was no significant treatment effect of the test diet on development of azotemic CKD (3 of 26 (12%) test versus 3 of 28 (11%) control, odds ratio 1.09 (95% CI 0.13-8.94), P = 0.92). Feeding a moderately protein- and phosphate-restricted diet has effects on calcium-phosphate homeostasis in healthy older cats and is well tolerated. This might have an impact on renal function and could be useful in early chronic kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. NRPC ServCat priorities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This document lists the Natural Resource Program Center’s priority ServCat documents. It is recommended that these documents- which include annual narrative reports,...

  9. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B.

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs—location, number of human dwellings, and urban area—to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities. PMID:29489854

  10. Multistate matrix population model to assess the contributions and impacts on population abundance of domestic cats in urban areas including owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flockhart, D T Tyler; Coe, Jason B

    2018-01-01

    Concerns over cat homelessness, over-taxed animal shelters, public health risks, and environmental impacts has raised attention on urban-cat populations. To truly understand cat population dynamics, the collective population of owned cats, unowned cats, and cats in the shelter system must be considered simultaneously because each subpopulation contributes differently to the overall population of cats in a community (e.g., differences in neuter rates, differences in impacts on wildlife) and cats move among categories through human interventions (e.g., adoption, abandonment). To assess this complex socio-ecological system, we developed a multistate matrix model of cats in urban areas that include owned cats, unowned cats (free-roaming and feral), and cats that move through the shelter system. Our model requires three inputs-location, number of human dwellings, and urban area-to provide testable predictions of cat abundance for any city in North America. Model-predicted population size of unowned cats in seven Canadian cities were not significantly different than published estimates (p = 0.23). Model-predicted proportions of sterile feral cats did not match observed sterile cat proportions for six USA cities (p = 0.001). Using a case study from Guelph, Ontario, Canada, we compared model-predicted to empirical estimates of cat abundance in each subpopulation and used perturbation analysis to calculate relative sensitivity of vital rates to cat abundance to demonstrate how management or mismanagement in one portion of the population could have repercussions across all portions of the network. Our study provides a general framework to consider cat population abundance in urban areas and, with refinement that includes city-specific parameter estimates and modeling, could provide a better understanding of population dynamics of cats in our communities.

  11. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Özkan, Burçak

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen causes serious problems as toxication in cats in spite of being an effective and reliable analgesic and antipyretic in humans. A six months-old female cat suffering from cough was presented to examination to International Pet Hospital/Tirana/Albania when no result was obtained after one  acetaminophen tablet had been administered in order to heal the disease. Depression, grey and cyanotic mucous membranes and tongue, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypothermia were primary clinical sign...

  12. Properties of squeezed Schroedinger cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.S.F.; Omar, Z.M.

    1995-09-01

    In this article we investigate some statistical properties of the even and odd squeezed (squeezed Schroedinger cat) states. The quasi-probability distribution functions especially W(α) and Q(α) are calculated and discussed for these states. The phase distribution function is discussed. A generation scheme is proposed for either the squeezed generalized Schroedinger cat, or the squeezed number state. (author). 35 refs, 5 figs

  13. Plasma lipids, lipoprotein composition and profile during induction and treatment of hepatic lipidosis in cats and the metabolic effect of one daily meal in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, G; Paragon, B M; Sérougne, C; Férézou, J; Milliat, F; Lutton, C

    2004-04-01

    Anorexia in obese cats may result in feline hepatic lipidosis (FHL). This study was designed to determine plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles in queens at different stages during experimental induction of FHL (lean, obese, FHL), and after 10 weeks of treatment. Results were compared with those obtained from lean queens of same age fed the same diet but at a maintenance level, once a day. Hepatic lipidosis led to an increase in plasma triacylglycerol (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and an enrichment of LDL with TG and of high density lipoprotein (HDL) with cholesterol, suggesting that VLDL secretion is enhanced, VLDL and LDL catabolism is lowered, and lipoprotein exchanges are impaired in FHL. This study also showed that cholesterolaemia is increased in cats fed at a dietary rhythm of one meal per day compared to ad libitum feeding.

  14. Effect of soybean diet: Growth and conversion efficiencies of fingerling of stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzzammil Iqbal Siddiqui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of 15% protein from soybean meal in Diet II was feasible for the stinging cat fish, Heteropneustes fossilis and no significant differences in growth parameters were found in fish fed soybean meal-based diets compared to those fed control diet (Diet I. Live weight gain percent (165% obtained in fish fed soybean meal based diet was not significantly different to that achieved (171% in fish fed Diet I. Specific growth rate percent, SGR (2.79%, feed conversion ratio FCR (1.40 and protein efficiency ratio PER (1.79 recorded in fish fed Diet II were also more less comparable to those fed control diet. Mortality was not recorded in the period of the feeding trial. Body composition of the fish fed soybean meal based diet (Diet II was also comparable to that fed control diet. Significantly higher fat content was noted in fish fed Diet II. However, the protein contents were not changed in fish fed Diet I and II. Similarly, no significant differences (P > 0.05 in protein productive value were noted between the two groups. However, ash content differed significantly (P < 0.05 in fish fed Diet I and II. Although soybean meal-based diet depressed growth and feed conversion efficiencies of the fish to some extent, inclusion of soybean meal was found to be cost-effective alternative to fish meal.

  15. Effect of Feeding an Iodine-Restricted Diet in Cats with Spontaneous Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, T Y; Bruyette, D S; Moore, G E; Scott-Moncrieff, J C

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive feeding of an iodine-restricted diet has been proposed as a method for controlling clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism in hyperthyroid cats. To determine the effect of feeding an iodine-restricted diet on TT4 concentrations and clinical signs in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Forty-nine client-owned cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Retrospective case series. Hyperthyroid cats were exclusively fed a commercially available iodine-restricted diet. Clinical response was assessed by change in weight and heart rate and serum TT4, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine concentrations at various times during dietary management (21-60 days, 60-180 days). Serum TT4 normalized in 20/48 cats (42%) and 39/47 cats (83%) at 21-60 days and 61-180 days, respectively. Cats in which the TT4 concentrations were still above reference range at 21-60 days had a significantly higher starting TT4 than those that normalized their TT4 levels during the same time period (P = .038). Body weight did not significantly increase (P = .34) nor heart rate decrease (P = .64) during the study. There was a significant decrease in serum creatinine (P = .028). Cats in the low reference range for serum TT4 concentrations did not have a significant increase in body weight (P = .41) nor creatinine (P = .54) when compared to those with high reference range. Restricted-iodine diets were effective at maintaining serum TT4 concentrations within reference ranges for a majority of cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism over 1 year, although not all clinical signs of hyperthyroidism improved. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Prognostic markers in feline hepatic lipidosis: a retrospective study of 71 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, Sharon; Segev, Gilad; Kedar, Shay; Yas, Einat; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-11-11

    Feline hepatic lipidosis (HL) is a common, potentially life-threatening disease resulting from prolonged anorexia and increased catabolism. This retrospective study included cats diagnosed with HL based on liver cytology or histopathology (years 2004-2015), and aimed to identify clinical and laboratory parameters associated with mortality. The study included 71 cats (47 females and 24 males) and 85 control cats with non-HL diseases. Most HL cats (90 per cent) were mixed breed, neutered (70; 99 per cent), female (47; 66 per cent), indoor cats (56; 79 per cent), fed dry commercial diets (44 cats; 62 per cent), and with a median age of 7.5 years (range 1.5-16.0). Common primary conditions included gastrointestinal diseases, pancreatitis and cholangiohepatitis (31 cats; 44 per cent) and stressful events (14; 20 per cent). HL was idiopathic in 20 cats (28 per cent). The overall mortality was 38 per cent (27/71 cats). Older age, as well as dullness, weakness, ptyalism, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, increased serum creatine kinase activity, hypocholesterolaemia and hepatic failure at presentation were significantly (P≤0.033) associated with mortality. The primary disease was unassociated with mortality. Worsening hypoalbuminaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, electrolyte disorders, and occurrence of cavitary effusions or hypotension during hospitalisation were significantly (P≤0.045) associated with mortality. A decrease of serum β-hydroxybutyrate during hospitalisation was significantly (P=0.01) associated with survival, likely reflecting improvement in the catabolic state. The identified risk factors may be therapeutic targets. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Time and financial costs of programs for live trapping feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Felicia B; Stoskopf, Michael K; Levine, Jay F

    2004-11-01

    To determine the time and financial costs of programs for live trapping feral cats and determine whether allowing cats to become acclimated to the traps improved trapping effectiveness. Prospective cohort study. 107 feral cats in 9 colonies. 15 traps were set at each colony for 5 consecutive nights, and 5 traps were then set per night until trapping was complete. In 4 colonies, traps were immediately baited and set; in the remaining 5 colonies, traps were left open and cats were fed in the traps for 3 days prior to the initiation of trapping. Costs for bait and labor were calculated, and trapping effort and efficiency were assessed. Mean +/- SD overall trapping effort (ie, number of trap-nights until at least 90% of the cats in the colony had been captured or until no more than 1 cat remained untrapped) was 8.9 +/- 3.9 trap-nights per cat captured. Mean overall trapping efficiency (ie, percentage of cats captured per colony) was 98.0 +/- 4.0%. There were no significant differences in trapping effort or efficiency between colonies that were provided an acclimation period and colonies that were not. Overall trapping costs were significantly higher for colonies provided an acclimation period. Results suggest that these live-trapping protocols were effective. Feeding cats their regular diets in the traps for 3 days prior to the initiation of trapping did not have a significant effect on trapping effort or efficiency in the present study but was associated with significant increases in trapping costs.

  18. A review of over three decades of research on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dennis C

    2017-08-01

    This review article covers research conducted over the last three decades on cat-human and human-cat interactions and relationships, especially from an ethological point of view. It includes findings on cat-cat and cat-human communication, cat personalities and cat-owner personalities, the effects of cats on humans, and problems caused by cats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  20. Determination of solid- and liquid-phase gastric emptying half times in cats by use of nuclear scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, M; Papasouliotis, K; Barr, F J; Gruffydd-Jones, T J; Caney, S M

    1999-10-01

    To use nuclear scintigraphy to establish a range of gastric emptying half times (t1/2) following a liquid or solid meal in nonsedated cats. 12 clinically normal 3-year-old domestic shorthair cats. A test meal of 75 g of scrambled eggs labeled with technetium Tc 99m tin colloid was fed to 10 of the cats, and solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were determined by use of nuclear scintigraphy. In a separate experiment, 8 of these cats plus an additional 2 cats were fed 18 ml (n = 5) or 36 ml (n = 5) of a nutrient liquid meal labeled with technetium Tc 99m pentetate. Liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 then were determined by use of scintigraphy. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were between 210 and 769 minutes (median, 330 minutes). Median liquid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 after ingestion of 18 or 36 ml of the test meal were 67 minutes (range, 60 to 96 minutes) and 117 minutes (range, 101 to 170 minutes), respectively. The median t1/2 determined for cats receiving 18 ml of the radiolabeled liquid was significantly less than that determined for cats receiving 36 ml of the test meal. The protocol was tolerated by nonsedated cats. Solid-phase gastric emptying t1/2 were prolonged, compared with liquid-phase t1/2, and a major factor governing the emptying rate of liquids was the volume consumed. Nuclear scintigraphy may prove useful in assessing gastric motility disorders in cats.

  1. Cat Ownership Perception and Caretaking Explored in an Internet Survey of People Associated with Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Vankan, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    People who feed cats that they do not perceive they own (sometimes called semi-owners) are thought to make a considerable contribution to unwanted cat numbers because the cats they support are generally not sterilized. Understanding people’s perception of cat ownership and the psychology underlying cat semi-ownership could inform approaches to mitigate the negative effects of cat semi-ownership. The primary aims of this study were to investigate cat ownership perception and to examine its association with human-cat interactions and caretaking behaviours. A secondary aim was to evaluate a definition of cat semi-ownership (including an association time of ≥1 month and frequent feeding), revised from a previous definition proposed in the literature to distinguish cat semi-ownership from casual interactions with unowned cats. Cat owners and semi-owners displayed similar types of interactions and caretaking behaviours. Nevertheless, caretaking behaviours were more commonly displayed towards owned cats than semi-owned cats, and semi-owned cats were more likely to have produced kittens (pcats in semi-ownership relationships compared to casual interaction relationships. Determinants of cat ownership perception were identified (pcat friendliness and health, and feelings about unowned cats, including the acceptability of feeding unowned cats. Encouraging semi-owners to have the cats they care for sterilized may assist in reducing the number of unwanted kittens and could be a valuable alternative to trying to prevent semi-ownership entirely. Highly accessible semi-owner “gatekeepers” could help to deliver education messages and facilitate the provision of cat sterilization services to semi-owners. This research enabled semi-ownership to be distinguished from casual interaction relationships and can assist welfare and government agencies to identify cat semi-owners in order to develop strategies to address this source of unwanted cats. PMID:26218243

  2. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  3. Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low- frequency synthetics (structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site’s National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by

  4. Cerebral cysticercosis in a cat : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Schwan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The metacestode of Taenia solium, Cysticercus cellulosae, was recovered from the brain of a cat showing central nervous clinical signs ante mortem. This is the first record of cerebral cysticercosis in a cat in South Africa.

  5. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea’s competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Methodology/Principal Findings Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3–4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. Conclusions The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict

  6. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Bland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics.Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected.The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and

  7. Feeding Behavior Modulates Biofilm-Mediated Transmission of Yersinia pestis by the Cat Flea, Ctenocephalides felis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, David M; Hinnebusch, B Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. Despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for Yersinia pestis. It is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular-blocking mechanism has never been systematically evaluated. In this study, we assessed the vector competence of cat fleas by both mechanisms. Because the feeding behavior of cat fleas differs markedly from important rat flea vectors, we also examined the influence of feeding behavior on transmission dynamics. Groups of cat fleas were infected with Y. pestis and subsequently provided access to sterile blood meals twice-weekly, 5 times per week, or daily for 4 weeks and monitored for infection, the development of proventricular biofilm and blockage, mortality, and the ability to transmit. In cat fleas allowed prolonged, daily access to blood meals, mimicking their natural feeding behavior, Y. pestis did not efficiently colonize the digestive tract and could only be transmitted during the first week after infection. In contrast, cat fleas that were fed intermittently, mimicking the feeding behavior of the efficient vector Xenopsylla cheopis, could become blocked and regularly transmitted Y. pestis for 3-4 weeks by the biofilm-mediated mechanism, but early-phase transmission was not detected. The normal feeding behavior of C. felis, more than an intrinsic resistance to infection or blockage by Y. pestis, limits its vector competence. Rapid turnover of midgut contents results in bacterial clearance and disruption of biofilm accumulation in the proventriculus. Anatomical features of the cat flea foregut may also restrict transmission by both early-phase and proventricular biofilm

  8. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  9. Diagnostic Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-21

    IWORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) Diagnostic Exercise - Neurologic Disorder in a Cat 12...and identify by block number) This report documents the fifth reported occurrance of cerebral phaeophyphomycosis in cats . Because mycotic...Exercise: Neurologic Disorder in a Cat Ronald C. Bell United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick

  10. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  11. Groups acting on CAT(0) cube complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Niblo, Graham A.; Reeves, Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    We show that groups satisfying Kazhdan's property (T) have no unbounded actions on finite dimensional CAT(0) cube complexes, and deduce that there is a locally CAT(-1) Riemannian manifold which is not homotopy equivalent to any finite dimensional, locally CAT(0) cube complex.

  12. FedScope Employment Cubes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — This raw data set provides Federal civilian employee population data. The scope of this raw data set includes all data elements used in the creation of the FedScope...

  13. Increased dietary long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids alter serum fatty acid concentrations and lower risk of urine stone formation in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available The lifespan of cats with non-obstructive kidney stones is shortened compared with healthy cats indicating a need to reduce stone formation and minimize chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA on urine characteristics. Domestic-short-hair cats (n = 12; mean age 5.6 years were randomized into two groups and fed one of two dry-cat foods in a cross-over study design. For one week before study initiation, all cats consumed control food that contained 0.07% arachidonic acid (AA, but no eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Group 1 continued eating control food for 56 days. Group 2 was fed test food for 56 days, which was control food plus fish oil and high-AA oil. Test food contained 0.17% AA, 0.09% EPA and 0.18% DHA. After 56 days, cats were fed the opposite food for another 56 days. At baseline and after each feeding period, serum was analyzed for fatty acid concentrations, and urine for specific gravity, calcium concentration, relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals, and a calcium-oxalate-titrimetric test was performed. After consuming test food, cats had increased (all P<0.001 serum concentrations of EPA (173%, DHA (61%, and AA (35%; decreased urine specific gravity (P = 0.02; decreased urine calcium concentration (P = 0.06; decreased relative-super-saturation for struvite crystals (P = 0.03; and increased resistance to oxalate crystal formation (P = 0.06 compared with cats consuming control food. Oxalate crystal formation was correlated with serum calcium concentration (r = 0.41; P<0.01. These data show benefits for reducing urine stone formation in cats by increasing dietary PUFA.

  14. Cat-scratch disease osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heye, S.; Matthijs, P.; Campenhoudt, M. van; Wallon, J.

    2003-01-01

    We report on a patient who presented with osteomyelitis of a rib and adjacent abscess as a rare and atypical manifestation of cat-scratch disease. Radiographic findings showed an osteolytic lesion with adjacent mass. Biopsy, serology and polymerase chain reaction technique are essential for the final diagnosis. Prognosis is excellent with full recovery. (orig.)

  15. A strange cat in Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2012-11-01

    Not many life stories in physics involve Nazis, illicit sex, a strange cat and the genetic code. Thus, a new biography of the great Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger is always of interest, and with Erwin Schrödinger and the Quantum Revolution, veteran science writer John Gribbin does not disappoint.

  16. Religiosidad catódica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Ignacio Sierra G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estos apuntes se refieren a que en estos últimos tiempos ha habido un resurgimiento del fenómeno religioso de diversas maneras, incluso sorprendentes. Al aproximarse el tercer milenio, la posmodernidad religiosa disputa parte de la pantalla electrónica con el melodrama religioso: hoy estamos viviendo una religiosidad mediática, una religiosidad catódica.

  17. EUROmediCAT signal detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Given, Joanne E; Loane, Maria; Luteijn, Johannes Michiel

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate congenital anomaly (CA)-medication exposure associations produced by the new EUROmediCAT signal detection system and determine which require further investigation. METHODS: Data from 15 EUROCAT registries (1995-2011) with medication exposures at the chemical substance (5th level...

  18. Effect of dietary protein and GABA on food intake, growth and tissue amino acids in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Harper, A E

    1984-02-01

    GABA at 5%, but not 3%, of a low protein diet depressed food intake and growth of kittens. Adaptation to high protein prevented these effects. When cats adapted to low or high protein were fed a meal containing GABA, plasma GABA concentration after 2 hr was 8-fold higher in the low than in the high protein group; clearance was almost complete within 6 hr. Concentrations of proline, branched-chain, other large neutral and basic (especially ornithine) amino acids increased more when cats were fed a high rather than a low protein meal; glycine decreased. At 6 hr, concentrations had consistently returned to initial levels only in the low protein group. Feeding the high protein diet ad lib increased tissue concentrations of threonine, proline and the branched-chain amino acids. Hepatic or renal GABA-aminotransferase activity was not altered in kittens fed the high protein diet. Kidney activity was 10-fold that of liver, which may contribute to the better tolerance of GABA by cats than by rats.

  19. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Stella, Judith L.; Croney, Candace C.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could hel...

  20. A Cross-Sectional Survey to Estimate the Cat Population and Ownership Profiles in a Semirural Area of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Carvelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding animal population size and its demographic features is essential to address Public Health policies as well as to provide valuable information to pet industries and veterinary practitioners. Nevertheless, official data on feline population are not available worldwide. In the present study, the owned cat population size, its demographic attributes, and the ownership profiles have been investigated through a face-to-face questionnaire in a semirural area of Central Italy. The human : cat ratio was equal to 6.8 (95% CI: 5.7–7.5; 29.3% of households own at least one cat. The majority of cats were living in a rural area (67.8% and outdoors, were neutered (70.5%, and were fed with commercial food (54.8% and they visited a veterinarian 1-2 times a year (43.3%. The cat ownership was strongly associated with people living in a rural area and owning another pet. As the cat owned population was mainly kept outdoors in rural areas, the possible relation between the owned and the stray animals is worthy to be monitored in future researches. Our study revealed that the feline owned population was larger than expected and that social and economic human factors do not influence the cat ownership. Health Authorities and veterinary practitioners should promote responsible ownership to increase the veterinary care, to intensify the official identification, and to properly manage the outdoor lifestyle.

  1. Acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akol, K G; Washabau, R J; Saunders, H M; Hendrick, M J

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the incidence, clinical features, and prognosis of acute pancreatitis in cats with hepatic lipidosis. Of 13 cats histologically diagnosed with hepatic lipidosis between July 1988, and November 1989, 5(38%) were also histologically diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. In cats with hepatic lipidosis alone, the signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings were generally indistinguishable from those of cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis except that cats with acute pancreatitis were more likely to be cachectic and to have coagulation abnormalities. Hepatomegaly was seen on abdominal radiographs in both groups. Of the 5 cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis, abdominal ultrasonography detected 1 cat with a hypoechoic pancreas and 5 with peritoneal effusion; those abnormalities were not seen in cats without concurrent acute pancreatitis. Cats with concurrent acute pancreatitis had only a 20% recovery rate, compared with a 50% recovery rate in cats with hepatic lipidosis alone. We conclude that cats with hepatic lipidosis should be rigorously evaluated for concurrent acute pancreatitis because of 1) the rate of disease coincidence, 2) the inability of signalment, history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings to adequately distinguish between hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis, 3) the worse prognosis associated with concurrent acute pancreatitis, and 4) the opposing nutritional strategies for hepatic lipidosis and acute pancreatitis.

  2. The Fecal Microbiota in the Domestic Cat (Felis catus Is Influenced by Interactions Between Age and Diet; A Five Year Longitudinal Study

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    Emma N. Bermingham

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In humans, aging is associated with changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota; these changes may contribute to the age-related increase in incidence of many chronic diseases, including Type 2 diabetes. The life expectancies of cats are increasing, and they are also exhibiting the same types of diseases. While there are some studies investigating the impacts of diets on gastrointestinal microbiota in young cats, the impacts of aging in older cats has not been explored. We followed a cohort of related kittens, maintained on two commercial diets (kibbled and canned from weaning (8 weeks to 5 years of age (260 weeks. We hypothesized that the long-term feeding of specific diet formats would (a lead to microbial composition changes due to aging, (b impact body composition, and (c affect insulin sensitivity in the aging cat. We observed that both diet and age affected fecal microbial composition, and while age correlated with changes in body composition, diet had no effect on body composition. Similarly insulin sensitivity was not affected by age nor diet. 16S rRNA sequencing found unclassified Peptostreptococcaceae were prominent across all ages averaging 21.3% of gene sequence reads and were higher in cats fed canned diets (average of 25.7% of gene sequence reads, vs. 17.0% for kibble-fed cats. Age-related effects on body composition and insulin sensitivity may become apparent as the cats grow older; this study will continue to assess these parameters.

  3. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  4. Mapping of cat albumin using monoclonal antibodies: identification of determinants common to cat and dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J; Vrancken, E R; Mourad, W

    1989-01-01

    Cat and dog albumins from commercial extracts were used to produce monoclonal antibodies (MoAb). Anti-cat albumin MoAb recognized both cat and dog albumin equally, as did anti-dog albumin MoAb; this confirms cross-reactivity between cat and dog. The MoAb were separated into two groups according to their epitopic specificity; they recognized two overlapping epitopes of cat albumin. Furthermore, by competitive inhibition of radio-allergosorbent test (RAST), it was shown that one MoAb group inhibited significantly the binding of human IgE antibodies (from a pool of 13 patients allergic to both cats and dogs) to insolubilized cat or dog extracts. These observations suggest that murine anti-cat or anti-dog MoAb and human IgE antibodies recognize identical or closely related determinants on cat and dog albumin. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:2478325

  5. Behaviour Problems of Cats Reared Individually or in Coexistence with other Animals (Cats, Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmecová N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1 households with one cat; (2 households with two cats; (3 households with three or more cats; (4 households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

  6. Serum and urinary cystatin C in cats with feline immunodeficiency virus infection and cats with hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghys, Liesbeth Fe; Paepe, Dominique; Taffin, Elien Rl; Vandermeulen, Eva; Duchateau, Luc; Smets, Pascale My; Delanghe, Joris; Daminet, Sylvie

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate serum cystatin C (sCysC) and urinary cystatin C (uCysC) in cats with hyperthyroidism and cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV). Thirty cats with FIV, 26 hyperthyroid cats and 28 healthy cats were included. sCysC and uCysC:creatinine (uCysC/uCr) ratio were measured with a human particle-enhanced nephelometric immunoassay, previously validated for feline CysC measurement. Routine renal variables (serum creatinine [sCr], urine specific gravity, urinary protein:creatinine ratio [UPC]) were also measured in the three groups. Cats with hyperthyroidism had significantly higher sCysC and higher uCysC/uCr ratio, lower sCr and a higher UPC than healthy cats. Cats with FIV infection did not show a significantly higher sCysC concentration but had a significantly higher sCr and UPC than healthy cats. uCysC could be detected in only four of them. This study demonstrated that sCysC is increased in cats with hyperthyroidism, in contrast with sCr, but not in cats with FIV. Many hyperthyroid cats, but only four cats with FIV, had an elevated uCysC/uCr ratio. Further studies may reveal if uCysC might be a valuable marker for tubular dysfunction in cats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Effects of Age, Sexual Development and Neutering in Plasma of Young Male Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaway, David; Gilham, Matthew S; Colyer, Alison; Jönsson, Thomas J; Swanson, Kelly S; Morris, Penelope J

    2016-01-01

    Neutering is a significant risk factor for obesity in cats. The mechanisms that promote neuter-associated weight gain are not well understood but following neutering, acute changes in energy expenditure and energy consumption have been observed. Metabolic profiling (GC-MS and UHPLC-MS-MS) was used in a longitudinal study to identify changes associated with age, sexual development and neutering in male cats fed a nutritionally-complete dry diet to maintain an ideal body condition score. At eight time points, between 19 and 52 weeks of age, fasted blood samples were taken from kittens neutered at either 19 weeks of age (Early Neuter (EN), n = 8) or at 31 weeks of age (Conventional Neuter (CN), n = 7). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to compare plasma metabolites (n = 370) from EN and CN cats. Age was the primary driver of variance in the plasma metabolome, including a developmental change independent of neuter group between 19 and 21 weeks in lysolipids and fatty acid amides. Changes associated with sexual development and its subsequent loss were also observed, with differences at some time points observed between EN and CN cats for 45 metabolites (FDR pcats was the most significantly altered pathway, increasing during sexual development and decreasing acutely following neutering. Felinine is a testosterone-regulated, felid-specific glutathione derivative secreted in urine. Alterations in tryptophan, histidine and tocopherol metabolism observed in peripubertal cats may be to support physiological functions of glutathione following diversion of S-amino acids for urinary felinine secretion.

  8. Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domiciled cats from rio branco Municipality, Acre State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraia Figueiredo de Souza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 89 cats to assess the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF and the possible risk factors associated with feline Toxoplasma gondii infection. An epidemiological questionnaire was developed and implemented for owners of domestic cats domiciled in Rio Branco, Acre. The results were statistically evaluated with the odds ratio and chi-square tests, considering the significance level of 5%. Of 89 animals’ samples, 22 had antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Among the 22 reactive animals, 15 (68.19% were female, 15 (68.19% were less than one year old and 20 (90% were cross breed. Concerning risk factors, there was no difference (p > 0.05 between the variables evaluated by the chi-square test. Moreover, 16 (72% cats were fed a mixed diet, 20 (90% of the cats had hunting habits, 18 (81% had contact with animals of another species, 11 (50% had access to the street, and 22 (95% lived in homes that had areas of grass or dirt. In conclusion, the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats was 22.7%, and there were no significant risk factors for feline toxoplasmosis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre.

  9. Differences between vocalization evoked by social stimuli in feral cats and house cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Seong C; Kim, Young K; Park, Se J; Lee, Scott S; Lee, Seung Y; Suh, Euy H; Houpt, Katherine A; Chang, Hong H; Lee, Hee C; Yang, Byung G; Lee, Hyo J

    2011-06-01

    To investigate how socialization can affect the types and characteristics of vocalization produced by cats, feral cats (n=25) and house cats (n=13) were used as subjects, allowing a comparison between cats socialized to people and non-socialized cats. To record vocalization and assess the cats' responses to behavioural stimuli, five test situations were used: approach by a familiar caretaker, by a threatening stranger, by a large doll, by a stranger with a dog and by a stranger with a cat. Feral cats showed extremely aggressive and defensive behaviour in most test situations, and produced higher call rates than those of house cats in the test situations, which could be attributed to less socialization to other animals and to more sensitivity to fearful situations. Differences were observed in the acoustic parameters of feral cats in comparison to those of house cats. The feral cat produced significantly higher frequency in fundamental frequency, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, 3rd quartile frequency of growls and hisses in agonistic test situations. In contrast to the growls and hisses, in meow, all acoustic parameters like fundamental frequency, first formant, peak frequency, 1st quartile frequency, and 3rd quartile frequency of house cats were of significantly higher frequency than those of feral cats. Also, house cats produced calls of significantly shorter in duration than feral cats in agonistic test situations. These results support the conclusion that a lack of socialization may affect usage of types of vocalizations, and the vocal characteristics, so that the proper socialization of cat may be essential to be a suitable companion house cat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Early effects of neutering on energy expenditure in adult male cats.

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    Alfreda Wei

    Full Text Available The initial cause of post-neutering weight gain in male cats is not entirely known. There is evidence that energy intake (EI increases rapidly post-neutering, but it is not clear if neutering also decreases energy expenditure (EE prior to weight gain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if a decrease in EE contributes to the initial shift toward positive energy balance in neutered male cats. To determine the influence of neutering on EE independent of changes in EI and body weight (BW, male cats were fed at their pre-neutering maintenance EI and EE was measured at 4 days pre-neutering, 3-4 days post-neutering, and 9 days post- neutering. Ad libitum food access was then provided for 6 months. Body composition was measured and blood samples collected for serum chemistry at pre-neutering and 7 days, 13 days and 6 months post-neutering. Total energy expenditure (TEE adjusted for lean body mass (LBM did not change in cats from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. However, TEE adjusted for BW and resting energy expenditure adjusted for either LBM or BW showed a small, but significant (P<0.05 increase from pre-neutering to 9 days post-neutering. When allowed free choice food access, cats showed significant increases of food intake (FI and BW. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin increased, while adiponectin levels decreased following neutering. The results of this study indicate that initial post-neutering weight gain in male cats results from increased FI and not decreased EE. Long-term control of FI should be initiated after neutering to prevent hyperphagia and weight gain in male cats.

  11. Impact of macronutrient composition and palatability in wet diets on food selection in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaun, F; Blanchard, G; Le Paih, L; Roberti, F; Niceron, C

    2017-04-01

    Cats are obligate carnivores adapted to high-protein diets, but are commonly fed diets rich in carbohydrate. The aim of this study was to examine the food intake choices of cats when diets with different protein and carbohydrate contents were offered. Thirty-nine cats participated in voluntary dietary intake studies. Four foods were formulated to provide between 24% and 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, between 43% and 11% as carbohydrate and holding dietary fat constant with a contribution of approximately 36%. Foods were offered either singly to evaluate voluntary food intake or in pairs to compare food intake between pairs of diets. Cats regulated their macronutrient intake to attain an overall diet composition that provided 53% of metabolizable energy as protein, 11% as carbohydrate and 36% as fat. The protein contribution corresponded to approximately 6 g of protein/kg body weight/day. High-protein/low-carbohydrate diets were always eaten preferentially over low-protein/high-carbohydrate foods. When low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered, cats limited their food intake to limit daily carbohydrate intake to less than 3 g of carbohydrate/kg body weight. This carbohydrate ceiling may limit protein and even energy intake when only low-protein/high-carbohydrate diets were offered. The inclusion of palatability enhancer in the diets increased food intake but did not change protein or carbohydrate intake patterns, indicating that macronutrient intake can be regulated regardless of the use of palatability enhancers in cats. We conclude that cats can discriminate between diets based on macronutrient composition and regulate their intake to maintain maximal protein intake but limit carbohydrate intake. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. An experimental Toxoplasma gondii dose response challenge model to study therapeutic or vaccine efficacy in cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B W J Cornelissen

    Full Text Available High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10, and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application.

  13. Acetaminophen Toxicosis in a Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Anvik, J. O.

    1984-01-01

    A seven month old domestic shorthaired male cat was presented with a known history of acetaminophen ingestion. Clinical findings included icterus, depression, hypothermia, tachypnea and pronounced edema of the head and neck. Treatment was aimed at providing substrate to assist in conjugation of the drug and reversing methemoglobinemia. Administration of oral acetylcysteine, ascorbic acid and IV fluids was insufficient in this case due to a delay in initiation of treatment. The salient postmor...

  14. Hypophosphatemia associated with enteral alimentation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin, R B; Hohenhaus, A E

    1995-01-01

    Hypophosphatemia is uncommon in cats, but it has been reported in association with diabetes mellitus and hepatic lipidosis, where it can cause hemolysis, rhabdomyopathy, depression, seizures, and coma. The purpose of this article is to describe 9 cats that developed low serum phosphorus concentrations (alimentation. Serum biochemical analyses from more than 6,000 cats were reviewed. The medical records of all cats with hypophosphatemia were examined for history of enteral alimentation; diabetic cats were excluded from the study. Nine cats, ranging in age from 3 to 17 years, were identified. All cats had normal serum phosphorus concentrations before tube feeding began. Onset of hypophosphatemia occurred 12 to 72 hours after initiation of enteral alimentation, and the nadir for phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 mg/dL. Hemolysis occurred in 6 of the 9 cats. Hypophosphatemia secondary to enteral alimentation is an uncommon clinical finding in cats. Cats with high alanine aminotransferase activity, hyperbilirubinemia, and weight loss should be closely monitored for hypophosphatemia during the first 72 hours of enteral alimentation.

  15. Radioactive iodine therapy in cats with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turrel, J.M.; Feldman, E.C.; Hays, M.; Hornof, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Eleven cats with hyperthyroidism were treated with radioactive iodine ( 131 I). Previous unsuccessful treatments for hyperthyroidism included hemithyroidectomy (2 cats) and an antithyroid drug (7 cats). Two cats had no prior treatment. Thyroid scans, using technetium 99m, showed enlargement and increased radionuclide accumulation in 1 thyroid lobe in 5 cats and in both lobes in 6 cats. Serum thyroxine concentrations were high and ranged from 4.7 to 18 micrograms/dl. Radioactive iodine tracer studies were used to determine peak radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) and effective and biological half-lives. Activity of 131 I administered was calculated from peak RAIU, effective half-life, and estimated thyroid gland weight. Activity of 131 I administered ranged from 1.0 to 5.9 mCi. The treatment goal was to deliver 20,000 rad to hyperactive thyroid tissue. However, retrospective calculations based on peak RAIU and effective half-life obtained during the treatment period showed that radiation doses actually ranged from 7,100 to 64,900 rad. Complete ablation of the hyperfunctioning thyroid tissue and a return to euthyroidism were seen in 7 cats. Partial responses were seen in 2 cats, and 2 cats became hypothyroid. It was concluded that 131 I ablation of thyroid tumors was a reasonable alternative in the treatment of hyperthyroidism in cats. The optimal method of dosimetry remains to be determined

  16. Odontogenic keratocyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDouceur, E E B; Walker, K S; Mohr, F C; Murphy, B

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts are derived from odontogenic epithelium, can be locally invasive and destructive and have been reported rarely in cats. A 16-year-old, male domestic shorthair cat had a 3-year history of a slowly progressive, right mandibular swelling. Intraoral dental radiographs revealed a multilocular, radiolucent, cystic mass within the right mandible that extended from the distal aspect of the canine tooth to the mesial aspect of the fourth premolar tooth. Radiographically, the mass was associated with distortion and regional destruction of the right mandibular bone and resorption of regional tooth roots. Histological examination of an incisional biopsy sample revealed multiple ruptured cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium of odontogenic origin with luminal parakeratinization and a prominent palisading basal cell layer. The cyst contained abundant orthokeratotic and parakeratotic keratin. The clinical, radiographical and histological features were consistent with a diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst, as seen in man. This is the first report of an odontogenic keratocyst in a cat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  18. FED pumped limiter configuration issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge

  19. Management of obesity in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoelmkjaer KM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kirsten M Hoelmkjaer, Charlotte R Bjornvad Department of Veterinary Clinical and Animal Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg, Denmark Abstract: Obesity is a common nutritional disorder in cats, especially when they are neutered and middle-aged. Obesity predisposes cats to several metabolic and clinical disorders, including insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, lameness, and skin disease. Prevention and treatment of obesity is therefore of great importance in veterinary practice. Correct assessment of body composition is important for recognizing early states of obesity and for monitoring success of weight-loss programs. Various methods for assessing body composition have been proposed, of which a 9-point body-condition score has been validated in cats, and is possibly the most simple to use in the clinic; however, for extremely obese individuals, it is less useful. When calculating the appropriate daily caloric intake for a weight-loss plan, the aim is to maintain a safe weight-loss rate, increasing the chance of preserving lean body mass and decreasing the risk of developing hepatic lipidosis, while also producing a sufficient weight-loss rate to keep owners motivated. A weight-loss rate of 0.5%–2% per week is recommended, which for a cat that needs to lose 3 kg body weight results in an anticipated time for reaching the target weight of 24–60 weeks. There are several purpose-made weight-loss diets available. The optimal composition of a weight-loss diet for cats is unknown, but most of the available products have lower caloric density, an increased nutrient:energy ratio, and higher protein and fiber content. Regular follow-up visits allow the caloric intake to be adjusted based on progress, and possibly increase the chance of success. This review discusses the risk factors for and consequences of obesity, and gives directions for formulating a weight-loss plan, including daily caloric

  20. A review of feral cat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sheilah A

    2008-08-01

    Animal overpopulation including feral cats is an important global problem. There are many stakeholders involved in the feral cat debate over 'what to do about the problem', including those who consider them a nuisance, the public at risk from zoonotic disease, people who are concerned about the welfare of feral cats, those concerned with wildlife impacts, and the cats themselves. How best to control this population is controversial and has ranged from culling, relocation, and more recently 'trap neuter return' (TNR) methods. Data support the success of TNR in reducing cat populations, but to have a large impact it will have to be adopted on a far greater scale than it is currently practised. Non-surgical contraception is a realistic future goal. Because the feral cat problem was created by humans, concerted educational efforts on responsible pet ownership and the intrinsic value of animals is an integral part of a solution.

