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Sample records for random x-chromosomal inactivation

  1. A History of the Discovery of Random X Chromosome Inactivation in the Human Female and its Significance

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    Sophia Balderman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic determinants of sex in placental mammals developed by the evolution of primordial autosomes into the male and female sex chromosomes. The Y chromosome determines maleness by the action of the gene SRY, which encodes a protein that initiates a sequence of events prompting the embryonic gonads to develop into testes. The X chromosome in the absence of a Y chromosome results in a female by permitting the conversion of the embryonic gonads into ovaries. We trace the historical progress that resulted in the discovery that one X chromosome in the female is randomly inactivated in early embryogenesis, accomplishing approximate equivalency of X chromosome gene dosage in both sexes. This event results in half of the somatic cells in a tissue containing proteins encoded by the genes of the maternal X chromosome and half having proteins encoded by the genes of the paternal X chromosome, on average, accounting for the phenotype of a female heterozygote with an X chromosome mutation. The hypothesis of X chromosome inactivation as a random event early in embryogenesis was first described as a result of studies of variegated coat color in female mice. Similar results were found in women using the X chromosome-linked gene, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, studied in red cells. The random inactivation of the X chromosome-bearing genes for isoenzyme types A and B of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was used to establish the clonal origin of neoplasms in informative women with leiomyomas. Behind these discoveries are the stories of the men and women scientists whose research enlightened these aspects of X chromosome function and their implication for medicine.

  2. Activation of X Chromosome Inactivation

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    C.M. Maduro (Cheryl)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractIn mammals, males are the heterogametic sex having an X chromosome and a Y chromosome whereas females have two X chromosomes. Despite originating from an ancient homologous autosomal pair, the X and Y chromosome now differ greatly in size and gene content after ~180 MY of evolution.

  3. X chromosome inactivation in women with alcoholism.

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    Manzardo, Ann M; Henkhaus, Rebecca; Hidaka, Brandon; Penick, Elizabeth C; Poje, Albert B; Butler, Merlin G

    2012-08-01

    All female mammals with 2 X chromosomes balance gene expression with males having only 1 X by inactivating one of their X chromosomes (X chromosome inactivation [XCI]). Analysis of XCI in females offers the opportunity to investigate both X-linked genetic factors and early embryonic development that may contribute to alcoholism. Increases in the prevalence of skewing of XCI in women with alcoholism could implicate biological risk factors. The pattern of XCI was examined in DNA isolated in blood from 44 adult women meeting DSM-IV criteria for an alcohol use disorder and 45 control women with no known history of alcohol abuse or dependence. XCI status was determined by analyzing digested and undigested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of the polymorphic androgen receptor (AR) gene located on the X chromosome. Subjects were categorized into 3 groups based upon the degree of XCI skewness: random (50:50 to 64:36%), moderately skewed (65:35 to 80:20%), and highly skewed (>80:20%). XCI status from informative women with alcoholism was found to be random in 59% (n = 26), moderately skewed in 27% (n = 12), or highly skewed in 14% (n = 6). Control subjects showed 60, 29, and 11%, respectively. The distribution of skewed XCI observed among women with alcoholism did not differ statistically from that of control subjects (χ(2) test = 0.14, 2 df, p = 0.93). Our data did not support an increase in XCI skewness among women with alcoholism or implicate early developmental events associated with embryonic cell loss or unequal (nonrandom) expression of X-linked gene(s) or defects in alcoholism among women. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Non-random X chromosome inactivation in an affected twin in a monozygotic twin pair discordant for Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome

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    Oestavik, R.E.; Eiklid, K.; Oerstavik, K.H. [Ulleval Univ. Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1995-03-27

    Wiedemann-Beckwith syndrome (WBS) is a syndrome including exomphalos, macroglossia, and generalized overgrowth. The locus has been assigned to 11p15, and genomic imprinting may play a part in the expression of one or more genes involved. Most cases are sporadic. An excess of female monozygotic twins discordant for WBS have been reported, and it has been proposed that this excess could be related to the process of X chromosome inactivation. We have therefore studied X chromosome inactivation in 13-year-old monozygotic twin girls who were discordant for WBS. In addition, both twins had Tourette syndrome. The twins were monochorionic and therefore the result of a late twinning process. This has also been the case in previously reported discordant twin pairs with information on placentation. X chromosome inactivation was determined in DNA from peripheral blood cells by PCR analysis at the androgen receptor locus. The affected twin had a completely skewed X inactivation, where the paternal allele was on the active X chromosome in all cells. The unaffected twin had a moderately skewed X inactivation in the same direction, whereas the mother had a random pattern. Further studies are necessary to establish a possible association between the expression of WBS and X chromosome inactivation. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-06

    Nov 6, 2015 ... She predicted many of the features of X inactivation, for e.g., .... feature that locks silencing, i.e. DNA methylation at CpG islands of X-linked ..... 1996 XIST RNA paints the inactive X chromosome at interphase: evidence for a novel RNA involved in nuclear/chromosome structure. J. Cell Biol. 132, 259–275.

  6. The probability to initiate X chromosome inactivation is determined by the X to autosomal ratio and X chromosome specific allelic properties

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    Monkhorst, Kim; de Hoon, Bas; Jonkers, Iris; Mulugeta Achame, Eskeatnaf; Monkhorst, Wouter; Hoogerbrugge, Jos; Rentmeester, Eveline; Westerhoff, Hans V; Grosveld, Frank; Grootegoed, J Anton; Gribnau, Joost

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In female mammalian cells, random X chromosome inactivation (XCI) equalizes the dosage of X-encoded gene products to that in male cells. XCI is a stochastic process, in which each X chromosome has a probability to be inactivated. To obtain more insight in the factors setting up this

  7. Nonrandon X chromosome inactivation in B cells from carriers of X chromosome-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

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    Conley, M.E.; Lavoie, A.; Briggs, C.; Brown, P.; Guerra, C.; Puck, J.M.

    1988-05-01

    X chromosome-linked sever combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is characterized by markedly reduced numbers of T cells, the absence of proliferative responses to mitogens, and hypogammaglobulinemia but normal or elevated number of B cells. To determine if the failure of the B cells to produce immunoglobulin might be due to expression of the XSCID gene defect in B-lineage cells as well as T cells, the authors analyzed patterns of X chromosome inactivation in B cells from nine obligate carriers of this disorder. A series of somatic cell hybrids that selectively retained the active X chromosome was produced from Epstein-Barr virus-stimulated B cells from each woman. To distinguish between the two X chromosome, the hybrids from each woman were analyzed using an X-linked restriction fragment length polymorphism for which the woman in question was heterozygous. In all obligate carriers of XSCID, the B-cell hybrids demonstrated preferential use of a single X chromosome, the nonmutant X, as the active X. To determine if the small number of B-cell hybrids that contained the mutant X were derived from an immature subset of B cells, lymphocytes from three carriers were separated into surface IgM positive and surface IgM negative B cells prior to exposure to Epstein-Barr virus and production of B-cell hybrids. The results demonstrated normal random X chromosome inactivation in B-cell hybrids derived from the less mature surface IgM positive B cells. These results suggest that the XSCID gene product has a direct effect on B cells as well as T cells and is required during B-cell maturation.

  8. The probability to initiate X chromosome inactivation is determined by the X to autosomal ratio and X chromosome specific allelic properties.

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    Kim Monkhorst

    Full Text Available In female mammalian cells, random X chromosome inactivation (XCI equalizes the dosage of X-encoded gene products to that in male cells. XCI is a stochastic process, in which each X chromosome has a probability to be inactivated. To obtain more insight in the factors setting up this probability, we studied the role of the X to autosome (X ratio A ratio in initiation of XCI, and have used the experimental data in a computer simulation model to study the cellular population dynamics of XCI.To obtain more insight in the role of the XratioA ratio in initiation of XCI, we generated triploid mouse ES cells by fusion of haploid round spermatids with diploid female and male ES cells. These fusion experiments resulted in only XXY triploid ES cells. XYY and XXX ES lines were absent, suggesting cell death related either to insufficient X-chromosomal gene dosage (XYY or to inheritance of an epigenetically modified X chromosome (XXX. Analysis of active (Xa and inactive (Xi X chromosomes in the obtained triploid XXY lines indicated that the initiation frequency of XCI is low, resulting in a mixed population of XaXiY and XaXaY cells, in which the XaXiY cells have a small proliferative advantage. This result, and findings on XCI in diploid and tetraploid ES cell lines with different X ratio A ratios, provides evidence that the X ratio A ratio determines the probability for a given X chromosome to be inactivated. Furthermore, we found that the kinetics of the XCI process can be simulated using a probability for an X chromosome to be inactivated that is proportional to the X ratio A ratio. These simulation studies re-emphasize our hypothesis that the probability is a function of the concentration of an X-encoded activator of XCI, and of X chromosome specific allelic properties determining the threshold for this activator.The present findings reveal that the probability for an X chromosome to be inactivated is proportional to the X ratio A ratio. This finding

  9. CHM gene molecular analysis and X-chromosome inactivation pattern determination in two families with choroideremia.

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    Perez-Cano, Hector J; Garnica-Hayashi, Rosa E; Zenteno, Juan C

    2009-10-01

    Choroideremia is an X-linked recessive retinal dystrophy characterized by progressive loss of the photoreceptor, the retinal pigment epithelium, and the choriocapillaris layers which ultimately can result in blindness by the fifth decade of life. The disease is caused by mutations in the gene CHM, which encodes a protein involved in the regulation of intracellular vesicular traffic. Typically, hemizygous males are affected by the disease and female carriers are asymptomatic with only a diffuse mottled pattern of hyperpigmentation on funduscopy. Uncommon instances of fully affected females have been described previously and these cases are proposed to arise from an skewed Lyonization mechanism preferentially inactivating the X chromosome carrying the normal CHM allele. In this work, the clinical and molecular features of two Mexican families with choroideremia are described. A novel and a previously described CHM mutation were identified. X-chromosome inactivation assays were performed in a total of 12 heterozygous carriers from the two families. In an affected female from family A, a random X-inactivation pattern was demonstrated; on the other hand, in a female carrier from family B displaying a conspicuous pattern of pigment epithelium mottling at the peripheral retina, a skewed X-inactivation pattern was found. However, the X-chromosome preferentially inactivated in this female was the one carrying the mutated allele. Our results add to the genotypic spectrum in choroideremia and does not support a correlation between X-inactivation status and abnormal retinal phenotype in heterozygous female carriers from these two families.

  10. Paternal X inactivation does not correlate with X chromosome evolutionary strata in marsupials.

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    Rodríguez-Delgado, Claudia L; Waters, Shafagh A; Waters, Paul D

    2014-12-24

    X chromosome inactivation is the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in the somatic cells of female mammals. In eutherian mammals (e.g. humans) one of the two X chromosomes is randomly chosen for silencing, with about 15% (usually in younger evolutionary strata of the X chromosome) of genes escaping this silencing. In contrast, in the distantly related marsupial mammals the paternally derived X is silenced, although not as completely as the eutherian X. A chromosome wide examination of X inactivation, using RNA-seq, was recently undertaken in grey short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) brain and extraembryonic tissues. However, no such study has been conduced in Australian marsupials, which diverged from their American cousins ~80 million years ago, leaving a large gap in our understanding of marsupial X inactivation. We used RNA-seq data from blood or liver of a family (mother, father and daughter) of tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii), which in conjunction with available genome sequence from the mother and father, permitted genotyping of 42 expressed heterozygous SNPs on the daughter's X. These 42 SNPs represented 34 X loci, of which 68% (23 of the 34) were confirmed as inactivated on the paternally derived X in the daughter's liver; the remaining 11 X loci escaped inactivation. Seven of the wallaby loci sampled were part of the old X evolutionary stratum, of which three escaped inactivation. Three loci were classified as part of the newer X stratum, of which two escaped inactivation. A meta-analysis of previously published opossum X inactivation data revealed that 5 of 52 genes in the old X stratum escaped inactivation. We demonstrate that chromosome wide inactivation of the paternal X is common to an Australian marsupial representative, but that there is more escape from inactivation than reported for opossum (32% v 14%). We also provide evidence that, unlike the human X chromosome, the location of loci within the oldest evolutionary stratum on

  11. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on a recombinant human X chromosome: implications for the spreading of X chromosome inactivation

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    Mohandas, T.; Geller, R.L.; Yen, P.H.; Rosendorff, J.; Bernstein, R.; Yoshida, A.; Shapiro, L.J.

    1987-07-01

    A pericentric inversion of human X chromosome and a recombinant X chromosome (rec(X)) derived from crossing-over within the inversion was identified in a family. The rec(X) had a duplication of the segment Xq26.3 ..-->.. Xqter and a deletion of Xp22.3 ..-->.. Xpter and was interpreted to be Xqter ..-->.. Xq26.3::Xp22.3 ..-->.. Xqter. To characterize the rec(X) chromosome, dosage blots were done on genomic DNA from carriers of this rearranged X chromosome using a number of X chromosome probes. Results showed that anonymous sequences from the distal end of the long arm to which probes 4D8, Hx120A, DX13, and St14 bind as well as the locus for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) wee duplicated on the rec(X). Mouse-human cell hybrids were constructed that retained the rec(X) in the active or inactive state. Analyses of these hybrid clones for markers from the distal short arm of the X chromosome showed that the rec(X) retained the loci for steroid sulfatase (STS) and the cell surface antigen 12E7 (MIC2); but not the pseudoautosomal sequence 113D. These molecular studies confirm that the rec(X) is a duplication-deficiency chromosome as expected. In the inactive state in cell hybrids, STS and MIC2 (which usually escape X chromosome inactivation) were expressed from the rec(X), whereas G6PD was not. Therefore, in the rec(X) X chromosome inactivation has spread through STS and MIC2 leaving these loci unaffected and has inactivated G6PD in the absence of an inactivation center in the q26.3 ..-->.. qter region of the human X chromosome. The mechanism of spreading of inactivation appears to operate in a sequence-specific fashion. Alternatively, STS and MIC2 may have undergone inactivation initially but could not be maintained in an inactive state.

  12. Detailed analysis of X chromosome inactivation in a 49,XXXXX pentasomy

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    Menezes Albert N

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pentasomy X (49,XXXXX has been associated with a severe clinical condition, presumably resulting from failure or disruption of X chromosome inactivation. Here we report that some human X chromosomes from a patient with 49,XXXXX pentasomy were functionally active following isolation in inter-specific (human-rodent cell hybrids. A comparison with cytogenetic and molecular findings provided evidence that more than one active X chromosome was likely to be present in the cells of this patient, accounting for her abnormal phenotype. Results 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-pulsed cultures showed different patterns among late replicating X chromosomes suggesting that their replication was asynchronic and likely to result in irregular inactivation. Genotyping of the proband and her mother identified four maternal and one paternal X chromosomes in the proband. It also identified the paternal X chromosome haplotype (P, indicating that origin of this X pentasomy resulted from two maternal, meiotic non-disjunctions. Analysis of the HUMANDREC region of the androgen receptor (AR gene in the patient's mother showed a skewed inactivation pattern, while a similar analysis in the proband showed an active paternal X chromosome and preferentially inactivated X chromosomes carrying the 173 AR allele. Analyses of 33 cell hybrid cell lines selected in medium containing hypoxanthine, aminopterin and thymidine (HAT allowed for the identification of three maternal X haplotypes (M1, M2 and MR and showed that X chromosomes with the M1, M2 and P haplotypes were functionally active. In 27 cell hybrids in which more than one X haplotype were detected, analysis of X inactivation patterns provided evidence of preferential inactivation. Conclusion Our findings indicated that 12% of X chromosomes with the M1 haplotype, 43.5% of X chromosomes with the M2 haplotype, and 100% of the paternal X chromosome (with the P haplotype were likely to be functionally active in the

  13. Detection of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in Fragile X syndrome and X chromosome aneuploidy using quantitative melt analysis.

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    Godler, David E; Inaba, Yoshimi; Schwartz, Charles E; Bui, Quang M; Shi, Elva Z; Li, Xin; Herlihy, Amy S; Skinner, Cindy; Hagerman, Randi J; Francis, David; Amor, David J; Metcalfe, Sylvia A; Hopper, John L; Slater, Howard R

    2015-07-01

    Methylation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) exon 1/intron 1 boundary positioned fragile X related epigenetic element 2 (FREE2), reveals skewed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) in fragile X syndrome full mutation (FM: CGG > 200) females. XCI skewing has been also linked to abnormal X-linked gene expression with the broader clinical impact for sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs). In this study, 10 FREE2 CpG sites were targeted using methylation specific quantitative melt analysis (MS-QMA), including 3 sites that could not be analysed with previously used EpiTYPER system. The method was applied for detection of skewed XCI in FM females and in different types of SCA. We tested venous blood and saliva DNA collected from 107 controls (CGG X chromosomes, and in 5% of the 47,XXY individuals. MS-QMA output also showed significant correlation with the EpiTYPER reference method in FM males and females (P < 0.0001) and SCAs (P < 0.05). In conclusion, we demonstrate use of MS-QMA to quantify skewed XCI in two applications with diagnostic utility.

  14. X-linked sideroblastic anemia associated with a novel ALAS2 mutation and unfortunate skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns.

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    Aivado, Manuel; Gattermann, Norbert; Rong, Astrid; Giagounidis, Aristoteles A N; Prall, Wolf C; Czibere, Akos; Hildebrandt, Barbara; Haas, Rainer; Bottomley, Sylvia S

    2006-01-01

    Historically X-linked sideroblastic anemia, with rare exceptions, was thought to be manifested only in males. Since the discovery of the erythroid-specific isoform of 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) and the cloning of its gene (ALAS2) 15 years ago, mutation analysis has revealed that clinical expression of this X-linked disorder is prevalent in females as well. However, presence of the disease in both genders within affected kindreds appears to be very uncommon. We report a unique family with the disorder in three women who have had widely disparate clinical courses. The anemia is associated with a previously unrecognized ALAS2 mutation (Arg436Trp) and is unresponsive to pyridoxine. To clarify the varied clinical courses of the patients, X-chromosome inactivation patterns were examined in hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. We observed inactivation patterns supporting the conclusions that one daughter has a mild phenotype at age 31 because of moderate constitutive skewed X-chromosome inactivation, another daughter with clinical onset at age 16 is severely affected due to extreme constitutive X-skewing, whereas the mother developed progressive anemia in the fifth decade as she acquired an age-related non-random X-inactivation in hematopoietic cells. In addition, we observed random X-inactivation in reticulocytes of all three women that contrasted with a markedly skewed inactivation pattern in bone marrow erythroid cells. This discordance is attributable to apoptosis of erythroid precursors derived from progenitor cells with an active X-chromosome bearing the ALAS2 mutation. The features of the disorder in this family are also instructive in regard to the differential diagnosis of sideroblastic anemias in women.

  15. X chromosome-linked and mitochondrial gene control of Leber hereditary optic neuropathy: Evidence from segregation analysis for dependence on X chromosome inactivation

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    Xiangdong Bu; Rotter, J.I. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1991-09-15

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) has been shown to involve mutation(s) of mitochondrial DNA, yet there remain several confusing aspects of its inheritance not explained by mitochondrial inheritance alone, including male predominance, reduced penetrance, and a later age of onset in females. By extending segregation analysis methods to disorders that involve both a mitochondrial and a nuclear gene locus, the authors show that the available pedigree data for LHON are most consistent with a two-locus disorder, with one responsible gene being mitochondrial and the other nuclear and X chromosome-linked. Furthermore, they have been able to extend the two-locus analytic method and demonstrate that a proportion of affected females are likely heterozygous at the X chromosome-linked locus and are affected due to unfortunate X chromosome inactivation, thus providing an explanation for the later age of onset in females. The estimated penetrance for a heterozygous female is 0.11{plus minus}0.02. The calculated frequency of the X chromosome-linked gene for LHON is 0.l08. Among affected females, 60% are expected to be heterozygous, and the remainder are expected to be homozygous at the responsible X chromosome-linked locus.

  16. Familial skewed x chromosome inactivation in adrenoleukodystrophy manifesting heterozygotes from a Chinese pedigree.

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    Zhihong Wang

    Full Text Available X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene. Approximately 20% of X-ALD female carriers may develop neurological symptoms. Skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI has been proposed to influence the manifestation of symptoms in X-ALD carriers, but data remain conflicting so far. We identified a three generation kindred, with five heterozygous females, including two manifesting carriers. XCI pattern and the ABCD1 allele expression were assessed in order to determine if symptoms in X-ALD carriers could be related to skewed XCI and whether skewing within this family is more consistent with genetically influenced or completely random XCI.We found a high frequency of skewing in this family. Four of five females had skewed XCI, including two manifesting carriers favoring the mutant allele, one asymptomatic carrier favoring the normal allele, and one female who was not an X-ALD carrier. Known causes of skewing, such as chromosomal abnormalities, selection against deleterious alleles, XIST promoter mutations, were not consistent with our results.Our data support that skewed XCI in favor of the mutant ABCD1 allele would be associated with the manifestation of heterozygous symptoms. Furthermore, XCI skewing in this family is genetically influenced. However, the underlying mechanism remains to be substantiated by further experiments.

  17. Partial X chromosome trisomy with functional disomy of Xp due to failure of X inactivation

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    Gustashaw, K.M.; Zurcher, V.; Dickerman, L.H.; Stallard, R.; Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-10-15

    A 5-month-old girl with mild phenotypic abnormalities, developmental delay, and seizures was found to have the de novo karyotype 46,XX,-13,+der(13)t(X;13)(p21.2;p11.1). The partial trisomy of Xp21.2 {yields} pter was confirmed with fluorescence in situ hybridization, using an X chromosome painting probe and several cosmid and YAC probes for Xp sequences. Replication banding showed that one of the structurally normal X chromosomes was late-replicating, but that the Xp segment of the der(13) was early-replicating in all cells examined. Since segments of the X chromosome separated from the X inactivation center in Xq13.2 cannot undergo X inactivation, the result is functional disomy of distal Xp. As the loss of short arm material from chromosome 13 is not considered to be clinically significant, the genomic imbalance of Xp expressed in this patient most likely accounts for her abnormal phenotype. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The dynamic changes of X chromosome inactivation during early culture of human embryonic stem cells.

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    Xie, Pingyuan; Ouyang, Qi; Leng, Lizhi; Hu, Liang; Cheng, Dehua; Tan, Yueqiu; Lu, Guangxiu; Lin, Ge

    2016-07-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is required for dosage compensation of X-linked genes in human female cells. Several previous reports have described the promiscuous XCI status in long-term cultured female human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), and the majority of them exhibit non-random XCI. However, when and how such female hESCs acquire the aberrant XCI states during culture is unknown. Herein, through comparing the XCI states in 18 paired hES cell lines throughout early culture, we revealed a uniform dynamic change during this culture period under a widely used culture condition. The female initial hESCs (ihESCs, P4-P9) expressed XIST RNA, H3K27me3 punctate enrichment and displayed random XCI pattern. By further culturing, the female early hESCs (ehESCs, P20-P30) lost the expression of XIST RNA, H3K27me3 punctate enrichment and exhibited a completely skewed XCI pattern. Importantly, a subset of X-linked genes was up-regulated in ehESCs, including some cancer-related genes. At last, we found 5% physiological oxygen was beneficial for the expression of XIST and H3K27me3 punctate enrichment, but not for the XCI pattern. We conclude that the XCI dynamic change is a frequent epigenetic instability event during early culture, which is accompanied by the up-regulation of some X-linked genes. Furthermore, we emphasize that physiological oxygen is beneficial for XCI fidelity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. X-chromosomal inactivation directly influences the phenotypic manifestation of X-linked protoporphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancaleoni, V; Balwani, M; Granata, F; Graziadei, G; Missineo, P; Fiorentino, V; Fustinoni, S; Cappellini, M D; Naik, H; Desnick, R J; Di Pierro, E

    2016-01-01

    X-linked protoporphyria (XLP), a rare erythropoietic porphyria, results from terminal exon gain-of-function mutations in the ALAS2 gene causing increased ALAS2 activity and markedly increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Patients present with severe cutaneous photosensitivity and may develop liver dysfunction. XLP was originally reported as X-linked dominant with 100% penetrance in males and females. We characterized 11 heterozygous females from six unrelated XLP families and show markedly varying phenotypic and biochemical heterogeneity, reflecting the degree of X-chromosomal inactivation of the mutant gene. ALAS2 sequencing identified the specific mutation and confirmed heterozygosity among the females. Clinical history, plasma and erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels were determined. Methylation assays of the androgen receptor and zinc-finger MYM type 3 short tandem repeat polymorphisms estimated each heterozygotes X-chromosomal inactivation pattern. Heterozygotes with equal or increased skewing, favoring expression of the wild-type allele had no clinical symptoms and only slightly increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentrations and/or frequency of protoporphyrin-containing peripheral blood fluorocytes. When the wild-type allele was preferentially inactivated, heterozygous females manifested the disease phenotype and had both higher erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels and circulating fluorocytes. These findings confirm that the previous dominant classification of XLP is inappropriate and genetically misleading, as the disorder is more appropriately designated XLP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Transcriptome Characteristics and X-Chromosome Inactivation Status in Cultured Rat Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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    Vaskova, Evgeniya A; Medvedev, Sergey P; Sorokina, Anastasiya E; Nemudryy, Artem A; Elisaphenko, Evgeniy A; Zakharova, Irina S; Shevchenko, Alexander I; Kizilova, Elena A; Zhelezova, Antonina I; Evshin, Ivan S; Sharipov, Ruslan N; Minina, Julia M; Zhdanova, Natalia S; Khegay, Igor I; Kolpakov, Fedor A; Sukhikh, Gennadiy T; Pokushalov, Evgeniy A; Karaskov, Alexander M; Vlasov, Valentin V; Ivanova, Ludmila N; Zakian, Suren M

    2015-12-15

    Rat pluripotent stem cells, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) as mouse and human ones have a great potential for studying mammalian early development, disease modeling, and evaluation of regenerative medicine approaches. However, data on pluripotency realization and self-renewal maintenance in rat cells are still very limited, and differentiation protocols of rat ESCs (rESCs) and iPSCs to study development and obtain specific cell types for biomedical applications are poorly developed. In this study, the RNA-Seq technique was first used for detailed transcriptome characterization in rat pluripotent cells. The rESC and iPSC transcriptomes demonstrated a high similarity and were significantly different from those in differentiated cells. Additionally, we have shown that reprogramming of rat somatic cells to a pluripotent state was accompanied by X-chromosome reactivation. There were two active X chromosomes in XX rESCs and iPSCs, which is one of the key attributes of the pluripotent state. Differentiation of both rESCs and iPSCs led to X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). The dynamics of XCI in differentiating rat cells was very similar to that in mice. Two types of facultative heterochromatin described in various mammalian species were revealed on the rat inactive X chromosome. To explore XCI dynamics, we established a new monolayer differentiation protocol for rESCs and iPSCs that may be applied to study different biological processes and optimized for directed derivation of specific cell types.

  1. Abnormal X : autosome ratio, but normal X chromosome inactivation in human triploid cultures

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    Norwood Thomas H

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X chromosome inactivation (XCI is that aspect of mammalian dosage compensation that brings about equivalence of X-linked gene expression between females and males by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes (Xi in normal female cells, leaving them with a single active X (Xa as in male cells. In cells with more than two X's, but a diploid autosomal complement, all X's but one, Xa, are inactivated. This phenomenon is commonly thought to suggest 1 that normal development requires a ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set, and 2 that an early event in XCI is the marking of one X to be active, with remaining X's becoming inactivated by default. Results Triploids provide a test of these ideas because the ratio of one Xa per diploid autosomal set cannot be achieved, yet this abnormal ratio should not necessarily affect the one-Xa choice mechanism for XCI. Previous studies of XCI patterns in murine triploids support the single-Xa model, but human triploids mostly have two-Xa cells, whether they are XXX or XXY. The XCI patterns we observe in fibroblast cultures from different XXX human triploids suggest that the two-Xa pattern of XCI is selected for, and may have resulted from rare segregation errors or Xi reactivation. Conclusion The initial X inactivation pattern in human triploids, therefore, is likely to resemble the pattern that predominates in murine triploids, i.e., a single Xa, with the remaining X's inactive. Furthermore, our studies of XIST RNA accumulation and promoter methylation suggest that the basic features of XCI are normal in triploids despite the abnormal X:autosome ratio.

  2. Independent clonal origin of multiple uterine leiomyomas that was determined by X chromosome inactivation and microsatellite analysis

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    Canevari, Renata A; Pontes, Anaglória; Rosa, Fabíola E

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In an attempt to clarify the clonality and genetic relationships that are involved in the tumorigenesis of uterine leiomyomas, we used a total of 43 multiple leiomyomas from 14 patients and analyzed the allelic status with 15 microsatellite markers and X chromosome inactivation analysis....... STUDY DESIGN: We have used a set of 15 microsatellite polymorphism markers mapped on 3q, 7p, 11, and 15q by automated analysis. The X chromosome inactivation was evaluated by the methylation status of the X-linked androgen receptor gene. RESULTS: Loss of heterozygosity analysis showed a different...... pattern in 7 of the 8 cases with allelic loss for at least 1 of 15 microsatellite markers that were analyzed. A similar loss of heterozygosity findings at 7p22-15 was detected in 3 samples from the same patient. X chromosome inactivation analysis demonstrated the same inactivated allele in all tumors...

  3. X chromosome inactivation: new players in the initiation of gene silencing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Pinheiro

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation (XCI is a dosage compensation process that was adopted by female mammals to balance gene dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI starts with the upregulation of the non-coding RNA Xist, after which most X-linked genes are silenced and acquire a repressive chromatin state. Even though the chromatin marks of the inactive X have been fairly well described, the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of XCI remain largely unknown. In this review, we discuss recent developments that revealed unexpected factors playing a role in XCI and that might be of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms responsible for the very first steps of this chromosome-wide gene-silencing event.

  4. X chromosome inactivation in human pluripotent stem cells as a model for human development: back to the drawing board?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geens, Mieke; Chuva De Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2017-09-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), both embryonic and induced (hESC and hiPSC), are regarded as a valuable in vitro model for early human development. In order to fulfil this promise, it is important that these cells mimic as closely as possible the in vivo molecular events, both at the genetic and epigenetic level. One of the most important epigenetic events during early human development is X chromosome inactivation (XCI), the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in female cells. XCI is important for proper development and aberrant XCI has been linked to several pathologies. Recently, novel data obtained using high throughput single-cell technology during human preimplantation development have suggested that the XCI mechanism is substantially different from XCI in mouse. It has also been suggested that hPSC show higher complexity in XCI than the mouse. Here we compare the available recent data to understand whether XCI during human preimplantation can be properly recapitulated using hPSC. We will summarize what is known on the timing and mechanisms of XCI during human preimplantation development. We will compare this to the XCI patterns that are observed during hPSC derivation, culture and differentiation, and comment on the cause of the aberrant XCI patterns observed in hPSC. Finally, we will discuss the implications of the aberrant XCI patterns on the applicability of hPSC as an in vitro model for human development and as cell source for regenerative medicine. Combinations of the following keywords were applied as search criteria in the PubMed database: X chromosome inactivation, preimplantation development, embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, primordial germ cells, differentiation. Recent single-cell RNASeq data have shed new light on the XCI process during human preimplantation development. These indicate a gradual inactivation on both XX chromosomes, starting from Day 4 of development and followed by a random choice

  5. Demonstration of the cell clonality in canine hematopoietic tumors by X-chromosome inactivation pattern analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Goto-Koshino, Y; Takahashi, M; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2015-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation pattern (XCIP) analysis has been widely used to assess cell clonality in various types of human neoplasms. In this study, a polymerase chain reaction-based canine XCIP analysis of the androgen receptor (AR) gene was applied for the assessment of cell clonality in canine hematopoietic tumors. This XCIP analysis is based on the polymorphic CAG repeats in the AR gene and the difference of methylation status between active and inactive X chromosomes. We first examined the polymorphisms of 2 CAG tandem repeats in the AR gene in 52 male and 150 female dogs of various breeds. The 2 polymorphic CAG repeats contained 9 to 12 and 10 to 14 CAGs in the first and second CAG repeats, respectively. Of the 150 female dogs, 74 (49.3%) were heterozygous for the first and/or second polymorphic CAG tandem repeats, indicating the utility of XCIP analysis in these dogs. Canine XCIP analysis was then applied to clinical samples from female dogs with canine high-grade lymphoma, chronic myelogenous leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, and benign lymph node hyperplasia. Of 10 lymphoma cell samples, 9 (90%) showed skewed XCIPs, indicating their clonal origins, whereas all the nonneoplastic lymph node samples showed balanced XCIPs. Moreover, bone marrow specimen from a dog with acute myelogenous leukemia and peripheral leukocyte specimens from 2 dogs with chronic myelogenous leukemia showed skewed XCIPs. XCIP analysis was successfully employed to demonstrate the cell clonality of canine hematopoietic tumors in this study and will be applicable to evaluate the clonality in various proliferative disorders in dogs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Identification of novel RFLPs in the vicinity of CpG islands in Xq28: Application to the analysis of the pattern of X chromosome inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camerino, G.; Santachiara-Benerecetti, S. (Univ. di Pavia (Italy)); Rocchi, M. (Univ. di Bari (Italy)); Parolini, O.; Notarangelo, L.D. (Univ. di Brecscia (Italy)); Maestrini, E.; Rivella, S.; Tribioli, C.; Toniolo, D.

    1992-01-01

    Probes of CpG islands were cloned from the distal long arm of the human X chromosome; three of them were found to be polymorphic. A HindIII RFLP was identified by the probe 2-25 (DXS606), and it was mapped to the Xq27-Xq28 boundary. Probes 2-19 (DXS605) and 2-55 (DXS707), which identify EcoRI and MspI polymorphisms, respectively, have been mapped to the distal part of Xq28, in the G6PD-RCP/GCP gene region. Probe 2-19 has been further localized about 16 kb from the 3{prime} end of the G6PD gene. The new RFLPs may be useful for the precise mapping of the many disease genes localized in this part of the human X chromosome. Using the methylation-sensitive rare-cutter enzyme EagI in conjunction with the polymorphic EcoRI site, the authors were able to demonstrate that the RFLP may be used both to study randomness of X chromosome inactivation and for carrier detection in X-linked syndromes where nonrandom X inactivation occurs. It is conceivable that the combined use of 2-19 and of the probes described so far (pSPT-PGK and M27{beta}) will make analysis of X inactivation feasible in virtually every female.

  7. Nonrandom X chromosome inactivation in natural killer cells from obligate carriers of X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengler, G.S.; Parolini, O.; Conley, M.E. (Univ. of Tennessee, Memphis (United States) St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)); Allen, R.C. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Smith, H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States))

    1993-01-15

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) is characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, markedly reduced numbers of T cells, absent mitogen responses, decreased numbers of NK cells, and normal or elevated numbers of B cells. The abnormalities in the NK cell and B cell lineages could be attributed to dependence of these cell lineages on T cells or T cell-derived factors, or to expression of the XSCID gene defect in these cell lineages. In past experiments, the authors have examined X chromosome inactivation patterns in T cells and cultured B cells from female obligate carriers of XSCID and have found that both cell lineages demonstrate nonrandom X chromosome inactivation. This indicates that the gene defect is intrinsic to both of these cell lineages. In the present experiments, a polymerase chain reaction technique was used to evaluate X chromosome inactivation patterns in highly purified populations of freshly isolated NK cells, B cells, CD4[sup +] cells, and CD8[sup +] cells from three obligate carriers of XSCID. All four lymphoid cell populations from these three women exhibited exclusive use of a single X as the active X. In contrast, both X chromosomes were used as the active X in neutrophils and monocytes. These findings indicate that the XSCID gene is expressed in the NK cell lineage as well as in T cells and B cells. This observation makes it highly unlikely that the XSCID gene is involved in Ag receptor gene rearrangements. 21 refs., 4 figs.

  8. X-chromosome inactivation pattern analysis for the assessment of cell clonality in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, H; Goto-Koshino, Y; Takahashi, M; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2012-11-01

    X-chromosome inactivation pattern (XCIP) analysis has been widely used to assess cell clonality in various types of neoplasms in humans. In the present study, a polymerase chain reaction-based feline XCIP analysis using the feline androgen receptor gene was developed. To construct the system of the analysis, polymorphism in CAG tandem repeats within the feline androgen receptor gene was explored using somatic DNAs from 50 male and 103 female cats. CAG tandem repeats in exon 1 of the feline androgen receptor gene were found to be polymorphic, containing 15 to 22 CAG repeats. Of the 103 female cats, 70 (68%) were heterozygous for the number of CAG repeats, indicating the possible usefulness of XCIP analysis in cats. Application of the feline XCIP analysis to 3 feline mammary gland adenocarcinoma cell lines revealed distinctly skewed XCIPs in these cell lines, indicating their clonal origins. Twelve (80%) of the 15 primary tissue/cell samples obtained from cats with various neoplastic diseases showed skewed XCIPs. Moreover, bone marrow samples from 3 cats with myelodysplastic syndrome were also found to have skewed XCIPs. The polymerase chain reaction-based XCIP analysis developed in this study can provide information on cell clonality in female cats, potentially facilitating the differential diagnosis of various disorders in cats.

  9. Characterization of X chromosome inactivation using integrated analysis of whole-exome and mRNA sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Szelinger

    Full Text Available In females, X chromosome inactivation (XCI is an epigenetic, gene dosage compensatory mechanism by inactivation of one copy of X in cells. Random XCI of one of the parental chromosomes results in an approximately equal proportion of cells expressing alleles from either the maternally or paternally inherited active X, and is defined by the XCI ratio. Skewed XCI ratio is suggestive of non-random inactivation, which can play an important role in X-linked genetic conditions. Current methods rely on indirect, semi-quantitative DNA methylation-based assay to estimate XCI ratio. Here we report a direct approach to estimate XCI ratio by integrated, family-trio based whole-exome and mRNA sequencing using phase-by-transmission of alleles coupled with allele-specific expression analysis. We applied this method to in silico data and to a clinical patient with mild cognitive impairment but no clear diagnosis or understanding molecular mechanism underlying the phenotype. Simulation showed that phased and unphased heterozygous allele expression can be used to estimate XCI ratio. Segregation analysis of the patient's exome uncovered a de novo, interstitial, 1.7 Mb deletion on Xp22.31 that originated on the paternally inherited X and previously been associated with heterogeneous, neurological phenotype. Phased, allelic expression data suggested an 83∶20 moderately skewed XCI that favored the expression of the maternally inherited, cytogenetically normal X and suggested that the deleterious affect of the de novo event on the paternal copy may be offset by skewed XCI that favors expression of the wild-type X. This study shows the utility of integrated sequencing approach in XCI ratio estimation.

  10. The pituitary-thyroid axis set point in women is uninfluenced by X chromosome inactivation pattern? A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas H; Hansen, Pia S; Kyvik, Kirsten O

    2010-01-01

    The pituitary-thyroid axis (PTA) set point is determined by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. However, despite considerable efforts to characterize the background, the causative genes as well as environmental factors are not well established. Theoretically, as shown for autoimmune...... thyroid disease, the pattern of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) could offer a novel explanation for the observed variability of the PTA set point in women....

  11. Determining the role of skewed X-chromosome inactivation in developing muscle symptoms in carriers of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Emanuela; Ergoli, Manuela; Picillo, Esther; Politano, Luisa

    2016-07-01

    Duchenne and Becker dystrophinopathies (DMD and BMD) are X-linked recessive disorders caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene that lead to absent or reduced expression of dystrophin in both skeletal and heart muscles. DMD/BMD female carriers are usually asymptomatic, although about 8 % may exhibit muscle or cardiac symptoms. Several mechanisms leading to a reduced dystrophin have been hypothesized to explain the clinical manifestations and, in particular, the role of the skewed XCI is questioned. In this review, the mechanism of XCI and its involvement in the phenotype of BMD/DMD carriers with both a normal karyotype or with X;autosome translocations with breakpoints at Xp21 (locus of the DMD gene) will be analyzed. We have previously observed that DMD carriers with moderate/severe muscle involvement, exhibit a moderate or extremely skewed XCI, in particular if presenting with an early onset of symptoms, while DMD carriers with mild muscle involvement present a random XCI. Moreover, we found that among 87.1 % of the carriers with X;autosome translocations involving the locus Xp21 who developed signs and symptoms of dystrophinopathy such as proximal muscle weakness, difficulty to run, jump and climb stairs, 95.2 % had a skewed XCI pattern in lymphocytes. These data support the hypothesis that skewed XCI is involved in the onset of phenotype in DMD carriers, the X chromosome carrying the normal DMD gene being preferentially inactivated and leading to a moderate-severe muscle involvement.

  12. Living with two X chromosomes: of mice and women : studies on the initiation mechanisms of X chromosome inactivation in stem cells and mouse models, and the role of RNF12 herein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.S. Barakat (Tahsin Stefan)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this thesis work, we have investigated mechanisms involved in regulation of the initiation of X chromosome inactivation (XCI). Starting point was our earlier hypothesis that the initiation of XCI is a stochastic process, controlled in trans by autosomally-encoded

  13. X chromosome inactivation in mammalian embryonic development/Inactivación del cromosoma X en el desarrollo embrionario mamífero/Inativação do cromossomo X no desenvolvimento embrionário dos mamíferos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mariano Eliécer Acosta Lobo; Neil Aldrin Vásquez Araque; Luis Fernando Londoño Franco

    2013-01-01

    .... The inactivation of the X chromosome is a multiepigenetic process closely linked to embryonic development, involving the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes in mammalian females cells...

  14. X-chromosome inactivation patterns in monozygotic twins and sib pairs discordant for nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimani, Jane W; Shi, Min; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Nonsyndromic clefts of the lip and/or palate are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. Based on unequal gender ratios for clefting phenotypes, evidence for linkage to the X chromosome and the occurrence of several X-linked clefting syndromes, we investigated the role of skewed X...... of XCI was defined as the deviation in inactivation pattern from a 50:50 ratio. Our analysis revealed no significant difference in the degree of skewing between twin pairs (P = 0.3). However, borderline significant differences were observed in the sister pairs (P = 0.02), with the cleft lip with cleft......, particularly cleft lip and palate....

  15. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Machiela, MJ; Zhou, W; Karlins, E. (Eric); Sampson, JN; Freedman, ND; Yang, Q.; Hicks, B.; Dagnall, C; Hautman, C; Jacobs, KB; Abnet, CC; Aldrich, MC; Amos, C; Amundadottir, LT; Arslan, AA

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events....

  16. X-autosome and X-Y translocations in female carriers: X-chromosome inactivation easily detectable by 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donat M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we report one new case each of an X-autosome translocation (maternally derived, and an X-Y-chromosome translocation. Besides characterizing the involved breakpoints and/or imbalances in detail by molecular cyto-genetics, also skewed X-chromosome inactivation was determined on single cell level using 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU. Thus, we confirmed that the recently suggested EdU approach can be simply adapted for routine diagnostic use. The latter is important, as only by knowing the real pattern of the skewed X-chromosome inactivation, correct interpretation of obtained results and subsequent reliable genetic counseling, can be done.

  17. X Chromosome inactivation pattern is not associated with interindividual variations in thyroid volume: a study of euthyroid danish female twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Bennedbak, Finn Noe

    2009-01-01

    Ahigher frequency of skewed X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is found in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) than in controls. Although goitre is often present in AITD, a recent study failed to show an association between XCI and clinically overt nontoxic goitre. However, the etiology...... a statistically significant association between XCI and thyroid volume: Regression coefficient (beta) = 0.023 (95% confidence interval, -0.062-0.108), p = 0.592 and beta = 0.038 (-0.080-0.156), p = 0.521, respectively. Controlling for potential confounders such as zygosity, age, TSH, smoking habits and use...... of oral contraceptives did not change the findings. In conclusion, in a sample of euthyroid Danish female twins, we found no evidence of a relationship between XCI pattern and thyroid volume....

  18. Association of skewed X chromosome inactivation and idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yilun; Chen, Qianqian; Sun, Xiaoxi

    2015-08-01

    Evidence of an association between skewed X chromosome inactivation (SXCI) and idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is conflicting. No consensus has been reached on the degree of SXCI and the number of pregnancy losses in patients who have experienced RSA. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, different degrees of skewing and definitions of RSA are used to establish an association between SXCI and idiopathic RSA. Twelve studies comprising 1594 women who had experienced RSA and 1924 controls were included. No significant association was found between SXCI and RSA when 80 or 90% was used as cut-off value of skewing; more stringent 95% or greater SXCI was significantly higher in women who had experienced RSA than in controls (odds ratio [OR] = 4.27, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.46 to 12.46). A significantly higher incidence of SXCI when defined as greater than 90% (or ≥90%) was found in women who had experienced RSA with three or more pregnancy losses (OR = 2.31, 95% CI 1.41, 3.78); significance diminished when RSA was defined as two or more losses. Extreme skewing of SXCI is associated with idiopathic RSA with three or more losses. More studies are needed to validate the potential genetic mechanism. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evolution from XIST-Independent to XIST-Controlled X-Chromosome Inactivation: Epigenetic Modifications in Distantly Related Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koina, Edda; Gilbert, Clément; Robinson, Terence J.; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is the transcriptional silencing of one X in female mammals, balancing expression of X genes between females (XX) and males (XY). In placental mammals non-coding XIST RNA triggers silencing of one X (Xi) and recruits a characteristic suite of epigenetic modifications, including the histone mark H3K27me3. In marsupials, where XIST is missing, H3K27me3 association seems to have different degrees of stability, depending on cell-types and species. However, the complete suite of histone marks associated with the Xi and their stability throughout cell cycle remain a mystery, as does the evolution of an ancient mammal XCI system. Our extensive immunofluorescence analysis (using antibodies against specific histone modifications) in nuclei of mammals distantly related to human and mouse, revealed a general absence from the mammalian Xi territory of transcription machinery and histone modifications associated with active chromatin. Specific repressive modifications associated with XCI in human and mouse were also observed in elephant (a distantly related placental mammal), as was accumulation of XIST RNA. However, in two marsupial species the Xi either lacked these modifications (H4K20me1), or they were restricted to specific windows of the cell cycle (H3K27me3, H3K9me2). Surprisingly, the marsupial Xi was stably enriched for modifications associated with constitutive heterochromatin in all eukaryotes (H4K20me3, H3K9me3). We propose that marsupial XCI is comparable to a system that evolved in the common therian (marsupial and placental) ancestor. Silent chromatin of the early inactive X was exapted from neighbouring constitutive heterochromatin and, in early placental evolution, was augmented by the rise of XIST and the stable recruitment of specific histone modifications now classically associated with XCI. PMID:21541345

  20. Demasculinization of the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnusson Kalle

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a number of organisms sex-biased genes are non-randomly distributed between autosomes and the shared sex chromosome X (or Z. Studies on Anopheles gambiae have produced conflicting results regarding the underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X chromosome and it is unclear to what extent sexual antagonism, dosage compensation or X-inactivation in the male germline, the evolutionary forces that have been suggested to affect the chromosomal distribution of sex-biased genes, are operational in Anopheles. Results We performed a meta-analysis of sex-biased gene expression in Anopheles gambiae which provides evidence for a general underrepresentation of male-biased genes on the X-chromosome that increased in significance with the observed degree of sex-bias. A phylogenomic comparison between Drosophila melanogaster, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus also indicates that the Anopheles X chromosome strongly disfavours the evolutionary conservation of male-biased expression and that novel male-biased genes are more likely to arise on autosomes. Finally, we demonstrate experimentally that transgenes situated on the Anopheles gambiae X chromosome are transcriptionally silenced in the male germline. Conclusion The data presented here support the hypothesis that the observed demasculinization of the Anopheles X chromosome is driven by X-chromosome inactivation in the male germline and by sexual antagonism. The demasculinization appears to be the consequence of a loss of male-biased expression, rather than a failure in the establishment or the extinction of male-biased genes.

  1. Studies of X inactivation and isodisomy in twins provide further evidence that the X chromosomes is not involved in Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; Dunn, M.A.; Schmeckpeper, B.J.; Naidu, S. [Johns Hophins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Thomas, G. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)]|[Kennedy-Kreiger Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rett syndrome (RS), a progressive encephalopathy with onset in infancy, has been attributed to an X-linked mutation, mainly on the basis of its occurrence almost exclusively in females and its concordance in female MZ twins. The underlying mechanisms proposed are an X-linked dominant mutation with male lethality, uniparental disomy of the X chromosome, and/or some disturbance in the process of X inactivation leading to unequal distribution of cells expressing maternal or paternal alleles (referred to as a {open_quotes}nonrandom{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}skewed {close_quotes} inactivation). To determine if the X chromosome is in fact involved in RS, we studied a group of affected females including three pairs of MZ twins, two concordant for RS and one uniquely discordant for RS. Analysis of X-inactivation patterns confirms the frequent nonrandom X inactivation previously observed in MZ twins but indicates that this is independent of RS. Analysis of 29 RS females reveals not one instance of uniparental X disomy, extending the observations previously reported. Therefore, our findings contribute no support for the hypothesis that RS is an X-linked disorder. Furthermore, the concordant phenotype in most MZ females twins with RS, which has not been observed in female twins with known X-linked mutations, argues against an X mutation. 41 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Insect sex chromosomes, XI. 3H-TdR induces random aberrations in the X chromosome(s) of Gryllotalpa fossor (Orthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, S; Rao, S R

    1992-06-01

    The pattern of titrated thymidine (3H-TdR), a direct precursor of DNA, induced aberrations on the X chromosome of Gryllotalpa fossor was examined. 3H-TdR produced aberrations randomly distributed over the entire length of the X chromosome; breaks were observed in both the eu- and the heterochromatic arms of the X chromosome in both the sexes. Since the eu- and the heterochromatic arms cannot be distinguished cytologically in this insect, the presence of aberrations on both arms of the same X chromosome in the male and damage to both X chromosomes in the female indicate that both euchromatic and heterochromatic regions (facultative or constitutive) are equally liable to aberrations induced by H-TdR. This is in contrast to the non-random induction of aberrations by 3H-UdR, which causes chromosome damage due to the proximity of the labeled RNA to the DNA template during transcription.

  3. X chromosome activity in mouse XX primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In the early epiblast of female mice, one of the two X chromosomes is randomly inactivated by a Xist-dependent mechanism, involving the recruitment of Ezh2-Eed and the subsequent trimethylation of histone 3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3. We demonstrate that this random inactivation process applies also to the primordial germ cell (PGC precursors, located in the proximal region of the epiblast. PGC specification occurs at about embryonic day (E7.5, in the extraembryonic mesoderm, after which the germ cells enter the endoderm of the invaginating hindgut. As they migrate towards the site of the future gonads, the XX PGCs gradually lose the H3K27me3 accumulation on the silent X chromosome. However, using a GFP transgene inserted into the X chromosome, we observed that the XX gonadal environment (independently of the gender is important for the substantial reactivation of the inactive X chromosome between E11.5 and E13.5, but is not required for X-chromosome reactivation during the derivation of pluripotent embryonic germ cells. We describe in detail one of the key events during female PGC development, the epigenetic reprogramming of the X chromosome, and demonstrate the role of the XX somatic genital ridge in this process.

  4. No evidence for 'skewed' inactivation of the X-chromosome as cause of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in female carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, R. J.; Kemp, S.; Bolhuis, P. A.; Bleeker-Wagemakers, E. M.

    1996-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a maternally inherited disorder of the optic nerves. It has been proposed that the specific mutations in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) that are associated with LHON require and X-chromosomally encoded permissive factor in order to become expressed. This

  5. X-chromosome kiss and tell: how the Xs go their separate ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguera, M C; Sun, B K; Xu, N; Lee, J T

    2006-01-01

    Loci associated with noncoding RNAs have important roles in X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), the dosage compensation mechanism by which one of two X chromosomes in female cells becomes transcriptionally silenced. The Xs start out as epigenetically equivalent chromosomes, but XCI requires a cell to treat two identical X chromosomes in completely different ways: One X chromosome must remain transcriptionally active while the other becomes repressed. In the embryo of eutherian mammals, the choice to inactivate the maternal or paternal X chromosome is random. The fact that the Xs always adopt opposite fates hints at the existence of a trans-sensing mechanism to ensure the mutually exclusive silencing of one of the two Xs. This paper highlights recent evidence supporting a model for mutually exclusive choice that involves homologous chromosome pairing and the placement of asymmetric chromatin marks on the two Xs.

  6. X Chromosome Inactivation and Differentiation Occur Readily in ES Cells Doubly-Deficient for MacroH2A1 and MacroH2A2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasijevic, Borko; Rasmussen, Theodore P.

    2011-01-01

    Macrohistones (mH2As) are unusual histone variants found exclusively in vertebrate chromatin. In mice, the H2afy gene encodes two splice variants, mH2A1.1 and mH2A1.2 and a second gene, H2afy2, encodes an additional mH2A2 protein. Both mH2A isoforms have been found enriched on the inactive X chromosome (Xi) in differentiated mammalian female cells, and are incorporated into the chromatin of developmentally-regulated genes. To investigate the functional significance of mH2A isoforms for X chromosome inactivation (XCI), we produced male and female embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines with stably-integrated shRNA constructs that simultaneously target both mH2A1 and mH2A2. Surprisingly, we find that female ESCs deficient for both mH2A1 and mH2A2 readily execute and maintain XCI upon differentiation. Furthermore, male and female mH2A-deficient ESCs proliferate normally under pluripotency culture conditions, and respond to several standard differentiation procedures efficiently. Our results show that XCI can readily proceed with substantially reduced total mH2A content. PMID:21738686

  7. The X chromosome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jégu, Teddy; Aeby, Eric; Lee, Jeannie T

    2017-06-01

    Extensive 3D folding is required to package a genome into the tiny nuclear space, and this packaging must be compatible with proper gene expression. Thus, in the well-hierarchized nucleus, chromosomes occupy discrete territories and adopt specific 3D organizational structures that facilitate interactions between regulatory elements for gene expression. The mammalian X chromosome exemplifies this structure-function relationship. Recent studies have shown that, upon X-chromosome inactivation, active and inactive X chromosomes localize to different subnuclear positions and adopt distinct chromosomal architectures that reflect their activity states. Here, we review the roles of long non-coding RNAs, chromosomal organizational structures and the subnuclear localization of chromosomes as they relate to X-linked gene expression.

  8. 5meCpG epigenetic marks neighboring a primate-conserved core promoter short tandem repeat indicate X-chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Brum Machado

    Full Text Available X-chromosome inactivation (XCI is the epigenetic transcriptional silencing of an X-chromosome during the early stages of embryonic development in female eutherian mammals. XCI assures monoallelic expression in each cell and compensation for dosage-sensitive X-linked genes between females (XX and males (XY. DNA methylation at the carbon-5 position of the cytosine pyrimidine ring in the context of a CpG dinucleotide sequence (5meCpG in promoter regions is a key epigenetic marker for transcriptional gene silencing. Using computational analysis, we revealed an extragenic tandem GAAA repeat 230-bp from the landmark CpG island of the human X-linked retinitis pigmentosa 2 RP2 promoter whose 5meCpG status correlates with XCI. We used this RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat to develop an allele-specific 5meCpG-based PCR assay that is highly concordant with the human androgen receptor (AR exonic tandem CAG repeat-based standard HUMARA assay in discriminating active (Xa from inactive (Xi X-chromosomes. The RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat contains neutral features that are lacking in the AR disease-linked tandem CAG repeat, is highly polymorphic (heterozygosity rates approximately 0.8 and shows minimal variation in the Xa/Xi ratio. The combined informativeness of RP2/AR is approximately 0.97, and this assay excels at determining the 5meCpG status of alleles at the Xp (RP2 and Xq (AR chromosome arms in a single reaction. These findings are relevant and directly translatable to nonhuman primate models of XCI in which the AR CAG-repeat is monomorphic. We conducted the RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat assay in the naturally occurring chimeric New World monkey marmoset (Callitrichidae and found it to be informative. The RP2 onshore tandem GAAA repeat will facilitate studies on the variable phenotypic expression of dominant and recessive X-linked diseases, epigenetic changes in twins, the physiology of aging hematopoiesis, the pathogenesis of age-related hematopoietic

  9. Complexities of X chromosome inactivation status in female human induced pluripotent stem cells-a brief review and scientific update for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandulakis, Mary G; Meganathan, Kesavan; Kroll, Kristen L; Bonni, Azad; Constantino, John N

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) allow researchers to make customized patient-derived cell lines by reprogramming noninvasively retrieved somatic cells. These cell lines have the potential to faithfully represent an individual's genetic background; therefore, in the absence of available human brain tissue from a living patient, these models have a significant advantage relative to other models of neurodevelopmental disease. When using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to model X-linked developmental disorders or inherited conditions that undergo sex-specific modulation of penetrance (e.g., autism spectrum disorders), there are significant complexities in the course and status of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that are crucial to consider in establishing the validity of cellular models. There are major gaps and inconsistencies in the existing literature regarding XCI status during the derivation and maintenance of hiPSCs and their differentiation into neurons. Here, we briefly describe the importance of the problem, review the findings and inconsistencies of the existing literature, delineate options for specifying XCI status in clonal populations, and develop recommendations for future studies.

  10. Expression of genes from the human active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C J; Carrel, L; Willard, H F

    1997-01-01

    X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited inactivation of many, but not all, of the genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. In addition to the genes from the pseudoautosomal region, which have long been anticipated to escape inactivation, genes from several other regions of the human X chromosome have now been shown to escape inactivation and to be expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes. The growing number of genes escaping inactivation em...

  11. Insect sex chromosomes. VIII. Identification of active/inactive X-chromosomes in Gryllotalpa fossor by 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, M; Ali, S; Rao, S R

    1983-03-01

    By employing 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence technique to distinguish active from inactive X-chromosomes, we have, for the first time, provided evidence in support of the validity of this technique for a non-mammalian system Gryllotalpa fossor (Orthoptera). In the female somatic cells of Gryllotalpa, it is only in the active (euchromatic) arm of X-chromosome that the fluorescence is bright, whereas it is dull in the facultative and constitutive heterochromatic arms. In tetraploid spermatogonial cells one of the two X-chromosomes is inactive, suggesting that this phenomenon is probably a random one and that the inactivation process is independent of the imprinting mechanism.

  12. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyochin, Aurélia; Maenner, Sylvain; Chu, Erin Tsi-Jia; Hentati, Asma; Attia, Mikael; Avner, Philip; Clerc, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  13. Live cell imaging of the nascent inactive X chromosome during the early differentiation process of naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Guyochin

    Full Text Available Random X-chromosome inactivation ensures dosage compensation in mammals through the transcriptional silencing of one of the two X chromosomes present in each female cell. Silencing is initiated in the differentiating epiblast of the mouse female embryos through coating of the nascent inactive X chromosome by the non-coding RNA Xist, which subsequently recruits the Polycomb Complex PRC2 leading to histone H3-K27 methylation. Here we examined in mouse ES cells the early steps of the transition from naive ES cells towards epiblast stem cells as a model for inducing X chromosome inactivation in vitro. We show that these conditions efficiently induce random XCI. Importantly, in a transient phase of this differentiation pathway, both X chromosomes are coated with Xist RNA in up to 15% of the XX cells. In an attempt to determine the dynamics of this process, we designed a strategy aimed at visualizing the nascent inactive X-chromosome in live cells. We generated transgenic female XX ES cells expressing the PRC2 component Ezh2 fused to the fluorescent protein Venus. The fluorescent fusion protein was expressed at sub-physiological levels and located in nuclei of ES cells. Upon differentiation of ES cell towards epiblast stem cell fate, Venus-fluorescent territories appearing in interphase nuclei were identified as nascent inactive X chromosomes by their association with Xist RNA. Imaging of Ezh2-Venus for up to 24 hours during the differentiation process showed survival of some cells with two fluorescent domains and a surprising dynamics of the fluorescent territories across cell division and in the course of the differentiation process. Our data reveal a strategy for visualizing the nascent inactive X chromosome and suggests the possibility for a large plasticity of the nascent inactive X chromosome.

  14. X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Perelman, Polina L; Makunin, Alexey I; Larkin, Denis M; Farré, Marta; Kukekova, Anna V; Lynn Johnson, Jennifer; Lemskaya, Natalya A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Roelke-Parker, Melody E; Bellizzi, June; Ryder, Oliver A; O'Brien, Stephen J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2017-08-31

    The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David's deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups.

  15. X Chromosome Evolution in Cetartiodactyla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proskuryakova, Anastasia A.; Kulemzina, Anastasia I.; Makunin, Alexey I.; Kukekova, Anna V.; Lynn Johnson, Jennifer; Lemskaya, Natalya A.; Beklemisheva, Violetta R.; Roelke-Parker, Melody E.; Bellizzi, June; Ryder, Oliver A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.

    2017-01-01

    The phenomenon of a remarkable conservation of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals has been first described by Susumu Ohno in 1964. A notable exception is the cetartiodactyl X chromosome, which varies widely in morphology and G-banding pattern between species. It is hypothesized that this sex chromosome has undergone multiple rearrangements that changed the centromere position and the order of syntenic segments over the last 80 million years of Cetartiodactyla speciation. To investigate its evolution we have selected 26 evolutionarily conserved bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from the cattle CHORI-240 library evenly distributed along the cattle X chromosome. High-resolution BAC maps of the X chromosome on a representative range of cetartiodactyl species from different branches: pig (Suidae), alpaca (Camelidae), gray whale (Cetacea), hippopotamus (Hippopotamidae), Java mouse-deer (Tragulidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Siberian musk deer (Moschidae), and giraffe (Giraffidae) were obtained by fluorescent in situ hybridization. To trace the X chromosome evolution during fast radiation in specious families, we performed mapping in several cervids (moose, Siberian roe deer, fallow deer, and Pere David’s deer) and bovid (muskox, goat, sheep, sable antelope, and cattle) species. We have identified three major conserved synteny blocks and rearrangements in different cetartiodactyl lineages and found that the recently described phenomenon of the evolutionary new centromere emergence has taken place in the X chromosome evolution of Cetartiodactyla at least five times. We propose the structure of the putative ancestral cetartiodactyl X chromosome by reconstructing the order of syntenic segments and centromere position for key groups. PMID:28858207

  16. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wesley H; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune

  17. X-chromosome inactivation and escape

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Journal of Genetics. Current Issue : Vol. 96, Issue 6 · Current Issue Volume 96 | Issue 6. December 2017. Home · Volumes & Issues · Online Resources · Special Issues · Forthcoming Articles · Search · Editorial Board · Information for Authors · Subscription ...

