WorldWideScience

Sample records for random wave forces

  1. A Lagrangian description of nearshore hydrodynamics and rip currents forced by a random wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leandro, S.; Cienfuegos, R.; Escauriaza, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Nonlinear processes become important for waves propagating in the shoaling and surf zones. Wave shape changes when approaching the coast under the influence of bathymetry, becoming increasingly asymmetric until reaching the breaking limit. In the shoaling zone, non-linearities induce a net velocity in the direction of wave propagation, a phenomenon called Stokes drift, while in the surf zone, currents are mainly driven by spatio-temporal variations in energy dissipation gradients. In this work we aim at investigating and characterizing the nearshore circulation forced by a random wave field propagating over a variable bathymetry. We carry out numerical simulations over a laboratory experiment conducted in a wave basin over a realistic bathymetry [Michallet et al. 2010]. For the hydrodynamics, we use a 2D shock-capturing finite-volume model that solves the non-linear shallow water equations, taking into account energy dissipation by breaking, friction, bed-slope variations, and an accurate description for the moving shoreline in the swash zone [Marche et al. 2007;Guerra et al. 2010]. Model predictions are compared and validated against experimental data giving confidence for its use in the description of wave propagation in the surf/swash zone, together with mean eulerian velocities. The resulting wave propagation and circulation provided by the 2D model will then be used to describe drifter's patterns in the surf zone and construct Lagrangian particle tracking. The chosen experimental configuration is of great interest due to the random wave forcing (slowly modulated), the beach non-uniformities, and the existence of several bar-rip channels that enhance quasi-periodic rip instabilities. During the experiment, balloons filled with water, with a diameter between 5 and 10 cm, were placed in the surf zone in order to characterize circulation in a Lagrangian framework [Castelle et al. 2010]. The time-location of the balloons was continuously tracked by a shore

  2. Frequency domain response of a parametrically excited riser under random wave forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Song; Zhang, Wen-Shou; Lin, Jia-Hao; Yue, Qian-Jin; Kennedy, D.; Williams, F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading units represent a new technology with a promising future in the offshore oil industry. An important role is played by risers, which are installed between the subsea wellhead and the Tension Leg Deck located in the middle of the moon-pool in the hull. The inevitable heave motion of the floating hull causes a time-varying axial tension in the riser. This time dependent tension may have an undesirable influence on the lateral deflection response of the riser, with random wave forces in the frequency domain. To investigate this effect, a riser is modeled as a Bernoulli-Euler beam. The axial tension is expressed as a static part, along with a harmonic dynamic part. By linearizing the wave drag force, the riser's lateral deflection is obtained through a partial differential equation containing a time-dependent coefficient. Applying the Galerkin method, the equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation that can be solved using the pseudo-excitation method in the frequency domain. Moreover, the Floquet-Liapunov theorem is used to estimate the stability of the vibration system in the space of parametric excitation. Finally, stability charts are obtained for some numerical examples, the correctness of the proposed method is verified by comparing with Monte-Carlo simulation and the influence of the parametric excitation on the frequency domain responses of the riser is discussed.

  3. Wave Forces on Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested.......A testprogramme has been performed to determine the wave forces on two types of foundations for an offshore windturbine. the tested foundation types are a monopile and cone. Furthermore the shaft of the cone has been tested....

  4. Wave Forces on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations.......The present report on the wave forces is the first report on the Borkum Riff project. A testprogramme has been performed to dertermine the wave forces on windturbine foundations....

  5. Wave Forces on Crown Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jan; Burcharth, H. F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents some of the results from a large parametric laboratory study including more than 200 long-duration model tests. The study addresses both the wave forces imposed on the breakwater crown wall as well as the performance of the structure in reducing the wave overtopping. The testing...... programme includes variations of the sea state parameters and of the geometrical configuration of the breakwater and crown wall. Basic relations between forces/overtopping and the varied parameters are examined and preliminary design guidelines for structures within the tested range of variations...

  6. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira

    1978-01-01

    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  7. Random forcing of geostrophic motion in rotating stratified turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Michael L.

    2017-12-01

    Random forcing of geostrophic motion is a common approach in idealized simulations of rotating stratified turbulence. Such forcing represents the injection of energy into large-scale balanced motion, and the resulting breakdown of quasi-geostrophic turbulence into inertia-gravity waves and stratified turbulence can shed light on the turbulent cascade processes of the atmospheric mesoscale. White noise forcing is commonly employed, which excites all frequencies equally, including frequencies much higher than the natural frequencies of large-scale vortices. In this paper, the effects of these high frequencies in the forcing are investigated. Geostrophic motion is randomly forced with red noise over a range of decorrelation time scales τ, from a few time steps to twice the large-scale vortex time scale. It is found that short τ (i.e., nearly white noise) results in about 46% more gravity wave energy than longer τ, despite the fact that waves are not directly forced. We argue that this effect is due to wave-vortex interactions, through which the high frequencies in the forcing are able to excite waves at their natural frequencies. It is concluded that white noise forcing should be avoided, even if it is only applied to the geostrophic motion, when a careful investigation of spontaneous wave generation is needed.

  8. Wave Forces on a Vertical Smooth Cylinder in Directional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedal, M.; Skourup, J.; Burcharth, H. F.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the results from physical experiments with an instrumented cylinder conducted in laboratory environments are presented. The primary aim of the study has been to investigate the effect from wave directionality on the local and depth integrated maximum wave forces on a smooth vertical...

  9. Wave Propagation inside Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun

    This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media. The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles within disordered samples contained in a copper tube supporting multiple waveguide channels with an antenna moving along a slit on the tube. These measurements allow us to determine the local density of states (LDOS) at a location which is the sum of energy from all incoming channels on both sides. For diffusive samples, the LDOS is uniform and the energy profile decays linearly as expected. However, for localized samples, we find that the LDOS drops sharply towards the middle of the sample and the energy profile does not follow the result of the local diffusion theory where the LDOS is assumed to be uniform. We analyze the field spectra into quasi-normal modes and found that the mode linewidth and the number of modes saturates as the sample length increases. Thus the Thouless number saturates while the dimensionless conductance g continues to fall with increasing length, indicating that the modes are localized near the boundaries. This is in contrast to the general believing that g and Thouless number follow the same scaling behavior. Previous measurements show that single parameter scaling (SPS) still holds in the same sample where the LDOS is suppressed te{shi2014microwave}. We explore the extension of SPS to the interior of the sample by analyzing statistics of the logrithm of the energy density ln W(x) and found that

  10. Preliminary Design Wave Forces on Wave Star's Ø5m Floats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Kristensen, Tom Sten; Hjørnet, Niels Kyhn

    This document gives several estimates on the design force, but only one estimate on the design wave climate.......This document gives several estimates on the design force, but only one estimate on the design wave climate....

  11. Breather Rogue Waves in Random Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ma, Q. W.; Yan, S.; Chabchoub, A.

    2018-01-01

    Rogue or freak waves are extreme wave events that have heights exceeding 8 times the standard deviation of surrounding waves and emerge, for instance, in the ocean as well as in other physical dispersive wave guides, such as in optical fibers. One effective and convenient way to model such an extreme dynamics in laboratory environments within a controlled framework as well as for short process time and length scales is provided through the breather formalism. Breathers are pulsating localized structures known to model extreme waves in several nonlinear dispersive media in which the initial underlying process is assumed to be narrow banded. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that breathers can also persist in more complex environments, such as in random seas, beyond the attributed physical limitations. In this work, we study the robustness of the Peregrine breather (PB) embedded in Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) configurations using fully nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical simulations in order to validate its practicalness for ocean engineering applications. We provide a specific range for both the spectral bandwidth of the dynamical process as well as the background wave steepness and, thus, quantify the applicability of the PB in modeling rogue waves in realistic oceanic conditions. Our results may motivate analogous studies in fields of physics such as optics and plasma to quantify the limitations of exact weakly nonlinear models, such as solitons and breathers, within the framework of the fully nonlinear governing equations of the corresponding medium.

  12. Analytic interatomic forces in the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramberger, Benjamin; Kresse, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We discuss that in the random phase approximation (RPA) the first derivative of the energy with respect to the Green's function is the self-energy in the GW approximation. This relationship allows to derive compact equations for the RPA interatomic forces. We also show that position dependent overlap operators are elegantly incorporated in the present framework. The RPA force equations have been implemented in the projector augmented wave formalism, and we present illustrative applications, including ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, the calculation of phonon dispersion relations for diamond and graphite, as well as structural relaxations for water on boron nitride. The present derivation establishes a concise framework for forces within perturbative approaches and is also applicable to more involved approximations for the correlation energy.

  13. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived....... A Fokker-Planck type equation is contained as a limiting case. The results are readily generalized to include the features of the random coupling model and it is argued that the present problem is particularly suited for an analysis of this type....

  14. Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archetti, R.; Frigaard, Peter; Lamberti, A.

    2001-01-01

    of breaking waves for increasing wave height are estimated and compared with existing empirical formulae. The horizontal dimension of the breaker is investigated using two different methodologies: the first analyses the decreasing of the highest 1/250 force with increasing horizontal dimension of the caisson......, with special attention to the effects of wave spreading, and the second analyses the spatial correlation of impulsive force per unit length along the breakwater....

  15. Model Testing of Forces in the Reflector Joint and Mooring Forces on Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James

    This report aims to present the results of a test series analysing the forces in the redesigned reflector joint and the forces in the main mooring link. The resluts presented are intended to be used by WD project partners, for the design and construction of the joint on the prototype Wave Dragon...... at Nissum Bredning and for future North Sea scale Wave Dragon. Lengths, forces and other dimentions presented are scaled to the North sea Wave Dragon unless otherwise specified....

  16. Wave Forces on Offshore Windturbine Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    The present paper is a supplement to the report by Juul Larsen and Frigaard. It contains some additional quality control to the force measurements performed by Juul Larsen and Frigaard.......The present paper is a supplement to the report by Juul Larsen and Frigaard. It contains some additional quality control to the force measurements performed by Juul Larsen and Frigaard....

  17. Negative electromagnetic plane-wave force in gain media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kevin J; Shivanand

    2011-11-01

    It is shown that a uniform electromagnetic plane wave can exert a negative force on a homogeneous medium with gain when there is no component of the electric field in that direction. A physical interpretation for this force is given, along with an estimate of the strength achievable in an experiment.

  18. Optimal Discrete PTO Force Point Absorber Wave Energy Converters in Regular Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    For ocean wave energy converters (WECs) to become a cost-effective alternative in the energy production system a large increase in the conversion efficiency is needed. Fluid power technology is the leading technology for the Power Take- Off (PTO) system of wave energy converters. However...... of discrete force systems for PTO, by focusing on how to choose the optimal PTO force levels and force profile when seeking to increase energy harvesting. The work concerns point absorber WECs and utilises a simple float model based on linear wave theory. Utilising the principle of superposition...... and the Laplace transform a solution of the float movement is found when subjected an incoming wave and a discrete PTO force. Finally an optimisation leads to the force profile implying the highest harvested energy....

  19. Experimental study on the method of estimating the vertical design wave force acting on a submerged dual horizontal plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuck-Min Kweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A steel-type breakwater that uses a submerged dual horizontal porous plate was originally proposed by Kweon et al. (2005, and its hydrodynamic characteristics and design methodology were investigated in a series of subsequent researches. In particular, Kweon et al. (2011 proposed a method of estimating the vertical uplift force that acts on the horizontal plate, applicable to the design of the pile uplift drag force. However, the difference between the method proposed by Kweon et al. (2011, and the wave force measured at a different time without a phase difference, have not yet been clearly analyzed. In this study, such difference according to the method of estimating the wave force was analyzed, by measuring the wave pressure acting on a breakwater model. The hydraulic model test was conducted in a two-dimensional wave flume of 60.0 m length, 1.5 m height and 1.0 m width. The steepness range of the selected waves is 0.01~0.03, with regular and random signals. 20 pressure gauges were used for the measurement. The analysis results showed that the wave force estimate in the method of Kweon et al. (2011 was smaller than the wave force calculated from the maximum pressure at individual points, under a random wave action. Meanwhile, the method of Goda (1974 that was applied to the horizontal plate produced a smaller wave force, than the method of Kweon et al. (2011. The method of Kweon (2011 was already verified in the real sea test of Kweon et al. (2012, where the safety factor of the pile uplift force was found to be greater than 2.0. Based on these results, it was concluded that the method of estimating the wave force by Kweon et al. (2011 can be satisfactorily used for estimating the uplift force of a pile.

  20. Circuit Design of Surface Acoustic Wave Based Micro Force Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pressure sensors are commonly used in industrial production and mechanical system. However, resistance strain, piezoresistive sensor, and ceramic capacitive pressure sensors possess limitations, especially in micro force measurement. A surface acoustic wave (SAW based micro force sensor is designed in this paper, which is based on the theories of wavelet transform, SAW detection, and pierce oscillator circuits. Using lithium niobate as the basal material, a mathematical model is established to analyze the frequency, and a peripheral circuit is designed to measure the micro force. The SAW based micro force sensor is tested to show the reasonable design of detection circuit and the stability of frequency and amplitude.

  1. Understanding Rossby wave trains forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Peter C.; Hendon, Harry H.

    2017-06-01

    Convective variations over the tropical Indian Ocean associated with ENSO and the Indian Ocean Dipole force a Rossby wave train that appears to emanate poleward and eastward to the south of Australia and which causes climate variations across southern Australia and more generally throughout the Southern Hemisphere extratropics. However, during austral winter, the subtropical jet that extends from the eastern Indian Ocean into the western Pacific at Australian latitudes should effectively prohibit continuous propagation of a stationary Rossby wave from the tropics into the extratropics because the meridional gradient of mean absolute vorticity goes to zero on its poleward flank. The observed wave train indeed exhibits strong convergence of wave activity flux upon encountering this region of vanishing vorticity gradient and with some indication of reflection back into the tropics, indicating the continuous propagation of the stationary Rossby wave train from low to high latitudes is inhibited across the south of Australia. However, another Rossby wave train appears to emanate upstream of Australia on the poleward side of the subtropical jet and propagates eastward along the waveguide of the eddy-driven (sub-polar) jet into the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This combination of evanescent wave train from the tropics and eastward propagating wave train emanating from higher latitudes upstream of Australia gives the appearance of a continuous Rossby wave train propagating from the tropical Indian Ocean into higher southern latitudes. The extratropical Rossby wave source on the poleward side of the subtropical jet stems from induced changes in transient eddy activity in the main storm track of the Southern Hemisphere. During austral spring, when the subtropical jet weakens, the Rossby wave train emanating from Indian Ocean convection is explained more traditionally by direct dispersion from divergence forcing at low latitudes.

  2. Generation and Analysis of Random Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considered in the design of coastal and offshore structures. It should be stressed that, even though all contents in the book are related to sea waves, they have a broader application in practice. For example, the extreme theory has also been......-requirement for the book is the knowledge of linear wave theory....

  3. Mirror force induced wave dispersion in Alfvén waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiano, P. A.; Johnson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Recent hybrid MHD-kinetic electron simulations of global scale standing shear Alfvén waves along the Earth's closed dipolar magnetic field lines show that the upward parallel current region within these waves saturates and broadens perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field and that this broadening increases with the electron temperature. Using resistive MHD simulations, with a parallel Ohm's law derived from the linear Knight relation (which expresses the current-voltage relationship along an auroral field line), we explore the nature of this broadening in the context of the increased perpendicular Poynting flux resulting from the increased parallel electric field associated with mirror force effects. This increased Poynting flux facilitates wave energy dispersion across field lines which in-turn allows for electron acceleration to carry the field aligned current on adjacent field lines. This mirror force driven dispersion can dominate over that associated with electron inertial effects for global scale waves.

  4. Phenological decoupling of mortality from wave forcing in kelp beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bettignies, Thibaut; Wernberg, Thomas; Lavery, Paul S; Vanderklift, Mathew A; Gunson, Jim R; Symonds, Graham; Collier, Neil

    2015-03-01

    Kelps often live in a harsh hydrodynamic environment where wave-driven dislodgement of individuals can alter the biodiversity and functioning of reef systems, and increase production in coastal ecosystems adjacent to reefs. The current paradigm is that winter storms tear kelps from reefs once hydrodynamic forces exceed attachment or tissue strength--a threshold response that implies a pulsed relationship between wave forces and dislodgement. Here, we challenge this understanding by showing how kelp phenology can decouple susceptibility to dislodgement from seasonal patterns in wave forces. We measured kelp dislodgement rates and hydrodynamic forces at nine subtidal reefs over two years (n = 4320 kelps tagged and monitored). Contrary to expectation, we found relatively low and constant dislodgement rates for all reefs (13% +/- 6% [mean per season +/- SD]) in spite of a strong temporal pattern in wave action and extreme water velocities (winter peaks up to 3-4 m/s). A biomechanical model, based on the balance between kelp attachment strength and hydrodynamic drag, demonstrated that severe reduction in individual kelp size toward winter (>50% decrease in biomass for all sites) minimized drag and made the kelps less susceptible to high water velocities, allowing individuals to survive storm velocities over 3-4 m/s. We conclude that the timing of reduced susceptibility to disturbance, through the seasonal reduction of individual kelp biomass that coincides with times of highest water velocities is critical to the dynamics of kelp dislodgement and survival. We propose that phenological processes maintain many kelp beds in a higher degree of population stability and equilibrium with hydrodynamic forces than previously believed.

  5. Plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin [Department of Basic Sciences, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random metal-dielectric nanocomposite, consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions, are presented. Two branches of p-polarized surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. The possibility of experimentally observing the surface waves by attenuated total reflection is demonstrated.

  6. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    leads the water into another pipe or tunnel system. A pressure gradient generated by the water level difference between the sea and basin drives the flow through the tunnel system. The tunnel system is often in the order of a couple kilometers long. Based on CFD analyses (computational fluid dynamics......Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  7. Examination of the forces controlling dust dispersion by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, O. J.; Houim, R. W.; Oran, E. S.

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and a thin layer of inert dust is studied by solving unsteady, multidimensional Navier-Stokes equations representing the interactions between a compressible gas and incompressible particles. The system studied consists of a layer of densely packed limestone dust containing particles of uniform diameter (40 μ m ) that interact with a shock of strength Ms=1.4 . Particle dispersion is investigated by comparing vertical particle accelerations due to Archimedes, gravitational, intergranular, and aerodynamic drag and lift forces. The simulations show that the shock produces two dust regions: a compacted layer and a dispersed region. The layer compaction, which increases the intergranular particle stress, is produced by drag and Archimedes forces. The dispersed dust is produced by forces that change in time as the shock passes. Initially, the dispersion is caused by intergranular forces. Later it is driven by a tradeoff between lift and drag forces. Eventually, drag forces dominate. Comparisons of the computations to experimental shock-tube data reproduced the observed initial growth of the dispersed dust and later leveled off. Particle agglomeration in the experiments made it difficult to determine a true particle size experimentally, although the computations for 40-μ m particles explain the experimental data.

  8. Controlling Random Waves with Digital Building Blocks Based on Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Park, Namkyoo

    2017-11-01

    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices for broadband responses have been demonstrated in momentum or frequency domains, the difficulty in achieving collective manipulation of all eigenmodes has hindered the implementation of digital multimode devices such as switching. Here we propose building blocks for digital switching of spatially random waves based on parity-converted supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that unbroken supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves in the "off" state. With two representative solvable potentials, building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wave fronts and a Pöschl-Teller pair for multilevel switching which implements fuzzy membership functions. Our results realizing the transfer of arbitrary wave fronts between wave elements will lay the foundation of high-bandwidth data processing.

  9. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed quasiperiodic surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a quasi-periodic surface with random perturbations (as in the remote sensing of plowed fields) is investigated analytically, applying the Kirchhoff approximation and modeling the plowed fields by means of Gaussian random variation, sinusoidal variation, and Gaussian random variation about the spatial frequency. Coherent and incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients are derived in closed form by evaluating the physical-optics integral and shown to be proportional, in the geometric-optics limit, to the occurrence probability of slopes which reflect the incident wave specularly in the direction of the scattered wave. Backscattering cross sections are plotted as functions of incidence angle for a number of cases, demonstrating the strong effect of row direction.

  10. Unforced, Forced and Resonance-Forced Waves in a Spherical Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-27

    This technical report discusses a longstanding issue of atmospheric tides in weather-prediction and general circulation models (GCMs). Tidal signatures consistent with observations have appeared in the surface pressure output of GCMs since their inception (Hardy 1968, Hunt and Manabe 1968). Such models, however, are sufficiently complicated that the possibility of “getting the right answer for the wrong reasons” arises. Lindzen et al. (1968, hereafter LBK) showed that wave reflection at the upper boundary of a GCM can artificially enhance the tides. Covey et al. (2011, 2014) found that tidal output from a number of modern GCMs is surprisingly independent of their forcing. This finding is consistent with earlier suggestions that a compensating effect occurs in some models: lowering the model top reduces the forcing (solar heating of the ozone layer) but also enhances spurious wave reflection (Zwiers and Hamilton 1986, Hamilton et al. 2008).

  11. Random wave fields and scintillated beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available fields . Artificial vortex fields CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/29 Scintillated optical beams When an optical beam propagates through a turbulent atmosphere, the index variations cause random phase modulations that lead to distortions of the optical... beam. CSIR National Laser Centre – p.3/29 Weak scintillation If the scintillation is weak the resulting phase function of the optical beam is still continuous. Such a weakly scintillated beam can be corrected by an adaptive optical system. CSIR National...

  12. The generation of MHD waves by forced turbulence in a weakly magnetized fluid. [in solar corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Musielak, Z. E.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the fluctuating buoyancy force on wave generation in a weakly magnetized plasma is considered. As expected, the efficiency of MHD wave generation is enhanced by including this force. However, it remains true that the observed variation of coronal emission at fixed spectral type cannot be accounted for by a wave generation process of the type discussed here.