  1. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia felis in Humans, Cats, and Cat Fleas in Bangladesh, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Paul, Shyamal Kumar; Hossain, Muhammad Akram; Ahmed, Salma; Mahmud, Muhammad Chand; Nasreen, Syeda Anjuman; Ferdouse, Faria; Sharmi, Rumana Hasan; Ahamed, Farid; Ghosh, Souvik; Urushibara, Noriko; Aung, Meiji Soe; Kobayashi, Nobumichi

    2016-05-01

    High prevalence of Rickettsia felis in patients with fever of unknown origin was revealed in the north-central Bangladesh from 2012 to 2013. Subsequently, in this study, prevalence of R. felis in cats and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), together with febrile patients, was studied by PCR detection of 17 kDa antigen gene and DNA sequencing. R. felis was detected in 28% (28/100) and 21% (14/68) of cat blood and cat flea samples, respectively, whereas 42% (21/50) of patients were positive for R. felis. R. felis-positive cat fleas were detected at significantly higher rate on R. felis-positive cats. The results suggested a potential role of cats and cat fleas for transmission of R. felis to humans in Bangladesh.

  2. 42 CFR 71.51 - Dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs and cats. 71.51 Section 71.51 Public Health... QUARANTINE Importations § 71.51 Dogs and cats. (a) Definitions. As used in this section the term: Cat means all domestic cats. Confinement means restriction of a dog or cat to a building or other enclosure at a...

  3. CAT-ASVAB Technical Bulletin Number 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 Personnel Testing Division Defense Manpower Data Center March 2006 Report...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CAT -ASVAB Technical Bulletin #1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Hetter, R. D. "Psychometric Procedures for Administering CAT -ASVAB" (pp. 131-140) Chapter 4 Hetter, R. D., & Sympson J. B. "Item Exposure

  4. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California THESIS CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL by Michael Glenn Coleman September 1997 Thesis...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED September 1997 Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHANNEL CAT : A TACTICAL LINK ANALYSIS TOOL 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT ), designed to provide an automated tool for the anlysis of design decisions in developing client

  5. CAT/RF Simulation Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-11

    IVSS-2003-MAS-7 CAT /RF Simulation Lessons Learned Christopher Mocnik Vetronics Technology Area, RDECOM TARDEC Tim Lee DCS Corporation...developed a re- configurable Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) simulation for the Crew integration and Automation Test bed ( CAT ) and Robotics Follower (RF...Advanced Technology Demonstration (ATD) experiments. This simulation was developed as a component of the Embedded Simulation System (ESS) of the CAT

  6. Effect of the probiotic Enterococcus faecium SF68 on presence of diarrhea in cats and dogs housed in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, S N; Scorza, A V; Lappin, M R

    2011-01-01

    Beneficial effects of probiotics have never been analyzed in an animal shelter. Dogs and cats housed in an animal shelter and administered a probiotic are less likely to have diarrhea of ≥2 days duration than untreated controls. Two hundred and seventeen cats and 182 dogs. Double blinded and placebo controlled. Shelter dogs and cats were housed in 2 separate rooms for each species. For 4 weeks, animals in 1 room for each species was fed Enterococcus faecium SF68 while animals in the other room were fed a placebo. After a 1-week washout period, the treatments by room were switched and the study continued an additional 4 weeks. A standardized fecal score system was applied to feces from each animal every day by a blinded individual. Feces of animals with and without diarrhea were evaluated for enteric parasites. Data were analyzed by a generalized linear mixed model using a binomial distribution with treatment being a fixed effect and the room being a random effect. The percentage of cats with diarrhea ≥2 days was significantly lower (P = .0297) in the probiotic group (7.4%) when compared with the placebo group (20.7%). Statistical differences between groups of dogs were not detected but diarrhea was uncommon in both groups of dogs during the study. Cats fed SF68 had fewer episodes of diarrhea of ≥2 days when compared with controls suggests the probiotic may have beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  8. Radio-iodine treatment of hyperthyroid cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.R.; Cayzer, J.; Dillon, E.A.; Smidt, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-two elderly domestic shorthaired cats (mean age 12.9 years) were treated with radioiodine (131I). The dose of 131I administered ranged from 39 mBq to 134 mBq. Twenty-eight cats became euthyroid after treatment, one became hypothyroid and three remained hyperthyroxaemic. Two of the hyperthyroxaemic cats were successfully re-treated with 131I. Five cats died from concurrent diseases within one year of treatment. The administration of a dose of 131I selected by assessing the severity of the clinical signs, the size of the thyroid gland(s) and the serum level of thyroxine was an effective treatment for hyperthyroidism

  9. Association between Characteristics of Cats and Satisfaction of Owners who Adopted Cats from an Animal Hospital in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODERA, Nodoka; UCHIDA, Keiko; KAKUMA, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with 29 cat owners who adopted cats from an animal hospital in Japan. Physical characteristics were found to be important factors for the owners when choosing a cat. There were significant differences between impression of the cat for the owners at present and images of their ideal cats, and the levels of aggression and activeness of the cats at present were rated higher than their ideal cats. A significant negative correlation was found between the degree of satisfaction with the cat and occurrence of house soiling; thus, some behavioral problems may deteriorate the relationship between the owner and the cat. PMID:24419973

  10. Periaortic lymphoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bree

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 14-year-old neutered male Siamese cat was presented with a 3 month history of lethargy, inappetence, dehydration, hindlimb ataxia and intermittent proprioceptive deficits in the hindlimbs. Physical examination revealed low body condition score (1.75/5, pallor and bilateral basilar grade II/VI systolic heart murmur. Neurological examination revealed hindlimb ataxia, severe atrophy of the hindlimb musculature, intermittent hindlimb proprioceptive deficits and normoreflexia. Clinicopathological investigations revealed non-regenerative anaemia (haematocrit 0.17 l/l; reference interval [RI] 0.24–0.45 l/l and increased feline pancreatic lipase concentration (Spec fPL test [IDEXX] 8.3 μg/l; RI 0.1–3.5 μg/l. Feline leukaemia virus antigen and feline immunodeficiency virus antibody tests were negative. Thoracic and abdominal imaging revealed a soft tissue structure in the area of the thoracoabdominal aorta. CT confirmed a periaortic contrast-enhancing mass extending from the level of T9–L2, with associated intervertebral infiltration at the level of T11–T12. Post-mortem examination confirmed the presence of a solid, white, multinodular, well-demarcated mass encircling the aorta extending from T9–L2. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma was made. Lymphoma was also identified histopathologically within the kidneys and spleen. Evidence of mild Wallerian degeneration was present within the spinal cord, indicating compression at the level of the periaortic mass. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of periaortic lymphoma in the cat. Although periaortic tumours are exceptionally rare in veterinary medicine, lymphoma should be considered as a differential in cats.

  11. On Schr\\"odinger's cat

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Nalin

    2010-01-01

    Schr\\"odinger's cat appears to have been harassed in a chamber during the past eighty years or so by interpreting the role of the observer as a person, who sets an experiment and then observes results, may be after some time. The realist position tells us that the physical processes would take place independent of the observer with well defined properties, whereas the positivist position wants us to believe that nothing can be said of a system when it is not being observed. In this paper we q...

  12. In search of Schroedinger's cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, John.

    1984-01-01

    The book explains how the paradox of Schroedinger's cat led to an understanding of reality in quantum physics. The contents of the book is divided into three parts. Part one concerns light, atoms and Bohr's atom. Quantum mechanics is discussed in Part Two, including photons and electrons, matrices and waves, and applications of quanta. The last part deals with chance and uncertainty, paradoxes and possibilities, the experimental proof of the paradoxical reality of the quantum world, and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. (U.K.)

  13. The Choice of Diet Affects the Oral Health of the Domestic Cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mata

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this cross-sectional study, the gingivitis and the calculus indices of the teeth of N = 41 cats were used to model oral health as a dependent variable using a Poisson regression. The independent variables used were “quadrant”, “teeth type”, “age”, and “diet”. Teeth type (p < 0.001 and diet (p < 0.001 were found to be significant, however, age was not (p > 0.05. Interactions were all significant: age x teeth (p < 0.01, age × diet (p < 0.01, teeth × diet (p < 0.001, and teeth × age × diet (p < 0.001. The probability of poor oral health is lower in the incisors of young or adult cats, fed a dry diet in comparison to the cheek teeth of older cats fed a wet diet. Diet has a higher contribution to poor oral health than age. It is argued that cats’ oral health may be promoted with an early age hygiene of the cheek teeth and with provision of abrasive dry food.

  14. Domestic cat allergen and allergic sensitisation in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim

    Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European

  15. Effects of photoperiod on food intake, activity and metabolic rate in adult neutered male cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappen, K L; Garner, L M; Kerr, K R; Swanson, K S

    2014-10-01

    With the continued rise in feline obesity, novel weight management strategies are needed. To date, strategies aimed at altering physical activity, an important factor in weight maintenance, have been lacking. Photoperiod is known to cause physiological changes in seasonal mammals, including changes in body weight (BW) and reproductive status. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of increased photoperiod (longer days) on voluntary physical activity levels, resting metabolic rate (RMR), food intake required to maintain BW, and fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations in adult cats. Eleven healthy, adult, neutered, male domestic shorthair cats were used in a randomized crossover design study. During two 12-week periods, cats were exposed to either a short-day (SD) photoperiod of 8 h light: 16 h dark or a long-day (LD) photoperiod of 16 h light: 8 h dark. Cats were fed a commercial diet to maintain baseline BW. In addition to daily food intake and twice-weekly BW, RMR (via indirect calorimetry), body composition [via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)] and physical activity (via Actical activity monitors) were measured at week 0 and 12 of each period. Fasting serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations were measured at week 0, 6 and 12 of each period. Average hourly physical activity was greater (p = 0.008) in LD vs. SD cats (3770 vs. 3129 activity counts/h), which was primarily due to increased (p dark period activity (1188 vs. 710 activity counts/h). This corresponded to higher (p energy intake (mean over 12-week period: 196 vs. 187 kcal/day), and increased (p = 0.048) RMR in LD cats (9.02 vs. 8.37 kcal/h). Body composition, serum leptin and serum ghrelin were not altered by photoperiod. More research is needed to determine potential mechanisms by which these physiological changes occurred and how they may apply to weight management strategies.

  16. Hepatitis E Virus Serosurvey among Pet Dogs and Cats in Several Developed Cities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Long; Ji, Fangxiao; He, Shuyi; Zheng, Yun; Liang, Chumin; Zhang, Guihong; Su, Shuo; Li, Shoujun

    2014-01-01

    Infection by Hepatitis E virus (HEV), as a zoonotic disease virus, is well studied in pigs in China, but few studies in pets have been performed. This study was designed to characterize the prevalence of HEV infection among pet dogs and cats in major metropolitan areas of China. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey from 2012 to 2013 in 5 developed cities, Beijing, Shanghai, Canton, Shenzhen and Macao, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall HEV seroprevalence in 658 dog and 191 cat serum samples was 21.12% and 6.28%, respectively. The analysis in dogs suggested that there were significant differences among cities, and the positive rate of HEV-specific antibody in all cities ranged from 6.06% (Shenzhen) to 29.34% (Beijing). Older pet cats have a high risk (OR, 10.25) for HEV seropositivity, but no strong relationship was observed between different genders and age groups. Additionally, it was revealed that stray dogs, omnivorous pet dogs and pet cats who share food, such as kitchen residue, with the general population would have a higher risk for HEV seropositivity. The odds ratios for these groups are 2.40, 2.83 and 5.39, respectively, compared with pet dogs and cats fed on commercial food. In this study, we first report that HEV is prevalent in pet dogs and cats in several large cities in China. Swill and kitchen residue may be a potential risk for HEV transmission from human to pets. As the sample size was relatively small in this study and may not be fully representative of China, further investigation is required to confirm the conclusions. PMID:24896257

  17. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  18. Cats, Cancer and Comparative Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Cannon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring tumors in dogs are well-established models for several human cancers. Domestic cats share many of the benefits of dogs as a model (spontaneous cancers developing in an immunocompetent animal sharing the same environment as humans, shorter lifespan allowing more rapid trial completion and data collection, lack of standard of care for many cancers allowing evaluation of therapies in treatment-naïve populations, but have not been utilized to the same degree in the One Medicine approach to cancer. There are both challenges and opportunities in feline compared to canine models. This review will discuss three specific tumor types where cats may offer insights into human cancers. Feline oral squamous cell carcinoma is common, shares both clinical and molecular features with human head and neck cancer and is an attractive model for evaluating new therapies. Feline mammary tumors are usually malignant and aggressive, with the ‘triple-negative’ phenotype being more common than in humans, offering an enriched population in which to examine potential targets and treatments. Finally, although there is not an exact corollary in humans, feline injection site sarcoma may be a model for inflammation-driven tumorigenesis, offering opportunities for studying variations in individual susceptibility as well as preventative and therapeutic strategies.

  19. Bacterial reproductive pathogens of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth M; Taylor, David J

    2012-05-01

    With the notable exception of Brucella canis, exogenous bacterial pathogens are uncommon causes of reproductive disease in cats and dogs. Most bacterial reproductive infections are endogenous, and predisposing factors for infection are important. This article reviews the etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and public health significance of bacterial reproductive pathogens in cats and dogs.

  20. Quantum Computer Games: Schrodinger Cat and Hounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michal; Gordon, Goren

    2012-01-01

    The quantum computer game "Schrodinger cat and hounds" is the quantum extension of the well-known classical game fox and hounds. Its main objective is to teach the unique concepts of quantum mechanics in a fun way. "Schrodinger cat and hounds" demonstrates the effects of superposition, destructive and constructive interference, measurements and…

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, Paul

    2002-01-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  2. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Maureen; Taylor, Judith; Woods, J Paul

    2002-05-01

    A domestic shorthair cat was presented for lethargy and ataxia. Clinical findings included an abdominal mass, lumbosacral pain, ataxia. Aspirates from the liver and lymph nodes revealed intracellular, negative-staining rods. Treatment for presumptive mycobacterium infection was unsuccessful and the cat was euthanized. Disseminated Mycobacterium avium was confirmed on culture.

  3. Criptococose em felino Cryptococcosis in cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J.F. Sant’Ana

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A case of cryptococcosis in a cat refferred to the Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco is described. The cat was euthanized and the microscopic examination of a firm mass observed in the nasal cavity was accomplished. Cryptococcus sp. and a chronic inflammatory process was observed throughout the tissue.

  4. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  5. Mysterious quantum Cheshire cat: an illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, K.; Lippert, Th.; De Raedt, H.

    2015-09-01

    We provide a mystery-free explanation for the experimentally observed facts in the neutron interferometry quantum Cheshire cat experiment of Denkmayr et al. [Nat. Comm. 5, 4492, 2014] in terms of a discrete-event simulation model, demonstrating that the quantum Cheshire cat is an illusion.

  6. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  7. Isotopes Will Let the Cat Out of the Bag: A Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotopic Analysis of Dry Cat Food Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanko, P. M.

    2011-12-01

    There are a plethora of healthy cat food brands that make a wide variety of claims about the nutrition of their product and the lack of nutrition of their competitors. The claims range from "No sugar or corn" to "Real meat is always the 1st ingredient". The two major disagreements in the cat food market are the nutritional value of corn and the realness of meat products. Here I present a carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analysis of a wide range of dry cat food brands. The beginning assumption was brands with claims of no corn would be depleted in δ13C compared to brands with corn and brands with real meat as the 1st ingredient would be enriched in δ 15N compared to brands with meat as a lesser ingredient. Preliminary results show brands with no corn (δ13C ~ -22%) are depleted compared to brands with corn (δ13C ~ -17%), which is to be expected. However, brands that claim real meat is the 1st ingredient are slightly depleted (δ15N ~ 3.5%) compared to brands with proportionally less meat (δ15N ~ 5%); the opposite of what was anticipated. Also, the stable isotopes of three house cats, that were all fed the same dry diet (corn as major ingredient), were tracked over time as they were switched to a diet with no corn. Variation was present in the first round of analysis and persisted throughout the dietary change, suggesting individual cats may absorb nutrients from the identical diets differently.

  8. Study on Serum Lipoprotein Profile of Exclusive Breast Fed, Mixed Fed and Formula Fed Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Jaiswal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast feeding is protective for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, obesity, Diabetes Mellitus (DM and hypertension. Serum lipoprotein is principal risk factor for atherosclerosis. There is growing evidence that risk of Coronary Heart Disease (CHD begins to emerge from infancy. Lipoprotein level is affected by different feeding pattern during infancy. Aim: To compare serum lipoprotein profile of exclusively breast fed, mixed fed and formula fed preterm infant. Materials and Methods: A total of two fifty preterm newborn were recruited at birth and divided into three groups. Group A were Exclusively Breast Fed (EBF, Group B were Mixed Fed (MF and Group C were Formula/bovine milk Fed (FF infants. Preterm newborns with severe sepsis, hypoglycemia, Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy (HIE stage II and III, meconium stained amniotic fluid, pathological jaundice, Hyaline Membrane Disease (HMD, less than 28 weeks gestation, with major congenital anomaly and infants born to mothers with DM, gestational diabetes, hypertension, pre-eclampsia, eclampsia or on long term medications were excluded from the study. Lipoprotein profile estimation was done at four weeks and again at 16 weeks of age. Results: At four weeks of age, Total Cholesterol (TC, Triglyceride (TG, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL and Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001, EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 and MF vs. FF (p=0.005 infants. At 16 weeks also, TC and HDL were higher in EBF infants as compared to MF and FF infants. For TC, this difference was significant between EBF vs. MF (p<0.001 and EBF vs. FF (p<0.001 infants. When infants were followed up to 16 weeks of age, TC and LDL level fell significantly (p<0.001 in EBF and MF group, a significant (p<0.05 rise for TC was seen in FF group. At 16 weeks of age, there was no significant rise in HDL in EBF infants, but

  9. Feral Cats: Too Long a Threat to Hawaiian Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Domestic cats (Felis catus) were first brought to Hawai`i aboard sailing ships of European explorers and colonists. The job of these predators was to control mice and rats on the ships during the long voyages. As in other places, cats were taken in and adopted by the families of Hawai`i and soon became household pets known as popoki. But cats have always been very well equipped to live and hunt on their own. On tropical archipelagos like the Hawaiian Islands where no other predatory mammals of comparable size existed, abundant and naive prey were particularly easy game, and cats soon thrived in the wild. Although the details of when cats first came to live in the wild remain little known, adventurers, writers, and naturalists of the day recorded some important observations. Feral cats were observed in remote wilderness around K?ilauea volcano on Hawai`i Island as early as 1840 by explorer William Brackenridge. Mark Twain was so impressed by the great abundance of cats when he visited Honolulu in 1866 that he reported his observations in the Sacramento Union newspaper, which were later reprinted in his book Roughing It: I saw... tame cats, wild cats, singed cats, individual cats, groups of cats, platoons of cats, companies of cats, regiments of cats, armies of cats, multitudes of cats, millions of cats...

  10. Reconciling actual and perceived rates of predation by domestic cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jennifer L; Maclean, Mairead; Evans, Matthew R; Hodgson, Dave J

    2015-01-01

    The predation of wildlife by domestic cats (Felis catus) is a complex problem: Cats are popular companion animals in modern society but are also acknowledged predators of birds, herpetofauna, invertebrates, and small mammals. A comprehensive understanding of this conservation issue demands an understanding of both the ecological consequence of owning a domestic cat and the attitudes of cat owners. Here, we determine whether cat owners are aware of the predatory behavior of their cats, using data collected from 86 cats in two UK villages. We examine whether the amount of prey their cat returns influences the attitudes of 45 cat owners toward the broader issue of domestic cat predation. We also contribute to the wider understanding of physiological, spatial, and behavioral drivers of prey returns among cats. We find an association between actual prey returns and owner predictions at the coarse scale of predatory/nonpredatory behavior, but no correlation between the observed and predicted prey-return rates among predatory cats. Cat owners generally disagreed with the statement that cats are harmful to wildlife, and disfavored all mitigation options apart from neutering. These attitudes were uncorrelated with the predatory behavior of their cats. Cat owners failed to perceive the magnitude of their cats’ impacts on wildlife and were not influenced by ecological information. Management options for the mitigation of cat predation appear unlikely to work if they focus on “predation awareness” campaigns or restrictions of cat freedom. PMID:26306163

  11. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K.; Bruce, Stephanie J.; Dale, Arnja R.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The need to balance the benefits of cat ownership with the prevention of wildlife predation in New Zealand evokes strong and opposing views. This paper evaluates public concern for wildlife predation by four categories of cats; owned cats, managed-stray cats, unmanaged-stray cats, and feral cats. In addition, public support for a National Cat Management Strategy and a range of management techniques are investigated. Although the participants expressed concern regarding wildlife predation by all four categories of cats, the highest levels of concern were predation by feral cats, followed by unmanaged stray cats, then managed stray cats, and finally owned cats. The large majority of participants were found to support the implementation of a National Cat Management Strategy. Management techniques for owned cats that obtained public support included; cat exclusion zones, limits on ownership numbers, microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing. Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) was the favoured management technique for managed stray cats, while TNR and lethal management techniques were equally favoured for unmanaged stray cats. Lethal control methods were favoured for feral cats. The findings presented in this paper will be useful to consider during the development of legislation relating to cat management and predation in New Zealand. Abstract Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively

  12. Assessment of Clicker Training for Shelter Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Living conditions in animal shelters can be stressful for cats. Clicker training might be able to alleviate this stress, by giving cats an opportunity to learn new behaviors and interact with humans. In this study, we assessed the initial ability of 100 shelter cats to perform four cued behaviors: touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five. Each cat completed 15, five-min training sessions over a two-week span. At the end of the program, we assessed the cats’ ability to perform the same behaviors. On average, the cats performed better on all four behaviors after clicker training, suggesting that the cats could learn to perform specific behaviors on cue. Individual cats with a higher level of interest in food showed greater gains in learning for two of the behaviors (high-five and touching a target). Cats with a bolder temperament at post-assessment demonstrated greater gains in learning than those classified as shy. We suggest that clicker training can be used to enhance cats’ well-being while they are housed in shelters, and that the learned behaviors might make them more desirable to adopters. Abstract Clicker training has the potential to mitigate stress among shelter cats by providing environmental enrichment and human interaction. This study assessed the ability of cats housed in a shelter-like setting to learn new behaviors via clicker training in a limited amount of time. One hundred shelter cats were enrolled in the study. Their baseline ability to perform four specific behaviors touching a target, sitting, spinning, and giving a high-five was assessed, before exposing them to 15, five-min clicker training sessions, followed by a post-training assessment. Significant gains in performance scores were found for all four cued behaviors after training (p = 0.001). A cat’s age and sex did not have any effect on successful learning, but increased food motivation was correlated with greater gains in learning for two of the

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Cats (Felis catus, Linnaeus 1758 Living in San Carlos (Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Eduardo Troncoso Toro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies about seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in Chile; therefore, this article aims to determine seroprevalence in cats in the district of San Carlos, by ELISA Immuno- Comb® serological technique, and, at the same time, to examine association with variables of sex, age, diet, and habitat. To the effect, 60 cats over 2 months old were randomly sampled. Sera were analyzed using the ELISA ImmunoComb® Biogal Toxo & Chlamydia test kit, which detects specific immunoglobulin G-type antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii with a sensitivity of 92.3% and a specificity of 100%. The study evidenced that 29 individuals were positive (48.3% seroprevalence; when broken down by gender this corresponded to 9 males and 20 females (39.1% and 54%, respectively. By age, seropositivity was higher in the “Adult” group (76.7%, followed by groups “Over 7 years” (50% and “Young” (25%. With respect to diet, higher seropositivity was obtained in animals fed on mixed diet, as opposed to commercial diet (60% vs. 47.2%. By variable habitat, 16 indoor and 13 outdoor cats were positive (45.7% and 52%, showing statistically significant difference only for the variable age (p < 0.05. Finally, through relating age with seropositivity, a negative correlation was evidenced (r = –0.3, indicating that older individuals had lower seroprevalence. The results show the presence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in domestic cats.

  14. Interspecies Transmission of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus from the Domestic Cat to the Tsushima Cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Yoshiaki; Goto, Yuko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Endo, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Takuya; Hamachi, Masaharu; Maruyama, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Hirotoshi; Koga, Susumu; Komori, Mitsuru; Fushuku, Seigo; Ushinohama, Kanji; Akuzawa, Masao; Watari, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild. PMID:10438892

  15. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  16. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Judith L; Croney, Candace C

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats ( Felis silvestris catus ) are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million), free-roaming (70 million), research (13,000), and shelter (2-3 million) cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats' needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  17. Reduction of feral cat (Felis catus Linnaeus 1758) colony size following hysterectomy of adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-de-Almeida, Flavya; Remy, Gabriella L; Gershony, Liza C; Rodrigues, Daniela P; Chame, Marcia; Labarthe, Norma V

    2011-06-01

    The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Birds be safe: Can a novel cat collar reduce avian mortality by domestic cats (Felis catus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.K. Willson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus has been described as the largest anthropogenic threat to songbird populations in North America. We examined the effectiveness of a novel cat collar in reducing avian and small mammal mortality by cats. The 2-inch wide Birdsbesafe® collar cover (CC is worn over a nylon quick-release collar, and the bright colors and patterns of the CC are hypothesized to warn birds of approaching cats. We conducted two seasonal trials, each lasting 12 weeks, in autumn 2013 (n=54 cats and spring 2014 (n=19 cats. Cats were randomly assigned to two groups, and CCs with interior collars were removed or put on every two weeks, to control for weather fluctuations and seasonal change. Cats wearing Birdsbesafe® CCs killed 19 times fewer birds than uncollared cats in the spring trial, and 3.4 times fewer birds in the fall. Birdsbesafe® CCs were extremely effective at reducing predation on birds. Small mammal data were less clear, but did decrease predation by half in the fall. The Birdsbesafe® CC is a highly effective device for decreasing bird predation, especially in the spring season. We suggest that the CCs be used as a conservation tool for owned as well as feral cats.

  19. Cats and Carbohydrates: The Carnivore Fantasy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adronie Verbrugghe

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The domestic cat’s wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat’s metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution. Moreover, studies show that domestic cats balance macronutrient intake by selecting low-carbohydrate foods. The fact that cats evolved consuming low-carbohydrate prey has led to speculations that high-carbohydrate diets could be detrimental for a cat’s health. More specifically, it has been suggested that excess carbohydrates could lead to feline obesity and diabetes mellitus. Additionally, the chances for remission of diabetes mellitus are higher in cats that consume a low-carbohydrate diet. This literature review will summarise current carbohydrate knowledge pertaining to digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates, food selection and macronutrient balancing in healthy, obese and diabetic cats, as well as the role of carbohydrates in prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus.

  20. Environmental enrichment choices of shelter cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J J; Stryhn, H; Spears, J; Cockram, M S

    2017-08-01

    Choices made by cats between different types of environmental enrichment may help shelters to prioritize how to most effectively enrich cat housing, especially when limited by space or funds. This study investigates the environmental enrichment use of cats in a choice test. Twenty-six shelter cats were kept singularly in choice chambers for 10days. Each chamber had a central area and four centrally-linked compartments containing different types of environmental enrichment: 1) an empty control, 2) a prey-simulating toy, 3) a perching opportunity, and 4) a hiding opportunity. Cat movement between compartments was quantitatively recorded using a data-logger. Enriched compartments were visited significantly more frequently during the light period than during the dark period. Cats spent a significantly greater percentage of time in the hiding compartment (median=55%, IQR=46) than in the toy compartment (median=2%, IQR=9), or in the empty control compartment (median=4%, IQR=4). These results provide additional evidence to support the value of a hiding box to cats housed in a novel environment, in that they choose hiding relative to other types of environmental enrichment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O V Verkhodanov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.

  2. The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0093 TITLE: The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Laura Carpenter, MD RECIPIENT...Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS) 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0093 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Laura Carpenter...provides a description of the Year 2 progress made and plans for Year 3 for the project entitled “The Carolina Autism Transition Study (CATS).” The goal of

  3. Hybrid fixed point in CAT(0 spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Pathak

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce an ultrapower approach to prove fixed point theorems for $H^{+}$-nonexpansive multi-valued mappings in the setting of CAT(0 spaces and prove several hybrid fixed point results in CAT(0 spaces for families of single-valued nonexpansive or quasinonexpansive mappings and multi-valued upper semicontinuous, almost lower semicontinuous or $H^{+}$-nonexpansive mappings which are weakly commuting. We also establish a result about structure of the set of fixed points of $H^{+}$-quasinonexpansive mapping on a CAT(0 space.

  4. Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A273 124 AL-TR-1991-0078 A R COCKPIT AUTOMATION TECHNOLOGY M CSERIAC- CAT S JULY 1989 - DEC 1990: FINAL REPORT T R Trudy S. Abrams Cindy D. Martin...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Cockpit Automation Technology CSERIAC- CAT JUL 89 - DEC 90 PE 62202F Final Report (U) PR 7184 ,___,TA 12 6. AUTHOR(S...Boeing-developed CAT software tools, and for facilitating their use by the cockpit design community. A brief description of the overall task is given

  5. Microcomputer Network for Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    PRDC TR 84-33 \\Q.�d-33- \\ MICROCOMPUTER NETWOJlt FOR COMPUTERIZED ADAPTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) Baldwin Quan Thomas A . Park Gary Sandahl John H...ACCEIIION NO NPRDC TR 84-33 4. TITLE (-d Sul>tlllo) MICROCOMP UTER NETWORK FOR COMPUTERIZED ADA PTIVE TESTING ( CAT ) 1. Q B. uan T. A . Park...adaptive testing ( CAT ) Bayesian sequential testing 20. ABSTitACT (Continuo on ro•••• aide II noco .. _, _., ld-tlly ,.,. t.loclt _._.) DO Computerized

  6. Human-directed aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Terry Marie

    2008-09-01

    Feline aggression-between cats or directed at humans-is, after inappropriate elimination and urine-marking behaviors, the second most common reason cats are seen by behavioral specialists. For diagnosis and treatment it is important to determine the motivation for the aggression. The more common causes for human-directed aggression in cats include play, fear, petting intolerance, and redirected aggression. Other causes include pain and maternal behavior. Sexually motivated and status related aggression are much more rare. Treatment includes a combination of behavioral modification, environmental modification, and, in some cases, medication.

  7. FED baseline engineering studies report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept.

  8. FED baseline engineering studies report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.H.

    1983-04-01

    Studies were carried out on the FED Baseline to improve design definition, establish feasibility, and reduce cost. Emphasis was placed on cost reduction, but significant feasibility concerns existed in several areas, and better design definition was required to establish feasibility and provide a better basis for cost estimates. Design definition and feasibility studies included the development of a labyrinth shield ring concept to prevent radiation streaming between the torus spool and the TF coil cryostat. The labyrinth shield concept which was developed reduced radiation streaming sufficiently to permit contact maintenance of the inboard EF coils. Various concepts of preventing arcing between adjacent shield sectors were also explored. It was concluded that installation of copper straps with molybdenum thermal radiation shields would provide the most reliable means of preventing arcing. Other design studies included torus spool electrical/structural concepts, test module shielding, torus seismic response, poloidal conditions in the magnets, disruption characteristics, and eddy current effects. These additional studies had no significant impact on cost but did confirm the feasibility of the basic FED Baseline concept

  9. Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine Odour as a Potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cat urine odour extract on rodent pest species to reduce crop losses. Cat urine from the captured cats was drawn using cat catcher. Urinary catheter was inserted into the urethra up to the urinary bladder and a syringe attached to the urinary catheter was used to draw ...

  10. 9 CFR 113.39 - Cat safety tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cat safety tests. 113.39 Section 113... Procedures § 113.39 Cat safety tests. The safety tests provided in this section shall be conducted when... recommended for use in cats. (a) The cat safety test provided in this paragraph shall be used when the Master...

  11. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting requirements set by CATS consortium based on requirements in Euro NCAP AEB protocols regarding accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility using the developed test hardware. For the cases where verification t...

  12. Environmental Aspects of Domestic Cat Care and Management: Implications for Cat Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus are the most commonly kept companion animals in the US with large populations of owned (86 million, free-roaming (70 million, research (13,000, and shelter (2-3 million cats. Vast numbers of cats are maintained in homes and other facilities each year and are reliant on humans for all of their care. Understanding cat behavior and providing the highest quality environments possible, including positive human-cat interactions, based on research could help improve the outcomes of biomedical research, shelter adoptions, and veterinary care, as well as overall cat welfare. Often, however, cats’ needs are inadequately met in homes and some aspects may also not be well met in research colonies and shelters, despite the fact that similar problems are likely to be encountered in all of these environments. This paper provides a brief overview of common welfare challenges associated with indoor housing of domestic cats. Essential considerations for cage confinement are reviewed, along with implications of poor cat coping, such as weakening of the human-animal bond and relinquishment to shelters. The important role that environmental management plays in cat behavior and welfare outcomes is explored along with the need for additional research in key areas.

  13. Cats of the Pharaohs: Genetic Comparison of Egyptian Cat Mummies to their Feline Contemporaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurushima, Jennifer D.; Ikram, Salima; Knudsen, Joan; Bleiberg, Edward; Grahn, Robert A.; Lyons, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    The ancient Egyptians mummified an abundance of cats during the Late Period (664 - 332 BC). The overlapping morphology and sizes of developing wildcats and domestic cats confounds the identity of mummified cat species. Genetic analyses should support mummy identification and was conducted on two long bones and a mandible of three cats that were mummified by the ancient Egyptians. The mummy DNA was extracted in a dedicated ancient DNA laboratory at the University of California – Davis, then directly sequencing between 246 and 402 bp of the mtDNA control region from each bone. When compared to a dataset of wildcats (Felis silvestris silvestris, F. s. tristrami, and F. chaus) as well as a previously published worldwide dataset of modern domestic cat samples, including Egypt, the DNA evidence suggests the three mummies represent common contemporary domestic cat mitotypes prevalent in modern Egypt and the Middle East. Divergence estimates date the origin of the mummies’ mitotypes to between two and 7.5 thousand years prior to their mummification, likely prior to or during Egyptian Predyanstic and Early Dynastic Periods. These data are the first genetic evidence supporting that the ancient Egyptians used domesticated cats, F. s. catus, for votive mummies, and likely implies cats were domesticated prior to extensive mummification of cats. PMID:22923880

  14. CAT -- computer aided testing for resonant inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, David K.

    1998-01-01

    Application of computer technology relates to inspection and quality control. The computer aided testing (CAT) can be used to analyze various NDT technologies, such as eddy current, ultrasonics, and resonant inspection

  15. A cross-species alignment tool (CAT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Heng; Guan, Liang; Liu, Tao

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main two sorts of automatic gene annotation frameworks are ab initio and alignment-based, the latter splitting into two sub-groups. The first group is used for intra-species alignments, among which are successful ones with high specificity and speed. The other group contains more...... sensitive methods which are usually applied in aligning inter-species sequences. RESULTS: Here we present a new algorithm called CAT (for Cross-species Alignment Tool). It is designed to align mRNA sequences to mammalian-sized genomes. CAT is implemented using C scripts and is freely available on the web...... at http://xat.sourceforge.net/. CONCLUSIONS: Examined from different angles, CAT outperforms other extant alignment tools. Tested against all available mouse-human and zebrafish-human orthologs, we demonstrate that CAT combines the specificity and speed of the best intra-species algorithms, like BLAT...

  16. Channel CAT: A Tactical Link Analysis Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coleman, Michael

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis produced an analysis tool, the Channel Capacity Analysis Tool (Channel CAT), designed to provide an automated tool for the analysis of design decisions in developing client-server software...

  17. SWMM-CAT User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT) is a simple to use software utility that allows future climate change projections to be incorporated into the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM).

  18. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  19. High rise syndrome with impalement in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratschke, K M; Kirby, B M

    2002-06-01

    Three cats were presented for management of impalement injuries sustained following falls from second storey windows onto spiked metal railings. Two cats presented with penetrating thoracic wounds and extensive pulmonary parenchymal trauma, while one presented with abdominal impalement and splenic rupture. Following stabilisation, all three cats underwent exploratory surgery. A good outcome was achieved in two of the cats: one with thoracic and one with abdominal penetration. Impalement injury secondary to free fallis a previously unreported variation of 'high rise syndrome' in cats.

  20. Demonstration of uniformity of calcium absorption in adult dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Alexander, L G; Morris, P J; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2015-10-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to understand quantitative aspects of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) absorption in adult dogs and cats. 34 studies in dogs and 14 studies in cats met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Intake and faecal excretion values of Ca and P were subjected to a modified Lucas test and subsequent regression analyses. According to the current scientific consensus, Ca true digestibility (absorption) should increase at low Ca intake and decrease at high Ca intake. If true, this should result in a nonlinear relationship between the percentage of Ca excreted and dietary Ca intake. The present meta-analysis showed a highly significant linear relationship (p dogs and cats at maintenance will not efficiently alter quantitative Ca absorption percentage according to the amount ingested. If the latter is true, a dietary Ca supply differing greatly from the recommended dietary intake might impair the health of cats and dogs when fed long term. The data plots for P intake and faecal excretion were less uniform suggesting other factors not just dietary intake influence faecal P excretion. In adult cats, the dietary Ca:P ratio strongly influenced the true digestibility of P, whereas this effect was less marked in adult dogs. Faecal P excretion was significantly correlated to faecal Ca excretion in both species (p < 0.0001), and surprisingly, the level of P intake did not appear to be an important determinant of true digestibility of P. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    OpenAIRE

    Susanna S. Nagel; June H. Williams; Johannes P. Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests fo...