  18. Lack of X inactivation associated with maternal X isodisomy: Evidence for a counting mechanism prior to X inactivation during human embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migeon, B.R.; Torchia, B.S.; Fu, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    We have previously reported functional disomy for X-linked genes in females with tiny ring X chromosomes and a phenotype significantly more abnormal than Turner syndrome. In such cases the disomy results from failure of these X chromosomes to inactivate because they lack DNA sequences essential for cis X inactivation. Here we describe a novel molecular mechanism for functional X disomy that is associated with maternal isodisomy. In this case, the severe mental retardation and multiple congenital abnormalities in a female with a mosaic 45,X/46,X,del(X) (q21.3-qter)/46X,r(X) karyotype are associated with overexpression of the genes within Xpter to Xq21.31 in many of her cells. Her normal X, ring X, and deleted linear X chromosomes originate from the same maternal X chromosome, and all are transcriptionally active. None expresses X inactive specific transcript (XIST), although the locus and region of the putative X inactivation center (XIC) are present on both normal and linear deleted X chromosomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a functional maternal X isodisomy, and the largest X chromosome to escape inactivation. In addition, these results (1) show that cis inactivation does not invariably occur in human females with two X chromosomes, even when the XIC region is present on both of them; (2) provide evidence for a critical time prior to the visible onset of X inactivation in the embryo when decisions about X inactivation are made; and (3) support the hypothesis that the X chromosome counting mechanism involves chromosomal imprinting, occurs prior to the onset of random inactivation, and is required for subsequent inactivation of the chromosome. 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Status of dosage compensation of X chromosome in bovine genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Sojeong; Ahn, Hyeonju; Seo, Minseok; Kim, Heebal; Kim, Jin Nam; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Dosage compensation system with X chromosome upregulation and inactivation have evolved to overcome the genetic imbalance between sex chromosomes in both male and female of mammals. Although recent development of chromosome-wide technologies has allowed us to test X upregulation, discrete data processing and analysis methods draw disparate conclusions. A series of expression studies revealed status of dosage compensation in some species belonging to monotremes, marsupials, rodents and primates. However, X upregulation in the Artiodactyla order including cattle have not been studied yet. In this study, we surveyed the genome-wide transcriptional upregulation in X chromosome in cattle RNA-seq data using different gene filtration methods. Overall examination of RNA-seq data revealed that X chromosome in the pituitary gland expressed more genes than in other peripheral tissues, which was consistent with the previous results observed in human and mouse. When analyzed with globally expressed genes, a median X:A expression ratio was 0.94. The ratio of 1-to-1 ortholog genes between chicken and mammals, however, showed considerable reduction to 0.68. These results indicate that status of dosage compensation for cattle is not deviated from those found in rodents and primate, and this is consistent with the evolutionary history of cattle.

  20. Silence of the fathers: early X inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mimi K; Disteche, Christine M

    2004-08-01

    X chromosome inactivation is the mammalian answer to the dilemma of dosage compensation between males and females. The study of this fascinating form of chromosome-wide gene regulation has yielded surprising insights into early development and cellular memory. In the past few months, three papers reported unexpected findings about the paternal X chromosome (X(p)). All three studies agree that the X(p) is imprinted to become inactive earlier than ever suspected during embryonic development. Although apparently incomplete, this early form of inactivation insures dosage compensation throughout development. Silencing of the X(p) persists in cells of extraembryonic tissues, but it is erased and followed by random X inactivation in cells of the embryo proper. These findings challenge several aspects of the current view of X inactivation during early development and may have profound impact on studies of pluripotency and epigenetics.

  1. Taurodontism in females with extra X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L

    1989-01-01

    The association between taurodontism and extra X chromosomes was studied in four 47,XXX-females and in two 48,XXXX-females. Occurrence of the trait in the permanent mandibular molars was noted from orthopantomograms. Five first-degree relatives and a sample of 157 normal males and females were investigated as controls. Two of the 47,XXX-females and both 48,XXX-females each had at least one mandibular molar classified as taurodont. The two affected 47,XXX-females had hypotaurodont or mesotaurodont teeth, whereas both 48,XXXX-females showed hypertaurodontism. The manidubular molars of the other two 47,XXX females had normal root morphology. The only control relative with taurodont teeth was a sister to a 48,XXXX-female. In the population control group, four females had taurodont teeth. These results support the concept that a prevalence of taurodontism increases as the number of X chromosomes increases and also indicate that expression of the trait and the number of X chromosomes may be positively correlated. It is suggested that the X chromosome gene(s) influencing development of enamel may be involved in the development of taurodontism.

  2. Buccal swab as a reliable predictor for X inactivation ratio in inaccessible tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. de Hoon (Bas); K. Monkhorst (Kim); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); J.H. Gribnau (Joost)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground As a result of the epigenetic phenomenon of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) every woman is a mosaic of cells with either an inactive paternal X chromosome or an inactive maternal X chromosome. The ratio between inactive paternal and maternal X chromosomes is different for

  3. Mapping and ordered cloning of the human X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, C.T.; Nelson, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Progress is reported on gathering X chromosome specific libraries and integrating those with the library produced in this project. Further studies on understanding Fragile X Syndrome and other hereditary diseases related to the X chromosome are described. (DT)

  4. A Syntenic Region Conserved from Fish to Mammalian X Chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guijun Guan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sex chromosomes bearing the sex-determining gene initiate development along the male or female pathway, no matter which sex is determined by XY male or ZW female heterogamety. Sex chromosomes originate from ancient autosomes but evolved rapidly after the acquisition of sex-determining factors which are highly divergent between species. In the heterogametic male system (XY system, the X chromosome is relatively evolutionary silent and maintains most of its ancestral genes, in contrast to its Y counterpart that has evolved rapidly and degenerated. Sex in a teleost fish, the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, is determined genetically via an XY system, in which an unpaired region is present in the largest chromosome pair. We defined the differences in DNA contents present in this chromosome with a two-color comparative genomic hybridization (CGH and the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD approach in XY males. We further identified a syntenic segment within this region that is well conserved in several teleosts. Through comparative genome analysis, this syntenic segment was also shown to be present in mammalian X chromosomes, suggesting a common ancestral origin of vertebrate sex chromosomes.

  5. Divergent actions of long noncoding RNAs on X-chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... 1987) while recent whole genome sequencing revealed the C/An and G/Tn repeats to be a sequence signature for the X chromosome; these ... tate proper association of the DCC with the X chromosome. Msl-2 binds to a dimer of Msl-1 to form the core complex that can identify and associate with the HAS.

  6. X-Chromosome short tandem repeat, advantages and typing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microsatellites of the X-chromosome have been increasingly studied in recent years as a useful tool in forensic analysis. This review describes some details of X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. Among them are: microsatellites, amplification using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of STRs, PCR product ...

  7. X-chromosome terminal deletion in a female with premature ovarian failure: Haploinsufficiency of X-linked genes as a possible explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melo Joana B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature ovarian failure (POF has repeatedly been associated to X-chromosome deletions. FMR1 gene premutation allele's carrier women have an increased risk for POF. We intent to determine the cause of POF in a 29 year old female, evaluating both of these situations. Methods Concomitant analysis of FMR1 gene CGG repeat number and karyotype revealed an X-chromosome terminal deletion. Fluorescence in situ further characterized the breakpoint. A methylation assay for FMR1 gene allowed to determine its methylation status, and hence, the methylation status of the normal X-chromosome. Results We report a POF patient with a 46,X,del(X(q26 karyotype and with skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the structural abnormal X-chromosome. Conclusions Despite the hemizygosity of FMR1 gene, the patient does not present Fragile X syndrome features, since the normal X-chromosome is not subject to methylation. The described deletion supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of X-linked genes can be on the basis of POF, and special attention should be paid to X-linked genes in region Xq28 since they escape inactivation and might have a role in this disorder. A full clinical and cytogenetic characterization of all POF cases is important to highlight a pattern and help to understand which genes are crucial for normal ovarian development.

  8. X-chromosome terminal deletion in a female with premature ovarian failure: Haploinsufficiency of X-linked genes as a possible explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Susana I; Matoso, Eunice; Pinto, Marta; Almeida, Joana; Liehr, Thomas; Melo, Joana B; Carreira, Isabel M

    2010-07-20

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) has repeatedly been associated to X-chromosome deletions. FMR1 gene premutation allele's carrier women have an increased risk for POF. We intent to determine the cause of POF in a 29 year old female, evaluating both of these situations. Concomitant analysis of FMR1 gene CGG repeat number and karyotype revealed an X-chromosome terminal deletion. Fluorescence in situ further characterized the breakpoint. A methylation assay for FMR1 gene allowed to determine its methylation status, and hence, the methylation status of the normal X-chromosome. We report a POF patient with a 46,X,del(X)(q26) karyotype and with skewed X-chromosome inactivation of the structural abnormal X-chromosome. Despite the hemizygosity of FMR1 gene, the patient does not present Fragile X syndrome features, since the normal X-chromosome is not subject to methylation. The described deletion supports the hypothesis that haploinsufficiency of X-linked genes can be on the basis of POF, and special attention should be paid to X-linked genes in region Xq28 since they escape inactivation and might have a role in this disorder. A full clinical and cytogenetic characterization of all POF cases is important to highlight a pattern and help to understand which genes are crucial for normal ovarian development.

  9. Utility of X-chromosome SNPs in relationship testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan Jose; Castro, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    X-chromosome markers may complement the results obtained from other genetic markers in complex relationship cases. Until now, reports on relationship testing using X-chromosome markers have mainly included data of short tandem repeats (STRs) while little data on single nucleotide polymorphisms...... (SNPs) in relationship testing have been published. We selected 25 highly polymorphic biallelic SNPs distributed through the human X-chromosome. One 25-plex PCR reaction and one 25-plex single base extension (SNaPshot) reaction were developed. The maximum size of the PCR products was 120ábp and the size...

  10. BRCA1-mediated repression of select X chromosome genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropers H Hilger

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently BRCA1 has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression from the X chromosome. In this study the influence of BRCA1 on expression of X chromosome genes was investigated. Complementary DNA microarrays were used to compare the expression levels of X chromosome genes in 18 BRCA1-associated ovarian cancers to those of the 13 "BRCA1-like" and 14 "BRCA2-like" sporadic tumors (as defined by previously reported expression profiling. Significance was determined using parametric statistics with P

  11. Dynamic Control of X Chromosome Conformation and Repression by a Histone H4K20 Demethylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejc, Katjuša; Bian, Qian; Uzawa, Satoru; Wheeler, Bayly S; Anderson, Erika C; King, David S; Kranzusch, Philip J; Preston, Christine G; Meyer, Barbara J

    2017-09-21

    Chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure play key roles in gene regulation, but their functional interplay in controlling gene expression is elusive. We have discovered the machinery and mechanism underlying the dynamic enrichment of histone modification H4K20me1 on hermaphrodite X chromosomes during C. elegans dosage compensation and demonstrated H4K20me1's pivotal role in regulating higher-order chromosome structure and X-chromosome-wide gene expression. The structure and the activity of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) subunit DPY-21 define a Jumonji demethylase subfamily that converts H4K20me2 to H4K20me1 in worms and mammals. Selective inactivation of demethylase activity eliminates H4K20me1 enrichment in somatic cells, elevates X-linked gene expression, reduces X chromosome compaction, and disrupts X chromosome conformation by diminishing the formation of topologically associating domains (TADs). Unexpectedly, DPY-21 also associates with autosomes of germ cells in a DCC-independent manner to enrich H4K20me1 and trigger chromosome compaction. Our findings demonstrate the direct link between chromatin modification and higher-order chromosome structure in long-range regulation of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Xp21 muscular dystrophy due to X chromosome inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, P S; Maltby, E L; Quarrell, O

    1997-07-01

    Two brothers with Duchenne muscular dystrophy have an inversion of the X chromosome, 46, Y, inv(X) (p11.2p21.2). Because their mother is an unaffected carrier of the inversion, this confirms that maternal passage of a structurally abnormal X chromosome can cause dystrophinopathy in males. Our experience suggests that as well as molecular genetic analysis, karyotyping can be useful in Xp21 muscular dystrophy.

  13. May anomalous X chromosome methylation be responsible for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 3. May anomalous X chromosome methylation be responsible for the spontaneous abortion of a male foetus? R. Martínez V. Bonilla-Henao I. Ramos F. Sobrino M. Lucas E. Pintado. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 3 December 2008 pp 261-264 ...

  14. Molecular characterization of X chromosome fragility in idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Alla Hosny Omar

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... repeats, occur in carriers or pre-mutation states [2]. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Cytogenetic diagnosis of the syndrome depends on visually revealing the fragility of the terminal portion of the long arm of the X chromosome of affected patients in cell.

  15. Genetic Analysis of Eight X-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    X-Chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) typing can complement existing DNA profiling protocols and can also offer useful information in cases of complex kinship analysis. This is the first population study of 8 X-linked STRs in Iraq. The purpose of this work was to provide a basic data of allele and haplotype frequency for ...

  16. Handedness and the X chromosome: the role of androgen receptor CAG-repeat length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arning, Larissa; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Schulz, Stefanie; Ness, Vanessa; Gerding, Wanda M; Hengstler, Jan G; Falkenstein, Michael; Epplen, Jörg T; Güntürkün, Onur; Beste, Christian

    2015-02-09

    Prenatal androgen exposure has been suggested to be one of the factors influencing handedness, making the androgen receptor gene (AR) a likely candidate gene for individual differences in handedness. Here, we examined the relationship between the length of the CAG-repeat in AR and different handedness phenotypes in a sample of healthy adults of both sexes (n = 1057). Since AR is located on the X chromosome, statistical analyses in women heterozygous for CAG-repeat lengths are complicated by X chromosome inactivation. We thus analyzed a sample of women that were homozygous for the CAG-repeat length (n = 77). Mixed-handedness in men was significantly associated with longer CAG-repeat blocks and women homozygous for longer CAG-repeats showed a tendency for stronger left-handedness. These results suggest that handedness in both sexes is associated with the AR CAG-repeat length, with longer repeats being related to a higher incidence of non-right-handedness. Since longer CAG-repeat blocks have been linked to less efficient AR function, these results implicate that differences in AR signaling in the developing brain might be one of the factors that determine individual differences in brain lateralization.

  17. Deletion of DXZ4 on the human inactive X chromosome alters higher-order genome architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Emily M.; Huntley, Miriam H.; Dudchenko, Olga; Stamenova, Elena K.; Durand, Neva C.; Sun, Zhuo; Huang, Su-Chen; Sanborn, Adrian L.; Machol, Ido; Shamim, Muhammad; Seberg, Andrew P.; Lander, Eric S.; Chadwick, Brian P.; Aiden, Erez Lieberman

    2016-01-01

    During interphase, the inactive X chromosome (Xi) is largely transcriptionally silent and adopts an unusual 3D configuration known as the “Barr body.” Despite the importance of X chromosome inactivation, little is known about this 3D conformation. We recently showed that in humans the Xi chromosome exhibits three structural features, two of which are not shared by other chromosomes. First, like the chromosomes of many species, Xi forms compartments. Second, Xi is partitioned into two huge intervals, called “superdomains,” such that pairs of loci in the same superdomain tend to colocalize. The boundary between the superdomains lies near DXZ4, a macrosatellite repeat whose Xi allele extensively binds the protein CCCTC-binding factor. Third, Xi exhibits extremely large loops, up to 77 megabases long, called “superloops.” DXZ4 lies at the anchor of several superloops. Here, we combine 3D mapping, microscopy, and genome editing to study the structure of Xi, focusing on the role of DXZ4. We show that superloops and superdomains are conserved across eutherian mammals. By analyzing ligation events involving three or more loci, we demonstrate that DXZ4 and other superloop anchors tend to colocate simultaneously. Finally, we show that deleting DXZ4 on Xi leads to the disappearance of superdomains and superloops, changes in compartmentalization patterns, and changes in the distribution of chromatin marks. Thus, DXZ4 is essential for proper Xi packaging. PMID:27432957

  18. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine after Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine with Standard Titer Measles Vaccine after Inactivated Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated...... vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). Methods: The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months...... and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV...

  19. Mapping and ordered cloning of the human X chromosome. Progress report, September 1991--November 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, C.T.; Nelson, D.L.

    1992-12-01

    Progress is reported on gathering X chromosome specific libraries and integrating those with the library produced in this project. Further studies on understanding Fragile X Syndrome and other hereditary diseases related to the X chromosome are described. (DT)

  20. Methylation dynamics, epigenetic fidelity and X chromosome structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, A D; Xiong, Z; Wang, L; LeBon, J M

    1998-01-01

    DNA methylation of the X chromosome is reviewed and discussed, with emphasis on the partial methylation seen in the mouse X-linked Pgk1 promoter region. A new study of partial methylation is presented in which the methylation of CpG site H3 in the mouse Igf2 upstream region was quantitatively measured during growth of subcloned cells in tissue culture. Before subcloning the average methylation level was 50%. After subcloning, methylation was highly variable in early stage clones. With continued passage, clones initially having high methylation lost methylation, whereas clones initially having low methylation gained methylation. By about the 25th generation, all clones had returned to a steady-state methylation level of 50%. These findings are discussed in the context of epigenetic mechanisms and epigenetic fidelity. Interpretation of the results is made according to a model that assumes stochastic methylation and demethylation, with rate parameters influenced by local chromatin structure. A second type of study is reported in which we have measured chromatin accessibility differences between the active X chromosome (Xa) and the inactive X chromosome (Xi). We found that Xa/Xi differences in accessibility to DNase I are surprisingly labile. Relatively infrequent DNA nicks rapidly eliminate differential accessibility.

  1. Xist Exon 7 Contributes to the Stable Localization of Xist RNA on the Inactive X-Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norishige Yamada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To equalize X-linked gene dosage between the sexes in mammalian females, Xist RNA inactivates one of the two X-chromosomes. Here, we report the crucial function of Xist exon 7 in X-inactivation. Xist exon 7 is the second-largest exon with a well-conserved repeat E in eutherian mammals, but its role is often overlooked in X-inactivation. Although female ES cells with a targeted truncation of the Xist exon 7 showed no significant differences in their Xist expression levels and RNA stability from control cells expressing wild-type Xist, compromised localization of Xist RNA and incomplete silencing of X-linked genes on the inactive X-chromosome (Xi were observed in the exon 7-truncated mutant cells. Furthermore, the interaction between the mutant Xist RNA and hnRNP U required for localization of Xist RNA to the Xi was impaired in the Xist exon 7 truncation mutant cells. Our results suggest that exon 7 of Xist RNA plays an important role for stable Xist RNA localization and silencing of the X-linked genes on the Xi, possibly acting through an interaction with hnRNP U.

  2. Fragile site X chromosomes in mentally retarded boys.

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, H. R.; Moon, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is a common X-linked mental retardation and autism, affecting females as well as males. The fragile site X chromosomes were studied in a series of 153 mentally retarded boys of unknown etiology to determine the frequency of fragile X syndrome, and to assess the feasibility of making a clinical diagnosis of the fragile X syndrome in young boys before cytogenetic results were known. The 10 boys (6.4%) were positive for fra (X) (q27). The phenotype of fra (X) (q27) positiv...

  3. The status of dosage compensation in the multiple X chromosomes of the platypus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E Deakin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation has been thought to be a ubiquitous property of sex chromosomes that are represented differently in males and females. The expression of most X-borne genes is equalized between XX females and XY males in therian mammals (marsupials and "placentals" by inactivating one X chromosome in female somatic cells. However, compensation seems not to be strictly required to equalize the expression of most Z-borne genes between ZZ male and ZW female birds. Whether dosage compensation operates in the third mammal lineage, the egg-laying monotremes, is of considerable interest, since the platypus has a complex sex chromosome system in which five X and five Y chromosomes share considerable genetic homology with the chicken ZW sex chromosome pair, but not with therian XY chromosomes. The assignment of genes to four platypus X chromosomes allowed us to examine X dosage compensation in this unique species. Quantitative PCR showed a range of compensation, but SNP analysis of several X-borne genes showed that both alleles are transcribed in a heterozygous female. Transcription of 14 BACs representing 19 X-borne genes was examined by RNA-FISH in female and male fibroblasts. An autosomal control gene was expressed from both alleles in nearly all nuclei, and four pseudoautosomal BACs were usually expressed from both alleles in male as well as female nuclei, showing that their Y loci are active. However, nine X-specific BACs were usually transcribed from only one allele. This suggests that while some genes on the platypus X are not dosage compensated, other genes do show some form of compensation via stochastic transcriptional inhibition, perhaps representing an ancestral system that evolved to be more tightly controlled in placental mammals such as human and mouse.

  4. Sex-differential selection and the evolution of X inactivation strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Connallon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available X inactivation--the transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome copy per female somatic cell--is universal among therian mammals, yet the choice of which X to silence exhibits considerable variation among species. X inactivation strategies can range from strict paternally inherited X inactivation (PXI, which renders females haploid for all maternally inherited alleles, to unbiased random X inactivation (RXI, which equalizes expression of maternally and paternally inherited alleles in each female tissue. However, the underlying evolutionary processes that might account for this observed diversity of X inactivation strategies remain unclear. We present a theoretical population genetic analysis of X inactivation evolution and specifically consider how conditions of dominance, linkage, recombination, and sex-differential selection each influence evolutionary trajectories of X inactivation. The results indicate that a single, critical interaction between allelic dominance and sex-differential selection can select for a broad and continuous range of X inactivation strategies, including unequal rates of inactivation between maternally and paternally inherited X chromosomes. RXI is favored over complete PXI as long as alleles deleterious to female fitness are sufficiently recessive, and the criteria for RXI evolution is considerably more restrictive when fitness variation is sexually antagonistic (i.e., alleles deleterious to females are beneficial to males relative to variation that is deleterious to both sexes. Evolutionary transitions from PXI to RXI also generally increase mean relative female fitness at the expense of decreased male fitness. These results provide a theoretical framework for predicting and interpreting the evolution of chromosome-wide expression of X-linked genes and lead to several useful predictions that could motivate future studies of allele-specific gene expression variation.

  5. Centromere repositioning in the X chromosome of XO/XO mammals, Ryukyu spiny rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Fumio; Hashimoto, Takuma; Abe, Shintaro; Matsuda, Yoichi; Kuroiwa, Asato

    2008-01-01

    Two species of Ryukyu spiny rat, Tokudaia osimensis and Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, have an XO/XO sex chromosome constitution with no cytogenetically visible Y chromosome in both sexes. The single X chromosomes of T. osimensis and T. tokunoshimensis are submetacentric and subtelocentric, respectively. It was therefore suggested that a pericentric inversion event occurred in the X chromosome of either species. To identify X chromosome rearrangements that have occurred between the two species, we mapped 22 mouse cDNA clones of the X-linked genes on the chromosomes of the two species by direct R-banding FISH. The gene orders of the X chromosomes were conserved in the two species, whereas the position of the centromere on the X chromosome was different. This result indicates that the rearrangement which occurred in either of the X chromosomes after the two species diverged from a common ancestor involved not pericentric inversion but centromere repositioning.

  6. Complex X-Chromosomal Rearrangements in Two Women with Ovarian Dysfunction: Implications of Chromothripsis/Chromoanasynthesis-Dependent and -Independent Origins of Complex Genomic Alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Erina; Shima, Hirohito; Toki, Machiko; Hanew, Kunihiko; Matsubara, Keiko; Kurahashi, Hiroki; Narumi, Satoshi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Kamimaki, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Our current understanding of the phenotypic consequences and the molecular basis of germline complex chromosomal rearrangements remains fragmentary. Here, we report the clinical and molecular characteristics of 2 women with germline complex X-chromosomal rearrangements. Patient 1 presented with nonsyndromic ovarian dysfunction and hyperthyroidism; patient 2 exhibited various Turner syndrome- associated symptoms including ovarian dysfunction, short stature, and autoimmune hypothyroidism. The genomic abnormalities of the patients were characterized by array-based comparative genomic hybridization, high-resolution karyotyping, microsatellite genotyping, X-inactivation analysis, and bisulfite sequencing. Patient 1 carried a rearrangement of unknown parental origin with a 46,X,der(X)(pter→ p22.1::p11.23→q24::q21.3→q24::p11.4→pter) karyotype, indicative of a catastrophic chromosomal reconstruction due to chromothripsis/chromoanasynthesis. Patient 2 had a paternally derived isochromosome with a 46,X,der(X)(pter→ p22.31::q22.1→q10::q10→q22.1::p22.31→pter) karyotype, which likely resulted from 2 independent, sequential events. Both patients showed completely skewed X inactivation. CpG sites at Xp22.3 were hypermethylated in patient 2. The results indicate that germline complex X-chromosomal rearrangements underlie nonsyndromic ovarian dysfunction and Turner syndrome. Disease-causative mechanisms of these rearrangements likely include aberrant DNA methylation, in addition to X-chromosomal mispairing and haploinsufficiency of genes escaping X inactivation. Notably, our data imply that germline complex X-chromosomal rearrangements are created through both chromothripsis/chromoanasynthesis-dependent and -independent processes. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Insect sex chromosomes. VI. A presumptive hyperactivation of the male X chromosome in Acheta domesticus (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, S R; Ali, S

    1982-01-01

    The functional status of the X chromosome in Acheta domesticus has been analysed at the whole chromosome level on the basis of (1) 3H-thymidine autoradiography, (2) 5-BrdU/AO fluorescence microscopy (3) in vivo 5-BrdU incorporation and (4) 3H-UdR induced aberrations. The rationale of these techniques in relation to the functional aspect of the X chromosome is that the inactive X chromosome would (1) show asynchrony in DNA synthesis, (2) show differential fluorescence, (3) respond differentially to in vivo 5-BrdU treatment and (4) the active X chromosome would show aberrations when treated with 3H-Uridine. From the results, it appears that the X chromosomes in both male (XO) and female (XX) somatic cells of Acheta are euchromatic (active). Further, the single X in the male is transcriptionally as active as the two X chromosomes in the female. In other words, the single X in the male is hyperactive when compared with the single X in the female. From this it is inferred that the male X chromosome is differentially regulated in order to bring about an equalization of it's gene product(s) to that produced by both Xs in the female. Drosophila melanogaster has a comparable system of dosage compensation. Thus, Acheta is yet another insect showing evidence for an X chromosome regulatory mechanism of dosage compensation. Additionally, it is surmised that sex determination in Acheta is based on an autosomes/X chromosome balance mechanism.

  8. Randomized Trials Comparing Inactivated Vaccine After Medium- or High-titer Measles Vaccine With Standard Titer Measles Vaccine After Inactivated Vaccine: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Ravn, Henrik; Benn, Christine S; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Samb, Badara; Ibrahim, Salah A; Libman, Michael D; Whittle, Hilton C

    2016-11-01

    Observational studies have suggested that girls have higher mortality if their most recent immunization is an inactivated vaccine rather than a live vaccine. We therefore reanalyzed 5 randomized trials of early measles vaccine (MV) in which it was possible to compare an inactivated vaccines [after medium-titer MV (MTMV) or high-titer MV (HTMV)] and a live standard titer MV (after an initial inactivated vaccine). The trials were conducted in Sudan, Senegal, The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau. The intervention group received live MTMV or HTMV from 4 to 5 months and then an inactivated vaccine from 9 to 10 months of age; the control children received inactivated vaccine/placebo from 4 to 5 months and standard titer MV from 9 to 10 months of age. We compared mortality from 9 months until end of study at 3 to 5 years of age for children who received inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) and standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine), respectively. The original datasets were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model stratified by trial. The mortality rate ratio (MRR) was 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.83) after an inactivated vaccine (after MTMV or HTMV) compared with a standard titer MV (after inactivated vaccine). Girls had a MRR of 1.89 (1.27-2.80), whereas there was no effect for boys, the sex-differential effect being significant (P = 0.02). Excluding measles cases did not alter these conclusions, the MRR after inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) being 1.40 (1.06-1.86) higher overall and 1.92 (1.29-2.86) for girls. Control for variations in national immunization schedules for other vaccines did not modify these results. After 9 months of age, all children had been immunized against measles, and mortality in girls was higher when they had received inactivated vaccines (after MTMV or HTMV) rather than live standard titer MV (after an inactivated vaccine).

  9. A Genealogical Look at Shared Ancestry on the X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo, Vince; Mount, Stephen M; Coop, Graham

    2016-09-01

    Close relatives can share large segments of their genome identical by descent (IBD) that can be identified in genome-wide polymorphism data sets. There are a range of methods to use these IBD segments to identify relatives and estimate their relationship. These methods have focused on sharing on the autosomes, as they provide a rich source of information about genealogical relationships. We hope to learn additional information about recent ancestry through shared IBD segments on the X chromosome, but currently lack the theoretical framework to use this information fully. Here, we fill this gap by developing probability distributions for the number and length of X chromosome segments shared IBD between an individual and an ancestor k generations back, as well as between half- and full-cousin relationships. Due to the inheritance pattern of the X and the fact that X homologous recombination occurs only in females (outside of the pseudoautosomal regions), the number of females along a genealogical lineage is a key quantity for understanding the number and length of the IBD segments shared among relatives. When inferring relationships among individuals, the number of female ancestors along a genealogical lineage will often be unknown. Therefore, our IBD segment length and number distributions marginalize over this unknown number of recombinational meioses through a distribution of recombinational meioses we derive. By using Bayes' theorem to invert these distributions, we can estimate the number of female ancestors between two relatives, giving us details about the genealogical relations between individuals not possible with autosomal data alone. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aberrations of the X chromosome as cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or a-zoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistent with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis. Therefore, it is not surprising that the X chromosome, considered as the female counterpart of the male-associated Y chromosome, may actually play an essential role in male infertility and sperm production. This is supported by the recent description of a significantly increased copy number variation (CNV) burden on both sex chromosomes in infertile men and point mutations in X-chromosomal genes responsible for male infertility. Thus, the X chromosome seems to be frequently affected in infertile male patients. Four principal X-chromosomal aberrations have been identified so far: (1) aneuploidy of the X chromosome as found in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY or mosaicism for additional X chromosomes). (2) Translocations involving the X chromosome, e.g. nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (XX-male syndrome) or X-autosome translocations. (3) CNVs affecting the X chromosome. (4) Point mutations disrupting X-chromosomal genes. All these are reviewed herein and assessed concerning their importance for the clinical routine diagnostic workup of the infertile male as well as their potential to shape research on spermatogenic failure in the next years. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Detection of pericentric inversion of X chromosome in a male fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, S L; Cutenese, C; Brancazio, L R

    1999-12-03

    Amniocentesis on a 32-year-old woman at risk for trisomy 21 by maternal serum triple screen showed a 46,Y,inv(X) (p22.1q24) karyotype in all cells analyzed. A blood sample was obtained from the mother for cytogenetic evaluation. Since she had the same inversion, DNA replication studies were performed to determine if the X inactivation pattern was random or not, since skewed inactivation of the inverted X might suggest that the breakpoints disrupted functional genes. DNA replication studies demonstrated that 68% of mother's cells with the inverted X were active, suggesting random X inactivation. The random X inactivation pattern suggested that the inversion is probably balanced and should not affect the fetus. A normal male was delivered at 40 weeks gestation. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Clonality assay based on transcriptional analysis of the polymorphic X-chromosome gene encoding the palmitoylated erythrocyte membrane protein, P55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Luhovy, M.; Belickova, M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The concept of clonality has been important for understanding tumor development and hematopoietic stem cell hierarchy. We have developed a highly specific clonality assay utilizing ligase detection reaction (LDR) to distinguish the active X chromosome by a transcriptional polymorphism of a ubiquitous X-chromosome gene that encodes the palmitoylated erythrocyte membrane protein, P55. The GT polymorphism is at position No. 358 in the cDNA sequence (HUMPEMP accession No. M64925). Among 37 random healthy females of Caucasian, African-American and Asian origin examined by this assay, 14 (38%) were heterozygous for the GT polymorphism, 14 were homozygous for the T allele, and 9 were homozygous for the G allele. We also demonstrate that this gene is not transcribed by the inactive X chromosome by determining the expression of a single allele in patients with clonal hematopoiesis (whose clonality was confirmed independently by a G6PD transcriptional analysis assay). Compared to the transcriptional X-chromosome clonality assay we reported previously which used an unlinked exonic polymorphism of G6PD, this new assay renders a larger proportion of females informative for clonality studies than the G6PD assay. The combination of both of these assays can render about 50% of all females informative for the clonality analysis. This new assay also circumvents problems encountered with the other clonality assays based on either X-chromosome coded peptide polymorphisms or DNA methylation differences between the active and inactive X chromosomes, since it is: (1) biologically sound, (2) reproducibly quantitative, (3) applicable to all tissues including non-nucleated cells such as reticulocytes and platelets, and (4) so sensitive that as few as several hundred cells can be analyzed (such as rare cell populations obtained by FACS).

  13. Isolation and characterization of a steroid sulfatase cDNA clone: genomic deletions in patients with X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballabio, A.; Parenti, G.; Carrozzo, R.; Sebastio, G.; Andria, G.; Buckle, V.; Fraser, N.; Craig, I.; Rocchi, M.; Romeo, G.; Jobsis, A.C.; Persico, M.G.

    1987-07-01

    The authors have isolated several cDNA clones from a lambdagt11 expression library by screening with antibodies prepared against the microsomal enzyme steroid sulfatase, which is deficient in classical X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis patients. One of these clones (p422) has been assigned by mapping with a somatic cell hybrid panel and by in situ hybridization to Xp22.3. Clone p422 therefore has a coincident localization with the previously identified locus for steroid sulfatase expression in the region of the X chromosome escaping from inactivation. Twelve steroid sulfatase-deficient patients, including eight cases of classical ichthyosis, were found to be deleted for genomic sequences detected by the clone.

  14. Initiation of epigenetic reprogramming of the X chromosome in somatic nuclei transplanted to a mouse oocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Siqin; Miyoshi, Naoki; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Jenuwein, Thomas; Heard, Edith; Azim Surani, M

    2005-08-01

    The active and inactive X chromosomes have distinct epigenetic marks in somatic nuclei, which undergo reprogramming after transplantation into oocytes. We show that, despite the disappearance of Xist RNA coating in 30 min, the epigenetic memory of the inactive X persists with the precocious appearance of histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3-3meK27), without the expected colocalization with Eed/Ezh2. Subsequently, Xist re-appears on the original inactive X, and the silent Xist on the active X undergoes re-activation, resulting in unusual biallelic Xist RNA domains. Despite this abnormal Xist expression pattern, colocalization of H3-3meK27 and Eed is thereafter confined to a single Xist domain, which is presumably on the original inactive X. These epigenetic events differ markedly from the kinetics of preferential paternal X inactivation in normal embryos. All the epigenetic marks on the X are apparently erased in the epiblast, suggesting that the oocyte and epiblast may have distinct properties for stepwise programming of the genome.

  15. X-Chromosomal short tandem repeat loci in the Turkish population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the importance and utility of polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) found on the human X chromosome and to provide the first allelic frequency data of X-STR (X chromosomal) loci in the Turkish population. Blood samples were taken from unrelated individuals (135 males and 129 ...

  16. Active chromatin marks are retained on X chromosomes lacking gene or repeat silencing despite XIST/Xist expression in somatic cell hybrids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P Thorogood

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available X-chromosome inactivation occurs early in mammalian development and results in the inactive X chromosome acquiring numerous hallmarks of heterochromatin. While XIST is a key player in the inactivation process, the method of action of this ncRNA is yet to be determined.To assess which features of heterochromatin may be directly recruited by the expression and localization of the XIST RNA we have analyzed a mouse/human somatic cell hybrid in which expression of human and mouse XIST/Xist has been induced from the active X by demethylation. Such hybrids had previously been demonstrated to disconnect XIST/Xist expression from gene silencing and we confirm maintenance of X-linked gene expression, even close to the Xist locus, despite the localized expression of mouse Xist.Loss of the active chromatin marks H3 acetylation and H3 lysine 4 methylation was not observed upon XIST/Xist expression, nor was there a gain of DNA methylation; thus these marks of facultative heterochromatin are not solely dependent upon Xist expression. Cot-1 holes, regions of depleted RNA hybridization with a Cot-1 probe, were observed upon Xist expression; however, these were at reduced frequency and intensity in these somatic cells. Domains of human Cot-1 transcription were observed corresponding to the human chromosomes in the somatic cell hybrids. The Cot-1 domain of the X was not reduced with the expression of XIST, which fails to localize to the human X chromosome in a mouse somatic cell background. The human inactive X in a mouse/human hybrid cell also shows delocalized XIST expression and an ongoing Cot-1 domain, despite X-linked gene silencing. These results are consistent with recent reports separating Cot-1 silencing from genic silencing, but also demonstrate repetitive element expression from an otherwise silent X chromosome in these hybrid cells.

  17. Senescence of nickel-transformed cells by an X chromosome: possible epigenetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C B; Conway, K; Wang, X W; Bhamra, R K; Lin, X H; Cohen, M D; Annab, L; Barrett, J C; Costa, M

    1991-02-15

    Transfer of a normal Chinese hamster X chromosome (carried in a mouse A9 donor cell line) to a nickel-transformed Chinese hamster cell line with an Xq chromosome deletion resulted in senescense of these previously immortal cells. At early passages of the A9/CX donor cells, the hamster X chromosome was highly active, inducing senescence in 100% of the colonies obtained after its transfer into the nickel-transformed cells. However, senescence was reduced to 50% when Chinese hamster X chromosomes were transferred from later passage A9 cells. Full senescing activity of the intact hamster X chromosome was restored by treatment of the donor mouse cells with 5-azacytidine, which induced demethylation of DNA. These results suggest that a senescence gene or genes, which may be located on the Chinese hamster X chromosome, can be regulated by DNA methylation, and that escape from senescence and possibly loss of tumor suppressor gene activity can occur by epigenetic mechanisms.

  18. Forensic usefulness of a 25 X-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphism marker set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez, Juan J; Castro, Jose Aurelio

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The analysis of X-chromosome markers can be valuable in particular situations, for example, deficiency kinship cases, where the putative father cannot be typed. X-chromosome short-tandem repeats (X-STRs) are widely used in forensic genetics, while the use of X-chromosome single......-nucleotide polymorphisms (X-SNPs) is still limited. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The forensic usefulness of a set of 25 SNPs located across the X-chromosome was analyzed in 13 populations. The applicability of the 25 X-SNPs in kinship testing was illustrated in two immigration cases where the conclusions based...... on the analysis of 15 autosomal STRs were ambiguous and, in one of the cases, misleading. The samples in the two cases were also typed for eight X-STRs, 52 autosomal SNPs, and seven autosomal variable number of tandem repeats. RESULTS: The combined power of discrimination of the 25 X-chromosome markers varied...

  19. Rapid divergence and expansion of the X chromosome in papaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwend, Andrea R.; Yu, Qingyi; Tong, Eric J.; Zeng, Fanchang; Han, Jennifer; VanBuren, Robert; Aryal, Rishi; Charlesworth, Deborah; Moore, Paul H.; Paterson, Andrew H.; Ming, Ray

    2012-01-01

    X chromosomes have long been thought to conserve the structure and gene content of the ancestral autosome from which the sex chromosomes evolved. We compared the recently evolved papaya sex chromosomes with a homologous autosome of a close relative, the monoecious Vasconcellea monoica, to infer changes since recombination stopped between the papaya sex chromosomes. We sequenced 12 V. monoica bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 corresponding to the papaya X-specific region, and 1 to a papaya autosomal region. The combined V. monoica X-orthologous sequences are much shorter (1.10 Mb) than the corresponding papaya region (2.56 Mb). Given that the V. monoica genome is 41% larger than that of papaya, this finding suggests considerable expansion of the papaya X; expansion is supported by a higher repetitive sequence content of the X compared with the papaya autosomal sequence. The alignable regions include 27 transcript-encoding sequences, only 6 of which are functional X/V. monoica gene pairs. Sequence divergence from the V. monoica orthologs is almost identical for papaya X and Y alleles; the Carica-Vasconcellea split therefore occurred before the papaya sex chromosomes stopped recombining, making V. monoica a suitable outgroup for inferring changes in papaya sex chromosomes. The papaya X and the hermaphrodite-specific region of the Yh chromosome and V. monoica have all gained and lost genes, including a surprising amount of changes in the X. PMID:22869742

  20. Selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Stella

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the selection of X chromosome of buffaloes sperm with Percoll gradients. The stock solution of Percoll was prepared in the proportion of 1:11 (1 part of Percoll:11 parts of a solution containing KCl 1M, NaH2PO4 0.1M, NaCl 1.5M and sodium HEPES 23.8 g/ml. In order to prepare 9 different gradients were added to the stocked Percoll the A solution (glicine-yolk extender in the following proportions: 90, 80, 72, 65, 57, 49, 34 and 25%. A sample of 0.7 ml of the fresh semen was deposited at 2 ml of Percoll 80% for the sperm wash. The precipitate was put in tube with 0.7 ml of each gradient. Then, the precipitated was washed in TES solution by centrifugation (500xg for 10 minutes, and collected again and diluted in TES solution to be freeze. The presence of the F body in the spermatozoa was observed in 58.7 ± 5.4% of the control group and in 41.2 ± 5.4% of the treated group (p<0.01. This result showed an increment of 17.55 of male sperm in the Percoll’s group. The reduction of the centrifugation force did not improve the percentage of X sperm.

  1. Fragile site X chromosomes in mentally retarded boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, H. R.; Moon, S. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The fragile X syndrome is a common X-linked mental retardation and autism, affecting females as well as males. The fragile site X chromosomes were studied in a series of 153 mentally retarded boys of unknown etiology to determine the frequency of fragile X syndrome, and to assess the feasibility of making a clinical diagnosis of the fragile X syndrome in young boys before cytogenetic results were known. The 10 boys (6.4%) were positive for fra (X) (q27). The phenotype of fra (X) (q27) positive patients were typical except one who also had sex chromosomal mosaicism. There were three pairs of siblings among the fra (X) (q27) positive patients. Frequency of expression of the fragile site was in 10 to 47 per cent of cells. In addition, 19 boys showed a previously unsuspected chromosomal abnormality. The frequency of the fragile X syndrome in the present study is not significantly different from those in Caucasians and Japanese population. The fragile X syndrome can be recognized by noting key aspects of family history as well as the clinical features in mentally retarded boys. PMID:8240748

  2. Taurodontism, an isolated trait associated with syndromes and X-chromosomal aneuploidy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, M T; Witkop, C J

    1980-05-01

    A review of the literature on teeth with enlarged pulp chambers and apical displacement of the bifurcation or trifurcation of roots (taurodontism) and investigation of the association of this trait with X-chromosomal aneuploidy shows that: (1) Taurodontism is not a rare trait in modern man, as indicated by the majority of recent reports, but occurs in approximately 2.5% of adult Caucasians. (2) Taurodontism occurs in syndromes, particularly in those having an ectodermal defect. (3) Among 12 patients showing taurodontic teeth radiographically, all had normal karyotypes. (4) Among 12 patients showing various combinations of X-chromosomal aneuploidy, 11 had taurodontic molars. (5) Patients with a female habitus and X-chromosomal aneuploidy as well as patients with a male habitus and X-chromosomal states have taurodontic teeth. (6) There is no simple association of the degree of taurodontism and the number of X chromosomes, but, in general, patients with the more severe forms of the trait--meso- or hypertaurodontism--are more likely to have X-chromosomal aneuploidy. While taurodontism may be viewed as an extension of a continuous trait of pulp chamber size, the extreme shape may arise when conditions disturbing the epithelial-derived root sheath produce a generalized amplified instability of development, as has been suggested from tissue culture studies of X-chromosomal aneuploid cells.

  3. Social cognition and underlying cognitive mechanisms in children with an extra X chromosome : a comparison with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, S.; Stockmann, L.; van Buggenhout, G.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.; Swaab, H.

    Individuals with an extra X chromosome are at increased risk for autism symptoms. This study is the first to assess theory of mind and facial affect labeling in children with an extra X chromosome. Forty-six children with an extra X chromosome (29 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 17 girls with

  4. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chrom...

  5. No link between X chromosome inactivation pattern and simple goiter in females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Knudsen, Gun Peggy S

    2009-01-01

    healthy control twin individuals, and then performed a within-pair comparison of XCI in 48 twin pairs discordant for SG. METHODS: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood cells. XCI analysis was performed by predigestion of DNA using the methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by polymerase chain...... by DNA fingerprinting. RESULTS: The frequency of skewed XCI in female twins with SG, DG, and NG was 11% (8/71), 13% (6/46), and 8% (2/25), respectively, which was not significantly different from the prevalences in the corresponding control populations, 14% (20/142, p = 0.56), 14% (13/92, p = 1...

  6. A new region of conservation is defined between human and mouse X chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinulos, M.B.; Disteche, C.M. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Bassi, M.T. [Univ. of Siena (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Comparative mapping of the X chromosome in eutherian mammals have revealed distinct regions of conservation as well as evolutionary rearrangements between human and mouse. Recently, we and others mapped the murine homologue of CLCN4 (Chloride channel 4) to band F4 of the X chromosome in Mus spretus but to chromosome 7 in laboratory strains. We now report the mapping of the murine homologues of APXL (Apical protein Xenopus laevis-like) and OA1 (Ocular albinism type I), two genes that are located on the human X chromosome at band p22.3 and in close proximity to CLCN4. Interestingly, Oa1 and Apxl map to bands F2-F3 in both M. spretus and the laboratory strain C57BL/6J, defining a new rearrangement between human and mouse X chromosomes. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Parallel Universes for Models of X Chromosome Dosage Compensation in Drosophila: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchler, James A

    2016-01-01

    Dosage compensation in Drosophila involves an approximately 2-fold increase in expression of the single X chromosome in males compared to the per gene expression in females with 2 X chromosomes. Two models have been considered for an explanation. One proposes that the male-specific lethal (MSL) complex that is associated with the male X chromosome brings histone modifiers to the sex chromosome to increase its expression. The other proposes that the inverse effect which results from genomic imbalance would tend to upregulate the genome approximately 2-fold, but the MSL complex sequesters histone modifiers from the autosomes to the X to mute this autosomal male-biased expression. On the X, the MSL complex must override the high level of resulting histone modifications to prevent overcompensation of the X chromosome. Each model is evaluated in terms of fitting classical genetic and recent molecular data. Potential paths toward resolving the models are suggested. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Genotype/phenotype correlation in women with nonmosaic X chromosome deletions and Turner syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinn, A.R. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Turner syndrome is a complex human developmental disorder associated with the absence of the second sex chromosome (monosomy X). Cardinal features of the Turner phenotype include high intrauterine lethality, growth retardation, gonadal failure, and the variable presence of specific somatic abnormalities such as webbed neck, lymphedema, and skeletal abnormalities. Recent observations support the hypothesis that the phenotype associated with monosomy X results from haploid dosage of genes common the X and Y chromosomes that escape X-inactivation ({open_quotes}Turner genes{close_quotes}). Apart from a locus causing short stature that maps to the pseudoautosomal region on the distal short arm, the location of X-linked Turner genes is not known. Karyotype/phenotype correlations in women with partial X deletions have been inconsistent. However, previous studies have focused on sporadic sex chromosome aberrations and may have been confounded by occult mosaicism. In addition, mapping of deletions was limited by the resolution of cytogenetic techniques. I am reexamining genotype/phenotype correlations in partial X monosomy, focusing on a subset of cases in which mosaicism is highly unlikely (e.g., unbalanced X-autosome translocations, familial X deletions), and using molecular techniques to map deletions. I have collected eight cases of nonmosaic X deletions in women with varied manifestations of Turner syndrome. Cytogenetic data suggests that genes responsible for Turner anatomic abnormalities may lie within a critical region of the very proximal portion of the short arm (Xp11). Molecular characterization of the deletions is in progress. Methods include (1) fluorescence in situ hybridization of metaphase spreads from patient-derived cell lines, using cosmid probes that map to known locations on Xp, and (2) sequence tagged site (STS) content mapping of somatic cell hybrids retaining the deleted X chromosomes derived from these cell lines.

  9. Refining the genetic portrait of Portuguese Roma through X-chromosomal markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Gusmão, Leonor; Valente, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    of Portuguese Roma (Gypsies) by analyzing 43 X-chromosomal markers and 53 autosomal markers. Portuguese individuals of non-Gypsy ancestry were also studied. Compared with the host population, reduced levels of diversity on the X chromosome and autosomes were detected in Gypsies; this result was in line......, with important contributions from both males and females. We provide evidence that a sex-biased admixture with Europeans is probably associated with the founding of the Portuguese Gypsies....

  10. A duplication/deficient X chromosome in a girl with mental retardation and dysmorphic features.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, I C; Curtis, D; Duncan, S L

    1988-01-01

    A structurally abnormal X chromosome was found in a nine year old girl with mild mental retardation and dysmorphic features. Subsequent clinical examination at 18 years of age showed tall stature and gonadal dysgenesis. Re-examination of her karyotype using a variety of banding techniques on prometaphase chromosomes allowed the identification of the abnormal chromosome as a duplication/deficient X chromosome, 46,Xder X(pter----q28::p11.2----pter). The clinical features are discussed in terms ...

  11. Number of X-chromosome genes influences social behavior and vasopressin gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kimberly H; Quinnies, Kayla M; Eschendroeder, Alex; Didrick, Paula M; Eugster, Erica A; Rissman, Emilie F

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in behavior are widespread and often caused by hormonal differences between the sexes. In addition to hormones, the composition and numbers of the sex chromosomes also affect a variety of sex differences. In humans, X-chromosome genes are implicated in neurobehavioral disorders (i.e. fragile-X, autism). To investigate the role of X-chromosome genes in social behavior, we used a mouse model that has atypical sex chromosome configurations resembling Turner (45, XO) and Klinefelter syndromes (47, XXY). We examined a number of behaviors in juvenile mice. Mice with only one copy of most X-chromosome genes, regardless of gonadal sex, were less social in dyadic interaction and social preference tasks. In the elevated plus maze, mice with one X-chromosome spent less time in the distal ends of the open arms as compared to mice with two copies of X-chromosome genes. Using qRTPCR, we noted that amygdala from female mice with one X-chromosome had higher expression levels of vasopressin (Avp) as compared to mice in the other groups. Finally, in plasma from girls with Turner syndrome we detected reduced vasopressin (AVP) concentrations as compared to control patients. These novel findings link sex chromosome genes with social behavior via concentrations of AVP in brain, adding to our understanding of sex differences in neurobehavioral disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Widespread over-expression of the X chromosome in sterile F₁hybrid mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Good

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The X chromosome often plays a central role in hybrid male sterility between species, but it is unclear if this reflects underlying regulatory incompatibilities. Here we combine phenotypic data with genome-wide expression data to directly associate aberrant expression patterns with hybrid male sterility between two species of mice. We used a reciprocal cross in which F₁ males are sterile in one direction and fertile in the other direction, allowing us to associate expression differences with sterility rather than with other hybrid phenotypes. We found evidence of extensive over-expression of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis in sterile but not in fertile F₁ hybrid males. Over-expression was most pronounced in genes that are normally expressed after meiosis, consistent with an X chromosome-wide disruption of expression during the later stages of spermatogenesis. This pattern was not a simple consequence of faster evolutionary divergence on the X chromosome, because X-linked expression was highly conserved between the two species. Thus, transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis appears particularly sensitive to evolutionary divergence between species. Overall, these data provide evidence for an underlying regulatory basis to reproductive isolation in house mice and underscore the importance of transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome to the evolution of hybrid male sterility.

  13. A Bayesian test for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium of biallelic X-chromosomal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, X; Ginebra, J; Graffelman, J

    2017-10-01

    The X chromosome is a relatively large chromosome, harboring a lot of genetic information. Much of the statistical analysis of X-chromosomal information is complicated by the fact that males only have one copy. Recently, frequentist statistical tests for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium have been proposed specifically for dealing with markers on the X chromosome. Bayesian test procedures for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the autosomes have been described, but Bayesian work on the X chromosome in this context is lacking. This paper gives the first Bayesian approach for testing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with biallelic markers at the X chromosome. Marginal and joint posterior distributions for the inbreeding coefficient in females and the male to female allele frequency ratio are computed, and used for statistical inference. The paper gives a detailed account of the proposed Bayesian test, and illustrates it with data from the 1000 Genomes project. In that implementation, a novel approach to tackle multiple testing from a Bayesian perspective through posterior predictive checks is used.

  14. Metaphase chromosome analysis by ligation-mediated PCR: heritable chromatin structure and a comparison of active and inactive X chromosomes.

    OpenAIRE

    Hershkovitz, M; Riggs, A D

    1995-01-01

    We report that ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR) can be used for high-resolution study of metaphase chromosomes, and we discuss the role of metaphase chromatin structure in the preservation of differentiated cell states. The X chromosome-linked human PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1) promoter region was investigated, and euchromatic active X chromosome (Xa) metaphase chromatin was compared with interphase Xa chromatin and to heterochromatic inactive X chromosome (Xi) metaphase and interphase chrom...

  15. HIM-8 binds to the X chromosome pairing center and mediateschromosome-specific meiotic synapsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Carolyn M.; Wong, Chihunt; Bhalla, Needhi; Carlton,Peter M.; Weiser, Pinky; Meneely, Philip M.; Dernburg, Abby F.

    2005-06-05

    The him-8 gene is essential for proper meiotic segregationof the X chromosomes in C. elegans. Herewe show that loss of him-8function causes profound X-chromosome-specific defects in homolog pairingand synapsis.him-8 encodes a C2H2 zinc finger protein that is expressedduring meiosis andconcentrates at a site on the X chromosome known as themeiotic Pairing Center (PC). A role for HIM-8 in PC function is supportedby genetic interactions between PC lesions and him-8 mutations.HIM-8-bound chromosome sites associate with the nuclear envelope (NE)throughout meiotic prophase. Surprisingly, a point mutation in him-8 thatretains both chromosome binding and NE localization fails to stabilizepairing or promote synapsis. These observations indicate thatstabilization of homolog pairing is an active process in which thetethering of chromosome sites to the NE may be necessary but is notsufficient.

  16. Condensin-driven remodelling of X chromosome topology during dosage compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Emily; Bian, Qian; McCord, Rachel Patton; Lajoie, Bryan R.; Wheeler, Bayly S.; Ralston, Edward J.; Uzawa, Satoru; Dekker, Job; Meyer, Barbara J.

    2015-07-01

    The three-dimensional organization of a genome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression, yet little is known about the machinery and mechanisms that determine higher-order chromosome structure. Here we perform genome-wide chromosome conformation capture analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and RNA-seq to obtain comprehensive three-dimensional (3D) maps of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and to dissect X chromosome dosage compensation, which balances gene expression between XX hermaphrodites and XO males. The dosage compensation complex (DCC), a condensin complex, binds to both hermaphrodite X chromosomes via sequence-specific recruitment elements on X (rex sites) to reduce chromosome-wide gene expression by half. Most DCC condensin subunits also act in other condensin complexes to control the compaction and resolution of all mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. By comparing chromosome structure in wild-type and DCC-defective embryos, we show that the DCC remodels hermaphrodite X chromosomes into a sex-specific spatial conformation distinct from autosomes. Dosage-compensated X chromosomes consist of self-interacting domains (~1 Mb) resembling mammalian topologically associating domains (TADs). TADs on X chromosomes have stronger boundaries and more regular spacing than on autosomes. Many TAD boundaries on X chromosomes coincide with the highest-affinity rex sites and become diminished or lost in DCC-defective mutants, thereby converting the topology of X to a conformation resembling autosomes. rex sites engage in DCC-dependent long-range interactions, with the most frequent interactions occurring between rex sites at DCC-dependent TAD boundaries. These results imply that the DCC reshapes the topology of X chromosomes by forming new TAD boundaries and reinforcing weak boundaries through interactions between its highest-affinity binding sites. As this model predicts, deletion of an endogenous rex site at a DCC-dependent TAD boundary using

  17. Should the markers on X chromosome be used for genomic prediction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Guosheng; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Aamand, Gert Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated theaccuracy of imputation from LD (7K) to 54K panel and compared accuracy ofgenomic prediction with or without the X chromosome information, based on data ofNordic Holstein bulls. Beagle and Findhap were used for imputation. Averagedover two imputation datasets, the allele...... correct rates of imputation usingFindhap were 98.2% for autosomal markers, 89.7% for markers on the pseudoautosomal region of the X chromosome, and 96.4% for X-specific markers. Theallele correct rates were 98.9%, 91.2% and 96.8%, respectively, when usingBeagle. Genomic predictions were carried out for 15...

  18. The X chromosome: does it have a role in Bloom syndrome, a genomic instability disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    The Bloom syndrome, caused by mutations in a single gene [BLM (15q26.1)], is a rare genomic instability syndrome. Despite its autosomal recessive transmission, it shows a male dominance, suggesting the possibility of a subgroup with X-linked recessive inheritance. In view of the latest molecular developments achieved in the other genomic instability syndromes, the potential functions of the X chromosome in maintaining genomic stability, and particularly, the first clues of Bloom syndrome development by mechanisms other than the BLM, we suggest herein that the X chromosome should be investigated in Bloom syndrome.

  19. Report of the Fourth International Workshop on human X chromosome mapping 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlessinger, D.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Willard, H.F. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    Vigorous interactive efforts by the X chromosome community have led to accelerated mapping in the last six months. Seventy-five participants from 12 countries around the globe contributed progress reports to the Fourth International X Chromosome Workshop, at St. Louis, MO, May 9-12, 1993. It became clear that well over half the chromosome is now covered by YAC contigs that are being extended, verified, and aligned by their content of STSs and other markers placed by cytogenetic or linkage mapping techniques. The major aim of the workshop was to assemble the consensus map that appears in this report, summarizing both consensus order and YAC contig information.

  20. X-changing information on X inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barakat, Tahsin Stefan; Jonkers, Iris; Monkhorst, Kim [Department of Reproduction and Development, Room Ee 09-71, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Gribnau, Joost, E-mail: j.gribnau@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Reproduction and Development, Room Ee 09-71, Erasmus MC, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-03-10

    In female somatic cells of mammalian species one X chromosome is inactivated to ensure dosage equality of X-encoded genes between females and males, during development and adulthood. X chromosome inactivation (XCI) involves various epigenetic mechanisms, including RNA mediated gene silencing in cis, DNA methylation, and changes in chromatin modifications and composition. XCI therefore provides an attractive paradigm to study epigenetic gene regulation in a more general context. The XCI process starts with counting of the number of X chromosomes present in a nucleus, and initiation of XCI follows if this number exceeds one per diploid genome. Recently, X-encoded RNF12 has been identified as a dose-dependent activator of XCI. In addition, other factors, including the pluripotency factors OCT4, SOX2 and Nanog, have been implicated to play a role in suppression of initiation of XCI. In this review, we highlight and explain these new and old findings in the context of a stochastic model for X chromosome counting and XCI initiation.

  1. Live Attenuated Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Hutterite Children: A Cluster Randomized Blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mark; Russell, Margaret L; Manning, Vanessa; Fonseca, Kevin; Earn, David J D; Horsman, Gregory; Chokani, Khami; Vooght, Mark; Babiuk, Lorne; Schwartz, Lisa; Neupane, Binod; Singh, Pardeep; Walter, Stephen D; Pullenayegum, Eleanor

    2016-11-01

    Whether vaccinating children with intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is more effective than inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in providing both direct protection in vaccinated persons and herd protection in unvaccinated persons is uncertain. Hutterite colonies, where members live in close-knit, small rural communities in which influenza virus infection regularly occurs, offer an opportunity to address this question. To determine whether vaccinating children and adolescents with LAIV provides better community protection than IIV. A cluster randomized blinded trial conducted between October 2012 and May 2015 over 3 influenza seasons. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01653015). 52 Hutterite colonies in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. 1186 Canadian children and adolescents aged 36 months to 15 years who received the study vaccine and 3425 community members who did not. Children were randomly assigned according to community in a blinded manner to receive standard dosing of either trivalent LAIV or trivalent IIV. The primary outcome was reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction-confirmed influenza A or B virus in all participants (vaccinated children and persons who did not receive the study vaccine). Mean vaccine coverage among children in the LAIV group was 76.9% versus 72.3% in the IIV group. Influenza virus infection occurred at a rate of 5.3% (295 of 5560 person-years) in the LAIV group versus 5.2% (304 of 5810 person-years) in the IIV group. The hazard ratio comparing LAIV with IIV for influenza A or B virus was 1.03 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.24). The study was conducted in Hutterite communities, which may limit generalizability. Immunizing children with LAIV does not provide better community protection against influenza than IIV. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research.

  2. Randomized, Double-Blinded Clinical Trial for Human Norovirus Inactivation in Oysters by High Hydrostatic Pressure Processing ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan S.; Kingsley, David H.; Montes, Julia S.; Richards, Gary P.; Lyon, G. Marshall; Abdulhafid, Gwen M.; Seitz, Scot R.; Fernandez, Marina L.; Teunis, Peter F.; Flick, George J.; Moe, Christine L.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of oysters with human noroviruses (HuNoV) constitutes a human health risk and may lead to severe economic losses in the shellfish industry. There is a need to identify a technology that can inactivate HuNoV in oysters. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial to assess the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on Norwalk virus (HuNoV genogroup I.1) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters ingested by subjects. Forty-four healthy, positive-secretor adults were divided into three study phases. Subjects in each phase were randomized into control and intervention groups. Subjects received Norwalk virus (8FIIb, 1.0 × 104 genomic equivalent copies) in artificially seeded oysters with or without HPP treatment (400 MPa at 25°C, 600 MPa at 6°C, or 400 MPa at 6°C for 5 min). HPP at 600 MPa, but not 400 MPa (at 6° or 25°C), completely inactivated HuNoV in seeded oysters and resulted in no HuNoV infection among these subjects, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR detection of HuNoV RNA in subjects' stool or vomitus samples. Interestingly, a white blood cell (granulocyte) shift was identified in 92% of the infected subjects and was significantly associated with infection (P = 0.0014). In summary, these data suggest that HPP is effective at inactivating HuNoV in contaminated whole oysters and suggest a potential intervention to inactivate infectious HuNoV in oysters for the commercial shellfish industry. PMID:21705552

  3. Randomized, double-blinded clinical trial for human norovirus inactivation in oysters by high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Juan S; Kingsley, David H; Montes, Julia S; Richards, Gary P; Lyon, G Marshall; Abdulhafid, Gwen M; Seitz, Scot R; Fernandez, Marina L; Teunis, Peter F; Flick, George J; Moe, Christine L

    2011-08-01

    Contamination of oysters with human noroviruses (HuNoV) constitutes a human health risk and may lead to severe economic losses in the shellfish industry. There is a need to identify a technology that can inactivate HuNoV in oysters. In this study, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded clinical trial to assess the effect of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) on Norwalk virus (HuNoV genogroup I.1) inactivation in virus-seeded oysters ingested by subjects. Forty-four healthy, positive-secretor adults were divided into three study phases. Subjects in each phase were randomized into control and intervention groups. Subjects received Norwalk virus (8FIIb, 1.0 × 10(4) genomic equivalent copies) in artificially seeded oysters with or without HPP treatment (400 MPa at 25°C, 600 MPa at 6°C, or 400 MPa at 6°C for 5 min). HPP at 600 MPa, but not 400 MPa (at 6° or 25°C), completely inactivated HuNoV in seeded oysters and resulted in no HuNoV infection among these subjects, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR detection of HuNoV RNA in subjects' stool or vomitus samples. Interestingly, a white blood cell (granulocyte) shift was identified in 92% of the infected subjects and was significantly associated with infection (P = 0.0014). In summary, these data suggest that HPP is effective at inactivating HuNoV in contaminated whole oysters and suggest a potential intervention to inactivate infectious HuNoV in oysters for the commercial shellfish industry.

  4. Root length in the permanent teeth of women with an additional X chromosome (47,XXX females).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lähdesmäki, Raija E; Alvesalo, Lassi J

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differential effects of the X and Y chromosomes on dental development. The expression of sexual dimorphism in terms of tooth size, shape, number and developmental timing has been explained especially by Y chromosome influence. The Y chromosome promotes enamel, crown and root dentin development. The X chromosome has an effect on enamel deposition. The aim of this research is to study the influence of the extra X chromosome on the development of permanent tooth root length. The study subjects (all of whom were from the Kvantti Dental Research Project) were seven 47,XXX females, five female relatives and 51 and 52 population control men and women, respectively. Measurements were made from panoramic radiographs on available permanent teeth by a digital calliper according to established procedures. The results showed that the maxillary root lengths of the 47,XXX females were of the same magnitude as those in normal women, but the mandibular root lengths were longer in 47,XXX females than in normal men or women. Increased enamel thickness in the teeth of 47,XXX females is apparently caused by the active enamel gene in all X chromosomes having no increased influence on crown dentin formation. These results in 47,XXX females indicate an increase in root dentin development, at least in the mandible, which together with the data on crown formation reflects a continuous long-lasting effect of the X chromosome on dental development.