  13. Wave forces limit the establishment of submerged macrophytes in large shallow lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidam, van B.G.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effect of waves on submerged macrophytes and hypothesized that exposure to large wave forces can hamper seedling establishment. In an indoor experiment in cylindrical mesocosms we tested whether large wave forces indeed inhibited the establishment of Chara globularis and Potamogeton

  14. Hyperdiffusion of quantum waves in random photonic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iomin, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    A quantum-mechanical analysis of hyperfast (faster than ballistic) diffusion of a quantum wave packet in random optical lattices is presented. The main motivation of the presented analysis is experimental demonstrations of hyperdiffusive spreading of a wave packet in random photonic lattices [L. Levi et al., Nature Phys. 8, 912 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2463]. A rigorous quantum-mechanical calculation of the mean probability amplitude is suggested, and it is shown that the power-law spreading of the mean-squared displacement (MSD) is ˜tα , where 2 <α ≤3 . The values of the transport exponent α depend on the correlation properties of the random potential V (x ,t ) , which describes random inhomogeneities of the medium. In particular, when the random potential is δ correlated in time, the quantum wave packet spreads according Richardson turbulent diffusion with the MSD ˜t3 . Hyperdiffusion with α =12 /5 is also obtained for arbitrary correlation properties of the random potential.

  15. 3-D Effects Force Reduction of Short-Crested Non-Breaking Waves on Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of wave short-crestedness on the horizontal wave force on a caisson is twofold. The one is the force reduction due to the reduction of point pressure on the caisson, named point-pressure reduction. The other is the force reduction due to the fact that the peak pressures do not occur si...

  16. Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2015-01-01

    Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...... of wave spreading becomes wider, the wave run-up at some points around the cylinders is found to increase. This suggests that multi-directional wave run-up tends to be larger than unidirectional wave run-up. In addition, the wave directionality has a significant influence on the transverse force...

  17. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  18. Wave speed in excitable random networks with spatially constrained connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladimirov

    Full Text Available Very fast oscillations (VFO in neocortex are widely observed before epileptic seizures, and there is growing evidence that they are caused by networks of pyramidal neurons connected by gap junctions between their axons. We are motivated by the spatio-temporal waves of activity recorded using electrocorticography (ECoG, and study the speed of activity propagation through a network of neurons axonally coupled by gap junctions. We simulate wave propagation by excitable cellular automata (CA on random (Erdös-Rényi networks of special type, with spatially constrained connections. From the cellular automaton model, we derive a mean field theory to predict wave propagation. The governing equation resolved by the Fisher-Kolmogorov PDE fails to describe wave speed. A new (hyperbolic PDE is suggested, which provides adequate wave speed v( that saturates with network degree , in agreement with intuitive expectations and CA simulations. We further show that the maximum length of connection is a much better predictor of the wave speed than the mean length. When tested in networks with various degree distributions, wave speeds are found to strongly depend on the ratio of network moments / rather than on mean degree , which is explained by general network theory. The wave speeds are strikingly similar in a diverse set of networks, including regular, Poisson, exponential and power law distributions, supporting our theory for various network topologies. Our results suggest practical predictions for networks of electrically coupled neurons, and our mean field method can be readily applied for a wide class of similar problems, such as spread of epidemics through spatial networks.

  19. Computation of High-Frequency Waves with Random Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malenova, Gabriela

    2016-01-06

    We consider the forward propagation of uncertainty in high-frequency waves, described by the second order wave equation with highly oscillatory initial data. The main sources of uncertainty are the wave speed and/or the initial phase and amplitude, described by a finite number of random variables with known joint probability distribution. We propose a stochastic spectral asymptotic method [1] for computing the statistics of uncertain output quantities of interest (QoIs), which are often linear or nonlinear functionals of the wave solution and its spatial/temporal derivatives. The numerical scheme combines two techniques: a high-frequency method based on Gaussian beams [2, 3], a sparse stochastic collocation method [4]. The fast spectral convergence of the proposed method depends crucially on the presence of high stochastic regularity of the QoI independent of the wave frequency. In general, the high-frequency wave solutions to parametric hyperbolic equations are highly oscillatory and non-smooth in both physical and stochastic spaces. Consequently, the stochastic regularity of the QoI, which is a functional of the wave solution, may in principle below and depend on frequency. In the present work, we provide theoretical arguments and numerical evidence that physically motivated QoIs based on local averages of |uE|2 are smooth, with derivatives in the stochastic space uniformly bounded in E, where uE and E denote the highly oscillatory wave solution and the short wavelength, respectively. This observable related regularity makes the proposed approach more efficient than current asymptotic approaches based on Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  20. Evaluating Wave Random Path Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wind waves are important due to their high energy and impact on marine activities. This phenomenon is affects directly or indirectly the construction of coastal infrastructure, shipping and recreational activities. Due to the issues presented, marine parameters are very important. In this study, we try to pay attention to wave as one of the most important marine parameters. As the movements of waves have high uncertainty, financial models can be used to simulate the wave's paths. We use the Monte Carlo method for this purpose. The Monte Carlo simulation is a flexible and simple tool that is widely used in the evaluation of random paths. To compute a random path, we require an integral discretization. In this paper, we study the valuation of European options using Monte Carlo simulation and then compare this result with multi-level Monte Carlo approach and other antithetic variables. Then, we use the multi-level Monte Carlo approach proposed by (M. B. Giles, 2008 for pricing under the two-factor stochastic volatility model. We show that the multi-level Monte Carlo method reduces the computational complexity and also cost of the two-factor stochastic volatility model when compared with the standard Monte Carlo method. Also, we compare the multi-level Monte Carlo method and standard Monte Carlo method using an Euler discretization scheme and then, analyze the numerical results.

  1. A Comparative Experimental Study of Wave Forces on a Vertical Cylinder in Long-Crested and Short-Crested Seas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study is carried out to investigate the wave forces on a slender cylinder. Special attention is given to the wave forces in the surface zone and correlation of forces along the cylinder. The experiments consider the effects of both long and short-crested irregular waves.......An experimental study is carried out to investigate the wave forces on a slender cylinder. Special attention is given to the wave forces in the surface zone and correlation of forces along the cylinder. The experiments consider the effects of both long and short-crested irregular waves....

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Peak-Delay Force Reduction for Caissons Exposed to Non-breaking Short-Crested Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    In nature coastal structures are exposed to oblique short-crested waves. The effect of wave incident angle on total wave force on a long caisson are twofold. The one is the force reduction due to the reduction of instantaneous point pressure on the caisson, named point-pressure force reduction....... The other is the force reduction due to the fact that the peak pressures do not occur simultaneously along the caisson, named peak-delay force reduction. These two reduction effects can also be expected with short-crested waves, as the short-crestedness of waves means the spreading of wave energy over...... on the peak-delay force reduction of caissons exposed to non-breaking short-crested waves. Battjes (1982) has investigated theoretically the peak-delay force reduction of shortcrested waves with only one frequency component. Such a force reduction factor cannot be applied because in nature waves are composed...

  3. Horizontal Coherence of Wave Forces on Vertical Wall Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto; Martinelli, Luca

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest.......Evaluation of spatial coherence of breaking waves is of great importance and of recent interest....

  4. Edge wave response on a barred beach with wind-sea and swell forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contardo, Stephanie; Symonds, Graham; Segura, Laura

    2015-04-01

    The occurrence of short period wind-sea associated with a diurnal sea breeze, superimposed on longer period swell in South West Western Australia provides an opportunity to observe the response of infragravity (0.01-0.05 Hz) waves, in the nearshore, to both wind-sea and swell forcing. An alongshore array of pressure sensors and a cross-shore array of current velocity and pressure sensors are deployed at Secret Harbour, a barred beach near Perth. The observations show a stronger infragravity response to longer period incident swell than to short period wind-sea. Infragravity waves at Secret Harbour are generated by two mechanisms: breakpoint forcing and bound wave release. Breakpoint forcing is observed with both swell and wind-sea forcing while bound wave release is only observed in the presence of swell. Two mechanisms generate free infragravity waves during swell periods while only one mechanism is in place during wind-sea periods, providing an explanation for the stronger response to swell than wind-sea. Free infragravity waves propagating offshore after reflection at the shoreline are called leaky waves; those which are trapped to the shoreline by refraction are called edge waves. At Secret Harbour, both edge waves and leaky waves are detected. Leaky waves dominate with swell forcing while edge waves dominate with wind-sea forcing. Amongst edge waves, mode 0 waves are found to dominate in the absence of wind-sea, while higher mode edge waves dominate when wind-sea is present. We calculate the expected wavenumber-frequency distribution of edge wave and leaky wave energy, based on resonance conditions, using wave period, incidence angle and directional spreading, as proposed by Bowen and Guza (1978). Observations and predictions are in good agreement. However the model can be improved by quantifying the infragravity energy generated by both infragravity wave generation mechanisms. Bowen, A. J., and R. T. Guza (1978), Edge waves and surf beat, Journal of

  5. Effect of a modified sinusoidal forcing on spiral wave in a simulated reaction-diffusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaothong, Kritsana; Sutthiopad, Malee; Kumchaiseemak, Nakorn; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C.; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2017-09-01

    Spiral waves are often found in excitable media. In the hearts, they are abnormal forms of action potential propagation. Under an external forcing, the spiral waves drift and are subsequently terminated at the boundary. Spiral waves can be studied in simulations using a discrete reaction-diffusion system; thereby the time step must not exceed a numerical stability limit (ts). In this article, we present the dynamics of spiral waves in a simulated system under an external forcing as a modified sinusoidal function of time. The spiral waves are forced to drift along a straight line with a velocity and an angle depending on the time step. An optimization study provides the optimal time step of 0.2ts, where further reductions of the time step do not alter the drifting of the spiral waves.

  6. Superdiffusion induced by a long-correlated external random force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despósito, M A

    2011-12-01

    We consider a particle immersed in a thermal reservoir and simultaneously subjected to an external random force that drives the system to a nonequilibrium situation. Starting from a Langevin equation description, we derive exact expressions for the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function of the diffusing particle. An effective temperature is introduced to characterize the deviation from the internal equilibrium situation. Using a power-law force autocorrelation function, the mean-square displacement and the velocity autocorrelation function are analytically obtained in terms of Mittag-Leffler functions. In this case, we show that the present model exhibits a superdiffusive regime as a consequence of the competition between passive and active processes.

  7. A functional renormalization method for wave propagation in random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamagna, Federico; Calzetta, Esteban

    2017-08-01

    We develop the exact renormalization group approach as a way to evaluate the effective speed of the propagation of a scalar wave in a medium with random inhomogeneities. We use the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism to translate the problem into a non equilibrium field theory one, and then consider a sequence of models with a progressively lower infrared cutoff; in the limit where the cutoff is removed we recover the problem of interest. As a test of the formalism, we compute the effective dielectric constant of an homogeneous medium interspersed with randomly located, interpenetrating bubbles. A simple approximation to the renormalization group equations turns out to be equivalent to a self-consistent two-loops evaluation of the effective dielectric constant.

  8. Numerical Study of Balearic Meteotsunami Generation and Propagation under Synthetic Gravity Wave Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licer, Matjaz; Mourre, Baptiste; Troupin, Charles; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    A high resolution nested ocean modelling system forced by synthetic atmospheric gravity waves is used to investigate meteotsunami generation, amplification and propagation properties over the Mallorca-Menorca shelf (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea). We determine how meteotsunami amplitude outside and inside of the Balearic port of Ciutadella depends on forcing gravity wave direction, speed and trajectory. Contributions of Mallorca shelves and Menorca Channel are quantified for different gravity wave forcing angles and speeds. Results indicate that the Channel is the key build-up region and that Northern and Southern Mallorca shelves do not significantly contribute to the amplitude of substantial harbour oscillations in Ciutadella. This fact seriously reduces early-warning alert times in cases of locally generated pressure perturbations. Tracking meteotsunami propagation paths in the Menorca Channel for several forcing velocities, we show that the Channel bathymetry serves as a focusing lens for meteotsunami waves whose paths are constrained by the forcing direction. Faster meteotsunamis are shown to propagate over deeper ocean regions, as required by the Proudman resonance. Meteotsunami speed under sub- and supercritical forcing is estimated and a first order estimate of its magnitude is derived. Meteotsunamis generated by the supercritical gravity waves are found to propagate with a velocity which is equal to an arithmetic mean of the gravity wave speed and local ocean barotropic wave speed.

  9. A Numerical Simulation of Base Shear Forces and Moments Exerted by Waves on Large Diameter Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-liang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of the dynamic variation of wave force diameter of pile foundation for offshore wind turbines, wave force and moment of large diameter pile foundation can be calculated. In this paper, simulation technique is used to calculate the wave force and moment of different large diameter pile foundation, and the base shear force and moment of the interval 20-degree phase angle are obtained by the base line of the pile. Under the action of a certain load, the complete stress variation of the pile foundation is obtained. According to the basic principle of diffraction theory, the process curve of large diameter pile, and analysis of wave force, diffraction force changes in a certain period of time interval. The results show that the wave after the large diameter pile formed around the vortex, large diameter pile base shear, and moment dynamic change is nonlinear in a complete cycle, the diameter of the pile increases by 0.5 m, and the wave force increases by about 5%, the results show that it provides certain reference value for the offshore pile foundation pile with large diameter primary site. Some significant results for practical application are discussed.

  10. Forcing of a bottom-mounted circular cylinder by steep regular water waves at finite depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    with the experimental data was found. Time-domain computations of the normalized inline force history on the cylinder were analysed as a function of dimensionless wave height, water depth and wavelength. Here the dependence on depth was weak, while an increase in wavelength or wave height both lead to the formation......-harmonic force, a good agreement with the perturbation theories of Faltinsen, Newman & Vinje (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 289, 1995, pp. 179–198) and Malenica & Molin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 302, 1995, pp. 203–229) was found. It was shown that the third-harmonic forces were estimated well by a Morison force formulation...

  11. Experimental Study of Wave Forces on Vertical Circular Cylinders in Long and Short Crested Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgedal, Michael

    The three-dimensional structure of ocean waves is generally ignored in favour of two-dimensional waves, which are easier to handle from a theoretical and computational point of view. For design fixed structures where horizontal in-line and resultant wave forces are important, this is normally...... cylinder in the near-surface-zone are investigated and suggestions for the force coefficients Cd, Cm and C1 in this region presented. The approximately 100 physical experiments have been condueted using a newly designed 2nd generation smooth circular cylinder with diameter, D = 0.0635 m and instrumented...... on the safe side, as the directional spreading of the wave field Ieads to reduced horizontal velocities and acceleration; in the fluid and hence a reduction of the resultant and in-line wave forces on the structure. The directional spreading of the horizontal velocity field generally causes an increase...

  12. Generation of internal solitary waves by frontally forced intrusions in geophysical flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Daniel; Galbraith, Peter S; Chavanne, Cédric

    2016-12-06

    Internal solitary waves are hump-shaped, large-amplitude waves that are physically analogous to surface waves except that they propagate within the fluid, along density steps that typically characterize the layered vertical structure of lakes, oceans and the atmosphere. As do surface waves, internal solitary waves may overturn and break, and the process is thought to provide a globally significant source of turbulent mixing and energy dissipation. Although commonly observed in geophysical fluids, the origins of internal solitary waves remain unclear. Here we report a rarely observed natural case of the birth of internal solitary waves from a frontally forced interfacial gravity current intruding into a two-layer and vertically sheared background environment. The results of the analysis carried out suggest that fronts may represent additional and unexpected sources of internal solitary waves in regions of lakes, oceans and atmospheres that are dynamically similar to the situation examined here in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada.

  13. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model. MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model ...

  15. An assessment of wind forcing impact on a spectral wave model for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The focus of the present study is the assessment of the impact of wind forcing on the spectral wave model MIKE 21 SW in the Indian Ocean region. Three different wind fields, namely the ECMWF analyzed winds, the ECMWF blended winds, and the NCEP blended winds have been used to drive the model. The wave model ...

  16. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...... of maximum crest height and maximum inline force are used to define the extreme events. FORM is applied to first and second-order irregular waves in both 2D and 3D. The application is validated against the NewWave model and also the NewForce model, which is introduced as the force equivalent of New......Wave theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height...

  17. Wave Forces on Offshore Windturbine Foundations on Borkum Riff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian Juul; Lykke Andersen, Thomas; Frigaard, Peter

    This report is a summary of the reports by Juul Larsen and Frigaard (2004) and Lykke Andersen and Frigaard (November 2004) supplied with som additional force measurements on a cone shaped structure and some new force measurements on the concrete tripod....

  18. Effects of wave-induced forcing on a circulation model of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staneva, Joanna; Alari, Victor; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    The effect of wind waves on water level and currents during two storms in the North Sea is investigated using a high-resolution Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model forced with fluxes and fields from a high-resolution wave model. The additional terms accounting for wave-current interaction that are considered in this study are the Stokes-Coriolis force, the sea-state-dependent energy and momentum fluxes. The individual and collective role of these processes is quantified and the results are compared with a control run without wave effects as well as against current and water-level measurements from coastal stations. We find a better agreement with observations when the circulation model is forced by sea-state-dependent fluxes, especially in extreme events. The two extreme events, the storm Christian (25-27 October 2013), and about a month later, the storm Xaver (5-7 December 2013), induce different wave and surge conditions over the North Sea. Including the wave effects in the circulation model for the storm Xaver raises the modelled surge by more than 40 cm compared with the control run in the German Bight area. For the storm Christian, a difference of 20-30 cm in the surge level between the wave-forced and the stand-alone ocean model is found over the whole southern part of the North Sea. Moreover, the modelled vertical velocity profile fits the observations very well when the wave forcing is accounted for. The contribution of wave-induced forcing has been quantified indicating that this represents an important mechanism for improving water-level and current predictions.

  19. Numerical Study of the Effects of Wave-Induced Forcing on Dynamics in Ocean Mixed Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Zengan Deng; Lian Xie; Ting Yu; Suixiang Shi; Jiye Jin; Kejian Wu

    2013-01-01

    Numerical experiments using hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM) are designed to quantify the effects of wind wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing (CSF) on mixed layer (ML) dynamics in a global context. CSF calculated by the wave parameters simulated by using the WaveWatch III (WW3) model is introduced as a new driving force for HYCOM. The results show that noticeable influence on ocean circulation in ML can be caused by CSF. Over most of the global oceans the direction of Stokes transport i...

  20. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.

    1976-11-01

    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  1. Energy loss and set-up due to breaking random waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Janssen, J.P.F.M.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a model developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach. The dissipation rate per breaking wave is estimated from that in a bore of corresponding height, while the probability of occurrence of breaking waves is estimated on the

  2. Elastic-wave propagation and the Coriolis force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    In a coordinate system fixed with respect to the rotating Earth, the Coriolis force deflects an object sideways relative to its direction of motion. A beautiful demonstration of that effect is the Foucault pendulum, illustrated in figure 1a. As the long pendulum rocks back and forth, the Coriolis

  3. Stress Wave Propagation due to a Moving Force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. M.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the performance of two numerical methods of solving the problem of a time dependent moving force on the surface of an elastic continuum will be evaluated. One method is the finite element method (FEM) formulated in convected coordinates coupled with an absorbing boundary condition o....... The disadvantage of the BEM is the increased calculation time....

  4. Remarks on the Radiative Transfer Approach to Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RY-HS-TR-2010-0029 REMARKS ON THE RADIATIVE TRANSFER APPROACH TO SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN LAYERED RANDOM MEDIA...TRANSFER APPROACH TO SCATTERING OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN LAYERED RANDOM MEDIA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Beckmann and A. Spizzichino. The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves from Rough Surfaces. Artech House, Norwood, Massachusetts, 1987. [3] G. S. Brown. A

  5. Wave localization of linear gravity waves in shallow water: Global measurements and agreement between random matrix theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmessane, Andrea; Laboratory of matter out equilibrium Team

    2012-11-01

    Wave localization explains how a perturbation is trapped by the randomness present in a propagation medium. As it propagates, the localized wave amplitude decreases strongly by multiple internal reflections with randomly positioned scatterers, effectively trapping the perturbation inside the random region. The characteristic length where a localized wave is propagated before being extinguish by randomness is called localization length. We carried experiments in a quasi-onedimensional channel with random bottom in a shallow water regime for surface gravity water waves, using a Perfilometry Fourier Transform method, which enables us to obtain global surface measurements. We discuss keys aspects of the control of variables, the experimental setup and the implementation of the measurement method. Thus, we can control, measure and evaluate fundamental variables present in the localization phenomenon such as the type of randomness, scattering intensity and sample length, which allows us to characterize wave localization. We use the scattering matrix method to compare the experimental measurements with theoretical and numerical predictions, using the Lyapunov exponent of the scattering matrix, and discuss their agreement. Conicyt

  6. Wave pressure acting on V-shaped floating breakwater in random seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Ding, Ning; Lin, Jie; Hou, Jiajia

    2015-12-01

    Wave pressure on the wet surface of a V-shaped floating breakwater in random seas is investigated. Considering the diffraction effect, the unit velocity potential caused by the single regular waves around the breakwater is solved using the finite-depth Green function and boundary element method, in which the Green function is solved by integral method. The Response-Amplitude Operator (RAO) of wave pressure is acquired according to the Longuet-Higgins' wave model and the linear Bernoulli equation. Furthermore, the wave pressure's response spectrum is calculated according to the wave spectrum by discretizing the frequency domain. The wave pressure's characteristic value corresponding to certain cumulative probability is determined according to the Rayleigh distribution of wave heights. The numerical results and field test results are compared, which indicates that the wave pressure calculated in random seas agrees with that of field measurements. It is found that the bigger angle between legs will cause the bigger pressure response, while the increase in leg length does not influence the pressure significantly. The pressure at the side of head sea is larger than that of back waves. When the incident wave angle changes from 0° to 90°, the pressure at the side of back waves decreases clearly, while at the side of head sea, the situation is more complicated and there seems no obvious tendency. The concentration of wave energy around low frequency (long wavelength) will induce bigger wave pressure, and more attention should be paid to this situation for the structure safety.