  2. Improving risk allocation through cat bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Nell, Martin; Richter, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Catastrophe bonds (cat bonds) often use index triggers, such as, for instance, parametric descriptions of a catastrophe. This implies the problem of the so-called basis risk, resulting from the fact that, in contrast to traditional reinsurance, this kind of coverage cannot be a perfect hedge for the primary's insured portfolio. On the other hand, cat bonds offer some very attractive economic features: Besides their usefulness as a solution to the problems of moral hazard and default risk, an ...

  3. Bioacoustic Signal Classification in Cat Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    of the cat’s WINER. 1. A. Anatomy of layer IV in cat primary auditory cortex t4,1). J miedial geniculate body Ideintified by projections to binaural...34language" (see for example Tartter, 1986, chapter 8; and Lieberman, 1984). Attempts have been made to train animals (mainly apes, gorillas , _ _ ___I 3...gestures of a gorilla : Language acquisition in another Pongid. Brain and Language, 1978a, 5, 72-97. Patterson, F. Conversations with a gorilla

  4. Effects of puerarin on lipid accumulation and metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Zheng

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the mechanisms by which puerarin from kudzu root extract regulates lipid metabolism, fifty mice were randomly assigned to five groups: normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD, and HFD containing 0.2%, 0.4% or 0.8% puerarin for 12 weeks. Body weight, intraperitioneal adipose tissue (IPAT weight, serum biochemical parameters, and hepatic and feces lipids were measured. Activity and mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes were analyzed. Compared with HFD, 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin significantly decreased body and IPAT weight. There was a significant decrease in the serum and hepatic concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets compared with HFD. Fatty acid synthase activity was suppressed in mice fed the 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets, while the activities of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, carnitine acyltransferase (CAT and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL were increased. mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ 2 (PPARγ 2 was down-regulated in liver of mice fed the 0.8% diet compared with HFD, while mRNA expression of CAT and HSL was considerably up-regulated by 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. The protein expression of PPARγ2 in liver was decreased and those of p-AMPK, HSL and p-HSL were increased in mice fed 0.4% and 0.8% puerarin diets. These results suggest that > 0.4% puerarin influenced the activity, mRNA and protein levels of hepatic lipid metabolism-related enzymes, decreasing serum and liver lipids, body weight gain and fat accumulation. Puerarin might be beneficial to prevent lifestyle-related diseases.

  5. Effect of single-cat versus multi-cat home history on perceived behavioral stress in domestic cats (Felis silvestrus catus) in an animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Heidi M; McCobb, Emily C; Slater, Margaret R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of living with other cats in a prior home on stress levels of cats recently surrendered to an animal shelter. A total of 63 cats was evaluated using a Cat-Stress-Score and an approach test. Cats were categorized in terms of previous home history with or without other cats. No significant difference was found in stress scores between cats from single-cat households and those from multiple-cat households, although single cats that had been in the shelter less than 4 days demonstrated higher stress levels. No significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of approach results. Results of this study suggest that, in traditional individual cage settings, cats that are not accustomed to living with other cats may experience more stress in the initial few days of attempting to adjust to shelter existence. Through the use of such assessments, shelter personnel may develop an increased awareness to the needs of these cats and attempt to provide measures to improve their well-being within the shelter environment.

  6. Campylobacteriosis in dogs and cats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acke, E

    2018-05-13

    Campylobacter species are commonly isolated from faecal samples collected from dogs and cats with the most prevalent species being C. upsaliensis, C. helveticus, and C. jejuni. Although the majority of dogs and cats are subclinically infected, some will develop mild to moderate enteritis. Immature animals, animals from intensive housing backgrounds, and animals with concurrent disease are especially predisposed to infection and the development of clinical signs. Bacterial culture methods applied in diagnostic laboratories remain biased to C. jejuni and C. coli detection, but molecular methods to diagnose Campylobacter spp. infections in dogs and cats have become widely available and can aid rapid and accurate diagnosis. Multilocus sequence typing has also been developed for subtyping different strains and has been used in epidemiological investigations. In the majority of cases, clinical signs are self-limiting and antimicrobial treatment is not warranted. Campylobacter spp. isolated from dogs and cats have shown resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, so antimicrobial therapy should only be administered where this is justified. Contact with dogs and cats is a recognised risk factor for human campylobacteriosis, thus people living or working in close contact with cats and dogs should be made aware of the zoonotic organisms these animals can shed.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners' attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R; Ploeger, H W; Wagenaar, J A; Mughini-Gras, L

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples were

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for patent Toxocara infections in cats and cat owners’ attitude towards deworming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijsse, R.; Ploeger, H.W.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Mughini-Gras, L.

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of and risk factors for shedding Toxocara eggs in cats older than 6 months were determined by examining 670 faecal samples collected in 4 cross-sectional studies in the Netherlands. Additionally, cat owners provided information on their attitude towards routine deworming. Samples

  9. CATS Deliverable 5.1 : CATS verification of test matrix and protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, J.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the work conducted within work package (WP) 5 "Verification of test matrix and protocol" of the Cyclist AEB testing system (CATS) project. It describes the verification process of the draft CATS test matrix resulting from WP1 and WP2, and the feasibility of meeting

  10. Cat sensitization according to cat window of exposure in adult asthmatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oryszczyn, M.-P.; van Ree, R.; Maccario, J.; Nadif, R.; Kauffmann, F.

    2009-01-01

    P>Background In adults, there is limited information on tolerance to cat, which may be reflected by high IgG(4) without IgE sensitization. Early exposure to cat may play a critical role. Objective The aim was to assess among adults the association of Fel d 1 IgG(4), Fel d 1 IgE, skin prick test

  11. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  12. Increased kidney growth in formula-fed versus breast-fed healthy infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Damgaard, Ida N; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2004-01-01

    versus breast feeding on kidney growth in a cohort of 631 healthy children examined at birth, and at 3 and 18 months of age. Kidney size was determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age, body size, and feeding category (fully breast fed, partially breast fed, or fully formula fed at 3 months...

  13. Hypothermia in Uremic Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabatchnick, E; Langston, C; Olson, B; Lamb, K E

    2016-09-01

    The prevalence of uremic hypothermia (UH) and the effects of improving uremia on body temperature have not been determined in veterinary patients. To determine the prevalence of UH and correlations between uremia and body temperature in patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (IHD). Uremic dogs (n = 122) and cats (n = 79) treated by IHD at the Bobst Hospital of the Animal Medical Center from 1997 to 2013. Retrospective review of medical records. The prevalence of hypothermia was 38% in azotemic cats and 20.5% in azotemic dogs. Statistically significant temperature differences were observed between uremic and nonuremic dogs (nonuremic: mean, 100.8°F; range, 91.2-109.5°F; uremic: mean, 99.9°F; range, 95.6-103.8°F; P cats (nonuremic: mean, 100.6°F; range, 94.0-103.8°F; uremic: mean, 99.3°F; range, 92.3-103.4°F; P dog dialysis patients, significant models included (1) timing (pre-dialysis versus post-dialysis) with weight class (small [P dogs), (2) timing with serum creatinine concentration (P = .021), and (3) timing with BUN concentration (P cat dialysis patients, there was a significant interaction between timing and weight as a categorical variable (cats and dogs. Uremic patients are hypothermic compared to ill nonuremic patients and body temperatures increase when uremia is corrected with IHD in dogs and in cats >5 kg. In cats, UH seems to be a more prevalent phenomenon driven by uremia. Uremic hypothermia does occur in dogs, but body weight is a more important predictor of body temperature. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. 3 alpha-Hydroxylated bile acid profiles in clinically normal cats, cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and cats with complete extrahepatic bile duct occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Thompson, M; Guida, L

    1993-05-01

    Concentrations of 3 alpha-hydroxylated bile acids were measured in serum and urine of clinically normal (healthy) cats (n = 6), cats with severe hepatic lipidosis (n = 9), and cats with complete bile duct occlusion (n = 4). Bile acid concentrations were measured by use of a gradient flow high-performance liquid chromatography procedure with an acetonitrile and ammonium phosphate mobile phase and an in-line postanalytic column containing 3 alpha-hydroxy-steroid dehydrogenase and a fluorescence detector. Specific identification of all bile acid peaks was not completed; unidentified moieties were represented in terms of their elution time (in minutes). Significant differences in serum and urine bile acid concentrations, quantitative and proportional, were determined among groups of cats. Cats with hepatic lipidosis and bile duct occlusion had significantly (P > or = 0.05) greater total serum and urine bile acids concentrations than did healthy cats. The proportion of hydrophobic bile acids in serum, those eluting at > or = 400 minutes, was 1.9% for healthy cats, 3.3% for cats with lipidosis, and 5.4% for bile duct-obstructed cats. Both groups of ill cats had a broader spectrum of unidentified late-eluting serum bile acids than did healthy cats; the largest spectrum developed in bile duct-occluded cats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Metabolic and hormonal alterations in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, B; Mauldin, G E; Armstrong, J; Moroff, S D; Mauldin, G N

    2000-01-01

    Hepatic lipidosis in cats is a commonly diagnosed hepatobiliary disease of unknown cause. The purpose of this prospective study was to characterize the blood hormone and lipid status of cats with hepatic lipidosis, and to compare this status to that of cats with other types of liver disease and to control cats. Twenty-three cats with hepatic disease were assigned to 1 of 2 groups on the basis of cytopathologic or histopathologic examination of the liver: group 1, hepatic lipidosis (n = 18); or group 2, cholangiohepatitis (n = 5). Ten healthy young adult cats were used as controls. Food was withheld from control animals for 24 hours before blood collection. Concentrations of plasma glucagon and serum insulin, cortisol, thyroxine, triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were determined in all cats, in addition to routine hematologic and serum biochemical testing. Cats with hepatic lipidosis had higher serum NEFA concentrations than cats with cholangiohepatitis or control cats (P lipidosis or control cats (P hepatic lipidosis. Serum insulin concentrations were significantly higher in control cats than in diseased cats (P hepatic disease. The high concentration of NEFAs in cats with hepatic lipidosis suggests that at least 1 factor in the pathogenesis of this syndrome may involve the regulation of hormone-sensitive lipase.

  16. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus) Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jessica K; Bruce, Stephanie J; Dale, Arnja R

    2017-07-03

    Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a) support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support); (b) concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats); (c) the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d) the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively), followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively), managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively), and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively). Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%), and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%). Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  17. Born to roam? Surveying cat owners in Tasmania, Australia, to identify the drivers and barriers to cat containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Lynette J; Hine, Donald W; Bengsen, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    Free-roaming domestic cats, Felis catus, are a major public nuisance in neighbourhoods across the world, and have been linked to biodiversity loss and a host of community health problems. Owners who let their cats roam, also place their cats at risk of serious injury. One management strategy that is gaining considerable support involves encouraging cat owners to contain their pets within their property. Contemporary behaviour change models highlight the importance of identifying drivers and barriers that encourage and discourage target behaviours such as cat containment. Results from a random dial phone survey of 356 cat owners in northern Tasmania identified four distinct cat containment profiles: owners who contained their cat all the time, owners who only contained their cat at night, owners who sporadically contained their cat with no set routine, and owners who made no attempt to contain their pet. Our results indicated that cat-owners' decisions to contain or not contain their cats were guided by a range of factors including owners' beliefs about their ability to implement an effective containment strategy and their views about the physical and psychological needs of their cats. The results are discussed in terms of improving the behavioural effectiveness of cat containment interventions by selecting appropriate behavioural change tools for the identified drivers and barriers, and developing targeted engagement strategies and messaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Survey of Public Opinion on Cat (Felis catus Predation and the Future Direction of Cat Management in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Walker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cat predation is a prominent issue in New Zealand that provokes strong and opposing views. We explored, via 1011 face-to-face questionnaires, public opinion on (a support for a National Cat Management Strategy (78% support; (b concern regarding predation of wildlife by owned and un-owned cats (managed stray, unmanaged stray, and feral cats; (c the acceptability of management techniques for owned cats; and (d the acceptability of population management techniques for un-owned cats. The highest concern was expressed regarding the predation of non-native and native wildlife by feral cats (60 and 86% repectively, followed by unmanaged stray cats (59 and 86% respectively, managed stray cats (54 and 82% respectively, and finally owned cats (38 and 69% repectively. Limits to the number of cats owned and cat restriction zones received high levels of support (>65%, and compulsory microchipping, Council registration, and de-sexing were supported by the majority (>58%. Public support of population control methods for unowned cats was explored, and the influence of participant demographic variables on responses is described. These findings provide insight into public opinion regarding the management of cats in New Zealand, which should be considered during the development of legislation in this area.

  19. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole.

  20. Social referencing and cat-human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, I; Lazzaroni, M; Marshall-Pescini, S; Prato-Previde, E

    2015-05-01

    Cats' (Felis catus) communicative behaviour towards humans was explored using a social referencing paradigm in the presence of a potentially frightening object. One group of cats observed their owner delivering a positive emotional message, whereas another group received a negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate whether cats use the emotional information provided by their owners about a novel/unfamiliar object to guide their own behaviour towards it. We assessed the presence of social referencing, in terms of referential looking towards the owner (defined as looking to the owner immediately before or after looking at the object), the behavioural regulation based on the owner's emotional (positive vs negative) message (vocal and facial), and the observational conditioning following the owner's actions towards the object. Most cats (79 %) exhibited referential looking between the owner and the object, and also to some extent changed their behaviour in line with the emotional message given by the owner. Results are discussed in relation to social referencing in other species (dogs in particular) and cats' social organization and domestication history.

  1. Experimental induction of hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biourge, V C; Groff, J M; Munn, R J; Kirk, C A; Nyland, T G; Madeiros, V A; Morris, J G; Rogers, Q R

    1994-09-01

    The effect of long-term voluntary fasting on hematologic variables, biochemical profiles, and liver histologic findings was assessed in 15 obese cats (> 40% overweight). Clinical signs and laboratory results consistent with hepatic lipidosis were observed in 12 of 15 cats after 5 to 7 weeks of fasting, and were associated with 30 to 35% reduction of initial body weight. Histologic examination of successive liver biopsy specimens revealed that obesity was not associated with liver parenchymal lipid accumulation, but that fasting resulted in lipidosis in all 15 cats. The long-term fast was associated with an early (after 2 to 4 weeks of fasting) and significant (P hepatic-associated enzyme activities and in total and direct serum bilirubin concentrations. Significant (P hepatic lipidosis, cats appeared to tolerate the fast without other adverse effect. This study confirmed that long-term fasting may induce clinical hepatic lipidosis in obese cats. Fasting appears to induce a syndrome of hepatic lipidosis that is indistinguishable from feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and may be an appropriate model to study the pathophysiologic features and treatment of hepatic lipidosis.

  2. Tetrathyridiosis in a domestic shorthair cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee Dahlem

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes the clinical and parasitological findings in a domestic shorthair cat with isolated thoracic tetrathyridiosis. The cat was a stray from Malta that had lived in Germany for several years since as an indoor-only cat. Therefore, the process of infection remains very unusual. In this case it must be considered that the cat had been infected years previously while in Malta, and had lived at least 4 years without any clinical signs. It was possible to diagnose this uncommon disease and initiate an effective treatment with fenbendazole, praziquantel and supportive care. Clinical signs, as well as radiographic findings, were regressive with this treatment. Relevance and novel information Tetrathyridiosis is a rare finding in cats, especially in Germany, but it seems to be a potential differential diagnosis of pleural effusion. Mesocestoides corti , which was the causative parasite in this case, has not previously been isolated in Germany. Because tetrathyridiosis is only diagnosed post mortem in most cases, little is known about effective therapeutic options. Furthermore, clinical signs of this disease can be absent for several years and can potentially be triggered by neoplastic conditions or immunosuppression. Tetrathyridiosis seems to be a treatable disease that can be controlled by adequate antiparasitic therapy.

  3. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  4. The conservation status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus Bennett, 1833 (Carnivora: Felidae In Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iain Rothie Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus in Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve, Nepal was assessed by camera trapping and pugmark searches from 2011 to 2014.  The reserve is a highly dynamic and unstable snow-fed braided river system with many anabranches and islands.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found throughout most of the reserve.  They were probably more abundant on the eastern side, among the islands of the main river channel, and in the adjacent buffer zone where there was a chain of fishponds and marsh areas fed by seepage from the main river channel.  Evidence of Fishing Cats was found up to 6km north of the reserve on the Koshi River but not beyond this.  The population is probably small and may be isolated but given the endangered status of the species, is significant.  The main likely threats identified are wetland and riparian habitat deterioration caused by over exploitation and illegal grazing by villagers, overfishing of wetlands and rivers within the reserve, and direct persecution arising from perceived conflicts with fish farming and poultry husbandry.  Required conservation actions are discussed. 

  5. Osteosarcoma in cats: 22 cases (1974-1984)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitetto, W.V.; Patnaik, A.K.; Schrader, S.C.; Mooney, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    Osteosarcoma was diagnosed in 22 cats. Diagnosis was based on results of physical, radiographic, and histologic findings. Fifteen tumors arose from the appendicular skeleton, 4 from the skull, 2 from the pelvis, and 1 from a rib. Radiography revealed that in 14 of 15 cats (93%) with appendicular tumors, the lesion was metaphyseal, primarily lytic, with a ''moth-eaten'' appearance; absence and presence of periosteal new bone formation were associated with the tumors in 12 and 3 cats, respectively. The remaining 7 cats had axial tumors that were characterized by the presence of periosteal new bone formation in addition to bony lysis. Of the 15 cats with appendicular tumors, 12 were treated by amputation and 3 were euthanatized at the time of diagnosis. Of the cats undergoing amputation for treatment of their appendicular tumors, 6 cats were still alive 64 months after surgery (range, 13 to 64 months); the median survival time of the 5 cats (1 cat was lost to follow-up evaluation) that died was 49.2 months (range, 1 to 122 months). Four of 12 cats (33%) survived greater than or equal to 5 years after diagnosis. Of the cats with axial tumors that were not euthanatized at the time of diagnosis (6 of 7), the median survival time was 5.5 months. Based on these findings, we concluded that cats with appendicular osteosarcoma have a better prognosis than those with axial osteosarcoma, and that amputation is a viable treatment for cats with appendicular osteosarcoma

  6. Metaphyseal osteopathy in a British Shorthair cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adagra, Carl; Spielman, Derek; Adagra, Angela; Foster, Darren J

    2015-04-01

    Metaphyseal osteopathy, otherwise known as hypertrophic osteodystrophy, is a disease that causes pyrexia and lethargy accompanied by pain in the thoracic and pelvic limbs of rapidly growing large-breed dogs. While metaphyseal osteopathy has been descibed in association with slipped capital femoral epiphysis in cats, it has not previously been reported as a cause of limb pain and pyrexia in this species. A 7-month-old British Shorthair cat presented with a 1 month history of pyrexia, lethargy and pain in all limbs. Investigation included radiographs of the limbs and chest, abdominal ultrasound, serum biochemical analysis, haematology, bone biopsy, joint fluid aspiration and cytology. Findings were consistent with a diagnosis of metaphyseal osteopathy. The cat's clinical signs resolved following the administration of prednisolone. Symptoms recurred 1 month after the cessation of prednisolone therapy, but resolved when administration was resumed. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Suppression of fertility in adult cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goericke-Pesch, Sandra Kathrin; Wehrend, A.; Georgiev, P.

    2014-01-01

    /needed? (iii) sex of the animal? New effective and available methods for hormonal contraception include melatonin implants for short-term post ponement of oestrus in adult queens and slow-release GnRH-agonist implants containing deslorelin (Suprelorin®) for short- and long-term contraception in male and female......Contents: Cats are animals with highly efficient reproduction, clearly pointing to a need for suppression of fertility. Although surgical contraception is highly effective, it is not always the method of choice. This is predominantly because it is cost-intensive, time-consuming and irreversible......, with the latter being of major importance for cat breeders. This article reviews the use of progestins, scleroting agents, immunocontraception, melatonin, GnRH antagonists and finally, GnRH agonists, in adult male and female cats in detail, according to the present state of the art. By now, various scientific...

  8. Dilated cardiomyopathy in cats - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jeyaraja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two cats were brought to Madras Veterinary College Teaching Hospital with the history and clinical signs suggestive of congestive heart failure ie, coughing, exercise intolerance, dyspnea, abdominal distension etc. There was history of feeding the cat with home made diet in one case and in other with commercial dog food. Based on electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, the diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy was done in both the cases. The cases were managed with enalapril maleate, furosemide, dietary taurine supplementation and other supportive therapy. Among these two cases, one cat died on 2nd day of treatment and the other showed recovery after 8 days of treatment. [Vet World 2013; 6(4.000: 226-227

  9. CATS Aerosol Typing and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Matt; Yorks, John; Scott, Stan; Palm, Stephen; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Nowottnick, Ed; Selmer, Patrick; Kupchock, Andrew; Midzak, Natalie; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cloud Aerosol Transport System (CATS), launched in January of 2015, is a lidar remote sensing instrument that will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosols and clouds from the International Space Station (ISS). CATS is intended to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. Status of CATS Level 2 and Plans for the Future:Version. 1. Aerosol Typing (ongoing): Mode 1: L1B data released later this summer; L2 data released shortly after; Identify algorithm biases (ex. striping, FOV (field of view) biases). Mode 2: Processed Released Currently working on correcting algorithm issues. Version 2 Aerosol Typing (Fall, 2016): Implementation of version 1 modifications Integrate GEOS-5 aerosols for typing guidance for non spherical aerosols. Version 3 Aerosol Typing (2017): Implementation of 1-D Var Assimilation into GEOS-5 Dynamic lidar ratio that will evolve in conjunction with simulated aerosol mixtures.

  10. Computed Tomographic Angiography of the Pancreas in Cats with Chronic Diabetes Mellitus Compared to Normal Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secrest, S; Sharma, A; Bugbee, A

    2018-03-02

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in cats. No known diagnostic test or patient characteristic at the time of diagnosis can predict likely disease course, unlike in people in whom computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is used. No published data exist regarding the CTA appearance of the pancreas in cats with DM, and thus, it is unknown what if any CTA variables should be further assessed for associations with pancreatic endocrine function. A significant difference in pancreatic attenuation, volume, and size will be identified between normal cats and those with chronic DM on CTA. Ten healthy control cats and 15 cats with naturally occurring DM present for >12 months. Prospective cross-sectional study comparing pancreatic attenuation, enhancement pattern, size, volume, pancreatic volume-to-body weight ratio (V:BW), pancreatic arterial: portal phase ratio (A:P), time-to-arterial enhancement, and time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA between sedated healthy control cats and those with chronic DM. The pancreas in cats with chronic DM was significantly larger, had higher volume, higher V:BW, and shorter time-to-peak portal enhancement on CTA when compared to normal cats. Peak portal enhancement time, pancreatic size, pancreatic volume, and V:BW can be used to differentiate normal sedated cats from those with chronic DM by CTA. These variables warrant further investigation to identify possible associations with endocrine function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  11. KnowCat: Catalizador de Conocimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Cobos, Ruth; Alamán, Xavier; Esquivel, José A.

    2001-01-01

    KnowCat es un sistema distribuido que tiene como meta la creación incremental de conocimiento estructurado. El nombre del sistema, KnowCat, es el acrónimo de "Knowledge Catalyser" o "catalizador de conocimiento", que hace referencia a la propiedad principal que exhibirá: la catalización del proceso de cristalización del conocimiento como resultado de la interacción de los usuarios con dicho conocimiento. Un área de aplicación del sistema es la generación de materiales educativos de alta c...

  12. Hypertrophic osteopathy and megaoesophagus in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2010-01-01

    A case of hypertrophic osteopathy in a stray cat is reported. It was not known how long periosteal proliferation had been present prior to the time of first presentation. A few months later, megaoesophagus became apparent. Computer tomography was performed at least 18 months after periosteal proliferation had first become evident, but an underlying neoplasia was not identifed in association with the hypertrophic osteopathy. The hypertrophic osteopathy and the megaoesophagus were both successfully medically managed, and the cat continued to do well 33 months after the hypertrophic osteopathy was first evident.

  13. Transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) among cohabiting cats in two cat rescue shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litster, Annette L

    2014-08-01

    Conflicting accounts have been published in the veterinary literature regarding transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) between cohabiting cats in mixed households, and the mechanics of possible casual transmission, if it occurs, are poorly understood. Similarly, there are conflicting reports of vertical transmission of FIV. The aim of the present study was to document the FIV serological status of cats taken into two rescue shelters. At rescue shelter 1 (Rescue 1), cats cohabited in a multi-cat household of FIV-negative and naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats. A study was performed that combined a retrospective review of records of FIV serological status at intake (Test 1) and prospective FIV serological testing (Tests 2 and 3). Retrospective records were analyzed at rescue shelter 2 (Rescue 2), where FIV-positive queens with litters of nursing kittens were taken into the shelter, before being rehomed. FIV serology was performed on all kittens after weaning. Initial test results (Test 1) for 138 cohabiting cats from Rescue 1 showed that there were 130 FIV-negative cats and eight FIV-positive cats (six male neutered and two female spayed). A second test (Test 2), performed in 45 of the FIV-negative and five of the FIV-positive cats at median 28 months after Test 1 (range, 1 month to 8.8 years) showed that results were unchanged. Similarly, a third test (Test 3), performed in four of the original FeLV-negative cats and one remaining FIV-positive cat at median 38 months after Test 1 (range, 4 months to 4 years), also showed that results were unchanged. These results show a lack of evidence of FIV transmission, despite years of exposure to naturally-infected, FIV-positive cats in a mixed household. At Rescue 2, records were available from five FIV-positive queens with 19 kittens. All 19 kittens tested FIV-negative, suggesting that vertical transmission had not occurred. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Transitional cell carcinomas in four fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland-Smith, Meg; Harvey, Catherine; Campbell, Mark; McAloose, Denise; Rideout, Bruce; Morris, Patrick

    2004-09-01

    Transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) of the urinary bladder were diagnosed in four related fishing cats (Prionailurus viverrinus). The major clinical sign in each case was persistent hematuria unresponsive to medical therapy. Cystotomy and biopsy provided an antemortem diagnosis in three of the fishing cats before euthanasia because of progression of clinical signs. The diagnosis was made in the fourth cat after euthanasia because of renal failure. Hematuria improved temporarily in one of the cats diagnosed antemortem and treated with piroxicam and carboplatin. Attempts to isolate a herpesvirus in two of the cats failed. Histopathologic appearance of the TCC was similar to that described for other species. TCC metastasis to the lungs was noted at necropsy in one cat; metastatic disease was not noted in the other fishing cats on gross or histopathologic examination. TCC of the urinary bladder appears to be more prevalent in fishing cats than in other species of domestic or nondomestic felids.

  15. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Northern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Brian J; Levy, Julie K; Lappin, Michael R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Legendre, Alfred M; Hernandez, Jorge A; Gorman, Shawn P; Lee, Irene T

    2004-10-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of infection in feral cats in Northern Florida with a select group of infectious organisms and to determine risk factors for infection. Blood samples or sera from 553 cats were tested with a panel of antibody, antigen or PCR assays. Male cats were at higher risk for FIV, Mycoplasma haemofelis, and M. haemominutum. Infection with either FeLV or FIV was associated with increased risk for coinfection with the other retrovirus, M. haemofelis, or M. haemominutum. Bartonella henselae had the highest prevalence and was the only organism that did not have any associated risk for coinfection with other organisms. Feral cats in this study had similar or lower prevalence rates of infections than those published for pet cats in the United States. Thus, feral cats assessed in this study appear to be of no greater risk to human beings or other cats than pet cats.

  16. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-04-29

    The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters' cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6-12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of "low-cost" adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of "low-cost" adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  17. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  18. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-07-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination schedule of dogs and cats in Korean animal hospitals.

  19. Comparative study of Valeriana Officinalis root extract¸diazepam and ketamin on CNS depressive effects in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Kaffashi Elahi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis is a medicinal plant used in alternative medicine for its sedative and anxiolytic properties. It acts trough GABA receptors increases GABA in synaptic space and stimulates GABA receptors. Ketamine and diazepam also acts trough GABA mechanism but with a different pathway. The purpose of our study was to investigate the sedative effects on cats of valerian extract that extremely beloved by cats in combination with ketamine, and evaluate the possibility of its usage in cats and change the routine methods of anti-anxiety and restraining method. 24 healthy short haired mature male cats randomly selected, fed with standard ration and water ad libitum , were divided into three groups G1, G2, G3, received ketamine(11mg/kg, ketamine-diazepam(1mg/kg, and ketamine-valerian (1250 µg/kg PO respectively. Rate of CNS depression were evaluated by; onset time of effects, peak score, and duration of peak score, total time of effects and highest recorded score. Scores obtained by ataxia, time at which falling recumbent and pinch test over anus, tail and Achilles tendon. This experiment was conducted as blind. Statistical analysis made by variance analysis (ANOVA and Tukey test, at a significance level of 5% (p

  20. The effect of cat Felis catus predation on three breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breeding success of Pterodroma macroptera, Procellaria aequinoctialis and Pachyptila vittata salvini in three cat-free and three control areas were used to evaluate the effects of cat Felis catus predation on the avifauna of Marion Island. Breeding success of all three species was significantly higher in the combined cat-free ...

  1. The effect of keeping pet dogs and cats on Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    esmaeel Fallah

    2012-03-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, much of the dogs and cats owners were exposed to parasite. Training of dogs and cats owners, promotion of their awareness about various ways of transmission and examination of the infections in dogs and cats and prevention of these infections are recommended.

  2. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  3. Visual classification of feral cat Felis silvestris catus vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jessica L; Olsen, Mariana; Fontaine, Amy; Kloth, Christopher; Kershenbaum, Arik; Waller, Sara

    2017-06-01

    Cat vocal behavior, in particular, the vocal and social behavior of feral cats, is poorly understood, as are the differences between feral and fully domestic cats. The relationship between feral cat social and vocal behavior is important because of the markedly different ecology of feral and domestic cats, and enhanced comprehension of the repertoire and potential information content of feral cat calls can provide both better understanding of the domestication and socialization process, and improved welfare for feral cats undergoing adoption. Previous studies have used conflicting classification schemes for cat vocalizations, often relying on onomatopoeic or popular descriptions of call types (e.g., "miow"). We studied the vocalizations of 13 unaltered domestic cats that complied with our behavioral definition used to distinguish feral cats from domestic. A total of 71 acoustic units were extracted and visually analyzed for the construction of a hierarchical classification of vocal sounds, based on acoustic properties. We identified 3 major categories (tonal, pulse, and broadband) that further breakdown into 8 subcategories, and show a high degree of reliability when sounds are classified blindly by independent observers (Fleiss' Kappa K  = 0.863). Due to the limited behavioral contexts in this study, additional subcategories of cat vocalizations may be identified in the future, but our hierarchical classification system allows for the addition of new categories and new subcategories as they are described. This study shows that cat vocalizations are diverse and complex, and provides an objective and reliable classification system that can be used in future studies.

  4. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  5. Lungworm disease in cats : ABCD guidelines on prevention and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Hartmann, Katrin; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Horzinek, Marian C; Hosie, Margaret J; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: Cardiopulmonary nematodes are emerging parasites of cats in Europe. A number of helminth parasites may be involved. The most prevalent lungworm in domestic cats is Aelurostrongylus abstrusus. Oslerus rostratus and Troglostrongylus species are found mainly in wild cats. The trichurid

  6. Purified natural and recombinant Fel d 1 and cat albumin in in vitro diagnostics for cat allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Bulder, I.; Bond, J.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1999-01-01

    Current diagnostics and therapeutics for cat allergy are based on cat epithelial extracts originating from highly variable source materials. This gives rise to several problems: variability of allergen composition, contamination with house dust mite allergens, and potential transfer of pathogenic

  7. COMPARISON OF PBDES IN CAT SERUM TO LEVELS IN CAT FOOD: EVIDENCE OF DECA DEBROMINATION?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Since the introduction of brominated flame retardants (such as the PBDEs), increases in feline hyperthyroidism have been observed. We hypothesized that PBDE exposure was linked to the increased occurrence of hyperthyroidism in cats. Herein, PBDEs in serum of pet ...

  8. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  9. Evaluating "Cat Country": The Humor within Satire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-chien Karen

    2010-01-01

    Satire, as a mode, is not frequently employed in Chinese narratives. "Cat Country," or "Mao Cheng Ji," written by Lao She (pen name of Shu Qing Chun, 1898--1966) has come under much attack of its literary values. Whereas most critics have no doubt that this work sets out to satirize China through the portrayal of a society of…

  10. Veterinarian Gets Flu Virus from Cats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-28

    Dr. Todd Davis, a CDC research biologist, discusses transmission of avian H7N2 from a cat to a human.  Created: 3/28/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/28/2018.

  11. The antihypertensive effect of amlodipine in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Morar,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of amlodipine on blood pressure and renal function in cats with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. The research was conducted on 11 cats, aged between 7 and 14.5 years, diagnosed with arterial hypertension secondary to chronic renal failure. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MBP and pulse rate were determined by oscillometric method, before and after 7, 30 or 120 days of treatment with amlodipine. At the beginning of treatment, all cats were receiving 0.625 mg amlodipine once daily and after 7 days oftreatment, in five cats, the dose was increased to 1.25 mg amlodipine, once daily. Before amlodipine administration the mean values of SBP/DBP were 175 ± 13.2 mmHg/119 ± 7.2 mmHg and after 30 days of treatment, the mean values of the SBP/DBP were reduced by 27.9/25.4 mmHg (p<0,001. After 120 days of treatment with amlodipine mean values of SBP/DBP were lower with 32/31 mmHg compared with baseline values (p<0.001. The treatment with amlodipine did not significantly affect the values of blood biochemical parameters of renal profile.

  12. Benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenin A Villamizar-Martinez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 10-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented for assessment of a gingival mass surrounding the left maxillary third and fourth premolar teeth. The mass was surgically removed by means of a marginal rim excision, and the tissue was submitted for histological assessment. It was identified as a benign cementoblastoma (true cementoma. There was proliferation of mineralized eosinophilic material with multiple irregularly placed lacunae and reversal lines, reminiscent of cementum. The cat recovered uneventfully from the anesthesia, and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence 6 months after surgery. Relevance and novel information Cementoblastomas (true cementomas in domestic animals are rare, with just a few reports in ruminants, monogastric herbivores and rodents. Cementoblastoma is considered a benign tumor that arises from the tooth root. The slow, expansive and constant growth that characterizes these masses may be accompanied by signs of oral discomfort and dysphagia. This case report is intended to increase knowledge regarding this tumor in cats and also highlights the importance of complete excision of the neoplasm. To our knowledge, there are no previous reports in the literature of cementoblastoma in the cat.

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  14. Look What the Cat Brought In.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erslev, Carole

    1984-01-01

    The small, uneaten, slate-gray, pointed-nose animal that is distasteful to the cat because of foul-tasting scent glands is the shrew. Describes the short-tailed shrew's physical characteristics, lifespan, habitat, eating habits, and senses. (ERB)

  15. Nutrition and oxalate metabolism in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijcker, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, a progressive increase in calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith prevalence is reported in cats and dogs diagnosed with urolithiasis. This increase in prevalence appears to have occurred since dietary modifications were introduced to address magnesium ammonium phosphate urolithiasis.

  16. Diagnostic radiology of the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kealy, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Radiolographic examinations have become an important aid in small animal veterinary practice. The emphasis of the examinations has shifted from surgical and orthopedic applications to internal diseases. The book gives a comprehensive picture of X-ray diagnosis in dogs and cats. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Daffodil toxicosis in an adult cat

    OpenAIRE

    Saxon-Buri, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    A domestic longhair cat with a 3-day history of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting dried daffodil stems (Narcissus spp.) was severely hypothermic (33.0°C), with bradycardia (78 beats/min) and hypotension. Treatment with atropine, dexamethasone, fluid therapy, and supportive care resulted in a complete recovery by 6 days after exposure.

  18. An experimental study on cerebral paragonimiasis using cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Chang, Kee Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Han, Moon Hee; Shin, Yong Moon; Choo, Sung Wook; Yu, In Kyu; Cho, Seung Yull; Kong, Yoon

    1994-01-01

    It is important to diagnosis paragonimiasis in early active because it can be dared by chemotherapy. However, it is difficult to make a correct diagnosis of cerebral paragonimiasis in the early active stage, and the radiographic findings of cerebral paragonimiasis have been rarely reported. Thus, this experimental study was designed to produce early active cerebral paragonimiasis and to demonstrate radiologic-pathologic correlations. In 8 cats, 7-8 metacercariae of Paragonimus Westermani were directly introduced into brain parenchyma of each cat's after trephination of the skull. In another 16 cats, the juvenile worms and the adult worms that had developed for varying periods (2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks) in the lunges of another cats were introduced into the brain parenchyma of each cat's with the same procedure described above. Follow -up MR images and chest radiographs were obtained at 2 days, 1 weeks, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after inoculation. The autopsies and histopathological examinations of the cat's brain were undertaken in 22 cats. In 9 cats that were suspected with pulmonary lesion on chest radiograph, the soft tissue radiographs of inflated-fixed lungs were obtained. In one cat with inoculation of adult worm, acute suppurative inflammation of the brain parenchyma was demonstrated. But the other cats with inoculation of adult worm or juvenile worm and the cats with intentional of metacercaris did not reveal any evidence of acute cerebral paragonimiasis. More than half of the introduce metacercariae (5 out of 8 cats) were found in the lung parenchyma, while only 25% (4 out of 16 cats) of the adult worm inoculated cats were. Acute suppurative inflammation suggesting acute stage cerebral paragonimiasis was obtained in one case of adult worm inoculated cat. Most of the inoculated metacercariae and some of the juvenile worms or adult worms were migrated to the lungs

  19. Evaluating Sucralfate as a Phosphate Binder in Normal Cats and Cats with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Jessica; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Control of hyperphosphatemia is an important part of the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of sucralfate as a phosphate binder in normal cats and normophosphatemic CKD cats. A 500 mg sucralfate slurry was administered orally q 8 hr for 2 wk, and serum phosphorus, urine fractional excretion of phosphorus, and fecal phosphorus concentrations were measured. In normal cats treated with sucralfate, significant changes in serum phosphorus concentration or urinary excretion of phosphorus were not detected, and vomiting occurred after 14.7% of administrations. Of the five normophosphatemic cats with CKD treated with sucralfate, three experienced clinical decompensation, including vomiting, anorexia, constipation, and increased azotemia. Administration of sucralfate did not result in significant changes in fecal phosphorus concentration in these cats. The effects of sucralfate administration on serum phosphorus concentration and urinary excretion of phosphorus in CKD cats was difficult to determine because of dehydration and worsening azotemia associated with decompensation. Due to side effects and the apparent lack of efficacy of the medication, the study was discontinued. This study was unable to confirm efficacy of this sucralfate formulation as a phosphate binder, and side effects were problematic during the study.