  5. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 82; Issue 1-2. The inactive X chromosome in the human female is enriched in 5-methylcytosine to an unusual degree and appears to contain more of this modified nucleotide than the remainder of the genome. Deepti D. Deobagkar H. Sharat Chandra. Volume 82 Issue 1-2 ...

  6. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Clevers, JC; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally

  7. Extreme selective sweeps independently targeted the X chromosomes of the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien Yann; Veeramah, Krishna R; Woerner, August E; Hammer, Michael F; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel Heide

    2015-05-19

    The unique inheritance pattern of the X chromosome exposes it to natural selection in a way that is different from that of the autosomes, potentially resulting in accelerated evolution. We perform a comparative analysis of X chromosome polymorphism in 10 great ape species, including humans. In most species, we identify striking megabase-wide regions, where nucleotide diversity is less than 20% of the chromosomal average. Such regions are found exclusively on the X chromosome. The regions overlap partially among species, suggesting that the underlying targets are partly shared among species. The regions have higher proportions of singleton SNPs, higher levels of population differentiation, and a higher nonsynonymous-to-synonymous substitution ratio than the rest of the X chromosome. We show that the extent to which diversity is reduced is incompatible with direct selection or the action of background selection and soft selective sweeps alone, and therefore, we suggest that very strong selective sweeps have independently targeted these specific regions in several species. The only genomic feature that we can identify as strongly associated with loss of diversity is the location of testis-expressed ampliconic genes, which also have reduced diversity around them. We hypothesize that these genes may be responsible for selective sweeps in the form of meiotic drive caused by an intragenomic conflict in male meiosis.

  8. The constrained maximal expression level owing to haploidy shapes gene content on the mammalian X chromosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurst, Laurence D.; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Forrest, Alistair R R

    2015-01-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functional...

  9. Association of the X-chromosomal genes TIMP1 and IL9R with rheumatoid arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burkhardt, J.; Petit-Teixeira, E.; Teixeira, V.H.; Kirsten, H.; Garnier, S.; Ruehle, S.; Oeser, C.; Wolfram, G.; Scholz, M.; Migliorini, P.; Balsa, A.; Westhovens, R.; Barrera, P.; Alves, H.; Pascual-Salcedo, D.; Bombardieri, S.; Dequeker, J.; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Putte, L.B.A. van de; Bardin, T.; Prum, B.; Buchegger-Podbielski, U.; Emmrich, F.; Melchers, I.; Cornelis, F.; Ahnert, P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease with features of an autoimmune disease with female predominance. Candidate genes located on the X-chromosome were selected for a family trio-based association study. METHODS: A total of 1452 individuals belonging to 3 different

  10. Incorporation of inactive x chromosomes in micronuclei of X;9 translocation individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hando, J.; Nath, J. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States); Tucker, J.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Several studies on aneuploidy have shown that the X is the most frequently lost chromosome in females. Recent studies have shown a significant increase in the number of X chromosome-positive micronuclei with age in females. This study was to determine if the X chromosome observed in micronuclei was active or inactive. Blood samples were obtained from two females, each with balanced X;9 translocations. The first subject was 36 years of age with a karyotype of 46,XX,t(X;9) (q13;q32). The second subject was 33 years of age with a karyotype of 46,XX,t(X;9) (p11.2;q13). Ten thousand binucleated cells were scored for the 36 year old donor, while 9500 were scored for the 33 year old donor. The kinetochore status K{sup +} or K{sup {minus}} of each micronucleau (MN) was recorded. Slides were then hybridized with the X centromere specific probe pBamX7 and a whole chromosome painting probe specific for chromosome 9. The X centromere probe was labeled with biotinylated UTP and visualized with fluorescein conjugated avidin. The chromosome 9 painting probe was directly conjugated with SpectrumOrange. All micronucleated cells were relocated and scored as X+9+, X+9-, X-9+; or X-9- depending on their probe status. The results were pooled since there was no significant difference between micronucleus frequencies, K-MN, X+MN or X+9-Mn. A total 217 mocronuclei were scored. Kinetochore labeling showed that 28.6% (62/217) were kinetochore positive, while 71.4% (155/217) were kinetochore negative. Of the 217 micronuclei, 44.2%(96/217) contained the X chromosome. Among the 96 X chromosome-positive micronuclei, 83.3% (80/96) contained the inactive X chromosome (9-), while only 16.7% (16/96) contained an active X chromosome. These data clearly show that inclusion of the inactive X chromosome in micronuclei is preferential (p <0.005; {chi}2 analysis 1 df).

  11. X Chromosome-wide Association Study Identifies a Susceptibility Locus for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Su; Oh, Hyunjung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Baek, Jiwon; Jung, Seulgi; Hong, Myunghee; Kim, Kyung Mo; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Park, Sang Hyoung; Ye, Byong Duk; Han, Buhm; Song, Kyuyoung

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies of inflammatory bowel disease identified > 200 susceptibility loci only in autosomes. This study aimed to identify inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility loci on the X chromosome. We performed an X chromosome-wide association study in Korean patients with inflammatory bowel disease. We analysed X chromosome data from our recent genome-wide association studies, including 1505 cases [922 Crohn's disease and 583 ulcerative colitis] and 4041 controls during the discovery phase, followed by replication in additional 1989 cases [993 Crohn's disease, 996 ulcerative colitis] and 3491 controls. Sex-related differential effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms on disease were also evaluated. We confirmed a significant association of a previously reported inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility locus at chromosome Xq26.3 [CD40LG-ARHGEF6; odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.28; combined p = 3.79 × 10-15]. This locus accounted for 0.18% and 0.12% of genetic variance in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, respectively, and increased the total autosomal chromosome genetic variance from 6.65% to 6.83% and from 5.47% to 5.59% for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis risk, respectively, in the Korean population. Sex-stratified analyses did not reveal sex-related differences in effect sizes. We confirmed the association of rs2427870 at the CD40LG-ARHGEF6 locus with an inflammatory bowel disease through an X chromosome-wide association study in a Korean population. Our data suggest that the CD40LG-ARHGEF6 locus on the X chromosome might play a role in inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis in the Korean population.

  12. X chromosome-wide analysis identifies DNA methylation sites influenced by cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebaner, Daniella; Huang, Yunfeng; Hui, Qin; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Goldberg, Jack; Vaccarino, Viola; Sun, Yan V

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major cause of chronic disease worldwide. Smoking may induce cellular and molecular changes including epigenetic modification, with both short-term and long-term modification patterns that may contribute to phenotypic expression of diseases. Recent epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have identified dozens of smoking-related DNA methylation (DNAm) sites. However, the X chromosomal DNAm sites have been largely overlooked due to a lack of an analytical framework for dealing with the sex-dimorphic distribution. To identify novel smoking-related DNAm sites on the X chromosome, we examined the modality of each X chromosomal DNAm site and conducted a sex-specific association study of cigarette smoking. We used a discovery sample of 139 middle-age twins, and three replication samples of 78 twins, 464 and 333 unrelated individuals including 47, 17, 22, and 89 current smokers, respectively. After correction for multiple testing, the top smoking-related DNAm sites in BCOR and TSC22D3 were significantly hypermethylated and hypomethylated, respectively, among current smokers. These smoking-associated sites were replicated with meta-analysis p-values of 9.17 × 10(-12) and 1.61 × 10(-9). For both sites, the smoking effects on methylation levels were larger in males than that in females. Our findings highlight the importance of investigating X chromosome methylation patterns and their associations with environmental exposures and disease phenotypes and demonstrate a robust statistical methodology for such study. Existing EWAS of human diseases should incorporate the X chromosomal sites to complete a comprehensive epigenome-wide scan.

  13. Randomized evaluation of live attenuated vs. inactivated influenza vaccines in schools (RELATIVES) pilot study: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jeffrey C; Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Pellizzari, Rosana; Dusome, Edwina; Russell, Margaret L; Hamid, Jemila S; Feinberg, Yael; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Sirtonski, Brittany; Moher, Deanna; Sider, Doug; Finkelstein, Michael; Loeb, Mark

    2015-01-15

    School-based influenza immunization can effectively address accessibility barriers, but injected inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV) may not be acceptable to some children and parents in school settings. To better understand the feasibility of offering intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) through schools, we assessed uptake, stakeholder acceptability, and cost of school-based delivery of LAIV compared to IIV. We piloted an open-label cluster randomized trial involving 10 elementary schools in Peterborough, Ontario during the 2013-2014 influenza vaccination campaign. Schools were randomized to having students receive IIV or LAIV at publicly-funded school-based clinics organized by the local public health department. We measured the percentage of students vaccinated with at least one dose of influenza vaccine at school. Stakeholder acceptability was evaluated through a questionnaire of parents and interviews of public health department personnel and school principals. We compared the costs per dose of vaccine administered, including staff time and costs of vaccines and supplies. Single-dose influenza vaccine uptake was higher for the five schools offering LAIV than for the five offering IIV (19.3% vs. 12.2%, p=0.02). Interviews with nine school principals and five public health department personnel suggested that the clinics ran smoothly with little disruption to school routines, and that LAIV was associated with increased efficiency and calmer children. All interviewees cited unfamiliarity with LAIV and the study recruitment package length as potential reasons for low uptake. The cost per vaccine dose administered was $38.67 for IIV and $43.50 for LAIV. Use of LAIV in school-based clinics was associated with increased vaccine uptake and the perception among immunizing staff of reduced child anxiety, but also slightly higher vaccine administration costs, compared to IIV. However, uptake was low for both groups. More effective strategies to promote

  14. Tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus spatial dynamics in a malaria mosquito, Anopheles atroparvus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen M Bondarenko

    Full Text Available Spatial organization of chromosome territories is important for maintenance of genomic stability and regulation of gene expression. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific features of chromosome attachments to the nuclear envelope in various organisms including malaria mosquitoes. However, other spatial characteristics of nucleus organization, like volume and shape of chromosome territories, have not been studied in Anopheles. We conducted a thorough analysis of tissue-specific features of the X chromosome and nucleolus volume and shape in follicular epithelium and nurse cells of the Anopheles atroparvus ovaries using a modern open-source software. DNA of the polytene X chromosome from ovarian nurse cells was obtained by microdissection and was used as a template for amplification with degenerate oligo primers. A fluorescently labeled X chromosome painting probe was hybridized with formaldehyde-fixed ovaries of mosquitoes using a 3D-FISH method. The nucleolus was stained by immunostaining with an anti-fibrillarin antibody. The analysis was conducted with TANGO-a software for a chromosome spatial organization analysis. We show that the volume and position of the X chromosome have tissue-specific characteristics. Unlike nurse cell nuclei, the growth of follicular epithelium nuclei is not accompanied with the proportional growth of the X chromosome. However, the shape of the X chromosome does not differ between the tissues. The dynamics of the X chromosome attachment regions location is tissue-specific and it is correlated with the process of nucleus growth in follicular epithelium and nurse cells.

  15. Three patients with structurally abnormal X chromosomes, each with Xq13 breakpoints and a history of idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, G W; Pierre, R V; Phyliky, R L

    1982-01-01

    Structural abnormalities of the X chromosome are rarely found in neoplastic disorders. We describe three patients with a history of idiopathic acquired sideroblastic anemia (IASA); each one had an abnormal clone of cells in the bone marrow, characterized by a structurally abnormal X chromosome. In two of these patients, the predominant karyotype was 47,X,2idic(X)(q13); in the other patient, it was 46,X,t(X;11)(q13;p15). Inasmuch as all three of these cases involved chromosome band Xq13, as did two previously published cases, we suggest that band Xq13 may be more prone to structural rearrangement than other X chromosome bands in hematologic disorders. The common Xq13 chromosome breakpoint and clinical presentation (IASA) among these three patients and the occurrence of an X-linked type of sideroblastic anemia may suggest that an association exists between X chromosome abnormalities and IASA. Perhaps alteration of a gene or chromosome structure in or near band Xq13 predisposes to development of IASA. The fact that two of these patients had preleukemia and the third had overt acute leukemia may imply that patients with IASA and X chromosome abnormalities have a poor prognosis. Cases of IASA without associated X chromosome abnormalities are known; thus, if an association between IASA and an abnormal X chromosome does exist, most likely it involves only some patients with IASA.

  16. Enhanced chromatin accessibility of the dosage compensated Drosophila male X-chromosome requires the CLAMP zinc finger protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Jennifer; Kuzu, Guray; Bowman, Sarah; Scruggs, Benjamin; Henriques, Telmo; Kingston, Robert; Adelman, Karen; Tolstorukov, Michael; Larschan, Erica

    2017-01-01

    The essential process of dosage compensation is required to equalize gene expression of X-chromosome genes between males (XY) and females (XX). In Drosophila, the conserved Male-specific lethal (MSL) histone acetyltransferase complex mediates dosage compensation by increasing transcript levels from genes on the single male X-chromosome approximately two-fold. Consistent with its increased levels of transcription, the male X-chromosome has enhanced chromatin accessibility, distinguishing it from the autosomes. Here, we demonstrate that the non-sex-specific CLAMP (Chromatin-linked adaptor for MSL proteins) zinc finger protein that recognizes GA-rich sequences genome-wide promotes the specialized chromatin environment on the male X-chromosome and can act over long genomic distances (~14 kb). Although MSL complex is required for increasing transcript levels of X-linked genes, it is not required for enhancing global male X-chromosome chromatin accessibility, and instead works cooperatively with CLAMP to facilitate an accessible chromatin configuration at its sites of highest occupancy. Furthermore, CLAMP regulates chromatin structure at strong MSL complex binding sites through promoting recruitment of the Nucleosome Remodeling Factor (NURF) complex. In contrast to the X-chromosome, CLAMP regulates chromatin and gene expression on autosomes through a distinct mechanism that does not involve NURF recruitment. Overall, our results support a model where synergy between a non-sex-specific transcription factor (CLAMP) and a sex-specific cofactor (MSL) creates a specialized chromatin domain on the male X-chromosome.

  17. Strong selective sweeps associated with ampliconic regions in great ape X chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Kiwoong; Munch, Kasper; Hobolth, Asger

    2014-01-01

    The unique inheritance pattern of X chromosomes makes them preferential targets of adaptive evolution. We here investigate natural selection on the X chromosome in all species of great apes. We find that diversity is more strongly reduced around genes on the X compared with autosomes......, and that a higher proportion of substitutions results from positive selection. Strikingly, the X exhibits several megabase long regions where diversity is reduced more than five fold. These regions overlap significantly among species, and have a higher singleton proportion, population differentiation......, and nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratio. We rule out background selection and soft selective sweeps as explanations for these observations, and conclude that several strong selective sweeps have occurred independently in similar regions in several species. Since these regions are strongly associated...

  18. The parental origin of the extra X chromosome in 47,XXX females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, K M; Jacobs, P A; Lee, M; Ratcliffe, S; Robinson, A; Nielsen, J; Hassold, T J

    1990-01-01

    We used X-linked DNA polymorphisms to study the parental origin of X chromosome nondisjunction in 28 47,XXX live-born females. Errors in oogenesis accounted for 26 of the cases, with the majority of these being attributable to an error at meiosis I. We observed an association between advanced parental age and meiosis I nondisjunction--but not meiosis II nondisjunction--in the maternally derived cases. In studies of recombination we found little evidence for an association between pairing failure and X chromosome nondisjunction, but our results suggest that increased recombination near the centromere may play a role in the etiology of the 47,XXX condition. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2316522

  19. Mapping and identification of essential gene functions on the X chromosome of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Annette; Schöttler, Petra; Werner, Meike; Beinert, Nicole; Dowe, Gordon; Burkert, Peter; Mourkioti, Foteini; Dentzer, Lore; He, Yuchun; Deak, Peter; Benos, Panayiotis V.; Gatt, Melanie K.; Murphy, Lee; Harris, David; Barrell, Bart; Ferraz, Concepcion; Vidal, Sophie; Brun, Christine; Demaille, Jacques; Cadieu, Edouard; Dreano, Stephane; Gloux, Stéphanie; Lelaure, Valerie; Mottier, Stephanie; Galibert, Francis; Borkova, Dana; Miñana, Belen; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Bolshakov, Slava; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Papagiannakis, George; Spanos, Lefteris; Louis, Christos; Madueño, Encarnación; de Pablos, Beatriz; Modolell, Juan; Bucheton, Alain; Callister, Debbie; Campbell, Lorna; Henderson, Nadine S.; McMillan, Paul J.; Salles, Cathy; Tait, Evelyn; Valenti, Phillipe; Saunders, Robert D.C.; Billaud, Alain; Pachter, Lior; Klapper, Robert; Janning, Wilfried; Glover, David M.; Ashburner, Michael; Bellen, Hugo J.; Jäckle, Herbert; Schäfer, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster genome consists of four chromosomes that contain 165 Mb of DNA, 120 Mb of which are euchromatic. The two Drosophila Genome Projects, in collaboration with Celera Genomics Systems, have sequenced the genome, complementing the previously established physical and genetic maps. In addition, the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project has undertaken large-scale functional analysis based on mutagenesis by transposable P element insertions into autosomes. Here, we present a large-scale P element insertion screen for vital gene functions and a BAC tiling map for the X chromosome. A collection of 501 X-chromosomal P element insertion lines was used to map essential genes cytogenetically and to establish short sequence tags (STSs) linking the insertion sites to the genome. The distribution of the P element integration sites, the identified genes and transcription units as well as the expression patterns of the P-element-tagged enhancers is described and discussed. PMID:11751581

  20. Mito-nuclear interactions as drivers of gene movement on and off the X-chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Rogell, Björn; Dean, Rebecca; Lemos, Bernardo; Dowling, Damian K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mito-nuclear gene interactions regulate energy conversion, and are fundamental to eukaryotes. Generally, mito-nuclear coadaptation would be most efficient if the interacting nuclear genes were X-linked, because this maximizes the probability of favorable mito-nuclear allelic combinations co-transmitting across generations. Thus, under a coadaptation (CA) hypothesis, nuclear genes essential for mitochondrial function might be under selection to relocate to the X-chromosome. However...

  1. CGG repeats associated with fragile X chromosome form left-handed Z-DNA structure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Renčiuk, Daniel; Kypr, Jaroslav; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2011), s. 174-181 ISSN 0006-3525 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/07/0094; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100040701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : fragile X chromosome syndrome * Z-DNA * trinucleotide repeats Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2011

  2. Origin and evolution of candidate mental retardation genes on the human X chromosome (MRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deakin Janine E

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human X chromosome has a biased gene content. One group of genes that is over-represented on the human X are those expressed in the brain, explaining the large number of sex-linked mental retardation (MRX syndromes. Results To determine if MRX genes were recruited to the X, or whether their brain-specific functions were acquired after relocation to the mammalian X chromosome, we examined the location and expression of their orthologues in marsupials, which diverged from human approximately 180 million years ago. We isolated and mapped nine tammar wallaby MRX homologues, finding that six were located on the tammar wallaby X (which represents the ancient conserved mammal X and three on chromosome 5, representing the recently added region of the human X chromosome. The location of MRX genes within the same synteny groups in human and wallaby does not support the hypothesis that genes with an important function in the brain were recruited in multiple independent events from autosomes to the mammalian X chromosome. Most of the tammar wallaby MRX homologues were more widely expressed in tammar wallaby than in human. Only one, the tammar wallaby ARX homologue (located on tammar chromosome 5p, has a restricted expression pattern comparable to its pattern in human. The retention of the brain-specific expression of ARX over 180 million years suggests that this gene plays a fundamental role in mammalian brain development and function. Conclusion Our results suggest all the genes in this study may have originally had more general functions that became more specialised and important in brain function during evolution of humans and other placental mammals.

  3. Segregation analysis in X-linked ichthyosis: paternal transmission of the affected X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral-Lopez, J; González-Huerta, L M; Cuevas-Covarrubias, S A

    2008-04-01

    Steroid sulphatase (STS) deficiency has been described in a diversity of ethnic populations. The phenotype of STS deficiency, X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), is a genodermatosis characterized by dark scaly skin. About 90% of patients with XLI have complete deletion of the entire STS gene and flanking sequences. The variable number tandem repeats, on either side of the STS gene, appear to play an important role in these interstitial deletions due to nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR). It is difficult to establish if this NAHR occurs between two chromosomes, between sister chromatids or between the same chromatid. To identify the parental origin of the affected X-chromosome in seven unrelated sporadic cases of XLI. Amplification of the regions from DXS89 to DXS1134 (telomeric-centromeric) including the 5' and 3' ends of the STS gene was performed through polymerase chain reaction. GeneScan analysis was performed using the DXS987, DXS8051 and DXS1060 markers located on the short arm of the X-chromosome. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis was performed with a digoxigenin-labelled cDNA STS probe. STS gene deletion in patients with XLI involved the sequences DXS1139 and DXF22S1. In five families segregation analysis showed paternal transmission of the affected X-chromosome in the XLI carrier. It was not possible to determine the parental origin of the affected X-chromosome in two families. These data strongly suggest that STS gene deletion occurred in the male meiosis probably due to an intrachromosomal event, recombination between S232 sequences on the same DNA molecule, or during the process of DNA replication.

  4. Deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS) and X-chromosome deletion in fetal mummification in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanem, Mohamed Elshabrawy; Nakao, Toshihiko; Nishibori, Masahide

    2006-01-01

    Ten mummified fetuses were tested for the deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthase (DUMPS), which is known to contribute to the embryonic and fetal mortality in cattle. Genomic DNAs of the mummified fetuses were extracted from tissue samples collected from the mummies and were amplified by GenomiPhi DNA amplification kit. UMPS gene of the mummies was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DUMPS primers. Out of ten mummies examined, two fetuses were heterozygous (carriers) for DUMPS as indicated by the presences of three bands of 89, 53 and 36 bp. Estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in the two mummies was 3.5 and 2.5 months, respectively. The other fetuses exhibited only two bands of 53 and 36 bp on the polyacrylamide gel indicated that they were normal. On the other hand, all the mummies were sexed using AMX/Y primers. Specific regions of Y and X chromosomes were amplified by PCR using AMX/Y. The expected 280 bp fragment in the female sample and the 280 and 217 bp in the male sample were observed. Nine mummies had a normal X and Y chromosome bands; however, the other mummified fetus exhibited only Y chromosome band, while the constitutive X chromosome fragment was missing. The estimated stage of gestation when the death occurred in this mummified fetus was 100 days. This might be the first report of DUMPS and X-chromosome deletion at the amelogenin gene in bovine-mummified fetuses in Japan.

  5. Unique Case Reports Associated with Ovarian Failure: Necessity of Two Intact X Chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Rao Kandukuri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure is defined as the loss of functional follicles below the age of 40 years and the incidence of this abnormality is 0.1% among the 30–40 years age group. Unexplained POF is clinically recognized as amenorrhoea (>6 months with low level of oestrogen and raised level of Luteinizing Hormone (LH and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH > 20 IU/l occurring before the age of 40. It has been studied earlier that chromosomal defects can impair ovarian development and its function. Since there is paucity of data on chromosomal defects in Indian women, an attempt is made to carry out cytogenetic evaluation in patients with ovarian failure. Cytogenetic analysis of women with ovarian defects revealed the chromosome abnormalities to be associated with 14% of the cases analyzed. Interestingly, majority of the abnormalities involved the X-chromosome and we report two unique abnormalities, (46,XXdel(Xq21-22 and q28 and (mos,45XO/46,X+ringX involving X chromosome in association with ovarian failure. This study revealed novel X chromosome abnormalities associated with ovarian defects and these observations would be helpful in genetic counseling and apart from, infertility clinics using the information to decide suitable strategies to help such patients.

  6. Sequence differentiation associated with an inversion on the neo-X chromosome of Drosophila americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Bryant F

    2003-11-01

    Sex chromosomes originate from pairs of autosomes that acquire controlling genes in the sex-determining cascade. Universal mechanisms apparently influence the evolution of sex chromosomes, because this chromosomal pair is characteristically heteromorphic in a broad range of organisms. To examine the pattern of initial differentiation between sex chromosomes, sequence analyses were performed on a pair of newly formed sex chromosomes in Drosophila americana. This species has neo-sex chromosomes as a result of a centromeric fusion between the X chromosome and an autosome. Sequences were analyzed from the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh), big brain (bib), and timeless (tim) gene regions, which represent separate positions along this pair of neo-sex chromosomes. In the northwestern range of the species, the bib and Adh regions exhibit significant sequence differentiation for neo-X chromosomes relative to neo-Y chromosomes from the same geographic region and other chromosomal populations of D. americana. Furthermore, a nucleotide site defining a common haplotype in bib is shown to be associated with a paracentric inversion [In(4)ab] on the neo-X chromosome, and this inversion suppresses recombination between neo-X and neo-Y chromosomes. These observations are consistent with the inversion acting as a recombination modifier that suppresses exchange between these neo-sex chromosomes, as predicted by models of sex chromosome evolution.

  7. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at biallelic genetic markers on the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffelman, J; Weir, B S

    2016-06-01

    Testing genetic markers for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is an important tool for detecting genotyping errors in large-scale genotyping studies. For markers at the X chromosome, typically the χ(2) or exact test is applied to the females only, and the hemizygous males are considered to be uninformative. In this paper we show that the males are relevant, because a difference in allele frequency between males and females may indicate HWE not to hold. The testing of markers on the X chromosome has received little attention, and in this paper we lay down the foundation for testing biallelic X-chromosomal markers for HWE. We develop four frequentist statistical test procedures for X-linked markers that take both males and females into account: the χ(2) test, likelihood ratio test, exact test and permutation test. Exact tests that include males are shown to have a better Type I error rate. Empirical data from the GENEVA project on venous thromboembolism is used to illustrate the proposed tests. Results obtained with the new tests differ substantially from tests that are based on female genotype counts only. The new tests detect differences in allele frequencies and seem able to uncover additional genotyping error that would have gone unnoticed in HWE tests based on females only.

  8. Variation of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast cancer and gynecological cancer tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Youxiang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses 1000 cases of patients with breast cancer and 2000 cases of patients with gynecological cancer (1000 cases of malignant tumor, 1000 cases of benign tumors, where breast cancer and malignant tumor patients comprise the observation group, while patients with benign tumors comprise the control group. Through DNA extraction, STR genotyping and variation verification, microdissection, individual STR mutation rate and loci STR mutation rate of the two groups of patients were calculated. Results show that there are no significant (P > 0.05 differences in the STR variation of autosomes and X chromosome between patients in the observation group and those in the reference group. However, significant (P < 0.05 intergroup differences were found for STR variation typing between patients with malignant and benign tumors. Using STR genotyping for autosomes and X chromosomes, gynecological cancer patients were found to be more likely to mutate, with a clear relationship between STR variation and tumor differentiation degrees. The study on the variation analysis of autosomes and X chromosome STR in breast and gynecological cancer tissues is expected to have a high application value when applied to medical research and identification processes.

  9. Housekeeping gene on the X chromosome encodes a protein similar to ubiquitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toniolo, D.; Persico, M.; Alcalay, M.

    1988-02-01

    An X chromosome gene located 40 kilobases downstream from the G6PD gene, at Xq28, was isolated and sequenced. This gene, which the authors named GdX, spans about 3.5 kilobases of genomic DNA. GdX is a single-copy gene, is conserved in evolution, and has the features of a housekeeping gene. At its 5' end, a cluster of CpG dinucleotides is methylated on the inactive X chromosome and unmethylated on the active X chromosome. The GdX gene can code for a 157 amino acid protein, GdX. Residues 1-74 of GdX show 43% identity to ubiquitin, a highly conserved 76 amino acid protein. The COOH-terminal moiety of GdX is characterized in its central part (residues 110-128) by a sequence homologous to the COOH-terminal hormonogenic site of thyroglobulin. The structural organization of the GdX protein suggests the existence of a family of genes, in addition to the ubiquitin gene, that could play specific roles in key cellular processes, possible through protein-protein recognition.

  10. Grandma plays favourites: X-chromosome relatedness and sex-specific childhood mortality †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Sear, Rebecca; Beise, Jan; Ragsdale, Gillian; Voland, Eckart; Knapp, Leslie A.

    2010-01-01

    Biologists use genetic relatedness between family members to explain the evolution of many behavioural and developmental traits in humans, including altruism, kin investment and longevity. Women's post-menopausal longevity in particular is linked to genetic relatedness between family members. According to the ‘grandmother hypothesis’, post-menopausal women can increase their genetic contribution to future generations by increasing the survivorship of their grandchildren. While some demographic studies have found evidence for this, others have found little support for it. Here, we re-model the predictions of the grandmother hypothesis by examining the genetic relatedness between grandmothers and grandchildren. We use this new model to re-evaluate the grandmother effect in seven previously studied human populations. Boys and girls differ in the per cent of genes they share with maternal versus paternal grandmothers because of differences in X-chromosome inheritance. Here, we demonstrate a relationship between X-chromosome inheritance and grandchild mortality in the presence of a grandmother. With this sex-specific and X-chromosome approach to interpreting mortality rates, we provide a new perspective on the prevailing theory for the evolution of human female longevity. This approach yields more consistent support for the grandmother hypothesis, and has implications for the study of human evolution. PMID:19864288

  11. Report of the fifth international workshop on human X chromosome mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willard, H.F.; Cremers, F.; Mandel, J.L.; Monaco, A.P.; Nelson, D.L.; Schlessinger, D.

    1994-12-31

    A high-quality integrated genetic and physical map of the X chromosome from telomere to telomere, based primarily on YACs formatted with probes and STSs, is increasingly close to reality. At the Fifth International X Chromosome Workshop, organized by A.M. Poustka and D. Schlessinger in Heidelberg, Germany, April 24--27, 1994, substantial progress was recorded on extension and refinement of the physical map, on the integration of genetic and cytogenetic data, on attempts to use the map to direct gene searches, and on nascent large-scale sequencing efforts. This report summarizes physical and genetic mapping information presented at the workshop and/or published since the reports of the fourth International X Chromosome Workshop. The principle aim of the workshop was to derive a consensus map of the chromosome, in terms of physical contigs emphasizing the location of genes and microsatellite markers. The resulting map is presented and updates previous versions. This report also updates the list of highly informative microsatellites. The text highlights the working state of the map, the genes known to reside on the X, and the progress toward integration of various types of data.

  12. Linkage of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome with polymorphic DNA sequences from the human X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacocke, M.; Siminovitch, K.A.

    1987-05-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is one of several human immunodeficiency diseases inherited as an X-linked trait. The location of WAS on the X chromosome is unknown. The authors have studied 10 kindreds segregating for WAS for linkage with cloned, polymorphic DNA markers and have demonstrated significant linkage between WAS and two loci, DXS14 and DXS7, that map to the proximal short arm of the X chromosome. Maximal logarithm of odds (lod scores) for WAS-DXS14 and WAS-DWS7 were 4.29 (at 0 = 0.03) and 4.12 (at 0 = 0.00), respectively. Linkage data between WAS and six markers loci indicate the order of the loci to be (DXYS1-DXS1)-WAS-DXS14-DXS7-(DXS84-OTC). These results suggest that the WAS locus lies within the pericentric region of the X chromosome and provide an initial step toward identifying the WAS gene and improving the genetic counselling WAS families.

  13. Condensin controls recruitment of RNA polymerase II to achieve nematode X-chromosome dosage compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruesi, William S; Core, Leighton J; Waters, Colin T; Lis, John T; Meyer, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    The X-chromosome gene regulatory process called dosage compensation ensures that males (1X) and females (2X) express equal levels of X-chromosome transcripts. The mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans has been elusive due to improperly annotated transcription start sites (TSSs). Here we define TSSs and the distribution of transcriptionally engaged RNA polymerase II (Pol II) genome-wide in wild-type and dosage-compensation-defective animals to dissect this regulatory mechanism. Our TSS-mapping strategy integrates GRO-seq, which tracks nascent transcription, with a new derivative of this method, called GRO-cap, which recovers nascent RNAs with 5′ caps prior to their removal by co-transcriptional processing. Our analyses reveal that promoter-proximal pausing is rare, unlike in other metazoans, and promoters are unexpectedly far upstream from the 5′ ends of mature mRNAs. We find that C. elegans equalizes X-chromosome expression between the sexes, to a level equivalent to autosomes, by reducing Pol II recruitment to promoters of hermaphrodite X-linked genes using a chromosome-restructuring condensin complex. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00808.001 PMID:23795297

  14. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared with two trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines containing alternate B strains in adults: A phase 3, randomized noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John T; Albano, Frank R; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Graves Jones, Alison; Airey, Jolanta; Formica, Neil; Matassa, Vince; Leong, Jane

    2017-04-04

    Vaccination is the most effective means of influenza prevention. Efficacy of trivalent vaccines may be enhanced by including both B strain lineages. This phase 3, double-blind study assessed the immunogenicity and safety/tolerability of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) versus the United States (US)-licensed 2014-2015 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3-Yamagata [IIV3-YAM]; Afluria) and IIV3 containing the alternate Victoria B strain (IIV3-VIC) in adults ≥18years. Participants (n=3484) were randomized 2:1:1 and stratified by age to receive IIV4 (n=1741), IIV3-YAM (n=871), or IIV3-VIC (n=872). The primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of the immunological response to IIV4 versus IIV3-YAM and IIV3-VIC. Noninferiority was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (IIV3/IIV4; upper bound of two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]≤1.5) and seroconversion rate (SCR) difference (IIV3 - IIV4; upper bound of two-sided 95% CI≤10%) for vaccine strains. Solicited local and systemic adverse events (AEs) were assessed for 7days postvaccination, AEs recorded for 28days postvaccination, and serious AEs for 6months postvaccination. IIV4 elicited a noninferior immune response for matched strains, and superior response for unmatched B strains not contained in IIV3 comparators. Adjusted GMT ratios (95% CI) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/YAM, and B/VIC strains were 0.93 (0.88, 0.99), 0.93 (0.88, 0.98), 0.87 (IIV3-YAM; 0.82, 0.93), and 0.95 (IIV3-VIC; 0.88, 1.03), respectively. Corresponding values for SCR differences (95% CI) were -1.1 (-4.5, 2.3), -1.7 (-5.0, 1.7), -3.2 (IIV3-YAM; -7.4, 0.9), and -1.6 (IIV3-VIC; -5.8, 2.5). AEs were generally mild and experienced by 52.9% of participants. Serious AEs were reported with a slightly higher frequency with IIV4 (2.3%) versus IIV3-YAM (1.6%) and IIV3-VIC (1.5%). IIV4 demonstrated immunological noninferiority to the US-licensed IIV3, and superiority for unmatched B strains

  15. Immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine compared with a comparator quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in a pediatric population: A phase 3, randomized noninferiority study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airey, Jolanta; Albano, Frank R; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Jones, Alison Graves; Formica, Neil; Matassa, Vince; Leong, Jane

    2017-05-09

    Seqirus 2010 Southern Hemisphere split-virion trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) was associated with increased febrile reactions in children. Studies in vitro concluded that increasing concentrations of splitting agent decreased residual lipids and attenuated proinflammatory cytokine signals associated with fever. We assessed immunogenicity and safety of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; produced using higher concentration of splitting agent) versus a United States-licensed comparator IIV4 in healthy children aged 5-17years. Participants (N=2278) were randomized 3:1 and stratified by age (5-8years; 9-17years) to receive IIV4 (n=1709) or comparator IIV4 (n=569). Primary objective was to demonstrate noninferiority of IIV4 versus comparator IIV4 as assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio (upper bound of two-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]≤1.5) and difference in seroconversion rate (upper bound of two-sided 95% CI≤10%) for all four vaccine strains. HI antibody titers were assessed at baseline and 28days postvaccination. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were assessed during each 7- and 28-day postvaccination period, respectively. IIV4 met immunogenicity criteria for noninferiority. Adjusted GMT ratios (comparator IIV4/IIV4) for A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yamagata, and B/Victoria strains were 1.01 (95% CI; 0.93, 1.09), 1.05 (0.96, 1.15), 0.89 (0.81, 0.98), and 0.92 (0.83, 1.02), respectively. Corresponding values for differences (95% CI) in seroconversion rates (comparator IIV4 minus IIV4) were -3.1 (-8.0, 1.8), 0.4 (-4.5, 5.3), -3.4 (-8.3, 1.5), and -2.0 (-6.9, 2.9). Fever rates were numerically higher, but not statistically different, with IIV4 versus comparator IIV4. No new safety signals were reported. IIV4 demonstrated immunological noninferiority to the comparator IIV4 with a clinically acceptable safety profile in children aged 5-17years. Increased levels of virus splitting agent seem to

  16. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence D Hurst

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5 project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds, as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased

  17. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Laurence D; Ghanbarian, Avazeh T; Forrest, Alistair R R; Huminiecki, Lukasz

    2015-12-01

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  18. The Constrained Maximal Expression Level Owing to Haploidy Shapes Gene Content on the Mammalian X Chromosome

    KAUST Repository

    Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-12-18

    X chromosomes are unusual in many regards, not least of which is their nonrandom gene content. The causes of this bias are commonly discussed in the context of sexual antagonism and the avoidance of activity in the male germline. Here, we examine the notion that, at least in some taxa, functionally biased gene content may more profoundly be shaped by limits imposed on gene expression owing to haploid expression of the X chromosome. Notably, if the X, as in primates, is transcribed at rates comparable to the ancestral rate (per promoter) prior to the X chromosome formation, then the X is not a tolerable environment for genes with very high maximal net levels of expression, owing to transcriptional traffic jams. We test this hypothesis using The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) and data from the Functional Annotation of the Mammalian Genome (FANTOM5) project. As predicted, the maximal expression of human X-linked genes is much lower than that of genes on autosomes: on average, maximal expression is three times lower on the X chromosome than on autosomes. Similarly, autosome-to-X retroposition events are associated with lower maximal expression of retrogenes on the X than seen for X-to-autosome retrogenes on autosomes. Also as expected, X-linked genes have a lesser degree of increase in gene expression than autosomal ones (compared to the human/Chimpanzee common ancestor) if highly expressed, but not if lowly expressed. The traffic jam model also explains the known lower breadth of expression for genes on the X (and the Z of birds), as genes with broad expression are, on average, those with high maximal expression. As then further predicted, highly expressed tissue-specific genes are also rare on the X and broadly expressed genes on the X tend to be lowly expressed, both indicating that the trend is shaped by the maximal expression level not the breadth of expression per se. Importantly, a limit to the maximal expression level explains biased tissue of expression

  19. X Chromosomal effects on social cognitive processing and emotion regulation : A study with Klinefelter men (47,XXY)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, S; Swaab, H; Aleman, A; Kahn, RS

    Studying Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), a genetically defined disorder characterized by the presence of an additional X chromosome, can reveal insights into genotype-phenotype associations. Increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders characterized by difficulties in social interactions, such as

  20. Elucidation of structural abnormalities of the X chromosome using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with a Y chromosome painting probe.

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, R T; Millener, R; Thorne, S; O'Loughlin, J; Brassey, J; McDermott, A

    1994-01-01

    Particular regions of the X and Y chromosomes share DNA sequence homology to the extent that cross hybridisation occurs. Thus, chromosome painting with a whole Y chromosome probe consistently results in fluorescence on specific regions of the X chromosome as well as the complete Y chromosome. This phenomenon has been exploited to elucidate the structure of unusual X chromosome rearrangements, without Y involvement, in two females.

  1. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia; Burke, James; Chang, ChiehYing Y.; Gao, Mian; Tino, Joseph; Xie, Dianlin; Tebben, Andrew J. (BMS)

    2012-06-27

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-ordered protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.

  2. Genetic architecture of skewed X inactivation in the laboratory mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Calaway

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation (XCI is the mammalian mechanism of dosage compensation that balances X-linked gene expression between the sexes. Early during female development, each cell of the embryo proper independently inactivates one of its two parental X-chromosomes. In mice, the choice of which X chromosome is inactivated is affected by the genotype of a cis-acting locus, the X-chromosome controlling element (Xce. Xce has been localized to a 1.9 Mb interval within the X-inactivation center (Xic, yet its molecular identity and mechanism of action remain unknown. We combined genotype and sequence data for mouse stocks with detailed phenotyping of ten inbred strains and with the development of a statistical model that incorporates phenotyping data from multiple sources to disentangle sources of XCI phenotypic variance in natural female populations on X inactivation. We have reduced the Xce candidate 10-fold to a 176 kb region located approximately 500 kb proximal to Xist. We propose that structural variation in this interval explains the presence of multiple functional Xce alleles in the genus Mus. We have identified a new allele, Xce(e present in Mus musculus and a possible sixth functional allele in Mus spicilegus. We have also confirmed a parent-of-origin effect on X inactivation choice and provide evidence that maternal inheritance magnifies the skewing associated with strong Xce alleles. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 155 laboratory strains and wild mice we conclude that Xce(a is either a derived allele that arose concurrently with the domestication of fancy mice but prior the derivation of most classical inbred strains or a rare allele in the wild. Furthermore, we have found that despite the presence of multiple haplotypes in the wild Mus musculus domesticus has only one functional Xce allele, Xce(b. Lastly, we conclude that each mouse taxa examined has a different functional Xce allele.

  3. Investigating the role of X chromosome breakpoints in premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baronchelli Simona

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The importance of the genetic factor in the aetiology of premature ovarian failure (POF is emphasized by the high percentage of familial cases and X chromosome abnormalities account for 10% of chromosomal aberrations. In this study, we report the detailed analysis of 4 chromosomal abnormalities involving the X chromosome and associated with POF that were detected during a screening of 269 affected women. Conventional and molecular cytogenetics were valuable tools for locating the breakpoint regions and thus the following karyotypes were defined: 46,X,der(Xt(X;19(p21.1;q13.42mat, 46,X,t(X;2(q21.33;q14.3dn, 46,X,der(Xt(X;Y(q26.2;q11.223mat and 46,X,t(X;13(q13.3;q31dn. A bioinformatic analysis of the breakpoint regions identified putative candidate genes for ovarian failure near the breakpoint regions on the X chromosome or on autosomes that were involved in the translocation event. HS6ST1, HS6ST2 and MATER genes were identified and their functions and a literature review revealed an interesting connection to the POF phenotype. Moreover, the 19q13.32 locus is associated with the age of onset of the natural menopause. These results support the position effect of the breakpoint on flanking genes, and cytogenetic techniques, in combination with bioinformatic analysis, may help to improve what is known about this puzzling disorder and its diagnostic potential.

  4. Genetic variation of 12 X-chromosomal STR loci in an East Timor sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Costa, Helena; Tavares, Filipa; Souto, Luís

    2015-03-01

    East Timor (República Democrática de Timor Leste) is a country with a population around 1 million inhabitants located in Southeast Asia and composed of 13 districts, including the eastern half of the Timor Island, Ataúro and Jaco islands, and the coastal enclave of Oecusse-Ambeno located in West Timor. Examples of the importance of X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) analysis include parentage identification, namely in cases involving father/daughter relationships, paternity in close relative deficiency cases without access to the putative father, maternity testing, and in rape or incest cases. In this study, 149 saliva samples were collected from unrelated individuals from East Timor and 12 X-chromosomal STRs genotyped using Investigator® Argus X-12 kit (Qiagen). A total of 13 alleles not included in Investigator Argus X-12 allelic ladder (off-ladder alleles) were found, four of which never reported (alleles 34.1 and 38.1 at DXS10134, allele 17.2 at DXS10074, and allele 28.1 at DXS10146). Allele 27.3 at DXS10101 and alleles 26, 28, and 29 at DXS10148 have already been observed in other populations but their frequencies are considerably higher in East Timor population. Allele frequencies and population statistic parameters were calculated for East Timor population and data contextualized in Southeast Asia/Pacific Region.

  5. Family-based multi-SNP X chromosome analysis using parental information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison S. Wise

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for association analysis of haplotypes on the X chromosome that offers both improved power and robustness to population stratification in studies of affected offspring and their parents if all three have been genotyped. The method makes use of assumed parental haplotype exchangeability, a weaker assumption than Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Parental haplotype exchangeability requires that in the source population, of the three X chromosome haplotypes carried by the two parents, each is equally likely to be carried by the father. We propose a pseudo-sibling approach that exploits that exchangeability assumption. Our method extends the single-SNP PIX-LRT method to multiple SNPs in a high linkage block. We describe methods for testing the parental haplotype exchangeability assumption and also for determining how apparent violations can be distinguished from true fetal effects or maternally-mediated effects. We show results of simulations that demonstrate nominal type I error rate and good power. The methods are then applied to dbGaP data on the birth defect oral cleft, using both Asian and Caucasian families with cleft.

  6. Associations between Variation in X Chromosome Male Reproductive Genes and Sperm Competitive Ability in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Greenspan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in reproductive success has long been thought to be mediated in part by genes encoding seminal proteins. Here we explore the effect on male reproductive phenotypes of X-linked polymorphisms, a chromosome that is depauperate in genes encoding seminal proteins. Using 57 X chromosome substitution lines, sperm competition was tested both when the males from the wild-extracted line were the first to mate (“defense” crosses, followed by a tester male, and when extracted-line males were the second to mate, after a tester male (“offfense” crosses. We scored the proportion of progeny sired by each male, the fecundity, the remating rate and refractoriness to remating, and tested the significance of variation among lines. Eleven candidate genes were chosen based on previous studies, and portions of these genes were sequenced in all 57 lines. A total of 131 polymorphisms were tested for associations with the reproductive phenotypes using linear models. Nine polymorphisms in 4 genes were found to show significant associations (at a 5% FDR. Overall, it appears that the X chromosomes harbor abundant variation in sperm competition, especially considering the paucity of seminal protein genes. This suggests that much of the male reproductive variation lies outside of genes that encode seminal proteins.

  7. Normal newborn with prenatal suspicion of X chromosome monosomy due to confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serapinas, Danielius; Bartkeviciene, Daiva; Valantinaviciene, Emilija; Machtejeviene, Egle

    2016-10-01

    The recent introduction of cell-free DNA (cfDNA)-based noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) offers pregnant women a more accurate method than traditional serum screening methods for detecting fetal aneuploidies. Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of NIPT for Down, Edwards and Patau syndromes. However NIPT approaches that take advantage of single-nucelotide polymorphism (SNP) information potentially allow the identification of triploidy, chromosomal microdeletion syndromes and other unusual genetic variants. To highlight this approach of NIPT we present a rare case of confined placental X chromosome monosomy mosaicism that was prenatally suspected with a single-nucleotide polymorphism-based noninvasive prenatal test. The results of invasive tests (amniocentesis) showed small proportion of X chromosome mosaicism (45, X[5]/46, XX[95]). After birth karyotype of the girl revealed no abnormalities (46 XX), confirming that mosaicism was limited to the placenta. These results highlight the need of patient's informed consent and thorough pretest and postest counseling to ensure that they understand the limitations and advantages of the tests and the implications of the resultss. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L.; Schulze, Karen L.; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

    2010-07-22

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using C31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  9. Early loss of Xist RNA expression and inactive X chromosome associated chromatin modification in developing primordial germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Napoles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The inactive X chromosome characteristic of female somatic lineages is reactivated during development of the female germ cell lineage. In mouse, analysis of protein products of X-linked genes and/or transgenes located on the X chromosome has indicated that reactivation occurs after primordial germ cells reach the genital ridges.We present evidence that the epigenetic reprogramming of the inactive X-chromosome is initiated earlier than was previously thought, around the time that primordial germ cells (PGCs migrate through the hindgut. Specifically, we find that Xist RNA expression, the primary signal for establishment of chromosome silencing, is extinguished in migrating PGCs. This is accompanied by displacement of Polycomb-group repressor proteins Eed and Suz(12, and loss of the inactive X associated histone modification, methylation of histone H3 lysine 27.We conclude that X reactivation in primordial germ cells occurs progressively, initiated by extinction of Xist RNA around the time that germ cells migrate through the hindgut to the genital ridges. The events that we observe are reminiscent of X reactivation of the paternal X chromosome in inner cell mass cells of mouse pre-implantation embryos and suggest a unified model in which execution of the pluripotency program represses Xist RNA thereby triggering progressive reversal of epigenetic silencing of the X chromosome.

  10. Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and a large pericentric X chromosome inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashi, V.; Golden, W.L.; Allinson, P.S. [Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville, VA (United States)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    It has been demonstrated in animal studies that, in animals heterozygous for pericentric chromosomal inversions, loop formation is greatly reduced during meiosis. This results in absence of recombination within the inverted segment, with recombination seen only outside the inversion. A recent study in yeast has shown that telomeres, rather than centromeres, lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may be involved in promoting recombination. We studied by cytogenetic analysis and DNA polymorphisms the nature of meiotic recombination in a three-generation family with a large pericentric X chromosome inversion, inv(X)(p21.1q26), in which Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was cosegregating with the inversion. On DNA analysis there was no evidence of meiotic recombination between the inverted and normal X chromosomes in the inverted segment. Recombination was seen at the telomeric regions, Xp22 and Xq27-28. No deletion or point mutation was found on analysis of the DMD gene. On the basis of the FISH results, we believe that the X inversion is the mutation responsible for DMD in this family. Our results indicate that (1) pericentric X chromosome inversions result in reduction of recombination between the normal and inverted X chromosomes; (2) meiotic X chromosome pairing in these individuals is likely initiated at the telomeres; and (3) in this family DMD is caused by the pericentric inversion. 50 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Over-expression of XIST, the Master Gene for X Chromosome Inactivation, in Females With Major Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohu Ji

    2015-08-01

    Research in context: Due to lack of biological markers, diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders are subjective. There is utmost urgency to identify biomarkers for clinics, research, and drug development. We found that XIST and KDM5C gene expression may be used as a biological marker for diagnosis of major affective disorders in a significantly large subset of female patients from the general population. Our studies show that over-expression of XIST and some X-linked escapee genes may be a common mechanism for development of psychiatric disorders between the patients with rare genetic diseases (XXY or XXX and the general population of female psychiatric patients.

  12. Preliminary evidence of a noncausal association between the X-chromosome inactivation pattern and thyroid autoimmunity: a twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2009-01-01

    the impact of XCI on the serum concentration of TPOAb, we studied whether within-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in XCI are associated with differences in serum concentrations of TPOAb. A total of 318 euthyroid female twin individuals distributed in 159 pairs were investigated. XCI was determined...... by PCR analysis of a polymorphic CAG repeat in the first exon of the androgen receptor gene. TPOAb concentrations were measured using a solid-phase time-resolved fluoroimmunometric assay. Overall (within cohort), there was a significant association between XCI and serum concentrations of TPOAb......; regression coefficient (beta)=1.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-2.38), P=0.003. The association remained significant in the within-pair analysis; beta=1.74 (0.79-2.69), Passociation...

  13. X-inactivation in female human embryonic stem cells is in a nonrandom pattern and prone to epigenetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yin; Matsuno, Youko; Fouse, Shaun D; Rao, Nagesh; Root, Sierra; Xu, Renhe; Pellegrini, Matteo; Riggs, Arthur D; Fan, Guoping

    2008-03-25

    X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is an essential mechanism for dosage compensation of X-linked genes in female cells. We report that subcultures from lines of female human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) exhibit variation (0-100%) for XCI markers, including XIST RNA expression and enrichment of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) on the inactive X chromosome (Xi). Surprisingly, regardless of the presence or absence of XCI markers in different cultures, all female hESCs we examined (H7, H9, and HSF6 cells) exhibit a monoallelic expression pattern for a majority of X-linked genes. Our results suggest that these established female hESCs have already completed XCI during the process of derivation and/or propagation, and the XCI pattern of lines we investigated is already not random. Moreover, XIST gene expression in subsets of cultured female hESCs is unstable and subject to stable epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation. In the absence of XIST expression, approximately 12% of X-linked promoter CpG islands become hypomethylated and a portion of X-linked alleles on the Xi are reactivated. Because alterations in dosage compensation of X-linked genes could impair somatic cell function, we propose that XCI status should be routinely checked in subcultures of female hESCs, with cultures displaying XCI markers better suited for use in regenerative medicine.

  14. Genotype and phenotype in Klinefelter syndrome - impact of androgen receptor polymorphism and skewed X inactivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, A; Hertz, J M; Gravholt, C H

    2011-01-01

    The phenotypic variation of Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is wide and may by caused by various genetic and epigenetic effects. Skewed inactivation of the supra-numerical X chromosome and polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) have been suggested as plausible causes. We wanted to describe X...

  15. Mito-nuclear interactions as drivers of gene movement on and off the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogell, Björn; Dean, Rebecca; Lemos, Bernardo; Dowling, Damian K

    2014-05-02

    Mito-nuclear gene interactions regulate energy conversion, and are fundamental to eukaryotes. Generally, mito-nuclear coadaptation would be most efficient if the interacting nuclear genes were X-linked, because this maximizes the probability of favorable mito-nuclear allelic combinations co-transmitting across generations. Thus, under a coadaptation (CA) hypothesis, nuclear genes essential for mitochondrial function might be under selection to relocate to the X-chromosome. However, maternal inheritance predisposes the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to accumulate variation that, while male-harming, is benign to females. Numerous nuclear genes were recently reported in Drosophila melanogaster, which exhibit male-specific patterns of differential expression when placed alongside different mtDNA haplotypes, suggesting that nuclear genes are sensitive to an underlying male-specific mitochondrial mutation load. These genes are thus candidates for involvement in mito-nuclear interactions driven by sexual conflict (SC), and selection might have moved them off the X-chromosome to facilitate an optimal evolutionary counter-response, through males, to the presence of male-harming mtDNA mutations. Furthermore, the presence of male-harming mtDNA mutations could exert selection for modifiers on the Y-chromosome, thus placing these mito-sensitive nuclear genes at the center of an evolutionary tug-of-war between mitochondrion and Y-chromosome.We test these hypotheses by examining the chromosomal distributions of three distinct sets of mitochondrial-interacting nuclear genes in D. melanogaster; the first is a list of genes with mitochondrial annotations by Gene Ontologies, the second is a list comprising the core evolutionary-conserved mitochondrial proteome, and the third is a list of genes involved in male-specific responses to maternally-inherited mitochondrial variation and which might be putative targets of Y-chromosomal regulation. Genes with mitochondrial annotations and genes

  16. Sequence signatures involved in targeting the male-specific lethal complex to X-chromosomal genes in Drosophila melanogaster

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    Philip Philge

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Drosophila melanogaster, the dosage-compensation system that equalizes X-linked gene expression between males and females, thereby assuring that an appropriate balance is maintained between the expression of genes on the X chromosome(s and the autosomes, is at least partially mediated by the Male-Specific Lethal (MSL complex. This complex binds to genes with a preference for exons on the male X chromosome with a 3' bias, and it targets most expressed genes on the X chromosome. However, a number of genes are expressed but not targeted by the complex. High affinity sites seem to be responsible for initial recruitment of the complex to the X chromosome, but the targeting to and within individual genes is poorly understood. Results We have extensively examined X chromosome sequence variation within five types of gene features (promoters, 5' UTRs, coding sequences, introns, 3' UTRs and intergenic sequences, and assessed its potential involvement in dosage compensation. Presented results show that: the X chromosome has a distinct sequence composition within its gene features; some of the detected variation correlates with genes targeted by the MSL-complex; the insulator protein BEAF-32 preferentially binds upstream of MSL-bound genes; BEAF-32 and MOF co-localizes in promoters; and that bound genes have a distinct sequence composition that shows a 3' bias within coding sequence. Conclusions Although, many strongly bound genes are close to a high affinity site neither our promoter motif nor our coding sequence signatures show any correlation to HAS. Based on the results presented here, we believe that there are sequences in the promoters and coding sequences of targeted genes that have the potential to direct the secondary spreading of the MSL-complex to nearby genes.

  17. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole virus Vero cell-derived Ross River virus vaccine: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Gerald; Ehrlich, Hartmut J; Aaskov, John G; Fritsch, Sandor; Thomasser, Christiane; Draxler, Wolfgang; Wolzt, Michael; Müller, Markus; Pinl, Fritz; Van Damme, Pierre; Hens, Annick; Levy, Jack; Portsmouth, Daniel; Holzer, Georg; Kistner, Otfried; Kreil, Thomas R; Barrett, P Noel

    2011-11-21

    Ross River virus (RRV) is endemic in Australia and several South Pacific Islands. Approximately 5000 cases of RRV disease, which is characterized by debilitating polyarthritis, are recorded each year in Australia. This study describes the first clinical trial of a candidate RRV vaccine. An inactivated whole-virus Vero cell-derived RRV vaccine was tested in 382 healthy, RRV-naïve adults in a phase 1/2 dose-escalation study at ten sites in Austria, Belgium and The Netherlands. Subjects were equally randomized to receive 1.25 μg, 2.5 μg, 5 μg, or 10 μg aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted or non-adjuvanted RRV vaccine, with a second dose after three weeks and a booster at six months. Vaccine immunogenicity was determined by measurements of serum IgG and neutralizing antibody titers. Vaccine tolerability and safety were monitored over the entire study period. The optimal vaccine formulation was the adjuvanted 2.5 μg dose, as calculated using a repeated mixed model analysis of covariance comparing log-transformed RRV-specific IgG titers between different dose groups. Geometric means of RRV-specific serum antibodies measured 21 days after the third vaccination with the 2.5 μg adjuvanted formulation were 520.9 (90% CI 377.2-719.4) as determined by IgG ELISA and 119.9 (82.6-173.9) as determined by virus neutralization assay, resulting in seropositivity rates of 92.9% (82.6-98.0) and 92.7% (82.2-98.0), respectively. All vaccine formulations and doses were well tolerated after the first, second and third vaccination. The adjuvanted, inactivated whole-virus Vero cell-derived Ross River virus vaccine is highly immunogenic in RRV-naïve adults and well tolerated at all dose levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Maxwell; Rao, Prashant; Ercan, Sevinc

    2016-09-01

    Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal's sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Analysis of Parent-of-Origin Effects on the X Chromosome in Asian and European Orofacial Cleft Triads Identifies Associations with DMD, FGF13, EGFL6, and Additional Loci at Xp22.2

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    Øivind Skare

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although both the mother's and father's alleles are present in the offspring, they may not operate at the same level. These parent-of-origin (PoO effects have not yet been explored on the X chromosome, which motivated us to develop new methods for detecting such effects. Orofacial clefts (OFCs exhibit sex-specific differences in prevalence and are examples of traits where a search for various types of effects on the X chromosome might be relevant.Materials and Methods: We upgraded our R-package Haplin to enable genome-wide analyses of PoO effects, as well as power simulations for different statistical models. 14,486 X-chromosome SNPs in 1,291 Asian and 1,118 European case-parent triads of isolated OFCs were available from a previous GWAS. For each ethnicity, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P and cleft palate only (CPO were analyzed separately using two X-inactivation models and a sliding-window approach to haplotype analysis. In addition, we performed analyses restricted to female offspring.Results: Associations were identified in “Dystrophin” (DMD, Xp21.2-p21.1, “Fibroblast growth factor 13” (FGF13, Xq26.3-q27.1 and “EGF-like domain multiple 6” (EGFL6, Xp22.2, with biologically plausible links to OFCs. Unlike EGFL6, the other associations on chromosomal region Xp22.2 had no apparent connections to OFCs. However, the Xp22.2 region itself is of potential interest because it contains genes for clefting syndromes [for example, “Oral-facial-digital syndrome 1” (OFD1 and “Midline 1” (MID1]. Overall, the identified associations were highly specific for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model, except for DMD in which associations were identified in both CPO and CL/P, in the model with X-inactivation and in Europeans only.Discussion/Conclusion: The specificity of the associations for ethnicity, cleft subtype and X-inactivation model underscores the utility of conducting subanalyses, despite the

  20. Genomic imprinting on the X chromosome: implications for brain and behavioral phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, William

    2010-09-01

    Imprinted genes, in contrast to most mammalian genes, are monoallelically expressed in a parent-of-origin dependent manner. The idiosyncratic expression profile associated with imprinted genes arises from the differential epigenetic marking of the alleles in the paternal and maternal germlines. Although small in number, imprinted genes can profoundly influence key developmental and physiological processes, including those in the brain; work in animal models and in humans has shown that such genes can affect behavioral traits and cognition and may confer vulnerability to common mental illnesses. As a consequence of how the X chromosome is inherited, X-linked imprinting may elicit or indeed attenuate sexually dimorphic phenotypes. Thus, studying X-linked imprinting is likely to provide important general information about the evolutionary and mechanistic underpinnings of imprinting, as well as the molecular processes underlying sex-specific neurobiology and sex-biased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders.

  1. [Examples of application of X chromosomal markers in familial investigations and personal identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapińska, Ewa; Wysocka, Joanna; Cybulska, Lidia; Rebała, Krzysztof; Juchniewicz, Patrycja; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Besides autosomal STR loci, markers of sex chromosomes, X and Y, are increasingly more commonly used in genetic analyses aiming at paternity testing or personal identification. The paper presents cases in which analysis of microsatellite loci of the X chromosome (X-STRs) was included in the routine examination and allowed for an unambiguous determination of the relationship between the tested individuals. The cases addressed paternity testing of female children, determination whether the examined women were paternal half-sisters, as well as personal identification of a deceased man. In none of the conducted expert opinions, the putative father's DNA sample was't available. Genotyping of X-STR markers was carried out with the use of commercial kits: Mentype Argus X-8 PCR Amplification Kit (Biotype) and Investigator Argus X-12 Kit (Qiagen).

  2. [Population study of four X-chromosomal STR loci from the northern part of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cybulska, Lidia; Kapińska, Ewa; Wysocka, Joanna; Rebała, Krzysztof; Szczerkowska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS: The allele frequencies of four short tandem repeats (STR) loci specific to the human X chromosome (DXS101, DXS7423, DXS8377 and phosphoribosyltransferase HPRTB) were analyzed by means of a multiplex PCR reaction in a sample of 200 unrelated individuals residing in the northern part of Poland. The separation and detection of PCR products were performed by capillary electrophoresis on the 3130 Genetic Analyzer. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) showed no significant deviation for these loci. Statistical parameters such as: heterozygosity observed, mean exclusion chance, power of discrimination in males and power of discrimination in females showed that the examined multiplex is useful in forensic and paternity testing applications.

  3. X chromosome reactivation initiates in nascent primordial germ cells in mice.

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    Michihiko Sugimoto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During primordial germ cell (PGC development, epigenetic reprogramming events represented by X chromosome reactivation and erasure of genomic imprinting are known to occur. Although precise timing is not given, X reactivation is thought to take place over a short period of time just before initiation of meiosis. Here, we show that the cessation of Xist expression commences in nascent PGCs, and re-expression of some X-linked genes begins in newly formed PGCs. The X reactivation process was not complete in E14.5 PGCs, indicating that X reactivation in developing PGCs occurs over a prolonged period. These results set the reactivation timing much earlier than previously thought and suggest that X reactivation may involve slow passive steps.

  4. Taurodontism in 47,XXY males: an effect of the extra X chromosome on root development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varrela, J; Alvesalo, L

    1988-02-01

    Effects of an extra X chromosome on root development were studied in males with a 47,XXY chromosome constitution. Occurrence of taurodontism in the permanent molars of the lower jaw was noted from orthopantomograms of 30 Finnish 47,XXY males, 16 of their first-degree relatives, and a sample of 157 normal males and females. Nine, or 30%, or the 47,XXY males had at least one mandibular molar which was classified as taurodont. Only hypotaurodont teeth were found, and the teeth affected were all either second or third molars. None of the control relatives showed taurodontism. In the population sample, four individuals, or 2.5%, had taurodont teeth. A change in the mitotic activity of the cells of the developing teeth is one possible factor that can affect root formation leading to the development of taurodontism.