  7. Numerical Study of the Effects of Wave-Induced Forcing on Dynamics in Ocean Mixed Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengan Deng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical experiments using hybrid coordinate ocean model (HYCOM are designed to quantify the effects of wind wave-induced Coriolis-Stokes forcing (CSF on mixed layer (ML dynamics in a global context. CSF calculated by the wave parameters simulated by using the WaveWatch III (WW3 model is introduced as a new driving force for HYCOM. The results show that noticeable influence on ocean circulation in ML can be caused by CSF. Over most of the global oceans the direction of Stokes transport is different from that of the change in current transport caused by CSF. This is not unusual because CSF is normal to Stokes drift. However, the CSF-caused change in current transport and the wave-induced Stokes transport have the same magnitude. The seasonal variabilities of mixed layer temperature (MLT and mixed layer depth (MLD caused by CSF are analyzed, and the possible relationship between them is also given.

  8. Time-domain analysis of frequency dependent inertial wave forces on cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Mono-pile structures are attractive for small well-head platforms and foundation of offshore wind turbines at moderate water depth. Their diameter of several meters makes them prone to simultaneous occurrence of frequency-dependent inertial forces and non-linear drag. The present paper presents a...... a simple time-domain procedure for the inertial force, in which the frequency dependence is represented via a simple explicit time filter on the wave particle acceleration or velocity. The frequency dependence of the inertia coefficient is known analytically as a function of the wave......-number, and the relevant range of waves shorter than about six times the diameter typically corresponds to deep water waves. This permits a universal non-dimensional frequency representation, that is converted to rational form to provide the relevant filter equation. Simple time-domain simulations demonstrate...

  9. The Distribution of Breaking and Non-Breaking Wave Impact Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    gages 7 Dynamometer 7 Senix Ultrasonic Sensors 8 LiDAR 9 Acoustic Wave and Current Profiler (AWAC) 9 Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) 10...Impact Trends with Speed 27 Conclusions 29 References 31 in FIGURES Figure 1: Schematic of high speed tow basin, Carriage 5 2 Figure 2. Diagram...model scale, with a red asterisk noting the first peak location and text showing peak value 18 Figure 21. Example of wave force from dynamometer

  10. Interactions between topographically and thermally forced stationary waves: implications for ice-sheet evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Liakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines mutual interactions between stationary waves and ice sheets using a dry atmospheric primitive-equation model coupled to a three-dimensional thermomechanical ice-sheet model. The emphasis is on how non-linear interactions between thermal and topographical forcing of the stationary waves influence the ice-sheet evolution by changing the ablation. Simulations are conducted in which a small ice cap, on an idealised Northern Hemisphere continent, evolves to an equilibrium continental-scale ice sheet. In the absence of stationary waves, the equilibrium ice sheet arrives at symmetric shape with a zonal equatorward margin. In isolation, the topographically induced stationary waves have essentially no impact on the equilibrium features of the ice sheet. The reason is that the temperature anomalies are located far from the equatorward ice margin. When forcing due to thermal cooling is added to the topographical forcing, thermally induced perturbation winds amplify the topographically induced stationary-wave response, which that serves to increase both the equatorward extent and the volume of the ice sheet. Roughly, a 10% increase in the ice volume is reported here. Hence, the present study suggests that the topographically induced stationary-wave response can be substantially enhanced by the high albedo of ice sheets.

  11. Self-induced dipole force and filamentation instability of a matter wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of copropagating electromagnetic and matter waves is described with a set of coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Optical self-focusing modulates an initially planar wave leading to the generation of dipole forces on the atoms. Atomic channeling due to the dipole...... forces leads, in the nonlinear regime, to filamentation of the atomic beam. Instability growth rates are calculated for atomic beams with both low and high phase space densities. In one transverse dimension an exact solution is found that describes a coupled optical and atomic soliton....

  12. Effect of Short-Crestedness and Obliquity on Non-Breaking and Breaking Wave Forces Applied to Vertical Caisson Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinelli, Luca; Lamberti, Alberto; Frigaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses wave forces applied to vertical caisson breakwaters. Design diagrams are proposed to evaluate the reduction of the breaker wave force with increasing horizontal length of the units. A model in 1:100 scale of a typical Italian vertical breakwater was tested under multidirectio......This paper addresses wave forces applied to vertical caisson breakwaters. Design diagrams are proposed to evaluate the reduction of the breaker wave force with increasing horizontal length of the units. A model in 1:100 scale of a typical Italian vertical breakwater was tested under...

  13. Finite-size radiation force correction for inviscid spheres in standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Philip L

    2017-09-01

    Yosioka and Kawasima gave a widely used approximation for the acoustic radiation force on small liquid spheres surrounded by an immiscible liquid in 1955. Considering the liquids to be inviscid with negligible thermal dissipation, in their approximation the force on the sphere is proportional to the sphere's volume and the levitation position in a vertical standing wave becomes independent of the size. The analysis given here introduces a small correction term proportional to the square of the sphere's radius relative to the aforementioned small-sphere force. The significance of this term also depends on the relative density and sound velocity of the sphere. The improved approximation is supported by comparison with the exact partial-wave-series based radiation force for ideal fluid spheres in ideal fluids.

  14. Analytical solutions of the dielectrophoretic and travelling wave forces generated by interdigitated electrode arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Tao; Morgan, Hywel; Green, Nicolas G [Nanoscale Systems Integration Group, School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ts04r@ecs.soton.ac.uk, E-mail: ng2@ecs.soton.ac.uk

    2008-12-01

    In AC electrokinetics, the application of an AC electric field to a suspension of particles results in the manipulation and separation of the particles also the movement of the fluid. One application is dielectrophoresis (DEP). The second effect is travelling wave dielectrophoresis (twDEP). This paper presents the analytical solutions of the dielectrophoretic and travelling wave forces for the interdigitated electrode arrays energised with either a two- or four-phase signal, respectively. The torque that rotates the particle in the four-phase travelling wave arrays is also analytically solved.

  15. Observational evidence for temporary planetary wave forcing of the MLT during fall equinox

    CERN Document Server

    Stray, Nora H; Espy, Patrick J; Hibbins, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    We present direct observations of zonal wave numbers 1 and 2 planetary wave activity in the mesopause region derived from a longitudinal chain of high-latitude Northern Hemisphere (51-66$^{\\circ}$N) Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radars. Over a 9 year period (2000-2008), the planetary wave activity observed shows a consistent increase around the fall equinox. This is shown to be coincident with a minimum in the magnitude of the stratospheric winds and consequently a minimum in the stratospheric gravity wave filtering and the subsequent momentum deposition in the mesopause region. Despite this, the observed meridional winds are shown to be perturbed poleward and mesopause temperatures rise temporarily, suggesting that westward momentum deposition from planetary waves temporarily becomes the dominant forcing on the mesopause region each fall equinox.

  16. Effects from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of an offshore wind turbine and its monopile foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    The effect from fully nonlinear irregular wave forcing on the fatigue life of the foundation and tower of an offshore wind turbine is investigated through aeroelastic calculations. Five representative sea states with increasing significant wave height are considered in a water depth of 40 m....... The waves are both linear and fully nonlinear irregular 2D waves. The wind turbine is the NREL 5-MW reference wind turbine. Fatigue analysis is performed in relation to analysis of the sectional forces in the tower and monopile. Impulsive excitation of the sectional force at the bottom of the tower is seen...... when the waves are large and nonlinear and most notably for small wind speeds. In case of strong velocities and turbulent wind, the excitation is damped out. In the monopile no excitation of the force is seen, but even for turbulent strong wind the wave affects the forces in the pile significantly...

  17. Fatigue and extreme wave loads on bottom fixed offshore wind turbines. Effects from fully nonlinear wave forcing on the structural dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe

    2013-01-01

    will transfer energy to higher frequencies which can be close to the wind turbines eigenfrequency. In the present thesis the response of an offshore wind turbine placed on a monopile foundation is investigated when exposed to linear and fully nonlinear irregular waves. The focus of the investigations...... effects of the wave nonlinearity. In first part of the thesis, the linear and nonlinear wave realizations are compared and the static wave forcing based on the two wave theories analysed. This analysis is followed by dynamic calculations where the effects of wave nonlinearity on the structural dynamics...... response due to the forces based on the potential-flow solver and Morison’s equation. Finally a small study of the effect of including wave directionality in the dynamic analysis is performed. All the analyses in this thesis contribute to the understanding of how important the wave nonlinearity...

  18. Relationship of scattering phase shifts to special radiation force conditions for spheres in axisymmetric wave-fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun

    2017-05-01

    When investigating the radiation forces on spheres in complicated wave-fields, the interpretation of analytical results can be simplified by retaining the s-function notation and associated phase shifts imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, as taken to be the case in the present investigation, there is an additional simplification in that partial-wave phase shifts become real numbers that vanish when the partial-wave index becomes large and when the wave-number-sphere-radius product vanishes. By restricting attention to monopole and dipole phase shifts, transitions in the axial radiation force for axisymmetric wave-fields are found to be related to wave-field parameters for traveling and standing Bessel wave-fields by considering the ratio of the phase shifts. For traveling waves, the special force conditions concern negative forces while for standing waves, the special force conditions concern vanishing radiation forces. An intermediate step involves considering the functional dependence on phase shifts. An appendix gives an approximation for zero-force plane standing wave conditions. Connections with early investigations of acoustic levitation are mentioned and some complications associated with viscosity are briefly noted.

  19. First-principle simulation of the acoustic radiation force on microparticles in ultrasonic standing waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring; Bruus, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The recent development in the field of microparticle acoutophoresis in microsystems has led to an increased need for more accurate theoretical predections for the acoustic radiation force on a single microparticle in an ultrasonic standing wave. Increasingly detailed analytical solutions of this ...

  20. Robustness of free and pinned spiral waves against breakup by electrical forcing in excitable chemical media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phantu, Metinee; Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2017-04-01

    We present an investigation on the breakup of free and pinned spiral waves under an applied electrical current in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Spiral fronts propagating towards the negative electrode are decelerated. A breakup of the spiral waves occurs when some segments of the fronts are stopped by a sufficiently strong electrical current. In the absence of obstacles (i.e., free spiral waves), the critical value of the electrical current for the wave breakup increases with the excitability of the medium. For spiral waves pinned to circular obstacles, the critical electrical current increases with the obstacle diameter. Analysis of spiral dynamics shows that the enhancement of the robustness against the breakup of both free and pinned spiral waves is originated by the increment of wave speed when either the excitability is strengthened or the obstacle size is enlarged. The experimental findings are reproduced by numerical simulations using the Oregonator model. In addition, the simulations reveal that the robustness against the forced breakup increases with the activator level in both cases of free and pinned spiral waves.

  1. Effect of transient wave forcing on the behavior of arsenic in a sandy nearshore aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhimbekova, S.; O'Carroll, D. M.; Robinson, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    Waves cause large quantities of coastal water to recirculate across the groundwater-coastal water interface in addition to inducing complex groundwater flows in the nearshore aquifer. Due to the distinct chemical composition of recirculating coastal water compared with discharging terrestrial groundwater, wave-induced recirculations and flows can alter geochemical gradients in the nearshore aquifer which may subsequently affect the mobilization and transport of reactive pollutants (e.g., arsenic). The impact of seasonal geochemical and hydrological variability on the occurrence and mobility of arsenic near the groundwater-surface water interface has been shown previously in riverine settings, however, the impact of high frequency geochemical variations (e.g., varying wave conditions) on arsenic mobility in groundwater-surface water environments is unclear. The objective of the study was to assess the impact of intensified wave conditions on the behavior of arsenic in a nearshore aquifer to determine the factors regulating its mobility and transport to receiving coastal waters. Field investigations were conducted at a permeable beach on the Great Lakes during a period of intensified wave conditions (wave event). High spatial resolution pore water sampling captured the geochemical conditions in the nearshore aquifer prior to the wave event, immediately after the wave event and over a recovery period of 3 weeks following the wave event. Shifts in pH and redox potential (ORP) gradients in response to varying wave conditions caused shifts in the iron and arsenic distributions in the aquifer. Sediment analysis was combined with the pore water distributions to assess the release of sediment-bound arsenic in response to the varying wave conditions. Insight into the effect of transient forcing on arsenic mobility and transport in groundwater-surface water environments is important for evaluating the potential risks associated with this toxic metalloid. The findings of this

  2. Acoustic backscattering and radiation force on a rigid elliptical cylinder in plane progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-03-01

    This work proposes a formal analytical theory using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in cylindrical coordinates, to calculate the acoustic backscattering form function as well as the radiation force-per-length on an infinitely long elliptical (non-circular) cylinder in plane progressive waves. The major (or minor) semi-axis of the ellipse coincides with the direction of the incident waves. The scattering coefficients for the rigid elliptical cylinder are determined by imposing the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface and solving a resulting system of linear equations by matrix inversion. The present method, which utilizes standard cylindrical (Bessel and Hankel) wave functions, presents an advantage over the solution for the scattering that is ordinarily expressed in a basis of elliptical Mathieu functions (which are generally non-orthogonal). Furthermore, an integral equation showing the direct connection of the radiation force function with the square of the scattering form function in the far-field from the scatterer (applicable for plane waves only), is noted and discussed. An important application of this integral equation is the adequate evaluation of the radiation force function from a bistatic measurement (i.e., in the polar plane) of the far-field scattering from any 2D object of arbitrary shape. Numerical predictions are evaluated for the acoustic backscattering form function and the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit length, per characteristic energy density, and per unit cross-sectional surface of the ellipse, with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes, as well as the dimensionless size parameter kb, without the restriction to a particular range of frequencies. The results are particularly relevant in acoustic levitation, acousto-fluidics and particle dynamics applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of in vivo mechanical strain upon different wave forms of exogenous forces in rabbit craniofacial sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopher, Ross A; Nudera, James A; Wang, Xin; O'Grady, Kevin; Mao, Jeremy J

    2003-10-01

    Sutures are fibrous joints between craniofacial bones, providing an interesting model for studying the biomechanics of the interface between soft and mineralized tissues. To explore whether different wave forms of exogenous forces induce corresponding sutural strain wave forms, sutural strain of the premaxillomaxillary suture (PMS) and nasofrontal suture (NFS) of New Zealand White rabbits (N = 8) was recorded upon application of static, sine- and square-wave forces against the maxilla from 1 N to 5 N in 1 N increments. The PMS demonstrated compressive strain, whereas the NFS tensile strain. Despite a tenfold difference in peak PMS strain (- 1451 +/- 512 micro(epsilon)) and NFS strain (141 +/- 39 micro(epsilon)) in response to 5 N cyclic forces, wave forms of exogenous forces were expressed as corresponding wave forms of sutural strain in both the PMS and NFS. Peak sutural strain was similar upon static and sine-wave cyclic loading. Thus, cells and matrix components of fibrous sutural tissue experience different wave forms of exogenous forces as corresponding wave forms of tissue-borne mechanical strain. Current craniofacial orthopedic therapies exclusively utilize static forces to change the shape of craniofacial bones via mechanically induced bone apposition and resorption. The present data provide room for exploring whether cyclic forces capable of inducing different sutural strain wave forms may accelerate sutural anabolic or catabolic responses.

  4. Spectral power density of the random excitation for the photoacoustic wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Erkol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The superposition of the Green's function and its time reversal can be extracted from the photoacoustic point sources applying the representation theorems of the convolution and correlation type. It is shown that photoacoustic pressure waves at locations of random point sources can be calculated with the solution of the photoacoustic wave equation and utilization of the continuity and the discontinuity conditions of the pressure waves in the frequency domain although the pressure waves cannot be measured at these locations directly. Therefore, with the calculated pressure waves at the positions of the sources, the spectral power density can be obtained for any system consisting of two random point sources. The methodology presented here can also be generalized to any finite number of point like sources. The physical application of this study includes the utilization of the cross-correlation of photoacoustic waves to extract functional information associated with the flow dynamics inside the tissue.

  5. Measurement of Elastic Properties of Tissue by Shear Wave Propagation Generated by Acoustic Radiation Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaru, Marie; Azuma, Takashi; Hashiba, Kunio

    2010-07-01

    Acoustic radiation force (ARF) imaging has been developed as a novel elastography technology to diagnose hepatic disease and breast cancer. The accuracy of shear wave speed estimation, which is one of the applications of ARF elastography, is studied. The Young's moduli of pig liver and foie gras samples estimated from the shear wave speed were compared with those measured the static Young's modulus measurement. The difference in the two methods was 8%. Distance attenuation characteristics of the shear wave were also studied using finite element method (FEM) analysis. We found that the differences in the axial and lateral beam widths in pressure and ARF are 16 and 9% at F-number=0.9. We studied the relationship between two branch points in distance attenuation characteristics and the shape of ARF. We found that the maximum measurable length to estimate shear wave speed for one ARF excitation was 8 mm.

  6. Wave fluxes of equatorial Kelvin waves and QBO zonal wind forcing derived from SABER and ECMWF temperature space-time spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ern

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO of the zonal mean zonal wind is a dynamical phenomenon of the tropical middle atmosphere. Influences of the QBO can even be found at mid and high latitudes. It is widely accepted that the phase descent of alternating tropical easterlies and westerlies is driven by atmospheric waves of both global scale (equatorial wave modes like Kelvin, equatorial Rossby, Rossby-gravity, or inertia-gravity waves, as well as mesoscale gravity waves. However, the relative distribution of the different types of waves to the forcing of the QBO winds is highly uncertain. This is the case because until recently there were no high resolution long-term global measurements in the stratosphere. In our study we estimate Kelvin wave momentum flux and the contribution of zonal wind forcing by Kelvin waves based on space-time spectra determined from both Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER temperature measurements as well as temperatures from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF operational analyses. Peak values of total Kelvin wave zonal wind forcing found are about 0.2 m/s/day. There is good agreement between SABER and ECMWF results. Altitude-time cross sections are shown and the results are compared to the total wave forcing required to balance the background atmosphere. Sometimes Kelvin wave forcing is sufficient to explain almost the whole total wave forcing required for the momentum balance during the transition from QBO easterly to westerly winds. This is especially the case during the periods of strong westerly wind shear when the zonal wind is between −20 and 10 m/s at the equator in the altitude range 20 to 35 km. During other parts of the phases of strong westerly wind shear, however, the contribution of Kelvin waves can be comparably low and the missing wave forcing, which is often attributed to mesoscale gravity waves or intermediate scale waves, can be the by far

  7. Effect of particle-particle interactions on the acoustic radiation force in an ultrasonic standing wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipkens, Bart, E-mail: blipkens@wne.edu [Mechanical Engineering, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts, 01119 (United States); Ilinskii, Yurii A., E-mail: ilinskii@gmail.com; Zabolotskaya, Evgenia A., E-mail: zheniazabolotskaya@gmail.com [Applied Research Laboratories, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713–8029 (United States)

    2015-10-28

    Ultrasonic standing waves are widely used for separation applications. In MEMS applications, a half wavelength standing wave field is generated perpendicular to a laminar flow. The acoustic radiation force exerted on the particle drives the particle to the center of the MEMS channel, where concentrated particles are harvested. In macro-scale applications, the ultrasonic standing wave spans multiple wavelengths. Examples of such applications are oil/water emulsion splitting [1], and blood/lipid separation [2]. In macro-scale applications, particles are typically trapped in the standing wave, resulting in clumping or coalescence of particles/droplets. Subsequent gravitational settling results in separation of the secondary phase. An often used expression for the radiation force on a particle is that derived by Gorkov [3]. The assumptions are that the particle size is small relative to the wavelength, and therefore, only monopole and dipole scattering contributions are used to calculate the radiation force. This framework seems satisfactory for MEMS scale applications where each particle is treated separately by the standing wave, and concentrations are typically low. In macro-scale applications, particle concentration is high, and particle clumping or droplet coalescence results in particle sizes not necessarily small relative to the wavelength. Ilinskii et al. developed a framework for calculation of the acoustic radiation force valid for any size particle [4]. However, this model does not take into account particle to particle effects, which can become important as particle concentration increases. It is known that an acoustic radiation force on a particle or a droplet is determined by the local field. An acoustic radiation force expression is developed that includes the effect of particle to particle interaction. The case of two neighboring particles is considered. The approach is based on sound scattering by the particles. The acoustic field at the location of

  8. Experimental verification of theoretical equations for acoustic radiation force on compressible spherical particles in traveling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kennita A.; Vormohr, Hannah R.; Doinikov, Alexander A.; Bouakaz, Ayache; Shields, C. Wyatt; López, Gabriel P.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-05-01

    Acoustophoresis uses acoustic radiation force to remotely manipulate particles suspended in a host fluid for many scientific, technological, and medical applications, such as acoustic levitation, acoustic coagulation, contrast ultrasound imaging, ultrasound-assisted drug delivery, etc. To estimate the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, equations derived for an inviscid host fluid are commonly used. However, there are theoretical predictions that, in the case of a traveling wave, viscous effects can dramatically change the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces, which make the equations obtained for an inviscid host fluid invalid for proper estimation of acoustic radiation forces. To date, experimental verification of these predictions has not been published. Experimental measurements of viscous effects on acoustic radiation forces in a traveling wave were conducted using a confocal optical and acoustic system and values were compared with available theories. Our results show that, even in a low-viscosity fluid such as water, the magnitude of acoustic radiation forces is increased manyfold by viscous effects in comparison with what follows from the equations derived for an inviscid fluid.

  9. On the vertical structure of wave forcing for the ocean circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Bennis, Anne-Claire

    2010-01-01

    The conservation of momentum, when averaged over the phase of surface gravity waves can take two forms, whether or not the momentum variable contains the wave pseudo-momentum. The vertical profiles of the resulting wave-induced forces are discussed, with application to realistic condition. It was already proved that forces for the total momentum that use analytical functions of the local wave properties are necessarily inconsistent, and thus inaccurate at the lowest order. The consequences of these inaccuracies are explored here. In inviscid conditions, it is shown that large spurious currents of the order of 10 times the Strokes drift are generated on a sloping bottom, however small that slope is. These spurious velocities are reduced but are still significant when a strong vertical mixing is applied. In contrast, forces for the quasi-Eulerian mean momentum do not suffer from this inconsistency, and accurate numerical models can be developed. Choosing to solve for the quasi-Eulerian mean flow is also intrins...