  20. HEAD MOVEMENT DURING WALKING IN THE CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZUBAIR, HUMZA N.; BELOOZEROVA, IRINA N.; SUN, HAI; MARLINSKI, VLADIMIR

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of how the head moves during locomotion is essential for understanding how locomotion is controlled by sensory systems of the head. We have analyzed head movements of the cat walking along a straight flat pathway in the darkness and light. We found that cats' head left-right translations, and roll and yaw rotations oscillated once per stride, while fore-aft and vertical translations, and pitch rotations oscillated twice. The head reached its highest vertical positions during second half of each forelimb swing, following maxima of the shoulder/trunk by 20–90°. Nose-up rotation followed head upward translation by another 40–90° delay. The peak-to-peak amplitude of vertical translation was ~1.5 cm and amplitude of pitch rotation was ~3°. Amplitudes of lateral translation and roll rotation were ~1 cm and 1.5–3°, respectively. Overall, cats' heads were neutral in roll and 10–30° nose-down, maintaining horizontal semicircular canals and utriculi within 10° of the earth horizontal. The head longitudinal velocity was 0.5–1 m/s, maximal upward and downward linear velocities were ~0.05 and ~0.1 m/s, respectively, and maximal lateral velocity was ~0.05 m/s. Maximal velocities of head pitch rotation were 20–50 °/s. During walking in light, cats stood 0.3–0.5 cm taller and held their head 0.5–2 cm higher than in darkness. Forward acceleration was 25–100% higher and peak-to-peak amplitude of head pitch oscillations was ~20 °/s larger. We concluded that, during walking, the head of the cat is held actively. Reflexes appear to play only a partial role in determining head movement, and vision might further diminish their role. PMID:27339731

  1. Growth performance and antioxidant enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles fed diets supplemented with sage, mint and thyme oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sönmez, Adem Yavuz; Bilen, Soner; Alak, Gonca; Hisar, Olcay; Yanık, Talat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated effects of dietary supplementation of sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spicata) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oils on growth performance, lipid peroxidation level (melondialdehyde, MDA) and liver antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, G6PD; glutathione reductase, GR; glutathione-S-transferase, GST and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles. For this purpose, triplicate groups of rainbow trout were fed daily ad libitum with diets containing sage, mint and thyme oils at 500, 1,000 and 1,500 mg kg(-1) for 60 days. While weight gain percentage of fish fed the diets containing sage and thyme oils was significantly higher than the control group, that of fish fed mint oil was the lowest. Similarly, specific growth rate was found to be the highest in all groups of the sage and thyme oil feeding and the lowest in the mint groups. Moreover, feed conversion ratio was significantly higher in the mint oil administered groups. Survival rate was also significantly reduced in the fish fed the diet containing mint oil. It was observed that SOD, G6PD and GPx activities were significantly increased in liver tissues of all the treated fish groups compared to that of control diet-fed group. However, CAT, GST and GR activities were significantly decreased in experimental diet-fed fish groups at the end of the experiment. On the other hand, a significant reduction was found in MDA levels in the fish fed the diets with sage and thyme oils compared to control and mint diets on the 30th and 60th days of experiment. Overall, dietary inclusion of sage and thyme oils is effective in enhancing rainbow trout growth, reduction in MDA and least changing antioxidant enzyme activities at a low level of 500 mg kg(-1) diet, and they can be used as important feed supplements for rainbow trout production.

  2. Comparative serological investigation between cat and tiger blood for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Sinthusingha, Chayakrit; Arthitwong, Surapong; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-06-29

    Evidence suggests that non-domesticated felids inherited the same AB-erythrocyte antigens as domestic cats. To study the possible compatibility of tiger blood with that of other endangered felidae, blood samples from captive tigers and domestic cats were subjected to an in vitro study. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify whether the captive tigers had blood type AB and (2) determine the compatibility between the blood of captive tigers and that of domestic cats with a similar blood type. The anti-coagulated blood with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid of 30 tigers was examined to determine blood type, and a crossmatching test was performed between tiger and cat blood. All 30 tigers had blood type A. Tube agglutination tests using tiger plasma with cat erythrocytes resulted in 100% agglutination (n=30) with type B cat erythrocytes and 76.7% agglutination (n=23) with type A cat erythrocytes. The 80% of major and 60% of minor compatibilities between blood from 10 tigers and 10 domestic cats with blood type A were found to pass compatibility tests. Interestingly, 3/10 of the tigers' red blood cell samples were fully compatible with all cat plasmas, and 1/10 of the tiger plasma samples were fully compatible with the type A red cells of domestic cats. Although the result of present findings revealed type-A blood group in the surveyed tigers, the reaction of tiger plasma with Type-A red cell from cats suggested a possibility of other blood type in tigers.

  3. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nils Peterson

    Full Text Available Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs and bird conservation professionals (BCPs across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators. Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  4. Opinions from the Front Lines of Cat Colony Management Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals. PMID:22970269

  5. Opinions from the front lines of cat colony management conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Hartis, Brett; Rodriguez, Shari; Green, Matthew; Lepczyk, Christopher A

    2012-01-01

    Outdoor cats represent a global threat to terrestrial vertebrate conservation, but management has been rife with conflict due to differences in views of the problem and appropriate responses to it. To evaluate these differences we conducted a survey of opinions about outdoor cats and their management with two contrasting stakeholder groups, cat colony caretakers (CCCs) and bird conservation professionals (BCPs) across the United States. Group opinions were polarized, for both normative statements (CCCs supported treating feral cats as protected wildlife and using trap neuter and release [TNR] and BCPs supported treating feral cats as pests and using euthanasia) and empirical statements. Opinions also were related to gender, age, and education, with females and older respondents being less likely than their counterparts to support treating feral cats as pests, and females being less likely than males to support euthanasia. Most CCCs held false beliefs about the impacts of feral cats on wildlife and the impacts of TNR (e.g., 9% believed feral cats harmed bird populations, 70% believed TNR eliminates cat colonies, and 18% disagreed with the statement that feral cats filled the role of native predators). Only 6% of CCCs believed feral cats carried diseases. To the extent the beliefs held by CCCs are rooted in lack of knowledge and mistrust, rather than denial of directly observable phenomenon, the conservation community can manage these conflicts more productively by bringing CCCs into the process of defining data collection methods, defining study/management locations, and identifying common goals related to caring for animals.

  6. Hypoglycemia associated with refeeding syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAvilla, Marisa D; Leech, Elizabeth B

    2016-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and biochemical abnormalities occurring during the successful treatment of refeeding syndrome in a cat. A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat presented after having been missing for 12 weeks. The cat had clinical signs of severe starvation. Common complications developed during refeeding (eg, hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, and hemolytic anemia). The cat also developed hypoglycemia, a complication common in people but not previously reported in a cat. Hypoglycemia and electrolyte deficiencies were managed with intravenous supplementation. The cat was successfully treated and was discharged alive 7 days after presentation. Hypoglycemia has not been reported previously as a complication of refeeding in a cat. Frequent monitoring of electrolyte, mineral, and blood glucose concentrations is essential to successful management of refeeding syndrome. The ideal refeeding strategy is unknown at this time. Evidence suggests that a diet low in carbohydrate decreases the likelihood of metabolic derangements commonly associated with refeeding. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  7. Occupancy of the Invasive Feral Cat Varies with Habitat Complexity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hohnen

    Full Text Available The domestic cat (Felis catus is an invasive exotic in many locations around the world and is thought to be a key factor driving recent mammal declines across northern Australia. Many mammal species native to this region now persist only in areas with high topographic complexity, provided by features such as gorges or escarpments. Do mammals persist in these habitats because cats occupy them less, or despite high cat occupancy? We show that occupancy of feral cats was lower in mammal-rich habitats of high topographic complexity. These results support the idea that predation pressure by feral cats is a factor contributing to the collapse of mammal communities across northern Australia. Managing impacts of feral cats is a global conservation challenge. Conservation actions such as choosing sites for small mammal reintroductions may be more successful if variation in cat occupancy with landscape features is taken into account.

  8. MRI of secondary cervical syringomyelia in four cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Midori; Itou, Takuya; Sakai, Takeo; Kitagawa, Masato; Ito, Daisuke; Kanayama, Kiichi

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose cervical syringomyelia in 4 cats. MRI revealed enlargement of the lateral ventricle in all the cats. Of the 4 cases, MRI revealed herniation of the cerebellum in 3 cats, an isolated fourth ventricle in 1 cat, severe hydrocephalus in 2 cats and brain masses in 1 cat. In this report, the cervical syringomyelia in these cats may have been due to formation of a secondary syrinx (enlargement of the central canal) as a result of blockage of flow in the outlet of the fourth ventricle caused by feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) encephalomyelitis or secondary cerebellar tonsillar herniation caused by increased intracranial pressure due to intracranial masses or may have been due to caudal compression of the cerebellum caused by increased intracranial pressure due to hydrocephalus. (author)

  9. Oral microbial profile discriminates breast-fed from formula-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgerson, Pernilla L; Vestman, Nelly R; Claesson, Rolf; Ohman, Carina; Domellöf, Magnus; Tanner, Anne C R; Hernell, Olle; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the effect of diet on the oral microbiota of infants, although diet is known to affect the gut microbiota. The aims of the present study were to compare the oral microbiota in breast-fed and formula-fed infants, and investigate growth inhibition of streptococci by infant-isolated lactobacilli. A total of 207 mothers consented to participation of their 3-month-old infants. A total of 146 (70.5%) infants were exclusively and 38 (18.4%) partially breast-fed, and 23 (11.1%) were exclusively formula-fed. Saliva from all of their infants was cultured for Lactobacillus species, with isolate identifications from 21 infants. Lactobacillus isolates were tested for their ability to suppress Streptococcus mutans and S sanguinis. Oral swabs from 73 infants were analysed by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) and by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Lactobacillus gasseri. Lactobacilli were cultured from 27.8% of exclusively and partially breast-fed infants, but not from formula-fed infants. The prevalence of 14 HOMIM-detected taxa, and total salivary lactobacilli counts differed by feeding method. Multivariate modelling of HOMIM-detected bacteria and possible confounders clustered samples from breast-fed infants separately from formula-fed infants. The microbiota of breast-fed infants differed based on vaginal or C-section delivery. Isolates of L plantarum, L gasseri, and L vaginalis inhibited growth of the cariogenic S mutans and the commensal S sanguinis: L plantarum >L gasseri >L vaginalis. The microbiota of the mouth differs between 3-month-old breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Possible mechanisms for microbial differences observed include species suppression by lactobacilli indigenous to breast milk.

  10. Tokamak-FED plasma-engineering assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Lyon, J.F.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1981-01-01

    A wide range of plasma assumptions and scenarios has been examined for the current US tokamak FED concept, which aims to provide a controlled, long pulse (approx. 100 s) burning plasma with an energy amplification of greater than or equal to 5, a fusion power of 180 MW, and a neutron wall load of greater than or equal to 0.4 MW/m 2 . The results of the assessment suggest that the current FED baseline parameters of R = 5.0 m, B/sub t/ = 3.6 T, a = 1.3 m, b = 2.1 m (D-shape), and I/sub p/ = 5.4 MA are appropriate in reaching the above plasma performance, despite uncertainties in several plasma physics areas, such as confinement scaling, achievable beta, impurity control, etc. To enhance the probability of achieving fusion ignition and to provide some margin against a short fall in our physics projections in FED, a limited operating capability at B/sub t/ = 4.6 T and I/sub p/ = 6.5 MA is incorporated. Various other options and remedies have also been assessed aiming to alleviate the impact of the uncertainties on the FED design concept. These approaches appear promising because they can be studied within the current fusion physics program and may lead to drastically more cost-effective FED concepts

  11. Drought controls on H2O2 accumulation, catalase (CAT) activity and CAT gene expression in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Celina M; Pastori, Gabriela M; Driscoll, Simon; Groten, Karin; Bernard, Stephanie; Foyer, Christine H

    2005-01-01

    Plants co-ordinate information derived from many diverse external and internal signals to ensure appropriate control of gene expression under optimal and stress conditions. In this work, the relationships between catalase (CAT) and H2O2 during drought in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are studied. Drought-induced H2O2 accumulation correlated with decreases in soil water content and CO2 assimilation. Leaf H2O2 content increased even though total CAT activity doubled under severe drought conditions. Diurnal regulation of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNA abundance was apparent in all conditions and day/night CAT1 and CAT2 expression patterns were modified by mild and severe drought. The abundance of CAT1 transcripts was regulated by circadian controls that persisted in continuous darkness, while CAT2 was modulated by light. Drought decreased abundance, and modified the pattern, of CAT1 and CAT2 mRNAs. It was concluded that the complex regulation of CAT mRNA, particularly at the level of translation, allows precise control of leaf H2O2 accumulation.

  12. A comparison of cat-related risk perceptions and tolerance for outdoor cats in Florida and Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Dara M; Lohr, Cheryl A; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Jacobson, Susan K; Cox, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Risk perceptions and attitudes toward animals often explain tolerance for wildlife and management preferences. However, little is understood about how these relationships vary across different geographic regions and stakeholder groups. To address this gap in knowledge, we compared differences in acceptance capacity, risk perceptions, perceived enjoyment from outdoor cats, and experiences with outdoor cats among 3 groups (general public, conservation community, and animal-welfare community) in Hawaii and Florida, two states with large conservation challenges. We combined independently collected data from Florida and Hawaii, to determine how perception of the risks presented by outdoor cats, group membership, and state of residence influenced people's tolerance for outdoor cats. Florida respondents were significantly more tolerant of outdoor cats and less concerned about cat-related risks than Hawaii respondents (p cats and perceived a smaller increase in the cat population and lower levels of risk than other groups (p cat population. Our results suggest public tolerance for cats varied due to the influence of local or geographical concerns, but that strongly held beliefs, risk perceptions, and feelings about cats explained more of the variance in stakeholder tolerance. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. FED-R2: concept and magnet design of a low-cost FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Blackfield, D.; Bobrov, E.; Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Diatchenko, N.; LeClaire, R.

    1982-12-01

    High performance resistive magnet technology was used to develop a design for a compact, low cost version of the fusion engineering device FED. We refer to this design as FED-R2, for FED-resistive magnet design 2 to distinguish it from the larger resistive magnet design for FED which uses demountable coils (FED-R1). The main objectives of FED-R2 are: (1) to demonstrate reliable, quasi-steady state (long pulse, high duty factor) operation with Q/sub p/ approx. 5; (2) to demonstrate Q/sub p/ > 5 operation for a limited number of pulses; (3) to provide high neutron flux for irradiation of nuclear test modules with a total area greater tha 20m 2 ; (4) to utilize steady-state RF current drive if this option appears promising. Based upon the costing codes at the Fusion Engineering Design Center and upon TFTR costs, the estimated direct costs of FED-R2 would be on the range 380 to 460M, a factor of about 2 below that of the baseline FED design

  14. Lipid composition of hepatic and adipose tissues from normal cats and from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J A; Barstad, L A; Connor, W E

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the lipid classes in hepatic and adipose tissues from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis (IHL). Concentrations of triglyceride, phospholipid phosphorus, and free and total cholesterol were determined in lipid extracts of liver homogenates from 5 cats with IHL and 5 healthy control cats. Total fatty acid composition of liver and adipose tissue was also compared. Triglyceride accounted for 34% of liver by weight in cats with IHL (338 +/- 38 mg/g wet liver) versus 1% in control cats (9.9 +/- 1.0 mg/g wet liver, P hepatic tissue in the 2 groups differed; palmitate was higher (19.5 +/- 1.1% of total fatty acids in cats with IHL versus 9.2 +/- 2.7% in controls, P hepatic triglyceride in cats with IHL is the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue.

  15. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ''catalog'' of various monochromator designs

  16. Rectal duplication cyst in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kook, Peter H; Hagen, Regine; Willi, Barbara; Ruetten, Maja; Venzin, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    Enteric duplication is a rare developmental malformation in people, dogs and cats. The purpose of the present report is to describe the first case of a rectal duplication cyst in a 7-year-old domestic shorthair cat presenting for acute constipation and tenesmus. On rectal palpation a spherical mass compressing the lumen of the rectum could be felt in the dorsal wall of the rectum. A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed the presence of a well demarcated cystic lesion in the pelvic canal, dorsal to the rectum. The cyst was surgically removed via a perineal approach. No communication with the rectal lumen could be demonstrated. Histopathological examination was consistent with a rectal duplication cyst. Clinical signs resolved completely after excision of this conjoined non-communicating cystic rectal duplicate. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CT studies of brain abscesses in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, K.; Wallenfang, T.; Bohl, J.

    1981-01-01

    Cerebral abscesses were produced in 56 cats by introducing staphylococcus aureus into the white matter of one cerebral hemisphere, using a stereotaxic apparatus. The cats were treated with antibiotics and/or steroids. The size and density of the inflammatory process and the abscess ring were measured on postcontrast CT scans. Differences were found depending on the stage of the abscess, but the deviation of values was too great for determining the age of the abscess from one measurement, to be able to apply proper treatment. The size and density of the abscesses were the same on CT whether the animals were treated or not. This was contrary to the clinical picture, the measurements of edema, and the histopathological studies. (orig.)

  18. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.

    1986-11-01

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ 0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  19. 1993 CAT workshop on beamline optical designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    An Advanced Photon Source (APS) Collaborative Access Team (CAT) Workshop on Beamline Optical Designs was held at Argonne National Laboratory on July 26--27, 1993. The goal of this workshop was to bring together experts from various synchrotron sources to provide status reports on crystal, reflecting, and polarizing optics as a baseline for discussions of issues facing optical designers for CAT beamlines at the APS. Speakers from the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), the University of Chicago, the National Synchrotron Light Source, and the University of Manchester (England) described single- and double-crystal monochromators, mirrors, glass capillaries, and polarizing optics. Following these presentations, the 90 participants divided into three working groups: Crystal Optics Design, Reflecting Optics, and Optics for Polarization Studies. This volume contains copies of the presentation materials from all speakers, summaries of the three working groups, and a ``catalog`` of various monochromator designs.

  20. Las catástrofes naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Capacci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante los últimos cuarenta años, la cantidad de víctimas por catástrofes naturales se ha quintuplicado en el mundo. El aumento incontrolado de la población, especialmente de la urbana, así como la situación socioeconómica, medioambiental y política de algunas regiones, son las principales causas de esta situación. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar una idea de las principales cuestiones (teóricas, tipológicas, dimensionales y de costos ligadas a dichas catástrofes, las cuales pueden estimular reflexiones, desde consideraciones de tipo teórico hasta aquellas más prácticas y operativas.

  1. The contribution of cat owners' attitudes and behaviours to the free-roaming cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Hilit; Terkel, Joseph

    2012-04-01

    The attitudes and behaviours of cat owners in regard to treatment of cats may have a cumulative effect on the food availability, reproduction, density and welfare of the free-roaming cat population and thus also on the extent of cat overpopulation. Understanding this is thus a vital step in the a priori planning of cat management programs on any scale, as well as in developing public education programs on this issue. Although recent years have seen an accumulation of knowledge in regard to cat owners' attitudes and behaviours, the findings vary among countries and locations and in Israel this has never been investigated systematically. Using a questionnaire provided to cat owners in veterinary clinics, this study aimed at identifying those attitudes and behaviours that may be contributing to cat overpopulation in Tel Aviv, Israel, and at exploring the socio-economic factors that influence this problem. The findings show that the influential factors can be predicted from the cat owners' socio-economic status, mainly education and income, as well as gender and age. A consistency in those cat owner behaviours that contribute to cat overpopulation was also uncovered, revealing a sub-population of individuals who persist in the undesirable behaviours. Finally, a strong relationship between attitude and consequent behaviour was demonstrated, indicating the importance of education and targeted publicity as a means to influence attitudes and thereby change behaviours in this respect. We propose several measures by which to reduce the current extent of cat owners' contribution to the cat overpopulation: discouraging unwanted owner behaviours such as abandonment of their cats and allowing them to breed; promoting awareness of the neutering option among cat caretakers; and increasing pre-adoption neutering rates in shelters. Regional and national laws promoting responsible pet ownership need to be enacted. By improving the current level of knowledge and awareness among cat

  2. Proceedings of FED remote maintenance equipment workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, P.; Garin, J.; Hager, E.R.; Spampinato, P.T.; Tobias, D.; Young, N.

    1981-11-01

    A workshop was convened in two sessions in January and March 1981, on the remote maintenance equipment for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). The objectives of the first session were to familiarize the participants with the status of the design of the FED and to develop a remote maintenance equipment list for the FED. The objective of the second session was to have the participants present design concepts for the equipment which had been identified in the first session. The equipment list was developed for general purpose and special purpose equipment. The general purpose equipment was categorized as manipulators and other, while the special purpose equipment was subdivided according to the reactor subsystem it serviced: electrical, magnetic, and nuclear. Both mobile and fixed base manipulators were identified. Handling machines were identified as the major requirement for special purpose equipment

  3. Tritium transport and control in the FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    The tritium systems for the FED have three primary purposes. The first is to provide tritium and deuterium fuel for the reactor. This fuel can be new tritium or deuterium delivered to the plant site, or recycled DT from the reactor that must be processed before it can be recycled. The second purpose of the FED tritium systems is to provide state-of-the-art tritium handling to limit worker radiation exposure and to minimize tritium losses to the environment. The final major objective of the FED tritium systems is to provide an integrated system test of the tritium handling technology necessary to support the fusion reactor program. Every effort is being made to incorporate available information from the Tritium System Test Assembly (TSTA) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) tritium systems, and the tritium handling information generated within DOE for the past 20 years

  4. Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    of reciprocity occurs frequently under the following three conditions: (i) “dependency” (due to a lack of alternative choice in the labour market ...Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway SUMMARY This is a brief review of the Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS) (Ursin and Eriksen 2004), which offers...of Bergen Krinkelkroken 1 P.O. Box, N 5020 Bergen Norway 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  5. Chlamydiosis in a fishing cat (Felis viverrina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kik, M J; van der Hage, M H; Greydanus-van der Putten, S W

    1997-06-01

    A fishing cat (Felis viverrina) died overnight, within 12 hr of peracute onset of depression, slight tremors, pallor, and icterus. Necropsy showed widespread hemorrhage and hematomata in the heart, stomach, and kidneys. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous. The liver was swollen and yellowish green. The spleen was very large and hyperemic. Histologic changes consisted of pneumonia, hepatic necrosis, and renal hemorrhage with glomerular fibrin clots. Chlamydia antigen was detected in liver and kidney using a direct immunofluorescence assay, and Chlamydia were cultured.

  6. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna S. Nagel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days’ duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C, had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  7. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis in an immunocompetent cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Susanna S; Williams, June H; Schoeman, Johannes P

    2013-02-14

    A 10-year-old domestic short hair cat was referred for investigation of anorexia and polydipsia of 3 days' duration. Clinically the cat was obese, pyrexic (39.8 °C), had acute abdominal pain and severe bilirubinuria. Haematology and serum biochemistry revealed severe panleukopenia, thrombocytopenia, markedly elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and five-fold increased pre-prandial bile acids. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the abdomen did not identify any abnormalities. Serum tests for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) were negative. Broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment for infectious hepatitis was to no avail; the cat deteriorated and died 72 h after admission. Necropsy revealed mild icterus and anaemia, severe multifocal hepatic necrosis, serofibrinous hydrothorax, pulmonary oedema and interstitial pneumonia. Histopathology confirmed the macroscopic findings and revealed multifocal microgranulomata in the brain and myocardium, as well as areas of necrosis in lymph nodes and multifocally in splenic red pulp. Long bone shaft marrow was hyperplastic with a predominance of leukocyte precursors and megakaryocytes and splenic red pulp showed mild extramedullary haemopoiesis. Immunohistochemical staining for Toxoplasma gondii was strongly positive, with scattered cysts and tachyzoites in the liver, lymph nodes, spleen, lungs, brain, salivary glands and intracellularly in round cells in occasional blood vessels. Immunohistochemical staining for corona virus on the same tissues was negative, ruling out feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues was positive for Toxoplasma sp., but attempts at sequencing were unsuccessful. This was the first case report of fulminant disseminated toxoplasmosis in South Africa, in which detailed histopathology in an apparently immunocompetent cat was described.

  8. Cefazolin pharmacokinetics in cats under surgical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarellos, Gabriela A; Montoya, Laura; Passini, Sabrina M; Lupi, Martín P; Lorenzini, Paula M; Landoni, María F

    2017-10-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the plasma pharmacokinetic profile, tissue concentrations and urine elimination of cefazolin in cats under surgical conditions after a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg. Methods Intravenous cefazolin (20 mg/kg) was administered to nine young mixed-breed cats 30 mins before they underwent surgical procedures (ovariectomy or orchiectomy). After antibiotic administration, samples from blood, some tissues and urine were taken. Cefazolin concentrations were determined in all biological matrices and pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Results Initial plasma concentrations were high (C p(0) , 134.80 ± 40.54 µg/ml), with fast and moderately wide distribution (distribution half-life [t ½(d) ] 0.16 ± 0.15 h; volume of distribution at steady state [V (d[ss]) ] 0.29 ± 0.10 l/kg) and rapid elimination (body clearance [Cl B ], 0.21 ± 0.06 l/h/kg; elimination half-life [t ½ ], 1.18 ± 0.27 h; mean residence time 1.42 ± 0.36 h). Thirty to 60 mins after intravenous administration, cefazolin tissue concentrations ranged from 9.24 µg/ml (subcutaneous tissue) to 26.44 µg/ml (ovary). The tissue/plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.18 (muscle) to 0.58 (ovary). Cefazolin urine concentrations were high with 84.2% of the administered dose being eliminated in the first 6 h postadministration. Conclusions and relevance Cefazolin plasma concentrations remained above a minimum inhibitory concentration of ⩽2 µg/ml up to 4 h in all the studied cats. This suggests that a single intravenous dose of 20 mg/kg cefazolin would be adequate for perioperative prophylactic use in cats.

  9. Endocrine emergencies in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amie

    2013-07-01

    Success in treatment of endocrine emergencies is contingent on early recognition and treatment. Many endocrine diseases presenting emergently have nonspecific signs and symptoms. In addition, these endocrine crises are often precipitated by concurrent disease, further making early identification difficult. This article concentrates on recognition and emergency management of the most common endocrine crises in dogs and cats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mycobacterial panniculitis caused by in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Vishkautsan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for chronic, bilateral, ulcerative dermatitis affecting the inguinal region and lateral aspects of both pelvic limbs. Histopathologic examination of skin biopsies collected throughout the course of disease revealed chronic pyogranulomatous ulcerative dermatitis. Aerobic bacterial skin cultures yielded growth of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium amycolatum . Upon referral the clinical findings were suggestive of a non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species infection. Previously obtained skin cultures failed to yield growth of mycobacterial organisms. A deep skin biopsy was collected and submitted for mycobacterial culture. At 5 weeks of incubation Mycobacterium thermoresistibile was isolated. In previous reports, M thermoresistibile has been isolated after 2–4 days of incubation, suggesting that this strain may have been a slower growing variant, or other factors (such as prior antimicrobial therapy inhibited rapid growth of this isolate. The cat was hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement of wounds, vacuum-assisted wound closure therapy and reconstruction procedures. The wounds were ultimately primarily closed and the cat was discharged to the owner after 50 days of hospitalization. Seven months after hospitalization, the ulcerative skin lesions had healed. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, only two cases of M thermoresistibile panniculitis have been reported in cats. In the only detailed report of feline M thermoresistibile panniculitis, treatment was not attempted. The second case only reported detection of M thermoresistibile by PCR without a clinical description of the case. In our case report, severe chronic skin infection with M thermoresistibile was addressed using prolonged specific antibiotic therapy, surgical debridement and reconstructions, and treatment of secondary bacterial infections.

  11. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  12. Sudden behavior change in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old, spayed female, domestic short-haired cat had a 10-day history of sudden behavioral changes followed by seizures. Blood parameters were in the reference ranges, and radiographs failed to detect a mass lesion in the brain. Euthanasia was followed by rabies testing, which was negative. Gross lesions were absent. Histologic changes were present only in the brain and consisted of foci of hippocampal pyramidal cell loss, mild gliosis, pallor of the associated neuropil, and neovascularization.

  13. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Hazel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4; and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. For cat owners: they had originally got the cat on Gumtree (n = 2; they use Gumtree for other things, and it works (n = 2, and; they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2. The data collected will be valuable for implementation of policy and interventions to protect the welfare of unwanted dogs and cats.

  14. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Peter B S; Yurchenko, Andrey A; David, Victor A; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O'Brien, Stephen J; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-03-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Population Origins and Expansion of Feral Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Andrey A.; David, Victor A.; Scott, Rachael; Koepfli, Klaus-Peter; Driscoll, Carlos; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    The historical literature suggests that in Australia, the domestic cat (Felis catus) had a European origin [~200 years before present (ybp)], but it is unclear if cats arrived from across the Asian land bridge contemporaneously with the dingo (4000 ybp), or perhaps immigrated ~40000 ybp in association with Aboriginal settlement from Asia. The origin of cats in Australia is important because the continent has a complex and ancient faunal assemblage that is dominated by endemic rodents and marsupials and lacks the large placental carnivores found on other large continents. Cats are now ubiquitous across the entire Australian continent and have been implicit in the range contraction or extinction of its small to medium sized (cats using 15 short tandem repeat (STR) genomic markers. Their origin appears to come exclusively from European founders. Feral cats in continental Australia exhibit high genetic diversity in comparison with the low diversity found in populations of feral cats living on islands. The genetic structure is consistent with a rapid westerly expansion from eastern Australia and a limited expansion in coastal Western Australia. Australian cats show modest if any population structure and a close genetic alignment with European feral cats as compared to cats from Asia, the Christmas and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Indian Ocean), and European wildcats (F. silvestris silvestris). PMID:26647063

  16. Topical flurbiprofen toxicosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Elizabeth M; Leech, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    To describe the clinical presentation and treatment of a cat with flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure. A 3-year-old castrated male domestic shorthair cat presented to an emergency and referral center for acute lethargy, hematemesis, and anemia. Severe azotemia was observed on serum biochemistry panel. The patient's anemia was treated with packed RBC transfusion, and treatment with crystalloid fluids, famotidine, pantoprazole, ampicillin, and sucralfate were begun on presentation. Anemia became intractable and the patient received multiple packed RBC and whole blood transfusions. Severe gastric ulcerations and duodenal perforation were confirmed via gastroduodenoscopy, and the patient was treated with surgical excision and repair of duodenal perforation. Azotemia resolved with IV fluid therapy, and anemia resolved following surgery. The patient recovered and was discharged after 9 days of hospitalization. The patient had likely been exposed to the owner's compounded pain relief cream containing 10% flurbiprofen. There was confirmation of flurbiprofen exposure via acid extraction urine analysis at a university toxicology laboratory. This is the first described case of flurbiprofen toxicosis due to topical cream exposure in a cat. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  17. Status of FED/INTOR electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.G.

    1983-02-01

    This report provides a summary of the electromagnetic studies, calculations, and conclusions in the evolution of the base design of FED/INTOR (Fusion Engineering Device/International Tokamak Reactor). The electromagnetic feastures include the startup, control, disruptions, and design of structures. This report provides information concerning the evolution of the electromagnetic studies on FED and the justification for the eddy current design feature. The report shows that a major design feature required is the provision of a low induction and resistive path for toroidal currents to flow in the structures in order to provide self-stabilization and to manage the disruption energy dissipation

  18. Development of the cat-owner relationship scale (CORS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Bowen, Jonathan; Fatjó, Jaume; Calvo, Paula; Holloway, Anna; Bennett, Pauleen C

    2017-08-01

    Characteristics of the human-animal bond can be influenced by both owner-related and pet-related factors, which likely differ between species. Three studies adapted the Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) to permit assessment of human-cat interactions as perceived by the cat's owner. In Study 1293 female cat owners completed a modified version of the MDORS, where 'dog' was replaced with 'cat' for all items. Responses were compared with a matched sample of female dog owners. A partial least squares discriminant analysis revealed systematic differences between cat and dog owners in the Dog (Cat)-Owner Interaction subscale (MDORS subscale 1), but not for Perceived Emotional Closeness or Perceived Costs (Subscales 2 and 3). Study 2 involved analysis of free-text descriptions of cat-owner interactions provided by 61 female cat owners. Text mining identified key words which were used to create additional questions for a new Cat-Owner Interaction subscale. In Study 3, the resulting cat-owner relationship scale (CORS) was tested in a group of 570 cat owners. The main psychometric properties of the scale, including internal consistency and factor structure, were evaluated. We propose that this scale can be used to accurately assess owner perceptions of their relationship with their cat. A modified scale, combining items from the CORS and MDORS (a C/DORS), is also provided for when researchers would find it desirable to compare human-cat and human-dog interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Paterson, Mandy; Vankan, Dianne; Morton, John; Bennett, Pauleen; Phillips, Clive

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Commonly, more adult cats than kittens are euthanized in animal shelters. We surveyed 382 cat adopters to assess adoption outcomes and potential determinants of adopters’ choice of cat age group and price. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and responsible ownership requirements. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive in all age and adoption price groups. This study provides evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. Abstract The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten) and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for

  20. A descriptive pilot study of cytokine production following stimulation of ex-vivo whole blood with commercial therapeutic feline hydrolyzed diets in individual healthy immunotolerant cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, Aarti; Larsen, Jennifer A; Cortopassi, Gino; Datta, Sandipan; Fascetti, Andrea J

    2017-10-06

    Hydrolyzed diets are used in companion animals for the diagnosis and treatment of adverse food reaction. Similarly, hydrolyzed formulas are used in human infants with severe inflammatory bowel disease or milk allergy, and these must meet the standard of hypoallergenicity through rigorous testing. Unfortunately, no standards are currently applied to hydrolyzed veterinary therapeutic diets, and data for the immunogenicity of feline diets is also not available. Therefore, the main aim of this pilot study was to determine if ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays could be used to characterize the cytokine response to hydrolyzed commercial diets in a small number of individual healthy immunotolerant cats. This approach has also been used to investigate cytokine production in response to cow milk protein in humans and currently similar studies do not exist in companion animals. Nine healthy cats previously eating the same basal diet were divided into groups and fed one of three hydrolyzed diets exclusively for 6 weeks. Heparinized whole blood was collected from each cat before and after the feeding trial. Ex-vivo whole blood stimulation assays were performed using crude extracts of the basal diet as a positive control, as this diet contained the same proteins present in the hydrolyzed diet but were intact, saline as a negative control, and each cat's respective hydrolyzed diet. Supernatants were collected and analyzed for tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and interleukin-4 using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay. Seven cats produced detectable amounts of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 upon stimulation with the basal diet. Two cats produced detectable amounts of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed soy-based diet and one cat produced a detectable amount of IL-10 upon stimulation with a hydrolyzed chicken-based diet (>125 pg/mL). Results from this pilot study suggest that in some healthy immunotolerant cats, some hydrolyzed diets may elicit a

  1. Determinants of Cat Choice and Outcomes for Adult Cats and Kittens Adopted from an Australian Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zito

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of adult cats euthanized in animal shelters is greater than that of kittens because adult cats are less likely to be adopted. This study aimed to provide evidence to inform the design of strategies to encourage adult cat adoptions. One such strategy is to discount adoption prices, but there are concerns that this may result in poor adoption outcomes. We surveyed 382 cat adopters at the time of adoption, to assess potential determinants of adopters’ cat age group choice (adult or kitten and, for adult cat adopters, the price they are willing to pay. The same respondents were surveyed again 6–12 months after the adoption to compare outcomes between cat age groups and between adult cats in two price categories. Most adopters had benevolent motivations for adopting from the shelter and had put considerable thought into the adoption and requirements for responsible ownership. However, adult cat adopters were more likely to have been influenced by price than kitten adopters. Adoption outcomes were generally positive for both adult cats and kittens and for adult cats adopted at low prices. The latter finding alleviates concerns about the outcomes of “low-cost” adoptions in populations, such as the study population, and lends support for the use of “low-cost” adoptions as an option for attempting to increase adoption rates. In addition, the results provide information that can be used to inform future campaigns aimed at increasing the number of adult cat adoptions, particularly in devising marketing strategies for adult cats.

  2. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  3. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  4. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-03-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean /sup 51/Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma /sup 59/Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished.

  5. Ferrokinetic and erythrocyte survival studies in healthy and anemic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madewell, B.R.; Holmes, P.H.; Onions, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    Erythrocyte survival and ferrokinetic studies were adapted to the cat. For 5 clinically healthy 4- to 9-month-old cats, mean 51 Cr-labeled erythrocyte survival was 144 hours, and mean plasma 59 Fe-labeled transferrin disappearance halftime was 51 minutes. Erythrocyte use of radioiron was rapid and efficient, with 50% to 80% of labeled iron incorporated into the erythron by 100 hours after injection into the cat. Six cats with feline leukemia virus infection were studied. For 2 cats with erythroid aplasia associated with C subgroup of feline leukemia virus, erythrocyte survival times were similar to those determined for the healthy cats, but plasma radioiron disappearance half time and erythrocyte use of radioiron were markedly diminished

  6. Multiple endocrine diseases in cats: 15 cases (1997-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Dickie, Erica L; Kruth, Stephen A; Allen, Dana G

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to characterize a population of cats from a tertiary care center diagnosed with multiple endocrine disorders, including the specific disorders and time intervals between diagnosis of each disorder. Medical records of 15 cats diagnosed with more than one endocrine disorder were reviewed. The majority of cats were domestic shorthairs, and the mean age at the time of diagnosis of the first disorder was 10.3 years. The most common combination of disorders was diabetes mellitus and hyperthyroidism. Two cats had concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperadrenocorticism, one cat had concurrent central diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. A mean of 25.7 months elapsed between diagnoses of the first and second endocrine disorder, but this was variable. This study suggests the occurrence of multiple endocrine disorders is uncommon in cats. Copyright 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrastructural myocardial changes in seven cats with spontaneous hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Hyttel, Poul

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heart disease in cats and shares clinical and pathological characteristics with human HCM. Little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying development of spontaneous feline HCM. ANIMALS: The study population consisted...... of seven cats diagnosed with HCM and eight age-matched cats with no evidence of cardiac disease. METHODS: Fresh myocardial biopsies taken from the middle of the left ventricular posterior free wall were obtained and examined with transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS: Electron microscopic examination...... showed ultrastructural aberrations of the myocardial cytoarchitecture and of the interstitium in the seven cats with HCM. In the most severely affected cats the myofibrils were disorganized and subsarcolemmal mitochondria were depleted. In control cats, contraction band artifacts were commonly seen...