  5. Tissue- and stage-dependent dosage compensation on the Neo-X chromosome in drosophila pseudoobscura

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi

    2013-12-03

    Sex chromosome dosage compensation (DC) is widely accepted in various organisms. This concept is mostly supported by comparisons of gene expression between chromosomes and between sexes. However, genes on the X chromosome and autosomes are mostly not homologous, and the average gene expression level on these chromosomes may not be the same even under DC, which complicates comparisons between chromosomes. Many genes with sex-biased expression also make comparisons between sexes difficult. To overcome these issues, we investigated DC by comparing the expression of neo-X-linked genes in Drosophila pseudoobscura with those of their autosomal orthologs in other Drosophila species. The ratio of the former to the latter in males would be 1 under DC, whereas it becomes 0.5 without DC. We found that the ratio was ∼0.85 for adult whole bodies, indicating that the DC is incomplete on the neo-X chromosome in adults as a whole. The ratio (∼0.90) was also significantly less than 1 for adult bodies without gonads, whereas it was ∼1.0 for adult heads. These results indicate that DC varies among tissues. Our sliding-window analysis of the ratio also revealed that the upregulation of neo-X-linked genes in males occurred chromosome wide in all tissues analyzed, indicating global upregulation mechanisms. However, we found that gene functions also affected the levels of DC. Furthermore, most of the genes recently moved to the X were already under DC at the larval stage but not at the adult stage. These results suggest that DC in Drosophila species operates in a tissue/stage-dependent manner. © 2013 The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of the X-chromosomal genes TIMP1 and IL9R with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jana; Petit-Teixeira, Elisabeth; Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Kirsten, Holger; Garnier, Sophie; Ruehle, Sandra; Oeser, Christian; Wolfram, Grit; Scholz, Markus; Migliorini, Paola; Balsa, Alejandro; Westhovens, Renè; Barrera, Pilar; Alves, Helena; Pascual-Salcedo, Dora; Bombardieri, Stefano; Dequeker, Jan; Radstake, Timothy R; Van Riel, Piet; van de Putte, Leo; Bardin, Thomas; Prum, Bernard; Buchegger-Podbielski, Ulrike; Emmrich, Frank; Melchers, Inga; Cornelis, François; Ahnert, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory joint disease with features of an autoimmune disease with female predominance. Candidate genes located on the X-chromosome were selected for a family trio-based association study. A total of 1452 individuals belonging to 3 different sample sets were genotyped for 16 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 7 genes. The first 2 sets consisted of 100 family trios, each of French Caucasian origin, and the third of 284 additional family trios of European Caucasian origin. Subgroups were analyzed according to sex of patient and presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) autoantibodies. Four SNP were associated with RA in the first sample set and were genotyped in the second set. In combined analysis of sets 1 and 2, evidence remained for association of 3 SNP in the genes UBA1, TIMP1, and IL9R. These were again genotyped in the third sample set. Two SNP were associated with RA in the joint analysis of all samples: rs6520278 (TIMP1) was associated with RA in general (p = 0.035) and rs3093457 (IL9R) with anti-CCP-positive RA patients (p = 0.037) and male RA patients (p = 0.010). A comparison of the results with data from whole-genome association studies further supports an association of RA with TIMPL The sex-specific association of rs3093457 (IL9R) was supported by the observation that men homozygous for rs3093457-CC are at a significantly higher risk to develop RA than women (risk ratio male/female = 2.98; p = 0.048). We provide evidence for an association of at least 2 X-chromosomal genes with RA: TIMP1 (rs6520278) and IL9R (rs3093457).

  7. Mother and daughter with a terminal Xp deletion: implication of chromosomal mosaicism and X-inactivation in the high clinical variability of the microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimplinger, Isabella; Rauch, Anita; Orth, Ulrike; Schwarzer, Ulrich; Trautmann, Udo; Kutsche, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    The microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS or MIDAS) syndrome is a rare X-linked dominant inherited disorder with male lethality, associated with segmental aneuploidy of the Xp22.2 region in most of the cases. However, we recently described heterozygous sequence alterations in a single gene, HCCS, in females with MLS. Beside the classical MLS phenotype, occasional features such as sclerocornea, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and congenital heart defects can occur. Although the majority of cases are sporadic, mother-to-daughter transmission has been observed and a high intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability exists. We describe an asymptomatic mother and her daughter presenting with the typical features of MLS syndrome. By cytogenetic analysis both females were found to have a terminal Xp deletion with the breakpoint in Xp22.2, mapping near to or within the MSL3L1 gene which is located centromeric to HCCS. FISH analysis revealed that the mother is a mosaic with 45,X(11)/46,X,del(X)(p22.2)(89), while in all cells of the MLS-affected daughter a hybridization pattern consistent with a 46,X,del(X)(p22.2) karyotype was detected. By haplotype analysis we identified the paternal X chromosome of the mother to carry the terminal Xp deletion. X-inactivation studies showed a completely skewed pattern in mother and daughter with the deleted X chromosome to be preferentially inactivated in their peripheral blood cells. We suggest that both chromosomal mosaicism as well as functional X chromosome mosaicism could contribute to the lack of any typical MLS feature in individuals with a heterozygous MLS-associated mutation. The 45,X cell population, that most likely is also present in other tissues of the mother, might have protected her from developing MLS. Nonetheless, a non-random X-inactivation pattern in favor of activity of the wild-type X chromosome in the early blastocyte could also account for the apparent lack of any disease sign in this female.

  8. X Inactivation and Progenitor Cancer Cells

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    Ruben Agrelo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In mammals, silencing of one of the two X chromosomes is necessary to achieve dosage compensation. The 17 kb non-coding RNA called Xist triggers X inactivation. Gene silencing by Xist can only be achieved in certain contexts such as in cells of the early embryo and in certain hematopoietic progenitors where silencing factors are present. Moreover, these epigenetic contexts are maintained in cancer progenitors in which SATB1 has been identified as a factor related to Xist-mediated chromosome silencing.

  9. X-chromosome Forkhead Box P3 polymorphisms associate with atopy in girls in three Dutch birth cohorts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R.W.; Kerkhof, M. van de; Reijmerink, N.E.; Koppelman, G.H.; Thijs, C.; Stelma, F.F.; Smit, H.A.; Brunekreef, B.; Schayck, C.P. van; Postma, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) gene, located on the X-chromosome, encodes a transcription factor that directs T cells toward a regulatory phenotype. Regulatory T cells may suppress development of atopy. We evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FOXP3 are associated with

  10. X-chromosome Forkhead Box P3 polymorphisms associate with atopy in girls in three Dutch birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottema, R. W. B.; Kerkhof, M.; Reijmerink, N. E.; Koppelman, G. H.; Thijs, C.; Stelma, F. F.; Smit, H. A.; Brunekreef, B.; van Schayck, C. P.; Postma, D. S.

    P>Background: The Forkhead Box P3 (FOXP3) gene, located on the X-chromosome, encodes a transcription factor that directs T cells toward a regulatory phenotype. Regulatory T cells may suppress development of atopy. We evaluated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FOXP3 are associated

  11. Serologic response to inactivated poliovirus vaccine: a randomized clinical trial comparing 2 vaccination schedules in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Gustavo H; Thorley, Margaret; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Rodríguez, Nayra; McLaughlin, Steve; Torres, Lourdes M; Seda, Antonio; Carbia, Marcia; Alexander, Lorraine N; Caceres, Victor; Pallansch, Mark A

    2007-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the discontinuation of oral poliovirus vaccine after eradication of wild poliovirus. Studies assessing inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) immunogenicity in tropical countries, using the WHO Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedule, have been limited. We conducted a randomized clinical trial in Ponce, Puerto Rico. Infants were assigned to 1 of 2 study arms: those in the EPI arm received IPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age, and those in the US arm received IPV at 2, 4, and 6 months of age. Neutralizing antibody titers against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 were tested on serum specimens obtained before administration of the first dose of IPV and 28-45 days after administration of the last dose of IPV. Seroconversion rates for the EPI (n=225) and US (n=230) arms, respectively, were 85.8% and 99.6% for poliovirus type 1 (P<.001), 86.2% and 100% for poliovirus type 2 (P<.001), and 96.9% and 99.1% for poliovirus type 3 (P=.08). Seroconversion rates were lower among infants in the EPI arm who had high maternal antibody levels for all 3 poliovirus types (P<.001). The EPI schedule resulted in lower seroconversion rates for poliovirus types 1 and 2. These results are relevant for tropical countries planning to use IPV in a posteradication environment.

  12. Amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X Amenorrhea and X chromosome abnormalities

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    Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar as manifestações clínicas de pacientes com amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X. MÉTODOS: realizou-se uma análise retrospectiva dos achados clínicos e laboratoriais das pacientes com amenorréia e anormalidades do cromossomo X, atendidas entre janeiro de 1975 e novembro de 2007. Suas medidas antropométricas foram avaliadas através de tabelas de crescimento padrão, sendo que, quando presentes, dismorfias menores e maiores foram anotadas. O estudo dos cromossomos foi realizado através do cariótipo com bandamento GTG. RESULTADOS: do total de 141 pacientes com amenorréia, 16% apresentavam anormalidades numéricas e 13% estruturais do cromossomo X. Destas pacientes com anormalidade do X (n=41, 35 possuíam descrição clínica completa. Todas elas apresentavam hipogonadismo hipergonadotrófico. Amenorréia primária foi observada em 24 pacientes, das quais 91,7% com fenótipo de síndrome de Turner. Com exceção de um caso com deleção Xq22-q28, todas as demais pacientes com este fenótipo apresentavam alterações envolvendo Xp (uma com uma linhagem 46,XY associada. Os dois casos restantes com apenas amenorréia primária possuíam deleções proximais de Xq. Entre as 11 pacientes com amenorréia secundária, 54,5% apresentavam fenótipo de Turner (todas com monossomia do X isolada ou em mosaico. Entre aquelas com fenótipo de falência ovariana isolada observaram-se somente deleções Xq e trissomia do X. CONCLUSÕES: a análise cromossômica deve sempre ser realizada em mulheres com falência ovariana de causa não conhecida, mesmo na ausência de achados dismórficos. Esta também é de extrema importância em pacientes sindrômicas, pois, além de confirmar o diagnóstico, é capaz de identificar pacientes em risco, como nos casos com uma linhagem 46,XY.PURPOSE: to correlate the clinical manifestations of patients with amenorrhea and X chromosome abnormalities. METHODS: a retrospective analysis of the

  13. The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X): A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Borghgraef, Martine; Bruining, Hilgo; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Hansson, Kerstin; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26 girls with Trisomy X), 58 children with ASD and 106…

  14. The Social Behavioral Phenotype in Boys and Girls with an Extra X Chromosome (Klinefelter Syndrome and Trisomy X) : A Comparison with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Stockmann, Lex; Borghgraef, Martine; Bruining, Hilgo; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny; Govaerts, Lutgarde; Hansson, Kerstin; Swaab, Hanna

    The present study aimed to gain more insight in the social behavioral phenotype, and related autistic symptomatology, of children with an extra X chromosome in comparison to children with ASD. Participants included 60 children with an extra X chromosome (34 boys with Klinefelter syndrome and 26

  15. The WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex transiently associates with the human inactive X chromosome during late S-phase prior to BRCA1 and γ-H2AX.

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    Ashley E Culver-Cochran

    Full Text Available Replicating the genome prior to each somatic cell division not only requires precise duplication of the genetic information, but also accurately reestablishing the epigenetic signatures that instruct how the genetic material is to be interpreted in the daughter cells. The mammalian inactive X chromosome (Xi, which is faithfully inherited in a silent state in each daughter cell, provides an excellent model of epigenetic regulation. While much is known about the early stages of X chromosome inactivation, much less is understood with regards to retaining the Xi chromatin through somatic cell division. Here we report that the WSTF-ISWI chromatin remodeling complex (WICH associates with the Xi during late S-phase as the Xi DNA is replicated. Elevated levels of WICH at the Xi is restricted to late S-phase and appears before BRCA1 and γ-H2A.X. The sequential appearance of WICH and BRCA1/γ-H2A.X implicate each as performing important but distinct roles in the maturation and maintenance of heterochromatin at the Xi.

  16. Female-biased expression of long non-coding RNAs in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse

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    Lu Lu

    2010-11-01

    multiple female-biased non-coding genes that are non-randomly co-localized on the X-chromosome with protein-coding genes that escape X-inactivation. This raises the possibility that expression of long non-coding RNAs may play a role in modulating gene expression in domains that escape X-inactivation in mouse.

  17. A linkage between DNA markers on the X chromosome and male sexual orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamer, D.H.; Hu, S.; Magnuson, V.L.; Hu, N.; Pattatucci, A.M.L.

    1993-07-16

    The role of genetics in male sexual orientation was investigated by pedigree and linkage analyses on 114 families of homosexual men. Increased rates of same-sex orientation were found in the maternal uncles and male cousins of these subjects, but not in their fathers or paternal relatives, suggesting the possibility of sex-linked transmission in a portion of the population. DNA linkage analysis of a selected group of 40 families in which there were two gay brothers and no indication of nonmaternal transmission revealed a correlation between homosexual orientation and the inheritance of polymorphic markers on the X chromosome in approximately 64 percent of the sib-pairs tested. The linkage to markers on Xq28, the subtelomeric region of the long arm of the sex chromosome, had a multipoint lod score of 4.0(P = 10[sup [minus]5]), indicating a statistical confidence level of more than 99 percent that at least one subtype of male sexual orientation is genetically influenced.

  18. Population genetic study of 34 X-Chromosome markers in 5 main ethnic groups of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao

    2015-12-04

    As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p groups. Highest values of Nei genetic distance were always observed at HUI-Uygur pairwise when analyzed with X-STRs or X-Indels separately and combined. Phylogenetic tree and PCA analyses revealed a clear pattern of population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.

  19. Mirandese language and genetic differentiation in Iberia: a study using X chromosome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, J C; Pereira, V; Marques, S L; Amorim, A; Alvarez, L; Prata, M J

    2015-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, the Mirandese dialect, spoken in Miranda do Douro (Portugal) close to the north-eastern border with Spain, has attracted much attention. Aim, subjects and methods: This study focuses on providing further insight into the connections forged between Miranda do Douro and regions in the nearby Province of Zamora. This is in order to better assess the extent to which such relations could have been detained by the current patterns of genetic diversity of the populations, whilst contributing to refining the knowledge on patterns of micro-differentiation within the Peninsula. The genetic characterization of both populations was performed through the analysis of X-chromosomal markers: X-STRs and X-indels. The results showed that Miranda do Douro tended to present slightly lower levels of diversity in comparison to the other studied regions, which can be a discreet sign of isolation of that population over the years that might have led the way to the preservation of a language not spoken anywhere else in the country. The analysis of X-STRs particularly brought to light the presence of a subtle population sub-structure at the micro-geographical area encompassing the north-eastern border, which seems to portray the importance of the political border as a mechanism withholding gene flow between the two countries.

  20. Detection of Selection Signatures on the X Chromosome in Three Sheep Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiye Zhu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artificial selection has played a critical role in animal breeding. Detection of artificial selection footprints in genomic regions can provide insights for understanding the function of specific phenotypic traits and better guide animal breeding. To more fully understand the relationship between genomic composition and phenotypic diversity arising from breed development, a genome-wide scan was conducted using an OvineSNP50 BeadChip and integrated haplotype score and fixation index analyses to detect selection signatures on the X chromosome in three sheep breeds. We identified 49, 34, and 55 candidate selection regions with lengths of 27.49, 16.47, and 25.42 Mb in German Mutton, Dorper, and Sunit sheep, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis showed that some of the genes in these regions with selection signatures, such as BMP15, were relevant to reproduction. We also identified some selection regions harboring genes that had human orthologs, including BKT, CENPI, GUCY2F, MSN, PCDH11X, PLP1, VSIG4, PAK3, WAS, PCDH19, PDHA1, and SRPX2. The VSIG4 and PCDH11X genes are associated with the immune system and disease, PDHA1 is associated with biosynthetic related pathways, and PCDH19 is expressed in the nervous system and skin. These genes may be useful as candidate genes for molecular breeding.

  1. Accelerated pseudogenization on the neo-X chromosome in Drosophila miranda

    KAUST Repository

    Nozawa, Masafumi

    2016-11-29

    Y chromosomes often degenerate via the accumulation of pseudogenes and transposable elements. By contrast, little is known about X-chromosome degeneration. Here we compare the pseudogenization process between genes on the neo-sex chromosomes in Drosophila miranda and their autosomal orthologues in closely related species. The pseudogenization rate on the neo-X is much lower than the rate on the neo-Y, but appears to be higher than the rate on the orthologous autosome in D. pseudoobscura. Genes under less functional constraint and/or genes with male-biased expression tend to become pseudogenes on the neo-X, indicating the accumulation of slightly deleterious mutations and the feminization of the neo-X. We also find a weak trend that the genes with female-benefit/male-detriment effects identified in D. melanogaster are pseudogenized on the neo-X, implying the masculinization of the neo-X. These observations suggest that both X and Y chromosomes can degenerate due to a complex suite of evolutionary forces.

  2. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions.

  3. Finding genes on the X chromosome by which homo may have become sapiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G. [Univ. of Newcastle, Waratah, New South Wales (Australia)

    1996-06-01

    The map of the X chromosome is now littered, from one telomere to the other, with genes for mental handicap, alone or in combination with other features. In this issue of the journal, report such an entity from the Scottish Highlands, which they give the catchy title of {open_quotes}PPM-X syndrome,{close_quotes} denoting the association of pyramidal tract signs, psychosis, and macroorchidism with mental handicap (XLMR). They have localized this to Xq28 and discuss other genes in the same area, which include L1CAM (associated with MASA [mental retardation, aphasia, shuffling gait, and adducted thumbs] and X-linked hydrocephalus) and two genes for nonspecific XLMR-MRX3 and MRX25. It is also the localization of the gene for G6PD deficiency, which, in earlier studies, had demonstrated linkage to bipolar affective disorders, although this has been questioned in more recent studies. There may well be other families with this pattern of abnormalities who have remained undescribed because depression is so often not diagnosed in those with moderate mental handicap. The occurrence, in this family, of mental handicap with a bipolar disorder may be the chance association of two common disorders, or it may a significant association; at this stage, one cannot judge. 8 refs.

  4. Editorial: X-chromosome-linked Kallmann's syndrome: Pathology at the molecular level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prager, D.; Braunstein, G.D. (Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Kallmann's syndrome or olfactogenital dysplasia refers to a disorder characterized by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and anosmia or hyposmia which can occur sporadically or in a familial setting. Originally described in 1856, the first familial cases were reported by Kallmann et al., in 1944. Based on segregation analysis of multiple families, three modes of transmission have been documented: X-linked, autosomal dominant with variable penetrance, and autosomal recessive. Kallmann's syndrome occurs in less than 1 in 10,000 male births, with a 5-fold excess of affected males to females, suggesting that the X-linked form is the most frequent. By genetic linkage analysis the X-linked form of Kallmann's syndrome was localized to Xp22.3. This was confirmed by the description of patients with contiguous gene syndromes due to deletions of various portions of the distal short arm of the X-chromosome. Such patients present with complex phenotypes characterized by a combination of Kallmann's syndrome with X-linked icthyosis due to steroid sulfatase deficiency, chondrodysplasia punctata, short stature, and mental retardation. DNA analysis has identified and mapped the genes responsible for these disorders. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Sex chromosome-specific regulation in the Drosophila male germline but little evidence for chromosomal dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Meiklejohn

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.

  6. Oocyte heterogeneity with respect to the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed X chromosomes in the XY female mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketo, Teruko; Naumova, Anna K

    2013-10-01

    In the XY pachytene spermatocyte, the sex chromosomes do not synapse except for the pseudoautosomal region and become transcriptionally silenced. It has been suggested that the meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC) also occurs in oocytes. In the XY sex-reversed female mouse, the sex chromosomes fail to pair in the majority of oocytes and a greater number of oocytes are eliminated during the meiotic prophase compared to the XX female. Yet, many XY oocytes survive to reach the second meiotic metaphase. The goal of our current study was to determine whether the single X chromosome shows the characteristics of asynapsis and meiotic silencing in a proportion of XY oocytes, which can explain the survival of the remaining oocytes. We first examined the accumulation of markers associated with asynapsis or transcriptional silencing, i.e., BRCA1, γH2AX, H3K9me3, and H3K27me3, at the single X chromosome in the XY oocyte. We found that γH2AX and BRCA1 were enriched on the single X chromosome whereas H3K9me3 was not, and H3K27me3 was enriched at all chromosomes in the majority of XY oocytes. We next examined the meiotic silencing of the single X chromosome using enrichment of the X-encoded ATRX protein. On average, ATRX enrichment was lower in XY oocytes than in XX oocytes as expected from its half gene dosage. However, the intensity of ATRX staining in XY oocytes harboring γH2AX domains showed a remarkable heterogeneity. We conclude that MSUC occurs with varying consequences, resulting in a heterogeneous population of oocytes with respect to protein enrichment in the XY female mouse.

  7. Poor socio-economic status in 47,XXX --an unexpected effect of an extra X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Juul, Svend; Gravholt, Claus H

    2013-06-01

    One of the most common sex chromosomal abnormalities in females is 47,XXX syndrome, which is characterized by tall stature and reduced IQ, but with a variable phenotype. In order to elaborate on the characteristics of this syndrome, we undertook an investigation in all diagnosed 47,XXX females at risk in Denmark and compared their socio-economic status with an age-matched cohort of the female background population as well as with all Danes diagnosed with Turner syndrome. We focused on cohabitation, motherhoods, income, education, retirement and convictions. Furthermore, we investigated whether some of these parameters influenced the increased mortality identified previously. Thus, socio-economic data were retrieved in 108 47,XXX persons, 10,297 controls, and 831 with Turner syndrome. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with their controls, we identified significantly decreased numbers of first partnership, number of mothers, and number of persons with an education in 47,XXX persons. Significantly more 47,XXX persons retired. In the younger age groups an increased number had income below the median among controls. The increased mortality identified previously was not explained by the reduced number of partnerships or the reduced number of persons with an education. Comparing the 47,XXX persons with Turner syndrome persons, we identified increased number of first partnership, number of mothers, and reduced level of education. We hypothesize that the significantly decreased number of 47,XXX persons becoming mothers could be due to hypogonadism in some. The affected socio-economic status suggests that the presence of an extra X chromosome has more detrimental effects than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Intergenic DNA sequences from the human X chromosome reveal high rates of global gene flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Jeffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive efforts devoted to collecting human polymorphism data, little is known about the role of gene flow in the ancestry of human populations. This is partly because most analyses have applied one of two simple models of population structure, the island model or the splitting model, which make unrealistic biological assumptions. Results Here, we analyze 98-kb of DNA sequence from 20 independently evolving intergenic regions on the X chromosome in a sample of 90 humans from six globally diverse populations. We employ an isolation-with-migration (IM model, which assumes that populations split and subsequently exchange migrants, to independently estimate effective population sizes and migration rates. While the maximum effective size of modern humans is estimated at ~10,000, individual populations vary substantially in size, with African populations tending to be larger (2,300–9,000 than non-African populations (300–3,300. We estimate mean rates of bidirectional gene flow at 4.8 × 10-4/generation. Bidirectional migration rates are ~5-fold higher among non-African populations (1.5 × 10-3 than among African populations (2.7 × 10-4. Interestingly, because effective sizes and migration rates are inversely related in African and non-African populations, population migration rates are similar within Africa and Eurasia (e.g., global mean Nm = 2.4. Conclusion We conclude that gene flow has played an important role in structuring global human populations and that migration rates should be incorporated as critical parameters in models of human demography.

  9. Empirical evidence for son-killing X chromosomes and the operation of SA-zygotic drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Friberg

    Full Text Available Diploid organisms have two copies of all genes, but only one is carried by each haploid gamete and diploid offspring. This causes a fundamental genetic conflict over transmission rate between alternative alleles. Single genes, or gene clusters, only rarely code for the complex phenotypes needed to give them a transmission advantage (drive phenotype. However, all genes on a male's X and Y chromosomes co-segregate, allowing different sex-linked genes to code for different parts of the drive phenotype. Correspondingly, the well-characterized phenomenon of male gametic drive, occurring during haploid gametogenesis, is especially common on sex chromosomes. The new theory of sexually antagonistic zygotic drive of the sex chromosomes (SA-zygotic drive extends the logic of gametic drive into the diploid phase of the lifecycle, whenever there is competition among siblings or harmful sib-sib mating. The X and Y are predicted to gain a transmission advantage by harming offspring of the sex that does not carry them.Here we analyzed a mutant X-chromosome in Drosophila simulans that produced an excess of daughters when transmitted from males. We developed a series of tests to differentiate between gametic and SA-zygotic drive, and provide multiple lines of evidence that SA-zygotic drive is responsible for the sex ratio bias. Driving sires produce about 50% more surviving daughters than sons.Sex-ratio distortion due to genetic conflict has evolved via gametic drive and maternally transmitted endosymbionts. Our data indicate that sex chromosomes can also drive by harming the non-carrier sex of offspring.

  10. Rapid evolution of cancer/testis genes on the X chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Andrew J

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer/testis (CT genes are normally expressed only in germ cells, but can be activated in the cancer state. This unusual property, together with the finding that many CT proteins elicit an antigenic response in cancer patients, has established a role for this class of genes as targets in immunotherapy regimes. Many families of CT genes have been identified in the human genome, but their biological function for the most part remains unclear. While it has been shown that some CT genes are under diversifying selection, this question has not been addressed before for the class as a whole. Results To shed more light on this interesting group of genes, we exploited the generation of a draft chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes genomic sequence to examine CT genes in an organism that is closely related to human, and generated a high-quality, manually curated set of human:chimpanzee CT gene alignments. We find that the chimpanzee genome contains homologues to most of the human CT families, and that the genes are located on the same chromosome and at a similar copy number to those in human. Comparison of putative human:chimpanzee orthologues indicates that CT genes located on chromosome X are diverging faster and are undergoing stronger diversifying selection than those on the autosomes or than a set of control genes on either chromosome X or autosomes. Conclusion Given their high level of diversifying selection, we suggest that CT genes are primarily responsible for the observed rapid evolution of protein-coding genes on the X chromosome.

  11. siRNAs from an X-linked satellite repeat promote X-chromosome recognition in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Debashish U; Coarfa, Cristian; Xiao, Weimin; Gunaratne, Preethi H; Meller, Victoria H

    2014-11-18

    Highly differentiated sex chromosomes create a lethal imbalance in gene expression in one sex. To accommodate hemizygosity of the X chromosome in male fruit flies, expression of X-linked genes increases twofold. This is achieved by the male- specific lethal (MSL) complex, which modifies chromatin to increase expression. Mutations that disrupt the X localization of this complex decrease the expression of X-linked genes and reduce male survival. The mechanism that restricts the MSL complex to X chromatin is not understood. We recently reported that the siRNA pathway contributes to localization of the MSL complex, raising questions about the source of the siRNAs involved. The X-linked 1.688 g/cm(3) satellite related repeats (1.688(X) repeats) are restricted to the X chromosome and produce small RNA, making them an attractive candidate. We tested RNA from these repeats for a role in dosage compensation and found that ectopic expression of single-stranded RNAs from 1.688(X) repeats enhanced the male lethality of mutants with defective X recognition. In contrast, expression of double-stranded hairpin RNA from a 1.688(X) repeat generated abundant siRNA and dramatically increased male survival. Consistent with improved survival, X localization of the MSL complex was largely restored in these males. The striking distribution of 1.688(X) repeats, which are nearly exclusive to the X chromosome, suggests that these are cis-acting elements contributing to identification of X chromatin.

  12. Metaphase chromosome analysis by ligation-mediated PCR: heritable chromatin structure and a comparison of active and inactive X chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, M; Riggs, A D

    1995-03-14

    We report that ligation-mediated PCR (LMPCR) can be used for high-resolution study of metaphase chromosomes, and we discuss the role of metaphase chromatin structure in the preservation of differentiated cell states. The X chromosome-linked human PGK1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1) promoter region was investigated, and euchromatic active X chromosome (Xa) metaphase chromatin was compared with interphase Xa chromatin and to heterochromatic inactive X chromosome (Xi) metaphase and interphase chromatin. We find that (i) good-quality data at single-nucleotide resolution can be obtained by LMPCR analysis of dimethyl sulfate-treated intact metaphase cells; (ii) transcription factors present on the Xa promoter of interphase chromatin are not present on metaphase chromatin, establishing that the transcription complex on the PGK1 promoter must form de novo each cell generation; and (iii) the dimethyl sulfate reactivity pattern of Xa and Xi chromatin at metaphase is very similar to that of naked DNA. These results are discussed in the context of models for heritable chromatin structure and epigenetic mechanisms for cell memory, and they are also relevant to more general aspects of chromatin structure and differences between euchromatin and heterochromatin.

  13. Examination of X chromosome markers in Rett syndrome: Exclusion mapping with a novel variation on multilocus linkage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, K.A.; Fill, C.P. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Terwililger, J.; Percy, A.K.; Zobhbi, H. (Columbia University, NY (United States)); DeGennaro, L.J.; Ott, J. (University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester (United States)); Anvret, M.; Martin-Gallardo, A. (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurologic disorder characterized by early normal development followed by regression, acquired deceleration of head growth, autism, ataxia, and sterotypic hand movements. The exclusive occurrence of the syndrome in females and the occurrence of a few familial cases with inheritance through maternal lines suggest that this disorder is most likely secondary to a mutation on the X chromosome. To address this hypothesis and to identify candidate regions for the Rett syndrome gene locus, genotypic analysis was performed in two families with maternally related affected half-sisters by using 63 DNA markers from the X chromosome. Nineteen of the loci studied were chosen for multipoint linkage analysis because they have been previously genetically mapped using a large number of meioses from reference families. Using the exclusion criterion of a lod score less than [minus]2, the authors were able to exclude the region between the Duchenne muscular dystrophy locus and the DXS456 locus. This region extends from Xp21.2 to Xq21-q23. The use of the multipoint linkage analysis approach outlined in this study should allow the exclusion of additional regions of the X chromosome as new markers are analyzed.

  14. A randomized, controlled, blinded study of the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine made in China in Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuming; Li, Li; Ai, Xing; Yang, Liqing; Bai, Yunhua; Wang, Zhaoyun; Han, Huixia; Lu, Qiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Chunyu; Xiao, Jun; Shi, Nianmin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into four age groups: 3-10 years, 11-17 years, 18-54 years, and more than 55 years. Each age group was then randomized (2:1) to receive either influenza vaccine or control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B) for one dose. Also each influenza vaccine group was randomized (1:1:1) to receive three different batches of influenza vaccine. Systematic and local adverse reactions for 28 days after vaccination were recorded, and influenza antibody titer was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at 28 days after vaccination. There were significant differences in seroconversion and seroprotection rates achieved post-immunization of three strains of influenza antibody (H1N1, H3N2, B) between experimental group and control group in all age groups (P0.05), except for the systematic reaction rates in the 18-54 years and ≥ 55 years age groups (PAleph inactivated split influenza vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity.

  15. Affected kindred analysis of human X chromosome exomes to identify novel X-linked intellectual disability genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Tejasvi S; Skinner, Cindy; May, Melanie; Turner, Tychele; Rose, Rebecca; Stevenson, Roger; Schwartz, Charles E; Wang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    X-linked Intellectual Disability (XLID) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders caused by mutations in genes on the X chromosome. Deleterious mutations in ~10% of X chromosome genes are implicated in causing XLID disorders in ~50% of known and suspected XLID families. The remaining XLID genes are expected to be rare and even private to individual families. To systematically identify these XLID genes, we sequenced the X chromosome exome (X-exome) in 56 well-established XLID families (a single affected male from 30 families and two affected males from 26 families) using an Agilent SureSelect X-exome kit and the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. To enrich for disease-causing mutations, we first utilized variant filters based on dbSNP, the male-restricted portions of the 1000 Genomes Project, or the Exome Variant Server datasets. However, these databases present limitations as automatic filters for enrichment of XLID genes. We therefore developed and optimized a strategy that uses a cohort of affected male kindred pairs and an additional small cohort of affected unrelated males to enrich for potentially pathological variants and to remove neutral variants. This strategy, which we refer to as Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis, achieves a substantial enrichment for potentially pathological variants in known XLID genes compared to variant filters from public reference databases, and it has identified novel XLID candidate genes. We conclude that Affected Kindred/Cross-Cohort Analysis can effectively enrich for disease-causing genes in rare, Mendelian disorders, and that public reference databases can be used effectively, but cautiously, as automatic filters for X-linked disorders.

  16. The X chromosome Alu insertions as a tool for human population genetics: data from European and African human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Esteban, Esther; Via, Marc; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Moschonas, Nicholas; Chaabani, Hassen; Moral, Pedro

    2007-05-01

    Alu elements are the most abundant mobile elements in the human genome (approximately 1,100,000 copies). Polymorphic Alu elements have been proved to be useful in studies of human origins and relationships owing to two important advantages: identity by descent and absence of the Alu element known to be the ancestral state. Alu variation in the X chromosome has been described previously in human populations but, as far as we know, these elements have not been used in population relationship studies. Here, we describe the allele frequencies of 13 'young' Alu elements of the X chromosome (Ya5DP62, Ya5DP57, Yb8DP49, Ya5a2DP1, Yb8DP2, Ya5DP3, Ya5NBC37, Yd3JX437, Ya5DP77, Ya5NBC491, Yb8NBC578, Ya5DP4 and Ya5DP13) in six human populations from sub-Saharan Africa (the Ivory Coast), North Africa (Moroccan High Atlas, Siwa oasis in Egypt, Tunisia), Greece (Crete Island) and Spain (Basque Country). Eight out of 13 Alu elements have shown remarkably high gene diversity values in all groups (average heterozygosities: 0.342 in the Ivory Coast, 0.250 in North Africa, 0.209 in Europe). Genetic relationships agree with a geographical pattern of differentiation among populations, with some peculiar features observed in North Africans. Crete Island and the Basque Country show the lowest genetic distance (0.0163) meanwhile Tunisia, in spite of its geographical location, lies far from the other two North African samples. The results of our work demonstrate that X chromosome Alu elements comprise a reliable set of genetic markers useful to describe human population relationships for fine-scale geographical studies.

  17. Deletion/inversion in the X-chromosome and increased telomeric associations in a female with primary amenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Multani, Asha S; Shah, Vinod C.; Singh, Divya; Chakravarty, Nivedita; Chinoy, Niloufer J.; Pathak, Sen

    1997-01-01

    We describe a new case of a partial interstitial deletion and inversion of the long arm of the X-chromosome associated with a high incidence of telomeric associations in an 18-year old female who showed underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, including small breasts and primary amenorrhea. Her karyotype was considered to be 46,X,del(Xq13 -> q22)inv(X)(q23-q27). The buccal mucosal cells showed absence of a typical Barr body, and the 5’-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation studies revealed ...

  18. Genomewide Clonal Analysis of Lethal Mutations in the Drosophila melanogaster Eye: Comparison of the X Chromosome and Autosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, Gerald B.; Olson, John M.; Chen, Jiong; Villarasa, Nikki; Ngo, Kathy T.; Yabroff, Allison M.; Cokus, Shawn; Pellegrini, Matteo; Bibikova, Elena; Bui, Chris; Cespedes, Albert; Chan, Cheryl; Chan, Stacy; Cheema, Amrita K.; Chhabra, Akanksha; Chitsazzadeh, Vida; Do, Minh-Tu; Fang, Q. Angela; Folick, Andrew; Goodstein, Gelsey L.; Huang, Cheng R.; Hung, Tony; Kim, Eunha; Kim, William; Kim, Yulee; Kohan, Emil; Kuoy, Edward; Kwak, Robert; Lee, Eric; Lee, JiEun; Lin, Henry; Liu, H-C. Angela; Moroz, Tatiana; Prasad, Tharani; Prashad, Sacha L.; Patananan, Alexander N.; Rangel, Alma; Rosselli, Desiree; Sidhu, Sohrab; Sitz, Daniel; Taber, Chelsea E.; Tan, Jingwen; Topp, Kasey; Tran, PhuongThao; Tran, Quynh-Minh; Unkovic, Mary; Wells, Maggie; Wickland, Jessica; Yackle, Kevin; Yavari, Amir; Zaretsky, Jesse M.; Allen, Christopher M.; Alli, Latifat; An, Ju; Anwar, Abbas; Arevalo, Sonia; Ayoub, Danny; Badal, Shawn S.; Baghdanian, Armonde; Baghdanian, Arthur H.; Baumann, Sara A.; Becerra, Vivian N.; Chan, Hei J.; Chang, Aileen E.; Cheng, Xibin A.; Chin, Mabel; Chong, Fleurette; Crisostomo, Carlyn; Datta, Sanjit; Delosreyes, Angela; Diep, Francie; Ekanayake, Preethika; Engeln, Mark; Evers, Elizabeth; Farshidi, Farzin; Fischer, Katrina; Formanes, Arlene J.; Gong, Jun; Gupta, Riju; Haas, Blake E.; Hahm, Vicky; Hsieh, Michael; Hui, James Z.; Iao, Mei L.; Jin, Sophia D.; Kim, Angela Y.; Kim, Lydia S-H.; King, Megan; Knudsen-Robbins, Chloe; Kohanchi, David; Kovshilovskaya, Bogdana; Ku, Amy; Kung, Raymond W.; Landig, Mark E. L.; Latterman, Stephanie S.; Lauw, Stephanie S.; Lee, Daniel S.; Lee, Joann S.; Lei, Kai C.; Leung, Lesley L.; Lerner, Renata; Lin, Jian-ya; Lin, Kathleen; Lim, Bryon C.; Lui, Crystal P. Y.; Liu, Tiffany Q.; Luong, Vincent; Makshanoff, Jacob; Mei, An-Chi; Meza, Miguel; Mikhaeil, Yara A.; Moarefi, Majid; Nguyen, Long H.; Pai, Shekhar S.; Pandya, Manish; Patel, Aadit R.; Picard, Paul D.; Safaee, Michael M.; Salame, Carol; Sanchez, Christian; Sanchez, Nina; Seifert, Christina C.; Shah, Abhishek; Shilgevorkyan, Oganes H.; Singh, Inderroop; Soma, Vanessa; Song, Junia J.; Srivastava, Neetika; Sta.Ana, Jennifer L.; Sun, Christie; Tan, Diane; Teruya, Alison S.; Tikia, Robyn; Tran, Trinh; Travis, Emily G.; Trinh, Jennifer D.; Vo, Diane; Walsh, Thomas; Wong, Regan S.; Wu, Katherine; Wu, Ya-Whey; Yang, Nkau X. V.; Yeranosian, Michael; Yu, James S.; Zhou, Jennifer J.; Zhu, Ran X.; Abrams, Anna; Abramson, Amanda; Amado, Latiffe; Anderson, Jenny; Bashour, Keenan; Beyer, Elsa; Bookatz, Allen; Brewer, Sarah; Buu, Natalie; Calvillo, Stephanie; Cao, Joseph; Chan, Amy; Chan, Jenny; Chang, Aileen; Chang, Daniel; Chang, Yuli; Chen, YiBing; Choi, Joo; Chou, Jeyling; Dang, Peter; Datta, Sumit; Davarifar, Ardy; Deravanesian, Artemis; Desai, Poonam; Fabrikant, Jordan; Farnad, Shahbaz; Fu, Katherine; Garcia, Eddie; Garrone, Nick; Gasparyan, Srpouhi; Gayda, Phyllis; Go, Sherrylene; Goffstein, Chad; Gonzalez, Courtney; Guirguis, Mariam; Hassid, Ryan; Hermogeno, Brenda; Hong, Julie; Hong, Aria; Hovestreydt, Lindsay; Hu, Charles; Huff, Devon; Jamshidian, Farid; Jen, James; Kahen, Katrin; Kao, Linda; Kelley, Melissa; Kho, Thomas; Kim, Yein; Kim, Sarah; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Langenbacher, Adam; Laxamana, Santino; Lee, Janet; Lee, Chris; Lee, So-Youn; Lee, ToHang S.; Lee, Toni; Lewis, Gemma; Lezcano, Sheila; Lin, Peter; Luu, Thanh; Luu, Julie; Marrs, Will; Marsh, Erin; Marshall, Jamie; Min, Sarah; Minasian, Tanya; Minye, Helena; Misra, Amit; Morimoto, Miles; Moshfegh, Yasaman; Murray, Jessica; Nguyen, Kha; Nguyen, Cynthia; Nodado, Ernesto; O'Donahue, Amanda; Onugha, Ndidi; Orjiakor, Nneka; Padhiar, Bhavin; Paul, Eric; Pavel-Dinu, Mara; Pavlenko, Alex; Paz, Edwin; Phaklides, Sarah; Pham, Lephong; Poulose, Preethi; Powell, Russell; Pusic, Aya; Ramola, Divi; Regalia, Kirsten; Ribbens, Meghann; Rifai, Bassel; Saakyan, Manyak; Saarikoski, Pamela; Segura, Miriam; Shadpour, Farnaz; Shemmassian, Aram; Singh, Ramnik; Singh, Vivek; Skinner, Emily; Solomin, Daniel; Soneji, Kosha; Spivey, Kristin; Stageberg, Erika; Stavchanskiy, Marina; Tekchandani, Leena; Thai, Leo; Thiyanaratnam, Jayantha; Tong, Maurine; Toor, Aneet; Tovar, Steve; Trangsrud, Kelly; Tsang, Wah-Yung; Uemura, Marc; Vollmer, Emily; Weiss, Emily; Wood, Damien; Wu, Joy; Wu, Sophia; Wu, Winston; Xu, Qing; Yamauchi, Yuki; Yarosh, Will; Yee, Laura; Yen, George; Banerjee, Utpal

    2007-01-01

    Using a large consortium of undergraduate students in an organized program at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), we have undertaken a functional genomic screen in the Drosophila eye. In addition to the educational value of discovery-based learning, this article presents the first comprehensive genomewide analysis of essential genes involved in eye development. The data reveal the surprising result that the X chromosome has almost twice the frequency of essential genes involved in eye development as that found on the autosomes. PMID:17720911

  19. Evidence that meiotic pairing starts at the telomeres: Molecular analysis of recombination in a family with a pericentric X chromosome inversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shashi, V.; Allinson, P.S.; Golden, W.L.; Kelly, T.E. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Recent studies in yeast have shown that telomeres rather than centromeres lead in chromosome movement just prior to meiosis and may have a role in recombination. Cytological studies of meiosis in Drosophila and mice have shown that in pericentric inversion heterozygotes there is lack of loop formation, with recobmination seen only outside the inversion. In a family with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) we recognized that only affected males and carrier females had a pericentric X chromosome inversion (inv X(p11.4;q26)). Since the short arm inversion breakpoint was proximal to the DMD locus, it could not be implicated in the mutational event causing DMD. There was no history of infertility, recurrent miscarriages or liveborn unbalanced females to suggest there was recombination within the inversion. We studied 22 members over three generations to understand the pattern of meiotic recombination between the normal and the inverted X chromosome. In total, 17 meioses involving the inverted X chromosome in females were studied by cytogenetic analysis and 16 CA repeat polymorphisms along the length of the X chromosome. Results: (a) There was complete concordance between the segregation of the DMD mutation and the inverted X chromosome. (b) On DNA analysis, there was complete absence of recombination within the inverted segment. We also found no recombination at the DMD locus. Recombination was seen only at Xp22 and Xq27-28. (c) Recombination was seen in the same individual at both Xp22 and Xq27-28 without recombination otherwise. Conclusions: (1) Pericentric X inversions reduce the genetic map length of the chromosome, with the physical map length being normal. (2) Meiotic X chromosome pairing in this family is initiated at the telomeres. (3) Following telomeric pairing in pericentric X chromosome inversions, there is inhibition of recombination within the inversion and adjacent regions.

  20. Strong Selective Sweeps on the X Chromosome in the Human-Chimpanzee Ancestor Explain Its Low Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Y Dutheil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The human and chimpanzee X chromosomes are less divergent than expected based on autosomal divergence. We study incomplete lineage sorting patterns between humans, chimpanzees and gorillas to show that this low divergence can be entirely explained by megabase-sized regions comprising one-third of the X chromosome, where polymorphism in the human-chimpanzee ancestral species was severely reduced. We show that background selection can explain at most 10% of this reduction of diversity in the ancestor. Instead, we show that several strong selective sweeps in the ancestral species can explain it. We also report evidence of population specific sweeps in extant humans that overlap the regions of low diversity in the ancestral species. These regions further correspond to chromosomal sections shown to be devoid of Neanderthal introgression into modern humans. This suggests that the same X-linked regions that undergo selective sweeps are among the first to form reproductive barriers between diverging species. We hypothesize that meiotic drive is the underlying mechanism causing these two observations.

  1. Genetic portrait of Jewish populations based on three sets of X-chromosome markers: Indels, Alu insertions and STRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferragut, J F; Bentayebi, K; Pereira, R; Castro, J A; Amorim, A; Ramon, C; Picornell, A

    2017-11-01

    Population genetic data for 53 X-chromosome markers (32 X-indels, 9 X-Alu insertions and 12 X-STRs) are reported for five populations with Jewish ancestry (Sephardim, North African Jews, Middle Eastern Jews, Ashkenazim, and Chuetas) and Majorca, as the host population of Chuetas. Genetic distances between these populations demonstrated significant differences, except between Sephardic and North African Jews, with the Chuetas as the most differentiated group, in accordance with the particular demographic history of this population. X-chromosome analysis and a comparison with autosomal data suggest a generally sex-biased demographic history in Jewish populations. Asymmetry was found between female and male effective population sizes both in the admixture processes between Jewish communities, and between them and their respective non-Jewish host populations. Results further show that these X-linked markers are highly informative for forensic purposes, and highlight the need for specific databases for differentiated Jewish populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rapid molecular cytogenetic analysis of X-chromosomal microdeletions: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for complex glycerol kinase deficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, K.C.; Lindsay, E.A.; McCabe, E.R.B. [Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-17

    Diagnosis of X-chromosomal microdeletions has relied upon the traditional methods of Southern blotting and DNA amplification, with carrier identification requiring time-consuming and unreliable dosage calculations. In this report, we describe rapid molecular cytogenetic identification of deleted DNA in affected males with the Xp21 contiguous gene syndrome (complex glycerol kinase deficiency, CGKD) and female carriers for this disorder. CGKD deletions involve the genes for glycerol kinase, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and/or adrenal hypoplasia congenita. We report an improved method for diagnosis of deletions in individuals with CGKD and for identification of female carriers within their families using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a cosmid marker (cosmid 35) within the glycerol kinase gene. When used in combination with an Xq control probe, affected males demonstrate a single signal from the control probe, while female carriers demonstrate a normal chromosome with two signals, as well as a deleted chromosome with a single signal from the control probe. FISH analysis for CGKD provides the advantages of speed and accuracy for evaluation of submicroscopic X-chromosome deletions, particularly in identification of female carriers. In addition to improving carrier evaluation, FISH will make prenatal diagnosis of CGKD more readily available. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Paternal X could relate to arithmetic function; study of cognitive function and parental origin of X chromosome in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergür, Ayça T; Ocal, Gönül; Berberoglu, Merih; Tekin, Mustafa; Kiliç, Birim G; Aycan, Zehra; Kutlu, Alev; Adiyaman, Pelin; Siklar, Zeynep; Akar, Nejat; Sahin, Aynur; Akçayöz, Duygu

    2008-04-01

    45,X Turner syndrome (TS) female subjects have visuospatial skill and social cognition deficits that may arise from X-linked imprinting. The aim of the present study was to compare phenotypic characteristics and neurocognitive pattern of 12 monosomic TS girls, according to X-linked imprinting. Microsatellite markers were used to determine the parental origin of the missing chromosome X. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was administered as measures of general intellectual functioning. The results were compared in TS patients with maternally derived X chromosome (Xm) and paternally derived X chromosome (Xp). Six out of 12 patients (50%) had Xm, and the other six (50%) had Xp chromosome. There was no difference in the total, verbal and performance IQ score between the TS subgroups with Xm and Xp. When the WISC-R subtest score patterns were compared, the mean arithmetic scores were significantly poorer in the Xm TS than in the Xp TS. In monosomic TS cases, paternal imprinting may predict arithmetic ability, on the other hand, reductionist consideration defined by genetic imprinting is not sufficient to confirm this. Further studies should be undertaken to clarify this situation.

  4. Differences in X-chromosome transcriptional activity and cholesterol metabolism between placentae from swine breeds from Asian and Western origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve R Bischoff

    Full Text Available To gain insight into differences in placental physiology between two swine breeds noted for their dissimilar reproductive performance, that is, the Chinese Meishan and white composite (WC, we examined gene expression profiles of placental tissues collected at 25, 45, 65, 85, and 105 days of gestation by microarrays. Using a linear mixed model, a total of 1,595 differentially expressed genes were identified between the two pig breeds using a false-discovery rate q-value ≤0.05. Among these genes, we identified breed-specific isoforms of XIST, a long non-coding RNA responsible X-chromosome dosage compensation in females. Additionally, we explored the interaction of placental gene expression and chromosomal location by DIGMAP and identified three Sus scrofa X chromosomal bands (Xq13, Xq21, Xp11 that represent transcriptionally active clusters that differ between Meishan and WC during placental development. Also, pathway analysis identified fundamental breed differences in placental cholesterol trafficking and its synthesis. Direct measurement of cholesterol confirmed that the cholesterol content was significantly higher in the Meishan versus WC placentae. Taken together, this work identifies key metabolic pathways that differ in the placentae of two swine breeds noted for differences in reproductive prolificacy.

  5. Expansion of GA Dinucleotide Repeats Increases the Density of CLAMP Binding Sites on the X-Chromosome to Promote Drosophila Dosage Compensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guray Kuzu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dosage compensation is an essential process that equalizes transcript levels of X-linked genes between sexes by forming a domain of coordinated gene expression. Throughout the evolution of Diptera, many different X-chromosomes acquired the ability to be dosage compensated. Once each newly evolved X-chromosome is targeted for dosage compensation in XY males, its active genes are upregulated two-fold to equalize gene expression with XX females. In Drosophila melanogaster, the CLAMP zinc finger protein links the dosage compensation complex to the X-chromosome. However, the mechanism for X-chromosome identification has remained unknown. Here, we combine biochemical, genomic and evolutionary approaches to reveal that expansion of GA-dinucleotide repeats likely accumulated on the X-chromosome over evolutionary time to increase the density of CLAMP binding sites, thereby driving the evolution of dosage compensation. Overall, we present new insight into how subtle changes in genomic architecture, such as expansions of a simple sequence repeat, promote the evolution of coordinated gene expression.

  6. Independent evolution of transcriptional inactivation on sex chromosomes in birds and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Livernois

    Full Text Available X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals has been thought to be tightly controlled, as expected from a mechanism that compensates for the different dosage of X-borne genes in XX females and XY males. However, many X genes escape inactivation in humans, inactivation of the X in marsupials is partial, and the unrelated sex chromosomes of monotreme mammals have incomplete and gene-specific inactivation of X-linked genes. The bird ZW sex chromosome system represents a third independently evolved amniote sex chromosome system with dosage compensation, albeit partial and gene-specific, via an unknown mechanism (i.e. upregulation of the single Z in females, down regulation of one or both Zs in males, or a combination. We used RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (RNA-FISH to demonstrate, on individual fibroblast cells, inactivation of 11 genes on the chicken Z and 28 genes on the X chromosomes of platypus. Each gene displayed a reproducible frequency of 1Z/1X-active and 2Z/2X-active cells in the homogametic sex. Our results indicate that the probability of inactivation is controlled on a gene-by-gene basis (or small domains on the chicken Z and platypus X chromosomes. This regulatory mechanism must have been exapted independently to the non-homologous sex chromosomes in birds and mammals in response to an over-expressed Z or X in the homogametic sex, highlighting the universal importance that (at least partial silencing plays in the evolution on amniote dosage compensation and, therefore, the differentiation of sex chromosomes.

  7. X inactivation in Rett syndrome: A preliminary study showing partial preferential inactivation of paternal X with the M27{beta} probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camus, P.; Abbadi, N.; Gilgenkrantz, S. [Laboratoire de Genetique, Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    1994-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a severe progressive neurological disorder occurring exclusively in females. Most cases are sporadic. The few familial cases (less than 1%) cannot be explained by a simple mode of inheritance. Several hypotheses have been proposed: X-linked male lethal mutation, maternal uniparental disomy, fresh mutation on the X chromosome, involvement of mitochondrial DNA and differential inactivation with metabolic interference of X-borne alleles. The authors have examined the pattern of X inactivation in 10 affected girls who were selected according to the clinical criteria previously described and accepted by the French Rett Scientific Committee. The X inactivation pattern was studied by analysis of methylation at the hypervariable locus DXS255 with the M27{beta} probe. The results show a more-or-less skewed inactivation of paternal X in 8 Rett females, and 2 cases of symmetrical inactivation. In control girls, inactivation was symmetrical cases and the maternal X has been preferentially inactivated in the other 2 cases. In no case was a total skewed inactivation observed. Though there was clear evidence for a preferential paternal X inactivation that was statistically significant further studies are necessary to establish a relationship between X inactivation pattern and Rett syndrome.

  8. Detecting evolutionary strata on the human x chromosome in the absence of gametologous y-linked sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ravi Shanker; Wilson Sayres, Melissa A; Azad, Rajeev K

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian sex chromosomes arose from a pair of homologous autosomes that differentiated into the X and Y chromosomes following a series of recombination suppression events between the X and Y. The stepwise recombination suppressions from the distal long arm to the distal short arm of the chromosomes are reflected as regions with distinct X-Y divergence, referred to as evolutionary strata on the X. All current methods for stratum detection depend on X-Y comparisons but are severely limited by the paucity of X-Y gametologs. We have developed an integrative method that combines a top-down, recursive segmentation algorithm with a bottom-up, agglomerative clustering algorithm to decipher compositionally distinct regions on the X, which reflect regions of unique X-Y divergence. In application to human X chromosome, our method correctly classified a concatenated set of 35 previously assayed X-linked gene sequences by evolutionary strata. We then extended our analysis, applying this method to the entire sequence of the human X chromosome, in an effort to define stratum boundaries. The boundaries of more recently formed strata on X-added region, namely the fourth and fifth strata, have been defined by previous studies and are recapitulated with our method. The older strata, from the first up to the third stratum, have remained poorly resolved due to paucity of X-Y gametologs. By analyzing the entire X sequence, our method identified seven evolutionary strata in these ancient regions, where only three could previously be assayed, thus demonstrating the robustness of our method in detecting the evolutionary strata.

  9. The effect of early life stress on the cognitive phenotype of children with an extra X chromosome (47,XXY/47,XXX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Sophie; Barneveld, Petra; Descheemaeker, Mie-Jef; Giltay, Jacques; Swaab, Hanna

    2018-02-01

    Studies on gene-environment interactions suggest that some individuals may be more susceptible to life adversities than others due to their genetic profile. This study assesses whether or not children with an extra X chromosome are more vulnerable to the negative impact of early life stress on cognitive functioning than typically-developing children. A total of 50 children with an extra X chromosome and 103 non-clinical controls aged 9 to 18 years participated in the study. Cognitive functioning in domains of language, social cognition and executive functioning were assessed. Early life stress was measured with the Questionnaire of Life Events. High levels of early life stress were found to be associated with compromised executive functioning in the areas of mental flexibility and inhibitory control, irrespective of group membership. In contrast, the children with an extra X chromosome were found to be disproportionally vulnerable to deficits in social cognition on top of executive dysfunction, as compared to typically-developing children. Within the extra X group the number of negative life events is significantly correlated with more problems in inhibition, mental flexibility and social cognition. It is concluded that children with an extra X chromosome are vulnerable to adverse life events, with social cognition being particularly impacted in addition to the negative effects on executive functioning. The findings that developmental outcome is codependent on early environmental factors in genetically vulnerable children also underscores opportunities for training and support to positively influence the course of development.

  10. Isolation of cDNAs from the human X chromosome and derivation of related STSs. Final progress report, April 1992--March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, D.L.

    1995-09-01

    Over the course of this funding period, the number of genes assigned to the human X chromosome has approximately tripled from less than one hundred to nearly three hundred characterized, cloned genes assigned to it. The aims of this project were to develop methods for gene identification and to identify and characterize expressed sequences from the X chromosome. The rapidly changing environment of the human genome project provided abundant resources for gene characterization, and since methods for gene identification became rather robust over this period, these aims were de-emphasized during the project. Among the methods developed was a local one (reciprocal probing) that was developed by Drs. Cheng Chi Lee and C. Thomas Caskey, with emphasis on the human X chromosome. The development of this method offered significant expressed sequence resources for this project, particularly when coupled with the efforts to identify cosmid clones from specific X chromosome locations, as the reciprocal probing process results in paired genomic (cosmid) and cDNA materials. Attention, then has been paid to characterization of genes rather than to their identification.

  11. Sexual Dimorphism of Body Size Is Controlled by Dosage of the X-Chromosomal Gene Myc and by the Sex-Determining Gene tra in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kristina Wehr; Cavegn, Margrith; Zwicky, Monica

    2017-03-01

    Drosophila females are larger than males. In this article, we describe how X-chromosome dosage drives sexual dimorphism of body size through two means: first, through unbalanced expression of a key X-linked growth-regulating gene, and second, through female-specific activation of the sex-determination pathway. X-chromosome dosage determines phenotypic sex by regulating the genes of the sex-determining pathway. In the presence of two sets of X-chromosome signal elements (XSEs), Sex-lethal (Sxl) is activated in female (XX) but not male (XY) animals. Sxl activates transformer (tra), a gene that encodes a splicing factor essential for female-specific development. It has previously been shown that null mutations in the tra gene result in only a partial reduction of body size of XX animals, which shows that other factors must contribute to size determination. We tested whether X dosage directly affects animal size by analyzing males with duplications of X-chromosomal segments. Upon tiling across the X chromosome, we found four duplications that increase male size by >9%. Within these, we identified several genes that promote growth as a result of duplication. Only one of these, Myc, was found not to be dosage compensated. Together, our results indicate that both Myc dosage and tra expression play crucial roles in determining sex-specific size in Drosophila larvae and adult tissue. Since Myc also acts as an XSE that contributes to tra activation in early development, a double dose of Myc in females serves at least twice in development to promote sexual size dimorphism. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children, adolescents, and adults: A randomized, controlled, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorna-Carlos, Josefina B; Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Santos, Jaime; Montalban, M Cecilia; de Looze, Ferdinandus J; Eizenberg, Peter; Hall, Stephen; Dupuy, Martin; Hutagalung, Yanee; Pépin, Stéphanie; Saville, Melanie

    2015-05-15

    Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity

  13. Randomized trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CSL Limited's 2009 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to an established vaccine in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-12-12

    A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Loss of Atrx affects trophoblast development and the pattern of X-inactivation in extraembryonic tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Garrick

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available ATRX is an X-encoded member of the SNF2 family of ATPase/helicase proteins thought to regulate gene expression by modifying chromatin at target loci. Mutations in ATRX provided the first example of a human genetic disease associated with defects in such proteins. To better understand the role of ATRX in development and the associated abnormalities in the ATR-X (alpha thalassemia mental retardation, X-linked syndrome, we conditionally inactivated the homolog in mice, Atrx, at the 8- to 16-cell stage of development. The protein, Atrx, was ubiquitously expressed, and male embryos null for Atrx implanted and gastrulated normally but did not survive beyond 9.5 days postcoitus due to a defect in formation of the extraembryonic trophoblast, one of the first terminally differentiated lineages in the developing embryo. Carrier female mice that inherit a maternal null allele should be affected, since the paternal X chromosome is normally inactivated in extraembryonic tissues. Surprisingly, however, some carrier females established a normal placenta and appeared to escape the usual pattern of imprinted X-inactivation in these tissues. Together these findings demonstrate an unexpected, specific, and essential role for Atrx in the development of the murine trophoblast and present an example of escape from imprinted X chromosome inactivation.

  15. Mechanism of Deletion Removing All Dystrophin Exons in a Canine Model for DMD Implicates Concerted Evolution of X Chromosome Pseudogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBelzen, D Jake; Malik, Alock S; Henthorn, Paula S; Kornegay, Joe N; Stedman, Hansell H

    2017-03-17

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked, muscle-wasting disorder caused by mutations in the large, 2.4-Mb dystrophin gene. The majority of DMD-causing mutations are sporadic, multi-exon, frameshifting deletions, with the potential for variable immunological tolerance to the dystrophin protein from patient to patient. While systemic gene therapy holds promise in the treatment of DMD, immune responses to vectors and transgenes must first be rigorously evaluated in informative preclinical models to ensure patient safety. A widely used canine model for DMD, golden retriever muscular dystrophy, expresses detectable amounts of near full-length dystrophin due to alternative splicing around an intronic point mutation, thereby confounding the interpretation of immune responses to dystrophin-derived gene therapies. Here we characterize a naturally occurring deletion in a dystrophin-null canine, the German shorthaired pointer. The deletion spans 5.6 Mb of the X chromosome and encompasses all coding exons of the DMD and TMEM47 genes. The sequences surrounding the deletion breakpoints are virtually identical, suggesting that the deletion occurred through a homologous recombination event. Interestingly, the deletion breakpoints are within loci that are syntenically conserved among mammals, yet the high homology among this subset of ferritin-like loci is unique to the canine genome, suggesting lineage-specific concerted evolution of these atypical sequence elements.

  16. Pathology from evolutionary conflict, with a theory of X chromosome versus autosome conflict over sexually antagonistic traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A.; Crespi, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary conflicts cause opponents to push increasingly hard and in opposite directions on the regulation of traits. One can see only the intermediate outcome from the balance of the exaggerated and opposed forces. Intermediate expression hides the underlying conflict, potentially misleading one to conclude that trait regulation is designed to achieve efficient and robust expression, rather than arising by the precarious resolution of conflict. Perturbation often reveals the underlying nature of evolutionary conflict. Upon mutation or knockout of one side in the conflict, the other previously hidden and exaggerated push on the trait may cause extreme, pathological expression. In this regard, pathology reveals hidden evolutionary design. We first review several evolutionary conflicts between males and females, including conflicts over mating, fertilization, and the growth rate of offspring. Perturbations of these conflicts lead to infertility, misregulated growth, cancer, behavioral abnormalities, and psychiatric diseases. We then turn to antagonism between the sexes over traits present in both males and females. For many traits, the different sexes favor different phenotypic values, and constraints prevent completely distinct expression in the sexes. In this case of sexual antagonism, we present a theory of conflict between X-linked genes and autosomal genes. We suggest that dysregulation of the exaggerated conflicting forces between the X chromosome and the autosomes may be associated with various pathologies caused by extreme expression along the male–female axis. Rapid evolution of conflicting X-linked and autosomal genes may cause divergence between populations and speciation. PMID:21690397

  17. Pathology from evolutionary conflict, with a theory of X chromosome versus autosome conflict over sexually antagonistic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven A; Crespi, Bernard J

    2011-06-28

    Evolutionary conflicts cause opponents to push increasingly hard and in opposite directions on the regulation of traits. One can see only the intermediate outcome from the balance of the exaggerated and opposed forces. Intermediate expression hides the underlying conflict, potentially misleading one to conclude that trait regulation is designed to achieve efficient and robust expression, rather than arising by the precarious resolution of conflict. Perturbation often reveals the underlying nature of evolutionary conflict. Upon mutation or knockout of one side in the conflict, the other previously hidden and exaggerated push on the trait may cause extreme, pathological expression. In this regard, pathology reveals hidden evolutionary design. We first review several evolutionary conflicts between males and females, including conflicts over mating, fertilization, and the growth rate of offspring. Perturbations of these conflicts lead to infertility, misregulated growth, cancer, behavioral abnormalities, and psychiatric diseases. We then turn to antagonism between the sexes over traits present in both males and females. For many traits, the different sexes favor different phenotypic values, and constraints prevent completely distinct expression in the sexes. In this case of sexual antagonism, we present a theory of conflict between X-linked genes and autosomal genes. We suggest that dysregulation of the exaggerated conflicting forces between the X chromosome and the autosomes may be associated with various pathologies caused by extreme expression along the male-female axis. Rapid evolution of conflicting X-linked and autosomal genes may cause divergence between populations and speciation.