  10. Surface Wave Effects in the NEMO Ocean Model: Forced and Coupled Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Balmaseda, Magdalena Alonso; Janssen, Peter A E M

    2015-01-01

    The NEMO general circulation ocean model is extended to incorporate three physical processes related to ocean surface waves, namely the surface stress (modified by growth and dissipation of the oceanic wave field), the turbulent kinetic energy flux from breaking waves, and the Stokes-Coriolis force. Experiments are done with NEMO in ocean-only (forced) mode and coupled to the ECMWF atmospheric and wave models. Ocean-only integrations are forced with fields from the ERA-Interim reanalysis. All three effects are noticeable in the extra-tropics, but the sea-state dependent turbulent kinetic energy flux yields by far the largest difference. This is partly because the control run has too vigorous deep mixing due to an empirical mixing term in NEMO. We investigate the relation between this ad hoc mixing and Langmuir turbulence and find that it is much more effective than the Langmuir parameterization used in NEMO. The biases in sea surface temperature as well as subsurface temperature are reduced, and the total oce...

  11. Optimal Control of a Surge-Mode WEC in Random Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ceberio, Olivier [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Previsic, Mirko [Re Vision Consulting, Sacramento, CA (United States); Scruggs, Jeffrey [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Van de Ven, James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The objective of this project was to develop one or more real-time feedback and feed-forward (MPC) control algorithms for an Oscillating Surge Wave Converter (OSWC) developed by RME called SurgeWEC™ that leverages recent innovations in wave energy converter (WEC) control theory to maximize power production in random wave environments. The control algorithms synthesized innovations in dynamic programming and nonlinear wave dynamics using anticipatory wave sensors and localized sensor measurements; e.g. position and velocity of the WEC Power Take Off (PTO), with predictive wave forecasting data. The result was an advanced control system that uses feedback or feed-forward data from an array of sensor channels comprised of both localized and deployed sensors fused into a single decision process that optimally compensates for uncertainties in the system dynamics, wave forecasts, and sensor measurement errors.

  12. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arunjith

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to establish empirical relationships for the estimation of wave overtopping discharges over crown wall and run-up on Kolosarmoured slope exposed to random wave from the results of a comprehensive experimental program. Further, the results are compared with that of a tested section with natural rocks as armour layer and with that of other investigators.

  13. Stem breakage of salt marsh vegetation under wave forcing: A field and model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuik, Vincent; Suh Heo, Hannah Y.; Zhu, Zhenchang; Borsje, Bas W.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.

    2018-01-01

    One of the services provided by coastal ecosystems is wave attenuation by vegetation, and subsequent reduction of wave loads on flood defense structures. Therefore, stability of vegetation under wave forcing is an important factor to consider. This paper presents a model which determines the wave load that plant stems can withstand before they break or fold. This occurs when wave-induced bending stresses exceed the flexural strength of stems. Flexural strength was determined by means of three-point-bending tests, which were carried out for two common salt marsh species: Spartina anglica (common cord-grass) and Scirpus maritimus (sea club-rush), at different stages in the seasonal cycle. Plant stability is expressed in terms of a critical orbital velocity, which combines factors that contribute to stability: high flexural strength, large stem diameter, low vegetation height, high flexibility and a low drag coefficient. In order to include stem breakage in the computation of wave attenuation by vegetation, the stem breakage model was implemented in a wave energy balance. A model parameter was calibrated so that the predicted stem breakage corresponded with the wave-induced loss of biomass that occurred in the field. The stability of Spartina is significantly higher than that of Scirpus, because of its higher strength, shorter stems, and greater flexibility. The model is validated by applying wave flume tests of Elymus athericus (sea couch), which produced reasonable results with regards to the threshold of folding and overall stem breakage percentage, despite the high flexibility of this species. Application of the stem breakage model will lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of vegetation for coastal protection.

  14. Chapter 4: Pulsating Wave Loads Section 4.3: 3D Effects Force Reduction of Short-Crested Non-Breaking Waves on Caissons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Liu, Zhou

    1999-01-01

    simultaneously along the caisson, named peak-delay reduction. Model test results indicate that the point-pressure reduction can be predicted by the Goda formula. Based on linear wave theory, Battjes (1982) presented a formula for the peak-delay force reduction of short-crested waves with only one frequency...... ion of peakdelay force reduction factor for oblique long-crested and short-crested non-breaking waves are derived analytically. Theoretical formula for the maximum non-dimensional horizontally turning moment around the center of the caisson by oblique regular waves is also presented. Finally the paper...... gives a summary of the model test results on the force reduction of non-breaking and breaking short-crested waves....

  15. Constant force actuator for gravitational wave detector's seismic attenuation systems (SAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Chenyang E-mail: chenyang@its.caltech.edu; Tariq, Hareem; DeSalvo, Riccardo E-mail: desalvo@ligo.caltech.edu; Iida, Yukiyoshi; Marka, Szabolcs; Nishi, Yuhiko; Sannibale, Virginio; Takamori, Akiteru

    2002-08-21

    We have designed, tested and implemented a UHV-compatible, low-noise, non-contacting force actuator for DC positioning and inertial damping of the rigid body resonances of the Seismic Attenuation System (SAS) designed for the TAMA Gravitational Wave Interferometer. The actuator fully satisfies the stringent zero-force-gradient requirements that are necessary to prevent re-injecting seismic noise into the SAS chain. The actuator's closed magnetic field design makes for particularly low power requirements, and low susceptibility to external perturbations. The actuator retains enough strength to absorb seismic perturbations even during small earthquakes.

  16. Particle orbits in a force-balanced, wave-driven, rotating torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, I. E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-09-01

    A wave-driven rotating torus is a recently proposed fusion concept where the rotational transform is provided by the E × B drift resulting from a minor radial electric field. This field can be produced, for instance, by the RF-wave-mediated extraction of fusion-born alpha particles. In this paper, we discuss how macroscopic force balance, i.e., balance of the thermal hoop force, can be achieved in such a device. We show that this requires the inclusion of a small plasma current and vertical magnetic field and identify the desirable reactor regime through free energy considerations. We then analyze particle orbits in this desirable regime, identifying velocity-space anisotropies in trapped (banana) orbits, resulting from the cancellation of rotational transforms due to the radial electric and poloidal magnetic fields. The potential neoclassical effects of these orbits on the perpendicular conductivity, current drive, and transport are discussed.

  17. Forced vibration and wave propagation in mono-coupled periodic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the wave propagation and vibration characteristics of mono-coupled structures which are of spatially periodic nature. The receptance approach to periodic structure theory is applied to study undamped periodic systems with composite structural elements; particular emphasis...... is laid on investigating resonant periodic point loading and its pronounced effect on the propagation of longitudinal waves. General mono-coupled periodic systems are first assumed to be infinite in extent; thereafter reflections caused by arbitrary end terminations of finite structures are considered...... and a general `closed form' solution is found for the forced harmonic response at element junctions. This `junction-receptance' is used to determine-discrete junction mode shapes of a finite system. Finally, the forced response of a finite structure with an internal obstruction is derived as a natural extension...

  18. Multiple Scattering of Waves in Discrete Random Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    chiral inclusions themselves made up of microminiature helices suspended in some other, or the same, host medium. As a wave traverses such a composite...compuietvedrs functio fo fequ omoen forb ledt[ proiaearemn]ih.h esre auso Fe~ artcls dsprse i aPVCmarix Te delcti agn r e art [2]fo the dicpoite propties

  19. Electromagnetic wave scattering in a two-layer anisotropic random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    For electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in an anisotropic random medium, the Dyson equation for the mean field and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the correlation or the covariance of the field were derived. With the random permittivity expressed in a general anisotropic form, the bilocal and the nonlinear approximations are employed to solve the Dyson equation, and the ladder approximation to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer anisotropic random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been investigated with the zeroth-order solutions to the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation. The effective propagation constants are calculated for the four characteristic waves associated with the coherent vector fields, propagating in an anisotropic random-medium layer, which are the ordinary and extraordinary waves with upward- and downward-propagating vectors.

  20. Influence of random roughness on the Casimir force at small separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwol, P. J.; Palasantzas, G.; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    The influence of random surface roughness of Au films on the Casimir force is explored with atomic force microscopy in the plate-sphere geometry. The experimental results are compared to theoretical predictions for separations ranging between 20 and 200 nm. The optical response and roughness of the

  1. Does strong tropospheric forcing cause large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves? A Deepwave Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramberger, Martina; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Ehard, Benedikt; Kaifler, Bernd; Kaifler, Natalie; Rahm, Stephan; Witschas, Benjamin; Rapp, Markus; Vosper, Simon; Orr, Andrew; Williams, Bifford P.; Fritts, David C.; Pautet, P.-Dominique; Taylor, Michael J.; Mallaun, Christian

    2017-04-01

    On 4 July 2014, during the Deep Propagating Gravity Wave Experiment (DEEPWAVE), strong horizontal winds up to 35 ms-1 caused the excitation of gravity waves containing the largest energy fluxes of the complete campaign (38 W m-2). At the same time, large amplitude mesospheric gravity waves were detected by the Temperature Lidar for Middle Atmospheric Research (TELMA) located in Lauder (45.0° S, 169.7° E). This combination lead to the question whether the observed mesospheric gravity waves are generated by the tropospheric forcing. For our study we use an extensive data set which comprises TELMA data, in situ measurements of the two aircraft, radiosondes, wind lidar measurements aboard DLR Falcon as well as Rayleigh lidar and advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (AMTM) measurements aboard the NSF/NCAR GV. To complement the measurements, studies with limited area simulations of the Unified Model are taken into account. This unique data set allows for the observation of the evolution of the gravity waves from the troposphere to the mesosphere. Our investigations revealed a complicated situation where the propagation of mountain waves is influenced by partial reflection at the tropopause, a valve layer in the lower stratosphere filtering a part of the wave spectrum and possibly partial reflection at the polar night jet. Nevertheless stationary waves are found in the AMTM measurements with horizontal wavelengths between 30 and 130 km. Although the measurements comprised all altitudes from the troposphere to the mesosphere, still numerical studies proved to be a valuable asset in order to answer the question raised.

  2. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning

    2017-08-01

    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in randomly-stratified magnetodielectric media with uniform impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihong

    2015-06-01

    The propagation and the Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in a randomly-stratified slab, where both the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability depend on one spatial coordinate in a random manner, is theoretically studied. The case where the wave impedance is uniform, while the refractive index is random, is considered in detail. The localization length and the disorder-averaged transmittance of s and p waves incident obliquely on the slab are calculated as a function of the incident angle θ and the strength of randomness in a numerically precise manner, using the invariant imbedding method. It is found that the waves incident perpendicularly on the slab are delocalized, while those incident obliquely are localized. As the incident angle increases from zero, the localization length decreases from infinity monotonically to some finite value. The localization length is found to depend on the incident angle as θ-4 and a simple analytical formula, which works quite well for weak disorder and small incident angles, is derived. The localization length does not depend on the wave polarization, but the disorder-averaged transmittance generally does.

  4. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: a.moradi@kut.ac.ir [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the π and σ electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.

  5. Simulations of ultrasound propagation in random arrangements of elliptic scatterers: occurrence of two longitudinal waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Dobigny, Blandine; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud

    2013-02-01

    Ultrasound propagation in clusters of elliptic (two-dimensional) or ellipsoidal (three-dimensional) scatterers randomly distributed in a fluid is investigated numerically. The essential motivation for the present work is to gain a better understanding of ultrasound propagation in trabecular bone. Bone microstructure exhibits structural anisotropy and multiple wave scattering. Some phenomena remain partially unexplained, such as the propagation of two longitudinal waves. The objective of this study was to shed more light on the occurrence of these two waves, using finite-difference simulations on a model medium simpler than bone. Slabs of anisotropic, scattering media were randomly generated. The coherent wave was obtained through spatial and ensemble-averaging of the transmitted wavefields. When varying relevant medium parameters, four of them appeared to play a significant role for the observation of two waves: (i) the solid fraction, (ii) the direction of propagation relatively to the scatterers orientation, (iii) the ability of scatterers to support shear waves, and (iv) a continuity of the solid matrix along the propagation. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that fast waves are guided by the locally plate/bar-like solid matrix. If confirmed, this interpretation could significantly help developing approaches for a better understanding of trabecular bone micro-architecture using ultrasound.

  6. Unpinning of spiral waves by electrical forcing in excitable chemical media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat; Müller, Stefan C; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2014-05-01

    We present experimental observations on the electrically forced release of spiral waves pinned to unexcitable circular obstacles in the Belosov-Zhabotinsky reaction. When the applied electric current density reaches the necessary current density J(unpin), the spiral tip is detached and subsequently drifts away from the obstacle. J(unpin) is found to increase with the obstacle diameter d. The growth rate ΔJ(unpin)/Δd is much higher for obstacles larger than the free spiral core compared to that for smaller obstacles. The experimental findings are confirmed by numerical simulations using the Oregonator model. The results imply that it is more difficult to release spiral waves pinned to larger obstacles, especially when the obstacle size exceeds that of the free spiral core.

  7. Concurrent Visualization of Acoustic Radiation Force Displacement and Shear Wave Propagation with 7T MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available Manual palpation is a common and very informative diagnostic tool based on estimation of changes in the stiffness of tissues that result from pathology. In the case of a small lesion or a lesion that is located deep within the body, it is difficult for changes in mechanical properties of tissue to be detected or evaluated via palpation. Furthermore, palpation is non-quantitative and cannot be used to localize the lesion. Magnetic Resonance-guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS can also be used to evaluate the properties of biological tissues non-invasively. In this study, an MRgFUS system combines high field (7T MR and 3 MHz focused ultrasound to provide high resolution MR imaging and a small ultrasonic interrogation region (~0.5 x 0.5 x 2 mm, as compared with current clinical systems. MR-Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI provides a reliable and efficient method for beam localization by detecting micron-scale displacements induced by ultrasound mechanical forces. The first aim of this study is to develop a sequence that can concurrently quantify acoustic radiation force displacements and image the resulting transient shear wave. Our motivation in combining these two measurements is to develop a technique that can rapidly provide both ARFI and shear wave velocity estimation data, making it suitable for use in interventional radiology. Secondly, we validate this sequence in vivo by estimating the displacement before and after high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU ablation, and we validate the shear wave velocity in vitro using tissue-mimicking gelatin and tofu phantoms. Such rapid acquisitions are especially useful in interventional radiology applications where minimizing scan time is highly desirable.

  8. A study of wave forces on an offshore platform by direct CFD and Morison equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang D.

    2015-01-01

    The next step is the presentation of 3D multiphase RANS simulation of the wind-turbine platform in single-harmonic regular waves. Simulation results from full 3D simulation will be compared to the results from Morison’s equation. We are motivated by the challenges of a floating platform which has complex underwater geometry (e.g. tethered semi-submersible. In cases like this, our hypothesis is that Morison’s equation will result in inaccurate prediction of forces, due to the limitations of 2D coefficients of simple geometries, and that 3D multiphase RANS CFD will be required to generate reliable predictions of platform loads and motions.

  9. Unusual spiral wave tip trajectories in a parametrically forced nonequilibrium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jysoo; Kim, Jinha; Yi, Goen-hee; Lee, Kyoung J

    2002-04-01

    The effect of parametric modulations on spiral waves that form in a thin layer of liquid crystal under rotating magnetic field is studied in laboratory experiments and numerical simulations. Parametric forcings that are sinusoidal in time make a simply rotating spiral tip to meander, rendering a compound tip trajectory that is composed of a main circular orbit and a satellite orbit with an unusual crescent shape. No evidence of frequency locking is found. The underlying mechanism for the unusual shape of the satellite orbit is elucidated, and the dependence of the rotation frequency of the main circular orbit f(o) on the perturbation parameters are discussed.

  10. Applications of Lorentz force in medical acoustics: Lorentz force hydrophone, Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography, Imaging of shear waves induced by Lorentz force

    CERN Document Server

    Grasland-Mongrain, Pol

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the Lorentz force to link a mechanical displacement to an electrical current presents a strong interest for medical acoustics, and three applications were studied in this thesis. In the first part of this work, a hydrophone was developed for mapping the particle velocity of an acoustic field. This hydrophone was constructed using a thin copper wire and an external magnetic field. A model was elaborated to determine the relationship between the acoustic pressure and the measured electrical current, which is induced by Lorentz force when the wire vibrates in the acoustic field of an ultrasound transducer. The built prototype was characterized and its spatial resolution, frequency response, sensitivity, robustness and directivity response were investigated. An imaging method called Lorentz Force Electrical Impedance Tomography was also studied. In this method, a biological tissue is vibrated by ultrasound in a magnetic field, which induces an electrical current by Lorentz force. The electrical imp...

  11. Design of Bidirectional Check Valve for Discrete Fluid Power Force System for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    introduces large switching losses, especially when large pressure difference is present across the valves in the manifold. The current paper therefore focus on designing a bidirectional check valve for use in the switching manifold of the discrete force systems. The use of the bidirectional check valve...... enables passive force switching under minimal pressure difference, hence minimal energy loss. The bidirectional check valve is designed with a rated flow in the range of 1000L/min@5bar. The flow direction of the bidirectional check valve is set by the setting the pilot pressure. This paper presents...... a functionality test of a 125 L/min@5bar bidirectional check, leading to the design and modelling of a bidirectional check valve for ocean wave energy. It shows that a feasible bidirectional check valve may be configured by employing a multi-poppet topology for the main stage and utilising a 3/2 switching valve...

  12. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.

  13. Random walker in temporally deforming higher-order potential forces observed in a financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2009-11-01

    Basic peculiarities of market price fluctuations are known to be well described by a recently developed random-walk model in a temporally deforming quadratic potential force whose center is given by a moving average of past price traces [M. Takayasu, T. Mizuno, and H. Takayasu, Physica A 370, 91 (2006)]. By analyzing high-frequency financial time series of exceptional events, such as bubbles and crashes, we confirm the appearance of higher-order potential force in the markets. We show statistical significance of its existence by applying the information criterion. This time series analysis is expected to be applied widely for detecting a nonstationary symptom in random phenomena.

  14. Water-waves frequency upshift of the spectral mean due to wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeltink, Debbie; Chabchoub, Amin; Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jerome; Kimmoun, Olivier; Branger, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The effect of wind forcing on monochromatic modulated water waves was investigated both numerically and experimentally in the context of the Modified Non-Linear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation framework. While wind is usually associated with a frequency downshift of the dominant spectral peak, we show that it may induce an upshift of the spectral mean due to an asymmetric amplification of the spectrum. Here the weighted average spectral mean is equal to the ratio of the momentum of the envelope to its norm and it detects any asymmetries in the spectrum (Segur et al. 2005). Wind can however indirectly induce frequency downshifts, by promoting dissipative effects like wave breaking. We highlight that the definition of the up- and downshift in terms of peak frequency or average frequency is critical for a relevant discussion. In our model, the wind input consists of a leading order forcing term that amplifies all frequencies equally and induces a broadening of the spectrum, and a higher order asymmetric term (Brunetti et al. 2014; Brunetti & Kasparian 2014) that amplifies higher frequencies more than lower ones and induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. The effect of MNLS + wind is exactly opposite to MNLS + viscosity, where the lower order viscosity terms damp the whole spectrum, while the higher order viscosity terms damp higher frequencies more than lower ones and thus causes a permanent downshift, as evidenced by Carter & Govan (2016). We corroborated the model with wave tank experiments conducted in the IRPHE/Pytheas large wind-wave facility located in Marseille, France. Wave data analysis show the temporary downshift in the spectral peak sense caused by the wind, and the temporary upshift in the spectral mean sense characteristic of the MNLS. As the tank-length was limited, we used long-range simulations to obtain upshift in the spectral mean sense caused by the wind. The limit of the model is reached when breaking events occur. We acknowledge financial

  15. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our ...

  16. On the time varying horizontal water velocity of single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.

    1964-01-01

    In this dissertation some characteristics of the horizontal water velocity for single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains are studied. This work consists of two parts, an analogue study and hydraulic measurements. An important aspect in this work is to suggest the horizontal water velocity

  17. Localization of transverse waves in randomly layered media at oblique incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliokh, K.Yu.; Freilikher, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the oblique incidence of electromagnetic waves on a randomly layered medium in the limit of strong disorder. An approximate method for calculating the inverse localization length based on the assumptions of zero-energy flux and complete phase stochastization is presented. Two effects

  18. Influence of Complete Coriolis Force on the Dispersion Relation of Ocean Internal-wave in a Background Currents Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this thesis, the influence of complete Coriolis force (the model includes both the vertical and horizontal components of Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field are studied, it is important to the study of ocean internal waves in density-stratified ocean. We start from the control equation of sea water movement in the background of the non-traditional approximation, and the vertical velocity solution is derived where buoyancy frequency N(z gradually varies with the ocean depth z. The results show that the influence of complete Coriolis force on the dispersion relation of ocean internal-wave under background currents field is obvious, and these results provide strong evidence for the understanding of dynamic process of density stratified ocean internal waves.

  19. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-12-01

    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  20. Estimate of damage area due to a random optical wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, Frank E.; Phillips, Ronald L.