  8. Crossed fused renal ectopia in a Persian cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hyuk Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case summary This report describes a rare case of crossed fused renal ectopia (CFRE in a cat. A mature intact male Persian cat presented with bloody nasal discharge and ascites. Diagnostic studies revealed an ectopic left kidney fused with an orthotopic right kidney and a concurrent feline infectious peritonitis (FIP infection. The FIP was responsible for clinical signs in this cat, while clinical signs associated with CFRE were not obvious. Despite receiving intensive treatment, the cat died. A post-mortem examination was not performed because the owners declined approval. Relevance and novel information To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of L-shaped CFRE in a cat. In addition, this report describes the CT features of L-shaped CFRE in a cat.

  9. Optimization of a bundle divertor for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Rothe, K.E.; Minkoff, M.

    1982-01-01

    Optimal double-T bundle divertor configurations have been obtained for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED). On-axis ripple is minimized, while satisfying a series of engineering constraints. The ensuing non-linear optimization problem is solved via a sequence of quadratic programming subproblems, using the VMCON algorithm. The resulting divertor designs are substantially improved over previous configurations

  10. FUZZY SLIDING MODE CONTROLLER FOR DOUBLY FED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-31

    Dec 31, 2010 ... against internal and external perturbations, but the FSMC is superior to ... controller, doubly fed induction motor, fuzzy logic control. 1. ... capabilities in accounting for modeling imprecision and bounded disturbances. It ..... To show the effect of the parameters uncertainties, we have simulated the system with.

  11. FED, Geometry Input Generator for Program TRUMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, D.A.; Elrod, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: FED reduces the effort required to obtain the necessary geometric input for problems which are to be solved using the heat-transfer code, TRUMP (NESC 771). TRUMP calculates transient and steady-state temperature distributions in multidimensional systems. FED can properly zone any body of revolution in one, or three dimensions. 2 - Method of solution: The region of interest must first be divided into areas which may consist of a common material. The boundaries of these areas are the required FED input. Each area is subdivided into volume nodes, and the geometrical properties are calculated. Finally, FED connects the adjacent nodes to one another, using the proper surface area, interface distance, and, if specified, radiation form factor and interface conductance. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Rectangular bodies can only be approximated by using a very large radius of revolution compared to the total radial thickness and by considering only a small angular segment in the circumferential direction

  12. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Mejer, H.; Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman

    2015-01-01

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n = 92) and household cats with outdoor access (n = 7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region...

  13. Human bubonic plague transmitted by a domestic cat scratch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, B G; Warren, A J; Forseth, V; Shipps, G W; Creelman, T; Gorton, J; Barnes, A M

    1984-02-17

    Bubonic plague was transmitted to a 10-year-old girl in Oregon by a scratch wound inflicted by a domestic cat. The cat probably was infected by contact with infected wild rodents or their fleas. Yersinia pestis was identified in Diamanus montanus fleas collected from an abandoned burrow near the patient's home. Domestic cats may infect humans with Y pestis by inoculation from a scratch.

  14. Guidelines for vaccination of dogs and cats in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Tae; Yoo, Han-Sang; Youn, Hwa-Young

    2014-01-01

    This guideline contains the recommended vaccination schedules of dogs and cats from World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) and American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA). In 2010, WSAVA published guidelines for the vaccination of dogs and cats. And, in 2011, AAHA also published guidelines for vaccination of dogs. In Korea, there is no published guideline for vaccination of dogs and cats yet. Therefore, the plane of vaccination also reports the present situation of vaccination sche...

  15. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Lynette A.; Thigpen, Abigail P.; Willits, Neil H.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hart, Benjamin L.

    2018-01-01

    Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64). In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16) or less severe ASD (n = 11), or typical development (n = 17). From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities), affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children. PMID:29594156

  16. Resistive index for kidney evaluation in normal and diseased cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipisca, Vlad; Murino, Carla; Cortese, Laura; Mennonna, Giuseppina; Auletta, Luigi; Vulpe, Vasile; Meomartino, Leonardo

    2016-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the resistive index (RI) in normal cats and in cats with various renal diseases, and to evaluate the effect of age on RI. The subjects were cats that had ultrasonography (US) of the urinary tract and RI measurement at our centre between January 2003 and April 2014. Based on clinical evaluation, biochemical and haematological tests, urinalysis and US, the cats were classified as healthy or diseased. RI measurements were made from the interlobar or arcuate arteries. Data were analysed for differences between the right and the left kidney, the two sexes, different age groups in healthy cats, and between healthy and diseased cats. A total of 116 cats (68 males, 48 females) were included: 24 healthy and 92 diseased. In the healthy cats, RI (mean ± SD) differed significantly (P = 0.02) between the right kidney (0.54 ± 0.07) and the left kidney (0.59 ± 0.08). For the left kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.73 ± 0.12) and acute kidney injury (0.72 ± 0.08) (P = 0.0008). For the right kidney, RI was significantly higher in cats with chronic kidney disease (0.72 ± 0.11), acute kidney injury (0.74 ± 0.08), polycystic kidney disease (0.77 ± 0.11) and renal tumour (0.74 ± 0.001) (P cats, useful in the differential diagnosis of diffuse renal diseases. While it does not change with the age of the cat, ultrasonographers should be aware that RI may differ between the two kidneys. © ISFM and AAFP 2015.

  17. Clinical and Some Laboratory Findings in Cats with Toxoplasmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Bastan, Idil

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study wasto draw attention to the clinical course of the disease and some laboratoryfindings in cats diagnosed with Toxoplasmosis.Materials and Methods: Toxoplasma gondiiseropositive 14 cats were used in this study.  A serologicalevaluation was carried out to determine the presence of Toxoplasmagondii specific IgG using commercial diagnostic kits, by theenzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Hematological andclinical changes of those cats were recorded. Results:...

  18. RadCat 2.0 User Guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.; Weiner, Ruth F.; Mills, George Scott; Hamp, Steve C.; O' Donnell, Brandon, M.; Orcutt, David J.; Heames, Terence J.; Hinojosa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 2.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN 5.5 code. The differences between RadCat 2.0 and RadCat 1.0 can be attributed to the differences between RADTRAN 5 and RADTRAN 5.5 as well as clarification for some of the input parameters. 3

  19. Do free-falling quantum cats land on their feet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssomalakos, C; Serrano-Ensástiga, E; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantum description of the mechanism by which a free-falling cat manages to reorient itself and land on its feet, having all along zero angular momentum. Our approach is geometrical, making use of the fiber bundle structure of the cat configuration space. We show how the classical picture can be recovered, but also point out a purely quantum scenario, that ends up with a Schroedinger cat. Finally, we sketch possible applications to molecular, nuclear, and nano-systems. (paper)

  20. Distal renal tubular acidosis and hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S A; Spyridakis, L K; Crowell, W A

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and laboratory evidence of hepatic failure was found in a chronically anorectic cat. Simultaneous blood and urine pH determinations established a diagnosis of distal renal tubular acidosis. The cat did not respond to treatment. Necropsy revealed distal tubular nephrosis and hepatic lipidosis. The finding of distal renal tubular acidosis in a cat with hepatic lipidosis emphasizes the importance of complete evaluation of acid-base disorders in patients.

  1. Renal disease in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, K J; Levy, J K; Edinboro, C H; Vaden, S L; Tompkins, M B

    2012-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cause similar clinical syndromes of immune dysregulation, opportunistic infections, inflammatory diseases, and neoplasia. Renal disease is the 4th most common cause of death associated with HIV infection. To investigate the association between FIV infection and renal disease in cats. Client-owned cats (153 FIV-infected, 306 FIV-noninfected) and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) research colony cats (95 FIV-infected, 98 FIV-noninfected). A mixed retrospective/prospective cross-sectional study. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, urine specific gravity (USG), and urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPC) data were compared between FIV-infected and FIV-noninfected cats. In FIV-infected cats, total CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were measured using flow cytometry, and CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Renal azotemia was defined as a serum creatinine ≥ 1.9 mg/dL with USG ≤ 1.035. Proteinuria was defined as a UPC > 0.4 with an inactive urine sediment. Among the client-owned cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .24); however, a greater proportion of FIV-infected cats were proteinuric (25.0%, 16 of 64 cats) compared to FIV-noninfected cats (10.3%, 20 of 195 cats) (P < .01). Neither neuter status nor health status were risk factors for proteinuria in FIV-infected cats, but UPC was positively correlated with the CD4+:CD8+ T lymphocyte ratio (Spearman's rho = 0.37, P = .01). Among the SPF research colony cats, no association was detected between FIV infection and renal azotemia (P = .21) or proteinuria (P = .25). Proteinuria but not azotemia was associated with natural FIV infection. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Affectionate Interactions of Cats with Children Having Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette A. Hart

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mental and physical benefits of dogs have been reported for adults and children with special needs, but less is known about benefits of cats for children. A cat that can be held by a child could provide important therapeutic companionship for children with severe or less severe autism spectrum disorder (ASD who otherwise may lack prosocial behaviors. Because relatively little is known about the behavior of cats around children, we conducted this study. Phase 1 gathered web-survey data from families having an adult cat and a child with ASD (n = 64. In Phase 2, there were direct telephone interviews of parents having a child with severe ASD (n = 16 or less severe ASD (n = 11, or typical development (n = 17. From the Phase 1 web survey of families with ASD children (full range of severities, affectionate interactions of the cats with children were common. Most parents with ASD children volunteered positive comments regarding the cat, such as calming the child, being a soothing protector or a guardian. In the interviews in Phase 2, for all three groups, most parents characterized cats as at least moderately affectionate toward the child. However, cats living with severe ASD children were reported to exhibit less affection than those living with typically developing children or children with less severe ASD. A minority of cats in each group showed some aggression to the specified child; this was not elevated with ASD children. Responses suggested that the cats adopted as kittens were more affectionate and less aggressive to all categories of children than those adopted as adults. Overall, participants reported that ASD children’s behaviors indicated that they valued the relationship with the cat, similar to typically developing children, pointing to the importance and potential usefulness of selecting affectionate and compatible cats for ASD children.

  3. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  4. Radiographic assessment of laryngeal reflexes in ketamine-anesthetized cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, E.P.; Johnston, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    The competence of the laryngeal closure reflexes of cats anesthetized with ketamine was assessed. Radiographic evaluations of the respiratory and digestive tracts were made after colloidal barium suspension was instilled into the pharynges of conscious and ketamine-anesthetized cats. There was a significant ketamine dose-related response of spread of contrast medium into the supraglottic laryngeal area and into the stomach 2 minutes after contrast medium was instilled into the pharynx (P less than 0.05). Cats did not aspirate contrast medium into the lower respiratory tract. Three ketamine-anesthetized cats aspirated contrast medium into the subglottic area of the larynx, and 2 of these cats also aspirated the material into the cranial part of the trachea. This material was coughed up and swallowed within 5 minutes. Transit time of contrast medium into the stomach seemed to be increased in 11 of the 15 cats given the larger dosages of ketamine (24, 36, 48 mg/kg of body weight), compared with that in conscious cats and those given ketamine at 12 mg/kg. Competent laryngeal protective reflexes in cats can be maintained with ketamine anesthesia. Contrast radiography could be used as a diagnostic aid in ketamine-anesthetized cats suspected of laryngeal reflex abnormalities

  5. Molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in feral cats in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Desai, Atul R; Han, In-Ae; Li, Ying-Hua; Lee, Mi-Jin; Kim, In-Shik; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Mycoplasma haemofelis, 'Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum' exist in Korea. Three hundreds and thirty one feral cats were evaluated by using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA gene sequence. Fourteen cats (4.2%) were positive for M. haemofelis, 34 cats (10.3%) were positive for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 18 cats (5.4%) were positive for both species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were closely (>98%) related to those from other countries. This is the first molecular detection of feline hemoplasmas in Korea.

  6. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  7. Fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Michihito; Kurashima, Chihiro; Shimbo, Genya; Omura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Kenji; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Kawamoto, Keiko; Miyahara, Kazuro

    2017-06-10

    A three-year-old spayed domestic short-haired cat presented for evaluation of weight loss, cardiomegaly and pleural effusion. Echocardiographic examination demonstrated a thickened pericardium with mild pericardial effusion and a large volume of pleural effusion characterized by exudate. Although the cat was treated with antibiotics, the clinical symptoms did not improve. The cat developed dyspnea and died on day 7. Necropsy revealed a large amount of modified transudates ascites, pleural effusion and markedly dilated pericardium. Histopathological examination revealed severe exudation of fibrin and granulation tissue in a thick layer of the epicardium. The cat was diagnosed with fibrinous pericarditis secondary to bacterial infection.

  8. Ultrasonographic features of intestinal adenocarcinoma in five cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivers, B.J.; Walter, P.A.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, followed by lymphosarcoma, are the most common feline intestinal neoplasms. Clinicopathological, survey radiographic, and ultrasonographic findings of five cats with intestinal adenocarcinoma are reported. An abdominal mass was palpable in all five cats, but the mass could be localized to bowel in only two cats. Radiographically an abdominal mass was detected in only one cat. Ultrasonographically there was a segmental intestinal mural mass in all five cats. The mass was characterized by circumferential bowel wall thickening with transmural loss of normal sonographic wall layers. In one cat, the circumferential symmetric hypoechoic bowel wall thickening was similar to that reported for segmental lymphoma. In the other four cats, the sonographic features of the thickened bowel wall were varied, being mixed echogenicity and asymmetric in 3 cats and mixed echogenicity and symmetric in one. The results of the present report suggest that sonographic observation of mixed echogenicity segmental intestinal wall thickening in the cat represents adenocarcinoma rather than lymphosarcoma, although other infiltrative diseases should be considered

  9. Online Relinquishments of Dogs and Cats in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenvey, Caitlin J.; Tuke, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Simple Summary The aim of this study was to analyze dog and cat advertisements on a popular online trading website in Australia in February 2016. A total of 2640 ads for dogs and 2093 ads for cats were classified as being relinquished on Gumtree. A total of 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads were for free animals. The median age was 1.42 years in dogs and 0.9 years in cats. Compared to the human population there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. In comparison to pets from animal shelters advertised on PetRescue, there were more purebred dogs on Gumtree, although the common breeds were similar. Fifteen people who had relinquished a dog or cat on Gumtree were interviewed. They used Gumtree because they believed shelters were full, they wanted to see/interview the new owner, or because they originally got the animal on Gumtree and it works. These results shed light on a hitherto under-studied population of relinquished dogs and cats. Abstract While traditionally people relinquish their pets to an animal shelter or pound, the internet provides a newer method to re-home. We analyzed advertisements (ads) on the largest website in Australia for trading dogs and cats: Gumtree. Data was collected in 2016. Dogs were sampled on 7, 16 and 24 February 2016 and cats on 9, 19 and 26 February 2016, with 2640 ads for relinquished dogs, and 2093 ads for relinquished cats. It was estimated >31,000 puppies/dogs and >24,000 kittens/cats are relinquished on Gumtree per year. The median age of dogs was 1.42 and cats 0.9 years of age. There were 23% of dog ads and 62% of cat ads for free animals. Compared to the human population, there were proportionately more ads in Queensland and fewer ads in Victoria. A total of 15 people were surveyed who had relinquished a dog or cat using Gumtree. The dog owners used Gumtree for two reasons: because they believed the shelters were full (n = 4); and they wanted to see/interview the new owner (n = 2). For cat

  10. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  11. Proliferative peritoneal and pleural cestodiasis in a cat caused by metacestodes of Mesocestoides sp. anatomohistopathological findings and genetic identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni C.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A 10-year-old female cat was brought to Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Regioni Lazio e Toscana for post-mortem examination. The animal used to live, together with 26 other cats, in the big terrace of an apartment at the 8th floor in Rome, and was always fed with industrial pet food. Anamnesis referred balance troubles, vomit and convulsions, during a couple of days, followed by sudden death. At necropsy, the cat presented mucoid rhinitis, purulent tracheitis, small areas of pneumonia, dark spots in the liver, catarrhal-hemorrhagic gastritis, fibrinous enteritis and meningeal hyperemia. Thoracic and abdominal cavities were completely invaded by hundreds of larval stages of cestodes. The same parasites were also included in nodules in pancreatic, lung and kidney parenchyma. Microscopic examination of parasites allowed their identification as larval stages (metacestodes of cestodes of the genus Mesocestoides. The molecular genotyping of the metacestodes indicates a close relationship with members of the genus Mesocestoides, although a significant variation was found with respect to the available sequences of other species of the genus.

  12. Medical management of gastrinoma in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lane

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Case summary A 7-year-old male castrated domestic short-haired cat was evaluated for a 4 week history of intermittent vomiting, ptyalism, lethargy and weight loss. Serum biochemistry revealed mild mixed hepatopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography identified multiple heterogeneous hepatic masses and a linear, hyperechoic focus with associated reverberation artifact in the wall of the stomach consistent with a gastric ulcer. Serum gastrin concentrations were markedly increased. Cytologic interpretation of a fine-needle aspirate of the hepatic masses was consistent with neuroendocrine neoplasia, and a diagnosis of gastrinoma was established. Deterioration of the cat’s condition, despite at-home acid-suppressant therapy, led to hospitalization. The cat was initially stabilized with intravenous crystalloid fluid therapy, maropitant, pantoprazole and octreotide. A continuous radiotelemetric intragastric pH monitoring system was used to monitor the response of intragastric pH to therapy. Long-term therapy was continued with omeprazole (orally q12h, octreotide (subcutaneously q8h and thrice-weekly toceranib administered orally. Toceranib therapy led to gastrointestinal upset and was discontinued. Gastric ulceration resolved within 8 weeks, and palliation of clinical signs was achieved for approximately 5 months. Relevance and novel information Including this report, only six cases of feline gastrinoma have been reported in the veterinary literature. Little is known regarding non-surgical therapy, and octreotide has not been previously reported for medical management of feline gastrinoma. Results of intragastric pH monitoring and clinical improvement suggest that medical therapy using octreotide and proton pump inhibitors represents a novel therapeutic option for cats with gastrinoma where surgical excision is not feasible.

  13. Scotopic electroretinography in fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) and leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussadee, Metita; Vorawattanatham, Narathip; Pinyopummin, Anuchai; Phavaphutanon, Janjira; Thayananuphat, Aree

    2017-05-01

    To establish baseline normal scotopic electroretinograpic (ERG) parameters for two wild cat species: fishing cats (FC) and leopard cats (LC). Twelve normal, FC and eight LC kept in the Chiang Mai Night Safari Zoo, Thailand. The mean ages of FC and LC were 7.08 and 5.00 years, respectively. All animals were studied using a standard scotopic protocol of a portable, handheld, multi-species electroretinography (HMsERG). There were significant differences in the means of ERG b-wave amplitude of the rod response (Rod, 0.01 cd.s/m 2 ), a- and b-wave amplitudes of standard light intensity of rod and cone response (Std R&C, 3 cd.s/m 2 ) and b-wave amplitude of high light intensity of rod and cone response (Hi-int R&C, 10 cd.s/m 2 ) with LC having higher amplitudes than FC. There was no significant difference in a- and b- wave implicit time except for the b-wave of Hi-int (P=0.03). No significant differences were observed in b/a amplitude ratios. Data from this report provides reference values for scotopic ERG measurements in these two wild cat species. It showed that the normal scotopic ERG responses have some differences between the two species which might be due to the skull conformation, eye size or physiology of the retina. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Post incisional hernia in dogs and cats

    OpenAIRE

    Raiser, Alceu Gaspar

    1999-01-01

    A hérnia pós-incisão foi analisada quanto à prevalência e protocolo terapêutico em nove cães e seis gatos cadastrados no Hospital Veterinário da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Os animais apresentaram peritonite localizada que foi tratada com reposição hidroeletrolítica, antibioticoterapia, irrigação abundante da cavidade abdominal e debridamento cirúrgico. Todos tiveram evolução favorável.The case records of nine dogs and six cats with post-incisional hernia were managed by ...

  15. Preparing Schrodinger cat states by parametric pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leghtas, Zaki; Touzard, Steven; Pop, Ioan; Vlastakis, Brian; Zalys-Geller, Evan; Albert, Victor V.; Jiang, Liang; Frunzio, Luigi; Schoelkopf, Robert J.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, Michel H.

    2014-03-01

    Maintaining a quantum superposition state of light in a cavity has important applications for quantum error correction. We present an experimental protocol based on parametric pumping and Josephson circuits, which could prepare a Schrodinger cat state in a cavity. This is achieved by engineering a dissipative environment, which exchanges only pairs or quadruples of photons with our cavity mode. The dissipative nature of this preparation would lead to the observation of a dynamical Zeno effect, where the competition between a coherent drive and the dissipation reveals non trivial dynamics. Work supported by: IARPA, ARO, and NSF.

  16. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Esther A; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H

    2011-10-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to which the cat's metabolism has adapted. The present study aimed to derive the dietary nutrient profile of free-living cats. Studies reporting the feeding habits of cats in the wild were reviewed and data on the nutrient composition of the consumed prey items obtained from the literature. Fifty-five studies reported feeding strategy data of cats in the wild. After specific exclusion criteria, twenty-seven studies were used to derive thirty individual dietary nutrient profiles. The results show that feral cats are obligatory carnivores, with their daily energy intake from crude protein being 52 %, from crude fat 46 % and from N-free extract only 2 %. Minerals and trace elements are consumed in relatively high concentrations compared with recommended allowances determined using empirical methods. The calculated nutrient profile may be considered the nutrient intake to which the cat's metabolic system has adapted. The present study provides insight into the nutritive, as well as possible non-nutritive aspects of a natural diet of whole prey for cats and provides novel ways to further improve feline diets to increase health and longevity.

  17. The role of food for the formation and prevention of gastrointestinal lesions induced by aspirin in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2013-10-01

    The effects of feeding conditions (fasted or fed) and dietary fiber (DF) in the diet on gastrointestinal (GI) damage induced by aspirin (ASA) were examined in cats. Plain ASA (P-ASA, 20 mg/kg) or one enteric-coated ASA tablet (EC-ASA, containing 100 mg ASA) was administered p.o. once daily for 3 or 7 days just after morning meal, 3 h after the evening meal, or in the morning without a morning meal (fasted). Several types of diet, dry food (DRY, DF: 2.8 %), canned food (CAN, DF: 0.4 %), and diets with added cellulose or pectin were provided twice daily. P-ASA or EC-ASA administered just after feeding of DRY caused marked lesions in the GI tract, although EC-ASA did not produce any lesions in the stomach. GI damage was markedly decreased when ASA was administered 3 h after the evening meal. The induction of lesions by EC-ASA was markedly decreased in cats that ate CAN, but lesions were induced in cats fed CAN with added cellulose (6 %). The addition of pectin (6 %) to the DRY markedly decreased the induction of lesions by EC-ASA. The results indicate that the induction of GI lesions by ASA was highly dependent on the feeding conditions and DF. To minimize the induction of GI damage, it would be better to take ASA 3 h after the evening meal, or after consuming diets that contain low amounts of insoluble DF and high amounts of soluble DF.

  18. Bartonella infection in shelter cats and dogs and their ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Lun; Lin, Chao-Chen; Chomel, Bruno B; Chuang, Shih-Te; Tsai, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wen-Jer; Huang, Chin-Gi; Yu, Jiann-Chung; Sung, Min-Hua; Kass, Philip H; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2011-08-01

    Mainly through vector transmission, domestic cats and dogs are infected by several Bartonella spp. and represent a large reservoir for human infections. This study investigated the relationship of prevalences of Bartonella infection in shelter dogs and cats and various ectoparasite species infesting them (fleas, ticks, and lice). Moreover, relationships between Bartonella infection and animal gender and age and presence of ectoparasites were analyzed. Blood samples were collected from 120 dogs and 103 cats. There were 386 ticks and 36 fleas harvested on these dogs, and 141 fleas, 4 ticks, and 2 lice harvested on these cats. Isolation/detection of Bartonella sp. was performed by culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and partial sequencing. Bartonella was isolated from 21 (20.4%) cats and detected by PCR from 20 (19.4%) cats, 2 (1.7%) dogs, 55 (39%) fleas collected from cats, 28 (10%) ticks DNA samples, and 1 (2.8%) flea collected from dogs. When combining culture and PCR data, 27 cats and 55 fleas collected on cats were positive for Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae, but none were coinfected. Approximately half of the B. henselae isolates from 21 cats were B. henselae type I. Moreover, B. henselae, Bartonella phoceensis, Bartonella queenslandensis, Bartonella rattimassiliensis, Bartonella elizabethae DNA was detected in ticks collected from dogs and one flea was B. clarridgeiae PCR positive. This is the first report of such a wide variety of Bartonella spp. detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Further studies are required to understand the relative importance of these ectoparasites to transmit Bartonella spp. in dogs and cats.

  19. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  20. Effects of grape wine and apple cider vinegar on oxidative and antioxidative status in high cholesterol-fed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atıf Can Seydim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the rates of free radical production and elimination via endogenous antioxidant mechanisms such as antioxidant enzymes, which include glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. There are mainly two vinegar production methods. The first is the surface method which is also known as the traditional method. The second method is known as the industrial method or submerged method which involves the use of a submerged culture with supplemented aeration. Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the effects of grape and apple cider vinegar consumption against oxidative stress in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Methods: Fifty-four male, adult Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Rats were fed for 7 weeks by oral gavage as given in the experimental procedure. Rats were sacrificed at the end of the experiment and blood samples were collected. Catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde level (MDA, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity were analyzed. Grape and apple vinegar fermentation products prepared using both the surface culture method and submerged methods were prepared. The total antioxidant activity of vinegar samples were measured by Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC and 2,2’-azinobis (3- ethlybenzthiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS methods. Results: Levels of CAT, GSH-Px, SOD in high cholesterol diet group (CHCNT were significantly decreased while MDA levels were significantly increased when compared to control-diet group (CNT (P<0.05. Levels of MDA, which is the end-product of lipid peroxidation, were significantly decreased in the apple cider vinegar administered groups when compared to the CHCNT (P<0.05. GSH-Px levels were significantly increased in rat groups, which were fed with the vinegars produced by traditional surface methods (P=0.03, P=0.001 respectively as compared to the

  1. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  2. Growth and antioxidant status of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense fed with diets containing vitamin E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihong; Wang, Zisheng; Yu, Yebing; Qi, Zhitao; Lü, Linlan; Zhang, Yuxia; Lü, Fu

    2016-05-01

    A feeding trial was carried out to investigate the dietary vitamin E requirement of the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense (weight of 0.3-0.4 g) and its effect role on antioxidant activity. Prawns were fed with seven levels of vitamin E (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg diet) for 60 days. The results show that dietary vitamin E supplementation could significantly increased the prawn weight ( P vitamin E than in those fed with diets supplemented with 100-400 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E supplementation increased ( P 0.05). The contents of vitamin E in the hepatopancreas and in the muscle increased with increasing dietary vitamin E. There was a linear correlation between the vitamin E level in diet and that in muscle, and between the vitamin E level in diet and that in the hepatopancreas. All the above results indicated that dietary vitamin E can be stored in the hepatopancreas and muscle and lower both the activities of SOD and CAT in the hepatopancreas, suggesting that it is a potential antioxidant in M. nipponense. Broken line analysis conducted on the weight gains of prawns in each diet group showed that the dietary vitamin E requirement for maximum growth is 94.10 mg/kg.

  3. Engineering testing requirements in FED/INTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Nygren, R.E.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.A.; Wire, G.; Oppermann, E.; Puigh, R.; Gold, R.E.

    1982-10-01

    The FED/INTOR critical issues activity has addressed three key testing requirements that have the largest impact on the design, operation and cost of FED/INTOR. These are: (1) the total testing time (fluence) during the device lifetime, (2) the minimum number of back-to-back cycles, and (3) the neutron wall load (power density in the first wall/blanket). The testing program activities were structured into three tasks in order to define the benefits, and in some cases, costs and risks of these testing requirements. The three tasks were carried out with wide participation of experts from a number of organizations in the United States. Similar effort was performed by Japan, the European Community and the Soviet Union

  4. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es

    2015-10-15

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  5. The assessment of daily dietary intake reveals the existence of a different pattern of bioaccumulation of chlorinated pollutants between domestic dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Camacho, María; Boada, Luis D.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Rial, Cristian; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; González, Maira Almeida; Luzardo, Octavio P.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats have been proposed as sentinel species to assess environmental contamination and human exposure to a variety of pollutants, including POPs. However, some authors have reported that dogs but not cats exhibit intriguingly low levels of some of the most commonly detected POPs, such as DDT and its metabolites. This research was designed to explore these differences between dogs and cats. Thus, we first determined the concentrations of 53 persistent and semi-persistent pollutants (16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs)) in samples of the most consumed brands of commercial feed for dogs and cats, and we calculated the daily dietary intake of these pollutants in both species. Higher levels of pollutants were found in dog food and our results showed that the median values of intake were about twice higher in dogs than in cats for all the three groups of pollutants (ΣPAHs: 274.8 vs. 141.8; ΣOCPs: 233.1 vs. 83; ΣPCBs: 101.8 vs. 43.8 (ng/kg bw/day); respectively). Additionally, we determined the plasma levels of the same pollutants in 42 and 35 pet dogs and cats, respectively. All these animals lived indoors and were fed on the commercial brands of feed analyzed. As expected (considering the intake), the plasma levels of PAHs were higher in dogs than in cats. However, for organochlorines (OCPs and PCBs) the plasma levels were much higher in cats than in dogs (as much as 23 times higher for DDTs), in spite of the higher intake in dogs. This reveals a lower capacity of bioaccumulation of some pollutants in dogs, which is probably related with higher metabolizing capabilities in this species. - Highlights: • First assessment of the dietary intake of POPs in pet animals. • Intake levels of pollutants are more than double in dogs than in cats. • Proportionality between intake of PAHs and their plasma levels in both species. • Lower levels of organochlorines in dog plasma

  6. Effects of weight loss with a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on body composition, voluntary physical activity, and fecal microbiota of obese cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallotto, Marissa R; de Godoy, Maria R C; Holscher, Hannah D; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

  7. Limbic control of aggression in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E; Stark-Adamec, C I

    1983-01-01

    Over a decade of work by Flynn and colleagues has delineated a network of limbic circuits which function to modulate the expression of predatory aggression and defence in the cat, and aspects of this work are reviewed. In particular, Flynn's work revealed a circuit involving the basomedial amygdala which functions to suppress attack, and at the same time facilitates defence. A second circuit, involving the ventral hippocampus, is involved in attack facilitation. Studies relating stable differences in excitability in these two circuits to developmentally determined behavioural dispositions toward aggression or defence are summarized. Finally, the impact of experimentally induced limbic seizures on interictally maintained expression of aggression and defence behaviourally, and on limbic excitability are reviewed. Taken together, the data indicate that the behavioural balance of attack and defence is under the tonic control of opponent limbic circuits, which are themselves biased in a measureable manner. Developmental studies indicate that adult defensiveness is determined early in life, so early as to suggest some pre-programmed neuro-developmental process. Experimentally induced seizures alter behaviour lastingly, producing an increase in defensive disposition. At the same time there is an equally lasting potentiation of interictal transmission of neural activity from the amygdala to the hypothalamus. Moreover, seizures may reduce interictal transmission of activity through the ventral hippocampus by potentiating recurrent inhibition. These effects of seizures are of interest since seizures reproduce naturally occurring differences in limbic excitability seen in naturally defensive cats.

  8. Rotational diffusion of a molecular cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Saporta, Ori; Efrati, Efi

    We show that a simple isolated system can perform rotational random walk on account of internal excitations alone. We consider the classical dynamics of a ''molecular cat'': a triatomic molecule connected by three harmonic springs with non-zero rest lengths, suspended in free space. In this system, much like for falling cats, the angular momentum constraint is non-holonomic allowing for rotations with zero overall angular momentum. The geometric nonlinearities arising from the non-zero rest lengths of the springs suffice to break integrability and lead to chaotic dynamics. The coupling of the non-integrability of the system and its non-holonomic nature results in an angular random walk of the molecule. We study the properties and dynamics of this angular motion analytically and numerically. For low energy excitations the system displays normal-mode-like motion, while for high enough excitation energy we observe regular random-walk. In between, at intermediate energies we observe an angular Lévy-walk type motion associated with a fractional diffusion coefficient interpolating between the two regimes.

  9. Sky Subtraction with Fiber-Fed Spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Myriam

    2017-09-01

    "Historically, fiber-fed spectrographs had been deemed inadequate for the observation of faint targets, mainly because of the difficulty to achieve high accuracy on the sky subtraction. The impossibility to sample the sky in the immediate vicinity of the target in fiber instruments has led to a commonly held view that a multi-object fibre spectrograph cannot achieve an accurate sky subtraction under 1% contrary to their slit counterpart. The next generation of multi-objects spectrograph at the VLT (MOONS) and the planed MOS for the E-ELT (MOSAIC) are fiber-fed instruments, and are aimed to observed targets fainter than the sky continuum level. In this talk, I will present the state-of-art on sky subtraction strategies and data reduction algorithm specifically developed for fiber-fed spectrographs. I will also present the main results of an observational campaign to better characterise the sky spatial and temporal variations ( in particular the continuum and faint sky lines)."

  10. Leptin and ghrelin concentration in hyperthyroid cats before and after radioactive iodine therapy compared to euthyroid control cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsilio, Sina; Glanemann, Barbara; Martin, Lucile; Szladovits, Balazs; Neiger, Reto

    2017-04-19

    Leptin and ghrelin, two peptide hormones with antagonistic effects on satiety and energy balance, could be involved in the pathogenesis of weight loss and polyphagia in cats with hyperthyroidism. Leptin generally decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure, while ghrelin exerts the opposite effects. Leptin and ghrelin were measured in 42 client owned hyperthyroid cats with a body condition score (BCS) ≤ 5/9 before (T0) and 4 weeks after radioactive iodine treatment (RAIT) (T1). Dependent on the serum total thyroxine concentration concentration at T1, cats were sub-classified as still hyperthyroid (ht-ht) (n = 4), euthyroid (ht-eu) (n = 10) or hypothyroid (ht-hypo) (n = 28). Results were compared to those of 22 healthy, euthyroid control cats with a comparable BCS (≤ 5/9) and age (≥ 8 years) to hyperthyroid cats. At T0, there were no significant differences between hyperthyroid and control cats for leptin (p = 0.06) or ghrelin concentrations (p = 0.27). At T1, leptin significantly decreased in ht-hypo cats compared to T0 (p = 0.0008) despite a significantly increased body weight in this group (p = 0.0001). Serum ghrelin concentrations did not differ between hyperthyroid cats with a history of polyphagia compared to non-polyphagic cats (p = 0.42). After RAIT, ghrelin concentration significantly increased in all hyperthyroid cats (p weight in different states of thyroid dysfunction; increasing ghrelin concentrations after RAIT suggest a ghrelin-independent mechanism for polyphagia in hyperthyroid cats.

  11. Nuisances and welfare of free-roaming cats in urban settings and their association with cat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunther, I; Raz, T; Berke, O; Klement, E

    2015-05-01

    Free roaming cats (FRC) are highly abundant in cities around the world. Increasing populations of these cats might result in impairment of cat welfare and cause nuisances and public health risks. In order to study the seasonal dynamics of FRC populations and its association with events of cat welfare impairment and nuisances, we analyzed a database of FRC-associated citizens' telephone complaint events, which were registered in five cities in Israel (total human population of 1.42 million residents) during the years 2007-2011. These complaint events were classified to the following six categories: cat's carcasses, kittens, parturition, aggressive behavior toward people, invasion to human facilities, and cat injuries and distress. Overall, 87,764 complaint events associated with these categories were registered in the five cities during the study period (123.2 complaint events per 10,000 citizens per year). Length of daylight was moderately correlated with the rate of complaints on kittens in the same month (r=0.64) and parturition in the previous month (r=0.54) (Pcat aggressiveness toward people, cat invasion to human facilities and cat injuries and distress. In most of the cities the rate of citizen complaints regarding carcasses, aggression, invasion and injuries were still significantly correlated with rate of complaints regarding kittens after omission of these joint complaints and remained significant after controlling for seasonality. These findings imply an association of cat welfare impairment and nuisances with FRC reproduction intensity. The current study revealed the high rate of nuisances and potential public health hazards related to FRC, as well as the impairment of cat welfare, which might be merely 'the tip of the iceberg' of the real welfare situation of these cats. Further studies should examine the effectiveness of FRC population control strategies for the reduction of the rate of nuisances and public health risks related to FRC, as well as for

  12. European consensus statement on leptospirosis in dogs and cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution affecting most mammalian species. Clinical leptospirosis is common in dogs but seems to be rare in cats. Both dogs and cats however, can shed leptospires in the urine. This is problematic as it can lead to exposure of humans. The control ...

  13. Simple nonparametric checks for model data fit in CAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the usefulness of several nonparametric checks is discussed in a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) context. Although there is no tradition of nonparametric scalability in CAT, it can be argued that scalability checks can be useful to investigate, for example, the quality of item

  14. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  15. Neutralizing antibodies in cats infected with feline immunodeficiency virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Tozzini; D. Matteucci; P. Bandecchi; F. Baldinotti; C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); M. Bendinelli

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSera from cats experimentally infected with five isolates of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) from various geographical regions and from FIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-seropositive field cats from four European countries neutralized the Petaluma strain of FIV (FIV-P),

  16. Tooth resorption in cats: contribution of vitamin D and inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Tooth resorption in cats Tooth resorption affecting several teeth is a painful disease with a prevalence of up to 75% in household cats and is often accompanied by periodontitis. Tooth resorption is caused by an increased number and activity of tooth-resorbing odontoclasts, cells that share

  17. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Schubach, Armando; Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis.