  18. 46, XX true hermaphroditism associated with a terminal deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbaux, S.; Vilain, E.; McElreavey, K. [Institut Pasteur, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Testes are determined by the activity of the SRY gene product encoded by the Y chromosome. Mutations in SRY can lead to XY sex reversal (XY females) and the presence of the SRY gene in some XX individuals can lead either to complete (XX males) or incomplete (XX true hermaphrodites) sex reversal. Approximately 10% of XX true hermaphrodites contain a portion of the Y chromosome, including SRY, in their genome. The etiology of the remaining cases is unestablished but may be caused by mutations in other as yet unidentied sex determining genes downstream of SRY. Here we describe an SRY-negative true hermaphrodite with a 46,X,del(X)(p21.1-pter). The patient also presented with severe mental retardation, abnormal skin pigmentation and below average height. Histological examination of the gonad revealed bilateral ovotestis. We postulate that the Xp deletion has unmasked a recessive allele on the apparently normal X chromosome generating the intersex phenotype. This observation together with recent findings of certain XY females carrying duplications of Xp21.3 suggests that there may be a loci on Xp which acts as a switch in the testis/ovarian determination pathways.

  19. X-chromosomal STR-based genetic structure of Sichuan Tibetan minority ethnicity group and its relationships to various groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guanglin; Li, Ye; Zou, Xing; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hepei; Wang, Mengge; Wu, Jin

    2018-03-01

    The X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) with more informative than autosomal STRs in some complicated biological relationships identification due to its specific mode of genetic transmission can be used as a complementary tool in forensic case practices. In this study, we presented the population genetic data of 19 X-STRs, consisting of DXS10174, DXS10075, DXS10079, DXS101, DXS10101, DXS10103, DXS10134, DXS10135, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS10162, DXS10164, DXS6789, DXS6809, DXS7132, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS8378, and HPRTB loci, in a sample of 235 individuals of Tibetan nationality from Sichuan province, Southwest China. All 19 X-STR loci were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The results showed that the combined power of discrimination in females and males are 0.999999999999999999997 and 0.9999999999997, respectively. In addition, the mean paternity exclusion chances based on the formula of MECKrüger, MECKishida, and MECDesmarais as well as MECDesmarais Duo are 0.99999991, 0.9999999999924, 0.9999999999929, and 0.999999985, respectively. In summary, our findings suggested that the AGCU X19 kit can be considered to serve as a high polymorphic information tool for forensic identification and kinship testing in the Sichuan Tibetan population. Furthermore, population genetic structure investigation between Sichuan Tibetan population and other 19 populations using PCA, MDS, and phylogenetic tree illustrated that significant genetic difference was observed between the Sichuan Tibetan and Malay, as well as the Xinjiang Uyghur population.

  20. Early priming with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and intradermal fractional dose IPV administered by a microneedle device: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Abhijeet; Zaman, K; Estívariz, Concepción F; Yunus, Mohammad; Gary, Howard E; Weldon, William C; Bari, Tajul I; Steven Oberste, M; Wassilak, Steven G; Luby, Stephen P; Heffelfinger, James D; Pallansch, Mark A

    2015-11-27

    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) introduction and phased oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation are essential for eradication of polio. Healthy 6-week old infants in Bangladesh were randomized to one of five study arms: receipt of trivalent OPV (tOPV) or bivalent OPV (bOPV) at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks, intramuscular IPV or intradermal one-fifth fractional dose IPV (f-IPV) at ages 6 and 14 weeks, or f-IPV at ages 6 and 14 weeks with bOPV at age 10 weeks (f-IPV/bOPV). All participants received tOPV at age 18 weeks. Of 975 infants randomized, 95% (922) completed follow-up. Type 1 seroconversion after 3 doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks was higher with bOPV compared with tOPV (99% vs 94%, p=0.019). Seroconversions to types 1 and 3 after 2 IPV doses at ages 6 and 14 weeks were no different than after 3 doses of tOPV or bOPV at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks. A priming response, seroconversion 1 week after IPV at 14 weeks among those who did not seroconvert after IPV at 6 weeks, was observed against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 in 91%, 84% and 97%, respectively. Compared with IPV, f-IPV failed non-inferiority tests for seroconversion with 1 or 2 doses and priming after 1 dose. The findings demonstrate considerable priming with IPV at age 6 weeks, comparable immunogenicity of tOPV and bOPV, and inferior immunogenicity of one-fifth f-IPV compared with IPV. If IPV induced priming at age 6 weeks is similar to that at age 14 weeks, IPV could be administered at a younger age and possibly with a higher coverage. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Reactivation of FMR1 by CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Deletion of the Expanded CGG-Repeat of the Fragile X Chromosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Xie

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a common cause of intellectual disability that is most often due to a CGG-repeat expansion mutation in the FMR1 gene that triggers epigenetic gene silencing. Epigenetic modifying drugs can only transiently and modestly induce FMR1 reactivation in the presence of the elongated CGG repeat. As a proof-of-principle, we excised the expanded CGG-repeat in both somatic cell hybrids containing the human fragile X chromosome and human FXS iPS cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing. We observed transcriptional reactivation in approximately 67% of the CRISPR cut hybrid colonies and in 20% of isolated human FXS iPSC colonies. The reactivated cells produced FMRP and exhibited a decline in DNA methylation at the FMR1 locus. These data demonstrate the excision of the expanded CGG-repeat from the fragile X chromosome can result in FMR1 reactivation.

  2. X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its history, with a high number of migration events, the Mediterranean basin represents a challenging area for population genetic studies. A large number of genetic studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean area using different markers but no consensus has been reached...... of the Mediterranean Sea.A higher migration rate in females versus males was observed by comparing data from X-chromosome, mt-DNA and Y-chromosome SNPs both in the Mediterranean and a wider geographic area.Multilocus association was observed among the 25 SNPs on the X-chromosome in the populations from Ibiza...... and Cosenza. CONCLUSION: Our results support both the hypothesis of (1) a reduced impact of the Neolithic Wave and more recent migration movements in NW-Africa, and (2) the importance of the Strait of Gibraltar as a geographic barrier. In contrast, the high genetic homogeneity observed in the Mediterranean...

  3. A potentially critical Hpa II site of the X chromosome-linked PGK1 gene is unmethylated prior to the onset of meiosis of human oogenic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer-Sam, J.; Dai, A.; Riggs, A.D. (Beckman Research Inst., Duarte, CA (United States)); Goldstein, L.; Gartler, S.M. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (United States))

    1992-02-15

    Hpa II site H8 is in the CpG-rich 5{prime} untranslated region of the human X chromosome-linked gene for phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1). It is the only Hpa II site in the CpG island' whose methylation pattern is perfectly correlated with transcriptional silence of this gene. The authors measured DNA methylation at site H8 in fetal oogonia and oocytes and found, using a quantitative assay based on the polymerase chain reaction, that purified germ cells isolated by micromanipulation were unmethylated in 47-day to 110-day fetuses, whereas ovaries depleted of germ cells and non-ovary tissues were methylated. They conclude that site H8 is the unmethylated in germ cells prior to the onset of meiosis and reactivation of the X chromosome.

  4. Accounting for eXentricities: analysis of the X chromosome in GWAS reveals X-linked genes implicated in autoimmune diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chang

    Full Text Available Many complex human diseases are highly sexually dimorphic, suggesting a potential contribution of the X chromosome to disease risk. However, the X chromosome has been neglected or incorrectly analyzed in most genome-wide association studies (GWAS. We present tailored analytical methods and software that facilitate X-wide association studies (XWAS, which we further applied to reanalyze data from 16 GWAS of different autoimmune and related diseases (AID. We associated several X-linked genes with disease risk, among which (1 ARHGEF6 is associated with Crohn's disease and replicated in a study of ulcerative colitis, another inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Indeed, ARHGEF6 interacts with a gastric bacterium that has been implicated in IBD. (2 CENPI is associated with three different AID, which is compelling in light of known associations with AID of autosomal genes encoding centromere proteins, as well as established autosomal evidence of pleiotropy between autoimmune diseases. (3 We replicated a previous association of FOXP3, a transcription factor that regulates T-cell development and function, with vitiligo; and (4 we discovered that C1GALT1C1 exhibits sex-specific effect on disease risk in both IBDs. These and other X-linked genes that we associated with AID tend to be highly expressed in tissues related to immune response, participate in major immune pathways, and display differential gene expression between males and females. Combined, the results demonstrate the importance of the X chromosome in autoimmunity, reveal the potential of extensive XWAS, even based on existing data, and provide the tools and incentive to properly include the X chromosome in future studies.

  5. Finding the factors of reduced genetic diversity on X chromosomes of Macaca fascicularis: male-driven evolution, demography, and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Naoki; Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Kameoka, Yosuke; Takahashi, Ichiro; Terao, Keiji

    2013-11-01

    The ratio of genetic diversity on X chromosomes relative to autosomes in organisms with XX/XY sex chromosomes could provide fundamental insight into the process of genome evolution. Here we report this ratio for 24 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) originating in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. The average X/A diversity ratios in these samples was 0.34 and 0.20 in the Indonesian-Malaysian and Philippine populations, respectively, considerably lower than the null expectation of 0.75. A Philippine population supposed to derive from an ancestral population by founding events showed a significantly lower ratio than the parental population, suggesting a demographic effect for the reduction. Taking sex-specific mutation rate bias and demographic effect into account, expected X/A diversity ratios generated by computer simulations roughly agreed with the observed data in the intergenic regions. In contrast, silent sites in genic regions on X chromosomes showed strong reduction in genetic diversity and the observed X/A diversity ratio in the genic regions cannot be explained by mutation rate bias and demography, indicating that natural selection also reduces the level of polymorphism near genes. Whole-genome analysis of a female cynomolgus monkey also supported the notion of stronger reduction of genetic diversity near genes on the X chromosome.

  6. An additional X chromosome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a prognathic jaw, an eunichoid stature and long arms. Other clin- ical findings were gynaecomastia (greater on the right), infantile genitalia, lack of secondary ... A skin biopsy showed mild hyperkeratosis, and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan revealed osteopenia. Discussion. We reassessed the patient as ...

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a cell culture-derived inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (NBP607): A randomized, double-blind, multi-center, phase 3 clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Woo, Heung Jeong; Wie, Seong-Heon; Lee, Jin-Soo; Kim, Shin Woo; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Kim, Hun; Kim, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Woo Joo

    2015-10-05

    Cell culture-derived influenza vaccines (CCIVs) have several important advantages over egg-based influenza vaccines, including shorter production time, better preservation of wild-type virus antigenicity and large-scale production capacity. A randomized, double-blind, phase 3 trial was undertaken to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of a novel cell culture-derived inactivated, subunit, trivalent influenza vaccine (NBP607, SK Chemicals, Seongnam, Korea) compared to the control vaccine (AgrippalS1, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics Srl, Siena, Italy) among healthy adults aged 19 years or older (Clinical trial Number-NCT02344134). Immunogenicity was determined at pre-vaccination, 1 month and 6 month post-vaccination by the hemagglutination inhibition assay. Solicited and unsolicited adverse events were assessed after vaccination. A total of 1156 healthy subjects were recruited. NBP607 met all of the criteria of Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) at 21 days post-vaccination. Contrary to NBP607, the control vaccine did not satisfy the seroconversion criteria for influenza B irrespective of age. Although the geometric mean titer for each influenza subtype declined gradually, seroprotection rate still remained ≥80% for all subtypes up to six month after NBP607 administration. NBP607 recipients met the seroprotection criteria for all three influenza subtypes up to 6 month post-vaccination. There was no significant difference in the occurrence of adverse events between the NBP607 and control groups. NBP607, a novel CCIV, showed excellent immunogenicity that lasted ≥6 months after vaccination and had tolerable safety profiles. In particular, NBP607 was more immunogenic against influenza B compared to the control, an egg-based subunit vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Safety and tolerability of a cell culture derived trivalent subunit inactivated influenza vaccine administered to healthy children and adolescents: A Phase III, randomized, multicenter, observer-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Terry; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Capeding, Maria Rosario; Carson, Simon; Senders, Shelly David; Jaehnig, Peter; de Rooij, Richard; Chandra, Richa

    2016-01-04

    Cell culture-derived inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVc) are necessary for scale and predictability of production to meet global demand. This study compared the safety and tolerability of TIVc with an egg-derived trivalent influenza vaccine (TIVf) in 4-17 yearolds. A Phase 3 observer blind, multicenter study enrolled 2055 healthy participants randomized 2:1 to receive either TIVc or TIVf, respectively (1372 TIVc and 683 TIVf evaluable subjects). Participants received one dose each on Days 1 and 28 (4-8 year-olds not previously vaccinated [NPV]) or one dose on Day 1 (4-8 and 9-17 yearolds previously vaccinated [PV]). Solicited adverse events (AEs) occurring within 7 days after each vaccination were assessed; participants were followed up for 6 months after their last dose for safety. Most solicited and unsolicited AEs were mild to moderate with vaccine-related SAEs were reported. TIVc and TIVf were similar in percentages of participants reporting solicited reactions in 4-8 years NPV group after the 1st dose: local reactions, TIVc: 48%, TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions, TIVc: 34%, TIVf: 32%; percentages were lower following the 2nd dose in TIVc; local reactions: TIVc: 40%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 21%; TIVf: 22%. In 4-17 years PV group, solicited reactions were lower following TIVf, local reactions: TIVc: 53%; TIVf: 43%; systemic reactions: TIVc: 37%, TIVf: 30%. Injection-site pain was the most common solicited reaction, and was similar following TIVc and TIVf in 4-8 yearolds (TIVc: 56%; TIVf: 55%), and lower following TIVf in 9-17 years group (TIVc: 52%; TIVf: 42%). Reporting of unsolicited AEs was similar for TIVc and TIVf across the two age groups. TIVc was well tolerated and had a safety and reactogenicity profile similar to that of TIVf in healthy 4-17 yearolds (NCT01857206). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole cell tuberculosis vaccine booster in adults primed with BCG: A randomized, controlled trial of DAR-901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Fordham von Reyn

    Full Text Available Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic.We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States. Healthy adult subjects age 18-65 with prior BCG immunization and a negative interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA were enrolled in cohorts of 16 subjects and randomized to three injections of DAR-901 (n = 10 per cohort, or saline placebo (n = 3 per cohort, or two injections of saline followed by an injection of BCG (n = 3 per cohort; 1-8 x 106 CFU. Three successive cohorts were enrolled representing DAR-901 at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg per dose. Randomization was performed centrally and treatments were masked from staff and volunteers. Subsequent open label cohorts of HIV-negative/IGRA-positive subjects (n = 5 and HIV-positive subjects (n = 6 received three doses of 1 mg DAR-901. All subjects received three immunizations at 0, 2 and 4 months administered as 0.1 mL injections over the deltoid muscle alternating between right and left arms. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity. Subjects were followed for 6 months after dose 3 for safety and had phlebotomy performed for safety studies and immune assays before and after each injection. Immune assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells included cell-mediated IFN-γ responses to DAR-901 lysate and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB lysate; serum antibody to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan was assayed by ELISA.DAR-901 had an acceptable safety profile and was well-tolerated at all

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated whole cell tuberculosis vaccine booster in adults primed with BCG: A randomized, controlled trial of DAR-901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reyn, C Fordham; Lahey, Timothy; Arbeit, Robert D; Landry, Bernard; Kailani, Leway; Adams, Lisa V; Haynes, Brenda C; Mackenzie, Todd; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Connor, Ruth I; Tvaroha, Sue; Hokey, David A; Ginsberg, Ann M; Waddell, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Development of a tuberculosis vaccine to boost BCG is a major international health priority. SRL172, an inactivated whole cell booster derived from a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is the only new vaccine against tuberculosis to have demonstrated efficacy in a Phase 3 trial. In the present study we sought to determine if a three-dose series of DAR-901 manufactured from the SRL172 master cell bank by a new, scalable method was safe and immunogenic. We performed a single site, randomized, double-blind, controlled, Phase 1 dose escalation trial of DAR-901 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in the United States. Healthy adult subjects age 18-65 with prior BCG immunization and a negative interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) were enrolled in cohorts of 16 subjects and randomized to three injections of DAR-901 (n = 10 per cohort), or saline placebo (n = 3 per cohort), or two injections of saline followed by an injection of BCG (n = 3 per cohort; 1-8 x 106 CFU). Three successive cohorts were enrolled representing DAR-901 at 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg per dose. Randomization was performed centrally and treatments were masked from staff and volunteers. Subsequent open label cohorts of HIV-negative/IGRA-positive subjects (n = 5) and HIV-positive subjects (n = 6) received three doses of 1 mg DAR-901. All subjects received three immunizations at 0, 2 and 4 months administered as 0.1 mL injections over the deltoid muscle alternating between right and left arms. The primary outcomes were safety and immunogenicity. Subjects were followed for 6 months after dose 3 for safety and had phlebotomy performed for safety studies and immune assays before and after each injection. Immune assays using peripheral blood mononuclear cells included cell-mediated IFN-γ responses to DAR-901 lysate and to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) lysate; serum antibody to M. tuberculosis lipoarabinomannan was assayed by ELISA. DAR-901 had an acceptable safety profile and was well-tolerated at all dose levels

  11. X inactivation in females with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2012-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common inherited neuropathy, caused by mutations in gap junction beta-1 (GJB1). Males have a uniformly moderately severe phenotype while females have a variable phenotype, suggested to be due to X inactivation. We aimed to assess X inactivation pattern in females with CMT1X and correlate this with phenotype using the CMT examination score to determine whether the X inactivation pattern accounted for the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X. We determined X inactivation pattern in 67 females with CMT1X and 24 controls using the androgen receptor assay. We were able to determine which X chromosome carried the GJB1 mutation in 30 females. There was no difference in X inactivation pattern between patients and controls. In addition, there was no correlation between X inactivation pattern in blood and phenotype. A possible explanation for these findings is that the X inactivation pattern in Schwann cells rather than in blood may explain the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X.

  12. Normal X-inactivation mosaicism in corneas of heterozygous FlnaDilp2/+ female mice--a model of human Filamin A (FLNA diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douvaras Panagiotis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some abnormalities of mouse corneal epithelial maintenance can be identified by the atypical mosaic patterns they produce in X-chromosome inactivation mosaics and chimeras. Human FLNA/+ females, heterozygous for X-linked, filamin A gene (FLNA mutations, display a range of disorders and X-inactivation mosaicism is sometimes quantitatively unbalanced. FlnaDilp2/+ mice, heterozygous for an X-linked filamin A (Flna nonsense mutation have variable eye, skeletal and other abnormalities, but X-inactivation mosaicism has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to determine whether X-inactivation mosaicism in the corneal epithelia of FlnaDilp2/+ mice was affected in any way that might predict abnormal corneal epithelial maintenance. Results X-chromosome inactivation mosaicism was studied in the corneal epithelium and a control tissue (liver of FlnaDilp2/+ and wild-type (WT female X-inactivation mosaics, hemizygous for the X-linked, LacZ reporter H253 transgene, using β-galactosidase histochemical staining. The corneal epithelia of FlnaDilp2/+ and WT X-inactivation mosaics showed similar radial, striped patterns, implying epithelial cell movement was not disrupted in FlnaDilp2/+ corneas. Corrected stripe numbers declined with age overall (but not significantly for either genotype individually, consistent with previous reports suggesting an age-related reduction in stem cell function. Corrected stripe numbers were not reduced in FlnaDilp2/+ compared with WT X-inactivation mosaics and mosaicism was not significantly more unbalanced in the corneal epithelia or livers of FlnaDilp2/+ than wild-type Flna+/+ X-inactivation mosaics. Conclusions Mosaic analysis identified no major effect of the mouse FlnaDilp2 mutation on corneal epithelial maintenance or the balance of X-inactivation mosaicism in the corneal epithelium or liver.

  13. Tissue-specific differences in the spatial interposition of X-chromosome and 3R chromosome regions in the malaria mosquito Anopheles messeae Fall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleb Artemov

    Full Text Available Spatial organization of a chromosome in a nucleus is very important in biology but many aspects of it are still generally unresolved. We focused on tissue-specific features of chromosome architecture in closely related malaria mosquitoes, which have essential inter-specific differences in polytene chromosome attachments in nurse cells. We showed that the region responsible for X-chromosome attachment interacts with nuclear lamina stronger in nurse cells, then in salivary glands cells in Anopheles messeae Fall. The inter-tissue differences were demonstrated more convincingly in an experiment of two distinct chromosomes interposition in the nucleus space of cells from four tissues. Microdissected DNA-probes from nurse cells X-chromosome (2BC and 3R chromosomes (32D attachment regions were hybridized with intact nuclei of nurse cells, salivary gland cells, follicle epithelium cells and imaginal disсs cells in 3D-FISH experiments. We showed that only salivary gland cells and follicle epithelium cells have no statistical differences in the interposition of 2BC and 32D. Generally, the X-chromosome and 3R chromosome are located closer to each other in cells of the somatic system in comparison with nurse cells on average. The imaginal disсs cell nuclei have an intermediate arrangement of chromosome interposition, similar to other somatic cells and nurse cells. In spite of species-specific chromosome attachments there are no differences in interposition of nurse cells chromosomes in An. messeae and An. atroparvus Thiel. Nurse cells have an unusual chromosome arrangement without a chromocenter, which could be due to the special mission of generative system cells in ontogenesis and evolution.

  14. Randomized evaluation of live attenuated vs. inactivated influenza vaccines in schools (RELATIVES) cluster randomized trial: Pilot results from a household surveillance study to assess direct and indirect protection from influenza vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jeffrey C; Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Pellizzari, Rosana; Dusome, Edwina; Russell, Margaret L; Hamid, Jemila S; Feinberg, Yael; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Sirtonski, Brittany; Moher, Deanna; Sider, Doug; Finkelstein, Michael; Loeb, Mark

    2015-09-11

    Children are key drivers of influenza transmission. Vaccinating school age children decreases influenza in the community. To pilot-test the methods for a future trial to compare the direct and indirect benefits of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) vs. live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) in preventing influenza infection. During the 2013-14 influenza vaccination campaign, we piloted an open-label cluster randomized trial involving 10 elementary schools in Peterborough, Ontario, Canada. We randomized schools on a 1:1 basis to have students receive IIV or LAIV. We invited a subset of vaccinated students and their households to participate in a surveillance sub-study, which involved completing daily symptom diaries during influenza season and collecting mid-turbinate swabs from symptomatic individuals to detect influenza infection. The main outcome measure was confirmed influenza infection using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. One hundred and nineteen households (166 students and 293 household members) participated. During 15 weeks of surveillance, we detected 22 episodes of PCR-confirmed influenza (21 influenza A/H1N1 and 1 influenza B). The incidence of influenza per 1000 person-days was 1.24 (95% CI, 0.40-2.89) for IIV-vaccinated students, compared to 0.13 (95% CI, 0.003-0.72) for LAIV-vaccinated students; the incidence rate ratio was 0.10 (95% CI, 0.002-0.94). Similarly, the incidence of influenza per 1000 person-days was 1.33 (95% CI, 0.64-2.44) for IIV household members, compared to 0.47 (95% CI, 0.17-1.03) for LAIV household members; the incidence rate ratio was 0.36 (95% CI, 0.11-1.08). The overall incidence rate ratio (combining students and household members) was 0.27 (95% CI, 0.09-0.69). Household surveillance involving participant monitoring and reporting of symptoms and self-collection of mid-turbinate swabs is feasible. A larger study is required to validate the suggestion that vaccinating children with LAIV

  15. Fine-structure analysis and gentic organization at the base of the x chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. [X-ray-induced chromosome breakage analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifschytz, E.

    1978-03-01

    Genetic organization at the base of the X chromosome was studied through the analysis of x-ray-induced deficiencies. Deficiencies were recovered so as to have a preselected right end anchored in the centric heterochromatin to the right of the su(f) locus. Free ends of deficiencies occurred at any of 22 intervals in Section 20 and in the proximal portion of Section 19 of Bridges' (1938) polytene chromosome map. The distribution of 130 such free ends of deficiencies induced in normal, In(1)sc/sup 8/, and In(1)w/sup m4/ chromosomes suggests that on the single section level, genes are flanked by hot or cold sites for x-ray-induced breaks, and that occurrence of the hot spots is dependent on their interaction with the fixed-end sites in the centric heterochromatin. In the light of these results, it is argued that long heterochromatic sequences separate the relatively few genes in Section 20, and thus endow it with several characteristics typical of heterochromatic regions. Section 20 is considered to be a transition region between the mostly heterochromatic and mostly euchromatic regions of the X chromosome; the differences between them are suggested as being merely quantitative.

  16. Reevaluation of the linkage of an optic atrophy susceptibility gene to X-chromosomal markers in Finnish families with Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, V.; Aula, P.; Vilkki, J.; Nikoskelainen, E.; Savontaus, M.-L.

    1993-07-01

    One of the commonest reasons for sudden-onset optic nerve degeneration in young men can be attributed to maternally inherited Leber hereditary optic neuroretinopathy (LHON) (Nikoskelainen et al. 1987). Specific point mutations at either np 11778 (Wallace et al. 1988) or np 3460 (Howell et al. 1991; Huoponen et al. 1991) in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encoding for respiratory enzyme complex I subunits (i.e., ND4 or ND1) can be found in 70% of families. These mutations exist as being either homoplasmic or heteroplasmic, but the correlation between the degree of heteroplasmy and the risk of developing optic atrophy is far from clear (Holt et al. 1989; Vilkki et al. 1990). Neither does heteroplasmy explain the strong male bias seen in LHON families, when the sex ratio of patients with visual impairment is observed. Earlier results indicated that susceptibility to optic atrophy in Finnish families with LHON was probably determined by an X-chromosomal gene closely linked to DXS7. Contradictory results prompted reevaluation of the existence of an X-chromosomal visual loss susceptibility gene in Finnish LHON families. The results of this present study clearly demonstrate that the earlier close linkage to DXS7 is implausible. The altered Z is due to revised pedigrees, the use of liability classes, and separation of the families according to the associated mtDNA mutation. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  17. Exceptional lexical skills but executive language deficits in school starters and young adults with Turners syndrome: implications for X chromosome effects on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Christine M; Shephard, Elizabeth E

    2012-03-01

    TS school starters had enhanced receptive and expressive language on standardised assessment (CELF-P) and enhanced rhyme judgements, spoonerisms, and lexical decision, indicating enhanced phonological skills and word representations. There was marginal but consistent advantage across lexico-semantic tasks. On executive tasks, speeded naming of numbers was impaired but not pictures. Young TS adults had enhanced naming and receptive vocabulary, indicating enhanced semantic skills. There were consistent deficits in executive language: phonemic oral fluency, rhyme fluency, speeded naming of pictures, numbers and colours; sentence completion requiring supression of prepotent responses. Haploinsufficiency of X-chromosome drives mechanisms that affect the anatomical and neurochemical development of the brain, resulting in enhanced temporal lobe aspects of language. These strengths co-exist with impaired development of frontal lobe executive language systems. This means not only that these elements of language can decouple in development but that their very independence is driven by mechanisms linked to the X-chromosome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis associated to epilepsy, hyperactivity, autism and mental retardation, due to the Xp22.31 microdeletion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa-Romero, M Carmen; Suela, Javier; Alfaro-Ponce, Blanca; Cepillo-Boluda, Antonio J

    2012-02-16

    X-chromosome-linked ichthyosis is caused by mutation or deletion of the STS gene associated with a deficiency of the enzyme steroid sulphatase, located in the distal part of the short arm of the X chromosome (Xp22.3-pter), close to the pseudo-autosomal region. Depending on its size, it can present as an isolated entity or combined with a syndrome caused by neighbouring genes, thus associating itself with other monogenic diseases as well as other mental disorders. The most relevant findings from the literature review are the importance of the Xp22.3-pter region and the higher incidence of neurological disorders among males (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and X-linked mental retardation). The role and implication of these genes in the disease are discussed and the authors suggest a possible contribution of the gene PNPLA4, which was originally described as GS2 and codes for calcium-independent phospholipase A2 beta, involved in lipoprotein metabolism, as one of the causes of autism. Improvements have been observed following treatment with citicoline, thanks to the role this nootropic plays in the biosynthesis of structural phospholipids involved in the formation and repair of the neuronal membrane.

  19. Sex differences in life span: Females homozygous for the X chromosome do not suffer the shorter life span predicted by the unguarded X hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengdahl, Martin; Kimber, Christopher M; Maguire-Baxter, Jack; Friberg, Urban

    2018-02-12

    Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, the X chromosome is unusually large (∼20% of the genome), providing a powerful model for evaluating theories involving the X. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis by forcing D. melanogaster females from a laboratory population to express recessive X-linked alleles to the same degree as males, using females exclusively made homozygous for the X chromosome. We find no evidence for reduced life span or egg-to-adult viability due to X homozygozity. In contrast, males and females homozygous for an autosome both suffer similar, significant reductions in those traits. The logic of the unguarded X hypothesis is indisputable, but our results suggest that the degree to which recessive deleterious X-linked alleles depress performance in the heterogametic sex appears too small to explain general sex differences in life span. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. The selfish grandma gene: the roles of the x-chromosome and paternity uncertainty in the evolution of grandmothering behavior and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Molly; Johow, Johannes; Knapp, Leslie A

    2011-01-01

    When considering inclusive fitness, it is expected that individuals will provide more care towards those with whom they are more closely related. Thus, if a selfish X-linked genetic element influenced care giving, we would expect care giving to vary with X-relatedness. Recent studies have shown that X-chromosome inheritance patterns may influence selection of traits affecting behavior and life-history. Sexually antagonistic (SA) zygotic drive could encourage individuals to help those with whom they are more likely to share genetic material at the expense of other relatives. We reanalyze previously reported data in light of this new idea. We also evaluate the effects of paternity uncertainty on SA-zygotic drive. Our evidence suggests that human paternal discrepancy is relatively low. Using published models, we find the effects of paternal discrepancy do not override opportunity for selection based on X-relatedness. Based on these results, longevity and grandmothering behaviors, including favoritism, may be more heavily influenced by selection on the X-chromosome than by paternity uncertainty.

  1. Population study of 1311 C/T polymorphism of Glucose 6 Phosphate Dehydrogenase gene in Pakistan – an analysis of 715 X-chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naqvi Zulfiqar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nucleotide 1311 polymorphism at exon 11 of G6PD gene is widely prevalent in various populations of the world. The aim of the study was to evaluate 1311 polymorphism in subjects carrying G6PD Mediterranean gene and in general population living in Pakistan. Results Patients already known to be G6PD deficient were tested for 563C-T (G6PD Mediterranean and 1311 C-T mutation through RFLP based PCR and gene sequencing. A control group not known to be G6PD deficient was tested for 1311C/T only. C-T transition at nt 1311 was detected in 60/234 X-chromosomes with 563 C-T mutation (gene frequency of 0.26 while in 130 of normal 402 X-chromosomes (gene frequency of 0.32. Conclusion We conclude that 1311 T is a frequent polymorphism both in general populations and in subjects with G6PD Mediterranean gene in Pakistan. The prevalence is higher compared to most of the populations of the world. The present study will help in understanding genetic basis of G6PD deficiency in Pakistani population and in developing ancestral links of its various ethnic groups.

  2. The Selfish Grandma Gene: The Roles of the X-Chromosome and Paternity Uncertainty in the Evolution of Grandmothering Behavior and Longevity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Fox

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When considering inclusive fitness, it is expected that individuals will provide more care towards those with whom they are more closely related. Thus, if a selfish X-linked genetic element influenced care giving, we would expect care giving to vary with X-relatedness. Recent studies have shown that X-chromosome inheritance patterns may influence selection of traits affecting behavior and life-history. Sexually antagonistic (SA zygotic drive could encourage individuals to help those with whom they are more likely to share genetic material at the expense of other relatives. We reanalyze previously reported data in light of this new idea. We also evaluate the effects of paternity uncertainty on SA-zygotic drive. Our evidence suggests that human paternal discrepancy is relatively low. Using published models, we find the effects of paternal discrepancy do not override opportunity for selection based on X-relatedness. Based on these results, longevity and grandmothering behaviors, including favoritism, may be more heavily influenced by selection on the X-chromosome than by paternity uncertainty.

  3. Inactivation Data.xlsx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data set is a spreadsheet that contains results of inactivation experiments that were conducted to to determine the effectiveness of chlorine in inactivating B....

  4. Skewed X inactivation and survival: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly twins and singletons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Christiansen, Lene

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian females, one of the two X chromosomes is inactivated in early embryonic life. Females are therefore mosaics for two cell populations, one with the maternal and one with the paternal X as the active X chromosome. A skewed X inactivation is a marked deviation from a 50:50 ratio....... In populations of women past 55-60 years of age, an increased degree of skewing (DS) is found. Here the association between age-related skewing and mortality is analyzed in a 13-year follow-up study of 500 women from three cohorts (73-100 years of age at intake). Women with low DS had significantly higher...... mortality than the majority of women who had a more skewed DS (hazard ratio: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.04-1.64). The association between X inactivation and mortality was replicated in dizygotic twin pairs for which the co-twin with the lowest DS also had a statistically significant tendency to die first in the twin...

  5. Short stature homeobox-containing gene duplication on the der(X) chromosome in a female with 45,X/46,X, der(X), gonadal dysgenesis, and tall stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, T; Kosho, T; Wakui, K; Fukushima, Y; Yoshimoto, M; Miharu, N

    2000-08-01

    We report on a Japanese female with 45,X[40]/46,X, der(X)[60], primary amenorrhea, and tall stature. She was confirmed to have complete gonadal dysgenesis at 19 yr of age and was placed on hormone replacement therapy. Growth assessment revealed that she had a low normal height until her early teens, but continued to grow with a nearly constant height velocity in her late teens, attaining a final height of 172 cm (+ 2.9 SD), which surpassed her target height range. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for 10 loci/regions on the X-chromosome together with the whole X-chromosome and the Xp-specific and Xq-specific paintings showed that the der(X) chromosome was associated with duplication of roughly distal half of Xp, including SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing gene), and deletion of most of Xq. Microsatellite analysis for eight loci at Xp22 and nine loci at Xq26-28 indicated that the normal X-chromosome was of maternal origin, and the der(X) chromosome was of paternal origin. The results, in conjunction with the adult height data in 47,XXX, 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, 47,XXY, 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis, and 46,X, idic(Xq-), suggest that the tall stature of this female is caused by the combined effects of SHOX duplication on the der(X) chromosome and gonadal estrogen deficiency. Furthermore, the similarity in the growth pattern between this female and patients with estrogen resistance or aromatase deficiency implies that the association of an extra copy of SHOX with gonadal estrogen deficiency may represent the further clinical entity for tall stature resulting from continued growth in late teens or into adulthood.

  6. Randomized Comparison of Immunogenicity and Safety of Quadrivalent Recombinant Versus Inactivated Influenza Vaccine in Healthy Adults 18-49 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Lisa M; Izikson, Ruvim; Patriarca, Peter A; Goldenthal, Karen L; Muse, Derek; Cox, Manon M J

    2017-12-05

    Seasonal influenza vaccines are transitioning to quadrivalent formulations including the hemagglutinins of influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2 and B lineages Yamagata and Victoria. A new quadrivalent recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) was compared directly with a standard-dose, egg-grown, quadrivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) for immunogenicity and safety in adults 18-49 years of age. The coprimary endpoints for noninferiority were hemagglutination inhibition seroconversion rates and postvaccination geometric mean titer ratios for each antigen using US regulatory criteria. Reactogenicity solicited for 7 days, other safety events collected for 28 days, and serious or medically attended adverse events collected for 6 months after vaccination comprised the safety evaluation. The immunogenicity of RIV4 was comparable to that of IIV4; the coprimary noninferiority criteria were met for 3 antigens, and the antibody responses to the fourth antigen, influenza B/Brisbane/60/2008, were low in each group, making comparisons uninterpretable. Systemic and injection site reactions were mild, transient, and similar in each group, whereas none of the spontaneously reported adverse events, serious or nonserious, were considered related to study vaccine. This first head-to-head comparison of recombinant versus inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccines in 18-49 year old adults showed comparable immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability for both vaccines.

  7. A simple screening method for detection of Klinefelter syndrome and other X-chromosome aneuploidies based on copy number of the androgen receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, A M; Garn, I D; Aksglaede, L

    2007-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence and variable phenotype of patients with Klinefelter syndrome, there is a need for a robust and rapid screening method allowing early diagnosis. Here, we report on the development and detailed clinical validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based method...... of the copy number assessment of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located to Xq11.2-q12. We analysed samples from 50 individuals, including a healthy male and female controls and patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY; 48,XXXY) (n = 28), mosaicisms (46,XX/47,XXY/48XXYY; 45,X/46,XY) (n = 3), other sex......-gene expression. The XIST-expression based assay was correct in only 29/36 samples (81%). Our findings demonstrated that the AR-qPCR technique is a simple and reliable screening method for diagnosis of patients with Klinefelter syndrome or other chromosomal disorders involving an aberrant number of X-chromosomes....

  8. Identification of New X-Chromosomal Genes Required for Drosophila Oogenesis and Novel Roles for fs(1)Yb, brainiac and dunce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Andrew; Hijal, Sirine; Hilfiker, Andres; Suter, Beat

    2001-01-01

    We performed a screen for female sterile mutations on the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster and identified new loci required for developmental events in oogenesis as well as new alleles of previously described genes. We present mapping and phenotypic characterization data for many of these genes and discuss their significance in understanding fundamental developmental and cell biological processes. Our screen has identified genes that are involved in cell cycle control, intracellular transport, cell migration, maintenance of cell membranes, epithelial monolayer integrity and cell survival or apoptosis. We also describe new roles for the genes dunce (dnc), brainiac (brn) and fs(1)Yb, and we identify new alleles of Sex lethal (Sxl), ovarian tumor (otu), sans filles (snf), fs(1)K10, singed (sn), and defective chorion-1 (dec-1). PMID:11156616

  9. An X chromosome association scan of the Norfolk Island genetic isolate provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridget H Maher

    Full Text Available Migraine is a common and debilitating neurovascular disorder with a complex envirogenomic aetiology. Numerous studies have demonstrated a preponderance of women affected with migraine and previous pedigree linkage studies in our laboratory have identified susceptibility loci on chromosome Xq24-Xq28. In this study we have used the genetic isolate of Norfolk Island to further analyse the X chromosome for migraine susceptibility loci.An association approach was employed to analyse 14,124 SNPs spanning the entire X chromosome. Genotype data from 288 individuals comprising a large core-pedigree, of which 76 were affected with migraine, were analysed. Although no SNP reached chromosome-wide significance (empirical α = 1 × 10(-5 ranking by P-value revealed two primary clusters of SNPs in the top 25. A 10 SNP cluster represents a novel migraine susceptibility locus at Xq12 whilst a 11 SNP cluster represents a previously identified migraine susceptibility locus at Xq27. The strongest association at Xq12 was seen for rs599958 (OR = 1.75, P = 8.92 × 10(-4, whilst at Xq27 the strongest association was for rs6525667 (OR = 1.53, P = 1.65 × 10(-4. Further analysis of SNPs at these loci was performed in 5,122 migraineurs from the Women's Genome Health Study and provided additional evidence for association at the novel Xq12 locus (P<0.05.Overall, this study provides evidence for a novel migraine susceptibility locus on Xq12. The strongest effect SNP (rs102834, joint P = 1.63 × 10(-5 is located within the 5'UTR of the HEPH gene, which is involved in iron homeostasis in the brain and may represent a novel pathway for involvement in migraine pathogenesis.

  10. First report on an X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia family with X chromosome inversion: Breakpoint mapping reveals the pathogenic mechanism and preimplantation genetics diagnosis achieves an unaffected birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tonghua; Yin, Biao; Zhu, Yuanchang; Li, Guangui; Ye, Lijun; Liang, Desheng; Zeng, Yong

    2017-10-14

    To investigate the etiology of X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XLHED) in a family with an inversion of the X chromosome [inv(X)(p21q13)] and to achieve a healthy birth following preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Next generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing analysis were carried out to define the inversion breakpoint. Multiple displacement amplification, amplification of breakpoint junction fragments, Sanger sequencing of exon 1 of ED1, haplotyping of informative short tandem repeat markers and gender determination were performed for PGD. NGS data of the proband sample revealed that the size of the possible inverted fragment was over 42Mb, spanning from position 26, 814, 206 to position 69, 231, 915 on the X chromosome. The breakpoints were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. A total of 5 blastocyst embryos underwent trophectoderm biopsy. Two embryos were diagnosed as carriers and three were unaffected. Two unaffected blastocysts were transferred and a singleton pregnancy was achieved. Following confirmation by prenatal diagnosis, a healthy baby was delivered. This is the first report of an XLHED family with inv(X). ED1 is disrupted by the X chromosome inversion in this XLHED family and embryos with the X chromosomal abnormality can be accurately identified by means of PGD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. ANÁLISIS CLÍNICO Y MOLECULAR DE UNA PACIENTECON PENTASOMIA DEL CROMOSOMA X. Clinical and Molecular Analysis of a Patient with X-Chromosome Pentasomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HEIDI ELIANA MATEUS ARBELAEZ

    Pentasomy X. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis revealed that her karyotype was 49,XXXXX and that the additional X chromosomes were maternal in origin. Case report: We present a 28 month old female patient with short stature, brachycephaly, characteristic facies, with female external genitalia, hypoplasic labia majora, brachydactyly, bilateral clinodactyly of the fifth finger, dislocation of the right knee with genu varum deformities. Chromosome analysis revealed a karyotype of 49, XXXXX. Materials and methods: We performed DNA extraction and subsequent PCR amplification of 8 microsatellites (STR’s throughout the X chromosome. The amplified products were analyzed in the ALF EXPRESS sequencer. The allelic information obtained was used to construct haplotypes and to analyze gene dosage through the determination of the area under the curve. Results and discussion: Through the analysis of eight STR’s in the patient and her parents we were able to determine that the extra X chromosomes were inherited from the mother. We analyze our results and other well documented events that have been related to non-disjunctions. Conclusion: We confirmed through molecular analysis of X-linked DNA markers that the aneuploidy developed from two maternal non-disjunctions.

  12. An X chromosome-wide association study in autism families identifies TBL1X as a novel autism spectrum disorder candidate gene in males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Ren-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with a strong genetic component. The skewed prevalence toward males and evidence suggestive of linkage to the X chromosome in some studies suggest the presence of X-linked susceptibility genes in people with ASD. Methods We analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS data on the X chromosome in three independent autism GWAS data sets: two family data sets and one case-control data set. We performed meta- and joint analyses on the combined family and case-control data sets. In addition to the meta- and joint analyses, we performed replication analysis by using the two family data sets as a discovery data set and the case-control data set as a validation data set. Results One SNP, rs17321050, in the transducin β-like 1X-linked (TBL1X gene [OMIM:300196] showed chromosome-wide significance in the meta-analysis (P value = 4.86 × 10-6 and joint analysis (P value = 4.53 × 10-6 in males. The SNP was also close to the replication threshold of 0.0025 in the discovery data set (P = 5.89 × 10-3 and passed the replication threshold in the validation data set (P = 2.56 × 10-4. Two other SNPs in the same gene in linkage disequilibrium with rs17321050 also showed significance close to the chromosome-wide threshold in the meta-analysis. Conclusions TBL1X is in the Wnt signaling pathway, which has previously been implicated as having a role in autism. Deletions in the Xp22.2 to Xp22.3 region containing TBL1X and surrounding genes are associated with several genetic syndromes that include intellectual disability and autistic features. Our results, based on meta-analysis, joint analysis and replication analysis, suggest that TBL1X may play a role in ASD risk.

  13. X-chromosomal maternal and fetal SNPs and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery in a Danish/Norwegian genome-wide association study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Myking

    Full Text Available Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the maternal genome is an important contributor to spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD. There is also a significant excess of males among preterm born infants, which may imply an X-linked mode of inheritance for a subset of cases. To explore this, we examined the effect of maternal and fetal X-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the risk of PTD in two independent genome-wide association studies and one replication study.Participants were recruited from the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child cohort studies. Data from these two populations were first analyzed independently, and then combined in a meta-analysis. Overall, we evaluated 12,211 SNPs in 1,535 case-mother dyads and 1,487 control-mother dyads. Analyses were done using a hybrid design that combines case-mother dyads and control-mother dyads, as implemented in the Haplin statistical software package. A sex-stratified analysis was performed for the fetal SNPs. In the replication study, 10 maternal and 16 fetal SNPs were analyzed using case-parent triads from independent studies of PTD in the United States, Argentina and Denmark.In the meta-analysis, the G allele at the maternal SNP rs2747022 in the FERM domain containing 7 gene (FRMD7 increased the risk of spontaneous PTD by 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.1, 1.4. Although an association with this SNP was confirmed in the replication study, it was no longer statistically significant after a Bonferroni correction for multiple testing.We did not find strong evidence in our data to implicate X-chromosomal SNPs in the etiology of spontaneous PTD. Although non-significant after correction for multiple testing, the mother's G allele at rs2747022 in FRMD7 increased the risk of spontaneous PTD across all populations in this study, thus warranting further investigation in other populations.

  14. Clinical testing of an inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine candidate in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial in healthy adults in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Trong Lan; Ho, Vinh Thang; Vu, Minh Huong; Nguyen, Tuyet Nga; Duong, Huu Thai; Holt, Renee; Wahid, Rahnuma; Donnelly, John; Flores, Jorge

    2016-10-26

    We tested an inactivated egg-grown whole virus influenza A/H5N1 vaccine candidate developed by the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC), a state-run vaccine manufacturer in Vietnam, in a Phase 1, placebo controlled, double blinded, randomized trial. The vaccine was adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide. The trial enrolled 75 subjects who were randomized to receive two injections of one of the following: low-dose of vaccine (7.5 mcg HA), high-dose of vaccine (15 mcg HA), or placebo. The vaccine candidate was well tolerated with minimal local reactogenicity consisting of mild, short-lived injection site pain and/or tenderness. No systemic reactogenicity was observed other than transient low-grade fever in about 13% of the subjects and no unsolicited adverse events were attributable to product administration. Immune responses were assessed at baseline and after the first and second dose by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, with 72% of the high-dose and 68% of the low-dose vaccine recipients presenting a ⩾4-fold response in the HAI assay and 72% of the high-dose and 61% of the low-dose vaccine recipients exhibiting a ⩾4-fold response in the MN assay. These promising results support further development. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02171819, June 20, 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. X-inactivation pattern in multiple tissues from two Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegoraro, Elena; Vettori, Andrea; Valentino, Maria L; Molon, Annamaria; Mostacciuolo, Maria L; Howell, Neil; Carelli, Valerio

    2003-05-15

    The more frequent manifestation of ophthalmological abnormalities in males, relative to females, is an unexplained feature of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) that suggests an X-linked modifying gene acting in concert with the pathogenic LHON mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation. In addition, segregation analysis of the optic neuropathy in LHON pedigrees was compatible with the presence of a recessive-modifying gene on chromosome X. According to this two-locus model, females would be affected only if homozygous or if they were susceptible to skewed X-inactivation. Attempts both to localize the putative LHON-modifying gene by linkage analysis and to find an excess of skewed X-inactivation in affected females were unsuccessful, although the inactivation pattern was only studied in DNA isolated from blood cells. We had the opportunity to analyze a wide range of tissues at autopsy, including the optic nerves and the retina, from two LHON female patients. We found no evidence of skewed X-inactivation in the affected tissues, thus weakening further the hypothesized involvement of a specific X chromosome locus in the pathophysiological expression of LHON. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Global survey of escape from X inactivation by RNA-sequencing in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Babak, Tomas; Shendure, Jay; Disteche, Christine M

    2010-05-01

    X inactivation equalizes the dosage of gene expression between the sexes, but some genes escape silencing and are thus expressed from both alleles in females. To survey X inactivation and escape in mouse, we performed RNA sequencing in Mus musculus x Mus spretus cells with complete skewing of X inactivation, relying on expression of single nucleotide polymorphisms to discriminate allelic origin. Thirteen of 393 (3.3%) mouse genes had significant expression from the inactive X, including eight novel escape genes. We estimate that mice have significantly fewer escape genes compared with humans. Furthermore, escape genes did not cluster in mouse, unlike the large escape domains in human, suggesting that expression is controlled at the level of individual genes. Our findings are consistent with the striking differences in phenotypes between female mice and women with a single X chromosome--a near normal phenotype in mice versus Turner syndrome and multiple abnormalities in humans. We found that escape genes are marked by the absence of trimethylation at lysine 27 of histone H3, a chromatin modification associated with genes subject to X inactivation. Furthermore, this epigenetic mark is developmentally regulated for some mouse genes.

  17. Comparative mapping on the mouse and human X chromosomes of a human cDNA clone encoding the vasopressin renal-type receptor (AVP2R)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, C.J.; Gonzales, J.C.; Seibold, A.; Birnbaumer, M.; Herman, G.E. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States))

    1993-02-01

    Mutation in the gene for the human renal-type vasopressin receptor (V2R) have recently been identified in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI). Both V2R and NDI have been independently mapped to Xq28. Using a combination of genetic and physical mapping, we have localized the murine V2r locus to within 100 kb of L1Cam on the mouse X chromosome in a region syntenic with human Xq28. Based on conserved gene order of mouse and human loci in this region, physical mapping using DNA derived form human lymphoblasts has established that the corresponding human loci V2R and L1CAM are linked within 210 kb. The efficiency and precision of genetic mapping of V2r and other loci in the mouse suggest that it might be easier to map additional human genes in the mouse first and infer the corresponding human location. More precise physical mapping in man could then be performed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and/or yeast artificial chromosomes. 16 refs., 1 fig. 1 tab.

  18. A comparative transcriptional map of a region of 250 kb on the human and mouse X chromosome between the G6PD and the FLN1 genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivella, S.; Tamanini, F.; Bione, S.; Mancini, M. [Istituto de Genetica Biochinica ed Evoluzionistica, Pavia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-08-10

    The transcriptional organization of the region of the mouse X chromosome between the G6pd and the Fln1 genes was studied in detail, and it was compared with the syntenic region of the human chromosome. A cosmid contig of 250 kb was constructed by screening mouse cosmid libraries with probes for human genes and with whole cosmids. Overlapping cosmids were aligned by comparing EcoRI and rare-cutter restriction enzyme digestions. The gene order and the orientation of transcription were determined by hybridization with fragments from the 5{prime} and 3{prime} moieties of each cDNA. Our work demonstrates that all of the new genes identified in human are present in the mouse. The size of the region, 250 kb, is also very similar, as are gene order and gene organizations: the transcriptional organization in {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes} described in human is found to be identical in the mouse. The major difference detected is the much lower content in rare-cutter restriction sites, which is related to the lower G+C and CpG content of mouse DNA. The very high conservation that we have described suggests that a potent selective pressure has contributed to such conservation of gene organization. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  19. In vitro production of sexed embryos for gender preselection: high-speed sorting of X-chromosome-bearing sperm to produce pigs after embryo transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, D; Long, C R; Dobrinsky, J R; Welch, G R; Schreier, L L; Johnson, L A

    1999-12-01

    The objectives for the present experiments were to apply sperm sexing technology to an in vitro production system with porcine oocytes obtained from slaughterhouse material. On six experimental days, ovaries were obtained from an abattoir, and cumulus-oocyte-complexes were matured in vitro. Semen was collected from mature boars of proven fertility and was sorted for X-chromosome-bearing sperm, using the Beltsville Sperm Sexing Technology incorporating the use of high-speed sorting. A total of 5,378 oocytes were submitted for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Of these, 559 ova were stained for cytogenetic analysis 18 h after IVF. From the remaining 4,819 ova, 1,595 cleaved, and 1,300 of the cleaved embryos were transferred into 26 synchronized recipients (5 control gilts for unsorted sperm, 21 gilts for X-sorted sperm). In a test of two fertilization media (FERT-A vs FERT-B) higher cleavage rates (Psexed sperm (X-sorted) produced 33 females (97%) and one male. Three litters from control transfers produced 23 pigs, 11 of which were female (48%). The sex ratio of the offspring was predicted based on the sort reanalysis of the sorted sperm for DNA content.

  20. Analysis of active and inactive X chromosome architecture reveals the independent organization of 30 nm and large-scale chromatin structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Catherine; Sproul, Duncan; Hamilton, Charlotte; Gilbert, Nick

    2010-11-12

    Using a genetic model, we present a high-resolution chromatin fiber analysis of transcriptionally active (Xa) and inactive (Xi) X chromosomes packaged into euchromatin and facultative heterochromatin. Our results show that gene promoters have an open chromatin structure that is enhanced upon transcriptional activation but the Xa and the Xi have similar overall 30 nm chromatin fiber structures. Therefore, the formation of facultative heterochromatin is dependent on factors that act at a level above the 30 nm fiber and transcription does not alter bulk chromatin fiber structures. However, large-scale chromatin structures on Xa are decondensed compared with the Xi and transcription inhibition is sufficient to promote large-scale chromatin compaction. We show a link between transcription and large-scale chromatin packaging independent of the bulk 30 nm chromatin fiber and propose that transcription, not the global compaction of 30 nm chromatin fibers, determines the cytological appearance of large-scale chromatin structures. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Linkage analysis of bipolar illness with X-chromosome DNA markers: A susceptibility gene in Xq27-q28 cannot be excluded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De bruyn, A.; Raeymaekers, P.; Raes, G. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-12-15

    Transmission studies have supported the presence of a susceptibility gene for bipolar (BP) illness on the X-chromosome. Initial linkage studies with color blindness (CB), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, and the blood coagulation factor IX (F9) have suggested that a gene for BP illness is located in the Xq27-q28 region. We tested linkage with several DNA markers located in Xq27-q28 in 2 families, MAD3 and MAD4, that previously were linked to F9, and 7 newly ascertained families of BP probands. Linkage was also examined with the gene encoding the {alpha}3 subunit of the gamma-amino butyric acid receptor (GABRA3), a candidate gene for BP illness located in this region. The genetic data were analyzed with the LOD score method using age-dependent penetrance of an autosomal dominant disease gene and narrow and broad clinical models. In MAD3 and MAD4 the multipoint LOD score data suggested a localization of a BPI gene again near F9. In the 7 new families the overall linkage data excluded the Xq27-q28 region. However, if the families were grouped according to their proband`s phenotype BPI or BPII, a susceptibility gene for BPI disorder at the DXS52-F8 cluster could not be excluded. 48 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. A simple screening method for detection of Klinefelter syndrome and other X-chromosome aneuploidies based on copy number of the androgen receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, A M; Garn, I D; Aksglaede, L

    2007-01-01

    of the copy number assessment of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located to Xq11.2-q12. We analysed samples from 50 individuals, including a healthy male and female controls and patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY; 48,XXXY) (n = 28), mosaicisms (46,XX/47,XXY/48XXYY; 45,X/46,XY) (n = 3), other sex...... chromosome abnormalities (46,XX males; 47,XYY)(n = 4) and normal karyotypes (46,XY) (n = 13). The reference range for the AR-copy number was established as 0.8-1.2 for one copy and 1.7-2.3 for two copies. The qPCR results were within the reference range in 17/18 samples (94%) or 30/31 (97%) samples with one...... or two copies of the AR gene, respectively. None of the Klinefelter patients were misdiagnosed as having a karyotype with only one X-chromosome, and in none of the 46,XY males were two copies demonstrated. We systematically compared qPCR results with those obtained with another PCR-based method, the XIST...

  3. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in healthy Chinese children aged 18 months to 16 years: results from a randomized, parallel controlled, phase IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, F; Yang, J; Kang, G; Sun, Q; Lu, P; Zhao, Y; Wang, Z; Luo, J; Wang, Z

    2016-09-01

    For large-scale immunization of children with hepatitis A (HA) vaccines in China, accurately designed studies comparing the safety and immunogenicity of the live attenuated HA vaccine (HA-L) and inactivated HA vaccine (HA-I) are necessary. A randomized, parallel controlled, phase IV clinical trial was conducted with 6000 healthy children aged 18 months to 16 years. HA-L or HA-I was administered at a ratio of 1: 1 to randomized selected participants. The safety and immunogenicity were evaluated. Both HA-L and HA-I were well tolerated by all participants. The immunogenicity results showed that the seroconversion rates (HA-L versus HA-I: 98.0% versus 100%, respectively, p >0.05), and geometric mean concentrations in participants negative for antibodies against HA virus IgG (anti-HAV IgG) before vaccination did not differ significantly between the two types of vaccines (HA-L versus HA-I first dose: 898.9 versus 886.2 mIU/mL, respectively, p >0.05). After administration of the booster dose of HA-I, the geometric mean concentrations of anti-HAV IgG (HA-I booster dose: 2591.2 mIU/mL) was higher than that after the first dose (p <0.05) and that reported in participants administered HA-L (p <0.05). Additionally, 12 (25%) of the 48 randomized selected participants who received HA-L tested positive for HA antigen in stool samples. Hence, both HA-L and HA-I could provide acceptable immunogenicity in children. The effects of long-term immunogenicity after natural exposure to wild-type HA virus and the possibility of mutational shifts of the live vaccine virus in the field need to be studied in more detail. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Safety and immunogenicity of a freeze-dried, Vero cell culture-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (KD-287, ENCEVAC®) versus a mouse brain-derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: a phase III, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ki Wook; Lee, Hoan Jong; Kang, Jin Han; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Nam Hee; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Hwang Min; Cha, Sung-Ho

    2015-01-08

    Although mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines (JE-MBs) have been successfully used for a long time, potential rare neurological complications have prompted the development of a Vero cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine (JE-VC). In a phase III clinical study, we aimed to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a JE-VC, KD-287 with a JE-MB, JEV-GCC, in children. In this multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, the study population consisted of 205 healthy Korean children aged 12-23 months. Each subject was subcutaneously vaccinated with either KD-287 or JEV-GCC twice at an interval of 2 weeks and then vaccinated once 12 months after the second vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test using the homologous and heterologous, as a post hoc analysis, challenge virus strains. The three-dose regimen of KD-287 showed a comparable safety profile with JEV-GCC except higher incidence of fever after the first dose (30.4% and 14.7%, respectively). Most of the fever was mild degree (61.3% and 66.7%, respectively). KD-287 fulfilled the non-inferiority criteria for seroconversion rate (SCR) and geometric mean titer (GMT) of the neutralizing antibody, which were the primary endpoints, at 4 weeks after the third vaccination (95% CI: -1.00, 3.10 for the SCR difference and 10.8, 17.6 for the GMT ratio). The SCRs of KD-287 were all 100% and the GMTs were higher in the KD-287 group than in the JEV-GCC group after the second vaccination and before and after the third vaccination (GMT ratio: 5.59, 20.13, and 13.79, respectively, p < 0.001 in all). GMTs were higher in the KD-287 group in the heterologous analysis also (GMT ratio: 4.05, 5.15, and 4.19, respectively, p < 0.001 in all). This study suggests that the KD-287, a JE-VC is as safe as and may be more effective than the licensed MB-derived vaccine. KD-287 could thus be useful as a second-generation vaccine and substitute

  5. Non-random autosome segregation : A stepping stone for the evolution of sex chromosome complexes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwander, Tanja; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A new study in Caenorhabditis elegans shows that homologous autosomes segregate non-randomly with the sex chromosome in the heterogametic sex. Segregation occurs according to size, small autosomes segregating with, and large autosomes segregating away from the X-chromosome. Such sex-biased

  6. X Chromosome Dose and Sex Bias in Autoimmune Diseases: Increased 47,XXX in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Kurien, Biji T.; Zimmerman, Sarah L.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Taft, Diana H.; Kottyan, Leah C.; Lazaro, Sara; Weaver, Carrie A.; Ice, John A.; Adler, Adam J.; Chodosh, James; Radfar, Lida; Rasmussen, Astrid; Stone, Donald U.; Lewis, David M.; Li, Shibo; Koelsch, Kristi A.; Igoe, Ann; Talsania, Mitali; Kumar, Jay; Maier-Moore, Jacen S.; Harris, Valerie M.; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Jonsson, Roland; Lessard, James A.; Lu, Xianglan; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S.; Huang, Andrew J. W.; Brennan, Michael T.; Hughes, Pamela; Illei, Gabor G.; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Keystone, Edward C.; Bykerk, Vivian P.; Hirschfield, Gideon; Xie, Gang; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eriksson, Per; Omdal, Roald; Rhodus, Nelson L.; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rohrer, Michael; Segal, Barbara M.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Witte, Torsten; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E.; Guthridge, Joel M.; James, Judith A.; Lessard, Christopher J.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Susan D.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Langefeld, Carl L.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Tsao, Betty P.; McCune, W. Joseph; Salmon, Jane E.; Merrill, Joan T.; Weisman, Michael H; Wallace, Daniel J; Utset, Tammy O; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Amos, Christopher I.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective More than 80% of autoimmune disease is female dominant, but the mechanism for this female bias is poorly understood. We suspected an X chromosome dose effect and hypothesized that trisomy X (47,XXX , 1 in ~1,000 live female births) would be increased in female predominant diseases (e.g. systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], primary Sjögren’s syndrome [SS], primary biliary cirrhosis [PBC] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) compared to diseases without female predominance (sarcoidosis) and controls. Methods We identified 47,XXX subjects using aggregate data from single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and confirmed, when possible, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Results We found 47,XXX in seven of 2,826 SLE and three of 1,033 SS female patients, but only in two of the 7,074 female controls (p=0.003, OR=8.78, 95% CI: 1.67-86.79 and p=0.02, OR=10.29, 95% CI: 1.18-123.47; respectively). One 47,XXX subject was present for ~404 SLE women and ~344 SS women. 47,XXX was present in excess among SLE and SS subjects. Conclusion The estimated prevalence of SLE and SS in women with 47,XXX was respectively ~2.5 and ~2.9 times higher than in 46,XX women and ~25 and ~41 times higher than in 46,XY men. No statistically significant increase of 47,XXX was observed in other female-biased diseases (PBC or RA), supporting the idea of multiple pathways to sex bias in autoimmunity. PMID:26713507

  7. X Chromosome Dose and Sex Bias in Autoimmune Diseases: Increased Prevalence of 47,XXX in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Kurien, Biji T; Zimmerman, Sarah L; Kaufman, Kenneth M; Taft, Diana H; Kottyan, Leah C; Lazaro, Sara; Weaver, Carrie A; Ice, John A; Adler, Adam J; Chodosh, James; Radfar, Lida; Rasmussen, Astrid; Stone, Donald U; Lewis, David M; Li, Shibo; Koelsch, Kristi A; Igoe, Ann; Talsania, Mitali; Kumar, Jay; Maier-Moore, Jacen S; Harris, Valerie M; Gopalakrishnan, Rajaram; Jonsson, Roland; Lessard, James A; Lu, Xianglan; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Huang, Andrew J W; Brennan, Michael T; Hughes, Pamela; Illei, Gabor G; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Keystone, Edward C; Bykerk, Vivian P; Hirschfield, Gideon; Xie, Gang; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nordmark, Gunnel; Eriksson, Per; Omdal, Roald; Rhodus, Nelson L; Rischmueller, Maureen; Rohrer, Michael; Segal, Barbara M; Vyse, Timothy J; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Witte, Torsten; Pons-Estel, Bernardo; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Guthridge, Joel M; James, Judith A; Lessard, Christopher J; Kelly, Jennifer A; Thompson, Susan D; Gaffney, Patrick M; Montgomery, Courtney G; Edberg, Jeffrey C; Kimberly, Robert P; Alarcón, Graciela S; Langefeld, Carl L; Gilkeson, Gary S; Kamen, Diane L; Tsao, Betty P; McCune, W Joseph; Salmon, Jane E; Merrill, Joan T; Weisman, Michael H; Wallace, Daniel J; Utset, Tammy O; Bottinger, Erwin P; Amos, Christopher I; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Mariette, Xavier; Sivils, Kathy L; Harley, John B; Scofield, R Hal

    2016-05-01

    More than 80% of autoimmune disease predominantly affects females, but the mechanism for this female bias is poorly understood. We suspected that an X chromosome dose effect accounts for this, and we undertook this study to test our hypothesis that trisomy X (47,XXX; occurring in ∼1 in 1,000 live female births) would be increased in patients with female-predominant diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], primary Sjögren's syndrome [SS], primary biliary cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) compared to patients with diseases without female predominance (sarcoidosis) and compared to controls. All subjects in this study were female. We identified subjects with 47,XXX using aggregate data from single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays, and, when possible, we confirmed the presence of 47,XXX using fluorescence in situ hybridization or quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We found 47,XXX in 7 of 2,826 SLE patients and in 3 of 1,033 SS patients, but in only 2 of 7,074 controls (odds ratio in the SLE and primary SS groups 8.78 [95% confidence interval 1.67-86.79], P = 0.003 and odds ratio 10.29 [95% confidence interval 1.18-123.47], P = 0.02, respectively). One in 404 women with SLE and 1 in 344 women with SS had 47,XXX. There was an excess of 47,XXX among SLE and SS patients. The estimated prevalence of SLE and SS in women with 47,XXX was ∼2.5 and ∼2.9 times higher, respectively, than that in women with 46,XX and ∼25 and ∼41 times higher, respectively, than that in men with 46,XY. No statistically significant increase of 47,XXX was observed in other female-biased diseases (primary biliary cirrhosis or RA), supporting the idea of multiple pathways to sex bias in autoimmunity. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. A DNA fragment from the human X chromosome short arm which detects a partially homologous sequence on the Y chromosomes long arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, M; Camerino, G; Heilig, R; Mandel, J L

    1984-05-25

    An X linked human DNA fragment (named DXS31 ) which detects partially homologous sequences on the Y chromosome has been isolated. Regional localisation of the two sex linked sequences was determined using a panel of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids. The X specific sequence is located at the tip of the short arm ( Xp22 .3-pter), i.e. within or close to the region which pairs with the Y chromosome short arm at meiosis. However the Y specific sequence is located in the heterochromatic region of the long arm ( Yq11 -qter) and lies outside from the pairing region. DNAs from several XX male subjects were probed with DXS31 and in all cases a double dose of the X linked fragment was found, and the Y specific fragment was absent. DXS31 detects in chimpanzee a male-female differential pattern identical to that found in man. However results obtained in a more distantly related species, the brown lemur, suggest that the sequences detected by DXS31 in this species might be autosomally coded. The features observed with these X-Y related sequences do not fit with that expected from current hypotheses of homology between the pairing regions of the two sex chromosomes, nor with the pattern observed with other X-Y homologous sequences recently characterized. Our results suggest also that the rule of conservation of X linkage in mammals might not apply to sequences present on the tip of the X chromosome short arm, in bearing with the controversial issue of steroid sulfatase localisation in mouse.