    1990-09-01

    The light intensity of a laser beam which has propagated through the atmosphere will be irregular due to inhomogeneities in the atmosphere. Thus the intensity falling on a target is higher on some target areas and lower in others leading to damaged areas randomly distributed over the illuminated area. This study predicts the average area, A, of a single damaged area using a mathematical treatment, focusing largely on the concepts of two dimensional level crossings and excursion areas. After developing a solution for A for arbitrary probability density function (pdf), a solution for gamma distributed intensity is developed. This solution is then applied to several models for the spectral distribution of the intensity, including graphs illustrating the results. To reduce the problem to a manageable task, several assumptions and approximations are made. First, the pdf for the intensity is assumed to be the gamma distribution. This gamma distribution is applicable for the intensity of a gaussian field, a sum of gaussian fields, and therefore thermal light'. Second, the covariance function of the intensity is assumed to be isotropic. Furthermore, the intensity required to damage an area, Icrit, is assumed to be sufficiently high so that the probability of a damaged area containing an island of undamaged area is small. Although this assumption makes the calculated results approximate, these results become a better approximation for larger values of Icrit. Lastly, the variations in intensity are assumed to be spacially ergodic.

  1. Random field Ising model swept by propagating magnetic field wave: Athermal nonequilibrium phasediagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Muktish

    2013-05-01

    The dynamical steady state behaviour of the random field Ising ferromagnet swept by a propagating magnetic field wave is studied at zero temperature by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The distribution of the random field is bimodal type. For a fixed set of values of the frequency, wavelength and amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of the random field, four distinct dynamical steady states or nonequilibrium phases were identified. These four nonequilibrium phases are characterised by different values of structure factors. State or phase of first kind, where all spins are parallel (up). This phase is a frozen or pinned where the propagating field has no effect. The second one is the propagating type, where the sharp strips formed by parallel spins are found to move coherently. The third one is also propagating type, where the boundary of the strips of spins is not very sharp. The fourth kind shows no propagation of strips of magnetic spins, forming a homogeneous distribution of up and down spins. This is disordered phase. The existence of these four dynamical phases or modes depends on the value of the amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of random (static) field. A phase diagram has also been drawn, in the plane formed by the amplitude of propagating field and the strength of random field. It is also checked that the existence of these dynamical phases is neither a finite size effect nor a transient phenomenon.

  2. Fractional White-Noise Limit and Paraxial Approximation for Waves in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christophe; Pinaud, Olivier

    2017-12-01

    This work is devoted to the asymptotic analysis of high frequency wave propagation in random media with long-range dependence. We are interested in two asymptotic regimes, that we investigate simultaneously: the paraxial approximation, where the wave is collimated and propagates along a privileged direction of propagation, and the white-noise limit, where random fluctuations in the background are well approximated in a statistical sense by a fractional white noise. The fractional nature of the fluctuations is reminiscent of the long-range correlations in the underlying random medium. A typical physical setting is laser beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere. Starting from the high frequency wave equation with fast non-Gaussian random oscillations in the velocity field, we derive the fractional Itô-Schrödinger equation, that is, a Schrödinger equation with potential equal to a fractional white noise. The proof involves a fine analysis of the backscattering and of the coupling between the propagating and evanescent modes. Because of the long-range dependence, classical diffusion-approximation theorems for equations with random coefficients do not apply, and we therefore use moment techniques to study the convergence.

  3. Fractional White-Noise Limit and Paraxial Approximation for Waves in Random Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Christophe; Pinaud, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    This work is devoted to the asymptotic analysis of high frequency wave propagation in random media with long-range dependence. We are interested in two asymptotic regimes, that we investigate simultaneously: the paraxial approximation, where the wave is collimated and propagates along a privileged direction of propagation, and the white-noise limit, where random fluctuations in the background are well approximated in a statistical sense by a fractional white noise. The fractional nature of the fluctuations is reminiscent of the long-range correlations in the underlying random medium. A typical physical setting is laser beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere. Starting from the high frequency wave equation with fast non-Gaussian random oscillations in the velocity field, we derive the fractional Itô-Schrödinger equation, that is, a Schrödinger equation with potential equal to a fractional white noise. The proof involves a fine analysis of the backscattering and of the coupling between the propagating and evanescent modes. Because of the long-range dependence, classical diffusion-approximation theorems for equations with random coefficients do not apply, and we therefore use moment techniques to study the convergence.

  4. Wave propagation analysis of edge cracked circular beams under impact force.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şeref Doğuşcan Akbaş

    Full Text Available This paper presents responses of an edge circular cantilever beam under the effect of an impact force. The beam is excited by a transverse triangular force impulse modulated by a harmonic motion. The Kelvin-Voigt model for the material of the beam is used. The cracked beam is modelled as an assembly of two sub-beams connected through a massless elastic rotational spring. The considered problem is investigated within the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory by using energy based finite element method. The system of equations of motion is derived by using Lagrange's equations. The obtained system of linear differential equations is reduced to a linear algebraic equation system and solved in the time domain by using Newmark average acceleration method. In the study, the effects of the location of crack, the depth of the crack, on the characteristics of the reflected waves are investigated in detail. Also, the positions of the cracks are calculated by using reflected waves.

  5. Shear wave velocity of the healthy thyroid gland in children with acoustic radiation force impulse elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan Bilgici, Meltem; Sağlam, Dilek; Delibalta, Semra; Yücel, Serap; Tomak, Leman; Elmalı, Muzaffer

    2018-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is a kind of shear wave elastography that can be used in children for differentiating thyroid pathologies. Possible changes in the healthy thyroid gland in children may create difficulties in the use of shear wave velocities (SWV) in thyroid pathologies. The aim of this study was to define the normal values of SWV for the healthy thyroid gland in children, elucidate the correlation of the SWV values with potential influencing factors, and evaluate intra-operator reproducibility of the SWV. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 145 healthy children (81 girls, 64 boys; mean age, 10.5 ± 3.14 years; range 6-17 years) were enrolled in the study. The SWV and volume of the thyroid gland were determined. The mean shear wave velocity of the thyroid gland was 1.22 ± 0.20 m/s. There was no correlation between age and the mean SWV of the thyroid gland (Spearman Rho = 0.049, p = 0.556). There was also no correlation between the thyroid gland volume or BSA and the mean SWV. The only correlation detected was between BSA and total thyroid gland volume (p thyroid gland in children was determined. There was no correlation between the SWV of the thyroid gland and age, BSA, or thyroid gland volume.

  6. Variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nelson C.; Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, Son V.; Fleischman, Jack G.; Ayasli, Serpil; Shin, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    As an electromagnetic wave propagates through a random scattering medium, such as a forest, its energy is attenuated and random phase fluctuations are induced. The magnitude of the random phase fluctuations induced is important in estimating how well a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image objects within the scattering medium. The two-layer random medium model, consisting of a scattering layer between free space and ground, is used to calculate the variance of the phase fluctuations induced between a transmitter located above the random medium and a receiver located below the random medium. The scattering properties of the random medium are characterized by a correlation function of the random permittivity fluctuations. The effective permittivity of the random medium is first calculated using the strong fluctuation theory, which accounts for large permittivity fluctuations of the scatterers. The distorted Born approximation is used to calculate the first-order scattered field. A perturbation series for the phase of the received field in the Rytov approximation is then introduced and the variance of the phase fluctuations is also calculated assuming that the transmitter and receiver are in the paraxial limit of the random medium, which allows an analytic solution to be obtained. Results are compared using the paraxial approximation, scalar Green's function formulation, and dyadic Green's function formulation. The effects studied are the dependence of the variance of the phase fluctuations on receiver location in lossy and lossless regions, medium thickness, correlation length and fractional volume of scatterers, depolarization of the incident wave, ground layer permittivity, angle of incidence, and polarization.

  7. One-dimensional classical diffusion in a random force field with weakly concentrated absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texier, C.; Hagendorf, C.

    2009-05-01

    A one-dimensional model of classical diffusion in a random force field with a weak concentration ρ of absorbers is studied. The force field is taken as a Gaussian white noise with langphi(x)rang=0 and langphi(x)phi(x')rang=g δ(x- x'). Our analysis relies on the relation between the Fokker-Planck operator and a quantum Hamiltonian in which absorption leads to breaking of supersymmetry. Using a Lifshits argument, it is shown that the average return probability is a power law \\langle {P(x,t\\vert x,0)} \\rangle \\sim t^{-\\sqrt{2\\rho/g}} (to be compared with the usual Lifshits exponential decay exp-(ρ2t)1/3 in the absence of the random force field). The localisation properties of the underlying quantum Hamiltonian are discussed as well.

  8. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  9. Managing Information Uncertainty in Wave Height Modeling for the Offshore Structural Analysis through Random Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a reliability study for an offshore jacket structure with emphasis on the features of nonconventional modeling. Firstly, a random set model is formulated for modeling the random waves in an ocean site. Then, a jacket structure is investigated in a pushover analysis to identify the critical wave direction and key structural elements. This is based on the ultimate base shear strength. The selected probabilistic models are adopted for the important structural members and the wave direction is specified in the weakest direction of the structure for a conservative safety analysis. The wave height model is processed in a P-box format when it is used in the numerical analysis. The models are applied to find the bounds of the failure probabilities for the jacket structure. The propagation of this wave model to the uncertainty in results is investigated in both an interval analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results are compared in context of information content and numerical accuracy. Further, the failure probability bounds are compared with the conventional probabilistic approach.

  10. Acoustic radiation force impulse shear wave elastography (ARFI) of acute and chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Schuderer, Johanna; Strobel, Deike; Pfeifer, Lukas; Neurath, Markus F; Wildner, Dane

    2016-12-01

    Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography evaluates tissue stiffness non-invasively and has rarely been applied to pancreas examinations so far. In a prospective and retrospective analysis, ARFI shear wave velocities of healthy parenchyma, pancreatic lipomatosis, acute and chronic pancreatitis, adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the pancreas were evaluated and compared. In 95 patients ARFI elastography of the pancreatic head, and also of the tail for a specific group, was analysed retrospectively. Additionally, prospectively in 100 patients ARFI was performed in the head and tail of the pancreas. A total of 195 patients were included in the study. Healthy parenchyma (n=21) and lipomatosis (n=30) showed similar shear wave velocities of about 1.3m/s. Acute pancreatitis (n=35), chronic pancreatitis (n=53) and adenocarcinoma (n=52) showed consecutively increasing ARFI values, respectively. NET (n=4) revealed the highest shear wave velocities amounting to 3.62m/s. ARFI elastography showed relevant differences between acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis or adenocarcinoma. With a cut-off value of 1.74m/s for the diagnosis of a malignant disease the sensitivity was 91.1% whereas the specificity amounted to 60.4%. ARFI shear wave velocities present differences in various pathologies of the pancreas. Acute and chronic pancreatitis as well as neoplastic lesions show high ARFI values. Very high elasticity values may indicate malignant disease of the pancreas. However, there is a considerable overlap between the entities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contact force sensing for ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation: A randomized, multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Sergio; Weerasooriya, Rukshen; Novak, Paul; Champagne, Jean; Lim, Hong Euy; Macle, Laurent; Khaykin, Yaariv; Pantano, Alfredo; Verma, Atul

    2018-02-01

    Impact of contact force sensing (CFS) on ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF) is unknown. The purpose of the TOUCH AF (Therapeutic Outcomes Using Contact force Handling during Ablation of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation) randomized trial was to compare CFS-guided ablation to a CFS-blinded strategy. Patients (n = 128) undergoing first-time ablation for persistent AF were randomized to a CFS-guided vs CFS-blinded strategy. In the CFS-guided procedure, operators visualized real-time force data. In the blinded procedure, force data were hidden. Wide antral pulmonary vein isolation plus a roof line were performed. Patients were followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months with clinical visit, ECG, and 48-hour Holter monitoring. The primary endpoint was cumulative radiofrequency (RF) time for all procedures. Atrial arrhythmia >30 seconds after 3 months was a recurrence. PeAF was continuous for 26 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 13-52), and left atrial size was 45 ± 5 mm. Force in the CFS-blinded and CFS-guided arms was 12 g [IQR 6-20] and 14 g [IQR 9-20] (P = .10), respectively. Total RF time did not differ between CFS-guided and CFS-blinded groups (49 ± 14 min vs 50 ± 20 min, respectively; P = .70). Single procedure freedom from atrial arrhythmia was 60% in the CFS-guided arm and 63% in the CFS-blinded arm off drugs. Lesions with gaps were associated with significantly less force (11.4 g [IQR 6-19] vs 13.2 g [IQR 8-20], respectively; P = .0007) and less force-time integral (174 gs [IQR 91-330] vs 210 gs [IQR 113-388], respectively; P force/force-time integral was associated with significantly more gaps. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping

    2015-08-24

    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  13. Wave propagation through random media: A local method of small perturbations based on the Helmholtz equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ralf

    1990-01-01

    Propagation of sound through the turbulent atmosphere is a statistical problem. The randomness of the refractive index field causes sound pressure fluctuations. Although no general theory to predict sound pressure statistics from given refractive index statistics exists, there are several approximate solutions to the problem. The most common approximation is the parabolic equation method. Results obtained by this method are restricted to small refractive index fluctuations and to small wave lengths. While the first condition is generally met in the atmosphere, it is desirable to overcome the second. A generalization of the parabolic equation method with respect to the small wave length restriction is presented.

  14. Transverse instability and viscous dissipation of forced 3-D gravity-capillary solitary waves on deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yeunwoo

    2014-11-01

    The shedding phenomena of 3-D viscous gravity-capillary solitary waves generated by a moving air-forcing on the surface of deep water are investigated. Near the resonance where the forcing speed is close to 23 cm/s, two kinds of shedding modes are possible; Anti-symmetric and symmetric modes. A relevant theoretical model equation is numerically solved for the identification of shedding of solitary waves, and is analytically studied in terms of their linear stability to transverse perturbations. Furthermore, by tracing trajectories of shed solitary waves, the decay rate of a 3-D solitary wave due to viscous dissipation is estimated. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (NRF-2014R1A1A1002441).

  15. State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.

    2013-06-01

    Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

  16. Random-Access Technique for Self-Organization of 5G Millimeter-Wave Cellular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Meynard Arana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The random-access (RA technique is a key procedure in cellular networks and self-organizing networks (SONs, but the overall processing time of this technique in millimeter-wave (mm-wave cellular systems with directional beams is very long because RA preambles (RAPs should be transmitted in all directions of Tx and Rx beams. In this paper, two different types of preambles (RAP-1 and RAP-2 are proposed to reduce the processing time in the RA stage. After analyzing the correlation property, false-alarm probability, and detection probability of the proposed RAPs, we perform simulations to show that the RAP-2 is suitable for RA in mm-wave cellular systems with directional beams because of the smaller processing time and high detection probability in multiuser environments.

  17. Effective medium approximation for effective propagation constant calculation in a dense random medium. [electromagnetic wave scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.; Fung, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    The effective medium approximation (EMA) formalism developed for scalar wave calculations in solid state physics is generalized to electromagnetic wave scattering in a dense random medium. Results are applied to compute the effective propagation constant in a dense medium involving discrete spherical scatterers. When compared with a common quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), it is found that EMA accounts for backward scattering and the effect of correlation among three scatterers which are not available in QCA. It is also found that there is not much difference in the calculated normalized phase velocity between the use of these two approximations. However, there is a significant difference in the computed effective loss tangent in a nonabsorptive random medium. The computed effective loss tangent using EMA and measurements from a snow medium are compared, showing good agreement.

  18. Wave-number-frequency spectrum for turbulence from a random sweeping hypothesis with mean flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, M; Narita, Y

    2012-12-01

    We derive the energy spectrum in wave-number-frequency space for turbulent flows based on Kraichnan's idealized random sweeping hypothesis with additional mean flow, which yields the instantaneous energy spectrum multiplied by a Gaussian frequency distribution. The model spectrum has two adjustable parameters, the mean flow velocity and the sweeping velocity, and has the property that the power-law index of the wave-number spectrum translates to the frequency spectrum, invariant for arbitrary choices of the mean velocity and sweeping velocity. The model spectrum incorporates both Taylor's frozen-in flow approximation and the random sweeping approximation in a natural way and can be used to distinguish between these two effects when applied to real time-resolved multipoint turbulence data. Evaluated in real space, its properties with respect to space-time velocity correlations are discussed, and a comparison to the recently introduced elliptic model is drawn.

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a periodic surface with random roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed periodic surface have been formulated using the extended boundary condition method and solved using the small perturbation method. Surface currents and scattered fields are solved for up to the second order. The results indicate that as the correlation length of the random roughness increases, the bistatic scattering patterns of the scattered fields show several beams associated with each Bragg diffraction direction of the periodic surface. The beam shape becomes broader with smaller correlation length. Results obtained using the Kirchhoff approximation are found to agree well with the present results for the hh and vv polarized backscattering coefficients for small angles of incidence.

  20. CHEMO-hydrodynamic coupling between forced advection in porous media and self-sustained chemical waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atis, S.; Saha, S.; Auradou, H.; Martin, J.; Rakotomalala, N.; Talon, L.; Salin, D.

    2012-09-01

    Autocatalytic reaction fronts between two reacting species in the absence of fluid flow, propagate as solitary waves. The coupling between autocatalytic reaction front and forced simple hydrodynamic flows leads to stationary fronts whose velocity and shape depend on the underlying flow field. We address the issue of the chemico-hydrodynamic coupling between forced advection in porous media and self-sustained chemical waves. Towards that purpose, we perform experiments over a wide range of flow velocities with the well characterized iodate arsenious acid and chlorite-tetrathionate autocatalytic reactions in transparent packed beads porous media. The characteristics of these porous media such as their porosity, tortuosity, and hydrodynamics dispersion are determined. In a pack of beads, the characteristic pore size and the velocity field correlation length are of the order of the bead size. In order to address these two length scales separately, we perform lattice Boltzmann numerical simulations in a stochastic porous medium, which takes into account the log-normal permeability distribution and the spatial correlation of the permeability field. In both experiments and numerical simulations, we observe stationary fronts propagating at a constant velocity with an almost constant front width. Experiments without flow in packed bead porous media with different bead sizes show that the front propagation depends on the tortuous nature of diffusion in the pore space. We observe microscopic effects when the pores are of the size of the chemical front width. We address both supportive co-current and adverse flows with respect to the direction of propagation of the chemical reaction. For supportive flows, experiments and simulations allow observation of two flow regimes. For adverse flow, we observe upstream and downstream front motion as well as static front behaviors over a wide range of flow rates. In order to understand better these observed static state fronts, flow

  1. Analysis and Computation of Acoustic and Elastic Wave Equations in Random Media

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2014-01-06

    We propose stochastic collocation methods for solving the second order acoustic and elastic wave equations in heterogeneous random media and subject to deterministic boundary and initial conditions [1, 4]. We assume that the medium consists of non-overlapping sub-domains with smooth interfaces. In each sub-domain, the materials coefficients are smooth and given or approximated by a finite number of random variable. One important example is wave propagation in multi-layered media with smooth interfaces. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems [2, 3], the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence is only algebraic. A fast spectral rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solutions with particular types of data. We also show that the semi-discrete solution is analytic with respect to the random variables with the radius of analyticity proportional to the grid/mesh size h. We therefore obtain an exponential rate of convergence which deteriorates as the quantity h p gets smaller, with p representing the polynomial degree in the stochastic space. We have shown that analytical results and numerical examples are consistent and that the stochastic collocation method may be a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method. Here we focus on the stochastic acoustic wave equation. Similar results are obtained for stochastic elastic equations.

  2. Diffusive and localization behavior of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss the transport phenomena of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random system which is composed of arrays of electrical dipoles, following the model presented earlier by Erdogan et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 391 (1993)]. A set of self-consistent equations is presented, accounting for the multiple scattering in the system, and is then solved numerically. A strong localization regime is discovered in the frequency domain. The transport properties within, near the edge of, and nearly outside the localization regime are investigated for different parameters such as filling factor and system size. The results show that within the localization regime, waves are trapped near the transmitting source. Meanwhile, the diffusive waves follow an intuitive but expected picture. That is, they increase with traveling path as more and more random scattering incurs, followed by a saturation, then start to decay exponentially when the travelling path is large enough, signifying the localization effect. For the cases where the frequencies are near the boundary of or outside the localization regime, the results of diffusive waves are compared with the diffusion approximation, showing less encouraging agreement as in other systems [Asatryan et al., Phys. Rev. E 67, 036605 (2003)].

  3. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2012-08-31

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical space and depends on a finite number of random variables. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. This approach leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo method. We consider both full and sparse tensor product spaces of orthogonal polynomials. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points for full and sparse tensor product spaces and under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems, the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence may only be algebraic. An exponential/fast rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solution with particular types of data. We present numerical examples, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Slow vs rapid delivery rate shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric renal urolithiasis: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Hosni Khairy; Fathy, Hesham; Elfayoumy, Hanny; Aly, Hussein; Ghonium, Ahmed; Mohsen, Mostafa A; Hegazy, Abd El Rahim

    2014-05-01

    We compared slow vs fast shock wave frequency rates in disintegration of pediatric renal stones less than 20 mm. Our study included 60 children with solitary 10 to 20 mm radiopaque renal stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy. Patients were prospectively randomized into 2 groups, ie those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 80 shock waves per minute (group 1, 30 patients) and those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 120 shock waves per minute (group 2, 30 patients). The 2 groups were compared in terms of treatment success, anesthesia time, secondary procedures and efficiency quotient. Stone clearance rate was significantly higher in group 1 (90%) than in group 2 (73.3%, p = 0.025). A total of 18 patients in group 1 (60%) were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 8 required 2 sessions and 1 needed 3 sessions, while shock wave lithotripsy failed in 3 patients. By comparison, 8 patients (26.6%) in group 2 were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 10 (33.3%) required 2 sessions and 4 (13.3%) needed 3 sessions to become stone-free. Mean general anesthesia time was significantly longer in group 1 (p = 0.041). Postoperatively 2 patients in group 1 and 4 in group 2 suffered low grade fever (Clavien grade II). Significantly more secondary procedures (percutaneous nephrolithotomy, repeat shock wave lithotripsy) were required in group 2 (p = 0.005). The predominant stone analysis was calcium oxalate dihydrate in both groups. Efficiency quotient was 0.5869 and 0.3437 for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0.0247). In children with renal stones slow delivery rates of shock wave lithotripsy have better results regarding stone clearance than fast delivery rates. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Homogenization for rigid suspensions with random velocity-dependent interfacial forces

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    We study suspensions of solid particles in a viscous incompressible fluid in the presence of random velocity-dependent interfacial forces. The flow at a small Reynolds number is modeled by the Stokes equations, coupled with the motion of rigid particles arranged in a periodic array. The objective is to perform homogenization for the given suspension and obtain an equivalent description of a homogeneous (effective) medium, the macroscopic effect of the interfacial forces and the effective viscosity are determined using the analysis on a periodicity cell. In particular, the solutions uωε to a family of problems corresponding to the size of microstructure ε and describing suspensions of rigid particles with random surface forces imposed on the interface, converge H1-weakly as ε→0 a.s. to a solution of a Stokes homogenized problem, with velocity dependent body forces. A corrector to a homogenized solution that yields a strong H1-convergence is also determined. The main technical construction is built upon the Γ-convergence theory. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  6. Random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating based on SVD method for ground penetrating radar signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Song, Chao; Lu, Qi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a method using singular value decomposition (SVD) which aims at eliminating the random noise and direct wave from ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. To demonstrate the validity and high efficiency of the SVD method in eliminating random noise, we compare the SVD de-noising method with wavelet threshold de-noising method and bandpass filtering method on both noisy synthetic data and field data. After that, we compare the SVD method with the mean trace deleting in eliminating direct wave on synthetic data and field data. We set general and quantitative criteria on choosing singular values to carry out the random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating process. We find that by choosing appropriate singular values, SVD method can eliminate the random noise and direct wave in the GPR data validly and efficiently to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the GPR profiles and make effective reflection signals clearer.