  18. Cat-transmitted Sporotrichosis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubach, Tânia Maria Pacheco; Barros, Mônica Bastos de Lima; Wanke, Bodo

    2005-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an emerging zoonosis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From 1998 to 2003, 497 humans and 1,056 cats with culture-proven sporotrichosis were studied. A total of 421 patients, 67.4% with a history of a scratch or bite, reported contact with cats that had sporotrichosis. PMID:16485488

  19. Effectiveness of the Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus) Urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The stored cat urine was then thawed and mixed with maize starch to form a thick dough and then granulated and dried at room temperature before being packed in a hermetically closed jar. Initially, rodent foot marks on tracking soot coat tiles were used to estimate the rat population before the cat urine extracts application.

  20. 33 CFR 117.1001 - Cat Point Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cat Point Creek. 117.1001 Section 117.1001 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Virginia § 117.1001 Cat Point Creek. The draw of the...

  1. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Jul 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  2. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Feb 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  3. CatReg Software for Categorical Regression Analysis (Nov 2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    CatReg is a computer program, written in the R (r-project.org">http://cran.r-project.org) programming language, to support the conduct of exposure-response analyses by toxicologists and health scientists. CatReg can be used to perform categorical regressi...

  4. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blois, Shauna L; Holowaychuk, Marie K; Wood, R Darren

    2015-01-01

    The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG) findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII) deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF) was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  5. Evaluation of thromboelastography in two factor XII-deficient cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shauna L Blois

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Case summary The current report describes thromboelastography (TEG findings in two cats with factor XII (FXII deficiency. The first cat was diagnosed with bilateral perinephric pseudocysts; hemostatic testing was performed prior to performing renal aspirates. The second cat was healthy; hemostatic testing was performed prior to inclusion into a research project. Both cats had markedly prolonged partial thromboplastin times and hypocoagulable TEG tracings when samples were activated with kaolin. However, when tissue factor (TF was used to activate the sample, both cats had normal-to-hypercoagulable TEG tracings. The cats each had a subnormal FXII level. Relevance and novel information TEG is becoming widely used to investigate hemostasis in veterinary patients, and TEG results in cats with FXII deficiency have not been previously reported. FXII deficiency is the most common hereditary hemostatic defect in cats. While FXII deficiency does not lead to in vivo hemorrhagic tendencies, it can lead to marked prolongation in activated partial thromboplastin and activated clotting times, and cannot be differentiated from true hemorrhagic diatheses without measuring individual factor activity. With the increased use of TEG to evaluate hemostasis in veterinary patients, it is important to recognize the effects of FXII deficiency on this testing modality. The finding of a hypocoagulable kaolin-activated TEG tracing and a concurrent normal TF-activated TEG tracing in samples should prompt clinicians to consider ruling out FXII deficiency.

  6. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our

  7. Bone metastasis of undifferentiated pulmonary adenocarcinoma in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.E.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1986-01-01

    In the cat, metastases from primary lung tumors (PLT) to distal bones have been described by Moore & Middleton (differentiated adenocarcinoma) and Pool et al. (squamous cell carcinoma) (16 22). This paper describes the radiological and pathological findings in a cat with metastatic undifferentiated papillary adenocarcinoma. The involvement of the toes was the initial sign leading to veterinary consultation

  8. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  9. Primary pulmonary neoplasia in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehlhaff, C.J.; Mooney, S.

    1985-01-01

    This article covers the pertinent clinical, physical, and radiographic findings in dogs and cats with primary pulmonary neoplasia. Diagnostic and treatment recommendations are made. Although primary pulmonary neoplasia is rare in both the dog and cat, it appears to be diagnosed with increasing frequency. Early detection and surgical treatment of carefully selected cases can prolong a good quality of life

  10. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the

  11. Measurement-induced amplification of optical cat-like states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Rigas, J.

    2013-01-01

    with pairs of small cats and then to interfere them on a balanced beam splitter. The projective measurement of one of the outputs is used to herald a larger cat resulting from the constructive interference of the initial states. The scheme proposed here uses the projection |x = 0〉〈x = 0| as the heralding...

  12. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Meulemans, M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.

    2007-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  13. Gaze Behavior, Believability, Likability and the iCat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Poel, Mannes; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Stock, O.; Nishida, T.; Meulemans, M.; van Bremen, A.

    2009-01-01

    The iCat is a user-interface robot with the ability to express a range of emotions through its facial features. This paper summarizes our research whether we can increase the believability and likability of the iCat for its human partners through the application of gaze behaviour. Gaze behaviour

  14. Seroprevalence of viral infections in domestic cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Kinndle; Prendas, Jorge; Cortes, Rocío; Jimenez, Carlos; Dolz, Gaby

    2009-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey of a convenient sample of domestic cats from Costa Rica's greater metropolitan area was carried out to determine the prevalence of antibodies against feline herpesvirus type 1 (FHV-1), feline parvovirus (FPV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and antigens of feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Blood samples were collected from at least 96 cats from June 1998 to December 2001; data related to the individual cats and household variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Antibodies against FHV-1 were found in 71.9% of the cats sampled, but only 25.0% of them had a history of previous vaccination. The prevalence of FPV was 92.8%, and all positive cats showed protective antibodies titres; however, only 16.5% of them were previously vaccinated. Antigens of FeLV were detected in 16.7% of the sampled cats; 11 (64.7%) of the 17 positive cats were older than 1 year at the time of testing. No differences were found between the percentage of seropositive males and females. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 8.8% of the samples tested; 8 (88.8%) of the seropositive cats were older than 1 year of age, and a greater proportion of seropositive males (66.6%) was found.

  15. Extraterritorial hunting expeditions to intense fire scars by feral cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Hugh W.; Legge, Sarah; Jones, Menna E.; Johnson, Christopher N.

    2016-03-01

    Feral cats are normally territorial in Australia’s tropical savannahs, and hunt intensively with home-ranges only two to three kilometres across. Here we report that they also undertake expeditions of up to 12.5 km from their home ranges to hunt for short periods over recently burned areas. Cats are especially likely to travel to areas burned at high intensity, probably in response to vulnerability of prey soon after such fires. The movements of journeying cats are highly directed to specific destinations. We argue that the effect of this behaviour is to increase the aggregate impact of cats on vulnerable prey. This has profound implications for conservation, considering the ubiquity of feral cats and global trends of intensified fire regimes.

  16. Aberrant right subclavian artery causing megaoesophagus in three cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinti, F; Della Santa, D; Borgonovo, S; Bussadori, R; Troiano, D; Pisani, G

    2018-05-07

    Three entire, domestic, shorthair male cats (age range: 3 months to 5 years) were referred because of regurgitation. Megaoesophagus attributable to aberrant right subclavian artery, originating from the aorta at the level of the fourth intercostal space, was diagnosed in all cats using thoracic radiography and CT angiography. One cat had concurrent patent ductus arteriosus with a normal aortic arch. Three-dimensional volume-rendered CT images were used to assess the malformations and to plan surgery for the treatment of the vascular anomalies. Different surgical approaches were used in the two kittens. The third cat was not operated. CT angiography is well suited for preoperative planning in cats with aberrant right subclavian artery alone or in combination with other vascular anomalies. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  17. Occurrence of Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Railliet, 1898) in Danish cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Caroline Salling; Willesen, Jakob; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2015-01-01

    As Aelurostrongylus abstrusus has not previously received any attention in Denmark, the study investigated the occurrence of A. abstrusus amongst outdoor cats from three regions (Zealand, Møn and Falster). Faeces and lungs were collected from a total of 147 feral (n=125) and domesticated cats (n=22......) that were euthanized for reasons outside of this project. Using a modified Baermann technique 13.6% of the cats was found to be positive. A new lung digestion technique was developed to isolate eggs, L1 and adult worms from the lungs and this revealed a prevalence of 15.6% although with regional differences....... There was no difference between feral and domesticated cats just as sex and age did not appear to influence prevalence and worm burden. Lungs from 87% of the positive cats had the gross appearance compatible with A. abstrusus and the severity of lung damage was proportional to LPG and number of adult worms. Within...

  18. Pancreatic rupture in four cats with high-rise syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehmann, Lea M; Dörner, Judith; Hittmair, Katharina M; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Reifinger, Martin; Dupré, Gilles

    2012-02-01

    Pancreatic trauma and rupture are rare after feline high-rise syndrome; however, should it happen, pancreatic enzymes will leak into the abdominal cavity and may cause pancreatic autodigestion and fatty tissue saponification. If not diagnosed and treated, it can ultimately lead to multiorgan failure and death. In this case series, 700 records of high-rise syndrome cats that presented between April 2001 and May 2006 were analysed, and four cats with pancreatic rupture were identified. Clinical signs, diagnosis using ultrasonography and lipase activity in blood and abdominal effusion, and treatment modalities are reported. Three cats underwent surgical abdominal exploration, one cat was euthanased. Rupture of the left pancreatic limb was confirmed in all cases. Two of the operated cats survived to date. High-rise syndrome can lead to abdominal trauma, including pancreatic rupture. A prompt diagnosis and surgical treatment should be considered.

  19. FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS (FIV) IN WILD PALLAS’ CATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meredith A.; Munkhtsog, Bariushaa; Troyer, Jennifer L.; Ross, Steve; Sellers, Rani; Fine, Amanda E.; Swanson, William F.; Roelke, Melody E.; O’Brien1, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a feline lentivirus related to HIV, causes immune dysfunction in domestic and wild cats. The Pallas’ cat is the only species from Asia known to harbor a species-specific strain of FIV designated FIVOma in natural populations. Here, a 25% seroprevalence of FIV is reported from 28 wild Mongolian Pallas’ cats sampled from 2000-2008. Phylogenetic analysis of proviral RT-Pol from eight FIVOma isolates from Mongolia, Russia, China and Kazakhstan reveals a unique monophyletic lineage of the virus within the Pallas’ cat population, most closely related to the African cheetah and leopard FIV strains. Histopathological examination of lymph node and spleen from infected and uninfected Pallas’ cats suggests that FIVOma causes immune depletion in its’ native host. PMID:19926144

  20. Selected Blood Serum Elements in Van (Turkey Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Altunok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Van cat originates from eastern Turkey. One of the characteristic features of Van cats is the colour of their eyes, which can be both eyes blue, both eyes amber or one eye blue and the other amber. Serum essential trace, macro and industrial element concentrations of Van cats (n = 47 according to sex, age, hair length and eye colour differences were investigated. Serum aluminium, arsenic, boron, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, nickel, selenium, silver, sulphur, strontium, vanadium and zinc were measured with ICP-OES plasma optical atomic emission spectrometer. In result, serum aluminium, barium, copper, manganese and strontium levels in male cats were found higher (p p p p > 0.05 found in the age and hair length groups. Our results indicate that several of the blood serum elements of Van cats may be related to their eye colours and sex differences.

  1. Chronic pretrigeminal and cerveau isolé cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slósarska, M; Zernicki, B

    1973-01-01

    Ten pretrigeminal and ten cerveau isole cats were observed chronically. During 24-36 h sessions EEG activity was continuously recorded and the EEG and ocular responses to visual and olfactory stimuli were studied. In the pretrigeminal cat acute and chronic stages were distinguished, and in the cerveau isole, acute, "early chronic" and "late chronic" stages. During the acute stage, the pretrigeminal cat is continuously awake, whereas the cerveau isole is comatose. During the "early chronic stage", which lasted at least about 3 weeks, the cerveau isole is semicomatose. During the chronic stage in the pretrigeminal cat and the "late chronic stage" in the cerveau isole, the sleep-waking cycle is present. In both preparations alert wakefulness, drowsiness, light .synchronized sleep and deep synchronized sleep occupy, respectively, about 30 percent, 45 percent, 15 percent and 10 percent of the time. Thus, synchronized sleep is strikingly reduced in comparison with an intact cat, while desynchronized sleep is absent.

  2. Phenylalanine flux and gastric emptying are not affected by replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet of adult cats consuming frequent small meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycholis, Tanya J; Cant, John P; Osborne, Vern R; Shoveller, Anna K

    2014-08-12

    Decreasing the rate of protein emptying from the stomach may improve efficiency of utilization of dietary amino acids for protein deposition. Some studies in rats and humans have shown casein to be more slowly released from the stomach than whey protein. To test if casein induces a slower rate of gastric emptying in cats than whey protein, L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine (Phe) was dosed orally into 9 adult cats to estimate gastric emptying and whole-body Phe flux. Concentrations of indispensable amino acids in plasma were not significantly affected by dietary protein source. First-pass splanchnic extraction of Phe was not different between diets and averaged 50% (SEM = 3.8%). The half-time for gastric emptying averaged 9.9 min with casein and 10.3 min with whey protein, and was not significantly different between diets (SEM = 1.7 min). Phenylalanine fluxes were 45.3 and 46.5 μmol/(min · kg) for casein- and whey-based diets, respectively (SEM = 4.7 μmol/(min · kg)). In adult cats fed frequent small meals, the replacement of casein with whey protein in the diet does not affect supply or utilization of amino acids. These two milk proteins appear to be equally capable of meeting the dietary amino acid needs of cats.

  3. Contraceptive vaccines for the humane control of community cat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Julie K.

    2011-01-01

    Problem Free-roaming unowned stray and feral cats exist throughout the world, creating concerns regarding their welfare as well as their impact on the environment on public health. Millions of healthy cats are culled each year in an attempt to control their numbers. Surgical sterilization followed by return to the environment is an effective nonlethal population control method but is limited in scope due to expense and logistical impediments. Immunocontraception has the potential to be a more practical and cost-effective method of control. Method of study This is a review of current research in immunocontraception in domestic cats. Functional characteristics of an ideal immunocontraceptive for community cats would include a wide margin of safety for target animals and the environment, rapid onset and long duration of activity following a single treatment in males and females of all ages, and sex hormone inhibition. In addition, product characteristics should include stability and ease of use under field conditions, efficient manufacturing process, and low cost to the user. Two reproductive antigens, zona pellucida and GnRH, have been identified as possible targets for fertility control in cats. Results Zona pellucida, which is used successfully in multiple wildlife species, has achieved little success in cats. In contrast, immunization against GnRH has resulted in long-term contraception in both male and female cats following a single dose. GnRH is an ideal contraceptive target because it regulates pituitary and gonadal hormone responses in both males and females, thus suppressing nuisance behaviors associated with sex hormones in addition to preventing pregnancy. Conclusion The responsiveness of cats to fertility control via GnRH suppression should encourage researchers and cat control stakeholders to continue efforts to optimize vaccines that induce multi-year contraception following a single dose in a high proportion of treated cats. PMID:21501281

  4. Dystocia in the cat evaluated using an insurance database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Bodil Ström; Axnér, Eva; Öhlund, Malin; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of feline dystocia with respect to breed. Methods The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance and/or life insurance claims in cats registered in a Swedish insurance database from 1999-2006. Results The incidence rates for dystocia were about 22 cats per 10,000 cat-years at risk, 67 per 10,000 for purebred cats and seven per 10,000 for domestic shorthair cats. The median age was 2.5 years. A significant effect of breed was seen. An incidence rate ratio (IRR) that was significantly higher compared with other purebred cats was seen in the British Shorthair (IRR 2.5), the Oriental group (IRR 2.2), Birman (IRR 1.7), Ragdoll (IRR 1.5) and the Abyssinian group (IRR 1.5). A significantly lower IRR was seen in the Norwegian Forest Cat (IRR 0.38), the Maine Coon (IRR 0.48), the Persian/Exotic group (IRR 0.49) and the Cornish Rex (IRR 0.50). No common factor among the high-risk breeds explained their high risk for dystocia. There was no effect of location; that is, the incidence rate did not differ depending on whether the cat lived in an urban or rural area. Caesarean section was performed in 56% of the cats with dystocia, and the case fatality was 2%. Conclusions and relevance The incidence rate for dystocia was of a similar magnitude in purebred cats as in dogs. The IRR varied significantly among breeds, and the main cause for dystocia should be identified separately for each breed. A selection for easy parturitions in breeding programmes is suggested.

  5. Whole-Blood Taurine Concentrations in Cats With Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrani, A; Fascetti, A J; Larsen, J A; Maunder, C; Hall, E J

    2017-07-01

    Increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids to the distal bowel can lead to dysbiosis resulting in colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease. A similar situation also could occur in cats with intestinal disease and might therefore result in decreased whole-body taurine concentration. To determine whether whole-blood taurine concentrations are decreased at the time of diagnosis in cats with intestinal disease and to correlate concentrations with clinical and laboratory variables. Twenty-one cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy and 7 cats with intestinal neoplasia from the University of Bristol. Cats that had undergone a thorough investigation consisting of a CBC, serum biochemistry, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, transabdominal ultrasound examination and histopathology of intestinal biopsy specimens, as well as additional testing if indicated, were included. Whole-blood from these cats collected at the time of histologic diagnosis and stored in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was retrospectively analyzed for taurine with an automated high-performance liquid chromatography amino acid analyzer. Although whole-blood taurine concentrations remained within the reference range, those cats with predominantly large intestinal clinical signs had significantly lower concentrations than did cats with small intestinal and mixed bowel clinical signs (P = 0.033) and this difference also was significant when assessed only in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy (P = 0.019). Additional studies are needed to determine whether large intestinal signs in cats with chronic inflammatory enteropathy are caused by alterations in the microbiota arising as a consequence of increased delivery of taurine-conjugated bile acids. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. Intra-abdominal fungal pseudomycetoma in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Matheus V; Laisse, Cláudio J M; Vargas, Thainã P; Wouters, Flademir; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Pavarini, Saulo P; Ferreiro, Laerte; Driemeier, David

    Pseudomycetomas are deep cutaneous to subcutaneous lesions caused by Microsporum canis mainly described in Persian cats, with few reports of intra-abdominal location. This report describes the clinical signs and lesions of intra-abdominal pseudomycetomas caused by M. canis in two Persian cats. Two Persian cats with a history of previous laparotomy (ovariohysterectomy and nephrostomy) and fecal impaction were examined. Cat #1 was euthanized and subjected to necropsy, histopathology and mycological evaluation. Cat #2 presented with chronic dermatophytosis, and an intra-abdominal mass, that was subjected to histopathology evaluation. Cat #1 presented at necropsy a white-grayish, firm mass (6cm×3.5cm×2.8cm) in the uterine cervix. Cat #2 presented a firm whitish mass (6.5cm×1.5cm×0.5cm) located close to the left kidney. Histologically, both masses contained multifocal granules with hyphae and spores surrounded by Splendore-Hoeppli reaction, with a pyogranulomatous inflammatory infiltrate and fibrous connective tissue proliferation in the periphery. Hyphae and spores exhibited marked Grocott and periodic acid-Schiff staining. M. canis was identified by fungal isolation in cat #1. Pseudomycetoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cats, especially in Persian cats presenting with an intra-abdominal mass. Entrance of the agent into the cavity can occur during laparotomy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in young adult and geriatric cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, George M; McGee, Kain A

    2017-03-01

    Recordings of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were taken from 15 geriatric cats (mean age ± standard deviation, SD, 13.6 ± 2.7 years; range 10.2-19.4 years) and 12 young adult control cats (mean ± SD 4.6 ± 0.5 years; range 3.4-5 years) to identify frequency-specific age-related changes in cochlear responses. Recordings were performed for primary frequencies from 2 to 12 kHz in 2 kHz increments. Cats were considered to be geriatric > 11.9 ± 1.9 years of age. Brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings were also made for subjective comparison with DPOAE responses. No differences in DPOAE response amplitudes were observed at any tested frequency in geriatric cats compared to control cats, reflecting an apparent absence of loss of cochlear outer hair cells along the length of the cochlea. No linear regression relationships were found for DPOAE response amplitude versus age in geriatric cats, despite the progressive nature of age-related hearing loss in other species. The absence of reductions in response at any of the tested frequencies in cats within the age span where cats are considered to be geriatric indicates that age-related hearing loss, if it does develop in cats, begins later in the life span of cats than in dogs or human beings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular detection of Rickettsia typhi in cats and fleas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mercedes Nogueras

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsiatyphi is the etiological agent of murine typhus (MT, a disease transmitted by two cycles: rat-flea-rat, and peridomestic cycle. Murine typhus is often misdiagnosed and underreported. A correct diagnosis is important because MT can cause severe illness and death. Our previous seroprevalence results pointed to presence of human R. typhi infection in our region; however, no clinical case has been reported. Although cats have been related to MT, no naturally infected cat has been described. The aim of the study is to confirm the existence of R. typhi in our location analyzing its presence in cats and fleas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 221 cats and 80 fleas were collected from Veterinary clinics, shelters, and the street (2001-2009. Variables surveyed were: date of collection, age, sex, municipality, living place, outdoor activities, demographic area, healthy status, contact with animals, and ectoparasite infestation. IgG against R. typhi were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. Molecular detection in cats and fleas was performed by real-time PCR. Cultures were performed in those cats with positive molecular detection. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Thirty-five (15.8% cats were seropositive. There were no significant associations among seropositivity and any variables. R. typhi was detected in 5 blood and 2 cultures. High titres and molecular detection were observed in stray cats and pets, as well as in spring and winter. All fleas were Ctenocephalides felis. R. typhi was detected in 44 fleas (55%, from shelters and pets. Co-infection with R. felis was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Although no clinical case has been described in this area, the presence of R. typhi in cats and fleas is demonstrated. Moreover, a considerable percentage of those animals lived in households. To our knowledge, this is the first time R. typhi is detected in naturally infected cats.

  9. What's inside your cat's head? A review of cat (Felis silvestris catus) cognition research past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Shreve, Kristyn R; Udell, Monique A R

    2015-11-01

    The domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus) has shared an intertwined existence with humans for thousands of years, living on our city streets and in our homes. Yet, little scientific research has focused on the cognition of the domestic cat, especially in comparison with human's other companion, the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris). This review surveys the current status of several areas of cat cognition research including perception, object permanence, memory, physical causality, quantity and time discrimination, cats' sensitivity to human cues, vocal recognition and communication, attachment bonds, personality, and cognitive health. Although interest in cat cognition is growing, we still have a long way to go until we have an inclusive body of research on the subject. Therefore, this review also identifies areas where future research must be conducted. In addition to the scientific value of future work in this area, future research on cat cognition could have an important influence on the management and welfare of pet and free-roaming cats, leading to improved human-cat interactions.

  10. Estimation of the dietary nutrient profile of free-roaming feral cats: possible implications for nutrition of domestic cats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, E.A.; Bosch, G.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2011-01-01

    Cats are strict carnivores and in the wild rely on a diet solely based on animal tissues to meet their specific and unique nutritional requirements. Although the feeding ecology of cats in the wild has been well documented in the literature, there is no information on the precise nutrient profile to

  11. Reasons People Surrender Unowned and Owned Cats to Australian Animal Shelters and Barriers to Assuming Ownership of Unowned Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zito, Sarah; Morton, John; Vankan, Dianne; Paterson, Mandy; Bennett, Pauleen C; Rand, Jacquie; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Most cats surrendered to nonhuman animal shelters are identified as unowned, and the surrender reason for these cats is usually simply recorded as "stray." A cross-sectional study was conducted with people surrendering cats to 4 Australian animal shelters. Surrenderers of unowned cats commonly gave surrender reasons relating to concern for the cat and his/her welfare. Seventeen percent of noncaregivers had considered adopting the cat. Barriers to assuming ownership most commonly related to responsible ownership concerns. Unwanted kittens commonly contributed to the decision to surrender for both caregivers and noncaregivers. Nonowners gave more surrender reasons than owners, although many owners also gave multiple surrender reasons. These findings highlight the multifactorial nature of the decision-making process leading to surrender and demonstrate that recording only one reason for surrender does not capture the complexity of the surrender decision. Collecting information about multiple reasons for surrender, particularly reasons for surrender of unowned cats and barriers to assuming ownership, could help to develop strategies to reduce the number of cats surrendered.

  12. Matrix vaccination guidelines : 2015 ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosie, Margaret J; Addie, Diane D; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hartmann, Katrin; Horzinek, Marian C; Lloret, Albert; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Möstl, Karin

    OVERVIEW: In 2013, the ABCD published 'Matrix vaccination guidelines: ABCD recommendations for indoor/outdoor cats, rescue shelter cats and breeding catteries' in a Special Issue of the Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery (Volume 15, Issue 7, pages 540-544). The ABCD's vaccination recommendations

  13. Grooming a CAT: customizing CAT administration rules to increase response efficiency in specific research and clinical settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallen, Michael A; Cook, Karon F; Amtmann, Dagmar; Knowlton, Elizabeth; Gershon, Richard C

    2018-05-05

    To evaluate the degree to which applying alternative stopping rules would reduce response burden while maintaining score precision in the context of computer adaptive testing (CAT). Analyses were conducted on secondary data comprised of CATs administered in a clinical setting at multiple time points (baseline and up to two follow ups) to 417 study participants who had back pain (51.3%) and/or depression (47.0%). Participant mean age was 51.3 years (SD = 17.2) and ranged from 18 to 86. Participants tended to be white (84.7%), relatively well educated (77% with at least some college), female (63.9%), and married or living in a committed relationship (57.4%). The unit of analysis was individual assessment histories (i.e., CAT item response histories) from the parent study. Data were first aggregated across all individuals, domains, and time points in an omnibus dataset of assessment histories and then were disaggregated by measure for domain-specific analyses. Finally, assessment histories within a "clinically relevant range" (score ≥ 1 SD from the mean in direction of poorer health) were analyzed separately to explore score level-specific findings. Two different sets of CAT administration rules were compared. The original CAT (CAT ORIG ) rules required at least four and no more than 12 items be administered. If the score standard error (SE) reached a value CAT was stopped. We simulated applying alternative stopping rules (CAT ALT ), removing the requirement that a minimum four items be administered, and stopped a CAT if responses to the first two items were both associated with best health, if the SE was CAT ORIG and CAT ALT . CAT ORIG and CAT ALT scores varied little, especially within the clinically relevant range, and response burden was substantially lower under CAT ALT (e.g., 41.2% savings in omnibus dataset). Alternate stopping rules result in substantial reductions in response burden with minimal sacrifice in score precision.

  14. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaxhiu, Dashamir; Kusi, Ilir; Rapti, Dhimiter; Visser, Martin; Knaus, Martin; Lindner, Thomas; Rehbein, Steffen

    2009-11-01

    One hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around Tirana, Albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. The dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (December-February), spring (March-May), and summer (June-August); the cats were examined in late autumn (November). In addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. The arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick species (Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ixodes ricinus), three mite species (Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis, Otodectes cynotis, and Demodex canis), three flea species (Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides felis, and Pulex irritans), and one louse species (Trichodectes canis). In the dogs, rates of infestation were 23.8% for R. sanguineus, 0.6% for I. ricinus, 4.4% for S. scabiei var. canis, 6.7% for O. cynotis, 0.6% for D. canis, 75.7% for C. canis, 5.0% for C. felis, 8.3% for P. irritans, and 6.6% for T. canis. Mixed infestation with two or three species of ectoparasites was recorded on 38.1% of the dogs. Fleas infested 75.7% dogs (geometric mean, 3.96; range, 1-80) and were observed in winter, spring, and summer with increasing prevalences of 64.3%, 75.9%, and 100%. Ticks parasitized 24.3% of the dogs (geometric mean, 0.41; range, 1-331). R. sanguineus ticks were recorded on 34.2% and 50% of the dogs examined in spring and summer, respectively, but were absent on the dogs during winter except for a single I. ricinus specimen observed. Prevalence of infestation with R. sanguineus, S. scabiei var. canis, C. felis, P. irritans, and T. canis did not differ between dogs 6 months of age; however, prevalence of infestation with C. canis was significantly (p 6 months old. There was no difference between the sexes for the prevalences of infestation with those parasites. The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100

  15. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  16. FED-A, an advanced performance FED based on low safety factor and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Rutherford, P.H.

    1983-08-01

    The FED-A study aims to quantify the potential improvement in cost-effectiveness of the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by assuming low safety factor q (less than 2 as opposed to about 3) at the plasma edge and noninductive current drive (as opposed to only inductive current drive). The FED-A performance objectives are set to be : (1) ignition assuming International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR) plamsa confinement scaling, but still achieving a fusion power amplification Q greater than or equal to 5 when the confinement is degraded by a factor of 2; (2) neutron wall loading of about 1 MW/m 2 , with 0.5 MW/m 2 as a conservative lower bound; and (3) more clearly power-reactor-like operations, such as steady state

  17. Diagnosis and surgical management of obstructive ureteral calculi in cats: 11 cases (1993-1996)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyles, A.E.; Stone, E.A.; Gookin, J.; Spaulding, K.; Clary, E.M.; Wylie, K.; Spodnick, G.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate diagnostic methods, surgical treatment, perioperative management, and renal function of cats with obstructive calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Retrospective case series. 11 cats that underwent surgery for removal of calcium oxalate ureteroliths. Medical records were reviewed, and the following information was recorded: signalment; results of physical examination, clinicopathologic analyses, and abdominal imaging; surgical procedure; postoperative management; and results of ureterolith quantitative analysis. Ureteroliths in the proximal portion of the ureter were removed from 5 cats (pyelotomy, 1 cat; unilateral ureterotomy, 2 cats; bilateral ureterotomies, 2 cats). Calculi in the middle and distal part of the ureter were removed by partial ureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy (6 cats). Ten cats recovered from surgery and were discharged from the hospital. One cat died from unknown causes 4 months after surgery, and 1 cat had a nephrectomy elsewhere 5 weeks after ureterolith removal. Eight cats were evaluated 12 to 20 months after surgery. Of these, 2 cats that were markedly azotemic before surgery improved after surgery, and 2 cats developed nephroliths after surgery. Also, of 5 cats that had nephroliths that were not removed at the time of surgery, 4 still had visible nephroliths. One cat had recurrent ureteral obstruction from a ureterolith and persistent urinary tract infection. Ureteroliths or ultrasonographic evidence of ureteral obstruction were not detected in other cats. A combination of microsurgical techniques and intensive postoperative care is necessary to minimize morbidity of cats after removal of a ureterolith. Renal function may improve or stabilize after removal of the ureteral obstruction

  18. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in domesticated and feral cats in eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Amanda J; Bosward, Katrina L; Heller, Jane; Norris, Jacqueline M

    2015-05-15

    The seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) in cats in eastern Australia is unknown, and the risk of transmission from cats to humans is undetermined. This study aimed to determine the exposure of cats to C. burnetii in four distinct cat subpopulations. An indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for detection of anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans were adapted, verified for use on feline serum, and compared. Cat serum samples (n=712) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [cattery-confined breeding cats, pet cats, feral cats and shelter cats]. The proportions of seropositive cats were; cattery-confined breeding cats (35/376, 9.3%), pets (2/198, 1%), feral cats (0/50), shelter cats (0/88). The significant variables in C. burnetii seropositivity were cattery-confined breeding cat subpopulation and sterilisation status, with infected cats 17.1 (CI 4.2-70.2; Pcats and 6.00 (CI 2.13-16.89; Pcats have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence of C. burnetii is seen amongst cattery-confined breeding cats. Cat breeders and veterinary personnel involved in feline reproductive procedures may be at higher risk of exposure to C. burnetii. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The cat is out of the bag

    KAUST Repository

    Ananthanarayanan, Rajagopal

    2009-01-01

    In the quest for cognitive computing, we have built a massively parallel cortical simulator, C2, that incorporates a number of innovations in computation, memory, and communication. Using C2 on LLNL\\'s Dawn Blue Gene/P supercomputer with 147, 456 CPUs and 144 TB of main memory, we report two cortical simulations - at unprecedented scale - that effectively saturate the entire memory capacity and refresh it at least every simulated second. The first simulation consists of 1.6 billion neurons and 8.87 trillion synapses with experimentally-measured gray matter thalamocortical connectivity. The second simulation has 900 million neurons and 9 trillion synapses with probabilistic connectivity. We demonstrate nearly perfect weak scaling and attractive strong scaling. The simulations, which incorporate phenomenological spiking neurons, individual learning synapses, axonal delays, and dynamic synaptic channels, exceed the scale of the cat cortex, marking the dawn of a new era in the scale of cortical simulations. Copyright 2009 ACM.

  20. Bone vitality in the cat's irradiated jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dambrain, R.; Dhem, A.; Gueulette, J.; Wambersie, A.

    1988-01-01

    The vitality of the mandible in cats was studied from two to 15 months after irradiation. Dose of 80 Gy in three days was delivered using three hairpin shape iridium-192 wires surrounding the mandibula. The osseous vitality was assessed from the percentages of lacunae inhabited by osteocytes (IL). The results are compared with those obtained by microradiography. At two months, a small reduction of vitality is already observed, it becomes progressively more important. At one year, vitality is recovered nearly fully in the ventral part of the mandibula, mainly at the level of the alveolar crest. Vitality remains reduced in the dorsal part. Microradiographic lesions appear more slowly; they are apparent at six months. (orig.) [de

  1. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-06-01

    Neoplasms of the thoracic cavity are as diverse as the structures and tissues that comprise the thorax. This paper summarizes the clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of thoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat. Specific diagnostic techniques are evaluated, as is the utility of imaging techniques for clinical staging. Surgery is recommended as the treatment of choice for intrathoracic neoplasms, with exception for multiple tumor masses, metastasis, or poor patient health. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia are discussed individually or in combination with surgery or each other. Prognosis for specific tumors is discussed, as is lymph node involvement as a prognostic indicator. As the use of newer diagnostic procedures become more available in veterinary medicine, it should be possible to offer patients a variety of positive choices that will enhance their survival and quality of life

  2. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  3. Physics Girl: Where Education meets Cat Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, Dianna

    YouTube is usually considered an entertainment medium to watch cats, gaming, and music videos. But educational channels have been gaining momentum on the platform, some garnering millions of subscribers and billions of views. The Physics Girl YouTube channel is an educational series with PBS Digital Studios created by Dianna Cowern. Using Physics Girl as an example, this talk will examine what it takes to start a short-form educational video series, including logistics and resources. One benefit of video is that every failure is documented on camera and can, and will, be used in this talk as a learning tool. We will look at the channels demographical reach, discuss best practices for effective physics outreach, and survey how online media and technology can facilitate good and bad learning. The aim of this talk is to show how videos are a unique way to share science and enrich the learning experience, in and out of a classroom.

  4. Statistical mechanics of a cat's cradle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tongye; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2006-11-01

    It is believed that, much like a cat's cradle, the cytoskeleton can be thought of as a network of strings under tension. We show that both regular and random bond-disordered networks having bonds that buckle upon compression exhibit a variety of phase transitions as a function of temperature and extension. The results of self-consistent phonon calculations for the regular networks agree very well with computer simulations at finite temperature. The analytic theory also yields a rigidity onset (mechanical percolation) and the fraction of extended bonds for random networks. There is very good agreement with the simulations by Delaney et al (2005 Europhys. Lett. 72 990). The mean field theory reveals a nontranslationally invariant phase with self-generated heterogeneity of tautness, representing 'antiferroelasticity'.

  5. Schroedinger cat states and multilevel atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.; Knight, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    We demonstrate that the generalization of the two-level Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) to an N-level atom leads to the creation of up to N macroscopically distinct field states. These field states are Schmidt-orthogonalized superpositions of Fock states. They correspond to macroscopic states of the field, attainable with large mean photon numbers. Unlike the situation with a two-level atom and a coherent-state field, which evolves into a macroscopic coherent superposition state (a Schrodinger cat), we find that when the additional levels participate strongly in the excitation (e.g all transitions are resonant with equal dipole moments) then the system does not evolve into a pure state. We will present some examples of special cases, giving insight into the behavior of three-level atoms and the two-level two-photon JCM

  6. MobiCat - a solar-electrical passenger boat; MobiCat solar-elektrisches Passagierschiff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minder, R.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of the 'MobiCat' project which included the design, construction and operation of a solar-electric powered passenger ship for inland waterways. The vessel is of a catamaran with a length of 33 m and a width of 11 m. The electrical energy is produced by a 20 kW{sub p} array of photovoltaic panels and stored in two 480 V lead-acid battery blocks rated at 240 Ah each. The ship is powered by two 81 kW industrial AC drives. With a passenger capacity of 150 persons MobiCat is the largest solar-powered ship world-wide. The report discusses the generally positive operational experience and the wide interest both by the public and the media that the project has attracted. The MobiCat has become the most popular charter ship on the lake of Biel/Bienne in Switzerland. The author states that the ultimate goals of the project - to demonstrate the feasibility of large solar-powered passenger ships and to present new sustainable mobility solutions on inland waterways - have been fully reached.

  7. Radiographic anatomy of Japanese domestic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, H.; Suganuma, T.; Ogata, M.; Wakui, S.; Kano, Y.; Asari, M.

    1994-01-01

    Of 51 Japanese domestic cats the number of vertebrae, the distance between the occipital bone and the 1st cervical vertebra (C 1 ), and that between C 1 and the 2nd cervical vertebra (C 2 ), as well as the sizes of the cardiac and local great vessels and kidneys were measured radiographically. The proportion of the C 1 vertebral canal to the distance between the caudal margin of the occipital bone and C1 was 1 0.61, and that of the C 1 diameter to the minimum distance between C 1 and C 2 was 1 0.19. The diameters of the trachea, thoracic aorta and caudal vena cave were almost similar and the diameters of the both pulmonary trank and pulmonary vein were almost equivalent to the smallest diameters of the 8th and 10th ribs, respectively. The depth of the thorax was greater in Japanese domestic cats than in the American mixed breed (Hamlin et al., 1963). The V-D view of the abdominal region showed that the proportions of L2 to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1: 2.49 and 1: 2.38, respectively. The ratio of L2 to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 3.05 and 1 3.03, respectively. On the lateral view, the proportions of L 2 length to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 2.39, while those to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 5.25 and 1 5.20, respectively

  8. Optimal neutral beam heating scenario for FED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, L.M.; Houlberg, W.A.; Attenberger, S.E.