  9. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Deal, Megan E; Deal, Jennifer A; Garton, Russell D; Brown, C Adam; Ward, Megan E; Andrade, Rachel S; Spana, Eric P; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2010-12-01

    Interchromosomal duplications are especially important for the study of X-linked genes. Males inheriting a mutation in a vital X-linked gene cannot survive unless there is a wild-type copy of the gene duplicated elsewhere in the genome. Rescuing the lethality of an X-linked mutation with a duplication allows the mutation to be used experimentally in complementation tests and other genetic crosses and it maps the mutated gene to a defined chromosomal region. Duplications can also be used to screen for dosage-dependent enhancers and suppressors of mutant phenotypes as a way to identify genes involved in the same biological process. We describe an ongoing project in Drosophila melanogaster to generate comprehensive coverage and extensive breakpoint subdivision of the X chromosome with megabase-scale X segments borne on Y chromosomes. The in vivo method involves the creation of X inversions on attached-XY chromosomes by FLP-FRT site-specific recombination technology followed by irradiation to induce large internal X deletions. The resulting chromosomes consist of the X tip, a medial X segment placed near the tip by an inversion, and a full Y. A nested set of medial duplicated segments is derived from each inversion precursor. We have constructed a set of inversions on attached-XY chromosomes that enable us to isolate nested duplicated segments from all X regions. To date, our screens have provided a minimum of 78% X coverage with duplication breakpoints spaced a median of nine genes apart. These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes.

  10. DAX1/NR0B1 was expressed during mammalian gonadal development and gametogenesis before it was recruited to the eutherian X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickels, Robert; Clark, Kevin; Heider, Thomas N; Mattiske, Deidre M; Renfree, Marilyn B; Pask, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 (NR0B1) gene is an orphan nuclear receptor that is X-linked in eutherian mammals and plays a critical role in the establishment and function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axis. Duplication or overexpression of NR0B1 in eutherian males causes male to female sex reversal, and mutation and deletions of NR0B1 cause testicular defects. Thus, gene dosage is critical for the function of NR0B1 in normal gonadogenesis. However, NR0B1 is autosomal in all noneutherian vertebrates, including marsupials and monotreme mammals, and two active copies of the gene are compatible with both male and female gonadal development. In the current study, we examined the evolution and expression of autosomal NR0B1 during gonadal development in a marsupial (the tammar wallaby) as compared to the role of its X-linked orthologues in a eutherian (the mouse). We show that NR0B1 underwent rapid evolutionary change when it relocated from its autosomal position in the nonmammalian vertebrates, monotremes, and marsupials to an X-linked location in eutherian mammals. Despite the acquisition of a novel genomic location and a unique N-terminal domain, NR0B1 protein distribution was remarkably similar between mice and marsupials both throughout gonadal development and during gamete formation. A conserved accumulation of NR0B1 protein was observed in developing oocytes, where its function appears to be critical in the early embryo, prior to zygotic genome activation. Together these findings suggest that NR0B1 had a conserved role in gonadogenesis that existed long before it moved to the X chromosome and despite undergoing significant evolutionary change. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  11. Rapid rise and fall of selfish sex-ratio X chromosomes in Drosophila simulans: spatiotemporal analysis of phenotypic and molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastide, Héloïse; Cazemajor, Michel; Ogereau, David; Derome, Nicolas; Hospital, Frédéric; Montchamp-Moreau, Catherine

    2011-09-01

    Sex-ratio drive, which has been documented in several Drosophila species, is induced by X-linked segregation distorters. Contrary to Mendel's law of independent assortment, the sex-ratio chromosome (X(SR)) is inherited by more than half the offspring of carrier males, resulting in a female-biased sex ratio. This segregation advantage allows X(SR) to spread in populations, even if it is not beneficial for the carriers. In the cosmopolitan species D. simulans, the Paris sex-ratio is caused by recently emerged selfish X(SR) chromosomes. These chromosomes have triggered an intragenomic conflict, and their propagation has been halted over a large area by the evolution of complete drive suppression. Previous molecular population genetics analyses revealed a selective sweep indicating that the invasion of X(SR) chromosomes was very recent in Madagascar (likely less than 100 years ago). Here, we show that X(SR) chromosomes are now declining at this location as well as in Mayotte and Kenya. Drive suppression is complete in the three populations, which display little genetic differentiation and share swept haplotypes, attesting to a common and very recent ancestry of the X(SR) chromosomes. Patterns of DNA sequence variation also indicate a fitness cost of the segmental duplication involved in drive. The data suggest that X(SR) chromosomes started declining first on the African continent, then in Mayotte, and finally in Madagascar and strongly support a scenario of rapid cycling of X chromosomes. Once drive suppression has evolved, standard X(ST) chromosomes locally replace costly X(SR) chromosomes in a few decades.

  12. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassais, Jocelyn; Rimbault, Maud; Williams, Falina J; Davis, Brian W; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey J; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2017-03-01

    Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW) >41 kg [90 lb]) to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg). We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb) and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS) data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4) gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1) at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4) at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  13. Analysis of large versus small dogs reveals three genes on the canine X chromosome associated with body weight, muscling and back fat thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Plassais

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dog breeds display significant diversity in both body mass and skeletal size, resulting from intensive selective pressure during the formation and maintenance of modern breeds. While previous studies focused on the identification of alleles that contribute to small skeletal size, little is known about the underlying genetics controlling large size. We first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS using the Illumina Canine HD 170,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array which compared 165 large-breed dogs from 19 breeds (defined as having a Standard Breed Weight (SBW >41 kg [90 lb] to 690 dogs from 69 small breeds (SBW ≤41 kg. We identified two loci on the canine X chromosome that were strongly associated with large body size at 82-84 megabases (Mb and 101-104 Mb. Analyses of whole genome sequencing (WGS data from 163 dogs revealed two indels in the Insulin Receptor Substrate 4 (IRS4 gene at 82.2 Mb and two additional mutations, one SNP and one deletion of a single codon, in Immunoglobulin Superfamily member 1 gene (IGSF1 at 102.3 Mb. IRS4 and IGSF1 are members of the GH/IGF1 and thyroid pathways whose roles include determination of body size. We also found one highly associated SNP in the 5'UTR of Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain family member 4 (ACSL4 at 82.9 Mb, a gene which controls the traits of muscling and back fat thickness. We show by analysis of sequencing data from 26 wolves and 959 dogs representing 102 domestic dog breeds that skeletal size and body mass in large dog breeds are strongly associated with variants within IRS4, ACSL4 and IGSF1.

  14. Non-coding RNAs and epigenome: de novo DNA methylation, allelic exclusion and X-inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Halytskiy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-coding RNAs are widespread class of cell RNAs. They participate in many important processes in cells – signaling, posttranscriptional silencing, protein biosynthesis, splicing, maintenance of genome stability, telomere lengthening, X-inactivation. Nevertheless, activity of these RNAs is not restricted to posttranscriptional sphere, but cover also processes that change or maintain the epigenetic information. Non-coding RNAs can directly bind to the DNA targets and cause their repression through recruitment of DNA methyltransferases as well as chromatin modifying enzymes. Such events constitute molecular mechanism of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation. It is possible, that the RNA-DNA interaction is universal mechanism triggering DNA methylation de novo. Allelic exclusion can be also based on described mechanism. This phenomenon takes place, when non-coding RNA, which precursor is transcribed from one allele, triggers DNA methylation in all other alleles present in the cell. Note, that miRNA-mediated transcriptional silencing resembles allelic exclusion, because both miRNA gene and genes, which can be targeted by this miRNA, contain elements with the same sequences. It can be assumed that RNA-dependent DNA methylation and allelic exclusion originated with the purpose of counteracting the activity of mobile genetic elements. Probably, thinning and deregulation of the cellular non-coding RNA pattern allows reactivation of silent mobile genetic elements resulting in genome instability that leads to ageing and carcinogenesis. In the course of X-inactivation, DNA methylation and subsequent hete­rochromatinization of X chromosome can be triggered by direct hybridization of 5′-end of large non-coding RNA Xist with DNA targets in remote regions of the X chromosome.

  15. Safety of the Inactivated Japanese Encephalitis Virus Vaccine IXIARO in Children: An Open-label, Randomized, Active-controlled, Phase 3 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubischar, Katrin L; Kadlecek, Vera; Sablan, Benjamin; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Gatchalian, Salvacion; Eder-Lingelbach, Susanne; Mueller, Zsuzsanna; Westritschnig, Kerstin

    2017-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis remains a serious health concern in Asian countries and has sporadically affected pediatric travelers. In the present study, we monitored the safety profile of the Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IXIARO (Valneva Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria) in a pediatric population. We randomized 1869 children between 2 months and 17 years of age in an age-stratified manner to vaccination with IXIARO or one of the control vaccines, Prevnar (formerly Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., now Pfizer Inc., Kent, United Kingdom) and HAVRIX 720 (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium). Adverse events (AEs) (unsolicited and solicited local and systemic AEs), serious AEs and medically attended AEs were assessed up to day 56 and month 7 after the first dose. Incidences of AEs, serious AEs or medically attended AEs did not differ significantly between the groups in any age stratum. AEs were most frequent in children <1 year of age and decreased with age. AEs of special interest, predefined as AEs associated with potential hypersensitivity/allergy or neurologic disorders up to day 56, were reported in 4.6% (IXIARO) versus 6.3% (Prevnar) in the ≥2 months to <1 year age group and 3.4% (IXIARO) versus 3.3% (HAVRIX) in the ≥1 to <18 years age group. Fever, the most frequent systemic reaction in 23.7% of infants to 3.8% of adolescents, decreased with age and did not differ between groups. The safety profile of IXIARO was comparable to the control vaccines in terms of overall AE rates, serious AEs and medically attended AEs.

  16. Generation and characterization of rat and mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for MeCP2 and their use in X-inactivation studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Laurence Jost

    Full Text Available Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 binds DNA, and has a preference for methylated CpGs and, hence, in cells, it accumulates in heterochromatin. Even though it is expressed ubiquitously MeCP2 is particularly important during neuronal maturation. This is underscored by the fact that in Rett syndrome, a neurological disease, 80% of patients carry a mutation in the MECP2 gene. Since the MECP2 gene lies on the X chromosome and is subjected to X chromosome inactivation, affected patients are usually chimeric for wild type and mutant MeCP2. Here, we present the generation and characterization of the first rat monoclonal MeCP2 specific antibodies as well as mouse monoclonal antibodies and a rabbit polyclonal antibody. We demonstrate that our antibodies are suitable for immunoblotting, (chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence of endogenous and ectopically expressed MeCP2. Epitope mapping revealed that most of the MeCP2 monoclonal antibodies recognize the C-terminal domain and one the N-terminal domain of MeCP2. Using slot blot analysis, we determined a high sensitivity of all antibodies, detecting amounts as low as 1 ng of MeCP2 protein. Moreover, the antibodies recognize MeCP2 from different species, including human, mouse, rat and pig. Lastly, we have validated their use by analyzing and quantifying X chromosome inactivation skewing using brain tissue of MeCP2 heterozygous null female mice. The new MeCP2 specific monoclonal antibodies described here perform well in a large variety of immunological applications making them a very valuable set of tools for studies of MeCP2 pathophysiology in situ and in vitro.

  17. Inactivation of rabies virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guanghui; Selden, David; Fooks, Anthony R; Banyard, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    Rabies virus is a notifiable pathogen that must be handled in high containment facilities where national and international guidelines apply. For the effective inactivation of rabies virus, a number of reagents were tested. Virkon S (1%) solution caused more than 4log reduction of rabies virus in culture medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum within 1min. Isopropyl alcohol (70%) treatment resulted in >3log reduction of rabies virus within 20s when applied at a ratio of 19:1, making it a suitable agent for surface decontamination whereas 70% ethanol was ineffective. Rabies virus (from 102.33 to 103ffu/ml) was also inactivated when cell cultures were fixed with 3% or 4% paraformaldehyde for 30min. Regardless of inactivation procedure, when taking inactivated virus preparations out of a biological containment envelope, proof of inocuity must be demonstrated to cover any possible error/deviation from procedure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. From First Base: The Sequence of the Tip of the X Chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster, a Comparison of Two Sequencing Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Panayiotis V.; Gatt, Melanie K.; Murphy, Lee; Harris, David; Barrell, Bart; Ferraz, Concepcion; Vidal, Sophie; Brun, Christine; Demaille, Jacques; Cadieu, Edouard; Dreano, Stephane; Gloux, Stéphanie; Lelaure, Valerie; Mottier, Stephanie; Galibert, Francis; Borkova, Dana; Miñana, Belen; Kafatos, Fotis C.; Bolshakov, Slava; Sidén-Kiamos, Inga; Papagiannakis, George; Spanos, Lefteris; Louis, Christos; Madueño, Encarnación; de Pablos, Beatriz; Modolell, Juan; Peter, Annette; Schöttler, Petra; Werner, Meike; Mourkioti, Fotini; Beinert, Nicole; Dowe, Gordon; Schäfer, Ulrich; Jäckle, Herbert; Bucheton, Alain; Callister, Debbie; Campbell, Lorna; Henderson, Nadine S.; McMillan, Paul J.; Salles, Cathy; Tait, Evelyn; Valenti, Phillipe; Saunders, Robert D.C.; Billaud, Alain; Pachter, Lior; Glover, David M.; Ashburner, Michael

    2001-01-01

    We present the sequence of a contiguous 2.63 Mb of DNA extending from the tip of the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Within this sequence, we predict 277 protein coding genes, of which 94 had been sequenced already in the course of studying the biology of their gene products, and examples of 12 different transposable elements. We show that an interval between bands 3A2 and 3C2, believed in the 1970s to show a correlation between the number of bands on the polytene chromosomes and the 20 genes identified by conventional genetics, is predicted to contain 45 genes from its DNA sequence. We have determined the insertion sites of P-elements from 111 mutant lines, about half of which are in a position likely to affect the expression of novel predicted genes, thus representing a resource for subsequent functional genomic analysis. We compare the European Drosophila Genome Project sequence with the corresponding part of the independently assembled and annotated Joint Sequence determined through “shotgun” sequencing. Discounting differences in the distribution of known transposable elements between the strains sequenced in the two projects, we detected three major sequence differences, two of which are probably explained by errors in assembly; the origin of the third major difference is unclear. In addition there are eight sequence gaps within the Joint Sequence. At least six of these eight gaps are likely to be sites of transposable elements; the other two are complex. Of the 275 genes in common to both projects, 60% are identical within 1% of their predicted amino-acid sequence and 31% show minor differences such as in choice of translation initiation or termination codons; the remaining 9% show major differences in interpretation. [All of the sequences analyzed in this paper have been deposited in the EMBL-Bank database under the following accession nos.: AL009146, AL009147, AL009171, AL009188–AL009196, AL021067, AL021086, AL021106–AL021108, AL021726, AL

  19. Immunogenicity and safety of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine co-administered with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine versus separate administration, in adults ≥50years of age: Results from a phase III, randomized, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Drame, Mamadou; Aerssens, Annelies; Maes, Cathy; Amanullah, Arshad; Schuind, Anne; Li, Ping; Jain, Varsha K; Innis, Bruce L

    2017-11-01

    We compared co-administration versus separate administration of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) with a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) in adults at high risk of complications of influenza and pneumococcal infection. This phase III, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial (NCT02218697) was conducted in France and Belgium during the 2014-2015 influenza season. Adults≥50years of age meeting their country's vaccination recommendations were randomized 1:1 to co-administration or separate administration. Immunogenicity was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers for IIV4 and 22F-inhibition ELISA for PPV23. Co-primary objectives were to demonstrate non-inferiority of co-administration versus separate administration in terms of geometric mean titer (GMT) ratio for each influenza strain in the IIV4 and geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio for six pneumococcal serotypes (1, 3, 4, 7F, 14, 19A) in the PPV23 in the per-protocol cohort (N=334). The study met its co-primary objectives, with the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the GMT and GMC ratios (separate administration over co-administration) being ≤2.0 for all four antigens of the IIV4 and the six pre-selected serotypes of the PPV23, respectively. Immunogenicity of the IIV4 and PPV23 was similar regardless of administration schedule. In a post hoc analysis pooling participants ≥60years of age from the co-administration and separate administration groups, IIV4 immunogenicity was similar in higher risk adults with comorbidities (diabetes; respiratory, heart, kidney, liver, or neurological diseases; morbid obesity) versus those without. Both vaccines had an acceptable safety and reactogenicity profile; pain was the most common symptom, occurring more often with co-administration than separate administration. The IIV4 and PPV23 can be co-administered without reducing antibody responses reflecting protection against influenza or pneumococcal disease

  20. Genetic characterization in symptomatic female DMD carriers: lack of relationship between X-inactivation, transcriptional DMD allele balancing and phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brioschi Simona

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, X-linked recessive myopathies, predominantly affect males, a clinically significant proportion of females manifesting symptoms have also been reported. They represent an heterogeneous group characterized by variable degrees of muscle weakness and/or cardiac involvement. Though preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome has long been considered the principal mechanism behind disease manifestation in these females, supporting evidence is controversial. Methods Eighteen females showing a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression on muscle biopsy were recruited and classified as symptomatic (7 or asymptomatic (11, based on the presence or absence of muscle weakness. The causative DMD gene mutations were identified in all cases, and the X-inactivation pattern was assessed in muscle DNA. Transcriptional analysis in muscles was performed in all females, and relative quantification of wild-type and mutated transcripts was also performed in 9 carriers. Dystrophin protein was quantified by immunoblotting in 2 females. Results The study highlighted a lack of relationship between dystrophic phenotype and X-inactivation pattern in females; skewed X-inactivation was found in 2 out of 6 symptomatic carriers and in 5 out of 11 asymptomatic carriers. All females were characterized by biallelic transcription, but no association was found between X-inactivation pattern and allele transcriptional balancing. Either a prevalence of wild-type transcript or equal proportions of wild-type and mutated RNAs was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic females. Moreover, very similar levels of total and wild-type transcripts were identified in the two groups of carriers. Conclusions This is the first study deeply exploring the DMD transcriptional behaviour in a cohort of female carriers. Notably, no relationship between X-inactivation pattern and transcriptional behaviour of DMD gene was

  1. Genetic characterization in symptomatic female DMD carriers: lack of relationship between X-inactivation, transcriptional DMD allele balancing and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brioschi, Simona; Gualandi, Francesca; Scotton, Chiara; Armaroli, Annarita; Bovolenta, Matteo; Falzarano, Maria S; Sabatelli, Patrizia; Selvatici, Rita; D'Amico, Adele; Pane, Marika; Ricci, Giulia; Siciliano, Gabriele; Tedeschi, Silvana; Pini, Antonella; Vercelli, Liliana; De Grandis, Domenico; Mercuri, Eugenio; Bertini, Enrico; Merlini, Luciano; Mongini, Tiziana; Ferlini, Alessandra

    2012-08-16

    Although Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies, X-linked recessive myopathies, predominantly affect males, a clinically significant proportion of females manifesting symptoms have also been reported. They represent an heterogeneous group characterized by variable degrees of muscle weakness and/or cardiac involvement. Though preferential inactivation of the normal X chromosome has long been considered the principal mechanism behind disease manifestation in these females, supporting evidence is controversial. Eighteen females showing a mosaic pattern of dystrophin expression on muscle biopsy were recruited and classified as symptomatic (7) or asymptomatic (11), based on the presence or absence of muscle weakness. The causative DMD gene mutations were identified in all cases, and the X-inactivation pattern was assessed in muscle DNA. Transcriptional analysis in muscles was performed in all females, and relative quantification of wild-type and mutated transcripts was also performed in 9 carriers. Dystrophin protein was quantified by immunoblotting in 2 females. The study highlighted a lack of relationship between dystrophic phenotype and X-inactivation pattern in females; skewed X-inactivation was found in 2 out of 6 symptomatic carriers and in 5 out of 11 asymptomatic carriers. All females were characterized by biallelic transcription, but no association was found between X-inactivation pattern and allele transcriptional balancing. Either a prevalence of wild-type transcript or equal proportions of wild-type and mutated RNAs was observed in both symptomatic and asymptomatic females. Moreover, very similar levels of total and wild-type transcripts were identified in the two groups of carriers. This is the first study deeply exploring the DMD transcriptional behaviour in a cohort of female carriers. Notably, no relationship between X-inactivation pattern and transcriptional behaviour of DMD gene was observed, suggesting that the two mechanisms are regulated

  2. The Presence of the Y-Chromosome, Not the Absence of the Second X-Chromosome, Alters the mRNA Levels Stored in the Fully Grown XY Mouse Oocyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Baozeng; Obata, Yayoi; Cao, Feng; Taketo, Teruko

    2012-01-01

    The oocytes of B6.YTIR sex-reversed female mouse mature in culture but fail to develop after fertilization because of their cytoplasmic defects. To identify the defective components, we compared the gene expression profiles between the fully-grown oocytes of B6.YTIR (XY) females and those of their XX littermates by cDNA microarray. 173 genes were found to be higher and 485 genes were lower in XY oocytes than in XX oocytes by at least 2-fold. We compared the transcript levels of selected genes by RT-PCR in XY and XX oocytes, as well as in XO oocytes missing paternal X-chromosomes. All genes tested showed comparable transcript levels between XX and XO oocytes, indicating that mRNA accumulation is well adjusted in XO oocytes. By contrast, in addition to Y-encoded genes, many genes showed significantly different transcript levels in XY oocytes. We speculate that the presence of the Y-chromosome, rather than the absence of the second X-chromosome, caused dramatic changes in the gene expression profile in the XY fully-grown oocyte. PMID:22792347

  3. Structure and Barr body formation of an Xp + chromosome with two inactivation centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, R F; Patau, K; Therman, E; Sarto, G E

    1977-01-01

    A patients with seizures, Von Willebrand disease, and symptoms of Turner syndrome was a chromosomal mosaic. In blood culture (1974), 56% of the cells were 45, X 33% 46, XXp+ and 11% 47,XXp + Xp +; in the skin, no cells with 47 chromosomes were found. Presumably the Xp + chromosome arose through a break in the Q-banded dark region next to the centromere on Xp to which an Xq had been attached. The abnormal X was late-labeling and formed a larger than normal Barr body. Of the chromatin-positive fibroblasts, 18.2% showed bipartite Barr bodies, which agrees with the hypothesis that the X inactivation center lies on the proximal part of the Xq. On the basis of the structure and behavior of the bipartite bodies in the present patient, as compared to those formed by other chromosomes with two presumed inactivation centers, we propose that the dark region next to the centromere of Xp remains active in the inactive X. In cells with 45,X and 46,XY, this region has the same relative size, whereas it is significantly shorter in the active X of three females, including the present patient, with one abnormal X. We propose that this region on the active X reveals different states of activity, as reflected in its length, depending on how many other X chromosomes are in the cell. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:299980

  4. Thermal Inactivation of Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-01

    S) VIKU3FS THERMAL RESISTANCE FOODS FLUIDS FOOD PROCESSING FOOD PRESERVATION CONTAMINATION HEAT VIRAL NUCLEIC ACIDS ao’.AjUsTNACT (Conilnum...an rm**— •**» It nmc +nmy m>d Id+atttr by M«o* fmbm) A review of the literature pertaining to thermal inactivation of virus in fluid media» fluid...vacuum packaged in cans or in flexible pouches , frozen to ca. -40 C, and irradiated within a temperature range of -40 C to -8 C to obtain the

  5. Fast- or slow-inactivated state preference of Na+ channel inhibitors: a simulation and experimental study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Karoly

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Sodium channels are one of the most intensively studied drug targets. Sodium channel inhibitors (e.g., local anesthetics, anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics and analgesics exert their effect by stabilizing an inactivated conformation of the channels. Besides the fast-inactivated conformation, sodium channels have several distinct slow-inactivated conformational states. Stabilization of a slow-inactivated state has been proposed to be advantageous for certain therapeutic applications. Special voltage protocols are used to evoke slow inactivation of sodium channels. It is assumed that efficacy of a drug in these protocols indicates slow-inactivated state preference. We tested this assumption in simulations using four prototypical drug inhibitory mechanisms (fast or slow-inactivated state preference, with either fast or slow binding kinetics and a kinetic model for sodium channels. Unexpectedly, we found that efficacy in these protocols (e.g., a shift of the "steady-state slow inactivation curve", was not a reliable indicator of slow-inactivated state preference. Slowly associating fast-inactivated state-preferring drugs were indistinguishable from slow-inactivated state-preferring drugs. On the other hand, fast- and slow-inactivated state-preferring drugs tended to preferentially affect onset and recovery, respectively. The robustness of these observations was verified: i by performing a Monte Carlo study on the effects of randomly modifying model parameters, ii by testing the same drugs in a fundamentally different model and iii by an analysis of the effect of systematically changing drug-specific parameters. In patch clamp electrophysiology experiments we tested five sodium channel inhibitor drugs on native sodium channels of cultured hippocampal neurons. For lidocaine, phenytoin and carbamazepine our data indicate a preference for the fast-inactivated state, while the results for fluoxetine and desipramine are inconclusive. We suggest that

  6. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  7. Pathogen Inactivation Technologies for Cellular Blood Components: an Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nowadays patients receiving blood components are exposed to much less transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases than three decades before when among others HIV was identified as causative agent for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the transmission by blood or coagulation factors became evident. Since that time the implementation of measures for risk prevention and safety precaution was socially and politically accepted. Currently emerging pathogens like arboviruses and the well-known bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates still remain major concerns of blood safety with important clinical consequences, but very rarely with fatal outcome for the blood recipient. In contrast to the well-established pathogen inactivation strategies for fresh frozen plasma using the solvent-detergent procedure or methylene blue and visible light, the bench-to-bedside translation of novel pathogen inactivation technologies for cell-containing blood components such as platelets and red blood cells are still underway. This review summarizes the pharmacological/toxicological assessment and the inactivation efficacy against viruses, bacteria, and protozoa of each of the currently available pathogen inactivation technologies and highlights the impact of the results obtained from several randomized clinical trials and hemovigilance data. Until now in some European countries pathogen inactivation technologies are in in routine use for single-donor plasma and platelets. The invention and adaption of pathogen inactivation technologies for red blood cell units and whole blood donations suggest the universal applicability of these technologies and foster a paradigm shift in the manufacturing of safe blood. PMID:25254027

  8. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of Xp22.32→pter deletion and Xq26.3→qter duplication in a male fetus associated with 46,Y,rec(X)dup(Xq) inv(X)(p22.3q26.3), a hypoplastic left heart, short stature, and maternal X chromosome pericentric inversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ping; Chen, Chen-Yu; Chern, Schu-Rern; Wu, Peih-Shan; Chen, Yen-Ni; Chen, Shin-Wen; Lee, Chen-Chi; Town, Dai-Dyi; Lee, Meng-Shan; Yang, Chien-Wen; Wang, Wayseen

    2016-10-01

    We present molecular cytogenetic characterization of an Xp22.32→pter deletion and an Xq26.3→qter duplication in a male fetus with congenital malformations and maternal X chromosome pericentric inversion. A 22-year-old woman underwent amniocentesis at 17 weeks of gestation because of an abnormal maternal serum screening result. Prenatal ultrasound revealed a hypoplastic left heart and short limbs. Amniocentesis revealed a karyotype of 46,Y,der(X) t(X;?)(p22.31;?). The pregnancy was subsequently terminated, and a malformed fetus was delivered with short stature and facial dysmorphism. Repeat amniocentesis was performed before termination of the pregnancy. Array comparative genomic hybridization was performed on uncultured amniocytes and maternal blood. Conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed on cultured amniocytes, cord blood, and blood from both parents. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on cultured amniocytes. The maternal karyotype was 46,X,inv(X)(p22.3q26.3). The fetal karyotype was 46,Y, rec(X)dup(Xq)inv(X)(p22.3q26.3) or 46,Y, rec(X)(qter→q26.3::p22.3→qter). Array comparative genomic hybridization on uncultured amniocytes revealed a 4.56-Mb deletion of Xp22.33-p22.32 encompassing SHOX, CSF2RA, and ARSE, and a 19.22-Mb duplication of Xq26.3-q28 encompassing SOX3, FMR1, MECP2, RAB39B, and CLIC2 in the fetus. The mother did not have X chromosome imbalance. Detection of X chromosome aberration in a male fetus should give suspicion of a recombinant X chromosome derived from maternal X chromosome pericentric inversion. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Phenylbutazone radicals inactivate creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, T; Muraoka, S; Fujimoto, Y

    2001-02-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) was used as a marker molecule to examine the side effect of damage to tissues by phenylbutazone (PB), an effective drug to treat rheumatic and arthritic diseases, with horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP-H(2)O2). PB inactivated CK during its interaction with HRP-H(2) O(2), and inactivated CK in rat heart homogenate. PB carbon-centered radicals were formed during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2. The CK efficiently reduced electron spin resonance signals of the PB carbon-centered radicals. The spin trap agent 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane strongly prevented CK inactivation. These results show that CK was inactivated through interaction with PB carbon-centered radicals. Sulfhydryl groups and tryptophan residues in CK were lost during the interaction of PB with HRP-H(2)O2, suggesting that cysteine and tryptophan residues are oxidized by PB carbon-centered radicals. Other enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, but not lactate dehydrogenase, were also inactivated. Sulfhydryl enzymes seem to be sensitive to attack by PB carbon-centered radicals. Inhibition of SH enzymes may explain some of the deleterious effects induced by PB.

  10. Structure, organization, and sequence of alpha satellite DNA from human chromosome 17: evidence for evolution by unequal crossing-over and an ancestral pentamer repeat shared with the human X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waye, J S; Willard, H F

    1986-09-01

    The centromeric regions of all human chromosomes are characterized by distinct subsets of a diverse tandemly repeated DNA family, alpha satellite. On human chromosome 17, the predominant form of alpha satellite is a 2.7-kilobase-pair higher-order repeat unit consisting of 16 alphoid monomers. We present the complete nucleotide sequence of the 16-monomer repeat, which is present in 500 to 1,000 copies per chromosome 17, as well as that of a less abundant 15-monomer repeat, also from chromosome 17. These repeat units were approximately 98% identical in sequence, differing by the exclusion of precisely 1 monomer from the 15-monomer repeat. Homologous unequal crossing-over is suggested as a probable mechanism by which the different repeat lengths on chromosome 17 were generated, and the putative site of such a recombination event is identified. The monomer organization of the chromosome 17 higher-order repeat unit is based, in part, on tandemly repeated pentamers. A similar pentameric suborganization has been previously demonstrated for alpha satellite of the human X chromosome. Despite the organizational similarities, substantial sequence divergence distinguishes these subsets. Hybridization experiments indicate that the chromosome 17 and X subsets are more similar to each other than to the subsets found on several other human chromosomes. We suggest that the chromosome 17 and X alpha satellite subsets may be related components of a larger alphoid subfamily which have evolved from a common ancestral repeat into the contemporary chromosome-specific subsets.

  11. Influenza Vaccine, Inactivated or Recombinant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... What is inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months through 8 years of age may need two ...

  12. Inactivation of rabies virus by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elghaffar, Asmaa A; Ali, Amal E; Boseila, Abeer A; Amin, Magdy A

    2016-02-03

    Development of safe and protective vaccines against infectious pathogens remains a challenge. Inactivation of rabies virus is a critical step in the production of vaccines and other research reagents. Beta-propiolactone (βPL); the currently used inactivating agent for rabies virus is expensive and proved to be carcinogenic in animals. This study aimed to investigate the ability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to irreversibly inactivate rabies virus without affecting its antigenicity and immunogenicity in pursuit of finding safe, effective and inexpensive alternative inactivating agents. H2O2 3% rapidly inactivated a Vero cell adapted fixed rabies virus strain designated as FRV/K within 2h of exposure without affecting its antigenicity or immunogenicity. No residual infectious virus was detected and the H2O2-inactivated vaccine proved to be safe and effective when compared with the same virus harvest inactivated with the classical inactivating agent βPL. Mice immunized with H2O2-inactivated rabies virus produced sufficient level of antibodies and were protected when challenged with lethal CVS virus. These findings reinforce the idea that H2O2 can replace βPL as inactivating agent for rabies virus to reduce time and cost of inactivation process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Marlene K; Gallandat, Karin; Daniels, Kyle; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Scheinman, Pamela; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering the potential

  14. Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene K Wolfe

    Full Text Available To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS, and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions for 1 efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2 persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94-3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18-3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44-3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71-3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28-4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21-4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26-2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30-2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001. Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering

  15. Testing for Archaic Hominin Admixture on the X Chromosome: Model Likelihoods for the Modern Human RRM2P4 Region From Summaries of Genealogical Topology Under the Structured Coalescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P.; Mendez, Fernando L.; Karafet, Tatiana M.; Pilkington, Maya Metni; Kingan, Sarah B.; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Strassmann, Beverly I.; Hammer, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    A 2.4-kb stretch within the RRM2P4 region of the X chromosome, previously sequenced in a sample of 41 globally distributed humans, displayed both an ancient time to the most recent common ancestor (e.g., a TMRCA of ∼2 million years) and a basal clade composed entirely of Asian sequences. This pattern was interpreted to reflect a history of introgressive hybridization from archaic hominins (most likely Asian Homo erectus) into the anatomically modern human genome. Here, we address this hypothesis by resequencing the 2.4-kb RRM2P4 region in 131 African and 122 non-African individuals and by extending the length of sequence in a window of 16.5 kb encompassing the RRM2P4 pseudogene in a subset of 90 individuals. We find that both the ancient TMRCA and the skew in non-African representation in one of the basal clades are essentially limited to the central 2.4-kb region. We define a new summary statistic called the minimum clade proportion (pmc), which quantifies the proportion of individuals from a specified geographic region in each of the two basal clades of a binary gene tree, and then employ coalescent simulations to assess the likelihood of the observed central RRM2P4 genealogy under two alternative views of human evolutionary history: recent African replacement (RAR) and archaic admixture (AA). A molecular-clock-based TMRCA estimate of 2.33 million years is a statistical outlier under the RAR model; however, the large variance associated with this estimate makes it difficult to distinguish the predictions of the human origins models tested here. The pmc summary statistic, which has improved power with larger samples of chromosomes, yields values that are significantly unlikely under the RAR model and fit expectations better under a range of archaic admixture scenarios. PMID:18202385

  16. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An X-linked homologue of the autosomal inprinted gene ZNF127 escapes X inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longstreet, M.; Nicholls, R.D.; Willard, H.F. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The ZNF127 gene has been shown to be subject to parental imprinting in both humans and the mouse and maps to within the Prader-Willi/Angelman Syndrome critical region on chromosome 15. We have cloned two X-linked related loci, one of which, ZNFXp is a transcribed gene while the other, ZNFXq, is an untranscribed pseudogene. ZNFXp is 83.6% identical to ZNFXq and 65.4% identical to ZNF127 over 1.4 kb of open reading frame they share in common, Like ZNF127, the predicted protein sequence of ZNFXp contains a C{sub 3}HC{sub 4} zinc finger domain and C{sub 3}H zinc finger-like motifs. Whereas ZNF127 has three C{sub 3}H motifs, ZNFXp has four. A strong CpG island is located within 1 kb 5{prime} of the predicted amino terminus of ZNFXp. Expression of ZNFXp has been detected from mouse/human somatic cell hybrids containing either an active (n=2) or an inactive (n=4) chromosome, and thus escapes X inactivation. Probes made from the 3{prime} UTR of ZNFXp detect a number of related loci in both human and murine DNA, none of which is the ZNF127 locus on chromosome 15. None of the detectable murine bands shows dosage differences between males and females as would be expected for X-linked loci. This raises the possibility that ZNFXp inserted into the human X chromosome after its divergence from a common ancestor with the murine X. We have mapped ZNFXp to Xp11.4 by Southern blotting and PCR of hybrid DNAs and by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). ZNFXq maps within the X Inactivation Center (XIC) region on Xq13.2, approximately 300 kb distal to the XIST gene. We find it intriguing, and perhaps significant, that two members of this gene family are subject to epigenetic regulation -- one autosomal imprinting, and the other escape from X inactivation. These results could imply an evolutionary and mechanistic relationship between these two processes.

  18. Skewed X-inactivation in a family with DLG3-associated X-linked intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieldon, Laura; Mackenroth, Luisa; Betcheva-Krajcir, Elitza; Rump, Andreas; Beck-Wödl, Stefanie; Schallner, Jens; Di Donato, Nataliya; Schröck, Evelin; Tzschach, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Mutations in DLG3 are a rare cause of non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) (MRX90, OMIM *300189). Only ten DLG3 mutations have been reported to date. The majority of female heterozygous mutation carriers was healthy and had random X-inactivation patterns. We report on an XLID family with a novel DLG3 mutation. The 12-year-old male index patient had moderate intellectual disability (ID) and dysmorphic features. The mutation was also present in four female relatives. A maternal aunt had moderate ID and significantly skewed X-inactivation favorably inactivating the normal DLG3 allele. The proband's healthy mother also had skewed X-inactivation but in the opposite direction (i.e., inactivation of the mutated allele). Two other female relatives had intermediate cognitive phenotypes and random X-inactivation. This family broadens the mutational and phenotypical spectrum of DLG3-associated XLID and demonstrates that heterozygous female mutation carriers can be as severely affected as males. Reports of additional families will be needed to elucidate the causes of unfavorable skewing in female XLID patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Immunogenicity of AS03-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in elderly adults: A Phase 3, randomized trial and post-hoc correlate of protection analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Beran, Jiri; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Esen, Meral; Launay, Odile; McElhaney, Janet E; van Essen, Gerrit A; Benoit, Anne; Claeys, Carine; Dewé, Walthère; Durand, Christelle; Duval, Xavier; Falsey, Ann R; Feldman, Gregory; Galtier, Florence; Gervais, Pierre; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; McNeil, Shelly; Richardus, Jan Hendrik; Trofa, Andrew; Oostvogels, Lidia

    2016-12-01

    In this study we describe the immunogenicity results from a subset of older people (N = 5187) who participated in a Phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded trial of AS03-TIV versus TIV (Fluarix™) (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00753272). Participants received one dose of AS03-TIV or TIV in each study year and antibody titers against the vaccine strains were assessed using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay at 21 d and 180 d post-vaccination in each vaccine group in the 2008/09 (Year 1) and 2009/10 (Year 2) influenza seasons. Manufacturing consistency of 3 lots of AS03-TIV for HI antibody responses in Year 1 was a co-primary objective. In a post-hoc analysis, a statistical regression model included 4830 subjects in whom immunogenicity and laboratory-confirmed attack rate data were available; the analysis was performed to assess HI antibody titers against A/H3N2 as a correlate of protection for laboratory-confirmed A/H3N2 influenza. AS03-TIV and TIV elicited strong HI antibody responses against each vaccine strain 21 d post-vaccination in both years. The manufacturing consistency of 3 lots of AS03-TIV was demonstrated. In both years and each vaccine group, HI antibody responses were lower for A/H1N1 than the other vaccine strains. Day 180 seroconversion rates (proportion with ≥4-fold increase in titer compared with pre-vaccination titer) in Year 1 in the AS03-TIV and TIV groups, respectively, were 87.7% and 74.1% for A/H3N2, 69.7% and 59.6% for influenza B, and 58.3% and 47.4% for A/H1N1. The post-hoc statistical model based on A/H3N2 attack rates and HI antibody titers estimated that a 4-fold increase in post-vaccination titers against A/H3N2 was associated with a 2-fold decrease in the odds of A/H3N2 infection.

  20. Photodynamic Inactivation of Mammalian Viruses and Bacteriophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic inactivation (PDI has been used to inactivate microorganisms through the use of photosensitizers. The inactivation of mammalian viruses and bacteriophages by photosensitization has been applied with success since the first decades of the last century. Due to the fact that mammalian viruses are known to pose a threat to public health and that bacteriophages are frequently used as models of mammalian viruses, it is important to know and understand the mechanisms and photodynamic procedures involved in their photoinactivation. The aim of this review is to (i summarize the main approaches developed until now for the photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages and mammalian viruses and, (ii discuss and compare the present state of the art of mammalian viruses PDI with phage photoinactivation, with special focus on the most relevant mechanisms, molecular targets and factors affecting the viral inactivation process.

  1. Immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV) compared to separate administration of standalone DTaP and IPV vaccines: a randomized, controlled study in infants in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Young; Hwang, Hui Sung; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyun Hee; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chung, Eun Hee; Park, Su Eun; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Chang, Jin Keun; Guitton, Fabrice; Ortiz, Esteban; Kang, Jin Han

    2011-02-11

    This randomized trial enrolled 442 infants in the Republic of Korea to assess the immunogenicity and safety of a combined diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DTaP-IPV; Tetraxim™) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months of age compared with DTaP and IPV vaccines given separately. Immunogenicity was high in both groups; seroprotection and seroconversion rates of the combined vaccine (Group A) were non-inferior to the control vaccines (Group B). All subjects were seroprotected against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 (≥ 81/dil) and anti-diphtheria (≥ 0.01 IU/mL); 99.0% were seroprotected against tetanus (≥ 0.1 IU/mL). At least 93.6% had anti-diphtheria antibody titers ≥ 0.1 IU/mL. Anti-pertussis toxoid (PT) and anti-filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) seroconversion (≥ 4-fold increase in antibody titer) rates were 96.6% and 94.4% for Group A, 92.2% and 78.4% for Group B. Most solicited reactions occurred within 4 days of vaccination, resolved within 3 days and were mild. Severe solicited reactions occurred after ≤ 0.5% of doses in Group A and ≤ 0.9% in Group B. No withdrawals occurred because of adverse events. The DTaP-IPV combined vaccine given at 2, 4, and 6 months of age was well tolerated; immunogenicity was similar to the control vaccines. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy trial of heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine (CLB) in male homosexuals in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, R. A.; Lelie, P. N.; Albrecht-van Lent, P.; Stoutjesdijk, L.; Huisman, J.; Kuipers, H.; Schut, L. J.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.; Reesink, H. W.; van Aken, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, containing 3 micrograms-HBsAg, was studied among a group of 800 susceptible homosexual men. The trial was conducted randomized, placebo-controlled and double blind. At the trial end point (21.5 months) the attack-rate for all HBV

  3. Evaluation of a single dose of half strength inactivated influenza vaccine in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treanor, J; Keitel, W; Belshe, R; Campbell, J; Schiff, G; Zangwill, K; Klimov, A; Levandowski, R; Lambert, L

    2002-01-01

    Because of delays in the manufacturing of the 2000-2001, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in the US, there were concerns that there might be shortages of vaccine supply in the US, Therefore, we conducted a prospective, randomized, open-label, multicenter trial at six C academic medical

  4. Cell lineage specific distribution of H3K27 trimethylation accumulation in an in vitro model for human implantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Teklenburg

    Full Text Available Female mammals inactivate one of their two X-chromosomes to compensate for the difference in gene-dosage with males that have just one X-chromosome. X-chromosome inactivation is initiated by the expression of the non-coding RNA Xist, which coats the X-chromosome in cis and triggers gene silencing. In early mouse development the paternal X-chromosome is initially inactivated in all cells of cleavage stage embryos (imprinted X-inactivation followed by reactivation of the inactivated paternal X-chromosome exclusively in the epiblast precursors of blastocysts, resulting temporarily in the presence of two active X-chromosomes in this specific lineage. Shortly thereafter, epiblast cells randomly inactivate either the maternal or the paternal X-chromosome. XCI is accompanied by the accumulation of histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 marks on the condensed X-chromosome. It is still poorly understood how XCI is regulated during early human development. Here we have investigated lineage development and the distribution of H3K27me3 foci in human embryos derived from an in-vitro model for human implantation. In this system, embryos are co-cultured on decidualized endometrial stromal cells up to day 8, which allows the culture period to be extended for an additional two days. We demonstrate that after the co-culture period, the inner cell masses have relatively high cell numbers and that the GATA4-positive hypoblast lineage and OCT4-positive epiblast cell lineage in these embryos have segregated. H3K27me3 foci were observed in ∼25% of the trophectoderm cells and in ∼7.5% of the hypoblast cells, but not in epiblast cells. In contrast with day 8 embryos derived from the co-cultures, foci of H3K27me3 were not observed in embryos at day 5 of development derived from regular IVF-cultures. These findings indicate that the dynamics of H3K27me3 accumulation on the X-chromosome in human development is regulated in a lineage specific fashion.

  5. Inactivation of poliovirus by chloramine-T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, N M; Trieff, N M; Stanton, G J

    1981-01-01

    Since concern has recently been expressed about the presence of genotoxic substances due to chlorination of water and wastewater, chloramine-T (CAT) is proposed as an alternative disinfectant to chlorine. The viricidal properties of chlorine and CAT were compared. Kinetics of inactivation of poliovirus type 2 by chlorine and CAT in chlorine demand-free water were investigated by using a kinetic apparatus. Inactivation of the virus by chlorine and CAT occurred in two steps. The initial linear part of the inactivation curve followed a pseudo-first-order reaction with the virus. An obvious dose-response relationship was demonstrated with CAT. The rate of inactivation of the virus by CAT was faster in acid medium than in alkaline medium. Inactivation kinetic studies were performed at different temperatures, and the kinetic, Arrhenius, and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated. The rate of inactivation of poliovirus type 2 by chlorine was faster than that by CAT under identical conditions. A mechanism for the viral inactivation in acid conditions was proposed which led to a rate equation consistent with the experimental results. The results indicate that CAT may be an effective viricide against poliovirus type 2 in an acid medium. PMID:6271058

  6. Clonality in myeloproliferative disorders: Analysis by means of polymerase chain reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliland, D.G.; Blanchard, K.L.; Levy, J.; Perrin, S.; Bunn, H.F. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The myeloproliferative syndromes are acquired disorders of hematopoiesis that provide insights into the transition from somatic cell mutation to neoplasia. The clonal origin of specific blood cells can be assessed in patients with X chromosome-linked polymorphisms, taking advantage of random inactivation of the X chromosome. The authors have adapted the PCR for determination of clonality on as few as 100 cells, including individual colonies grown in culture. Amplifying a polymorphic portion of the X chromosome-linked phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene after selective digestion of the active X chromosome with a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme gave results fully concordant with standard Southern blotting of DNA samples form normal (polyclonal) polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) as well as clonal PMN from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and polycythemia vera (PCV). They have used this technique to demonstrate heterogeneity of lineage involvement in patients with PCV. The same clinical phenotype may arise from clonal proliferation of different hematopoietic progenitors.

  7. Microbial Inactivation by Ultrasound Assisted Supercritical Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, Jose; Ortuño, Carmen; Castillo-Zamudio, Rosa Isela; Mulet, Antonio

    A method combining supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and high power ultrasound (HPU) has been developed and tested for microbial/enzyme inactivation purposes, at different process conditions for both liquid and solid matrices. In culture media, using only SC-CO2, the inactivation rate of E. coli and S. cerevisiae increased with pressure and temperature; and the total inactivation (7-8 log-cycles) was attained after 25 and 140 min of SC-CO2 (350 bar, 36 °C) treatment, respectively. Using SC-CO2+HPU, the time for the total inactivation of both microorganisms was reduced to only 1-2 min, at any condition selected. The SC-CO2+HPU inactivation of both microorganisms was slower in juices (avg. 4.9 min) than in culture media (avg. 1.5 min). In solid samples (chicken, turkey ham and dry-cured pork cured ham) treated with SC-CO2 and SC-CO2+HPU, the inactivation rate of E. coli increased with temperature. The application of HPU to the SC-CO2 treatments accelerated the inactivation rate of E. coli and that effect was more pronounced in treatments with isotonic solution surrounding the solid food samples. The application of HPU enhanced the SC-CO2 inactivation mechanisms of microorganisms, generating a vigorous agitation that facilitated the CO2 solubilization and the mass transfer process. The cavitation generated by HPU could damage the cell walls accelerating the extraction of vital constituents and the microbial death. Thus, using the combined technique, reasonable industrial processing times and mild process conditions could be used which could result into a cost reduction and lead to the minimization in the food nutritional and organoleptic changes.

  8. Photodynamic-induced inactivation of Propionibacterium acnes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Karsten; Teschke, M.; Eick, Stephen G.; Pfister, W.; Meyer, Herbert; Halbhuber, Karl-Juergen

    1998-05-01

    We report on photodynamically induced inactivation of the skin bacterium Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) using endogenous as well as exogenous photosensitizers and red light sources. P. acnes is involved in the pathogenesis of the skin disease acne vulgaris. The skin bacterium is able to synthesize the metal-free fluorescent porphyrins protoporphyrin IX (PP) and coproporphyrin (CP) as shown by in situ spectrally-resolved detection of natural autofluorescence of human skin and bacteria colonies. These naturally occurring intracellular porphyrins act as efficient endogenous photosensitizers. Inactivation of P. acnes suspensions was achieved by irradiation with He-Ne laser light in the red spectral region (632.8 nm). We monitored the photodynamically-induced death of single bacteria using a fluorescent viability kit in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy. In addition, the photo-induced inactivation was calculated by CFU (colony forming units) determination. We found 633 nm-induced inactivation (60 mW, 0.12 cm2 exposure area, 1 hour irradiation) of 72% in the case of non-incubated bacteria based on the destructive effect of singlet oxygen produced by red light excited endogenous porphyrins and subsequent energy transfer to molecular oxygen. In order to achieve a nearly complete inactivation within one exposure procedure, the exogenous photosensitizer Methylene Blue (Mb) was added. Far red exposure of Mb-labeled bacteria using a krypton ion laser at 647 nm and 676 nm resulted in 99% inactivation.

  9. Structure of the inactivating gate from the Shaker voltage gated K{sup +} channel analyzed by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schott, M.K.; Antz, C. [Institute of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany)]|[Department of Biophysics, Max-Planck-Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany); Frank, R. [Center of Molecular Biology, Heidelberg (Germany); Ruppersberg, J.P. [Institute of Physiology, University of Tuebingen (Germany); Kalbitzer, H.R. [Department of Biophysics, University of Regensburg (Germany)]|[Department of Biophysics, Max-Planck-Institute for Medical Research, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    Rapid inactivation of voltage-gated K{sup +} (K{sub V}) channels is mediated by an N-terminal domain (inactivating ball domain) which blocks the open channel from the cytoplasmic side. Inactivating ball domains of various K{sub V} channels are also biologically active when synthesized separately and added as a peptide to the solution. Synthetic inactivating ball domains from different K{sub V} channels with hardly any sequence homology mediate quite similar effects even on unrelated K{sub V} channel subtypes whose inactivation domain has been deleted. The solution structure of the inactivating ball peptide from Shaker (Sh-P22) was analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. The NMR data indicate a non-random structure in an aqueous environment. However, while other inactivating ball peptides showed well-defined three-dimensional structures under these conditions, Sh-P22 does not have a unique, compactly folded structure in solution. (orig.) With 3 figs., 2 tabs., 34 refs.

  10. Immunogenicity, safety, and antibody persistence at 3, 5, and 10 years postvaccination in adolescents randomized to booster immunization with a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine administered with a hepatitis B virus vaccine concurrently or 1 month apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, Joanne; Law, Barbara; Voloshen, Tim; Tomovici, Antigona

    2015-03-01

    An understanding of the antibody persistence elicited by a combined tetanus, diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Tdap-IPV) after adolescent vaccination is important to optimize booster dosing intervals. Our objectives were to compare the safety and immunogenicity of Tdap-IPV coadministered with hepatitis B vaccine (HepB) and sequential administration and evaluate humoral immunity at 3, 5, and 10 years after Tdap-IPV vaccination in adolescents. This phase II randomized, controlled, and open-label study enrolled 280 11- to 14-year-old adolescents with up to 10 years postvaccination follow-up. Group 1 (n = 145) received Tdap-IPV, followed by a HepB dose 1 month later, and group 2 (n = 135) received both vaccines simultaneously. No consistent increases in solicited reactions or unsolicited adverse events occurred with coadministration. All vaccinees attained seroprotective antibody levels at ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, at a ≥1:8 dilution for poliovirus (serotypes 1, 2, and 3), and ≥10 mIU/ml for hepatitis B at 1 month postvaccination. Clinically relevant immunologic interactions did not occur with coadministration. For pertussis, all participants achieved seropositivity levels (at or above the lower limit of quantitation), and 72.7% to 95.8% had 4-fold increases in pertussis antibodies at 1 month postvaccination. At 10 years postvaccination, the remaining participants (62.8% of the original cohort) maintained seroprotective levels of ≥0.01 IU/ml for diphtheria and tetanus, a ≥1:8 dilution for all 3 poliovirus serotypes, and 74.1% to 98.2% maintained pertussis seropositivity levels depending on the antigen tested. There were no differences between the groups. These results support the coadministration of Tdap-IPV and HepB to adolescents and suggest that vaccination with Tdap-IPV can offer protection for 10 years after an adolescent booster vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology

  11. Inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in food matrices: high pressure processing, photodynamic inactivation and pressure-assisted photodynamic inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A.; Couceiro, J.; Bonifácio, D.; Martins, C.; Almeida, A.; Neves, M. G. P. M. S.; Faustino, M. A. F.; Saraiva, J. A.

    2017-09-01

    Traditional food processing methods frequently depend on the application of high temperature. However, heat may cause undesirable changes in food properties and often has a negative impact on nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics. Therefore, reducing the microbial load without compromising the desirable properties of food products is still a technological challenge. High-pressure processing (HPP) can be classified as a cold pasteurization technique, since it is a non-thermal food preservation method that uses hydrostatic pressure to inactivate spoilage microorganisms. At the same time, it increases shelf life and retains the original features of food. Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is also regarded as promising approach for the decontamination of food matrices. In this case, the inactivation of bacterial cells is achieved by the cytotoxic effects of reactive oxygens species (ROS) produced from the combined interaction of a photosensitizer molecule, light and oxygen. This short review examines some recent developments on the application of HPP and PDI with food-grade photosensitizers for the inactivation of listeriae, taken as a food pathogen model. The results of a proof-of-concept trial of the use of high-pressure as a coadjutant to increase the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation of bacterial endospores is also addressed.

  12. A model incorporating potential skewed X-inactivation in MZ girls suggests that X-linked QTLs exist for several social behaviours including autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loat, C S; Haworth, C M A; Plomin, R; Craig, I W

    2008-11-01

    Sex differences in the frequency and patterns of behaviours are frequently observed and largely unexplained. We have investigated the possible role of X-linked genes in the aetiology of social behaviour problems, including those involved in autistic spectrum disorders. A novel approach has been implemented. This is based on predictions following from stochastic patterns of X-inactivation of lower concordance of monozygous female (MZF) twins than MZM twins for behaviours underpinned by X-linked QTLs and the converse that DZF twins are expected to correlate more strongly for X-linked traits than DZM twins because unlike males, females always have at least one X chromosome in common. These expectations were tested in an ongoing longitudinal cohort study in which all twins born in England and Wales between 1994 and 1996 were invited to take part. 1000 each of MZF, MZM, DZF and DZM pairs from TEDS were tested at 7 and 8 years of age. The results suggest the persistent influence of X-linked genes on cognition and social behaviour problems, including those involved in autistic spectrum disorders, from early to middle childhood. This emphasises the potential importance of X-linked genes in the developmental trajectories of behaviour and mental health and the need to stratify genetic analysis of behaviours by gender.

  13. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower inactivation rate. This non-log-linear pattern is similar to reported trends in microbial survival curves. Predictions and parameters of several non-log-linear models are presented. In the fast-reaction zone (3- to 5-log reduction), the Arrhenius rate constant fits well at temperatures ranging from 120°C to 250°C on the basis of data from this work and the literature. Both biphasic and modified Weibull models are comparable to account for both the high and low rates of inactivation in terms of prediction accuracy and the number of parameters used. A unified representation of thermal resistance curves for a 3-log reduction and a 3 D value associated with endotoxin inactivation and microbial survival, respectively, is presented. PMID:21193667

  14. Inactivation of glutathione peroxidase by benzaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaie, T; Floyd, R A

    1996-12-01

    Chronic benzaldehyde exposure is known to cause central nervous system (CNS) disturbances. Previous studies have shown that benzaldehyde causes the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat synaptosomal fractions. Benzaldehyde has also been implicated in ROS formation in the CNS of rats treated with toluene. We have found that benzaldehyde effectively inactivates the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (Ki approximately 15 microM), but has no effect on the other antioxidant enzymes tested: catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase. This effect has been found to be specific to benzaldehyde since other structurally related and unrelated aldehydes tested were found to be devoid of inactivating capacity toward glutathione peroxidase. Since glutathione peroxidase is the main enzyme responsible for removal of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides in brain, its inactivation by benzaldehyde may be a main contributor to the observed ROS formation and the observed neurotoxicity caused by either benzaldehyde or toluene exposure.

  15. Kinetics of Hydrothermal Inactivation of Endotoxins ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lixiong; Wilbur, Chris L.; Mintz, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    A kinetic model was established for the inactivation of endotoxins in water at temperatures ranging from 210°C to 270°C and a pressure of 6.2 × 106 Pa. Data were generated using a bench scale continuous-flow reactor system to process feed water spiked with endotoxin standard (Escherichia coli O113:H10). Product water samples were collected and quantified by the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. At 250°C, 5-log endotoxin inactivation was achieved in about 1 s of exposure, followed by a lower ina...

  16. Relative insignificance of virus inactivation during aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneru, Charan Tej; Jothikumar, N; Hill, Vincent R; Chellam, Shankararaman

    2014-12-16

    Combined removal and inactivation of the MS2 bacteriophage from model saline (0-100 mM NaCl) waters by electrochemical treatment using a sacrificial aluminum anode was evaluated. Both chemical and electrodissolution contributed to coagulant dosing since measured aluminum concentrations were statistically higher than purely electrochemical predictions using Faraday's law. Electrocoagulation generated only small amounts of free chlorine in situ but effectively destabilized viruses and incorporated them into Al(OH)3(s) flocs during electrolysis. Low chlorine concentrations combined with virus shielding and aggregation within flocs resulted in very slow disinfection rates necessitating extended flocculation/contact times to achieve significant log-inactivation. Therefore, the dominant virus control mechanism during aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters is "physical" removal by uptake onto flocs rather than "chemical" inactivation by chlorine. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy provided evidence for oxidative transformations of capsid proteins including formation of oxyacids, aldehydes, and ketones. Electrocoagulation significantly altered protein secondary structures decreasing peak areas associated with turns, bends, α-helices, β-structures, and random coils for inactivated viruses compared with the MS2 stock. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) measurements showed rapid initial RNA damage following a similar trend as plaque assay measurements of infectious viruses. However, ssRNA cleavage measured by qRT-PCR underestimated inactivation over longer durations. Although aluminum electrocoagulation of saline waters disorders virus capsids and damages RNA, inactivation occurs at a sufficiently low rate so as to only play a secondary role to floc-encapsulation during residence times typical of electrochemical treatment.

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Ryo; Yonetamari, Kenta; Tokumitsu, Yusuke; Yonemori, Seiya; Yasuda, Hachiro; Mizuno, Akira

    2016-08-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus by OH radicals is measured. This study aims to evaluate the bactericidal effects of OH radicals produced by atmospheric-pressure nonthermal plasma widely used for plasma medicine; however, in this study, OH radicals are produced by vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis of water vapor instead of plasma to allow the production of OH radicals with almost no other reactive species. A 172 nm VUV light from a Xe2 excimer lamp irradiates a He-H2O mixture flowing in a quartz tube to photodissociate H2O to produce OH, H, O, HO2, H2O2, and O3. The produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) flow out of the quartz tube nozzle to the bacteria on an agar plate and cause inactivation. The inactivation by OH radicals among the six ROS is observed by properly setting the experimental conditions with the help of simulations calculating the ROS densities. A 30 s treatment with approximately 0.1 ppm OH radicals causes visible inactivation.