  7. Comparative study of standing wave reduction methods using random modulation for transcranial ultrasonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhata, Hiroshi; Saito, Osamu

    2013-08-01

    Various transcranial sonotherapeutic technologies have risks related to standing waves in the skull. In this study, we present a comparative study on standing waves using four different activation methods: sinusoidal (SIN), frequency modulation by noise (FMN), periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF), and random switching of both inverse carriers (RSBIC). The standing wave was produced and monitored by the schlieren method using a flat plane and a human skull. The minimum ratio RSW, which is defined by the ratio of the mean of the difference between local maximal value and local minimal value of amplitude to the average value of the amplitude, was 36% for SIN, 24% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 4%for RSBIC for the flat reflective plate, and it was 25% for SIN, 11% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 5% for RSBIC for the inner surface of the human skull. This study is expected to have a role in the development of safer therapeutic equipment. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Internal wave generation by tidal flow over periodically and randomly distributed seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Comino, Eva; Swinney, Harry L.

    2017-06-01

    We examine numerically the conversion of barotropic tidal energy into internal waves by flow over an isolated seamount and over systems of periodically and randomly distributed 1100 m tall seamounts with Gaussian profiles. The simulations use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to calculate for an infinitely deep ocean the dependence of the energy conversion on seamount slope, seamount separation, tidal direction, and the size and aspect ratio of the simulation domain. For neighboring seamounts with a slope greater than the internal wave beam slope, wave interference reduces the conversion relative to that calculated for an isolated seamount, and relative to that predicted by linear theory for a seamount of slope less than the beam slope. The conversion by an individual seamount in a system of random seamounts separated by an average distance of 18 km is found to be suppressed by 16% relative to the conversion by an isolated seamount. This study provides insight into tidal conversion by ocean seamounts modeled as Gaussian mountains with slopes both smaller and larger than the beam slope. We conclude that the total energy conversion by all seamounts (peak height ≥1000 m) and knolls (peak height 500-1000 m), taking into account interference affects, is of the order of 1% of the total barotropic to baroclinic energy conversion in the oceans, which is about twice as large as previous estimates.

  9. A note on free and forced Rossby wave solutions: The case of a straight coast and a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graef, Federico

    2017-03-01

    The free Rossby wave (RW) solutions in an ocean with a straight coast when the offshore wavenumber of incident (l1) and reflected (l2) wave are equal or complex are discussed. If l1 = l2 the energy streams along the coast and a uniformly valid solution cannot be found; if l1,2 are complex it yields the sum of an exponentially decaying and growing (away from the coast) Rossby wave. The channel does not admit these solutions as free modes. If the wavenumber vectors of the RWs are perpendicular to the coast, the boundary condition of no normal flow is trivially satisfied and the value of the streamfunction does not need to vanish at the coast. A solution that satisfies Kelvin's theorem of time-independent circulation at the coast is proposed. The forced RW solutions when the ocean's forcing is a single Fourier component are studied. If the forcing is resonant, i.e. a free Rossby wave (RW), the linear response will depend critically on whether the wave carries energy perpendicular to the channel or not. In the first case, the amplitude of the response is linear in the direction normal to the channel, y, and in the second it has a parabolic profile in y. Examples of these solutions are shown for channels with parameters resembling the Mozambique Channel, the Tasman Sea, the Denmark Strait and the English Channel. The solutions for the single coast are unbounded, except when the forcing is a RW trapped against the coast. If the forcing is non-resonant, exponentially decaying or trapped RWs could be excited in the coast and both the exponentially ;decaying; and exponentially ;growing; RW could be excited in the channel.

  10. Reproducibility of shear wave velocity measurements by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging of the liver: a study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Aroca, Florentina; Reus, Manuel; Berná-Serna, Juan D; Serrano, Laura; Serrano, Cristina; Gilabert, Amparo; Cepero, Angela

    2011-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate interobserver reproducibility using acoustic radiation force impulse imaging and to develop an acoustic radiation force impulse scoring system. Fifty healthy volunteers with normal liver function test values were selected for the study. Shear wave velocity measurements, expressed in meters per second, were taken in a deep portion of liver segment 6. Two observers with different levels of experience performed the measurements independently and blindly. All of the measurements taken by the 2 observers were valid, even in volunteers with a body mass index of greater than 28 kg/m(2). The results point to very good interobserver reproducibility of shear wave velocity measurements, with an intraclass coefficient correlation of 0.86 (P measurements using the acoustic radiation force impulse technique and a standardized protocol are accurate and reproducible.

  11. Generation of random numbers on graphics processors: forced indentation in silico of the bacteriophage HK97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhmurov, A; Rybnikov, K; Kholodov, Y; Barsegov, V

    2011-05-12

    The use of graphics processing units (GPUs) in simulation applications offers a significant speed gain as compared to computations on central processing units (CPUs). Many simulation methods require a large number of independent random variables generated at each step. We present two approaches for implementation of random number generators (RNGs) on a GPU. In the one-RNG-per-thread approach, one RNG produces a stream of random numbers in each thread of execution, whereas the one-RNG-for-all-threads method builds on the ability of different threads to communicate, thus, sharing random seeds across an entire GPU device. We used these approaches to implement Ran2, Hybrid Taus, and Lagged Fibonacci algorithms on a GPU. We profiled the performance of these generators in terms of the computational time, memory usage, and the speedup factor (CPU time/GPU time). These generators have been incorporated into the program for Langevin simulations of biomolecules fully implemented on the GPU. The ∼250-fold computational speedup on the GPU allowed us to carry out single-molecule dynamic force measurements in silico to explore the mechanical properties of the bacteriophage HK97 in the experimental subsecond time scale. We found that the nanomechanical response of HK97 depends on the conditions of force application, including the rate of change and geometry of the mechanical perturbation. Hence, using the GPU-based implementation of RNGs, presented here, in conjunction with Langevin simulations, makes it possible to directly compare the results of dynamic force measurements in vitro and in silico.

  12. Waiting for 21-Lutetia "Rosetta" images as a final proof of structurizing force of inertia-gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochemasov, Gennady G.

    2010-05-01

    The 100 km long flattened asteroid 21-Lutetia will be imaged by the "Rosetta' spacecraft in July 2010. Knowing that heavenly bodies are effectively structurized by warping inertia-gravity waves one might expect that Lutetia will not be an exclusion out of a row of bodies subjected to an action of these waves [1-9]. The elliptical keplerian orbits with periodically changing bodies' accelerations imply inertia-gravity forces applied to any body notwithstanding its size, mass, density, chemical composition, and physical state. These forces produce inertia-gravity waves having in rotating bodied standing character and four directions of propagation (orthogonal and diagonal). Interfering these waves produce in bodies three (five) kinds of tectonic blocks: uprising strongly and moderately (++, +), subsiding deeply and moderately (--, -), and neutral (0) where + and - are compensated. Lengths and amplitudes of warping waves form the harmonic sequence. The fundamental wave1 (long 2πR) makes ubiquitous tectonic dichotomy (two antipodean segments or hemispheres: one risen, another fallen). In small bodies this structurization is expressed in their convexo-concave shape: one hemisphere is bulged, another one pressed in. Bulging hemisphere is extended, pressed in hemisphere contracted. This wave shaping tends to transform a globular body into a tetrahedron - the essentially dichotomous simplest Plato's figure. In this polyhedron always there is an opposition of extension (a face) to contraction (a vertex). The first overtone wave2 (long πR) makes tectonic sectors, also risen and fallen, and regularly disposed on (and in) a globe. This regularity is expressed in an octahedron form. The octahedron (diamond) or its parts are often observed in shapes of small bodies with small gravities. Larger bodies with rather strong gravity tend to smooth polyhedron vertices and edges but a polyhedron structurization is always present inside their globes and is shown in their tectonics

  13. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... by the variability in the model input. Finally, we present a synthetic experiment studying the variance-based sensitivity of the wave load on an offshore structure to a number of input uncertainties. In the numerical examples presented the PC methods exhibit fast convergence, suggesting that the problem is amenable...

  14. Is Tamsulosin Effective after Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Pediatric Renal Stones? A Randomized, Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahat, Ahmed; Elderwy, Ahmad; Safwat, Ahmed S; Abdelkawi, Islam F; Reda, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Yasser; Sayed, Mohamed; Hammouda, Hisham

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the effect of tamsulosin as an adjunctive therapy after shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric single renal pelvic stones. A total of 120 children with a unilateral single renal pelvic stone were included in a prospective randomized, controlled study. All children were randomized to 2 equal groups. Group 1 received tamsulosin (0.01 mg/kg once daily) as adjunctive therapy after shock wave lithotripsy in addition to paracetamol while group 2 received paracetamol only. Stone clearance was defined as no renal stone fragments or fragments less than 3 mm and no pelvicalyceal system dilatation. Our study included 69 boys and 51 girls with a median age of 3.5 years and a median stone size of 1.2 cm. There was no statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in stone or patient criteria. Of the children 99 (82.5%) achieved stone clearance after the first session, including 50 in group 1 and 49 in group 2. All children in each group were cleared of stones after the second session. The overall complication rate was 14.2%. There was no statistically significant difference between single session stone clearance rates (p = 0.81) and complications rates (p = 0.432) in either group. On multivariate analysis using logistic regression smaller stone size (p = 0.016) and radiopaque stones (p = 0.019) were the only predictors of stone clearance at a single shock wave lithotripsy session. Tamsulosin therapy did not affect stone clearance (p = 0.649). Tamsulosin does not seem to improve renal stone clearance. Smaller and radiopaque renal stones have more chance of clearance after shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric single renal pelvic stones. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi

    2016-01-01

    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.

  16. Edge-based SEIR dynamics with or without infectious force in latent period on random networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cao, Jinde; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2017-04-01

    In nature, most of the diseases have latent periods, and most of the networks look as if they were spun randomly at the first glance. Hence, we consider SEIR dynamics with or without infectious force in latent period on random networks with arbitrary degree distributions. Both of these models are governed by intrinsically three dimensional nonlinear systems of ordinary differential equations, which are the same as classical SEIR models. The basic reproduction numbers and the final size formulae are explicitly derived. Predictions of the models agree well with the large-scale stochastic SEIR simulations on contact networks. In particular, for SEIR model without infectious force in latent period, although the length of latent period has no effect on the basic reproduction number and the final epidemic size, it affects the arrival time of the peak and the peak size; while for SEIR model with infectious force in latent period it also affects the basic reproduction number and the final epidemic size. These accurate model predictions, may provide guidance for the control of network infectious diseases with latent periods.

  17. Nuclear pairing from microscopic forces: Singlet channels and higher-partial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurizio, Stefano; Holt, Jeremy W.; Finelli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Background: An accurate description of nuclear pairing gaps is extremely important for understanding static and dynamic properties of the inner crusts of neutron stars and to explain their cooling process. Purpose: We plan to study the behavior of the pairing gaps ΔF as a function of the Fermi momentum kF for neutron and nuclear matter in all relevant angular momentum channels where superfluidity is believed to naturally emerge. The calculations will employ realistic chiral nucleon-nucleon potentials with the inclusion of three-body forces and self-energy effects. Methods: The superfluid states of neutron and nuclear matter are studied by solving the BCS gap equation for chiral nuclear potentials using the method suggested by Khodel et al., where the original gap equation is replaced by a coupled set of equations for the dimensionless gap function χ (k) defined by Δ(k )=ΔFχ(k) and a nonlinear algebraic equation for the gap magnitude ΔF=Δ(kF) at the Fermi surface. This method is numerically stable even for small pairing gaps, such as that encountered in the coupled 3PF2 partial wave. Results: We have successfully applied Khodel's method to singlet (S) and coupled channel (SD and PF) cases in neutron and nuclear matter. Our calculations agree with other ab initio approaches, where available, and provide crucial inputs for future applications in superfluid systems.

  18. Long-lived force patterns and deformation waves at repulsive epithelial boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Franco, Pilar; Brugués, Agustí; Marín-Llauradó, Ariadna; Conte, Vito; Solanas, Guiomar; Batlle, Eduard; Fredberg, Jeffrey J.; Roca-Cusachs, Pere; Sunyer, Raimon; Trepat, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    For an organism to develop and maintain homeostasis, cell types with distinct functions must often be separated by physical boundaries. The formation and maintenance of such boundaries are commonly attributed to mechanisms restricted to the cells lining the boundary. Here we show that, besides these local subcellular mechanisms, the formation and maintenance of tissue boundaries involves long-lived, long-ranged mechanical events. Following contact between two epithelial monolayers expressing, respectively, EphB2 and its ligand ephrinB1, both monolayers exhibit oscillatory patterns of traction forces and intercellular stresses that tend to pull cell-matrix adhesions away from the boundary. With time, monolayers jam, accompanied by the emergence of deformation waves that propagate away from the boundary. This phenomenon is not specific to EphB2/ephrinB1 repulsion but is also present during the formation of boundaries with an inert interface and during fusion of homotypic epithelial layers. Our findings thus unveil a global physical mechanism that sustains tissue separation independently of the biochemical and mechanical features of the local tissue boundary.

  19. Force

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Forces are at work all around us. Discover what a force is, and different kinds of forces that work on contact and at a distance. We use simple language and vocabulary to make this invisible world easy for students to ""see"" and understand. Examine how forces ""add up"" to create the total force on an object, and reinforce concepts and extend learning with sample problems.

  20. Wave Data Processing and Analysis Tools for Developing Wave Boundary Forcing for CMS-Wave and GenCade Numerical Models: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    execution of JP_WaveBin.m. The tool accepts input through a series of command prompt questions in order to determine the desired wave binning strategy... determining the percent occurrence of each binned event in each seasonal bin. The data input type is used to determine which columns in the data file signify...Report 25-12. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, H. Mase , J. Zheng, and F. Yamada. 2008. CMS-Wave

  1. Extratropical forcing of tropical wave disturbances along the Indian Ocean ITCZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutomi, Yoshiki; Yasunari, Tetsuzo

    2014-02-01

    The role of extratropical waves in the excitation of tropical waves on submonthly timescales is explored along the Indian Ocean Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) during the austral summer using Japanese Reanalysis products and NOAA outgoing longwave radiation data. The analysis period is DecemberŰFebruary of 1979/1980 to 2008/2009. The submonthly tropical waves are regarded as a type of Rossby wave propagating along the mean monsoon westerly flow. They play an important role in modulating the Indian Ocean ITCZ convection. The linkage between the tropical and extratropical waves, which is responsible for the formation and strengthening of tropical waves, is examined. Composite analysis results linked to the tropical wave train development show that the midlatitude Rossby wave train progresses eastward and northeastward from the South Atlantic into the subtropical Indian Ocean. As a trough and ridge that form part of the midlatitude wave train approach the southern Africa-southwest Indian Ocean (SWIO) region, a southwest-northeast-oriented wave train is subsequently established, originating from this feature, and is strengthened across the tropical Indian Ocean. The midlatitude wave propagation toward the subtropics induces the growth of the trough and ridge over the SWIO. Wave activity flux diagnostics indicate that the amplified trough and ridge over the SWIO act as an energy source for northeastward amplification of the tropical waves through the wave energy dispersion process. The results suggest that the propagation of the midlatitude wave toward the SWIO is the fundamental mechanism behind the development of the tropical waves along the Indian Ocean ITCZ.

  2. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei

    2016-05-26

    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  3. Air-coupled acoustic radiation force for non-contact generation of broadband mechanical waves in soft media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambroziński, Łukasz [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow 30059 (Poland); Pelivanov, Ivan, E-mail: ivanp3@uw.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Song, Shaozhen; Yoon, Soon Joon; Gao, Liang; O' Donnell, Matthew [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Li, David [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Shen, Tueng T.; Wang, Ruikang K. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    A non-contact method for efficient, non-invasive excitation of mechanical waves in soft media is proposed, in which we focus an ultrasound (US) signal through air onto the surface of a medium under study. The US wave reflected from the air/medium interface provides radiation force to the medium surface that launches a transient mechanical wave in the transverse (lateral) direction. The type of mechanical wave is determined by boundary conditions. To prove this concept, a home-made 1 MHz piezo-ceramic transducer with a matching layer to air sends a chirped US signal centered at 1 MHz to a 1.6 mm thick gelatin phantom mimicking soft biological tissue. A phase-sensitive (PhS)-optical coherence tomography system is used to track/image the mechanical wave. The reconstructed transient displacement of the mechanical wave in space and time demonstrates highly efficient generation, thus offering great promise for non-contact, non-invasive characterization of soft media, in general, and for elasticity measurements in delicate soft tissues and organs in bio-medicine, in particular.

  4. Shear wave elastography using amplitude-modulated acoustic radiation force and phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu-Mai; Arnal, Bastien; Song, Shaozhen; Huang, Zhihong; Wang, Ruikang K.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Investigating the elasticity of ocular tissue (cornea and intraocular lens) could help the understanding and management of pathologies related to biomechanical deficiency. In previous studies, we introduced a setup based on optical coherence tomography for shear wave elastography (SWE) with high resolution and high sensitivity. SWE determines tissue stiffness from the propagation speed of shear waves launched within tissue. We proposed acoustic radiation force to remotely induce shear waves by focusing an ultrasound (US) beam in tissue, similar to several elastography techniques. Minimizing the maximum US pressure is essential in ophthalmology for safety reasons. For this purpose, we propose a pulse compression approach. It utilizes coded US emissions to generate shear waves where the energy is spread over a long emission, and then numerically compressed into a short, localized, and high-energy pulse. We used a 7.5-MHz single-element focused transducer driven by coded excitations where the amplitude is modulated by a linear frequency-swept square wave (1 to 7 kHz). An inverse filter approach was used for compression. We demonstrate the feasibility of performing shear wave elastography measurements in tissue-mimicking phantoms at low US pressures (mechanical index <0.6).

  5. Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S.G.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S.R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N.P.

    local response that masks the effect of remote forcing. Forced wave calculations using CTW theory show that remote forcing of the WICC is present at all times, but is most striking when the local winds are weak, as during March–April. The CTW...

  6. The Mean and Oscillatory Forces on a Hydrofoil with Combined Natural and Forced Ventilation from Experiments in Regular Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    variation of the mean and oscillatory components of cavitation number based on cavity pressure, lift coefficient and drag coefficient with ventilation ...Orientation with Coordinate Axis 25 Figure 3 - Hydrofoil Strut Offsets and Geometry 26 Figure 4 - Variation of Cavitation Number with Ventilation 27...Index in Calm Water Figure 5 - Variation of Mean Cavitation Number with Ventilation 28. Index in Regular Waves Figure 6 - Variation of Lift Coefficient

  7. Statistical parameters of random heterogeneity estimated by analysing coda waves based on finite difference method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoto, K.; Saito, T.; Shiomi, K.

    2017-12-01

    Short-period (seismic waves and randomly distributed small-scale heterogeneities. Statistical properties of the random heterogeneities have been estimated by analysing short-period seismograms. However, generally, the small-scale random heterogeneity is not taken into account for the modelling of long-period (>2 s) seismograms. We found that the energy of the coda of long-period seismograms shows a spatially flat distribution. This phenomenon is well known in short-period seismograms and results from the scattering by small-scale heterogeneities. We estimate the statistical parameters that characterize the small-scale random heterogeneity by modelling the spatiotemporal energy distribution of long-period seismograms. We analyse three moderate-size earthquakes that occurred in southwest Japan. We calculate the spatial distribution of the energy density recorded by a dense seismograph network in Japan at the period bands of 8-16 s, 4-8 s and 2-4 s and model them by using 3-D finite difference (FD) simulations. Compared to conventional methods based on statistical theories, we can calculate more realistic synthetics by using the FD simulation. It is not necessary to assume a uniform background velocity, body or surface waves and scattering properties considered in general scattering theories. By taking the ratio of the energy of the coda area to that of the entire area, we can separately estimate the scattering and the intrinsic absorption effects. Our result reveals the spectrum of the random inhomogeneity in a wide wavenumber range including the intensity around the corner wavenumber as P(m) = 8πε2a3/(1 + a2m2)2, where ε = 0.05 and a = 3.1 km, even though past studies analysing higher-frequency records could not detect the corner. Finally, we estimate the intrinsic attenuation by modelling the decay rate of the energy. The method proposed in this study is suitable for quantifying the statistical properties of long-wavelength subsurface random inhomogeneity, which

  8. The Temporal and Spatial Evolution of Momentum, Kinetic Energy and Force in Tsunami Waves during Breaking and Inundation

    CERN Document Server

    Marivela, Roberto; Synolakis, Costas

    2016-01-01

    A plethora of studies in the past decade describe tsunami hazards and study their evolution from the source to the target coastline, but mainly focus on coastal inundation and maximum runup. Nonetheless, anecdotal reports from eyewitnesses, photographs and videos suggest counterintuitive flow dynamics, for example rapid initial acceleration when the wave first strikes the initial shoreline. Further, the details of the flow field at or within tens of meters of the shoreline are exquisitely important in determining damage to structures and evacuation times. Based on a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations using solitary waves as a model, we show the spatial-temporal distribution of the flow momentum, kinetic energy and force during the breaking process. We infer that the flow reaches its highest destructive capacity not when flow momentum or kinetic energy reach their maxima, but when flow force reaches its. This occurs in the initial shoreline environment, which needs to be considered in nearshore str...