    1981-01-01

    Optimal neutral beam heating scenarios are determined for FED based on a 1/one-half/-D transport analysis. Tradeoffs are examined between neutral beam energy, power, and species mix for positive ion systems. A ramped density startup is found to provide the most economical heating. The resulting plasma power requirements are reduced by 10-30% from a constant density startup. For beam energies between 100 and 200 keV, the power needed to heat the plasma does not decrease significantly as beam energy is increased. This is due to reduced ion heating, more power in the fractional energy components, and rising power supply requirements as beam energy increases

  9. Supervision of Fed-Batch Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Lars; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1999-01-01

    Process faults may be detected on-line using existing measurements based upon modelling that is entirely data driven. A multivariate statistical model is developed and used for fault diagnosis of an industrial fed-batch fermentation process. Data from several (25) batches are used to develop...... a model for cultivation behaviour. This model is validated against 13 data sets and demonstrated to explain a significant amount of variation in the data. The multivariate model may directly be used for process monitoring. With this method faults are detected in real time and the responsible measurements...

  10. Sporotrichosis in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Albert; Hartmann, Katrin; Pennisi, Maria Grazia; Ferrer, Lluis; Addie, Diane; Belák, Sándor; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Egberink, Herman; Frymus, Tadeusz; Gruffydd-Jones, Tim; Hosie, Margaret J; Lutz, Hans; Marsilio, Fulvio; Möstl, Karin; Radford, Alan D; Thiry, Etienne; Truyen, Uwe; Horzinek, Marian C

    2013-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is an important subcutaneous fungal infection of humans and animals in some endemic tropical and subtropical areas. Among domestic species, cats are the most frequently infected. The primary mode of transmission is traumatic inoculation of fungal conidia from plants and soil. Contact with infected cats is the major mode of transmission to humans, especially in endemic areas like Brazil, where a large epidemic has occurred in the past decade. Most cases in cats are cutaneous, presenting as multiple ulcerated nodules and draining tracts in the skin. Lymphadenopathy, respiratory signs and systemic dissemination may also occur. Diagnosis is based on fungal detection by cytology and/or histology, and confirmation by culture. Treatment consists of at least 2 months' systemic antifungal therapy, with itraconazole as the first-choice agent. The prognosis is favourable provided there is good owner compliance and adverse drug effects do not occur. Contact with infected cats carries a high zoonotic risk. Cat owners travelling to endemic areas should be warned and advised to keep their cats indoors to prevent infection. Professionals must wear gloves when handling cats with skin nodules and ulcers and dealing with diagnostic samples.

  11. Prevalence of Korean cats with natural feline coronavirus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Myoung-Heon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline coronavirus is comprised of two pathogenic biotypes consisting of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV and feline enteric coronavirus (FECV, which are both divided into two serotypes. To examine the prevalence of Korean cats infected with feline coronavirus (FCoV type I and II, fecal samples were obtained from 212 cats (107 pet and 105 feral in 2009. Results Fourteen cats were FCoV-positive, including infections with type I FCoV (n = 8, type II FCoV (n = 4, and types I and II co-infection (n = 2. Low seroprevalences (13.7%, 29/212 of FCoV were identified in chronically ill cats (19.3%, 16/83 and healthy cats (10.1%, 13/129. Conclusions Although the prevalence of FCoV infection was not high in comparison to other countries, there was a higher prevalence of type I FCoV in Korean felines. The prevalence of FCoV antigen and antibody in Korean cats are expected to gradually increase due to the rising numbers of stray and companion cats.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in feral cats in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughattas, Sonia; Behnke, Jerzy; Sharma, Aarti; Abu-Madi, Marawan

    2017-01-18

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii as they can shed the environmentally resistant oocysts after acquiring infection. Human populations living in cities with high densities of feral cats are therefore likely to be at risk of infection. The current study is the first to estimate the seroprevalence of T. gondii in the feral cat population in Qatar. We investigated the seroprevalence of T. gondii among 495 adult cats from urban and suburban districts in Qatar. Using results from the Modified Agglutination Test, we fitted statistical models with host sex, area and season as explanatory factors and seropositivity as the outcome. The analysis revealed an overall seroprevalence of 82%. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in the summer season (P = 0.006). No significant difference was detected (P > 0.05) between seroprevalence in female and male cats and in cats from urban and suburban districts of Qatar. Despite the seasonal difference, the observed seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests high environmental contamination throughout the year, with some female cats generating more intense responses compared to males. Both findings merit further investigations.

  13. Ileocolic junction resection in dogs and cats: 18 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Yordan; Seth, Mayank; Murgia, Daniela; Puig, Jordi

    2017-12-01

    There is limited veterinary literature about dogs or cats with ileocolic junction resection and its long-term follow-up. To evaluate the long-term outcome in a cohort of dogs and cats that underwent resection of the ileocolic junction without extensive (≥50%) small or large bowel resection. Medical records of dogs and cats that had the ileocolic junction resected were reviewed. Follow-up information was obtained either by telephone interview or e-mail correspondence with the referring veterinary surgeons. Nine dogs and nine cats were included. The most common cause of ileocolic junction resection was intussusception in dogs (5/9) and neoplasia in cats (6/9). Two dogs with ileocolic junction lymphoma died postoperatively. Only 2 of 15 animals, for which long-term follow-up information was available, had soft stools. However, three dogs with suspected chronic enteropathy required long-term treatment with hypoallergenic diets alone or in combination with medical treatment to avoid the development of diarrhoea. Four of 6 cats with ileocolic junction neoplasia were euthanised as a consequence of progressive disease. Dogs and cats undergoing ileocolic junction resection and surviving the perioperative period may have a good long-term outcome with mild or absent clinical signs but long-term medical management may be required.

  14. Diagnostic value of full-mouth radiography in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstraete, F.J.M.; Kass, P.H.; Terpak, C.H.

    1998-01-01

    Objective-To determine the diagnostic value of full-mouth radiographyin cats.Sample Population-115 cats referred for dental treatment without a previous full-mouth radiographic series available. Procedure-In a prospective nested case-control analysis of multiple outcomes in a hospital cohort of cats referred for dental treatment, full-mouth radiography was done prior to oral examination and charting. After treatment, the clinical and radiographic findings were compared, with reference to presenting problems, main clinical findings, additional information obtained from radiography and unexpected radiographic findings. Importance of the radiographic findings in therapeutic decision making was assessed. Results-The main clinical findings were radiographically confirmed in all cats. Odontoclastic resorption lesions, missed on clinical examination, were diagnosed in 8.7% of cats. Analysis of selected presenting problems and main clinical findings yielded significantly increased odds ratios for a variety of other conditions, either expected or unexpected. Radiographs of teeth without clinical lesions yielded incidental or clinically important findings in 4.8 and 41.7% of cats, respectively, and were considered of no clinical value in 53.6%. Radiographs of teeth with clinical lesions merely confirmed the findings in 13.9% of cats, but yielded additional or clinically essential information in 53.9 and 32.2%, respectively. Clinical Relevance-The diagnostic yield of full-mouth radiography in new feline patients referred for dental treatment is high, and routine use of full-mouth radiography is justifiable

  15. Genetic susceptibility to feline infectious peritonitis in Birman cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, Lyudmila; Lyons, Leslie A; Liu, Hongwei; Sørensen, Anne; Wehnert, Suzanne; Pedersen, Niels C

    2013-07-01

    Genetic factors are presumed to influence the incidence of feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), especially among pedigreed cats. However, proof for the existence of such factors has been limited and mainly anecdotal. Therefore, we sought evidence for genetic susceptibility to FIP using feline high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays in a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Birman cats were chosen for GWAS because they are highly inbred and suffer a high incidence of FIP. DNA from 38 Birman cats that died of FIP and 161 healthy cats from breeders in Denmark and USA were selected for genotyping using 63K SNPs distributed across the feline genome. Danish and American Birman cats were closely related and the populations were therefore combined and analyzed in two manners: (1) all cases (FIP) vs. all controls (healthy) regardless of age, and (2) cases 1½ years of age and younger (most susceptible) vs. controls 2 years of age and older (most resistant). GWAS of the second cohort was most productive in identifying significant genome-wide associations between case and control cats. Four peaks of association with FIP susceptibility were identified, with two being identified on both analyses. Five candidate genes ELMO1, RRAGA, TNFSF10, ERAP1 and ERAP2, all relevant to what is known about FIP virus pathogenesis, were identified but no single association was fully concordant with the disease phenotype. Difficulties in doing GWAS in cats and interrogating complex genetic traits were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. More than just T₄: diagnostic testing for hyperthyroidism in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E

    2013-09-01

    In older cats presenting with clinical features of hyperthyroidism, confirmation of a diagnosis of thyroid disease is usually straightforward. However, the potential for false-negative and false-positive results exists with all thyroid function tests (especially in the context of routine screening of asymptomatic cats) and leads to clinical dilemmas. For example, a high serum T₄ value may be found in a cat that lacks clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, or hyperthyroidism may be suspected in a cat with normal total T₄ concentrations. To avoid unnecessary treatment and potentially adverse effects in a euthyroid cat, thyroid function tests must always be interpreted in the light of the cat's history, clinical signs, physical examination findings and other laboratory findings. In this article the author reviews the use of commonly recommended thyroid function tests, focusing on clinical scenarios that present diagnostic difficulties. In doing so, he draws on the veterinary and comparative literature, his own clinical experience, and data, unpublished to date, obtained from a series of 100 hyperthyroid cats consecutively diagnosed at his clinic.

  17. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  18. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  19. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnar, J.; Valastyan, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18 F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  20. Radiographically visualized skeletal changes associated with mucopolysaccharidosis VI in cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konde, L.J.; Thrall, M.A.; Gasper, P.; Dial, S.M.; McBiles, K.; Colgan, S.; Haskins, M.

    1987-01-01

    The radiographic skeletal form and structure of all cats with mucopolysaccharidosis VI is described. Common manifestations included epiphyseal dysplasia, generalized osteoporosis, abnormal nasal turbinate development, his subluxation, impaired development of skeletal growth, pectus excavatum, hyoid hypoplasia, aplasia, hypoplasia and fragmentation or abnormal ossification of the dens, and aplasia or hypoplasia of frontal and sphenoid sinuses. The skeletal measurements of two affected cats were compared with those of normal, sex-matched littermates, and the measurements of two affected female cats were compared with those of a normal male littermate

  1. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); De Siena, S [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Illuminati, F [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E R Caianiello' , Universita di Salerno, INFM UdR Salerno, INFN Sezione Napoli, G C Salerno, Via S Allende, 84081 Baronissi, SA (Italy); Paris, M G A [ISIS ' A Sorbelli' , I-41026 Pavullo nel Frignano, MO (Italy)

    2004-06-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive.

  2. Hip dysplasia in the cat: a report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patsikas, M.N.; Papazoglou, L.G.; Komninou, A.; Dessiris, A.K.; Tsimopoulos, G.

    1998-01-01

    Hip dysplasia was diagnosed in three cats. Two were presented with a history of hindlimb lameness and the other had a history of constipation. All were confined for two weeks and showed considerable clinical improvement. At follow-up examination the cats were free of clinical signs despite the deterioration in the radiological appearance of their hips. Luxation or subluxation of the hips, insufficient development of the craniolateral acetabular edges, loss of the arched shape of the cranial subchondral acetabular bones, shallow acetabula and secondary degenerative changes on the femoral heads and necks were the main radiological findings in the affected cats

  3. CAT scanning of hydrogen-induced cracks in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.; Tapping, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    Computer assisted tomography (CAT) was applied to detect small cracks caused by hydrogen ingress into carbon steel samples. The incipient cracks in the samples resulted from a quality control procedure used to test the susceptibility of carbon steel to hydrogen blistering/cracking. The method used until now to assess the extent of the cracking resulting from this test has been mechanical sectioning, polishing and microscopic examination of the sections. The CAT results are compared with the reference method and the feasibility of using CAT in the proposed application is demonstrated. (orig.)

  4. PET examination in intracranial tumor diagnosis of a cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angyal, G.; Csepura, G.; Balkay, L.; Galuska, L.; Molnár, J.; Valastyán, I.

    2008-12-01

    This paper shows the significance of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in the veterinary medication through a case study of a cat brain tumor. A castrated male cat with bilateral mydriasis and blindness arrived at the veterinary clinic. After physical, laboratory and neurological investigations other sickness was ruled out and the inkling of the intracranial lesion had come to light. Brain tumor seemed the most likely to cause the illness because other symptoms appeared (for example: anorexia, depression) and they progrediated fast. PET examination, using 18F-FDG isotope, was performed to confirm the possible causes of the cat's symptoms

  5. Minimum decoherence cat-like states in Gaussian noisy channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafini, A; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Paris, M G A

    2004-01-01

    We address the evolution of cat-like states in general Gaussian noisy channels, by considering superpositions of coherent and squeezed coherent states coupled to an arbitrarily squeezed bath. The phase space dynamics is solved and decoherence is studied, keeping track of the purity of the evolving state. The influence of the choice of the state and channel parameters on purity is discussed and optimal working regimes that minimize the decoherence rate are determined. In particular, we show that squeezing the bath to protect a non-squeezed cat state against decoherence is equivalent to orthogonally squeezing the initial cat state while letting the bath be phase insensitive

  6. Additional Smooth and Rough Water Trials of SKI-CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-01

    REPORT & PERIOD COVERED ADDITIONAL SMOOTH AND ROUGH WATER TRIALS OF FINAL SKI- CAT S. PERFORMING ORO. REPORT NUMSER 7. AUTHOR() I. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMUr...Identif by bloc membe) ’ " -Further tests of SKI- CAT were made in smooth and rough water. Smooth water results confirmed the performance results of...reductions in the accelerations and motions of SKI- CAT over against the head seasreut DD , +A ,3 1473 EDITION OF I NOVS IS OBSOLETE UNCIbSJFIED SIME 0102-014

  7. Investigations on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Roosje, Pieternella Janna

    2002-01-01

    The term atopic dermatitis (AD) is commonly used in cats. At present, however, there is little known about the pathogenesis of feline AD. The aim was to investigate various aspects of the immunopathogenesis in a defined group of cats with signs and symptoms of atopic dermatitis and compare our findings with the immunoregulation of atopic dermatitis in humans. The presence of antigen-specific IgE in serum of AD cats was investigated by means of the Prausnitz-Küstner (PK) test and the passive c...

  8. Application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Yoichi

    2008-01-01

    The ULSI technology has been following Moore's law into the sub-100 nm era, although several challenging technical issues must be resolved. This paper describes possible application of Cat-CVD for ULSI technology beyond the 45 nm node. Especially, Cat-CVD SiN film for a transistor gate sidewall and/or a pre-metallic liner layer, and removal of photo resist (ash) by Cat-induced hydrogen atoms in the interconnect structure with an extreme low-k material are mainly discussed

  9. Converter fed sub sea motor drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raad, R O

    1995-09-01

    Minor offshore gas and oil resources located 20-50 km from existing installations may often be commercially exploited only by use of complete sub sea solutions. This thesis deals with analyses of a sub sea adjustable speed electric motor which is fed by a frequency converter via a long cable (up to 50 km) between the converter and the motor. The author develops a general model for analysing such motor drive systems with the objective of verifying the feasibility of specific applications and of specifying the requirements on the system components. The simulation model is used to identify the critical frequency ranges in which the converter must not generate significant harmonics, to verify the start-up strategy chosen, and to verify the stability with potential disturbances applied to the system. Simulation models are developed for both transient and steady state analyses. They are accurate up to 5 kHz and can incorporate the frequency dependency of the motor and cable parameters. Ideal thyristors and diodes are used. The models are implemented in existing simulation tools. Most of the results relate to a base case with a 670 kW squirrel cage motor fed from a 30 km long cable, but cases with 3 MW rating or with 50 km cable have also been analyzed and found to be feasible. Each specific application must be separately studied. Results of simulation calculations are presented and conclusions given. 53 refs., 124 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. 21 CFR 589.1001 - Propylene glycol in or on cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Propylene glycol in or on cat food. 589.1001... or on cat food. The Food and Drug Administration has determined that propylene glycol in or on cat... on cat food causes the feed to be adulterated and in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and...

  11. Evaluation of fenbendazole for treatment of Giardia infection in cats concurrently infected with Cryptosporidium parvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Carey L; Radecki, Steven V; Lappin, Michael R

    2003-08-01

    To determine whether fenbendazole effectively eliminates Giardia organisms from chronically infected cats that have a concurrent Cryptosporidium parvum infection. 16 clinically normal cats. Eight cats with chronic concurrent Giardia and C parvum infections received fenbendazole (50 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 5 days (treatment-group cats). Feces from each cat were collected and processed 3 days weekly for 23 days after treatment. By use of an immunofluorescent assay for detection of Giardia lamblia cysts and C parvum oocysts, organism numbers were counted and scored. Fecal results from treatment-group cats were compared with those of 8 untreated cats with Giardia infection but no C parvum infection (control-group cats). Four of 8 treatment-group cats had consistently negative results for Giardia infection after treatment. These 4 cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts prior to treatment and consistently negative results after treatment. One treatment-group cat had positive results for cysts on all fecal samples, and 3 treatment-group cats had 1 to 3 negative results and then resumed shedding large numbers of cysts; each of these cats had consistently positive results for C parvum oocysts. When compared with control-group cats, treatment-group cats shed less Giardia cysts during week 1 after treatment but not during week 2. Administration of fenbendazole decreases Giardia cyst shedding to less than detectable numbers in some cats. In our study, persistent C parvum infection may have been associated with failure of fenbendazole to eliminate Giardia infection.

  12. Who's behind that mask and cape? The Asian leopard cat's Agouti (ASIP) allele likely affects coat colour phenotype in the Bengal cat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershony, L C; Penedo, M C T; Davis, B W; Murphy, W J; Helps, C R; Lyons, L A

    2014-12-01

    Coat colours and patterns are highly variable in cats and are determined mainly by several genes with Mendelian inheritance. A 2-bp deletion in agouti signalling protein (ASIP) is associated with melanism in domestic cats. Bengal cats are hybrids between domestic cats and Asian leopard cats (Prionailurus bengalensis), and the charcoal coat colouration/pattern in Bengals presents as a possible incomplete melanism. The complete coding region of ASIP was directly sequenced in Asian leopard, domestic and Bengal cats. Twenty-seven variants were identified between domestic and leopard cats and were investigated in Bengals and Savannahs, a hybrid with servals (Leptailurus serval). The leopard cat ASIP haplotype was distinguished from domestic cat by four synonymous and four non-synonymous exonic SNPs, as well as 19 intronic variants, including a 42-bp deletion in intron 4. Fifty-six of 64 reported charcoal cats were compound heterozygotes at ASIP, with leopard cat agouti (A(P) (be) ) and domestic cat non-agouti (a) haplotypes. Twenty-four Bengals had an additional unique haplotype (A2) for exon 2 that was not identified in leopard cats, servals or jungle cats (Felis chaus). The compound heterozygote state suggests the leopard cat allele, in combination with the recessive non-agouti allele, influences Bengal markings, producing a darker, yet not completely melanistic coat. This is the first validation of a leopard cat allele segregating in the Bengal breed and likely affecting their overall pelage phenotype. Genetic testing services need to be aware of the possible segregation of wild felid alleles in all assays performed on hybrid cats. © 2014 The Authors. Animal Genetics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  13. Effect of high-impact targeted trap-neuter-return and adoption of community cats on cat intake to a shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J K; Isaza, N M; Scott, K C

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 2-3 million cats enter animal shelters annually in the United States. A large proportion of these are unowned community cats that have no one to reclaim them and may be too unsocialized for adoption. More than half of impounded cats are euthanased due to shelter crowding, shelter-acquired disease or feral behavior. Trap-neuter-return (TNR), an alternative to shelter impoundment, improves cat welfare and reduces the size of cat colonies, but has been regarded as too impractical to reduce cat populations on a larger scale or to limit shelter cat intake. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNR concentrated in a region of historically high cat impoundments in a Florida community. A 2-year program was implemented to capture and neuter at least 50% of the estimated community cats in a single 11.9 km(2) zip code area, followed by return to the neighborhood or adoption. Trends in shelter cat intake from the target zip code were compared to the rest of the county. A total of 2366 cats, representing approximately 54% of the projected community cat population in the targeted area, were captured for the TNR program over the 2-year study period. After 2 years, per capita shelter intake was 3.5-fold higher and per capita shelter euthanasia was 17.5-fold higher in the non-target area than in the target area. Shelter cat impoundment from the target area where 60 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually decreased by 66% during the 2-year study period, compared to a decrease of 12% in the non-target area, where only 12 cats/1000 residents were neutered annually. High-impact TNR combined with the adoption of socialized cats and nuisance resolution counseling for residents is an effective tool for reducing shelter cat intake. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal-Neonatal Pheromone/Interomone Added to Cat Litter Improves Litter Box Use and Reduces Aggression in Pair-Housed Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J; Garcia, Arlene; Thompson, William G; Pirner, Glenna M

    2018-03-27

    Introducing a new cat into a household with one or more resident cats can be a significant source of stress for the cats involved. These studies sought to determine if rabbit maternal-neonatal pheromone (2-methyl-2-butenal [2M2B]) in litter impacted cat social behaviors and litter box use. Study 1 determined that cats preferred to eliminate in litter containing 2M2B; other semiochemicals tested did not change litter box use. Cats prone to aggression were identified in an intermediate pilot study, and eight pairs of these cats were selected for Study 2. In Study 2, cat pairs were provided litter containing either vehicle or 2M2B for 24 hours. Cats experiencing control litter displayed more aggression during the first 6 hours (p cats experiencing litter with 2M2B (p = .02). These results suggest 2M2B-infused cat litter may act as an interomone in cats housed domestically to prevent initial occurrences of aggression and may improve cat welfare in multicat households.

  15. Quantum self-controlling free-falling cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chryssomalakos, C; Serrano-Ensástiga, E; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2015-01-01

    In the separation of rotations from internal motions in the n-body problem, there appear some gauge fields which physically represent Coriolis effects. These fields are also present in the “falling cat” problem: at the kinematical level they map changes in the cat's shape to changes in its orientation whereas at the dynamical level they show up as gauge potentials in the Hamiltonian. Classically, the vanishing angular momentum condition allows for the orientation degrees of freedom to decouple from the internal ones and the cat's re-orientation can be accounted for at the kinematical level, partially. In the quantum case the cat's reorientation description requires to be done on dynamical grounds. In this paper we explore the quantum version of the falling cat modelled as a three body problem. (paper)

  16. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2002 through 12/31/2002. This dataset represents all data...

  17. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2008 through 12/31/2008. This dataset represents all data...

  18. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2007 through 12/31/2007. This dataset represents all data...

  19. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2009 through 12/31/2009. This dataset represents all data...

  20. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2005 through 12/31/2005. This dataset represents all data...

  1. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2001 through 12/31/2001. This dataset represents all data...

  2. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2003 through 12/31/2003. This dataset represents all data...

  3. U-Cat Roboterschildkröte aus Estland

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Tallinna Ülikooli teadlaste poolt merikilpkonna eeskujul konstrueeritud allveerobotist U-Cat. Konstrueerimisel on peetud silmas sukeldumist laevavrakkidesse. Robot konstrueeriti projekti Arrows (Archaeological Robot Systems for the World's Seas) raames

  4. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Population genetic analysis of cat populations from Mexico ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cra 7A No 43-82, Bogotá DC, Colombia. 2Department of ... (Amazonas) and Northern Brazilian populations are very different ..... tama, Santa Cruz, La Paz, and Santo Domingo cat popu-.

  6. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2006 through 12/31/2006. This dataset represents all data...

  7. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2011 through 12/31/2011. This dataset represents all data...

  8. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2004 through 12/31/2004. This dataset represents all data...

  9. NLRB CATS Final C-Case Data in XML - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Labor Relations Board — NLRB C-Case (Unfair Labor Practice) data from CATS (Case Activity Tracking System) for the period of 01/01/2010 through 12/31/2010. This dataset represents all data...

  10. Primary hyperaldosteronism in cats: expanding the diagnostic net

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat-Laanen, S.C.

    2014-01-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism or low-renin hyperaldosteronism in cats is characterized by inappropriately high aldosterone secretion from one or both adrenal glands, with systemic arterial hypertension and hypokalemia as leading clinical manifestations. In this thesis, non-tumorous primary

  11. Ultrastructural hepatocellular features associated with severe hepatic lipidosis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center, S A; Guida, L; Zanelli, M J; Dougherty, E; Cummings, J; King, J

    1993-05-01

    In this study, we compared hepatic ultrastructure in healthy cats, in cats with severe hepatic lipidosis, and in cats with experimentally induced, chronic, extrahepatic bile duct occlusion. Ultrastructural features unique to the lipidosis syndrome included an apparent reduction in number of peroxisomes and alteration in their morphologic features. The quantity of endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, and lysosomes was subjectively reduced, and paucity of cytosolic glycogen was observed. Bile canaliculi appeared collapsed because of cytosolic distention with lipid. Mitochondria were reduced in number and were markedly pleomorphic. Cristae assumed a variety of shapes, lengths, and orientations. Ultrastructural features of bile duct occlusion were similar to those described in other species and differed from those in cats with hepatic lipidosis.

  12. Successful treatment of small intestinal volvulus in two cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, Sebastian C; Andreoni, Angelo A; Dennler, Matthias; Venzin, Claudio M

    2010-11-01

    Mesenteric volvulus describes a torsion of the small intestine around the mesenteric root, which can be partial or complete. In dogs, it is an uncommon condition, with German shepherd dogs showing a predisposition. Chronic mesenteric volvulus has also been described. In cats, previous reports have documented two cases of small intestinal volvulus, both diagnosed at necropsy, and a further case of volvulus of the colon in a patient that died after surgery. This report describes two cats with mesenteric volvulus that were successfully treated. To the authors' knowledge, no reports of antemortem diagnosis or treatment of small intestinal volvulus in cats have previously been published. On the basis of the cases presented, it appears that the diagnosis of intestinal volvulus may be more difficult in cats than in dogs, but that the prognosis may not be as poor. Therefore, it is suggested that owners be encouraged to pursue surgery. Copyright © 2010 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantized Arnold cat maps can be entropic K systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Automorphisms on the irrational rotation algebra with respect to their ergodic properties are studied. Especially it is shown that for a dense set of the rotation parameter θ cat maps are entropic K systems. (Author)

  14. Haematology and coagulation profiles in cats with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounos, Caitlin E; Tivers, Michael S; Adamantos, Sophie E; English, Kate; Rees, Alan L; Lipscomb, Vicky J

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were, first, to report the haematological parameters and coagulation times for cats with a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) and the influence of surgical shunt attenuation on these parameters; and, second, to identify any association between prolongation in coagulation profiles and incidence of perioperative haemorrhage. Methods This was a retrospective clinical study using client-owned cats with a CPSS. Signalment, shunt type (extra- or intrahepatic), degree of shunt attenuation (complete or partial), haematological parameters, prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) test results, and occurrence of any perioperative clinical bleeding complications were recorded for cats undergoing surgical treatment of a CPSS at the Royal Veterinary College, UK, between 1994 and 2011. Results Forty-two cats were included. Thirty-six (85.7%) had an extrahepatic CPSS and six (14.3%) had an intrahepatic CPSS. Preoperatively, mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) were below the reference interval (RI) in 32 (76.2%) and 31 (73.8%) cats, respectively. Red blood cell count and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were above the RI in 10 (23.8%) and eight (19.1%) cats, respectively. Postoperatively, there were significant increases in haematocrit ( P = 0.044), MCV ( P = 0.008) and MCH ( P = 0.002). Despite the significant increase in MCV postoperatively, the median MCV postoperatively was below the RI, indicating persistence of microcytosis. Preoperatively, PT was above the upper RI in 14 cats (87.5%), and aPTT was above the upper RI in 11 cats (68.8%). No cat demonstrated a perioperative clinical bleeding complication. Conclusions and relevance Cats with a CPSS are likely to present with a microcytosis, but rarely present with anaemia, leukocytosis or thrombocytopenia. Surgical attenuation of the CPSS results in a significant increase in the HCT and MCV. Coagulation profiles in cats with a

  15. The Relationship Between Coat Color and Aggressive Behaviors in the Domestic Cat

    OpenAIRE

    Stelow, EA; Bain, MJ; Kass, PH

    2015-01-01

    © 2016 Taylor & Francis. The authors explored a possible relationship between coat color and aggressive behaviors in the domestic cat. This study used an Internet-based survey to collect information on coat color, affiliative behaviors toward cats/humans, agonistic behaviors toward cats/humans, other “problem” behaviors, and cat and guardian demographic data. A total of 1,432 cat guardians completed the online survey; after exclusions based on study protocol, data analysis included 1,274 co...

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging and feral cats on Amami Oshima Island, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    MATSUU, Aya; YOKOTA, Shin-ichi; ITO, Keiko; MASATANI, Tatsunori

    2017-01-01

    On Amami Oshima Island, free-ranging and feral cats are harmful to wildlife populations. In this study, the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in these cats was examined using a newly developed Gaussia luciferase immunoprecipitation system assay. Of 1,363 cats, 123 cats (9.0%) was positive for T. gondii. The prevalence was significantly different in different areas; among cats in the rural area, where many wild animals live, including endangered species, T. gondii infection was more prevalen...

  17. Demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Laura; Szczepanski, Julia; McDonagh, Phillip

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this survey was to provide up-to-date information on the demographics, lifestyle and veterinary care of cats in Australia and New Zealand. Methods An online survey consisting of 19 questions was created using SurveyMonkey. Cat owners were invited to participate through advertisements in veterinary clinics and social media. Results The average number of cats in a household was two. The majority of cats lived in free-standing houses (78%) in the suburbs (66%). The majority of cats were desexed (94% [49% female neutered; 45% male neutered]). A total of 57% of cats had been strays or came from an animal shelter. A total of 40% of owners had intended not to let the cats outside when they first acquired them. A total of 63% of cats were described as indoor-outdoor cats. Although owners described 34% of cats as 'indoor only', 58% of those cats had access to the outdoors. The majority of respondents' cats were vaccinated annually (63%) and visited a vet at least annually (79%). The most common reasons to take a cat to the vet were vaccinations or the cat being unwell. The most common reasons not to regularly take the cat to the vet were that the cat was never unwell, cost or stress for the cat. Conclusions and relevance Consideration of the lifestyle of cats is important to optimise veterinary care. Cats across Australia and New Zealand have a variety of different and changing lifestyles. Therefore, careful owner questioning is required at each visit to maximise healthcare outcomes for cats.

  18. Discrete-Event Simulation Unmasks the Quantum Cheshire Cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Kristel; Lippert, Thomas; Raedt, Hans De

    2017-05-01

    It is shown that discrete-event simulation accurately reproduces the experimental data of a single-neutron interferometry experiment [T. Denkmayr {\\sl et al.}, Nat. Commun. 5, 4492 (2014)] and provides a logically consistent, paradox-free, cause-and-effect explanation of the quantum Cheshire cat effect without invoking the notion that the neutron and its magnetic moment separate. Describing the experimental neutron data using weak-measurement theory is shown to be useless for unravelling the quantum Cheshire cat effect.

  19. Diet may influence the oral microbiome composition in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Christina J.; Malik, Richard; Browne, Gina V.; Norris, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease is highly prevalent amongst domestic cats, causing pain, gingival bleeding, reduced food intake, loss of teeth and possibly impacts on overall systemic health. Diet has been suggested to play a role in the development of periodontal disease in cats. There is a complete lack of information about how diet (composition and texture) affects the feline oral microbiome, the composition of which may influence oral health and the development of periodontal disease. We u...

  20. Studying Cat (Felis catus Diabetes: Beware of the Acromegalic Imposter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn J M Niessen

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring diabetes mellitus (DM is common in domestic cats (Felis catus. It has been proposed as a model for human Type 2 DM given many shared features. Small case studies demonstrate feline DM also occurs as a result of insulin resistance due to a somatotrophinoma. The current study estimates the prevalence of hypersomatotropism or acromegaly in the largest cohort of diabetic cats to date, evaluates clinical presentation and ease of recognition. Diabetic cats were screened for hypersomatotropism using serum total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1; radioimmunoassay, followed by further evaluation of a subset of cases with suggestive IGF-1 (>1000 ng/ml through pituitary imaging and/ or histopathology. Clinicians indicated pre-test suspicion for hypersomatotropism. In total 1221 diabetic cats were screened; 319 (26.1% demonstrated a serum IGF-1>1000 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 23.6-28.6%. Of these cats a subset of 63 (20% underwent pituitary imaging and 56/63 (89% had a pituitary tumour on computed tomography; an additional three on magnetic resonance imaging and one on necropsy. These data suggest a positive predictive value of serum IGF-1 for hypersomatotropism of 95% (95% confidence interval: 90-100%, thus suggesting the overall hypersomatotropism prevalence among UK diabetic cats to be 24.8% (95% confidence interval: 21.2-28.6%. Only 24% of clinicians indicated a strong pre-test suspicion; most hypersomatotropism cats did not display typical phenotypical acromegaly signs. The current data suggest hypersomatotropism screening should be considered when studying diabetic cats and opportunities exist for comparative acromegaly research, especially in light of the many detected communalities with the human disease.

  1. Cat and dog exposure and respiratory morbidities in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Christopher B; Raraigh, Karen S; Green, Deanna M; Blackman, Scott M; Cutting, Garry R; Collaco, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    To understand the triggers that may impact respiratory health in cystic fibrosis (CF), including the effects of pets, because environmental factors contribute to one-half of the variation in lung function in patients with CF. A total of 703 subjects with CF were recruited through the US CF Twin-Sibling Study. Questionnaires were used to determine the presence/absence of cats and dogs in households with a child with CF. Questionnaires, chart review, and US CF Foundation Patient Registry data were used to track respiratory and infection outcomes. Within the sample, 47% of subjects reported owning a dog, and 28% reported owning a cat. After adjustment for demographic factors, dog ownership was not associated with any adverse clinical outcomes, and cat ownership was associated an increased risk in developing nasal polyps (aOR 1.66; P = .024) compared with noncat owners. Subjects who owned both cats and dogs were twice as likely to report wheezing compared with other subjects (aOR: 2.01; P = .009). There were no differences in prevalence and age of acquisition for the common CF respiratory pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus between cat/dog owners and noncat/dog owners. Cat ownership was associated with a greater frequency of developing nasal polyps and combined cat-dog ownership was associated with a greater rate of wheezing. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and the potential psychosocial benefits of cat and/or dog ownership. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. RADTRAN 6/RadCat 6 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Ruth F.; Hinojosa, Daniel; Heames, Terence John; Farnum, Cathy Ottinger; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna

    2013-09-01

    This document provides a detailed discussion and a guide for the use of the RadCat 6.0 Graphical User Interface input file generator for the RADTRAN code, Version 6. RadCat 6.0 integrates the newest analysis capabilities of RADTRAN 6.0, including an economic model, updated loss-of-lead shielding model, a new ingestion dose model, and unit conversion. As of this writing, the RADTRAN version in use is RADTRAN 6.02.

  3. Bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes after a cat bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz

    2011-01-01

    Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....

  4. Virulence of Rhodococcus equi Isolated from Cats and Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Takai, Shinji; Martens, Ronald J.; Julian, Alan; Garcia Ribeiro, Márcio; Rodrigues de Farias, Marconi; Sasaki, Yukako; Inuzuka, Kazuho; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Tsubaki, Shiro; Prescott, John F.

    2003-01-01

    Nine cat isolates and nine dog isolates of Rhodococcus equi from clinical material were investigated for the presence of the virulence-associated antigens (VapA and VapB) and virulence plasmids. Five of the cat isolates and one dog isolate were VapA positive and contained an 85-kb type I or an 87-kb type I plasmid. The remaining 12 isolates were avirulent R. equi strains and contained no virulence plasmids.

  5. Percutaneous cholecystocentesis in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byfield, Victoria L; Callahan Clark, Julie E; Turek, Bradley J; Bradley, Charles W; Rondeau, Mark P

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic utility of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUC) in cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Methods Medical records of 83 cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease that underwent PUC were retrospectively reviewed. Results At the time of PUC, at least one additional procedure was performed in 79/83 cats, including hepatic aspiration and/or biopsy (n = 75) and splenic aspiration (n = 18). Complications were noted in 14/83 cases, including increased abdominal fluid (n = 11), needle-tip occlusion (n = 1), failed first attempt to penetrate the gall bladder wall (n = 1) and pneumoperitoneum (n = 1). There were no reports of gall bladder rupture, bile peritonitis or hypotension necessitating treatment with vasopressor medication. Blood products were administered to 7/83 (8%) cats. Seventy-two cats (87%) survived to discharge. Of the cats that were euthanized (9/83) or died (2/83), none were reported as a definitive consequence of PUC. Bacteria were identified cytologically in 10/71 samples (14%); all 10 had a positive aerobic bacterial culture. Bile culture was positive in 11/80 samples (14%). Of the cases with a positive bile culture, cytological description of bacteria corresponded to the organism cultured in fewer than 50% of cases. The most common cytologic diagnosis was hepatic lipidosis (49/66). The most common histopathologic diagnosis was cholangitis (10/21). Conclusions and relevance PUC was safe in this group of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complications were likely associated with ancillary procedures performed at the time of PUC. Bile analysis yielded an abnormal result in nearly one-third of cats with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Complete agreement between bile cytology and culture was lacking. Further evaluation of the correlation between bile cytology and bile culture is warranted.

  6. Luxation of the radial carpal bone in a cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, G.D.C.

    1996-01-01

    A case of radial carpal bone luxation in the cat and its management is described. Open reduction was performed and surgically maintained, in combination with repair of rupture of the short radial collateral ligament and joint capsule. The carpus was supported for one month following surgery by application of transarticular external fixation. Four months after treatment the cat was sound, despite evidence of degenerative joint disease. The mechanism of luxation appears to be analogous to that seen in the dog

  7. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, S. M [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner.