  18. Bioinactivation: Software for modelling dynamic microbial inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre, Alberto; Fernández, Pablo S; Lindqvist, Roland; Egea, Jose A

    2017-03-01

    This contribution presents the bioinactivation software, which implements functions for the modelling of isothermal and non-isothermal microbial inactivation. This software offers features such as user-friendliness, modelling of dynamic conditions, possibility to choose the fitting algorithm and generation of prediction intervals. The software is offered in two different formats: Bioinactivation core and Bioinactivation SE. Bioinactivation core is a package for the R programming language, which includes features for the generation of predictions and for the fitting of models to inactivation experiments using non-linear regression or a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm (MCMC). The calculations are based on inactivation models common in academia and industry (Bigelow, Peleg, Mafart and Geeraerd). Bioinactivation SE supplies a user-friendly interface to selected functions of Bioinactivation core, namely the model fitting of non-isothermal experiments and the generation of prediction intervals. The capabilities of bioinactivation are presented in this paper through a case study, modelling the non-isothermal inactivation of Bacillus sporothermodurans. This study has provided a full characterization of the response of the bacteria to dynamic temperature conditions, including confidence intervals for the model parameters and a prediction interval of the survivor curve. We conclude that the MCMC algorithm produces a better characterization of the biological uncertainty and variability than non-linear regression. The bioinactivation software can be relevant to the food and pharmaceutical industry, as well as to regulatory agencies, as part of a (quantitative) microbial risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulsed electric field inactivation in a microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF) is a novel, non-thermal pasteurization method which uses short, high electric field pulses to inactivate microorganisms. The advantage of a pasteurization method like PEF compared to regular heat pasteurization is that the taste, flavour, texture and nutritional value

  20. Inactivation of human norovirus using chemical sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine gastric mucin binding magnetic bead (PGM-MB) assay was used to evaluate the ability of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, peroxyacetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and trisodium phosphate to inactivate human norovirus within 10 percent stool filtrate. One min free chlorine treatments at concentrat...

  1. Photodynamic Inactivation of Food Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Buchovec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the possibility to inactivate food pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by nonthermal antimicrobial treatment – photosensitization. L. monocytogenes was incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA (7.5 mM for 0–2 h to produce endogenous photosensitizers and then illuminated with visible light. The LED-based light source used for the illumination of L. monocytogenes emitted light at λ=400 nm with energy density of 20 mW/cm2. The illumination time varied from 0 to 20 min, and a total energy dose reached 0–24 J/cm2. The obtained results reveal that L. monocytogenes can effectively produce endogenous porphyrins after incubation with 7.5 mM ALA. Subsequent illumination of cells with visible light significantly decreased their viability in vitro (4 log. After adhesion of Listeria to the surface of packaging material and following photosensitization, the surface-attached bacterial population was inactivated by 3.7 log. In addition, most resistant Listeria biofilms are susceptible to this treatment. Their inactivation reached 3.1 log under certain experimental conditions. The cells and biofilms of Gram-positive bacteria L. monocytogenes ATCL3C 7644 could be effectively inactivated by ALA-based photosensitization in the solution as well as adhered onto the surface of packaging material in a nonthermal way.

  2. Inactivation of prion infectivity by ionizing rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gominet, M. [Ionisos, ZI les Chatinieres, F01120 Dagneux (France); Vadrot, C.; Austruy, G. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France); Darbord, J.C. [Paris V University, Central Pharmacy of Hospitals, 4 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75006, Paris (France)], E-mail: darbord@pharmacie.univ-paris5.fr

    2007-11-15

    Inactivation of prion deposits on medical devices or prion contamination in pharmaceutical raw materials is considered as impossible by using gamma irradiation. Early, the guideline WHO/CDS/CSR/APH/2000 has described irradiation as an ineffective process. But, in 2003, S. Miekka et al. noted radiation inactivation of prions in a particular application to purify human albumin, shown by the physical denaturation of the infectious protein (PrP). The aim of our study was to determine the inactivation of prions with a scrapie model (strain C506M3) by irradiating standardised preparations. Results: Gamma irradiation was partially effective, showing a 4-5 log reduction on exposure to 50 kGy. A characteristic effect-dose curve was not observed (25, 50 and 100 kGy), only an increase in the incubation period of the murine disease (229 days with 25 kGy to 290 days with 100 kGy) compared with 170 days without irradiation. Since the inactivation was not a total one, the observed effect is significant. It is proposed that further work be undertaken with the model to investigate the application of gamma radiation known levels of prion contamination.

  3. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by citral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somolinos, M; García, D; Condón, S; Mackey, B; Pagán, R

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate (i) the resistance of Escherichia coli BJ4 to citral in a buffer system as a function of citral concentration, treatment medium pH, storage time and initial inoculum size, (ii) the role of the sigma factor RpoS on citral resistance of E. coli, (iii) the role of the cell envelope damage in the mechanism of microbial inactivation by citral and (iiii) possible synergistic effects of mild heat treatment and pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment combined with citral. The initial inoculum size greatly affected the efficacy of citral against E. coli cells. Exposure to 200 microl l(-1) of citral at pH 4.0 for 24 h at 20 degrees C caused the inactivation of more than 5 log(10) cycles of cells starting at an inoculum size of 10(6) or 10(7) CFU ml(-1), whereas increasing the cell concentration to 10(9) CFU ml(-1) caused citral at pH 4.0 than pH 7.0. The rpoS null mutant strain E. coli BJ4L1 was less resistant to citral than the wild-type strain. Occurrence of sublethal injury to both the cytoplasmic and outer membranes was demonstrated by adding sodium chloride or bile salts to the recovery media. The majority of sublethally injured cells by citral required energy and lipid synthesis for repair. A strongly synergistic lethal effect was shown by mild heat treatment combined with citral but the presence of citral during the application of a PEF treatment did not show any advantage. This work confirms that cell envelope damage is an important event in citral inactivation of bacteria, and it describes the key factors on the inactivation of E. coli cells by citral. Knowledge about the mechanism of microbial inactivation by citral helps establish successful combined preservation treatments.

  4. Effects of Bacterial Inactivation Methods on Downstream Proteomic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Andy; Merkley, Eric D.; Clowers, Brian H.; Hutchison, Janine R.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2015-05-01

    Inactivation of pathogenic microbial samples is often necessary for the protection of researchers and to comply with local and federal regulations. By its nature, biological inactivation causes changes to microbial samples, potentially affecting observed experimental results. While inactivation induced damage to materials such as DNA has been evaluated, the effect of various inactivation strategies on proteomic data, to our knowledge, has not been discussed. To this end, we inactivated samples of Yersinia pestis and Escherichia coli by autoclave, ethanol, or irradiation treatment to determine how inactivation changes liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry data quality as well as apparent protein content of cells. Proteomic datasets obtained from aliquots of samples inactivated by different methods were highly similar, with Pearson correlation coefficients ranging from 0.822 to 0.985 and 0.816 to 0.985 for E. coli and Y. pestis, respectively, suggesting that inactivation had only slight impacts on the set of proteins identified. In addition, spectral quality metrics such as distributions of various database search algorithm scores remained constant across inactivation methods, indicating that inactivation does not appreciably degrade spectral quality. Though overall changes resulting from inactivation were small, there were detectable trends. For example, one-sided Fischer exact tests determined that periplasmic proteins decrease in observed abundance after sample inactivation by autoclaving (α = 1.71x10-2 for E. coli, α = 4.97x10-4 for Y. pestis) and irradiation (α = 9.43x10-7 for E. coli, α = 1.21x10-5 for Y. pestis) when compared to controls that were not inactivated. Based on our data, if sample inactivation is necessary, we recommend inactivation with ethanol treatment with secondary preference given to irradiation.

  5. Experiment list: SRX100446 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivation. This gene is a p...varying DNA target sites. CTCF forms methylation-sensitive insulators that regulate X-chromosome inactivatio

  6. Inactivation of Bakers' yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sungwoo; Joshi, J.G. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (USA))

    1989-04-18

    Preincubation of yeast glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with Al(III) produced an inactive enzyme containing 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. None of the enzyme-bound Al(III) was dissociated by dialysis against 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0, containing 0.2 mM EDTA at 4{degree}C for 24 h. Citrate, NADP{sup +}, EDTA, or NaF protected the enzyme against the Al(III) inactivation. The Al(III)-inactivated enzyme, however, was completely reactivated only by citrate and NaF. The dissociation constant for the enzyme-aluminum complex was calculated to be 4 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} M with NaF, a known reversible chelator for aluminum. Modification of histidine and lysine residues of the enzyme with diethyl pyrocarbonate and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively, inactivated the enzyme. However, the modified enzyme still bound 1 mol of Al(III)/mol of enzyme subunit. Circular dichroism studies showed that the binding of Al(III) to the enzyme induced a decrease in {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet and an increase in random coil. Therefore, it is suggested that inactivation of G6PD by Al(III) is due to the conformational change induced by Al(III) binding.

  7. Inactivation of a Norovirus by High-Pressure Processing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, David H.; Holliman, Daniel R.; Calci, Kevin R.; Chen, Haiqiang; Flick, George J.

    2007-01-01

    Murine norovirus (strain MNV-1), a propagable norovirus, was evaluated for susceptibility to high-pressure processing. Experiments with virus stocks in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium demonstrated that at room temperature (20°C) the virus was inactivated over a pressure range of 350 to 450 MPa, with a 5-min, 450-MPa treatment being sufficient to inactivate 6.85 log10 PFU of MNV-1. The inactivation of MNV-1 was enhanced when pressure was applied at an initial temperature of 5°C; a 5-min pressure treatment of 350 MPa at 30°C inactivated 1.15 log10 PFU of virus, while the same treatment at 5°C resulted in a reduction of 5.56 log10 PFU. Evaluation of virus inactivation as a function of treatment times ranging from 0 to 150 s and 0 to 900 s at 5°C and 20°C, respectively, indicated that a decreasing rate of inactivation with time was consistent with Weibull or log-logistic inactivation kinetics. The inactivation of MNV-1 directly within oyster tissues was demonstrated; a 5-min, 400-MPa treatment at 5°C was sufficient to inactivate 4.05 log10 PFU. This work is the first demonstration that norovirus can be inactivated by high pressure and suggests good prospects for inactivation of nonpropagable human norovirus strains in foods. PMID:17142353

  8. Cathepsin D inactivates cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenarcic, B; Kos, J; Dolenc, I; Lucovnik, P; Krizaj, I; Turk, V

    1988-07-29

    The formation of inactive complexes in excess molar amounts of human cathepsins H and L with their protein inhibitors human stefin A, human stefin B and chicken cystatin at pH 5.6 has been shown by measurement of enzyme activity coupled with reverse-phase HPLC not to involve covalent cleavage of the inhibitors. Inhibition must be the direct result of binding. On the contrary the interaction of cystatins with aspartic proteinase cathepsin D at pH 3.5 for 60 min followed by HPLC resulted in their inactivation accompanied by peptide bond cleavage at several sites, preferentially those involving hydrophobic amino acid residues. The released peptides do not inhibit papain and cathepsin L. These results explain reported elevated levels of cysteine proteinases and lead to the proposal that cathepsin D exerts an important function, through inactivation of cystatins, in the increased activities of cysteine proteinases in human diseases including muscular distrophy.

  9. Female meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in chicken.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Schoenmakers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available During meiotic prophase in male mammals, the heterologous X and Y chromosomes remain largely unsynapsed, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI leads to formation of the transcriptionally silenced XY body. In birds, the heterogametic sex is female, carrying Z and W chromosomes (ZW, whereas males have the homogametic ZZ constitution. During chicken oogenesis, the heterologous ZW pair reaches a state of complete heterologous synapsis, and this might enable maintenance of transcription of Z- and W chromosomal genes during meiotic prophase. Herein, we show that the ZW pair is transiently silenced, from early pachytene to early diplotene using immunocytochemistry and gene expression analyses. We propose that ZW inactivation is most likely achieved via spreading of heterochromatin from the W on the Z chromosome. Also, persistent meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs may contribute to silencing of Z. Surprisingly, gammaH2AX, a marker of DSBs, and also the earliest histone modification that is associated with XY body formation in mammalian and marsupial spermatocytes, does not cover the ZW during the synapsed stage. However, when the ZW pair starts to desynapse, a second wave of gammaH2AX accumulates on the unsynapsed regions of Z, which also show a reappearance of the DSB repair protein RAD51. This indicates that repair of meiotic DSBs on the heterologous part of Z is postponed until late pachytene/diplotene, possibly to avoid recombination with regions on the heterologously synapsed W chromosome. Two days after entering diplotene, the Z looses gammaH2AX and shows reactivation. This is the first report of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in a species with female heterogamety, providing evidence that this mechanism is not specific to spermatogenesis. It also indicates the presence of an evolutionary force that drives meiotic sex chromosome inactivation independent of the final achievement of synapsis.

  10. Chlorine Inactivation of Spores of Encephalitozoon spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, C. H.; Marshall, M. M.; DeMaria, L. A.; Moffet, J. M.; Korich, D. G.

    2003-01-01

    This report is an extension of a preliminary investigation on the use of chlorine to inactivate spores of Encephalitozoon intestinalis and to investigate the effect of chlorine on two other species, E cuniculi and E. hellem, associated with human infection. The 50% tissue culture infective doses of these three species were also determined. On the basis of the results obtained, it appears that chlorination of water is an effective means of controlling spores of these organisms in the aquatic e...

  11. Mary Lyon's X-inactivation studies in the mouse laid the foundation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-20

    Nov 20, 2015 ... Medicine (Medical Genetics), Genome Sciences and Pathology, University of Washington, 850 Republican St.,. Seattle, WA 98109, USA ... lished several papers on mouse and radiation genetics and one in 1960 on the .... mammals achieved dosage compensation through depression of X chromosome ...

  12. Hyaluronan decreases surfactant inactivation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Karen W; Goerke, Jon; Clements, John A; Taeusch, H William

    2005-02-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) is an anionic polymer and a constituent of alveolar fluid that can bind proteins, phospholipids, and water. Previous studies have established that nonionic polymers improve the surface activity of pulmonary surfactants by decreasing inactivation of surfactant. In this work, we investigate whether HA can also have beneficial effects when added to surfactants. We used a modified pulsating bubble surfactometer to measure mixtures of several commercially available pulmonary surfactants or native calf surfactant with and without serum inactivation. Surface properties such as equilibrium surface tension, minimum and maximum surface tensions on compression and expansion of a surface film, and degree of surface area reduction required to reach a surface tension of 10 mN/m were measured. In the presence of serum, addition of HA dramatically improved the surface activities of all four surfactants and in some cases in the absence of serum as well. These results indicate that HA reduces inactivation of surfactants caused by serum and add evidence that endogenous HAs may interact with alveolar surfactant under normal and abnormal conditions.

  13. Rapid inactivation of SARS-like coronaviruses.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapil, Sanjay (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Oberst, R. D. (Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS); Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David; Souza, Caroline Ann; Williams, Cecelia Victoria

    2004-03-01

    Chemical disinfection and inactivation of viruses is largely understudied, but is very important especially in the case of highly infectious viruses. The purpose of this LDRD was to determine the efficacy of the Sandia National Laboratories developed decontamination formulations against Bovine Coronavirus (BCV) as a surrogate for the coronavirus that causes Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in humans. The outbreak of SARS in late 2002 resulted from a highly infectious virus that was able to survive and remain infectious for extended periods. For this study, preliminary testing with Escherichia coli MS-2 (MS-2) and Escherichia coli T4 (T4) bacteriophages was conducted to develop virucidal methodology for verifying the inactivation after treatment with the test formulations following AOAC germicidal methodologies. After the determination of various experimental parameters (i.e. exposure, concentration) of the formulations, final testing was conducted on BCV. All experiments were conducted with various organic challenges (horse serum, bovine feces, compost) for results that more accurately represent field use condition. The MS-2 and T4 were slightly more resistant than BCV and required a 2 minute exposure while BCV was completely inactivated after a 1 minute exposure. These results were also consistent for the testing conducted in the presence of the various organic challenges indicating that the test formulations are highly effective for real world application.

  14. Antithrombin inactivation by neutrophil elastase requires heparin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, R E; Nelson, R M; Kilpatrick, J; Newgren, J O; Esmon, P C; Fournel, M A

    1989-09-11

    In certain thrombotic states, large declines in the levels of functional circulating antithrombin occur, which may reflect the highly active nature of the endothelial surface in suppressing excessive amounts of activated coagulation enzymes. Alternatively, we have recently observed an unexpected and paradoxical in vitro functioning of heparin that could result in the inactivation of antithrombin in pathologic conditions. Specifically, antithrombin was rendered nonfunctional as an inhibitor of clotting enzymes as a result of a limited, heparin-dependent cleavage by neutrophil elastase. This inactivation occurred only in the presence of the active anticoagulant heparin fraction, which suggested that the heparin-antithrombin complex was the substrate for elastase attack. Interestingly, neutrophil elastase was found to bind tightly to heparin and heparin-like materials. Neutrophil elastase has been previously linked to nonspecific proteinolysis occurring in inflammatory thrombotic reactions. This affinity of both antithrombin and elastase for heparin suggests a novel mechanism of potential specificity. An important component of this hypothesis is the localization of the elastase/antithrombin reaction away from the high circulating levels of elastase inhibitors. The proposed inactivation of antithrombin on the vascular surface would likely occur only in pathologic states associated with neutrophil sequestration and activation. Nevertheless, this mechanism could lead to a localized reversal of the nonthrombogenic nature of the endothelium and potentially lead to significant reductions of functional antithrombin in certain disease states.

  15. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine compared to licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David P; Robertson, Corwin A; Noss, Michael J; Blatter, Mark M; Biedenbender, Rex; Decker, Michael D

    2013-01-21

    To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a prototype quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (QIV) containing two influenza B strains, one of each lineage, compared with licensed trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIVs) containing either a Victoria B-lineage strain (2009-2010 TIV) or a Yamagata B-lineage strain (2008-2009 TIV). Healthy adults ≥18 years of age were eligible to participate in this phase II, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter study conducted in the US. Participants received a single dose of 2009-2010 TIV, 2008-2009 TIV, or QIV. Sera were collected before and 21 days after vaccine administration to test for hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibodies to each of the four influenza strains. Immunogenicity endpoints included geometric mean HAI antibody titers (GMTs) and rates of seroprotection (titer ≥1:40) and seroconversion (4-fold rise pre- to post-vaccination). Safety endpoints included frequency of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions occurring within 3 days of vaccination, and unsolicited non-serious adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) within 21 days of vaccination. One hundred and ninety participants were enrolled to each vaccine group. QIV induced GMTs to each A and B strain that were noninferior to those induced by the 2009-2010 and 2008-2009 TIVs (i.e., lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval of the ratio of GMT(QIV)/GMT(TIV)>0.66 for each strain). Rates of seroprotection and seroconversion were similar in all groups. Incidence and severity of solicited injection-site and systemic reactions, AEs, and SAEs were similar among groups. QIV, containing two B strains (one from each B lineage), was as safe and immunogenic as licensed TIV. QIV has the potential to be a useful alternative to TIV and offer protection against both B lineages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × timereaction) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, Ea, induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (CODMn) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and CODMn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Five-year antibody persistence in children after one dose of inactivated or live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhilun; Zhu, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Liang, Miao; Sun, Jin; Song, Yufei; Yang, Qi; Ji, Haiquan; Zeng, Gang; Song, Lifei; Chen, Jiangting

    2017-06-03

    In China, both inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine and live attenuated HA vaccine are available. We conducted a trial to evaluate 5-year immune persistence induced by one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccines in children. Subjects with no HA vaccination history had randomly received one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age. Anti-HAV antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination and at the first, second, and fifth year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A were monitored during the study period. A total of 332 subjects were enrolled and 182 provided evaluable serum samples at all planned time points. seropositive rate at 5 y was 85.9% in the inactivated HA vaccine group and 90.7% in the live attenuated HA vaccine group. GMCs were 76.3% mIU/ml (95% CI: 61.7 - 94.4) and 66.8mIU/ml (95% CI: 57.8 - 77.3), respectively. No significant difference in antibody persistence between 2 groups was found. No clinical hepatitis A case was reported. A single dose of an inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age resulted in high HAV seropositive rate and anti-HAV antibody concentrations that lasted for at least 5 y.

  18. Modeling the pressure inactivation dynamics of Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto K.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli, as a model microorganism, was treated in phosphate-buffered saline under high hydrostatic pressure between 100 and 300 MPa, and the inactivation dynamics was investigated from the viewpoint of predictive microbiology. Inactivation data were curve fitted by typical predictive models: logistic, Gompertz and Weibull functions. Weibull function described the inactivation curve the best. Two parameters of Weibull function were calculated for each holding pressure and their dependence on holding pressure was obtained by interpolation. With the interpolated parameters, inactivation curves were simulated and compared with the experimental data sets.

  19. Inactivation of virus in solution by cold atmospheric pressure plasma: identification of chemical inactivation pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboubakr, Hamada A.; Gangal, Urvashi; Youssef, Mohammed M.; Goyal, Sagar M.; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2016-05-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) inactivates bacteria and virus through in situ production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS). While the bactericidal and virucidal efficiency of plasmas is well established, there is limited knowledge about the chemistry leading to the pathogen inactivation. This article describes a chemical analysis of the CAP reactive chemistry involved in the inactivation of feline calicivirus. We used a remote radio frequency CAP produced in varying gas mixtures leading to different plasma-induced chemistries. A study of the effects of selected scavengers complemented with positive control measurements of relevant RONS reveal two distinctive pathways based on singlet oxygen and peroxynitrous acid. The first mechanism is favored in the presence of oxygen and the second in the presence of air when a significant pH reduction is induced in the solution by the plasma. Additionally, smaller effects of the H2O2, O3 and \\text{NO}2- produced were also found. Identification of singlet oxygen-mediated 2-imidazolone/2-oxo-His (His  +14 Da)—an oxidative modification of His 262 comprising the capsid protein of feline calicivirus links the plasma induced singlet oxygen chemistry to viral inactivation.

  20. A randomized, dose-ranging assessment of the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of a combined diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib) vaccine vs. co-administration of DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines in 12 to 24 months old Filipino toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiambao, Beatriz; Van Der Meeren, Olivier; Kolhe, Devayani; Gatchalian, Salvacion

    2012-03-01

    As progress toward global poliovirus eradication continues, more and more countries are moving away from use of oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) to inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) in national vaccination schedules. Reduction of antigen dose in IPV could increase manufacturing capacity and facilitate the change from OPV to IPV. Combination vaccines reduce the number of injections required to complete vaccination, thus playing an important role in maintaining high vaccine coverage with good public acceptability. Three formulations of a combined, candidate hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliovirus-Hemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals) differing only in IPV antigen content (full-dose, half-dose and one-third dose as compared with available stand-alone IPV vaccines), were evaluated when administered to healthy toddlers. Controls received separately administered licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV vaccines. Immunogenicity was assessed before and one month after vaccination. Safety and reactogenicity data were assessed for 30 d after vaccination. A total of 312 Filipino children were vaccinated in their second year of life. Each DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation was non-inferior to control in terms of pre-defined criteria for IPV immunogenicity. Post-vaccination GMTs against each poliovirus type were increased between 4.2- and 37.9-fold over pre-vaccination titers. Non-inferiority to other vaccine antigens was also demonstrated. The safety profile of the 3 DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib formulations resembled licensed DTPw-HBV/Hib Kft and IPV in terms of the frequency and intensity of adverse reactions after vaccination. Further investigation of DTPw-HBV-IPV/Hib containing reduced quantity of IPV antigen for primary vaccination in infants is warranted. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT number: NCT01106092.

  1. Photodynamic inactivation of pathogens causing infectious keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Carole; Wolf, G.; Walther, M.; Winkler, K.; Finke, M.; Hüttenberger, D.; Bischoff, Markus; Seitz, B.; Cullum, J.; Foth, H.-J.

    2014-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance requires new approaches also for the treatment of infectious keratitis. Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) using the photosensitizer (PS) Chlorin e6 (Ce6) was investigated as an alternative to antibiotic treatment. An in-vitro cornea model was established using porcine eyes. The uptake of Ce6 by bacteria and the diffusion of the PS in the individual layers of corneal tissue were investigated by fluorescence. After removal of the cornea's epithelium Ce6-concentrations keratitis patients were tested in liquid culture against different concentrations of Ce6 (1 - 512 μM) using 10 minutes irradiation (E = 18 J/cm2 ). This demonstrated that a complete inactivation of the pathogen strains were feasible whereby SA was slightly more susceptible than PA. 3909 mutants of the Keio collection of Escherichia coli (E.coli) were screened for potential resistance factors. The sensitive mutants can be grouped into three categories: transport mutants, mutants in lipopolysaccharide synthesis and mutants in the bacterial SOS-response. In conclusion PDI is seen as a promising therapy concept for infectious keratitis.

  2. Efficacy of select disinfectants at inactivating Ranavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Laura K; Baldwin, Charles A; Gray, Matthew J; Miller, Debra L

    2009-04-06

    Ranavirus can cause disease in reptiles and amphibians. Because survival time outside of a host remains uncertain, equipment must be disinfected to prevent transmission of ranaviruses. However, disinfectant efficacy against amphibian ranaviruses has not been investigated for chlorhexidine (Nolvasan), sodium hypochlorite (bleach), or potassium compounds. Our goal was to determine the efficacy of Nolvasan (0.25, 0.75 and 2.0%), bleach (0.2, 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0%), and Virkon S (1.0%) at inactivating Ranavirus at 1 and 5 min contact durations. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) (2.0 and 5.0 ppm) was also tested with a 60 min contact time. Nolvasan at 0.75 and 2.0% and bleach at 3.0 and 5.0% concentration were effective for both contact durations. Virkon S was effective for both durations, but KMnO4 was not effective at either concentration. Concentrations of Nolvasan, bleach and Virkon S that are at least 0.75, 3.0 and 1.0%, respectively, are effective at inactivating Ranavirus after 1 min exposure time.

  3. [Polyphenolic antioxidants efficiently protect urease from inactivation by ultrasonic cavitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelitsa, D I; Tarun, E I; Losev, Iu P

    2002-01-01

    Inactivation of urease (25 nM) in aqueous solutions (pH 5.0-6.0) treated with low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS; 27 kHz, 60 Wt/cm2, 36-56 degrees C) or high-frequency ultrasound (HFUS; 2.64 MHz, 1 Wt/cm2, 36 or 56 degrees C) has been characterized quantitatively, using first-order rate constants: kin, aggregate inactivation; kin*, thermal inactivation; and kin* (US), ultrasonic inactivation. Within the range from 1 nM to 10 microM, propyl gallate (PG) decreases approximately threefold the rate of LFUS-induced inactivation of urease (56 degrees C), whereas resorcinol poly-2-disulfide prevents this process at 1 nM or higher concentrations. PG completely inhibits HFUS-induced inactivation of urease at 1 nM (36 degrees C) or 10 nM (56 degrees C). At 0.2-10 microM, human serum albumin (HSA) increases the resistance of urease (at 56 degrees C) treated with HFUS to temperature- and cavitation-induced inactivation. Complexes of gallic acid polydisulfide (GAPDS) with HSA (GAPDS-HSA), formed by conjugation of 1.0 nM PGDS with 0.33 nM HSA, prevent HFUS-induced urease inactivation (56 degrees C).

  4. Scale down of the inactivated polio vaccine production process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomassen, Y.E.; Oever, van 't R.; Vinke, C.M.; Spiekstra, A.; Wijffels, R.H.; Pol, van der L.A.; Bakker, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production

  5. Suicide inactivation of horseradish peroxidase by excess hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In reactions carried out in sodium acetate buffer, higher inactivation rates were observed when the buffer ion concentration was increased, an indication that peroxidase might be generating reactive radicals from the buffer molecules. Promethazine exerted a modest protective effect against inactivation; however, higher ...

  6. Effects of electrolytes on virus inactivation by acidic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, Mitsunori; Tsujimoto, Kazuko; Uozaki, Misao; Ikeda, Keiko; Yamasaki, Hisashi; Koyama, A Hajime; Arakawa, Tsutomu

    2011-06-01

    Acidic pH is frequently used to inactivate viruses. We have previously shown that arginine synergizes with low pH in enhancing virus inactivation. Considering a potential application of the acid inactivation of viruses for the prevention and treatment of superficial virus infection at body surfaces and fixtures, herein we have examined the effects of various electrolytes on the acid-induced inactivation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2), the influenza A virus (IAV) and the poliovirus upon their incubation at 30˚C for 5 min. Eight electrolytes, i.e., phosphate, NaCl, glutamate, aspartate, pyrrolidone carboxylate, citrate, malate and acetate were tested. No detectable inactivation of the poliovirus was observed under the conditions examined, reflecting its acid-resistance. HSV-1 and HSV-2 responded similarly to the acid-treatment and electrolytes. Some electrolytes showed a stronger virus inactivation than others at a given pH and concentration. The effects of the electrolytes were virus-dependent, as IAV responded differently from HSV-1 and HSV-2 to these electrolytes, indicating that certain combinations of the electrolytes and a low pH can exert a more effective virus inactivation than other combinations and that their effects are virus-specific. These results should be useful in designing acidic solvents for the inactivation of viruses at various surfaces.

  7. Ebola Virus Inactivation by Detergents Is Annulled in Serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, Jeroen J. A.; Tintu, Andrei; Russcher, Henk; Fraaij, Pieter L. A.; Reusken, Chantal B. E. M.; Rijken, Mikel; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; van Genderen, Perry J. J.; Koelewijn, Rob; de Jong, Menno D.; Haddock, Elaine; Fischer, Robert J.; Munster, Vincent J.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2017-01-01

    Treatment of blood samples from hemorrhagic fever virus (HFV)-infected patients with 0.1% detergents has been recommended for virus inactivation and subsequent safe laboratory testing. However, data on virus inactivation by this procedure are lacking. Here we show the effect of this procedure on

  8. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  9. Random-breakage mapping method applied to human DNA sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobrich, M.; Rydberg, B.; Cooper, P. K.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The random-breakage mapping method [Game et al. (1990) Nucleic Acids Res., 18, 4453-4461] was applied to DNA sequences in human fibroblasts. The methodology involves NotI restriction endonuclease digestion of DNA from irradiated calls, followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, Southern blotting and hybridization with DNA probes recognizing the single copy sequences of interest. The Southern blots show a band for the unbroken restriction fragments and a smear below this band due to radiation induced random breaks. This smear pattern contains two discontinuities in intensity at positions that correspond to the distance of the hybridization site to each end of the restriction fragment. By analyzing the positions of those discontinuities we confirmed the previously mapped position of the probe DXS1327 within a NotI fragment on the X chromosome, thus demonstrating the validity of the technique. We were also able to position the probes D21S1 and D21S15 with respect to the ends of their corresponding NotI fragments on chromosome 21. A third chromosome 21 probe, D21S11, has previously been reported to be close to D21S1, although an uncertainty about a second possible location existed. Since both probes D21S1 and D21S11 hybridized to a single NotI fragment and yielded a similar smear pattern, this uncertainty is removed by the random-breakage mapping method.

  10. Kinetic modelling of enzyme inactivation : kinetics of heat inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schokker, E.P.

    1997-01-01

    The kinetics of heat inactivation of the extracellular proteinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens 22F was studied. It was established, by making use of kinetic modelling, that heat inactivation in the temperature range 35 - 70 °C was most likely caused

  11. Development of thermostable lyophilized inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraan, Heleen; van Herpen, Paul; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to develop a dried inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) formulation with minimal loss during the drying process and improved stability when compared with the conventional liquid IPV. Extensive excipient screening was combined with the use of a Design of Experiment (DoE) approach in order to achieve optimal results with high probability. Although it was shown earlier that the lyophilization of a trivalent IPV while conserving its antigenicity is challenging, we were able to develop a formulation that showed minimal loss of potency during drying and subsequent storage at higher temperatures. This study showed the potential of a highly stable and safe lyophilized polio vaccine, which might be used in developing countries without the need of a cold-chain.

  12. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetti by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F.; Williams, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79 C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0-64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of hte micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing C. burnetti was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes.

  13. Inactivation of Coxiella burnetii by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.H.; McCaul, T.F. (Army Medical Research Inst. of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD (USA)); Williams, J.C. (National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The gamma radiation inactivation kinetics for Coxiella burnetii at - 79{sup 0}C were exponential. The radiation dose needed to reduce the number of infective C. burnetii by 90% varied from 0.64 to 1.2 kGy depending on the phase of the micro-organism, purity of the culture and composition of suspending menstruum. The viability of preparations containing 10{sup 11} C. burnetii ml{sup -1} was completely abolished by 10 kGy without diminishing antigenicity or ability to elicit a protective immune response in vaccinated mice. Immunocytochemical examinations using monoclonal antibodies and electron microscopy demonstrated that radiation doses of 20 kGy did not alter cell-wall morphology or cell-surface antigenic epitopes. (author).

  14. Esterase resistant to inactivation by heavy metals

    KAUST Repository

    El, Dorry Hamza

    2014-09-25

    EstATII is an esterase that a halotolerant, thermophilic and resistant to a spectrum of heavy metals including toxic concentration of metals. It was isolated from the lowest convective layer of the Atlantis II Red Sea brine pool. The Atlantis II brine pool is an extreme environment that possesses multiple harsh conditions such as; high temperature, salinity, pH and high concentration of metals, including toxic heavy metals. A fosmid metagenomic library using DNA isolated from the lowest convective layer this pool was used to identify EstATII. Polynucleotides encoding EstATII and similar esterases are disclosed and can be used to make EstATII. EstATII or compositions or apparatuses that contain it may be used in various processes employing lipases/esterases especially when these processes are performed under harsh conditions that inactivate other kinds of lipases or esterases.

  15. Randomized, controlled, multicenter study of the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid combination diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP5), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine compared with a DTaP3-IPV/Hib vaccine administered at 3, 5, and 12 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven Arne; Boisnard, Florence; Thomas, Stéphane; Mwawasi, Grace; Reynolds, Donna

    2013-10-01

    This study compared the levels of immunogenicity and safety of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid-five-component acellular pertussis (DTaP(5)), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) (DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib) and DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib vaccines for study participants 3, 5, and 12 months of age. Post-dose 3 noninferiority criteria comparing DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib to DTaP(3)-IPV/Hib using rates of seroprotection were demonstrated against diphtheria, tetanus, and polio types 1 to 3, but not for polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP). While PRP did not meet noninferiority criteria, the seroprotection rate and geometric mean concentration (GMC) were high, indicating a clinically robust immune response. GMCs or titers for other antigens (including pertussis) and the safety profiles were generally similar between groups. Fully liquid DTaP(5)-IPV-Hib can be administered using the 3-, 5-, and 12-month vaccination schedule. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT00287092.).

  16. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    Full Text Available In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  17. Study of 25 X-chromosome SNPs in the Portuguese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Amorim, António

    2011-01-01

    and Southern Portugal (n=305). The data were also compared with previous data from the Mediterranean area confirming a general genetic homogeneity among populations in the region. The X-SNP distribution in the three Portuguese regional samples did not show any significant substructure and the X...

  18. May anomalous X chromosome methylation be responsible for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Departamento de Bioquimica Médica y Biologıa Molecular, Facultad de Medicina, Avda. Sanchez Pizjuán,. 4 E-41009, Sevilla, Spain. 2Servicio de Biologıa Molecular, 3Servicio de Pediatrıa, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, E-41009, Seville, Spain. Introduction. Pregnancy loss is an important reproductive problem ...

  19. Molecular characterization of X chromosome fragility in idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Alla Hosny Omar

    2015-11-23

    Nov 23, 2015 ... Abstract Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Frequency of fragile X syndrome among male siblings and relatives of mentally retarded patients is relatively high. Cytogenetic diagnosis of FXS is unreliable since it is ineffective for the diagnosis of ...

  20. Molecular characterization of X chromosome fragility in idiopathic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Frequency of fragile X syndrome among male siblings and relatives of mentally retarded patients is relatively high. Cytogenetic diagnosis of FXS is unreliable since it is ineffective for the diagnosis of premutated males or ...

  1. Divergent actions of long noncoding RNAs on X-chromosome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, the most striking and unexpected discoveries were the identification of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), X- inactive specific transcript (Xist) in mammals and roX1/2 in Drosophila, which were essential for achieving the contrasting chromatin organizations but leading to similar end result in terms of dosage ...

  2. Lack of immune potentiation by complexing HBsAg in a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine with antibody in hepatitis B immunoglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; van Amelsfoort, P. J.; Martine de Groot, C. S.; Bakker, E.; Schaasberg, W.; Niessen, J. C.; Reesink, H. W.

    1989-01-01

    In a randomized, dose-response study among 305 health care workers, we examined whether the immunogenicity of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine could be enhanced when HBsAg was complexed by anti-HBs contained in hepatitis B immunoglobulin either at equivalent proportions or at 10-fold antigen

  3. Virus-specific thermostability and heat inactivation profiles of alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So Lee; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2016-08-01

    Serological diagnosis is a critical component for disease surveillance and is important to address the increase in incidence and disease burden of alphaviruses, such as the chikungunya (CHIKV) and Ross River (RRV) viruses. The gold standard for serological diagnosis is the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), which demonstrates the neutralizing capacity of serum samples after the removal of complement activity and adventitious viruses. This procedure is normally performed following inactivation of the virus at 56°C for 30min. Although this protocol has been widely accepted for the inactivation of envelope RNA viruses, recent studies have demonstrated that prolonged heat inactivation is required to completely inactivate two alphaviruses, Western equine encephalitis virus and CHIKV. Incomplete inactivation of viruses poses a laboratory biosafety risk and can also lead to spurious test results. Despite its importance in ensuring the safety of laboratory personnel as well as test integrity, systematic investigation on the thermostability of alphaviruses has not been performed. In this study, the temperature tolerance and heat inactivation profiles of RRV, Barmah Forest, and o'nyong-nyong viruses were determined. Variations in thermostability were observed within the Semliki forest serocomplex. Therefore, evidence-based heat inactivation procedures for alphaviruses are recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relative Inactivation by Staphylococcus aureus of Eight Cephalosporin Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Ignatius W.; Engelking, Elin R.; Kirby, William M. M.

    1976-01-01

    These studies extend the recent observation that cefazolin is inactivated to a greater extent than cephaloridine by some strains of penicillinase-producing Staphylococcus aureus, whereas cephalothin undergoes little if any inactivation. In Mueller-Hinton broth (inoculum, 3 × 106) 100 recently isolated strains had minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ≤ 2 μg/ml for cephalothin and cephaloridine, whereas in Trypticase soy broth (TSB) 50% had MICs > 2 μg/ml and 10% (designated “resistant” strains) were >8 μg/ml for cephaloridine but remained ≤2 μg/ml for cephalothin. A large inoculum (3 × 107) of strains with high MICs in TSB almost completely inactivated 50 μg of cefazolin per ml in 6 h, with progressively less inactivation, in the following order, of cephaloridine, cephalexin, cephradine, cephapirin, and cefamandole; cefoxitin and cephalothin underwent little if any inactivation. The greater inactivation in TSB than in Mueller-Hinton broth appeared to be due to a greater production of β-lactamases by each colony-forming unit, since the inoculum size in the two broths was not significantly different. In contrast, “susceptible” strains (MICs ≤ 2 μg/ml in both broths) inactivated cephaloridine more than cefazolin, and equal amounts of powdered bacterial extracts confirmed the fact that qualitatively different β-lactamases were produced by the susceptible and resistant strains. Disk diffusion tests were unreliable in separating the two groups of staphylococci. The clinical significance of inactivation by strains with high MICs is not known but, unless susceptibility can be clearly established, cephalothin appears preferable for severe staphylococcal infections, since it undergoes little if any inactivation by any strains of staphylococci. PMID:938023

  5. Thermoradiation inactivation of naturally occurring organisms in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Lindell, K. F.; David, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Samples of soil collected from Kennedy Space Center near spacecraft assembly facilities were found to contain microorganisms very resistant to conventional sterilization techniques. The inactivation behavior of the naturally occurring spores in soil was investigated using dry heat and ionizing radiation, first separately, then in combination. Dry heat inactivation rates of spores were determined for 105 and 125 C. Radiation inactivation rates were determined for dose rates of 660 and 76 krad/hr at 25 C. Simultaneous combinations of heat and radiation were then investigated at 105, 110, 115, 120, and 125 C. Combined treatment was found to be highly synergistic requiring greatly reduced radiation doses to accomplish sterilization.

  6. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  7. Aβ seeds resist inactivation by formaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Cintron, Amarallys; Ye, Lan; Mahler, Jasmin; Bühler, Anika; Baumann, Frank; Neumann, Manuela; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per; Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral β-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) into young, pre-depositing Aβ precursor protein- (APP) transgenic mice. Previous work has shown that the induction involves a prion-like seeding mechanism in which the seeding agent is aggregated Aβ itself. Here we report that the β-amyloid-inducing activity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue or aged APP-transgenic mouse brain tissue is preserved, albeit with reduced efficacy, after formaldehyde fixation. Moreover, spectral analysis with amyloid conformation-sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophene dyes reveals that the strain-like properties of aggregated Aβ are maintained in fixed tissues. The resistance of Aβ seeds to inactivation and structural modification by formaldehyde underscores their remarkable durability, which in turn may contribute to their persistence and spread within the body. The present findings can be exploited to establish the relationship between the molecular structure of Aβ aggregates and the variable clinical features and disease progression of AD even in archived, formalin-fixed autopsy material.

  8. Inactivation of RNA viruses by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonomiya, Takashi; Morimoto, Akinori; Iwatsuki, Kazuo; Tsutsumi, Takamasa (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and fisheries, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan). Animal Quarantine Service); Ito, Hitoshi; Yamashiro, Tomio; Ishigaki, Isao

    1992-09-01

    Four kinds of RNA viruses, Bluetongue virus (BT), Bovine Virus Diarrhea-Mucosal Disease virus (BVD[center dot]MD), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus (RS), Vesicular Stmatitis virus (VS), were subjected to various doses of gamma irradiation to determine the lethal doses. The D[sub 10] values, which are the dose necessary to decimally reduce infectivity, ranged from 1.5 to 3.4 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature, and they increased to 2.6 to 5.0 kGy under frozen condition at dry-ice temperature. Serum neutralzing antibody titer of Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR) was not adversely changed by the exposure to 36 kGy of gamma-rays under frozen condition. Analysis of electrophoresis patterns of the bovine serum also reveales that the serum proteins were not remarkably affected, even when exposed to 36 kGy of gamma radiation under frozen condition. The results suggested that gamma irradiation under frozen condition is an effective means for inactivating both DNA and RNA viruses without adversely affecting serum proteins and neutralizing antibody titer. (author).

  9. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  10. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-24

    ) for high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) inactivation of Bacillus cereus spores, Bacillus subtilis spores and cells,. Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, all in milk buffer, were used to demonstrate the utility of ...

  11. Inactivation Strategies for Clostridium perfringens Spores and Vegetative Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Prabhat K; Udompijitkul, Pathima; Hossain, Ashfaque; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2017-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen to human and animals and causes a wide array of diseases, including histotoxic and gastrointestinal illnesses. C. perfringens spores are crucial in terms of the pathogenicity of this bacterium because they can survive in a dormant state in the environment and return to being live bacteria when they come in contact with nutrients in food or the human body. Although the strategies to inactivate C. perfringens vegetative cells are effective, the inactivation of C. perfringens spores is still a great challenge. A number of studies have been conducted in the past decade or so toward developing efficient inactivation strategies for C. perfringens spores and vegetative cells, which include physical approaches and the use of chemical preservatives and naturally derived antimicrobial agents. In this review, different inactivation strategies applied to control C. perfringens cells and spores are summarized, and the potential limitations and challenges of these strategies are discussed. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Inactivation of rabies diagnostic reagents by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamble, W.C.; Chappell, W.A.; George, E.H.

    1980-11-01

    Treatment of CVS-11 rabies adsorbing suspensions and street rabies infected mouse brains with gamma radiation resulted in inactivated reagents that are safer to distribute and use. These irradiated reagents were as sensitive and reactive as the nonirradiated control reagents.

  13. Biocontrol interventions for inactivation of foodborne pathogens on produce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest interventions for control of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed foods are crucial for food safety. Biocontrol interventions have the primary objective of developing novel antagonists in combinations with physical and chemical interventions to inactivate pathogenic microbes. Ther...

  14. Enzyme inactivation kinetics: Coupled effects of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdana, J.A.; Fox, M.B.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes are often dried for stability reasons and to facilitate handling. However, they are often susceptible to inactivation during drying. It is generally known that temperature and moisturecontent influence the enzymeinactivation kinetics. However, the coupledeffect of both variables on

  15. Enterococcus faecalis and pathogenic streptococci inactivate daptomycin by releasing phospholipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledger, Elizabeth V K; Pader, Vera; Edwards, Andrew M

    2017-10-01

    Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic with activity against Gram-positive bacteria. We showed previously that Staphylococcus aureus can survive daptomycin exposure by releasing membrane phospholipids that inactivate the antibiotic. To determine whether other pathogens possess this defence mechanism, phospholipid release and daptomycin activity were measured after incubation of Staphylococcus epidermidis, group A or B streptococci, Streptococcus gordonii or Enterococcus faecalis with the antibiotic. All bacteria released phospholipids in response to daptomycin, which resulted in at least partial inactivation of the antibiotic. However, E. faecalis showed the highest levels of lipid release and daptomycin inactivation. As shown previously for S. aureus, phospholipid release by E. faecalis was inhibited by the lipid biosynthesis inhibitor platensimycin. In conclusion, several pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecalis, inactivate daptomycin by releasing phospholipids, which may contribute to the failure of daptomycin to resolve infections caused by these pathogens.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the Efficacy of Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Newcastle Disease Komarov Vaccine against Clinical Disease, Lesions and Immune Response, Following Challenge with Velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus in Laying Chickens.

  17. 21 CFR 610.11a - Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...

  18. Shaker IR T449 mutants separate C- from U-type inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Quentin; Jones, Stephen W

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that slow inactivation of the Shaker potassium channel can be made ~100-fold faster or slower by point mutations at a site in the outer pore (T449). However, the discovery that two forms of slow inactivation coexist in Shaker raises the question of which inactivation process is affected by mutation. Equivalent mutations in K(V)2.1, a channel exhibiting only U-type inactivation, have minimal effects on inactivation, suggesting that mutation of Shaker T449 acts on C-type inactivation alone, a widely held yet untested hypothesis. This study reexamines mutations at Shaker T449, confirming that T449A speeds inactivation and T449Y/V slow it. T449Y and T449V exhibit U-type inactivation that is enhanced by high extracellular potassium, in contrast to C-type inactivation in T449A which is inhibited by high potassium. Automated parameter estimation for a 12-state Markov model suggests that U-type inactivation occurs mainly from closed states upon weak depolarization, but primarily from the open state at positive voltages. The model also suggests that WT channels, which in this study exhibit mostly C-type inactivation, recover from inactivation through closed-inactivated states, producing voltage-dependent recovery. This suggests that both C-type and U-type inactivation involve both open-inactivated and closed-inactivated states.

  19. Non-thermal plasma for inactivated-vaccine preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guomin; Zhu, Ruihao; Yang, Licong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Qian; Su, Xia; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2016-02-17

    Vaccines are of great importance in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in poultry farming. The safety and efficacy of vaccines are also essential. To explore the feasibility of a novel technology (non-thermal plasma) in inactivated vaccine preparation, an alternating current atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) jet with Ar/O2/N2 as the operating gas was used to inactivate a Newcastle disease virus (NDV, LaSota) strain and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV, A/Chicken/Hebei/WD/98) for vaccine preparation. The results showed that complete inactivation could be achieved with 2 min of NTP treatment for both NDV and AIV. Moreover, a proper NTP treatment time is needed for inactivation of a virus without destruction of the antigenic determinants. Compared to traditional formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine, the vaccine made from NDV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine) could induce a higher NDV-specific antibody titer in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the results of a chicken challenge experiment showed that NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine could protect SPF chickens from a lethal NDV challenge. Vaccines made from AIV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-AIV-vaccine) also showed a similar AIV-specific antibody titer compared with traditional AIV vaccines prepared using formaldehyde inactivation. Studies of the morphological changes of the virus, chemical analysis of NDV allantoic fluid and optical emission spectrum analysis of NTP suggested that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by NTP played an important role in the virus inactivation process. All of these results demonstrated that it could be feasible to use non-thermal NTP as an alternative strategy to prepare inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stochastic and deterministic model of microbial heat inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Maria G; Normand, Mark D; Peleg, Micha

    2010-03-01

    Microbial inactivation is described by a model based on the changing survival probabilities of individual cells or spores. It is presented in a stochastic and discrete form for small groups, and as a continuous deterministic model for larger populations. If the underlying mortality probability function remains constant throughout the treatment, the model generates first-order ("log-linear") inactivation kinetics. Otherwise, it produces survival patterns that include Weibullian ("power-law") with upward or downward concavity, tailing with a residual survival level, complete elimination, flat "shoulder" with linear or curvilinear continuation, and sigmoid curves. In both forms, the same algorithm or model equation applies to isothermal and dynamic heat treatments alike. Constructing the model does not require assuming a kinetic order or knowledge of the inactivation mechanism. The general features of its underlying mortality probability function can be deduced from the experimental survival curve's shape. Once identified, the function's coefficients, the survival parameters, can be estimated directly from the experimental survival ratios by regression. The model is testable in principle but matching the estimated mortality or inactivation probabilities with those of the actual cells or spores can be a technical challenge. The model is not intended to replace current models to calculate sterility. Its main value, apart from connecting the various inactivation patterns to underlying probabilities at the cellular level, might be in simulating the irregular survival patterns of small groups of cells and spores. In principle, it can also be used for nonthermal methods of microbial inactivation and their combination with heat.

  1. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, Remko M; Schutyser, Maarten A I

    2017-06-15

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during baking at 175 or 205°C. In the wheat flour/water system, the thermostability of β-galactosidase increased with decreased moisture content, and a kinetic model was accurately fitted to the corresponding inactivation data (R 2 =0.99). Interestingly, the residual enzyme activity in the bread crust (about 30%) was hundredfold higher than that in the crumb (about 0.3%) after baking, despite the higher temperature in the crust throughout baking. This result suggested that the reduced moisture content in the crust increased the thermostability of the enzyme. Subsequently, the kinetic model reasonably predicted the enzyme inactivation in the crumb using the same parameters derived from the wheat flour/water system. However, the model predicted a lower residual enzyme activity in the crust compared with the experimental result, which indicated that the structure of the crust may influence the enzyme inactivation mechanism during baking. The results reported can provide a quantitative understanding of the thermal inactivation kinetics of enzyme during baking, which is essential to better retain enzymatic activity in bakery products supplemented with heat-sensitive enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Kinetic analysis of Legionella inactivation using ozone in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Li, Kunquan; Zhou, Yan; Li, Xuebin; Tao, Tao

    2017-02-01

    Legionella inactivation using ozone was studied in wastewater using kinetic analysis and modeling. The experimental results indicate that the relationship between the ozone concentration, germ concentration, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be used to predict variations in germ and COD concentrations. The ozone reaction with COD and inactivation of Legionella occurred simultaneously, but the reaction with COD likely occurred at a higher rate than the inactivation, as COD is more easily oxidized by ozone than Legionella. Higher initial COD concentrations resulted in a lower inactivation rate and higher lnN/N0. Higher temperature led to a higher inactivation efficiency. The relationship of the initial O3 concentration and Legionella inactivation rate was not linear, and thus, the Ct value required for a 99.99% reduction was not constant. The initial O3 concentration was more important than the contact time, and a reduction of the initial O3 concentration could not be compensated by increasing the contact time. The Ct values were compared over a narrow range of initial concentrations; the Ct values could only be contrasted when the initial O3 concentrations were very similar. A higher initial O3 concentration led to a higher inflection point value for the lnN/N0 vs C0t curve. Energy consumption using a plasma corona was lower than when using boron-doped diamond electrodes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidation of multiple methionine residues impairs rapid sodium channel inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassmann, Mario; Hansel, Alfred; Leipold, Enrico; Birkenbeil, Jan; Lu, Song-Qing; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) readily oxidize the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine (Met). The impact of Met oxidation on the fast inactivation of the skeletal muscle sodium channel NaV1.4 expressed in human embryonic kidney cells was studied by applying the Met-preferring oxidant chloramine-T (ChT) or by irradiating the ROS-producing dye Lucifer Yellow in the patch pipettes. Both interventions dramatically slowed down inactivation of the sodium channels. Replacement of Met in the Ile-Phe-Met inactivation motif with Leu (M1305L) strongly attenuated the oxidizing effect on inactivation but did not eliminate it completely. Mutagenesis of conserved Met residues in the intracellular linkers connecting the membrane-spanning segments of the channel (M1469L and M1470L) also markedly diminished the oxidation sensitivity of the channel, while that of other conserved Met residues (442, 1139, 1154, 1316) were without any noticeable effect. The results of mutagenesis of results, assays of other NaV channel isoforms (NaV1.2, NaV1.5, NaV1.7) and the kinetics of the oxidation-induced removal of inactivation collectively indicate that multiple Met target residues need to be oxidized to completely impair inactivation. This arrangement using multiple Met residues confers a finely graded oxidative modulation of NaV channels and allows organisms to adapt to a variety of oxidative stress conditions, such as ischemic reperfusion. PMID:18369661

  4. Thermal Inactivation of Feline Calicivirus in Pet Food Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, J; Patel, M; Knight, A I; Corley, D; Gibson, G; Schaaf, J; Moulin, J; Zuber, S

    2015-12-01

    Extrusion is the most common manufacturing process used to produce heat-treated dry dog and cat food (pet food) for domestic use and international trade. Due to reoccurring outbreaks of notifiable terrestrial animal diseases and their impact on international trade, experiments were undertaken to demonstrate the effectiveness of heat-treated extruded pet food on virus inactivation. The impact of extrusion processing in a pet food matrix on virus inactivation has not been previously reported and very few inactivation studies have examined the thermal inactivation of viruses in complex food matrices. The feline calicivirus vaccine strain FCV F-9 was used as a surrogate model RNA virus pathogen. Small-scale heat inactivation experiments using animal-derived pet food raw materials showed that a > 4 log10 reduction (log10 R) in infectivity occurred at 70 °C prior to reaching the minimum extrusion manufacturing operating temperature of 100 °C. As anticipated, small-scale pressure studies at extrusion pressure (1.6 MPa) showed no apparent effect on FCV F-9 inactivation. Additionally, FCV F-9 was shown not to survive the acidic conditions used to produce pet food palatants of animal origin that are typically used as a coating after the extrusion process.

  5. High pressure inactivation of Brettanomyces bruxellensis in red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Sanelle; Silva, Filipa V M

    2017-05-01

    Brettanomyces bruxellensis ("Brett") is a major spoilage concern for the wine industry worldwide, leading to undesirable sensory properties. Sulphur dioxide, is currently the preferred method for wine preservation. However, due to its negative effects on consumers, the use of new alternative non-thermal technologies are increasingly being investigated. The aim of this study was to determine and model the effect of high pressure processing (HPP) conditions and yeast strain on the inactivation of "Brett" in Cabernet Sauvignon wine. Processing at 200 MPa for 3 min resulted in 5.8 log reductions. However higher pressure is recommended to achieve high throughput in the wine industry, for example >6.0 log reductions were achieved after 400 MPa for 5 s. The inactivation of B. bruxellensis is pressure and time dependent, with increased treatment time and pressure leading to increased yeast inactivation. It was also found that yeast strain had a significant effect on HPP inactivation, with AWRI 1499 being the most resistant strain. The Weibull model successfully described the HPP "Brett" inactivation. HPP is a viable alternative for the inactivation of B. bruxellensis in wine, with the potential to reduce the industry's reliance on sulphur dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral inactivation in hemotherapy: systematic review on inactivators with action on nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Marial Sobral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review on the photoinactivators used in hemotherapy, with action on viral genomes. The SciELO, Science Direct, PubMed and Lilacs databases were searched for articles. The inclusion criterion was that these should be articles on inactivators with action on genetic material that had been published between 2000 and 2010. The key words used in identifying such articles were "hemovigilance", "viral inactivation", "photodynamics", "chemoprevention" and "transfusion safety". Twenty-four articles on viral photoinactivation were found with the main photoinactivators covered being: methylene blue, amotosalen HCl, S-303 frangible anchor linker effector (FRALE, riboflavin and inactin. The results showed that methylene blue has currently been studied least, because it diminishes coagulation factors and fibrinogen. Riboflavin has been studied most because it is a photoinactivator of endogenous origin and has few collateral effects. Amotosalen HCl is effective for platelets and is also used on plasma, but may cause changes both to plasma and to platelets, although these are not significant for hemostasis. S-303 FRALE may lead to neoantigens in erythrocytes and is less indicated for red-cell treatment; in such cases, PEN 110 is recommended. Thus, none of the methods for pathogen reduction is effective for all classes of agents and for all blood components, but despite the high cost, these photoinactivators may diminish the risk of blood-transmitted diseases.

  7. Laser-induced inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Danielle; Story, Robert; Gross, Eitan

    2012-08-08

    Haemozoin crystals, produced by Plasmodium during its intra-erythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle, can generate UV light via the laser-induced, non-linear optical process of third harmonic generation (THG). In the current study the feasibility of using haemozoin, constitutively stored in the parasite's food vacuole, to kill the parasite by irradiation with a near IR laser was evaluated. Cultured Plasmodium parasites at different stages of development were irradiated with a pulsed NIR laser and the viability of parasites at each stage was evaluated from their corresponding growth curves using the continuous culture method. Additional testing for germicidal effects of haemozoin and NIR laser was performed by adding synthetic haemozoin crystals to Escherichia coli in suspension. Cell suspensions were then irradiated with the laser and small aliquots taken and spread on agar plates containing selective agents to determine cell viability (CFU). Parasites in the late-trophozoites form as well as trophozoites in early-stage of DNA synthesis were found to be the most sensitive to the treatment with -4-log reduction in viability after six passes through the laser beam; followed by parasites in ring phase (-2-log reduction). A -1-log reduction in E. coli viability was obtained following a 60 min irradiation regimen of the bacteria in the presence of 1 μM synthetic haemozoin and a -2-log reduction in the presence of 10 μM haemozoin. Minimal (≤ 15%) cell kill was observed in the presence of 10 μM haemin. Laser-induced third-harmonic generation by haemozoin can be used to inactivate Plasmodium. This result may have clinical implications for treating severe malaria symptoms by irradiating the patient's blood through the skin or through dialysis tubing with a NIR laser.

  8. Laser-induced inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeBlanc Danielle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Haemozoin crystals, produced by Plasmodium during its intra-erythrocytic asexual reproduction cycle, can generate UV light via the laser-induced, non-linear optical process of third harmonic generation (THG. In the current study the feasibility of using haemozoin, constitutively stored in the parasite’s food vacuole, to kill the parasite by irradiation with a near IR laser was evaluated. Methods Cultured Plasmodium parasites at different stages of development were irradiated with a pulsed NIR laser and the viability of parasites at each stage was evaluated from their corresponding growth curves using the continuous culture method. Additional testing for germicidal effects of haemozoin and NIR laser was performed by adding synthetic haemozoin crystals to Escherichia coli in suspension. Cell suspensions were then irradiated with the laser and small aliquots taken and spread on agar plates containing selective agents to determine cell viability (CFU. Results Parasites in the late-trophozoites form as well as trophozoites in early-stage of DNA synthesis were found to be the most sensitive to the treatment with ~4-log reduction in viability after six passes through the laser beam; followed by parasites in ring phase (~2-log reduction. A ~1-log reduction in E. coli viability was obtained following a 60 min irradiation regimen of the bacteria in the presence of 1 μM synthetic haemozoin and a ~2-log reduction in the presence of 10 μM haemozoin. Minimal (≤15% cell kill was observed in the presence of 10 μM haemin. Conclusions Laser-induced third-harmonic generation by haemozoin can be used to inactivate Plasmodium. This result may have clinical implications for treating severe malaria symptoms by irradiating the patient’s blood through the skin or through dialysis tubing with a NIR laser.

  9. Subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in Holstein dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Silva Machado

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes. FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum

  10. Subcutaneous immunization with inactivated bacterial components and purified protein of Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Trueperella pyogenes prevents puerperal metritis in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vinícius Silva; Bicalho, Marcela Luccas de Souza; Meira Junior, Enoch Brandão de Souza; Rossi, Rodolfo; Ribeiro, Bruno Leonardo; Lima, Svetlana; Santos, Thiago; Kussler, Arieli; Foditsch, Carla; Ganda, Erika Korzune; Oikonomou, Georgios; Cheong, Soon Hon; Gilbert, Robert Owen; Bicalho, Rodrigo Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the efficacy of five vaccine formulations containing different combinations of proteins (FimH; leukotoxin, LKT; and pyolysin, PLO) and/or inactivated whole cells (Escherichia coli, Fusobacterium necrophorum, and Trueperella pyogenes) in preventing postpartum uterine diseases. Inactivated whole cells were produced using two genetically distinct strains of each bacterial species (E. coli, F. necrophorum, and T. pyogenes). FimH and PLO subunits were produced using recombinant protein expression, and LKT was recovered from culturing a wild F. necrophorum strain. Three subcutaneous vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 1 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; Vaccine 2 was composed of proteins only; and Vaccine 3 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells only. Two intravaginal vaccines were formulated: Vaccine 4 was composed of inactivated bacterial whole cells and proteins; and Vaccine 5 was composed of PLO and LKT. To evaluate vaccine efficacy, a randomized clinical trial was conducted at a commercial dairy farm; 371 spring heifers were allocated randomly into one of six different treatments groups: control, Vaccine 1, Vaccine 2, Vaccine 3, Vaccine 4 and Vaccine 5. Late pregnant heifers assigned to one of the vaccine groups were each vaccinated twice: at 230 and 260 days of pregnancy. When vaccines were evaluated grouped as subcutaneous and intravaginal, the subcutaneous ones were found to significantly reduce the incidence of puerperal metritis. Additionally, subcutaneous vaccination significantly reduced rectal temperature at 6±1 days in milk. Reproduction was improved for cows that received subcutaneous vaccines. In general, vaccination induced a significant increase in serum IgG titers against all antigens, with subcutaneous vaccination again being more effective. In conclusion, subcutaneous vaccination with inactivated bacterial components and/or protein subunits of E. coli, F. necrophorum and T. pyogenes

  11. Green Tea Catechin-Inactivated Viral Vaccine Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun H. Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, chemical agents such as formalin (FA and β-propiolactone (BPL have long been used for the preparation of inactivated vaccines or toxoids. It has been shown that FA extensively modifies vaccine antigens and thus affects immunogenicity profiles, sometimes compromising the protective efficacy of the vaccines or even exacerbating the disease upon infection. In this study, we show that natural catechins from green tea extracts (GT can be used as an inactivating agent to prepare inactivated viral vaccines. GT treatment resulted in complete and irreversible inactivation of influenza virus as well as dengue virus. In contrast to FA that reacted extensively with multiple amino acids including lysine, a major anchor residue for epitope binding to MHC molecules, GT catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG crosslinked primarily with cysteine residues and thus preserved the major epitopes of the influenza hemagglutinin. In a mouse model, vaccination with GT-inactivated influenza virus (GTi virus elicited higher levels of viral neutralizing antibodies than FA-inactivated virus (FAi virus. The vaccination completely protected the mice from a lethal challenge and restricted the challenge viral replication in the lungs. Of note, the quality of antibody responses of GTi virus was superior to that with FAi virus, in terms of the magnitude of antibody titer, cross-reactivity to hetero-subtypes of influenza viruses, and the avidity to viral antigens. As the first report of using non-toxic natural compounds for the preparation of inactivated viral vaccines, the present results could be translated into a clinically relevant vaccine platform with improved efficacy, safety, productivity, and public acceptance.