  9. Single realization stochastic FDTD for weak scattering waves in biological random media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengmeng; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces an iterative scheme to overcome the unresolved issues presented in S-FDTD (stochastic finite-difference time-domain) for obtaining ensemble average field values recently reported by Smith and Furse in an attempt to replace the brute force multiple-realization also known as Monte-Carlo approach with a single-realization scheme. Our formulation is particularly useful for studying light interactions with biological cells and tissues having sub-wavelength scale features. Numerical results demonstrate that such a small scale variation can be effectively modeled with a random medium problem which when simulated with the proposed S-FDTD indeed produces a very accurate result.

  10. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  11. Retrieval of dust aerosols during night: improved assessment of long wave dust radiative forcing over Afro-Asian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepshikha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several investigators in the past have used the radiance depression (with respect to clear-sky infrared radiance, resulting from the presence of mineral dust aerosols in the atmosphere, as an index of dust aerosol load in the atmosphere during local noon. Here, we have used a modified approach to retrieve dust index during night since assessment of diurnal average infrared dust forcing essentially requires information on dust aerosols during night. For this purpose, we used infrared radiance (10.5–12.5 μm, acquired from the METEOSAT-5 satellite (~ 5 km resolution. We found that the "dust index" algorithm, valid for daytime, will no longer hold during the night because dust is then hotter than the theoretical dust-free reference. Hence we followed a "minimum reference" approach instead of a conventional "maximum reference" approach. A detailed analysis suggests that the maximum dust load occurs during the daytime. Over the desert regions of India and Africa, maximum change in dust load is as much as a factor of four between day and night and factor of two variations are commonly observed. By realizing the consequent impact on long wave dust forcing, sensitivity studies were carried out, which indicate that utilizing day time data for estimating the diurnally averaged long-wave dust radiative forcing results in significant errors (as much as 50 to 70%. Annually and regionally averaged long wave dust radiative forcing (which account for the diurnal variation of dust at the top of the atmosphere over Afro-Asian region is 2.6 ± 1.8 W m−2, which is 30 to 50% lower than those reported earlier. Our studies indicate that neglecting diurnal variation of dust while assessing its radiative impact leads to an overestimation of dust radiative forcing, which in turn result in underestimation of the radiative impact of anthropogenic aerosols.

  12. Retrieval of dust aerosols during night: improved assessment of long wave dust radiative forcing over Afro-Asian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Deepshikha

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Several investigators in the past have used the radiance depression (with respect to clear-sky infrared radiance, resulting from the presence of mineral dust aerosols in the atmosphere, as an index of dust aerosol load in the atmosphere during local noon. Here, we have used a modified approach to retrieve dust index during night since assessment of diurnal average infrared dust forcing essentially requires information on dust aerosols during night. For this purpose, we used infrared radiance (10.5–12.5 μm, acquired from the METEOSAT-5 satellite (~ 5 km resolution. We found that the "dust index" algorithm, valid for daytime, will no longer hold during the night because dust is then hotter than the theoretical dust-free reference. Hence we followed a "minimum reference" approach instead of a conventional "maximum reference" approach. A detailed analysis suggests that the maximum dust load occurs during the daytime. Over the desert regions of India and Africa, maximum change in dust load is as much as a factor of four between day and night and factor of two variations are commonly observed. By realizing the consequent impact on long wave dust forcing, sensitivity studies were carried out, which indicate that utilizing day time data for estimating the diurnally averaged long-wave dust radiative forcing results in significant errors (as much as 50 to 70%. Annually and regionally averaged long wave dust radiative forcing (which account for the diurnal variation of dust at the top of the atmosphere over Afro-Asian region is 2.6 ± 1.8 W m−2, which is 30 to 50% lower than those reported earlier. Our studies indicate that neglecting diurnal variation of dust while assessing its radiative impact leads to an overestimation of dust radiative forcing, which in turn result in underestimation of the radiative impact of anthropogenic aerosols.

  13. Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880-2003, their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della-Marta, P.M. [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); Federal Office for Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss, Zurich (Switzerland); National Climate Center, Bureau of Meteorology, Melbourne (Australia); Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); NCCR Climate, Bern (Switzerland); Weissenfluh, H. von [University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology Research Group, Bern (Switzerland); Brunet, M. [University Rovira i Virgili, Climate Change Research Group, Tarragona (Spain)

    2007-08-15

    We investigate the large-scale forcing and teleconnections between atmospheric circulation (sea level pressure, SLP), sea surface temperatures (SSTs), precipitation and heat wave events over western Europe using a new dataset of 54 daily maximum temperature time series. Forty four of these time series have been homogenised at the daily timescale to ensure that the presence of inhomogeneities has been minimised. The daily data have been used to create a seasonal index of the number of heat waves. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA), heat waves over western Europe are shown to be related to anomalous high pressure over Scandinavia and central western Europe. Other forcing factors such as Atlantic SSTs and European precipitation, the later as a proxy for soil moisture, a known factor in strengthening land-atmosphere feedback processes, are also important. The strength of the relationship between summer SLP anomalies and heat waves is improved (from 35%) to account for around 46% of its variability when summer Atlantic and Mediterranean SSTs and summer European precipitation anomalies are included as predictors. This indicates that these predictors are not completely collinear rather that they each have some contribution to accounting for summer heat wave variability. However, the simplicity and scale of the statistical analysis masks this complex interaction between variables. There is some useful predictive skill of summer heat waves using multiple lagged predictors. A CCA using preceding winter North Atlantic SSTs and preceding January to May Mediterranean total precipitation results in significant hindcast (1972-2003) Spearman rank correlation skill scores up to 0.55 with an average skill score over the domain equal to 0.28 {+-} 0.28. In agreement with previous studies focused on mean summer temperature, there appears to be some predictability of heat wave events on the decadal scale from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), although the long

  14. Summer heat waves over western Europe 1880 2003, their relationship to large-scale forcings and predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della-Marta, P. M.; Luterbacher, J.; von Weissenfluh, H.; Xoplaki, E.; Brunet, M.; Wanner, H.

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the large-scale forcing and teleconnections between atmospheric circulation (sea level pressure, SLP), sea surface temperatures (SSTs), precipitation and heat wave events over western Europe using a new dataset of 54 daily maximum temperature time series. Forty four of these time series have been homogenised at the daily timescale to ensure that the presence of inhomogeneities has been minimised. The daily data have been used to create a seasonal index of the number of heat waves. Using canonical correlation analysis (CCA), heat waves over western Europe are shown to be related to anomalous high pressure over Scandinavia and central western Europe. Other forcing factors such as Atlantic SSTs and European precipitation, the later as a proxy for soil moisture, a known factor in strengthening land atmosphere feedback processes, are also important. The strength of the relationship between summer SLP anomalies and heat waves is improved (from 35%) to account for around 46% of its variability when summer Atlantic and Mediterranean SSTs and summer European precipitation anomalies are included as predictors. This indicates that these predictors are not completely collinear rather that they each have some contribution to accounting for summer heat wave variability. However, the simplicity and scale of the statistical analysis masks this complex interaction between variables. There is some useful predictive skill of summer heat waves using multiple lagged predictors. A CCA using preceding winter North Atlantic SSTs and preceding January to May Mediterranean total precipitation results in significant hindcast (1972 2003) Spearman rank correlation skill scores up to 0.55 with an average skill score over the domain equal to 0.28 ± 0.28. In agreement with previous studies focused on mean summer temperature, there appears to be some predictability of heat wave events on the decadal scale from the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), although the long

  15. Reducing Trunk Compensation in Stroke Survivors: A Randomized Crossover Trial Comparing Visual and Force Feedback Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro Adolfo; Schneider, Andrea Nicole; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2017-10-01

    To investigate whether the compensatory trunk movements of stroke survivors observed during reaching tasks can be decreased by force and visual feedback, and to examine whether one of these feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other in reducing this compensatory tendency. Randomized crossover trial. University research laboratory. Community-dwelling older adults (N=15; 5 women; mean age, 64±11y) with hemiplegia from nontraumatic hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke (>3mo poststroke), recruited from stroke recovery groups, the research group's website, and the community. In a single session, participants received augmented feedback about their trunk compensation during a bimanual reaching task. Visual feedback (60 trials) was delivered through a computer monitor, and force feedback (60 trials) was delivered through 2 robotic devices. Primary outcome measure included change in anterior trunk displacement measured by motion tracking camera. Secondary outcomes included trunk rotation, index of curvature (measure of straightness of hands' path toward target), root mean square error of hands' movement (differences between hand position on every iteration of the program), completion time for each trial, and posttest questionnaire to evaluate users' experience and system's usability. Both visual (-45.6% [45.8 SD] change from baseline, P=.004) and force (-41.1% [46.1 SD], P=.004) feedback were effective in reducing trunk compensation. Scores on secondary outcome measures did not improve with either feedback modality. Neither feedback condition was superior. Visual and force feedback show promise as 2 modalities that could be used to decrease trunk compensation in stroke survivors during reaching tasks. It remains to be established which one of these 2 feedback modalities is more efficacious than the other as a cue to reduce compensatory trunk movement. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation into the Effect of Acoustic Radiation Force and Acoustic Streaming on Particle Patterning in Acoustic Standing Wave Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanye; Ni, Zhengyang; Guo, Xiasheng; Luo, Linjiao; Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF) and acoustic streaming (AS). In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV). Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning. PMID:28753955

  17. Line Force and Damping at Full and Partial Stator Overlap in a Linear Generator for Wave Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liselotte Ulvgård

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A full scale linear generator for wave power has been experimentally evaluated by measuring the line force and translator position throughout the full translator stroke. The measured line force, in relation to translator speed, generator damping and stator overlap, has been studied by comparing the line force and the damping coefficient, γ , for multiple load cases along the translator stroke length. The study also compares the generator’s behavior during upward and downward motion, studies oscillations and determines the no load losses at two different speeds. The generator damping factor, γ , was determined for five different load cases during both upward and downward motion. The γ value was found to be constant for full stator overlap and to decrease linearly with a decreasing overlap, as the translator moved towards the endstops. The decline varied with the external load case, as previously suggested but not shown. In addition, during partial stator overlap, a higher γ value was noted as the translator was leaving the stator, compared to when it was entering the stator. Finally, new insights were gained regarding how translator weight and generator damping will affect the translator downward motion during offshore operation. This is important for power production and for avoiding damaging forces acting on the wave energy converter during operation.

  18. Investigation into the Effect of Acoustic Radiation Force and Acoustic Streaming on Particle Patterning in Acoustic Standing Wave Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic standing waves have been widely used in trapping, patterning, and manipulating particles, whereas one barrier remains: the lack of understanding of force conditions on particles which mainly include acoustic radiation force (ARF and acoustic streaming (AS. In this paper, force conditions on micrometer size polystyrene microspheres in acoustic standing wave fields were investigated. The COMSOL® Mutiphysics particle tracing module was used to numerically simulate force conditions on various particles as a function of time. The velocity of particle movement was experimentally measured using particle imaging velocimetry (PIV. Through experimental and numerical simulation, the functions of ARF and AS in trapping and patterning were analyzed. It is shown that ARF is dominant in trapping and patterning large particles while the impact of AS increases rapidly with decreasing particle size. The combination of using both ARF and AS for medium size particles can obtain different patterns with only using ARF. Findings of the present study will aid the design of acoustic-driven microfluidic devices to increase the diversity of particle patterning.

  19. Analysis and computation of the elastic wave equation with random coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2015-10-21

    We consider the stochastic initial-boundary value problem for the elastic wave equation with random coefficients and deterministic data. We propose a stochastic collocation method for computing statistical moments of the solution or statistics of some given quantities of interest. We study the convergence rate of the error in the stochastic collocation method. In particular, we show that, the rate of convergence depends on the regularity of the solution or the quantity of interest in the stochastic space, which is in turn related to the regularity of the deterministic data in the physical space and the type of the quantity of interest. We demonstrate that a fast rate of convergence is possible in two cases: for the elastic wave solutions with high regular data; and for some high regular quantities of interest even in the presence of low regular data. We perform numerical examples, including a simplified earthquake, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo sampling method for approximating quantities with high stochastic regularity.

  20. Hybrid geometric-random template-placement algorithm for gravitational wave searches from compact binary coalescences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Sengupta, Anand S.; Thakor, Nilay

    2017-05-01

    Astrophysical compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and black holes are an important class of gravitational wave (GW) sources for advanced LIGO detectors. Accurate theoretical waveform models from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases of such systems are used to filter detector data under the template-based matched-filtering paradigm. An efficient grid over the parameter space at a fixed minimal match has a direct impact on the overall time taken by these searches. We present a new hybrid geometric-random template placement algorithm for signals described by parameters of two masses and one spin magnitude. Such template banks could potentially be used in GW searches from binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole systems. The template placement is robust and is able to automatically accommodate curvature and boundary effects with no fine-tuning. We also compare these banks against vanilla stochastic template banks and show that while both are equally efficient in the fitting-factor sense, the bank sizes are ˜25 % larger in the stochastic method. Further, we show that the generation of the proposed hybrid banks can be sped up by nearly an order of magnitude over the stochastic bank. Generic issues related to optimal implementation are discussed in detail. These improvements are expected to directly reduce the computational cost of gravitational wave searches.

  1. Continuous time random walk with generic waiting time and external force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, Kwok Sau; Wang, K G

    2010-05-01

    We derive an integrodifferential diffusion equation for decoupled continuous time random walk that is valid for a generic waiting time probability density function and external force. Using this equation we also study diffusion behaviors for a couple of specific waiting time probability density functions such as exponential, a combination of power law and generalized Mittag-Leffler function and a sum of exponentials under the influence of a harmonic trap. We show that first two waiting time probability density functions can reproduce the results of the ordinary and fractional diffusion equations for all the time regions from small to large times. But the third one shows a much more complicated pattern. Furthermore, from the integrodifferential diffusion equation we show that the second Einstein relation can hold for any waiting time probability density function.

  2. Wave Forces on Transition Pieces for Bucket Foundations for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nezhentseva, Anastasia; Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    Since offshore wind turbines continually increase in size and move to deep water depths (>25 m), significant wave loading becomes a major concern for their design. A monopile foundation is one of the most commonly used types of the offshore wind turbine foundations today. This solution, however...... to a bucket foundation (suction caisson) located at 35 m water depth in the North Sea. Several models of the TPs (wedge-shaped steel flange-reinforced shear panels, conical and doubly curved with or without cutaways) are tested in a wave flume and compared with respect to wave loading. Due to a larger size...... of the suggested TPs compared to a typical slender monopole foundation, wave loads acting on these TPs are also expected to be considerably higher and much more difficult to predict. The results of the present investigation can be further applied for other wind turbine types....

  3. Rigorous full-wave calculation of optical forces on dielectric and metallic microparticles immersed in a vector Airy beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wanli; Chen, Huajin; Liu, Shiyang; Lin, Zhifang

    2017-09-18

    Based on the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory and the Maxwell stress tensor approach we present the first rigorous full-wave solution of the optical forces acting on spherical microparticles immersed in a two-dimensional vector Airy beam beyond the paraxial approximation. The critical aspect lies in evaluating efficiently and accurately the partial wave expansion coefficients of the incident Airy beam, which are achieved by using the vector angular spectrum representation for a variety of polarizations. The optical field distributions are then simulated to show the self-accelerating and self-healing effects of the Airy beam. The dielectric and gold microparticles are shown to be trapped within the main lobe or the nearby side-lobes mostly by the transverse gradient optical force while driven forward along the parabolic trajectory of the Airy beam by the longitudinal scattering force. It is thus demonstrated theoretically that the vector Airy beam has the capability of precisely transporting both dielectric and metallic microparticles along the prespecified curved paths.

  4. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves

    OpenAIRE

    A. Arunjith; S. A. Sannasiraj; V. Sundar

    2013-01-01

    The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to ...

  5. Observation of Phillips's spectrum in Faraday waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Gustavo; Falcon, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    We consider the problem of wave turbulence generated by singularities from an experimental point of view. We study a system of Faraday waves interacting with waves generated by a wave-maker driven with a random forcing. We measure the temporal fluctuations of the surface wave amplitude at a given location and we show that for a wide range of forcing parameters the surface height displays a power-law spectra that greatly differs from the one predicted by the WT theory. In the capillary region the power spectrum turns out to be proportional to f-5, which we believe is due to singularities moving across the system. Proyecto Postdoctorado Fondecyt Nro 3160032.

  6. Wave reflection from randomly inhomogeneous ionospheric layer: 1. The method of describing the wavefield in a reflecting layer with random irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinin, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    It has been previously proposed to describe wave propagation in inhomogeneous media in a small-angle approximation with the aid of a double weighted Fourier transform (DWFT) method. This method agrees with the methods of geometrical optics, smooth perturbations, and phase screen in domains of their applicability; therefore, it can be employed to solve direct and inverse problems of radio wave propagation in multiscale inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma. In this paper, for the DWFT wide-angle generalization a wave equation is preliminary reduced using the Fock proper-time method to a parabolic equation that then is solved by the DWFT method. The resulting solution is analyzed for the case of wave reflection and scattering by a layer with random irregularities and linear profile of average permittivity. We show the transformation of this solution into strict results in the absence of irregularities and in the single-scatter approximation, including backscattering, during weak phase fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the solution takes the form of the small-angle DWFT with respect to refraction in the layer and backscatter effects. Spatial processing in source and observer coordinates brings a beam of received waves into one wave without amplitude fluctuations, which allows an increase in resolution of vertical ionospheric sounding systems.

  7. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive

  8. Multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance in the millimeter-wave region up to 150 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmichi, E., E-mail: ohmichi@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Y.; Tabuse, R.; Tsubokura, D.; Okamoto, T. [Graduate School of Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Ohta, H. [Molecular Photoscience Research Center, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    In this article, a novel technique is developed for multi-frequency force-detected electron spin resonance (ESR) in the millimeter-wave region. We constructed a compact ESR probehead, in which the cantilever bending is sensitively detected by a fiber-optic Fabry-Perot interferometer. With this setup, ESR absorption of diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl radical (<1 μg) was clearly observed at multiple frequencies of up to 150 GHz. We also observed the hyperfine splitting of low-concentration Mn{sup 2+} impurities(∼0.2%) in MgO.

  9. Modeling waves forced by a drop bouncing on a vibrating bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Sam; Rosales, Ruben; Bush, John

    2017-11-01

    We study the wavefield generated by a droplet bouncing on a bath of silicon oil undergoing vertical oscillations. Such droplets may bounce indefinitely below the Faraday threshold, and in certain parameter regimes destabilize into a walking state in which they are propelled by their own wavefield. While previous theoretical models have rationalize the behavior of single droplets, difficulties have arisen in rationalizing the behavior of multi-droplet systems. We here present a refined wave model that allows us to do so. In particular, we give a detailed account of the spatio-temporal decay of the waves, in addition to the couping between the wave amplitude and modulations in the droplet's vertical dynamics. Our analytic model is compared with the results of direct numerical simulations and experiments. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the NSF.

  10. Effect of Difference-frequency Forces on the Dynamics of a Semi-submersible Type FVAWT in Misaligned Wave-wind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Cheng, Zhengshun; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    With increasing interests in the development of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (FVAWTs), a large amount of studies on the FVAWTs have been conducted. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of second-order difference-frequency force on the dynamics of a 5 MW FVAWT in misaligned......-induced. And the second order differencefrequency force can contribute to a slightly larger mean value. The standard deviations and maximum values of the global responses are slightly more sensitive to the wave-wind misalignment and the second order difference-frequency force, especially at high significant wave height...... wave-wind condition. The studied FVAWT is composed of a 5 MW Darrieus rotor, a semi-submersible floater and a catenary mooring system. Fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations were conducted using the state-of-art code Simo- Riflex-DMS. Several misaligned wave-wind conditions were selected...

  11. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  12. Planetary Wave Breaking and Tropospheric Forcing as Seen in the Stratospheric Sudden Warming of 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    transport of low PV that resulted from the wave breaking. Instead of plotting vertical cross sections of scaled PV (e.g., Lait 1994), here we simply...over-reflect? J. Fluid Mech., 161, 449–492. Lait , L. R., 1994: An alternative form for potential vorticity. J. Atmos. Sci., 51, 1754–1759. Limpasuvan, V

  13. Age and Individual Differences in Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined age group and individual differences in controlled force exertion by emulating sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 222 right-handed female adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects matched their submaximal grip strength by the dominant hand to changing demand values displayed as either a sinusoidal or a quasi-random…

  14. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  15. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.