  8. Aging in cats: Common physical and functional changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Center, Sharon; Daristotle, Leighann; Estrada, Amara H; Flickinger, Elizabeth A; Horwitz, Debra F; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Lepine, Allan; Perea, Sally; Scherk, Margie; Shoveller, Anna K

    2016-07-01

    Aged pets comprise a significant proportion of the small animal veterinarian's patient population; in the USA, for example, it was estimated that over 20% of pet cats were 11 years of age or older in 2011. Certain changes associated with aging are neither positive nor negative, but others are less desirable, associated with illness, changes in mobility or the development of unwanted behaviors. These changes can greatly affect the health and wellbeing of the cat and have a tremendous impact on the owner. Regular veterinary examinations are essential for evaluating the health of older patients and for providing owners with guidance regarding optimal care. With the exception of overt disease, however, it is difficult to definitively determine if a cat is displaying changes that are appropriate for age or if they reflect an abnormal process or condition. This is the first of two review articles in a Special Issue devoted to feline healthy aging. The goals of the project culminating in these publications included developing a working definition for healthy aging in feline patients and identifying clinical methods that can be used to accurately classify healthy aged cats. This first review provides a thorough, systems-based overview of common health-related changes observed in cats as they age. There is a paucity of research in feline aging. The authors have drawn on expert opinion and available data in both the cat and other species. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Nutritional Management of Overweight and Obesity in Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana Teodora MATEI

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most common nutritional disorders are overweight and obesity, a proportion of approximately 59% of dogs and cats being affected. A permanent challenge for vets is weight management, including the prevention and treatment of overweight and obesity. Corporeal score and body-weight loss in dogs and cats have been monitored by feeding various diets. The study was conducted on a total of 10 animals (6 dogs and 4 cats, monitoring the effect of three types of food for dogs and two types for cats suffering from overweight and obesity.  Cooked food, dry food diet and premium dry food were investigated. We determined the quality and gross chemical composition of food and we measured corporeal score, weekly weight loss percentage and the number of calories consumed daily. We also appreciated the quality of life and activity level of the animals at the beginning and at the end of the trial. Nutritional management of investigated diets for overweight and obesity in dogs and cats revealed that through the smallest caloric restriction, dry food diet presented the highest efficiency, dogs and cats loosing weight steadily without losing muscle mass. Although the satiety effect occurs when the animals reach their ideal weight, the Rebound effect was not present.

  10. Food puzzles for cats: Feeding for physical and emotional wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Leticia Ms; Delgado, Mikel M; Johnson, Ingrid; Buffington, Ca Tony

    2016-09-01

    Many pet cats are kept indoors for a variety of reasons (eg, safety, health, avoidance of wildlife predation) in conditions that are perhaps the least natural to them. Indoor housing has been associated with health issues, such as chronic lower urinary tract signs, and development of problem behaviors, which can cause weakening of the human-animal bond and lead to euthanasia of the cat. Environmental enrichment may mitigate the effects of these problems and one approach is to take advantage of cats' natural instinct to work for their food. In this article we aim to equip veterinary professionals with the tools to assist clients in the use of food puzzles for their cats as a way to support feline physical health and emotional wellbeing. We outline different types of food puzzles, and explain how to introduce them to cats and how to troubleshoot challenges with their use. The effect of food puzzles on cats is a relatively new area of study, so as well as reviewing the existing empirical evidence, we provide case studies from our veterinary and behavioral practices showing health and behavioral benefits resulting from their use. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Ethiopian feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Choudhary, S; Tilahun, G; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Zou, X; Su, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies indicate greater genetic variability among isolates of Toxoplasma gondii worldwide than previously thought. However, there is no information on genetic diversity of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. In the present study, genotyping was performed on viable T. gondii isolates by bioassays in mice from tissues and feces of 27 cats from Ethiopia. Viable T. gondii was isolated from hearts of 26 cats, feces alone of 1 cat, and feces and tissues of 6 cats; in total there were 33 isolates. Genotyping was performed on DNA from cell-cultured derived T. gondii tachyzoites and by using 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism markers (SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico). Four genotypes were recognized, including ToxoDB #1 (Type II clonal, nine isolates), ToxoDB #2 (Type III, five isolates), Toxo DB #3 (Type II variant, ten isolates), and ToxoDB #20 (nine isolates). Of interest is the isolation of different genotypes from tissues and feces of two cats, suggesting re-infection or mixed strain T. gondii infection. These findings are of epidemiological significance with respect to shedding of oocysts by cats. This is the first report of genotyping of T. gondii from any host in Ethiopia. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Suspected zonisamide-related anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, Audrey; Sammut, Veronique

    2017-12-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION A 2-year-old neutered male domestic shorthair cat was evaluated for sudden onset of cluster seizures. CLINICAL FINDINGS At an emergency clinic, the cat had hyperimmunoglobulinemia and thrombocytopenia. On referral, treatment with levetiracetam, zonisamide, and phenobarbital initially provided good control of cluster seizure activity (attributable to epilepsy of unknow origin). Two weeks later, assessments revealed that serum phenobarbital concentration was within the ideal range but serum zonisamide concentration exceeded the recommended therapeutic range. The dosage of zonisamide was therefore decreased. Four days after dosage reduction, the cat developed generalized lymphadenopathy. Cytologic analysis of lymph node aspirate samples revealed a heterogeneous population of well-differentiated lymphocytes, interpreted as marked reactivity. Although neoplasia could not be ruled out, hypersensitivity to phenobarbital was suspected, and this treatment was discontinued. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME Despite cessation of phenobarbital administration, generalized peripheral lymphadenopathy progressed and hyperglobulinemia and cytopenias developed. These abnormalities resolved after discontinuation of zonisamide administration. The cat remained seizure free with no recurrence of the aforementioned concerns after reinstitution of phenobarbital treatment. CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of zonisamide-related lymphadenopathy, hyperglobulinemia, and cytopenias in a cat. Anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome is well documented in human medicine, but little information has been published in the veterinary medical literature. Although the effects of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome in this cat were serious, these effects were reversible with treatment discontinuation.

  13. Validation of an electrophoretic method to detect albuminuria in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlizza, Enea; Dondi, Francesco; Andreani, Giulia; Bucci, Diego; Archer, Joy; Isani, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to validate a semi-automated high-resolution electrophoretic technique to quantify urinary albumin in healthy and diseased cats, and to evaluate its diagnostic performance in cases of proteinuria and renal diseases. Methods Urine samples were collected from 88 cats (healthy; chronic kidney disease [CKD]; lower urinary tract disease [LUTD]; non-urinary tract diseases [OTHER]). Urine samples were routinely analysed and high-resolution electrophoresis (HRE) was performed. Within-assay and between-assay variability, linearity, accuracy, recovery and the lowest detectable and quantifiable bands were calculated. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was also performed. Results All coefficients of variation were HRE allowed the visualisation of a faint band of albumin and a diffused band between alpha and beta zones in healthy cats, while profiles from diseased cats were variable. Albumin (mg/dl) and urine albumin:creatinine ratio (UAC) were significantly ( P HRE is an accurate and precise method that could be used to measure albuminuria in cats. UAC was useful to correctly classify proteinuria and to discriminate between healthy and diseased cats. HRE might also provide additional information on urine proteins with a profile of all proteins (albumin and globulins) to aid clinicians in the diagnosis of diseases characterised by proteinuria.

  14. Feline hepatic biotransformation of diazepam: Differences between cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beusekom, Cyrina D; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Koenderink, Jan B; Russel, Frans G M; Schrickx, Johannes A

    2015-12-01

    In contrast to humans and dogs, diazepam has been reported to induce severe hepatic side effects in cats, particularly after repeated dosing. With the aim to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this apparent sensitivity of cats to drug-induced liver injury, in a series of in vitro experiments, the feline-specific biotransformation of diazepam was studied with liver microsomes obtained from cats and dogs and the possible inhibition of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) was measured in isolated membrane vesicles overexpressing feline and canine Bsep. In line with previous in vivo studies, the phase I metabolites nordiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam were measurable in microsomal incubations, although enzyme velocity of demethylases and hydroxylases differed significantly between cats and dogs. In cats, the main metabolite was temazepam, which also could be glucuronidated. In contrast to dogs, no other glucuronidated metabolites could be observed. In addition, in the membrane vesicles an inhibition of the transport of the Bsep substrate taurocholic acid could be observed in the presence of diazepam and its metabolites. It was concluded that both mechanisms, the slow biotransformation of diazepam as well the inhibition of the bile acid efflux that results in an accumulation of bile acids in the hepatocytes, seem to contribute to the liver injury observed in cats following repetitive treatment with diazepam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of cat brain infarction model using microPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. J.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, J. H.; Hwang, D. W.; Jung, J. G.; Lee, M. C; Lim, S. M

    2004-01-01

    PET has some disadvantage in the imaging of small animal due to poor resolution. With the advance of microPET scanner, it is possible to image small animals. However, the image quality was not so much satisfactory as human image. As cats have relatively large sized brain, cat brain imaging was superior to mice or rat. In this study, we established the cat brain infarction model and evaluate it and its temporal change using microPET scanner. Two adult male cats were used. Anesthesia was done with xylazine and ketamine HCl. A burr hole was made at 1cm right lateral to the bregma. Collagenase type IV 10 ul was injected using 30G needle for 5 minutes to establish the infarction model. F-18 FDG microPET (Concorde Microsystems Inc., Knoxville. TN) scans were performed 1. 11 and 32 days after the infarction. In addition. 18F-FDG PET scans were performed using Gemini PET scanner (Philips medical systems. CA, USA) 13 and 47 days after the infarction. Two cat brain infarction models were established. The glucose metabolism of an infraction lesion improved with time. An infarction lesion was also distinguishable in the Gemini PET scan. We successfully established the cat brain infarction model and evaluated the infarcted lesion and its temporal change using F-18 FDG microPET scanner

  16. Home range and diet of feral cats in Hawaii forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, T.D.; Lindsey, G.D.; Mosher, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    Feral cat Felis catus home range in a Hawaiian montane wet forest and their diet in three habitats - montane wet forest, subalpine dry forest, and lowland dry forest - were determined to provide baseline ecological data and to assess potential impacts to native terrestrial fauna. Seven cats (three males and four females) were captured in 624 trap nights. Mean weight of adult cats was 2.85 ?? 0.27 (SE) Kg for males and 1.87 ?? 0.03 kg for females. Mean diumal home range using the adaptive kernel method was 5.74 ?? 2.73 km2 for three males and 2.23 ?? 0.44 km2 for two females. Daytime locations were always within the montane wet forest with the borders on one or more sides of the home ranges of all cats defined by open grassland pastures. Rodents comprised the majority of the cat diets in all three habitats, with the frequencies of occurence between 0.88 and 0.91. Bird remains were a regular component of the diet of cats, with montane wet forest having the highest frequency of occurence (0.68), followed by subalpine dry forest (0.53), and lowland dry forest (0.21).

  17. L-strip proximity fed ga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of dualband L-strip fed compact semi-circular disk microstrip patch antenna has been presented using circuit theory concept. The antenna parameters such as return loss, VSWR and radiation pattern are calculated. The effect of geometric dimensions of the proposed antenna such as length of vertical and horizontal portion of L-strip is investigated. It is found that antenna resonate at two distinct modes i.e. 1.3 GHz and 6.13 GHz for lower and upper resonance frequencies respectively. The bandwidth of the proposed antenna at lower resonance frequency is 6.61% (simulated and 10.64% (theoretical whereas at upper resonance frequency, it is 6.02% (simulated and 9.06 % (theoretical. The theoretical results are compared with IE3D simulation results as well as experimental results and they are in close agreement.

  18. Prevalence of heartworm infection in cats with signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, C.; DeFrancesco, T.; Miller, M.; Meurs, K.; Keene, B.

    1998-01-01

    To determine prevalence of heartworm infection in a population of pet cats with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and to determine relative usefulness of clinical signs and tests in diagnosis of heartworm disease. Prospective case series. 100 client-owned cats with clinical signs of cardiorespiratory abnormalities. Cats were evaluated using CBC, modified Knott test, ELISA for serologic detection of heartworm antigen and antibodies to heartworms, thoracic radiography, and echocardiography. Cats were considered infected if they had circulating microfilaria, heartworm antigens in serum, or if heartworms were detected by echocardiography or on necropsy. Cats were considered suspicious for infection if they had 2 of the following: serum antibodies to heartworms, eosinophilia or basophilia, or indicative radiographic findings. 9 cats were infected with heartworms, resulting in a prevalence of 9%; 26 cats had evidence of heartworm exposure (i.e., serum antibodies to heartworms). Twenty cats were considered suspicious for heartworm infection. Some outdoor exposure was reported twice as often in heartworm-infected cats, compared with noninfected and suspicious cats. However, a third of infected cats were reportedly housed totally indoors. Cough and dyspnea were strong indicators of heartworm disease. Eight of 9 infected cats had serum antibodies to heartworms and heartworm antigen in serum. Thoracic radiography and echocardiography indicated heartworm infection in 6 and 7 of the 9 cats, respectively. Cough or dyspnea may indicate heartworm disease in cats; serologic tests, echocardiography, and radiography are most useful diagnostic procedures. Although living indoors is protective, it may not preclude heartworm infection in cats

  19. The grin of the Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, privatisation, liberalisation, de-regulation, in short, the 'British Model' dominated the policy agenda for electric utilities. At the heart of these reforms was a desire to transform the electricity industry from a monopoly into a competitive market so that electricity could be bought and sold like other commodities and products. However, from 2001 onwards, cracks in this policy became visible. Rather than admit the policy's failings, its advocates have tried to 'fix' the model by re-introducing planning. As planning replaces competition, increasingly, all that is left of the competitive element of the model is the free market rhetoric: 'the grin of the Cheshire cat.' But when supply security can no longer be guaranteed, politicians will be forced to act. For developed countries, the problems will be significant but they willingly opted for liberalisation and have the financial resources to deal with these problems, so sympathy must be limited. By contrast, developing countries often had little choice but to comply with the wishes of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Their industries have often suffered serious under-investment in the privatised market. It is these countries that the developed world has a duty to help and the IFIs must urgently re-assess their policies, and widely acknowledge their mistakes. (author)

  20. The grin of the Cheshire cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, privatisation, liberalisation, de-regulation, in short, the 'British Model' dominated the policy agenda for electric utilities. At the heart of these reforms was a desire to transform the electricity industry from a monopoly into a competitive market so that electricity could be bought and sold like other commodities and products. However, from 2001 onwards, cracks in this policy became visible. Rather than admit the policy's failings, its advocates have tried to 'fix' the model by re-introducing planning. As planning replaces competition, increasingly, all that is left of the competitive element of the model is the free market rhetoric: 'the grin of the Cheshire cat.' But when supply security can no longer be guaranteed, politicians will be forced to act. For developed countries, the problems will be significant but they willingly opted for liberalisation and have the financial resources to deal with these problems, so sympathy must be limited. By contrast, developing countries often had little choice but to comply with the wishes of the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Their industries have often suffered serious under-investment in the privatised market. It is these countries that the developed world has a duty to help and the IFIs must urgently re-assess their policies, and widely acknowledge their mistakes

  1. Katkor(R cat litter, a non-invasive method of collecting cat urine for phosphate determination : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. Delport

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was done to compare the collection of cat urine, for phosphate concentration determination, by catheterisation with that via a proprietary cat litter (Katkor (R. The passage of urine through the litter or its retention in the litter for a period of 2 hours did not affect the concentration of phosphates compared with that of the original sample. Apart from a small volume of urine trapped in the litter by capillary action, and some urine adhering to the funnel in which the litter was placed, the litter proved to be an excellent medium for routine urine collection from cats, and more especially as an alternative to catheterisation when regular collection from a particular cat is required.

  2. Repeatability of quantitative sensory testing in healthy cats in a clinical setting with comparison to cats with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Elena S; Clements, Dylan N

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability of quantitative sensory tests (QSTs) in a group of healthy untrained cats (n = 14) and to compare the results with those from cats with osteoarthritis (n = 7). Methods Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse were measured on a pressure plate system. Thermal sensitivity was assessed using a temperature-controlled plate at 7°C and 40°C. Individual paw lifts and overall duration of paw lifts were counted and measured for each limb. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using manual and electronic von Frey monofilaments (MVF and EVF, respectively) applied to the metacarpal or metatarsal pads. All measurements were repeated twice to assess repeatability of the tests. Results In healthy cats all tests were moderately repeatable. When compared with cats with osteoarthritis the PVF was significantly higher in healthy hindlimbs in repeat 1 but not in repeat 2. Cats with osteoarthritis of the forelimbs showed a decrease in the frequency of paw lifts on the 7°C plate compared with cats with healthy forelimbs, and the duration of paw lifts was significantly less than healthy forelimbs in the first repeat but not in the second repeat. Osteoarthritic limbs had significantly lower paw withdrawal thresholds with both MVF and EVF than healthy limbs. Conclusions and relevance QSTs are moderately repeatable in untrained cats. Kinetic gait analysis did not permit differentiation between healthy limbs and those with osteoarthritis, but thermal sensitivity testing (cold) does. Sensory threshold testing can differentiate osteoarthritic and healthy limbs, and may be useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of this condition in cats in the clinical setting.

  3. Pre- and post-weaning diet alters the faecal metagenome in the cat with differences vitamin and carbohydrate metabolism gene abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wayne; Moon, Christina D.; Thomas, David G.; Cave, Nick J.; Bermingham, Emma N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary format, and its role in pet nutrition, is of interest to pet food manufacturers and pet owners alike. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of pre- and post-weaning diets (kibbled or canned) on the composition and function of faecal microbiota in the domestic cat by shotgun metagenomic sequencing and gene taxonomic and functional assignment using MG-RAST. Post-weaning diet had a dramatic effect on community composition; 147 of the 195 bacterial species identified had significantly different mean relative abundances between kittens fed kibbled and canned diets. The kittens fed kibbled diets had relatively higher abundances of Lactobacillus (>100-fold), Bifidobacterium (>100-fold), and Collinsella (>9-fold) than kittens fed canned diets. There were relatively few differences in the predicted microbiome functions associated with the pre-weaning diet. Post-weaning diet affected the abundance of functional gene groups. Genes involved in vitamin biosynthesis, metabolism, and transport, were significantly enriched in the metagenomes of kittens fed the canned diet. The impact of post-weaning diet on the metagenome in terms of vitamin biosynthesis functions suggests that modulation of the microbiome function through diet may be an important avenue for improving the nutrition of companion animals. PMID:27876765

  4. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicirelli, Jon

    2014-01-01

    Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5%) recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program. PMID:25374785

  5. Study of the effect on shelter cat intakes and euthanasia from a shelter neuter return project of 10,080 cats from March 2010 to June 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cat impoundments were increasing at the municipal San Jose animal shelter in 2009, despite long-term successful low cost sterilization programs and attempts to lower the euthanasia rate of treatable-rehabilitatable impounds beginning in 2008. San Jose Animal Care and Services implemented a new strategy designed to control overall feral cat reproduction by altering and returning feral cats entering the shelter system, rather than euthanizing the cats. The purpose of this case study was to determine how the program affected the shelter cat intakes over time. In just over four years, 10,080 individual healthy adult feral cats, out of 11,423 impounded at the shelter during this time frame, were altered and returned to their site of capture. Included in the 11,423 cats were 862 cats impounded from one to four additional times for a total of 958 (9.5% recaptures of the previously altered 10,080 cats. The remaining 385 healthy feral cats were euthanized at the shelter from March 2010 to June 2014. Four years into the program, researchers observed cat and kitten impounds decreased 29.1%; euthanasia decreased from over 70% of intakes in 2009, to 23% in 2014. Euthanasia in the shelter for Upper Respiratory Disease decreased 99%; dead cat pick up off the streets declined 20%. Dog impounds did not similarly decline over the four years. No other laws or program changes were implemented since the beginning of the program.

  6. Analgesic efficacy of tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz P Monteiro

    Full Text Available This study aimed to (1 compare outcome assessments in normal and osteoarthritic cats and (2 evaluate the analgesic efficacy of tramadol in feline osteoarthritis (OA, in a prospective, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design.Twenty cats were included after clinical examination, blood work and full body radiographs were performed. In Phase 1, outcome assessments aimed to differentiate normal (n = 5; i.e. exempt of any radiographic and clinical sign of OA from OA (n = 15 cats. In Phase 2, OA cats were treated twice daily with a placebo (PG: cornstarch 15 mg or tramadol (TG: 3 mg/kg orally for 19 days, with a 3-month washout period between treatments. Evaluations were performed in normal and OA cats at baseline and consisted of: 1 peak vertical force (PVF after staircase exercise; 2 telemetered night-time motor activity (NMA; and 3 response to mechanical temporal summation (RMTS. After treatment, PVF, NMA and RMTS evaluations were repeated in OA cats. Data were analysed with mixed model methods with an alpha-threshold of 5%.Phase 1: 1 PVF (% of body weight; mean ± SD was higher in normal (59 ± 10.5 than in OA cats (50.6 ± 5.7 (p = 0.005; 2 NMA (no unit was not different between groups; 3 RMTS (number of stimuli; median (range was higher in normal [29.5 (23.5-30] than in OA cats [14 (8.5-28] (p < 0.0001. Phase 2: PVF, NMA and RMTS presented a treatment effect (p = 0.024, p = 0.008 and p = 0.018, respectively. No clinically important adverse-effects were observed.Outcome assessments such as kinetics (PVF and evaluation of central sensitisation (RMTS are discriminant of OA status. Mobility measured by NMA was not discriminant of OA status, however it increased in OA cats with tramadol treatment. Nociceptive hypersensitivity quantified by RMTS was evident in OA cats and was responsive to tramadol treatment.

  7. A cross-sectional study of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Oriana; Greenwood, Spencer; Vanderstichel, Raphael; Gelens, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A cross-sectional study examined the occurrence of Tritrichomonas foetus, and other intestinal parasites, in feral and shelter cats in Prince Edward Island (PEI). Fecal samples were collected from 100 feral cats, 100 cats from the PEI Humane Society, and 5 cats from a private residence. The occurrence of T. foetus, based on fecal culture, was 0% in feral and shelter cats. A single positive sample was obtained from an owned Abyssinian cat that was imported to PEI. Intestinal parasites were identified via fecal flotation in 76% of feral cats and 39% of cats from the humane society. Feral cats had a higher incidence of Toxocara cati than cats from the humane society (P cats had a higher incidence of Cystoisospora spp. (P feral and shelter cats in PEI, imported cats could serve as reservoirs.

  8. Rabies prevention and management of cats in the context of trap-neuter-vaccinate-release programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, A D; Johnson, D; Blanton, J D; Levin, M; Slate, D; Fenwick, G; Rupprecht, C E

    2014-06-01

    Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans' lives, but effective control of the 60-100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although trap-neuter-vaccinate-return (TNVR) programmes are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies post-exposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programmes are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Rabies Prevention and Management of Cats in the Context of Trap, Neuter, Vaccinate, Release Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebling, Allison D.; Johnson, Dana; Blanton, Jesse D.; Levin, Michael; Slate, Dennis; Fenwick, George; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Domestic cats are an important part of many Americans’ lives, but effective control of the 60–100 million feral cats living throughout the country remains problematic. Although Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Return (TNVR) programs are growing in popularity as alternatives to euthanizing feral cats, their ability to adequately address disease threats and population growth within managed cat colonies is dubious. Rabies transmission via feral cats is a particular concern as demonstrated by the significant proportion of rabies postexposure prophylaxis associated with exposures involving cats. Moreover, TNVR has not been shown to reliably reduce feral cat colony populations because of low implementation rates, inconsistent maintenance, and immigration of unsterilized cats into colonies. For these reasons, TNVR programs are not effective methods for reducing public health concerns or for controlling feral cat populations. Instead, responsible pet ownership, universal rabies vaccination of pets, and removal of strays remain integral components to control rabies and other diseases. PMID:23859607

  10. Lead exposure potentiates predatory attack behavior in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenjie; Han Shenggao; Gregg, T.R.; Kemp, F.W.Francis W.; Davidow, A.L.; Louria, D.B.; Siegel, Allan; Bogden, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that environmental lead exposure is associated with aggressive behavior in children; however, numerous confounding variables limit the ability of these studies to establish a causal relationship. The study of aggressive behavior using a validated animal model was used to test the hypothesis that there is a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggression in the absence of confounding variables. We studied the effects of lead exposure on a feline model of aggression: predatory (quiet biting) attack of an anesthetized rat. Five cats were stimulated with a precisely controlled electrical current via electrodes inserted into the lateral hypothalamus. The response measure was the predatory attack threshold current (i.e., the current required to elicit an attack response on 50% of the trials). Blocks of trials were administered in which predatory attack threshold currents were measured three times a week for a total of 6-10 weeks, including before, during, and after lead exposure. Lead was incorporated into cat food 'treats' at doses of 50-150 mg/kg/day. Two of the five cats received a second period of lead exposure. Blood lead concentrations were measured twice a week and were <1, 21-77, and <20 μg/dL prior to, during, and after lead exposure, respectively. The predatory attack threshold decreased significantly during initial lead exposure in three of five cats and increased after the cessation of lead exposure in four of the five cats (P<0.01). The predatory attack thresholds and blood lead concentrations for each cat were inversely correlated (r=-0.35 to -0.74). A random-effects mixed model demonstrated a significant (P=0.0019) negative association between threshold current and blood lead concentration. The data of this study demonstrate that lead exposure enhances predatory aggression in the cat and provide experimental support for a causal relationship between lead exposure and aggressive behavior in humans

  11. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in feral cats in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galemore, Erin R; Labato, Mary A; O'Neil, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and exposure in adult feral cats in Massachusetts, an endemic area for A phagocytophilum and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis . The secondary objective was to determine if there were correlations between A phagocytophilum infection and the presence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Blood samples were collected between June and December 2015 from 175 apparently healthy adult feral cats that were presented to trap and release spay/neuter centers in Massachusetts. Complete blood count, blood smear evaluation, SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX) and A phagocytophilum PCR were performed on all samples to document acute infection (PCR-positive and/or inclusions observed on blood smear) and exposure to A phagocytophilum (SNAP 4Dx Plus-positive for A phagocytophilum antibodies). The prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum in feral cats in Massachusetts was 9.7%, whereas the prevalence of acute infection was 6.9%. All blood smears were negative for Anaplasma species inclusions; therefore, acute infection was defined as testing positive on PCR analysis. No statistically significant correlations were identified for cats that were positive for A phagocytophilum on PCR analysis or SNAP 4Dx Plus test and the presence of anemia or thrombocytopenia. The prevalence of A phagocytophilum exposure in feral cats approaches 10% and is higher than the previously reported national average prevalence of 4.3% in the USA. A phagocytophilum infection may be an emerging infectious disease in cats. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of clinical illness associated with A phagocytophilum infection in cats living in endemic areas.

  12. Prevalence of infection in feral cats in Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin R Galemore

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection and exposure in adult feral cats in Massachusetts, an endemic area for A phagocytophilum and its tick vector Ixodes scapularis . The secondary objective was to determine if there were correlations between A phagocytophilum infection and the presence of anemia and thrombocytopenia. Methods Blood samples were collected between June and December 2015 from 175 apparently healthy adult feral cats that were presented to trap and release spay/neuter centers in Massachusetts. Complete blood count, blood smear evaluation, SNAP 4Dx Plus test (IDEXX and A phagocytophilum PCR were performed on all samples to document acute infection (PCR-positive and/or inclusions observed on blood smear and exposure to A phagocytophilum (SNAP 4Dx Plus-positive for A phagocytophilum antibodies. Results The prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum in feral cats in Massachusetts was 9.7%, whereas the prevalence of acute infection was 6.9%. All blood smears were negative for Anaplasma species inclusions; therefore, acute infection was defined as testing positive on PCR analysis. No statistically significant correlations were identified for cats that were positive for A phagocytophilum on PCR analysis or SNAP 4Dx Plus test and the presence of anemia or thrombocytopenia. Conclusions and relevance The prevalence of A phagocytophilum exposure in feral cats approaches 10% and is higher than the previously reported national average prevalence of 4.3% in the USA. A phagocytophilum infection may be an emerging infectious disease in cats. Further research is needed to determine the prevalence of clinical illness associated with A phagocytophilum infection in cats living in endemic areas.

  13. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziya Ilhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1–3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37 °C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1% of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%, followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%, M. nanum (1.1%, and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%, and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p > 0.05 association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal.

  14. Detection of seasonal asymptomatic dermatophytes in Van cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Ziya; Karaca, Mehmet; Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Solmaz, Hasan; Akkan, Hasan Altan; Tutuncu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The Van cat is a domestic landrace found in the Van province of eastern Turkey. In this study, we aimed to determine the seasonal carriage of dermatophytes in Van cats without clinical lesions. A total of 264 hair specimens were collected from clinically healthy cats in and around the Van Province. Of these samples, 30.3% were obtained in spring, 30.6% in summer, 16.6% in autumn, and 22.3% in winter; 45.1% of samples were from male cats and the rest from female ones. Of the studied cats, 118 were younger than 1 year, 78 were 1-3 years old, and 68 were older than 3 years. The specimens were subjected to direct microscopic examination with 15% potassium hydroxide and cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and dermatophyte test medium supplemented with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol. Dermatophyte identification was carried out based on macroscopic and microscopic colony morphology, urease activities, in vitro hair perforation test, growth at 37°C, and pigmentation on corn meal agar. Dermatophytes were isolated from 19 (7.1%) of the 264 specimens examined. The most frequently isolated fungi were Trichophyton terrestre (4.1%), followed by Microsporum gypseum (1.1%), M. nanum (1.1%), and T. mentagrophytes (0.7%), and these fungi may represent a health risk for humans in contact with clinically healthy Van cats. M. canis was not isolated from any of the specimens. Our results show no significant (p>0.05) association between carriage of dermatophytes and the gender of cats. The carriage rate of dermatophytes was high in spring and winter, and the only possible risk factor for infection was age of the animal. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Reference values for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Riond, Barbara; Jud Schefer, Rahel; Kutter, Annette P N

    2017-03-01

    To establish reference intervals for rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) using feline blood. Prospective study. University teaching hospital. Twenty-three clinically healthy cats between 1 and 15 years. For each cat, whole blood was collected via jugular or medial saphenous venipuncture, and blood was placed into a serum tube, a tube containing potassium-EDTA, and tubes containing 3.2% sodium citrate. The tubes were maintained at 37°C for a maximum of 30 minutes before coagulation testing. ROTEM tests included the EXTEM, INTEM, FIBTEM, and APTEM assays. In addition, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration (Clauss method) were analyzed for each cat. Reference intervals for ROTEM were calculated using the 2.5-97.5 th percentile for each parameter, and correlation with the standard coagulation profile was performed. Compared to people, clinically healthy cats had similar values for the EXTEM and INTEM assays, but had lower plasma fibrinogen concentrations (0.9-2.2 g/L), resulting in weaker maximum clot firmness (MCF, 3-10 mm) in the FIBTEM test. In 18 cats, maximum lysis (ML) values in the APTEM test were higher than in the EXTEM test, which seems unlikely to have occurred in the presence of aprotinin. It is possible that the observed high maximum lysis values were due to clot retraction rather than true clot lysis. Further studies will be required to test this hypothesis. Cats have a weaker clot in the FIBTEM test, but have a similar clot strength to human blood in the other ROTEM assays, which may be due to a stronger contribution of platelets compared to that found in people. In cats, careful interpretation of the results to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis is advised, especially with the APTEM test, until further data are available. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  16. Is cognitive adaptation training (CAT) compensatory, restorative, or both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Megan M; Mintz, Jim; Roberts, David L; Maples, Natalie J; Sarkar, Sonali; Li, Xueying; Velligan, Dawn I

    2015-08-01

    Cognitive adaptation training (CAT) is a psychosocial treatment incorporating environmental supports including signs, checklists to bypass the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. Our objective was to examine the association between CAT, functional outcomes, and cognitive test performance (cognition). The two research questions were as follows: 1) Does cognition mediate the effect of CAT intervention on functional outcome? 2) Does CAT impact cognitive test performance? A total of 120 participants with schizophrenia were randomized to one of three treatments: 1) CAT (weekly for 9months; monthly thereafter), 2) generic environmental supports (given to participants on clinic visits to promote adaptive behavior), or 3) treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments of cognition and functional outcome were conducted at baseline, 9 and 24months. Mediation analyses and mixed effects regression were conducted. Mediation analyses revealed that during the initial 9months, the direct path from treatment group to functional outcome on the primary measure was positive and highly significant. CAT significantly improved functional outcome compared to the other treatments. However, paths involving cognition were negligible. There was no evidence that cognition mediated improvement in functional outcomes. At 24months, cognition improved more in CAT compared to other treatment groups. The test for cognition mediating improvement in functional outcomes was not significant at this time point. However, improvement in functional outcome led to better performance on cognitive testing. We concluded that improvement in cognition is not a necessary condition for improvement in functional outcome and that greater engagement in functional behavior has a positive impact on cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CATS-based Air Traffic Controller Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callantine, Todd J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes intelligent agents that function as air traffic controllers. Each agent controls traffic in a single sector in real time; agents controlling traffic in adjoining sectors can coordinate to manage an arrival flow across a given meter fix. The purpose of this research is threefold. First, it seeks to study the design of agents for controlling complex systems. In particular, it investigates agent planning and reactive control functionality in a dynamic environment in which a variety perceptual and decision making skills play a central role. It examines how heuristic rules can be applied to model planning and decision making skills, rather than attempting to apply optimization methods. Thus, the research attempts to develop intelligent agents that provide an approximation of human air traffic controller behavior that, while not based on an explicit cognitive model, does produce task performance consistent with the way human air traffic controllers operate. Second, this research sought to extend previous research on using the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS) as the basis for intelligent agents. The agents use a high-level model of air traffic controller activities to structure the control task. To execute an activity in the CATS model, according to the current task context, the agents reference a 'skill library' and 'control rules' that in turn execute the pattern recognition, planning, and decision-making required to perform the activity. Applying the skills enables the agents to modify their representation of the current control situation (i.e., the 'flick' or 'picture'). The updated representation supports the next activity in a cycle of action that, taken as a whole, simulates air traffic controller behavior. A third, practical motivation for this research is to use intelligent agents to support evaluation of new air traffic control (ATC) methods to support new Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts. Current approaches that use large, human

  18. Age and body weight effects on glucose and insulin tolerance in colony cats maintained since weaning on high dietary carbohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, R C; Cave, N J; Ganjam, V K; Turner, J B M; Biourge, V C

    2010-12-01

    High dietary carbohydrate is suggested to promote development of diabetes mellitus in cats. Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion were assessed in young [0.8-2.3 (median = 1.1) years, n = 13] and mature [4.0-7.0 (median 5.8) years, n = 12] sexually intact females of a large (n ≅ 700) feline colony in which only dry-type diets (35% metabolizable energy as carbohydrate) were fed from weaning. Insulin sensitivity was assessed from the 'late-phase' (60-120 min) plasma insulin response of intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) and from fractional change in glycaemia from baseline 15 min after an insulin bolus (0.1 U/kg, i.v.). Insulin secretion was assessed from the 'early-phase' (0-15 min) plasma insulin response of IVGTTs. Compared to the young cats, the mature cats had greater body weights [2.3-3.8 (median = 2.9) vs. 3.0-6.3 (median = 4.0) kg, p < 0.01], greater late-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), lower insulin-induced glycaemic changes (p = 0.06), lower early-phase insulin responses (p < 0.05), and non-significantly different rates of glucose disposal. The late-phase insulin response was correlated with body weight and age (p < 0.05). When group assignments were balanced for body weight, the age-group differences and correlations became non-significant. The findings indicate that body weight gain is more likely than dry-type diets to induce the pre-diabetic conditions of insulin resistance and secretion dysfunction. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Therapeutic effects of an alpha-casozepine and L-tryptophan supplemented diet on fear and anxiety in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Gary; Milgram, Bill; Mougeot, Isabelle; Kelly, Stephanie; de Rivera, Christina

    2017-06-01

    Objectives This study assessed the anxiolytic effectiveness of a test diet (Royal Canin Feline Calm diet) supplemented with L-tryptophan and alpha-casozepine. Methods Subjects were 24 cats that were classified as mildly or markedly fearful based on the presence of a person in their home room. Three different protocols were used to assess anxiety: (1) evaluation of the response to a human in the cat's home room (home room test); (2) analysis of the response to placement in an empty test room (open-field test); and (3) analysis of the response to an unfamiliar human (human interaction test). All three protocols were first run at baseline, and the results were used to assign the animals to control and test diet groups that showed equivalent fear and anxiety. Both groups were retested on the three protocols after 2 weeks (test 1) and again after 4 weeks (test 2). Results The diet groups differed for two behavioral measures in the open-field test: inactivity duration and inactivity frequency. The control group showed statistically significant increases in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and baseline and test 2, while the group fed the test diet showed a marginally not significant decrease in inactivity duration between baseline and test 1 and a not significant decrease for test 2. There was also a significant increase in inactivity frequency between baseline and test 1 in the test diet group and marginally not significant decrease in the control group. There were no differences between groups in the approach of the cats toward people for the home room test and the human interaction test. Conclusions and relevance These results suggest that the test diet reduced the anxiety response to placement in an unfamiliar location, but that fear in the presence of an unfamiliar person was not counteracted by the diet.

  20. Understanding public perceptions of risk regarding outdoor pet cats to inform conservation action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramza, Ashley; Teel, Tara; VandeWoude, Susan; Crooks, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus) incur and impose risks on ecosystems and represent a complex issue of critical importance to biodiversity conservation and cat and human health globally. Prior social science research on this topic is limited and has emphasized feral cats even though owned cats often comprise a large proportion of the outdoor cat population, particularly in urban areas. To address this gap, we examined public risk perceptions and attitudes toward outdoor pet cats across varying levels of urbanization, including along the wildland-urban interface, in Colorado (U.S.A.), through a mail survey of 1397 residents. Residents did not view all types of risks uniformly. They viewed risks of cat predation on wildlife and carnivore predation on cats as more likely than disease-related risks. Additionally, risk perceptions were related to attitudes, prior experiences with cats and cat-wildlife interactions, and cat-owner behavior. Our findings suggest that changes in risk perceptions may result in behavior change. Therefore, knowledge of cat-related risk perceptions and attitudes could be used to develop communication programs aimed at promoting risk-aversive behaviors among cat owners and cat-management strategies that are acceptable to the public and that directly advance the conservation of native species. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.