  12. Infective and inactivated filamentous phage as carriers for immunogenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, Tatiana I; Norris, Mandy D; Samoylov, Alexandre M; Cochran, Anna M; Wolfe, Karen G; Petrenko, Valery A; Cox, Nancy R

    2012-07-01

    The focus of this study is on development of vaccines using filamentous phage as a delivery vector for immunogenic peptides. The use of phage as a carrier for immunogenic peptides provides significant benefits such as high immunogenicity, low production costs, and high stability of phage preparations. However, introduction of live recombinant phage into the environment might represent a potential ecological problem. This, for example, may occur when vaccines are used in oral or nasal formulations in field conditions for wild and feral animals. To address this issue, comparative studies of antigenic properties of live and inactivated (non-viable) phage were accomplished. Inactivated phage, if released, will not propagate and will degrade as any other protein. In these experiments, a model phage clone that was previously selected from a phage display library and shown to stimulate production of anti-sperm antibodies with contraceptive properties was used. Multiple methods of phage inactivation were tested, including drying, freezing, autoclaving, heating, and UV irradiation. Under studied conditions, heating at 76°C for 3h, UV irradiation, and autoclaving resulted in complete phage inactivation. Phage samples treated by heat and UV were characterized by spectrophotometry and electron microscopy. To test antigenicity, live and inactivated phage preparations were injected into mice and antibody responses assayed by ELISA. It was found that phage killed by heat causes little to no immune responses, probably due to destruction of phage particles. In contrast, UV-inactivated phage stimulated production of IgG serum antibodies at the levels comparable to live phage. Thus, vaccines formulated to include UV-inactivated filamentous phage might represent environmentally safe alternatives to live phage vaccines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. ERADIKASI POLIO DAN IPV (INACTIVATED POLIO VACCINE

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    Gendrowahyuhono Gendrowahyuhono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the year 1988, World Health Organization (WHO claims that polio viruses should be eradicated after year 2000. However, until year 2010 the world have not been free from polio viruses circulation. So many effort had been achieved and it is estimated that the world will be free from polio virus after the year 2013. Control of poliomyelitis in Indonesia has been commenced since 1982 with routine immunization of polio program and the National Immunization Days (NID has been commenced since 1995,1996,2005 and 2006. When the world is free from polio virus, WHO suggests several alternative effort to maintain the world free from polio viruses : I stop the OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine and no polio immunization, 2 stop OPV and stock pile mOPV (monovalent OPV, 3 use OPV and IPV (Inactivated Polio Vaccine in a certain times, 4 use IPV only in a certain times. IPV has been used routinely in develop countries but has not been used in the developing countries. Several studies in development countries has been conducted, but had not been done in the developing countries. Indonesia collaboration with WHO has conducted the study of IPV in Yogyakarta Province since year 2002 until year 2010. The overall aim of the study is to compile the necessary data that will inform global and national decision-making regarding future polio immunization policies for the OPV cessation era. The data generated from the study will be particularly important to make decisions regarding optimal IPV use in developing tropical countries. It is unlikely that this data can be assembled through other means than through this study. The tentative result of the study shows that OPV immunization coverage in the year 2004 is 99% in four district and 93 % in the Yogyakarta city. Environment surveillance shows that there are 65.7% polio virus detected from 137 sewage samples pre IPV swich, and 4.8% polio virus detected from 83 sewage samples post IPV swich. Survey polio antibody serologis shows

  14. Inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives. II. Physical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, B.; Wiebe, M.E.; Lippin, A.; Vandersande, J.; Stryker, M.H.

    1985-11-01

    The thermal inactivation of viruses in labile blood derivatives was evaluated by addition of marker viruses (VSV, Sindbis, Sendai, EMC) to anti-hemophilic factor (AHF) concentrates. The rate of virus inactivation at 60 degrees C was decreased by at least 100- to 700-fold by inclusion of 2.75 M glycine and 50 percent sucrose, or 3.0 M potassium citrate, additives which contribute to retention of protein biologic activity. Nonetheless, at least 10(4) infectious units of each virus was inactivated within 10 hours. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 70 or 80 degrees C caused a 90 percent or greater loss in AHF activity. An even greater decline in the rate of virus inactivation was observed on heating AHF in the lyophilized state, although no loss in AHF activity was observed after 72 hours of heating at 60 degrees C. Several of the proteins present in lyophilized AHF concentrates displayed an altered electrophoretic mobility as a result of exposure to 60 degrees C for 24 hours. Exposure of lyophilized AHF to irradiation from a cobalt 60 source resulted in an acceptable yield of AHF at 1.0, but not at 2.0, megarads. At 1 megarad, greater than or equal to 6.0 logs of VSV and 3.3 logs of Sindbis virus were inactivated.

  15. Effect of heat on virus inactivation by ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, W D; Cramer, W N; Kawata, K

    1983-08-01

    The rate of inactivation of bacteriophage f2 and poliovirus 1 (CHAT) by NH3 was strongly influenced by temperature. The process was pseudo-first order at all temperatures and NH3 concentrations. Poliovirus was inactivated at a greater rate than f2, but the change in the rate of inactivation with increasing temperature in the range of approximately 10 to 40 degrees C was greater for f2 than for poliovirus. At higher temperatures, the rate of change was greater for poliovirus. Arrhenius plots of the data were biphasic, indicating that two inactivation processes were occurring, one for the low temperature range and another for the high temperature range. However, the magnitudes of the thermodynamic variables for f2 were low enough, as calculated for the low (10 to 35 degrees C) and high (35 to 60 degrees C) phases, that inactivation could have occurred by breakage of nucleic acid chains. For poliovirus, the sizes indicated possible involvement of nucleic acid at the low temperatures (10 to 40 degrees C) but some unknown mechanism for the high temperatures (40 and 50 degrees C).

  16. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide tablets on inactivation of cryptosporidium oocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer L; Haas, Charles N; Arrowood, Michael J; Hlavsa, Michele C; Beach, Michael J; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-05-20

    The ability of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) to achieve 2-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in drinking water has been documented. No studies have specifically addressed the effects of ClO2 on C. parvum oocyst infectivity in chlorinated recreational water venues (e.g., pools). The aim of this research was to determine the efficacy of ClO2 as an alternative to existing hyperchlorination protocols that are used to achieve a 3-log inactivation of Cryptosporidium in such venues. To obtain a 3-log inactivation of C. parvum Iowa oocysts, contact times of 105 and 128 min for a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 2.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. Contact times of 294 and 857 min for a solution containing 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with and without the addition of 3.6 mg/L free chlorine, respectively, were required. The hyperchlorination control (21 mg/L free chlorine only) required 455 min for a 3-log inactivation. Use of a solution containing 5 mg/L ClO2 and solutions containing 5 or 1.4 mg/L ClO2 with the addition of free chlorine appears to be a promising alternative to hyperchlorination for inactivating Cryptosporidium in chlorinated recreational water venues, but further studies are required to evaluate safety constraints on use.

  17. Thermal inactivation of the wine spoilage yeasts Dekkera/Brettanomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, José António; Neves, Filipe; Campos, Francisco; Hogg, Tim

    2005-10-25

    The heat resistance of three strains of Dekkera/Brettanomyces (Dekkera anomala PYCC 5,153, Dekkera bruxellensis PYCC 4,801 and Dekkera/Brettanomyces 093) was evaluated at different temperatures between 32.5 and 55 degrees C. Thermal inactivation tests were performed in tartrate buffer solution (pH 4.0) and in wines. In the studies employing buffer as the heating menstruum, measurable thermal inactivation began only at temperatures of 50 degrees C. When heating was performed in wine, significant inactivation begins at 35 degrees C. Subsequent thermal inactivation tests were performed in buffer at various levels of pH, ethanol concentration, and various phenolic acids. Results from experiments in buffer with added ethanol suggest that the greater heat sensitivity shown in wines can be largely attributed to ethanol, although potentiation of this effect might be due to the phenolic content, particularly from ferulic acid. In the range of pH values tested (2.5-4.5), this factor had no influence in the heat inactivation kinetics. Relevant data, in the form of D and Z values calculated in the various environments, potentially useful for the establishment of regimes of thermal control of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts in wine and contaminated equipment is presented.

  18. Inactivation of citrus tristeza virus by gamma ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieki, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Akira

    1984-12-01

    The total exposure of gamma ray and the intensity of gamma ray per hour for the inactivation of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) and also the effect on citrus tissues are described. The budwoods of Morita navel orange infected with a severe seedling-yellow strain of CTV were irradiated with gamma ray from a /sup 60/Co source for 20 - 52 hours. The buds or small tissue pieces of the irradiated budwoods were subsequently grafted onto Mexcan lime. CTV was easily inactivated by the irradiation from 10 to 18 kR for from 20 to 52 hours. The higher the total exposure, the higher the rate of inactivation. The CTV in the budwoods was almost inactivated after the irradiation with 20 kR. When the total exposure to gamma ray on budwoods was the same, CTV was more efficiently inactivated by the irradiation for long period with low intensity of gamma ray per hour than that for short period with high intensity per hour. Gamma ray irradiation was effective to eliminate CTV from citrus tissues. (Mori, K.).

  19. Comparative innocuity and efficacy of live and inactivated sheeppox vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumart, Zineb; Daouam, Samira; Belkourati, Imane; Rafi, Lamya; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Tadlaoui, Khalid Omari; El Harrak, Mehdi

    2016-06-29

    Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbreak, historically disease-free countries would hesitate to use of live vaccines against SPPVdue to the safety and trade reasons. Currently no killed SPPV vaccines are commercially available. In this study, we developed an inactivated Romanian SPPVvaccine and assessed its efficacy and potency in comparison with a live attenuated Romanian SPPV vaccine. Four naïve sheep were vaccinated once with the Romanian SPPV live attenuated vaccine and16 sheep were vaccinated twice with the inactivated vaccine. All sheep in the live vaccine group were included in the challenge trial, which was conducted using a highly virulent Moroccan SPPV field strain. Eight sheep of the inactivated vaccine group were challenged and the remaining sheep were monitored for seroconversion. Experimental animals were closely monitored for the appearance of clinical signs, body temperature and inflammation at the injection site. Two naïve sheep were used as unvaccinated controls. The inactivated Romanian SPPV vaccine was found to be safe and confer a good protection, similar to the live vaccine. Specific antibodies appeared from seven days post vaccination and remained up to nine months. This study showed that the developed inactivated Romanian SPPV vaccine has a potential to replace attenuated vaccine to control and prevent sheep pox in disease-free or endemic countries.

  20. Raman spectroscopy-compatible inactivation method for pathogenic endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, S; Schumacher, W; Meisel, S; Elschner, M; Rösch, P; Popp, J

    2010-05-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a fast and sensitive tool for the detection, classification, and identification of biological organisms. The vibrational spectrum inherently serves as a fingerprint of the biochemical composition of each bacterium and thus makes identification at the species level, or even the subspecies level, possible. Therefore, microorganisms in areas susceptible to bacterial contamination, e.g., clinical environments or food-processing technology, can be sensed. Within the scope of point-of-care-testing also, detection of intentionally released biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents, such as Bacillus anthracis endospores, or their products is attainable. However, no Raman spectroscopy-compatible inactivation method for the notoriously resistant Bacillus endospores has been elaborated so far. In this work we present an inactivation protocol for endospores that permits, on the one hand, sufficient microbial inactivation and, on the other hand, the recording of Raman spectroscopic signatures of single endospores, making species-specific identification by means of highly sophisticated chemometrical methods possible. Several physical and chemical inactivation methods were assessed, and eventually treatment with 20% formaldehyde proved to be superior to the other methods in terms of sporicidal capacity and information conservation in the Raman spectra. The latter fact has been verified by successfully using self-learning machines (such as support vector machines or artificial neural networks) to identify inactivated B. anthracis-related endospores with adequate accuracies within the range of the limited model database employed.

  1. Inactivation of complement by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebel, H M; Finke, J H; Elgert, K D; Cambell, B J; Barrett, J T

    1979-07-01

    Zymosan depletion of serum complement in guinea pigs rendered them highly resistant to lesion by Loxosceles reclusa spider venom. Guinea pigs deficient in C4 of the complement system are as sensitive to the venom as normal guinea pigs. The injection of 35 micrograms of whole recluse venom intradermally into guinea pigs lowered their complement level by 35.7%. Brown recluse spider venom in concentrations as slight as 0.02 micrograms protein/ml can totally inactivate one CH50 of guinea pig complement in vitro. Bee, scorpion, and other spider venoms had no influence on the hemolytic titer of complement. Fractionation of recluse spider venom by Sephadex G-200 filtration separated the complement-inactivating property of the venom into three major regions which could be distinguished on the basis of heat stability as well as size. None was neutralized by antivenom. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of venom resolved the complement inactivators into five fractions. Complement inactivated by whole venom or the Sephadex fractions could be restored to hemolytic activity by supplements of fresh serum but not by heat-inactivated serum, pure C3, pure C5, or C3 and C5 in combination.

  2. Thermal and high pressure inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terefe, Netsanet Shiferaw; Delon, Antoine; Versteeg, Cornelis

    2017-10-01

    This study for the first time investigated the stability and inactivation kinetics of blueberry peroxidase in model systems (McIlvaine buffer, pH=3.6, the typical pH of blueberry juice) during thermal (40-80°C) and combined high pressure-thermal processing (0.1-690MPa, 30-90°C). At 70-80°C, the thermal inactivation kinetics was best described by a biphasic model with ∼61% labile and ∼39% stable fractions at temperature between 70 and 75°C. High pressure inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme with no inactivation at pressures as high as 690MPa and temperatures less than 50°C. The inactivation kinetics of the enzyme at 60-70°C, and pressures higher than 500MPa was best described by a first order biphasic model with ∼25% labile fraction and 75% stable fraction. The activation energy values at atmospheric pressure were 548.6kJ/mol and 324.5kJ/mol respectively for the stable and the labile fractions. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inactivation of Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water by circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Daolun; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    The discharge of alien ballast water is a well-known, major reason for marine species invasion. Here, circular orifice plate-generated hydrodynamic cavitation was used to inactivate Heterosigma akashiwo in ballast water. In comparison with single- and multihole orifice plates, the conical-hole orifice plate yielded the highest inactivation percentage, 51.12%, and consumed only 6.84% energy (based on a 50% inactivation percentage). Repeating treatment, either using double series-connection or circling inactivation, elevated the inactivation percentage, yet consumed much more energy. The results indicate that conical-hole-generated hydrodynamic cavitation shows great potential as a pre-inactivation method for ballast water treatment.

  4. Adjuvanticity of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone on inactivated vaccines against AI and ND virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yunpeng; Wang, Deyun; Liu, Jiaguo; Hu, Yuanliang; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Han, Guocai; Nguyen, The Luong; Chang, Shanshan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the activities of different dose of epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone adjuvant (EPA). The inactivated avian influenza (AI) and Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine containing three doses of EPA were prepared. In AI vaccine vaccination experiment, 300 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 6 groups and inoculated with three EPA-AI vaccines taking oil adjuvant (OA), non-adjuvant (NA) vaccines and physiological saline as controls, repeated at 28-day-old. The lymphocyte proliferation and serum antibody titer were determined. In ND vaccine vaccination experiment, 300 14-day-old chickens were grouped, treated with three EPA-ND vaccines, and determined same to AI vaccine vaccination experiment; at 42-day-old the chickens were challenged with NDV. On D(15) after challenged, the immune protective effect was observed. The results showed that EPA could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer against AI and ND, and reduce the morbidity of chickens challenged with NDV after vaccinated with ND vaccine, especially the effect of medium dose was better than that of non-adjuvant and oil adjuvant. These results indicated that EPA could enhance the immune effect of inactivated AI vaccine and ND vaccine and would be expected as a new-type adjuvant. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial inactivation by microwave radiation in the home environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong-Kyoo; Bitton, Gabriel; Melker, Richard

    2006-12-01

    The study reported here looked at the survival of microorganisms (heterotrophic plate counts, total coliforms, E. coli, and bacterial spores) in a consumer-type microwave oven. Kitchen sponges, scrubbing pads, and syringes were experimentally contaminated with wastewater and subsequently exposed to microwave radiation. At 100 percent power level, it was found that the heterotrophic plate count (i.e., total bacterial count) of the wastewater was reduced by more that 99 percent within 1 to 2 minutes, and the total coliform and E. coli were totally inactivated after 30 seconds of microwave radiation. Bacterial phage MS2 was totally inactivated within 1 to 2 minutes. Spores of Bacillus cereus were more resistant than the other microorganisms tested, and were completely eradicated only after 4-minute irradiation. Similar inactivation rates were obtained in wastewater-contaminated scrubbing pads. Microorganisms attached to plastic syringes were more resistant to microwave irradiation than those associated with kitchen sponges or scrubbing pads. It took 10 minutes for total inactivation of the heterotrophic plate count and 4 minutes for total inactivation of total coliform and E. coli. A 4-log reduction of phage MS2 was obtained after 2 minutes; 97.4 percent reduction was observed after 12 minutes. The authors also observed a higher inactivation of B. cereus spores in syringes placed in a ceramic container than of spores in syringes placed in a glass container. This finding could have some implications for the design of containers to be used in exposure of medical devices to microwave radiation. The article discusses the implications of these findings for consumer safety in the home environment.

  6. Assessing the efficacy of an inactivated chicken anemia virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinheng; Wu, Boliang; Liu, Yuanjia; Chen, Weiguo; Dai, Zhenkai; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2015-04-15

    Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes chicken infectious anemia (CIA) which is a highly contagious avian disease. CAV causes major economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. The current CAV vaccine is a live attenuated strain administered in the drinking water that risks horizontal infection of other chickens. The purpose of this study was to develop a novel vaccine against CAV that can be administered safely using a highly pathogenic isolate inactivated with β-propiolactone hydrolysis that would protect chicks from CAV. Hens were vaccinated twice intramuscularly with a novel CAV GD-G-12 inactivated vaccine and the humoral immune responses of the hens and offspring were monitored by ELISA. A heterologous intramuscular challenge using the CAV strain GD-E-12 was conducted in the chicks hatched from vaccinated or unvaccinated hens. The vaccine strain, GD-G-12, was shown to be highly pathogenic prior to inactivation evidenced by thymic atrophy and bleeding, and weight loss. The inactivated vaccine was considered safe and showed no signs of pathogenicity. High titers of CAV specific antibodies were detected in the vaccinated hens and in their chicks, indicating vertical transfer of maternal antibodies. Furthermore, the chicks hatched from vaccinated hens were resistant to a heterologous CAV challenge and showed no signs of weight loss and thymic atrophy and bleeding. Our studies are proof of principle that inactivated GD-G-12 might be a novel vaccine candidate to prevent CAV infection, and highlight the utility of using an inactivated virus for this vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of VHSV by Percolation and Salt Under Experimental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Jørgensen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by percolation. To evaluate the inactivation effect of percolation on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for percolation etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  8. Inactivation of VHSV by infiltration and salt under experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Jørgensen, Claus; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    At the moment the only legal method in Denmark to sanitize wastewater from fish cutting plants is by infiltration. To evaluate the inactivation effect of infiltration on VHSV an experimental examination was initiated. A column packed with gravel as top- and bottom layer (total of 22 cm) and a mid...... be a valuable method to sanitize VHSV infected water. Changes in temperature, pH, earth types in the area used for infiltration etc. may change the virus reduction, though. As some of the fish cutting plants are also smoking rainbow trout fillets, the question arose whether a brine solution will inactivate VHSV...

  9. Inactivation of Herpes Simplex Viruses by Nonionic Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asculai, Samuel S.; Weis, Margaret T.; Rancourt, Martha W.; Kupferberg, A. B.

    1978-01-01

    Nonionic surface-active agents possessing ether or amide linkages between the hydrophillic and hydrophobic portions of the molecule rapidly inactivated the infectivity of herpes simplex viruses. The activity stemmed from the ability of nonionic surfactants to dissolve lipid-containing membranes. This was confirmed by observing surfactant destruction of mammalian cell plasma membranes and herpes simplex virus envelopes. Proprietary vaginal contraceptive formulations containing nonionic surfactants also inactivated herpes simplex virus infectivity. This observation suggests that nonionic surfactants in appropriate formulation could effectively prevent herpes simplex virus transmission. Images PMID:208460

  10. An insight on bacterial cellular targets of photodynamic inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliana; Faustino, Maria Af; Neves, Maria Gpms; Cunha, Angela; Tome, Joao; Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of microbial resistance is becoming a global problem in clinical and environmental areas. As such, the development of drugs with novel modes of action will be vital to meet the threats created by the rise in microbial resistance. Microbial photodynamic inactivation is receiving considerable attention for its potentialities as a new antimicrobial treatment. This review addresses the interactions between photosensitizers and bacterial cells (binding site and cellular localization), the ultrastructural, morphological and functional changes observed at initial stages and during the course of photodynamic inactivation, the oxidative alterations in specific molecular targets, and a possible development of resistance.

  11. Influenza (flu) vaccine (Inactivated or Recombinant): What you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...

  12. High pressure processing's potential to inactivate norovirus and other fooodborne viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    High pressure processing (HPP) can inactivate human norovirus. However, all viruses are not equally susceptible to HPP. Pressure treatment parameters such as required pressure levels, initial pressurization temperatures, and pressurization times substantially affect inactivation. How food matrix ...

  13. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Stéphanie; Donazzolo, Yves; Jambrecina, Alen; Salamand, Camille; Saville, Melanie

    2013-11-12

    Although two antigenically distinct B strain lineages of influenza have co-circulated globally since the mid-1980s, trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain only one, resulting in frequent mismatches. This study examined the safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) candidate. This was a phase III, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial in adults during the 2011/2012 influenza season. Enrollment was stratified to include equal numbers of subjects 18-60 and >60 years of age. Subjects were randomized 5:1:1 to be vaccinated with the QIV, the licensed TIV, or an investigational TIV containing the alternate B strain lineage. Hemagglutinin inhibition antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1116 subjects were vaccinated with QIV, 226 with the licensed TIV, and 223 with the investigational TIV. For all four vaccine strains, antibody responses to the QIV were non-inferior to the response to the TIV for the matched strains. For both B strains, post-vaccination antibody responses to the QIV were superior to the responses to the TIVs lacking the corresponding B strain. The QIV met all European Medicines Agency criteria for all four vaccine strains. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for the QIV and pooled TIV groups. The most commonly reported solicited reactions were injection-site pain, headache, and myalgia, and most solicited reactions were mild or moderate and appeared and resolved within 3 days of vaccination. No treatment-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. The inactivated QIV was well tolerated without any safety concerns. For all four vaccine strains, antibody responses to the QIV were superior to the responses to TIV for the unmatched strains and non-inferior for the matched strains. QIV could therefore help address an unmet need due to mismatched B strains in previous influenza vaccines. EudraCT: 2011

  14. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  15. Testing household disinfectants for the inactivation of helminth eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-04

    Oct 4, 2016 ... Keywords: Ascaris, carbolic acid, disinfectant, eggs, inactivation, pit latrine, sanitation, sodium hypochlorite. INTRODUCTION. The lack of ... ronment providing temperature (25°C) and humidity (> 55%) are optimal. ...... The pH of the stomach is strongly acidic, but pH of the gas- trointestinal tract is in the ...

  16. 40 CFR 141.720 - Inactivation toolbox components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and virus treatment credits for ultraviolet (UV) light reactors by achieving the... unfiltered systems. UV Dose Table for Cryptosporidium, Giardia lamblia, and Virus Inactivation Credit Log credit Cryptosporidium UV dose (mJ/cm2) Giardia lamblia UV dose (mJ/cm2) VirusUV dose (mJ/cm2) (i) 0.5 1...

  17. Inactivation of human and simian rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y S; Vaughn, J M

    1990-01-01

    The inactivation of single-particle stocks of human (type 2, Wa) and simian (SA-11) rotaviruses by chlorine dioxide was investigated. Experiments were conducted at 4 degrees C in a standard phosphate-carbonate buffer. Both virus types were rapidly inactivated, within 20 s under alkaline conditions, when chlorine dioxide concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.2 mg/liter were used. Similar reductions of 10(5)-fold in infectivity required additional exposure time of 120 s at 0.2 mg/liter for Wa and at 0.5 mg/liter for SA-11, respectively, at pH 6.0. The inactivation of both virus types was moderate at neutral pH, and the sensitivities to chlorine dioxide were similar. The observed enhancement of virucidal efficiency with increasing pH was contrary to earlier findings with chlorine- and ozone-treated rotavirus particles, where efficiencies decreased with increasing alkalinity. Comparison of 99.9% virus inactivation times revealed ozone to be the most effective virucidal agent among these three disinfectants. PMID:2160222

  18. Application of electrolysis to inactivation of antibacterials in clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takashi; Hirose, Jun; Kobayashi, Toyohide; Hiro, Naoki; Kondo, Fumitake; Tamai, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Sano, Kouichi

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of surface water by antibacterial pharmaceuticals (antibacterials) from clinical settings may affect aquatic organisms, plants growth, and environmental floral bacteria. One of the methods to decrease the contamination is inactivation of antibacterials before being discharged to the sewage system. Recently, we reported the novel method based on electrolysis for detoxifying wastewater containing antineoplastics. In the present study, to clarify whether the electrolysis method is applicable to the inactivation of antibacterials, we electrolyzed solutions of 10 groups of individual antibacterials including amikacin sulfate (AMK) and a mixture (MIX) of some commercial antibacterials commonly prescribed at hospitals, and measured their antibacterial activities. AMK was inactivated in its antibacterial activities and its concentration decreased by electrolysis in a time-dependent manner. Eighty to ninety-nine percent of almost all antibacterials and MIX were inactivated within 6h of electrolysis. Additionally, cytotoxicity was not detected in any of the electrolyzed solutions of antibacterials and MIX by the Molt-4-based cytotoxicity test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha curcas is induced by stress ... In addition, the 32 kDa band is nearly the molecular weight of curcin 2. ... curcin 2. The presence of this protein molecular marker under stresses may provide an experimental foundation to study the stress proteins in J. curcas.

  20. Significance of cobalamin inactivation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Ermens (Anton)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of the effects of cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide on cellular folate metabolism and the consequences on normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Kroes et al. demonstrated the antileukemic effects of nitrous oxide either or not in combination

  1. Inactivation of pathogens on pork by steam-ultrasound treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morild, Rikke K; Christiansen, Pia; Sørensen, Anders Morten Hay

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate a new pathogen inactivation concept that combines application of pressurized steam simultaneously with high-power ultrasound through a series of nozzles. On skin and meat surfaces of pork jowl samples, counts of total viable bacteria were reduced by 1...

  2. Inactivation of bacteria in sewage sludge by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, G A; Kapila, S; Kelkar, V B; Negi, S; Modi, V V

    1987-01-01

    The survival of certain bacterial cultures suspended in sewage sludge and exposed to gamma-radiation was studied. The inactivation patterns of most of the organisms were significantly different when irradiation was performed using sewage samples collected in the summer and monsoon seasons. The summer sample collected from the anaerobic digestor afforded significant protection to both Gram negative and Gram positive organisms. This was evident by the increase in dose required to bring about a 6 log cycle reduction in viable count of the bacterial cultures, when suspended in sewage samples instead of phosphate buffer. The observations made using monsoon digestor samples were quite different. This sewage sludge greatly enhanced inactivation by gamma-radiation in most cases. The effects of certain chemicals on the inactivation patterns of two organisms-Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri-were examined. Arsenate, mercury and lead salts sensitised S. typhi, while barium acetate and sodium sulphide protected this culture against gamma-radiation. In the case of Sh. flexneri, barium acetate and iodacetamide proved to be radioprotectors. The effects of some chemicals on the inactivation pattern of Sh. flexneri cells irradiated in sludge are also discussed.

  3. Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of genetic algorithms for high hydrostatic pressure inactivation of microorganisms. ... Depending on the properties of HHP equipment (maximum operating pressure) or the type of the food product (heat-sensitive), it could be possible to select the suitable P-T-t trio among the alternatives. This study reveals that GAs could ...

  4. Inactivation of enveloped virus by laser-driven protein aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsen, Shaw-Wei D.; Chapa, Travis; Beatty, Wandy; Tsen, Kong-Thon; Yu, Dong; Achilefu, Samuel

    2012-12-01

    Ultrafast lasers in the visible and near-infrared range have emerged as a potential new method for pathogen reduction of blood products and pharmaceuticals. However, the mechanism of enveloped virus inactivation by this method is unknown. We report the inactivation as well as the molecular and structural effects caused by visible (425 nm) femtosecond laser irradiation on murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. Our results show that laser irradiation (1) caused a 5-log reduction in MCMV titer, (2) did not cause significant changes to the global structure of MCMV virions including membrane and capsid, as assessed by electron microscopy, (3) produced no evidence of double-strand breaks or crosslinking in MCMV genomic DNA, and (4) caused selective aggregation of viral capsid and tegument proteins. We propose a model in which ultrafast laser irradiation induces partial unfolding of viral proteins by disrupting hydrogen bonds and/or hydrophobic interactions, leading to aggregation of closely associated viral proteins and inactivation of the virus. These results provide new insight into the inactivation of enveloped viruses by visible femtosecond lasers at the molecular level, and help pave the way for the development of a new ultrafast laser technology for pathogen reduction.

  5. Inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of insertion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Agrobacterium strains harbour insertion sequences, which are known to transpose into genomes as well as into Ti plasmids. In this study we report the inactivation of a transgene due to transposition of the A. tumefaciens insertion sequence IS136. The transposition was discovered following transformation of plant tissues, ...

  6. Photoactivated polycationic bioactive chitosan nanoparticles inactivate bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Annie; Cordova, Martha; Kishen, Anil

    2015-05-01

    The current root canal disinfection protocols fail to markedly inactivate bacterial endotoxins from infected root dentin. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of antibacterial photodynamic therapy with chitosan-conjugated rose bengal nanoparticles (CSRBnps) to selectively inactivate endotoxins/lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Antimicrobial agents such as calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2), chitosan nanoparticles (CSnps), CSRBnps, and methylene blue (MB) were assessed for their ability to neutralize LPSs obtained from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a time-dependent interaction with/without photoactivation (20 and 40 J/cm(2)). The inflammatory potential of the treated/untreated LPSs was assessed on macrophage cells (RAW 267.4) using nitric oxide- and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6 expression)-based analysis. These antimicrobials were tested directly on macrophage cells for cytotoxicity using the mitochondrial activity assay and light microscopy. The data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the Tukey test. CSnps were least effective in LPS inactivation. Interluekin-6 expression was reduced only with CSRBnp treatment. CSnps and CSRBnps were completely nontoxic, and MB showed slight toxicity to macrophage cells. Ca(OH)2 was highly cytotoxic (P endotoxins and the subsequent reduction of all tested inflammatory markers from activated macrophages. Antimicrobial CSRBnps in combination with photodynamic therapy showed the potential to effectively inactivate bacterial endotoxins. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inactivation of dairy manure-borne pathogens by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Anaerobic digestion of animal manure has the potential to inactivate enteric pathogens, thereby reducing exposures to livestock and humans when the products of digestion are disposed by land-spreading or irrigation or returned to livestock uses such as bedding. Data on digester effectiv...

  8. Photodynamic inactivation of fibroblasts by a cationic porphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.; Schwartz, Kevin R.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Dankert, Jacob B.

    2005-01-01

    An important determinant of the clinical applicability and value of antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) is the cytotoxicity of the treatment to human cells. We evaluated the in vitro cytotoxicity of PDI to human dermal fibroblasts using 5-phenyl-10,15,20-tris(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphyrin

  9. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended

  10. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Inactivated Oil-Emulsion Newcastle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the first recognition of Newcastle disease (ND) in Nigeria, it has been observed to be enzootic despite the intensive vaccination policy, leading to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. This study evaluated the ability of inactivated oil-emulsion ND Komarov vaccine to protect laying chickens from challenge ...

  11. Indicators for suicide substrate inactivation: A kinetic investigation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suicide substrate kinetic pathway and a proposed set of indicators, some theoretical and a few practical ones, that can decisively conclude enzyme inactivation are considered. Steady-state approximation is assumed not only when a catalytic amount of enzyme is used but also for any substrate-enzyme ratio. In each ...

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of Aspergillus flavus mediated by Bidens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occurrence of mycotoxins in food and animal feeds poses major health risks to human and animals, and effective control requires integration of crop management strategies both in the field and during post-harvest storage and processing. Photodynamic inactivation is a novel light-based approach which offers a promising ...

  13. Effect of modified live or inactivated feline herpesvirus-1 parenteral vaccines on clinical and laboratory findings following viral challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Stacie C; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Hawley, Jennifer R; Lappin, Michael R

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The objective was to investigate the effect of one dose of an inactivated feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV) and panleukopenia virus (FPV) vaccine (FVRCP) or one dose of a modified live (ML) FVRCP vaccine on clinical signs and shedding of FHV-1 in specific pathogen-free kittens after challenge with FHV-1 7 days after vaccination. Methods Twenty-four FHV-1 seronegative 5-month-old kittens were randomized into three groups of eight kittens. Group 1 kittens were maintained as unvaccinated controls, group 2 kittens were administered one dose of the inactivated FVRCP vaccine subcutaneously (SC) and group 3 kittens were administered one dose of the ML FVRCP vaccine SC. All 24 cats were administered FHV-1 by nasal and oropharyngeal inoculation 7 days later and were observed daily for clinical signs of illness for 21 days. Results In the 21 days after FHV-1 challenge, both groups of vaccinated cats were less likely to be clinically ill (indicated by lower cumulative clinical scores) than control cats ( P vaccinated groups ( P = 0.97). Although the total clinical score was similar between both vaccines, signs of respiratory disease were significantly fewer in the kittens vaccinated with the inactivated FVRCP vaccine compared with the ML FVRCP vaccine ( P = 0.005) during the period after inoculation when the majority of clinical disease was observed. Conclusions and relevance Parenteral administration of either the inactivated FVRCP vaccine or the ML FVRCP vaccine can decrease clinical signs of illness due to FHV-1 on a day 7 challenge when compared with controls. Use of either vaccine product is indicated in cats at risk of acute exposure to FHV-1.

  14. Transient inactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex affects both anxiety and decision-making in male Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie ede Visser

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In both humans and rats high levels of anxiety impair decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT in male subjects. Expression of the immediate early gene c-fos as marker of neural activity in rat studies indicated a role of the medial prefrontal cortex (prelimbic and infralimbic region; mPFC in mediating the relationship between anxiety and decision-making. To delineate this relationship further and assess the underlying neurobiology in more detail, we inactivated in the present study the mPFC in male rats using a mixture of the GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and baclofen. Rats were exposed to the elevated plus maze (EPM to measure effects on anxiety and to the rodent version of the IGT (r-IGT. Inactivation led to increased levels of anxiety on the EPM, while not affecting general activity. The effect in the r-IGT (trials 61-120 was dependent on levels of performance prior to inactivation (trial 41-60: inactivation of the mPFC hampered task-performance in rats, which already showed a preference for the advantageous option, but not in rats which were still choosing in a random manner. These data suggest that the mPFC becomes more strongly involved as rats have learned task-contingencies, i.e. choose for the best long-term option. Furthermore they suggest, along with the data of our earlier study, that both anxiety and decision-making in rats are mediated through a neural circuitry including at least the mPFC. The data are discussed in relation to recent data of rodent studies on the neural circuitry underlying decision-making.

  15. Strategy to inactivate Clostridium perfringens spores in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saeed; Paredes-Sabja, Daniel; Torres, J Antonio; Sarker, Mahfuzur R

    2009-05-01

    The current study aimed to develop an inactivation strategy for Clostridium perfringens spores in meat through a combination of spore activation at low pressure (100-200 MPa, 7 min) and elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min); spore germination at high temperatures (55, 60 or 65 degrees C); and inactivation of germinated spores with elevated temperatures (80 and 90 degrees C, 10 and 20 min) and high pressure (586 MPa, at 23 and 73 degrees C, 10 min). Low pressures (100-200 MPa) were insufficient to efficiently activate C. perfringens spores for germination. However, C. perfringens spores were efficiently activated with elevated temperature (80 degrees C, 10 min), and germinated at temperatures lethal for vegetative cells (>or= 55 degrees C) when incubated for 60 min with a mixture of L-asparagine and KCl (AK) in phosphate buffer (pH 7) and in poultry meat. Inactivation of spores (approximately 4 decimal reduction) in meat by elevated temperatures (80-90 degrees C for 20 min) required a long germination period (55 degrees C for 60 min). However, similar inactivation level was reached with shorter germination period (55 degrees C for 15 min) when spore contaminated-meat was treated with pressure-assisted thermal processing (568 MPa, 73 degrees C, 10 min). Therefore, the most efficient strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in poultry meat containing 50 mM AK consisted: (i) a primary heat treatment (80 degrees C, 10 min) to pasteurize and denature the meat proteins and to activate C. perfringens spores for germination; (ii) cooling of the product to 55 degrees C in about 20 min and further incubation at 55 degrees C for about 15 min for spore germination; and (iii) inactivation of germinated spores by pressure-assisted thermal processing (586 MPa at 73 degrees C for 10 min). Collectively, this study demonstrates the feasibility of an alternative and novel strategy to inactivate C. perfringens spores in meat products formulated with germinants specific for C

  16. 21 CFR 866.5250 - Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 866.5250 Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system. (a) Identification. A complement C1 inhibitor (inactivator) immunological test system is a device that consists of... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Complement C2 inhibitor (inactivator...

  17. Inactivation Effect of Antibiotic-Resistant Gene Using Chlorine Disinfection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Furukawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to elucidate the inactivation effects on the antibiotic-resistance gene (vanA of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE using chlorination, a disinfection method widely used in various water treatment facilities. Suspensions of VRE were prepared by adding VRE to phosphate-buffered saline, or the sterilized secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant. The inactivation experiments were carried out at several chlorine concentrations and stirring time. Enterococci concentration and presence of vanA were determined. The enterococci concentration decreased as chlorine concentrations and stirring times increased, with more than 7.0 log reduction occurring under the following conditions: 40 min stirring at 0.5 mg Cl2/L, 20 min stirring at 1.0 mg Cl2/L, and 3 min stirring at 3.0 mg Cl2/L. In the inactivation experiment using VRE suspended in secondary effluent, the culturable enterococci required much higher chlorine concentration and longer treatment time for complete disinfection than the cases of suspension of VRE. However, vanA was detected in all chlorinated suspensions of VRE, even in samples where no enterococcal colonies were present on the medium agar plate. The chlorine disinfection was not able to destroy antibiotic-resistance genes, though it can inactivate and decrease bacterial counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB. Therefore, it was suggested that remaining ARB and/or antibiotic-resistance gene in inactivated bacterial cells after chlorine disinfection tank could be discharged into water environments.

  18. Molecular differentiation of the homomorphic sex chromosomes in Megaselia scalaris (Diptera) detected by random DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhoeft, U; Traut, W

    1990-08-01

    Randomly cloned DNA fragments and a poly-(GATA) containing sequence were used as probes to identify sex chromosomal inheritance and to detect differences at the molecular level between the homomorphic X and Y in the phorid fly, Megaselia scalaris. Restriction fragment length differences between males and females and between two laboratory stocks of different geographic origin were used to differentiate between sex chromosomal and autosomal origin of the respective fragments. Five random probes detected X and Y chromosomal DNA loci and two others recognized autosomal DNA loci. One random probe and the poly(GATA) probe hybridized with both sex chromosomal and autosomal restriction fragments. Most of the Y chromosomal restriction fragments were conserved in length between the two stocks while most of the X chromosomal and autosomal fragments showed length polymorphism. It was concluded, therefore, that the Y chromosome contains a conserved segment in which crossover is suppressed and restriction site differences have accumulated relative to the X. These chromosomes, therefore, conform to a theoretically expected early stage of sex chromosome evolution.

  19. Immune response to a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Enhancement of the response by increasing the dose of hepatitis B surface antigen from 3 to 27 micrograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; Reesink, H. W.; de Jong-van Manen, S. T.; Dees, P. J.; Reerink-Brongers, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    In a randomized trial, 227 patients undergoing hemodialysis who were seronegative for all markers of hepatitis B virus were immunized at monthly intervals with three doses of either 3 micrograms or 27 micrograms of heat-inactivated hepatitis B HB-vaccine (CLB). Five months after the first injection,

  20. The assessment of efficacy of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus inactivated vaccine based on the viral quantity and inactivation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byeongchun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been many efforts to develop efficient vaccines for the control of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV. Although inactivated PRRSV vaccines are preferred for their safety, they are weak at inducing humoral immune responses and controlling field PRRSV infection, especially when heterologous viruses are involved. Results In all groups, the sample to positive (S/P ratio of IDEXX ELISA and the virus neutralization (VN titer remained negative until challenge. While viremia did not reduce in the vaccinated groups, the IDEXX-ELISA-specific immunoglobulin G increased more rapidly and to significantly greater levels 7 days after the challenge in all the vaccinated groups compared to the non-vaccinated groups (p 6 PFU/mL PRRSV vaccine-inoculated and binary ethylenimine (BEI-inactivated groups 22 days after challenge (p Conclusions The inactivated vaccine failed to show the humoral immunity, but it showed different immune response after the challenge compared to mock group. Although the 106 PFU/mL-vaccinated and BEI-inactivated groups showed significantly greater VN titers 22 days after challenge, all the groups were already negative for viremia.

  1. Transient inactivation of myostatin induces muscle hypertrophy and overcompensatory growth in zebrafish via inactivation of the SMAD signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo N; Pino, Katherine; Navarro, Cristina; Delgado, Iselys; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Molina, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) is the main negative regulator of muscle growth and development in vertebrates. In fish, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind how MSTN inactivation triggers skeletal muscle enhancement, particularly regarding the signaling pathways involved in this process. Moreover, there have not been reports on the biotechnological applications of MSTN and its signal transduction. In this context, zebrafish underwent compensatory growth using fasting and refeeding trials, and MSTN activity was inactivated with dominant negative LAPD76A recombinant proteins during the refeeding period, when a rapid, compensatory muscle growth was observed. Treated fish displayed an overcompensation of growth characterized by higher muscle hypertrophy and growth performance than constantly fed, control fish. Treatment with LAPD76A recombinant proteins triggered inactivation of the SMAD signaling pathway in skeletal muscle, the main signal transduction used by MSTN to achieve its biological actions. Therefore, transient inactivation of MSTN during the compensatory growth of zebrafish led to a decrease in the SMAD signaling pathway in muscle, triggering muscle hypertrophy and finally improving growth performance, thus, zebrafish achieved an overcompensation of growth. The present study shows an attractive strategy for improving muscle growth in a fish species by mixing a classical strategy, such as compensatory growth, and a biotechnological approach, such as the use of recombinant proteins for inhibiting the biological actions of MSTN. The mix of both strategies may represent a method that could be applied in order to improve growth in commercial fish of interest for aquaculture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytolytic T lymphocyte responses to metabolically inactivated stimulator cells. I. Metabolic inactivation impairs both CD and LD antigen signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, A.; Boyle, W.

    1982-03-01

    The effects of metabolic inactivation of spleen cells on antigen presentation to precursors of alloreactive cytolytic T lymphocytes (T/sub c/) were examined. By serological methods, populations inactivated by ultraviolet irradiation, glutaraldehyde fixation or plasma membrane isolation were found to retain normal levels of H-2K/D and Ia antigens. However, comparison of the antigen doses required to stimulate secondary T/sub c/ responses in mixed leukocyte culture showed that the inactivated preparations were approximately 10-fold less immunogenic than X-irradiated spleen cells. Their total inability to stimulate primary cytolytic responses pointed to at least a 100-fold impairment of immunogenicity for unprimed T/sub c/ precursors in the case of uv-irradiated and glutaraldehyde-treated stimulator cells, and at least a 10-fold impairment for membrane fragments. Experiments showing that the capacity of cell monolayers to absorb precursor T/sub c/ from unprimed spleen populations was reduced following uv-irradiation or glutaraldehyde treatment provided direct evidence that this loss of immunogenicity was due in part to suboptimal antigen presentation to precursor T/sub c/. It is concluded that, in addition to the traditional view that these treatments damage the ''LD'' signal to helper T lymphocytes, metabolic inactivation also impairs recognition of ''CD'' determinants by precursor T/sub c/.

  3. Calcium current-dependent and voltage-dependent inactivation of calcium channels in Helix aspersa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A. M.; Morimoto, K.; Tsuda, Y.; Wilson, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    1. Inactivation of the Ca channels has been examined in isolated nerve cell bodies of Helix aspersa using the suction pipette method for voltage clamp and internal perfusion. 2. Satisfactory suppression of outward currents was essential. This was achieved over most of the voltage range by substitution of Cs ion for K ion and by the use of TEA intra- and extracellularly and 4-AP extracellularly. A small time- and voltage-dependent non-specific current remained at potentials above +60 mV. 3. In these solutions, Ca current approaches ECa but cannot be detected in the outward direction. The Ca channel appears to be impermeable to Cs and Tris ions. 4. Inactivation of Ca currents occurs as a bi-exponential process. The faster rate is 10-20 times the slower rate and is about one twentieth the rate of activation. The development of inactivation during a single voltage-clamp step and the onset of inactivation produced by prepulses followed after brief intervals by a test pulse, have roughly similar time courses. 5. The rates of inactivation increase monotonically at potentials more positive than about -25 mV. The amount of steady-state inactivation increases with membrane depolarizations to potentials of about +50 mV. At more positive potentials, steady-state inactivation is reduced. 6. Intracellular EGTA slows the faster rate of inactivation of ICa and reduces the amount of steady-state inactivation measured with a standard two pulse protocol. The effect is specifically related to Ca chelation and hydrogen ions are not involved. This component of inactivation is referred to as Ca current-dependent inactivation and is consistent with observations that increased Cai inactivates the Ca channel. The process does not depend upon current flow alone since Ba currents of comparable or greater magnitude have smaller initial rates of inactivation. Furthermore, application of Ba ion intracellularly in large concentrations has no effect on steady-state inactivation. 7. The bi

  4. Photochemical inactivation of pathogenic bacteria in human platelet concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L; Londe, H; Janda, J M; Hanson, C V; Corash, L

    1994-05-01

    Platelet concentrates (PC) may be infrequently contaminated with low levels of bacteria that can cause septicemia and death in patients receiving transfusion therapy. We evaluated the efficacy of a photochemical decontamination (PCD) technique using 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wavelength UV light (UVA) to inactivate bacteria in standard therapeutic PC. Twelve phylogenetically distinct pathogenic bacteria, 5 gram-positive and 7 gram-negative organisms, were seeded into PC to a final challenge dose ranging from 10(5) to 10(7) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL. Contaminated PC were treated with 8-MOP (5 micrograms/mL) and 5 J/cm2 of UVA, a PCD treatment regimen found to adequately preserve in vitro platelet function. Greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of all 5 gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Corynebacterium minutissimum) and 2 of the gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Yersinia enterocolitica) organisms were inactivated. The remaining 5 gram-negative organisms were more resistant, with less than 10(1) to 10(3.7) CFU/mL inactivated under these conditions. The inactivation efficiency for this resistant group of gram-negative organisms was improved when PC were resuspended in a synthetic storage medium with reduced plasma protein concentration (15%) and an increased 8-MOP concentration (23.4 micrograms/mL). Illumination with 3 J/cm2 of UVA in this system inactivated greater than 10(5) CFU/mL of 4 resistant gram-negative organisms (Salmonella choleraesuis, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, and Klebsiella pneumoniae) and 10(4.1) CFU/mL of the most resistant gram-negative organism (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). This level of PCD treatment did not adversely affect in vitro platelet function. These results demonstrate that PCD using 8-MOP (5 to 23.4 micrograms/mL) effectively inactivated high levels of pathogenic bacteria in PC with adequate preservation of in vitro platelet properties.

  5. Modeling of human factor Va inactivation by activated protein C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Maria

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because understanding of the inventory, connectivity and dynamics of the components characterizing the process of coagulation is relatively mature, it has become an attractive target for physiochemical modeling. Such models can potentially improve the design of therapeutics. The prothrombinase complex (composed of the protease factor (FXa and its cofactor FVa plays a central role in this network as the main producer of thrombin, which catalyses both the activation of platelets and the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin, the main substances of a clot. A key negative feedback loop that prevents clot propagation beyond the site of injury is the thrombin-dependent generation of activated protein C (APC, an enzyme that inactivates FVa, thus neutralizing the prothrombinase complex. APC inactivation of FVa is complex, involving the production of partially active intermediates and “protection” of FVa from APC by both FXa and prothrombin. An empirically validated mathematical model of this process would be useful in advancing the predictive capacity of comprehensive models of coagulation. Results A model of human APC inactivation of prothrombinase was constructed in a stepwise fashion by analyzing time courses of FVa inactivation in empirical reaction systems with increasing number of interacting components and generating corresponding model constructs of each reaction system. Reaction mechanisms, rate constants and equilibrium constants informing these model constructs were initially derived from various research groups reporting on APC inactivation of FVa in isolation, or in the presence of FXa or prothrombin. Model predictions were assessed against empirical data measuring the appearance and disappearance of multiple FVa degradation intermediates as well as prothrombinase activity changes, with plasma proteins derived from multiple preparations. Our work integrates previously published findings and through the cooperative

  6. Cometabolic degradation of chlorinated solvents: Bacterial inhibition, inactivation, and recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ely, R.L.; Williamson, K.J.; Hyman, M.R.; Arp, D.J. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-12-31

    This paper summarizes an approach for quantifying degradation kinetics and bacterial activity changes during cometabolic degradation of chlorinated solvents, results from trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation experiments, and a mathematical model addressing fluctuations in activity caused by enzyme inhibition, inactivation, and respondent enzyme synthesis. Using Nitrosomonas duropaea as a slow-growing exemplar capable of effecting cometabolic transformations, quasi-steady-state ammonia oxidation was established in a small bioreactor. A chlorinated solvent was injected to perturb the system, and bacterial activity and solvent degradation were monitored. At TCE concentrations to about 3.5 mg/L, from slight to nearly complete ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) inactivation occurred without causing immediate cell death. Results suggested cellular injury was limited primarily to AMO, most metabolic systems remained functional, and bacterial recovery processes, independent of cell growth, were initiated while degrading TCE.

  7. Polio endgame: the global introduction of inactivated polio vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-05-01

    In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.

  8. Nonthermal Plasma Inactivation of Food-Borne Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Misra, N.; Tiwari, B.; Rahavarao, K.; Cullen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Non-thermal plasma (NTP) is electrically energized matter, composed of highly reactive species including gas molecules, charged particles in the form of positive ions, negative ions, free radicals, electrons and quanta of electromagnetic radiation (photons) at near-room temperature. NTP is an emerging nonthermal technology with potential applications for decontamination in the food industries. An upsurge in the research activities for plasma based inactivation of food borne pathogens is evide...

  9. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnes, Sarah L; Keevil, C William

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae) are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS) determined that Cu(II) and especially Cu(I) ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked), which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  10. Drying of liquid food droplets : enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Meerdink, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis the drying of liquid food droplets is studied from three different points of view: drying kinetics, enzyme inactivation and multicomponent diffusion. Mathematical models are developed and validated experimentally.

    Drying experiments are performed with suspended droplets and with free falling droplets under spray-drying conditions. The experiments with the free falling droplets are performed in a specially designed drying tower using a resonance nozzle. The reso...

  11. Thermal inactivation of eight Salmonella serotypes on dry corn flour.

    OpenAIRE

    VanCauwenberge, J E; Bothast, R J; Kwolek, W F

    1981-01-01

    Dry heat was used to inactivate Salmonella newington, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella anatum, Salmonella kentucky, Salmonella cubana, Salmonella seftenberg, Salmonella thompson, and Salmonella tennessee in corn flour at 10 and 15% moisture. The flour was spray inoculated at 10(5) Salmonella cells per g and then stored at 49 degrees C (120 degrees F); viable Salmonella cells were counted on Trypticase (BBL Microbiology Systems) soy agar plates every 30 min for the first 4 h and then at 4-h ...

  12. Mechanism for Mutational Inactivation of the Tumor Suppressor Smad2

    OpenAIRE

    Prunier, Celine; Ferrand, Nathalie; Frottier, Bertrand; Pessah, Marcia; Atfi, Azeddine

    2001-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is a potent natural antiproliferative agent that plays an important role in suppressing tumorigenicity. In numerous tumors, loss of TGF-β responsiveness is associated with inactivating mutations that can occur in components of this signaling pathway, such as the tumor suppressor Smad2. Although a general framework for how Smads transduce TGF-β signals has been proposed, the physiological relevance of alterations of Smad2 functions in promoting tumorigenesi...

  13. Significance of cobalamin inactivation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ermens, Anton

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of the effects of cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide on cellular folate metabolism and the consequences on normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Kroes et al. demonstrated the antileukemic effects of nitrous oxide either or not in combination with other drugs interfering with the folate metabolism (132-136). Especially the potentiation of methotrexate activity in the employed rat model for myeloid leukemia (BNML) after preexposure to nitrou...

  14. The efficacy of preservation methods to inactivate foodborne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, L; Debevere, J; Uyttendaele, M

    2009-05-31

    During the last decade an increased incidence of infections and outbreaks attributed to foodborne viruses, in particular noroviruses (NoV), was observed world wide. The awareness of the presence of viruses on food emphasized the need to acquire knowledge regarding the effect of preservation methods upon viruses. Most foodborne viruses cannot be cultured in the laboratory, which hinders studies of their stability in food. Cultivable surrogate viruses, genetically related to the human infecting strains, are taken as a substitute to define inactivation rates. The last years, the number of survival and inactivation studies using various surrogate viruses increased. In this review, state-of-the-art information regarding the efficacy of preservation methods to reduce the level of viruses on food is compiled. In the first place, the effect of preservation methods establishing microbial growth inhibition (chilling, freezing, acidification, reduced water activity and modified atmosphere packaging) upon foodborne viruses is described. Secondly, the use of preservation methods establishing microbial inactivation such as heat treatment, high hydrostatic pressure processing and irradiation to eliminate viruses is discussed. In the third place, the efficacy of decontamination methods on fresh produce and purification procedures applied on live bivalve shellfish to reduce the viral load is included. These studies indicate that viruses persist well on chilled, acidified, frozen foods and foods packed under modified atmosphere or in dried conditions. Intervention strategies inducing microbial inactivation are required to achieve a 3 log reduction of the level of viruses. Decontamination of fresh produce reduces viruses with a maximum of 1 to 2 log while purification of live bivalves is not adequate to prevent viral outbreaks. It was noted that the effect of a particular food preservation method is dependent upon the virus tested and type of food.

  15. Patulin reduction in apple juice by inactivated Alicyclobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, X; Hatab, S; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Luo, Y; Yue, T

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the reduction of patulin (PAT) in apple juice by 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains. The reduction rate of PAT by each strain was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results indicated that the removal of PAT was strain specific. Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris 92 and A. acidoterrestris 96 were the most effective ones among the 12 tested strains in the removal of PAT. Therefore, these two strains were selected to study the effects of incubation time, initial PAT concentration and bacteria powder amount on PAT removal abilities of Alicyclobacillus. The highest PAT reduction rates of 88·8 and 81·6% were achieved after 24-h incubation with initial PAT concentration of 100 μg l(-1) and bacteria powder amount of 40 g l(-1) , respectively. Moreover, it was found that the treatment by these 12 inactivated Alicyclobacillus strains had no negative effect on the quality parameters of apple juice. Similar assays were performed in supermarket apple juice, where inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells could efficiently reduce PAT content. Taken together, these data suggest the possible application of this strategy as a means to detoxify PAT-contaminated juices. Inactivated Alicyclobacillus cells can efficiently reduce patulin concentration in apple juice. It provides a theoretical foundation for recycling of Alicyclobacillus cells from spoiled apple juice to reduce the source of pollution and the cost of juice industry. This is the first report on the use of Alicyclobacillus to remove patulin from apple juice. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Inactivation of murine norovirus by chemical biocides on stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinmann Jörg

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human norovirus (NoV causes more than 80% of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in Europe and the United States. NoV transmission via contaminated surfaces may be significant for the spread of viruses. Therefore, measures for prevention and control, such as surface disinfection, are necessary to interrupt the dissemination of human NoV. Murine norovirus (MNV as a surrogate for human NoV was used to study the efficacy of active ingredients of chemical disinfectants for virus inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Methods The inactivating properties of different chemical biocides were tested in a quantitative carrier test with stainless steel discs without mechanical action. Vacuum-dried MNV was exposed to different concentrations of alcohols, peracetic acid (PAA or glutaraldehyde (GDA for 5 minutes exposure time. Detection of residual virus was determined by endpoint-titration on RAW 264.7 cells. Results PAA [1000 ppm], GDA [2500 ppm], ethanol [50% (v/v] and 1-propanol [30% (v/v] were able to inactivate MNV under clean conditions (0.03% BSA on the carriers by ≥ 4 log10 within 5 minutes exposure time, whereas 2-propanol showed a reduced effectiveness even at 60% (v/v. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in virus reduction whatever interfering substances were used. When testing with ethanol, 1- and 2-propanol, results under clean conditions were nearly the same as in the presence of dirty conditions (0.3% BSA plus 0.3% erythrocytes. Conclusion Products based upon PAA, GDA, ethanol and 1-propanol should be used for NoV inactivation on inanimate surfaces. Our data provide valuable information for the development of strategies to control NoV transmission via surfaces.

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    AND SUBTITLE 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12. DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT...2010 31-May-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: (Life Science Division/Biochemistry) Inactivation of Bacillus ...S) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Bacillus Anthracis, Spores, Biofilm, Inhibition

  18. Inactivation of norovirus on dry copper alloy surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Warnes

    Full Text Available Noroviruses (family Caliciviridae are the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is highly infectious and touching contaminated surfaces can contribute to infection spread. Although the virus was identified over 40 years ago the lack of methods to assess infectivity has hampered the study of the human pathogen. Recently the murine virus, MNV-1, has successfully been used as a close surrogate. Copper alloys have previously been shown to be effective antimicrobial surfaces against a range of bacteria and fungi. We now report rapid inactivation of murine norovirus on alloys, containing over 60% copper, at room temperature but no reduction of infectivity on stainless steel dry surfaces in simulated wet fomite and dry touch contamination. The rate of inactivation was initially very rapid and proportional to copper content of alloy tested. Viral inactivation was not as rapid on brass as previously observed for bacteria but copper-nickel alloy was very effective. The use of chelators and quenchers of reactive oxygen species (ROS determined that Cu(II and especially Cu(I ions are still the primary effectors of toxicity but quenching superoxide and hydroxyl radicals did not confer protection. This suggests Fenton generation of ROS is not important for the inactivation mechanism. One of the targets of copper toxicity was the viral genome and a reduced copy number of the gene for a viral encoded protein, VPg (viral-protein-genome-linked, which is essential for infectivity, was observed following contact with copper and brass dry surfaces. The use of antimicrobial surfaces containing copper in high risk closed environments such as cruise ships and care facilities could help to reduce the spread of this highly infectious and costly pathogen.

  19. Degradation and inactivation of Shiga toxins by nitrogen gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Imanishi, Yuichiro

    2017-12-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) leads to food poisoning by causing hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Some STEC produce Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1) and/or Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2), a relatively stable protein toxin, necessitating the development of an efficient inactivation method. Here we applied a nitrogen gas plasma apparatus to the inactivation of Stx. Samples of Stx1 and Stx2 were treated with a nitrogen gas plasma generated by a plasma device using a short high-voltage pulse applied by a static induction thyristor power supply at 1.5 kpps (kilo pulse per second). The recovered Stx samples were then analyzed for immunological and biological activities. Immunochromatography demonstrated that Stx1 and Stx2 were degraded by the gas plasma. Quantification by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that both toxins were efficiently degraded to less than 1/10th of their original concentration within 5 min of treatment. Western blotting further showed the gas plasma treatment degraded the A subunit, which mediates the toxicity of Stx. Moreover, an assay using HEp-2 cells as an index of cytotoxicity showed that gas plasma treatment reduced the toxic activity of Stx. Therefore, nitrogen gas plasma might be an efficient method for the inactivation of Stx.

  20. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Saranya; Brokstad, Karl A.; Cox, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection. PMID:26343192

  1. Raman spectroscopy of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology and inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J. B.; Almeida, J.; Cole, K. D.; Reipa, V.

    2012-12-01

    The ability to detect spore contamination and inactivation is relevant to developing and determining decontamination strategy success for food and water safety. This study was conducted to develop a systematic comparison of nondestructive vibrational spectroscopy techniques (Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy, SERS, and normal Raman) to determine indicators of Bacillus thuringiensis physiology (spore, vegetative, outgrown, germinated and inactivated spore forms). SERS was found to provide better resolution of commonly utilized signatures of spore physiology (dipicolinic acid at 1006 cm-1 and 1387 cm-1) compared to normal Raman and native fluorescence indigenous to vegetative and outgrown cell samples was quenched in SERS experiment. New features including carotenoid pigments (Raman features at 1142 cm-1, 1512 cm-1) were identified for spore cell forms. Pronounced changes in the low frequency region (300 cm-1 to 500 cm-1) in spore spectra occurred upon germination and inactivation (with both free chlorine and by autoclaving) which is relevant to guiding decontamination and detection strategies using Raman techniques.

  2. Pulsed light inactivation of horseradish peroxidase and associated structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, José Antonio; Gómez-López, Vicente M

    2017-12-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is a non-thermal preservation method in which foods are subjected to one or several intense pulses of wide-spectrum light. Peroxidase (POD) is an enzyme that needs to be inactivated or inhibited because of its deleterious effects on the quality of fruits and vegetables. The feasibility of using PL to inactivate POD was tested and results explained based on measurements of UV-vis spectrum, far-UV circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence, and the phase-diagram method. PL reduced the activity of POD by more than 95% after applying 128Jcm -2 . There was observed a decrease in the Reinheitzahl value and ellipticity and an increase in tryptophan fluorescence at incremental fluences, as well as linear phase diagrams. The study indicates that the inactivation of POD by PL is an all-or-none process related to loss of helical structure, weak unfolding and ejection of the prostetic group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  4. Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saranya Sridhar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2–17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of hepatitis A virus in spinach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Hayriye; Ye, Xiaofei; Harte, Federico; D'Souza, Doris H; Davidson, P Michael

    2015-01-16

    Leafy vegetables have been recognized as important vehicles for the transmission of foodborne viral pathogens. To control hepatitis A viral foodborne illness outbreaks associated with mildly heated (e.g., blanched) leafy vegetables such as spinach, generation of adequate thermal processes is important both for consumers and the food industry. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the thermal inactivation behavior of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in spinach, and provide insights on HAV inactivation in spinach for future studies and industrial applications. The D-values calculated from the first-order model (50-72 °C) ranged from 34.40 ± 4.08 to 0.91 ± 0.12 min with a z-value of 13.92 ± 0.87 °C. The calculated activation energy value was 162 ± 11 kJ/mol. Using the information generated in the present study and the thermal parameters of industrial blanching conditions for spinach as a basis (100 °C for 120-180 s), the blanching of spinach in water at 100 °C for 120-180 s under atmospheric conditions will provide greater than 6 log reduction of HAV. The results of this study may be useful to the frozen food industry in designing blanching conditions for spinach to inactivate or control hepatitis A virus outbreaks. Copyright © 20