    2010-12-01

    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  16. High-Force Versus Low-Force Lumbar Traction in Acute Lumbar Sciatica Due to Disc Herniation: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Schaeffer, Michael; Sauleau, Erik; Vautravers, Philippe; Lecocq, Jehan; Dupeyron, Arnaud

    This study compared the effects of high-force versus low-force lumbar traction in the treatment of acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation. A randomized double blind trial was performed, and 17 subjects with acute lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation were assigned to high-force traction at 50% body weight (BW; LT50, n = 8) or low force traction at 10% BW (LT10, n = 9) for 10 sessions in 2 weeks. Radicular pain (visual analogue scale [VAS]), lumbo-pelvic-hip complex motion (finger-to-toe test), lumbar-spine mobility (Schöber-Macrae test), nerve root compression (straight-leg-raising test), disability (EIFEL score), drug consumption, and overall evaluation of each patient were measured at days 0, 7, 1, 4, and 28. Significant (P traction treatment was independent of the level of medication. During the 2-week follow-up at day 28, only the LT10 group improved (P lumbar sciatica secondary to disc herniation who received 2 weeks of lumbar traction reported reduced radicular pain and functional impairment and improved well-being regardless of the traction force group to which they were assigned. The effects of the traction treatment were independent of the initial level of medication and appeared to be maintained at the 2-week follow-up. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Relative role of subinertial and superinertial modes in the coastal long wave response forced by the landfall of a tropical cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Ziming; Yankovsky, Alexander E.

    2011-06-01

    A set of numerical experiments has been performed in order to analyze the long-wave response of the coastal ocean to a translating mesoscale atmospheric cyclone approaching the coastline at a normal angle. An idealized two-slope shelf topography is chosen. The model is forced by a radially symmetric atmospheric pressure perturbation with a corresponding gradient wind field. The cyclone's translation speed, radius, and the continental shelf width are considered as parameters whose impact on the long wave period, modal structure, and amplitude is studied. Subinertial continental shelf waves (CSW) dominate the response under typical forcing conditions and on the narrower shelves. They propagate in the downstream (in the sense of Kelvin wave propagation) direction. Superinertial edge wave modes have higher free surface amplitudes and faster phase speeds than the CSW modes. While potentially more dangerous, edge waves are not as common as subinertial shelf waves because their generation requires a wide, gently sloping shelf and a storm system translating at a relatively high (˜10 m s -1 or faster) speed. A relatively smaller size of an atmospheric cyclone also favors edge wave generation. Edge waves with the highest amplitude (up to 60% of the forced storm surge) propagate upstream. They are produced by a storm system with an Eulerian time scale equal to the period of a zero-mode edge wave with the wavelength of the storm spatial scale. Large amplitude edge waves were generated during Hurricane Wilma's landfall (2005) on the West Florida shelf with particularly severe flooding occurring upstream of the landfall site.

  18. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  19. The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhomse

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Using water vapor data from HALOE and SAGE II, an anti-correlation between planetary wave driving (here expressed by the mid-latitude eddy heat flux at 50 hPa added from both hemispheres and tropical lower stratospheric (TLS water vapor has been obtained. This appears to be a manifestation of the inter-annual variability of the Brewer-Dobson (BD circulation strength (the driving of which is generally measured in terms of the mid-latitude eddy heat flux, and hence amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. Some years such as 1991 and 1997 show, however, a clear departure from the anti-correlation which suggests that the water vapor changes in TLS can not be attributed solely to changes in extratropical planetary wave activity (and its effect on the BD circulation. After 2000 a sudden decrease in lower stratospheric water vapor has been reported in earlier studies based upon satellite data from HALOE, SAGE II and POAM III indicating that the lower stratosphere has become drier since then. This is consistent with a sudden rise in the combined mid-latitude eddy heat flux with nearly equal contribution from both hemispheres as shown here and with the increase in tropical upwelling and decrease in cold point temperatures found by Randel et al. (2006. The low water vapor and enhanced planetary wave activity (in turn strength of the BD circulation has persisted until the end of the satellite data records. From a multi-variate regression analysis applied to 27 years of NCEP and HadAT2 (radiosonde temperatures (up to 2005 with contributions from solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols and QBO removed, the enhancement wave driving after 2000 is estimated to contribute up to 0.7 K cooling to the overall TLS temperature change during the period 2001–2005 when compared to the period 1996–2000. NCEP cold point temperature show an average decrease of nearly 0.4 K from changes in the wave driving, which is consistent with observed mean TLS water vapor

  20. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  1. Mid-Twenty-First-Century Changes in Global Wave Energy Flux: Single-Model, Single-Forcing and Single-Scenario Ensemble Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo, Alvaro; Lemos, Gil; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Behrens, Arno; Staneva, Joanna; Miranda, Pedro

    2017-04-01

    The knowledge of ocean surface wave energy fluxes (or wave power) is of outmost relevance since wave power has a direct impact in coastal erosion, but also in sediment transport and beach nourishment, and ship, as well as in coastal and offshore infrastructures design. Changes in the global wave energy flux pattern can alter significantly the impact of waves in continental shelf and coastal areas. Up until recently the impact of climate change in future global wave climate had received very little attention. Some single model single scenario global wave climate projections, based on CMIP3 scenarios, were pursuit under the auspices of the COWCLIP (coordinated ocean wave climate projections) project, and received some attention in the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change) AR5 (fifth assessment report). In the present study the impact of a warmer climate in the near future global wave energy flux climate is investigated through a 4-member "coherent" ensemble of wave climate projections: single-model, single-forcing, and single-scenario. In this methodology model variability is reduced, leaving only room for the climate change signal. The four ensemble members were produced with the wave model WAM, forced with wind speed and ice coverage from EC-Earth projections, following the representative concentration pathway with a high emissions scenario 8.5 (RCP8.5). The ensemble present climate reference period (the control run) has been set for 1976 to 2005. The projected changes in the global wave energy flux climate are analyzed for the 2031-2060 period.

  2. Identification of Random Dynamic Force Using an Improved Maximum Entropy Regularization Combined with a Novel Conjugate Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunPing Ren

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel mathematical algorithm to offer a solution for the inverse random dynamic force identification in practical engineering. Dealing with the random dynamic force identification problem using the proposed algorithm, an improved maximum entropy (IME regularization technique is transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem, and a novel conjugate gradient (NCG method was applied to solve the objective function, which was abbreviated as IME-NCG algorithm. The result of IME-NCG algorithm is compared with that of ME, ME-CG, ME-NCG, and IME-CG algorithm; it is found that IME-NCG algorithm is available for identifying the random dynamic force due to smaller root mean-square-error (RMSE, lower restoration time, and fewer iterative steps. Example of engineering application shows that L-curve method is introduced which is better than Generalized Cross Validation (GCV method and is applied to select regularization parameter; thus the proposed algorithm can be helpful to alleviate the ill-conditioned problem in identification of dynamic force and to acquire an optimal solution of inverse problem in practical engineering.

  3. LIGHT PRESSURE: Theoretical study of the light pressure force acting on a spherical dielectric particle of an arbitrary size in the interference field of two plane monochromatic electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzatov, D. V.; Gaida, L. S.; Afanas'ev, Anatolii A.

    2008-12-01

    The light pressure force acting on a spherical dielectric particle in the interference field of two plane monochromatic electromagnetic waves is studied in detail for different particle radii and angles of incidence of waves.

  4. Quasiparticle random phase approximation predictions of the gamma-ray strength functions using the Gogny force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilaire, Stéphane; Goriely, Stéphane; Péru, Sophie; Lechaftois, François; Deloncle, Isabelle; Martini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Dipole excitations of nuclei are crucial since they play an important role in nuclear reaction modeling in connection with the photoabsorption and the radiative capture processes. We present here results for the gamma-ray strength function obtained in large-scale axially-symmetric deformed quasiparticle (qp) random phase approximations approach using the finite-range Gogny force, with a particular emphasis on the E1 mode. The convergence with respect to the number of harmonic oscillator shells adopted and the cut-off introduced in the 2-quasiparticle excitation energy space is analyzed. The microscopic nature of our self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov plus QRPA (HFB+QRPA) calculation has unfortunately to be broken, some phenomenological corrections being needed to take into account effects beyond the standard 2-qp QRPA excitations and the coupling between the single-particle and low-lying collective phonon degrees of freedom. The corresponding phenomenological parameters are adjusted on experimental photoabsorption data. In such a procedure, a rather satisfactory description of experimental data is obtained. To study the sensitivity of these phenomenological corrections on the extrapolation, both at low energies and towards exotic neutron-rich nuclei, three different prescriptions are considered. They are shown to lead to rather similar predictions of the E1 strength at low energies as well as for exotic neutron-rich nuclei. The Gogny-HFB+QRPA strength is finally applied to the calculation of radiative neutron capture cross sections and the predictions compared with those obtained with more traditional Lorentzian-type approaches.

  5. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO). Model results from the planar beach case show good agreement with depth-averaged analytical solutions and with theoretical flow structures. Simulation results for the DUCK' 94 experiment agree closely with measured profiles of cross-shore and longshore velocity data from Garcez Faria et al. (1998, 2000). Diagnostic simulations showed that the nonlinear processes of wave roller generation and wave-induced mixing are important for the accurate simulation of surf zone flows. It is further recommended that a more realistic approach for determining the contribution of wave rollers and breaking induced turbulent mixing can be formulated using non-dimensional parameters which are functions of local wave parameters and the beach slope. Dominant terms in the cross-shore momentum balance are found to be the quasi-static pressure gradient and breaking acceleration. In the alongshore direction

  6. Multidirectional random wave diffraction in a real harbor by using 3-D boundary element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan, Rajni

    2017-10-01

    The mathematical model is constructed based on 3-D Boundary Element Method (BEM) with the consideration of diffraction, reflection and refraction of multidirectional incident waves utilizing the Laplace equation in a complex geometry harbors. The geometry of the harbor is divided into bounded and open sea region. The partial reflection boundary with variable bathymetry is also considered to analyze the wave spectrum. A Mitsuyasu's wave spectrum is applied to estimate the wave spectrum with multidirectional incident waves. The current numerical approach is practically applied on realistic Pohang New Harbor (PNH), Pohang South Korea. The validation of numerical scheme is done by comparison of measurement data with simulation results at different port stations. Therefore, the current numerical approach is provide the efficient numerical tool to foster the prediction of wave-induced oscillation in a harbor with irregular geometry.

  7. Impacts of Kelvin wave forcing in the Peru Humboldt Current system: Scenarios of spatial reorganizations from physics to fishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Sophie; Dewitte, Boris; Tam, Jorge; Díaz, Erich; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    Because climate change challenges the sustainability of important fish populations and the fisheries they support, we need to understand how large scale climatic forcing affects the functioning of marine ecosystems. In the Humboldt Current system (HCS), a main driver of climatic variability is coastally-trapped Kelvin waves (KWs), themselves originating as oceanic equatorial KWs. Here we (i) describe the spatial reorganizations of living organisms in the Humboldt coastal system as affected by oceanic KWs forcing, (ii) quantify the strength of the interactions between the physical and biological component dynamics of the system, (iii) formulate hypotheses on the processes which drive the redistributions of the organisms, and (iv) build scenarios of space occupation in the HCS under varying KW forcing. To address these questions we explore, through bivariate lagged correlations and multivariate statistics, the relationships between time series of oceanic KW amplitude (TAO mooring data and model-resolved baroclinic modes) and coastal Peruvian oceanographic data (SST, coastal upwelled waters extent), anchoveta spatial distribution (mean distance to the coast, spatial concentration of the biomass, mean depth of the schools), and fishing fleet statistics (trip duration, searching duration, number of fishing sets and catch per trip, features of the foraging trajectory as observed by satellite vessel monitoring system). Data sets span all or part of January 1983 to September 2006. The results show that the effects of oceanic KW forcing are significant in all the components of the coastal ecosystem, from oceanography to the behaviour of the top predators - fishers. This result provides evidence for a bottom-up transfer of the behaviours and spatial stucturing through the ecosystem. We propose that contrasting scenarios develop during the passage of upwelling versus downwelling KWs. From a predictive point of view, we show that KW amplitudes observed in the mid-Pacific can

  8. On forced oscillations of a simple model for a novel wave energy converter

    KAUST Repository

    Orazov, Bayram

    2011-05-11

    The dynamics of a simple model for an ocean wave energy converter is discussed. The model for the converter is a hybrid system consisting of a pair of harmonically excited mass-spring-dashpot systems and a set of four state-dependent switching rules. Of particular interest is the response of the model to a wide spectrum of harmonic excitations. Partially because of the piecewise-smooth dynamics of the system, the response is far more interesting than the linear components of the model would suggest. As expected with hybrid systems of this type, it is difficult to establish analytical results, and hence, with the assistance of an extensive series of numerical integrations, an atlas of qualitative results on the limit cycles and other forms of bounded oscillations exhibited by the system is presented. In addition, the presence of unstable limit cycles, the stabilization of the unforced system using low-frequency excitation, the peculiar nature of the response of the system to high-frequency excitation, and the implications of these results on the energy harvesting capabilities of the wave energy converter are discussed. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Coherent electromagnetic waves in the presence of a half space of randomly distributed scatterers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.

    1988-01-01

    The present investigation of coherent field propagation notes, upon solving the Foldy-Twersky integral equation for a half-space of small spherical scatterers illuminated by a plane wave at oblique incidence, that the coherent field for a horizontally-polarized incident wave exhibits reflectivity and transmissivity consistent with the Fresnel formula for an equivalent continuous effective medium. In the case of a vertically polarized incident wave, both the vertical and longitudinal waves obtained for the coherent field have reflectivities and transmissivities that do not agree with the Fresnel formula.

  10. Relative contributions of external SST forcing and internal atmospheric variability to July-August heat waves over the Yangtze River valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Zhou, Tianjun

    2017-08-01

    The Yangtze River valley (YRV), located in central-eastern China, has witnessed increased numbers of heat waves in the summer since 1951. Knowing what factors control and affect the interannual variability of heat waves, especially distinguishing the contributions of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST) forcings and those of internal modes of variability, is important to improving heat wave prediction. After evaluating 70 members of the atmospheric model intercomparison project (AMIP) experiments from the 25 models that participated in the coupled model intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), 13 high-skill members (HSMs) are selected to estimate the SST-forced variability. The results show that approximately 2/3 of the total variability of the July-August heat waves in the YRV during 1979-2008 can be attributed to anomalous SST forcings, whereas the other 1/3 are due to internal variability. Within the SST-forced component, one-half of the influence is from the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the other half is from non-ENSO related SST forcings, specifically, the SST anomalies in the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. Both the decaying El Niño and developing La Niña accompanied by a warm Indian Ocean and cold central Pacific, respectively, are favorable to hotter summers in the YRV because these patterns strengthen and extend the western North Pacific Subtropical High (WNPSH) westwards, for which the decaying ENSO plays a dominant role. The internal variability shows a circumglobal teleconnection in which Rossby waves propagate southeastwards over the Eurasian Continent and strengthen the WNPSH. Atmospheric model sensitivity experiments confirm that non-ENSO SST forcings can modulate the WNPSH and heat wave variability by projecting their influences onto the internal mode.

  11. Three dimensional ballisto- and seismo-cardiography: HIJ wave amplitudes are poorly correlated to maximal systolic force vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeotte, P-F; De Ridder, S; Tank, J; Pattyn, N; Funtova, I; Baevsky, R; Neyt, X; Prisk, G K

    2012-01-01

    Ballistocardiography was recorded in 3-D on a free floating astronaut in space as well as on healthy volunteers participating to the ESA 55(th) and DLR 19(th) parabolic flights campaigns. In this paper we demonstrate further the usefulness of recording and analyzing ballistocardiograms (BCG) in three dimensions. The spatial curves of the displacement, velocity and acceleration vectors are analyzed instead of their individual 2-D components. The maximum magnitude of the force vector is shown to be poorly correlated to the HI and IJ wave amplitude traditionally computed on the longitudinal (feet-to-head) component of acceleration (uni-dimensional BCG). We also suggest that kinetic energy and work are useful parameters to consider for a physiological interpretation of the 3D-BCG. The technique presented is invariant from the axis of representation and provides important novel physiological information. We stress further the need of 3D recordings and analysis techniques for Ballisto- and Seismo-cardiography.

  12. Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxiao Wang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN. Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

  13. Complementary numerical–experimental benchmarking for shape optimization and validation of structures subjected to wave and current forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markus, D.; Ferri, Francesco; Wüchner, R.

    2015-01-01

    A new benchmark problem is proposed and evaluated targeting fluid related shape optimization problems, motivated by design related ocean engineering tasks. The analyzed test geometry is a bottom mounted, polygonal structure in a channel flow. The aim of the study is to analyze the effect of shape...... is to provide clear and thorough information for validation and verification of methods and codes used to analyze fluid related shape optimization problems....... variations of the structure on the resulting horizontal forces. Steady current conditions, dynamic loading due to waves, and combined wave–current scenarios are considered. A clear focus is put on simplicity and reproducibility, allowing for efficient testing of related methods and codes. This is achieved...

  14. P-wave indices in patients with pulmonary emphysema: do P-terminal force and interatrial block have confounding effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhabra L

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lovely Chhabra,1 Vinod K Chaubey,1 Chandrasekhar Kothagundla,1 Rishi Bajaj,1 Sudesh Kaul,1 David H Spodick2 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Introduction: Pulmonary emphysema causes several electrocardiogram changes, and one of the most common and well known is on the frontal P-wave axis. P-axis verticalization (P-axis > 60° serves as a quasidiagnostic indicator of emphysema. The correlation of P-axis verticalization with the radiological severity of emphysema and severity of chronic obstructive lung function have been previously investigated and well described in the literature. However, the correlation of P-axis verticalization in emphysema with other P-indices like P-terminal force in V1 (Ptf, amplitude of initial positive component of P-waves in V1 (i-PV1, and interatrial block (IAB have not been well studied. Our current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of emphysema on these P-wave indices in correlation with the verticalization of the P-vector. Materials and methods: Unselected, routinely recorded electrocardiograms of 170 hospitalized emphysema patients were studied. Significant Ptf (s-Ptf was considered ≥40 mm.ms and was divided into two types based on the morphology of P-waves in V1: either a totally negative (- P wave in V1 or a biphasic (+/- P wave in V1. Results: s-Ptf correlated better with vertical P-vectors than nonvertical P-vectors (P = 0.03. s-Ptf also significantly correlated with IAB (P = 0.001; however, IAB and P-vector verticalization did not appear to have any significant correlation (P = 0.23. There was a very weak correlation between i-PV1 and frontal P-vector (r = 0.15; P = 0.047; however, no significant correlation was found between i-PV1 and P-amplitude in lead III (r = 0.07; P = 0.36. Conclusion: We conclude that increased P-tf in emphysema may be due to downward right atrial position caused by

  15. Axial acoustic radiation force on rigid oblate and prolate spheroids in Bessel vortex beams of progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2017-02-01

    The analysis using the partial-wave series expansion (PWSE) method in spherical coordinates is extended to evaluate the acoustic radiation force experienced by rigid oblate and prolate spheroids centered on the axis of wave propagation of high-order Bessel vortex beams composed of progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves, respectively. A coupled system of linear equations is derived after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid, and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. The system of linear equations depends on the partial-wave index n and the order of the Bessel vortex beam m using truncated but converging PWSEs in the least-squares sense. Numerical results for the radiation force function, which is the radiation force per unit energy density and unit cross-sectional surface, are computed with particular emphasis on the amplitude ratio describing the transition from the progressive to the pure standing waves cases, the aspect ratio (i.e., the ratio of the major axis over the minor axis of the spheroid), the half-cone angle and order of the Bessel vortex beam, as well as the dimensionless size parameter. A generalized expression for the radiation force function is derived for cases encompassing the progressive, standing and quasi-standing waves of Bessel vortex beams. This expression can be reduced to other types of beams/waves such as the zeroth-order Bessel non-vortex beam or the infinite plane wave case by appropriate selection of the beam parameters. The results for progressive waves reveal a tractor beam behavior, characterized by the emergence of an attractive pulling force acting in opposite direction of wave propagation. Moreover, the transition to the quasi-standing and pure standing wave cases shows the acoustical tweezers behavior in dual-beam Bessel vortex beams. Applications in acoustic levitation, particle manipulation and acousto

  16. Detection of applied and ambient forces with a matter-wave magnetic gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Billy I.; MacKellar, Andrew R.; Halket, James; Gribbon, Anna; Pritchard, Jonathan D.; Arnold, Aidan S.; Riis, Erling; Griffin, Paul F.

    2017-11-01

    An atom interferometer using a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms is utilized for the measurement of magnetic-field gradients. Composite optical pulses are used to construct a spatially symmetric Mach-Zehnder geometry. By using a biased interferometer we demonstrate the ability to measure small residual forces in our system and discriminate between magnetic and inertial effects. These are a residual ambient magnetic-field gradient of 15 ±2 mG/cm and an inertial acceleration of 0.08 ±0.02 m/s2. Our method has important applications in the calibration of precision measurement devices and the reduction of systematic errors.

  17. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant C2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijker, Jacob J; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; de Boer, Andries

    2015-01-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load),

  18. Measuring lung function using sound waves: role of the forced oscillation technique and impulse oscillometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Bill; Salvi, Sundeep

    2015-03-01

    Measuring lung function is an important component in the decision making process for patients with obstructive airways disease (OAD). Not only does it help in arriving at a specific diagnosis, but it also helps in evaluating severity so that appropriate pharmacotherapy can be instituted, it helps determine prognosis and it helps evaluate response to therapy. Spirometry is currently the most commonly performed lung function test in clinical practice and is considered to be the gold standard diagnostic test for asthma and COPD. However, spirometry is not an easy test to perform because the forceful expiratory and inspiratory manoeuvres require good patient co-operation. Children aged <5 years, elderly people and those with physical and cognitive limitations cannot perform spirometry easily.

  19. Pressure-induced forces and shear stresses on rubble mound breakwater armour layers in regular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2014-01-01

    measurements in the core material: (1) core material with an idealized armour layer made out of spherical objects that also allowed for detailed velocity measurements between and above the armour, and (2) core material with real rock armour stones. The same core material was applied through the entire...... and turbulence measurements showed that the large outward directed pressure gradients in general coincide, both in time and space, with the maximum bed-shear stresses on the armour layer based on the Reynolds-stresses. The bed-shear stresses were found to result in a Shields parameter in the same order......This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of the pressure-induced forces in the core material below the main armour layer and shear stresses on the armour layer for a porous breakwater structure. Two parallel experiments were performed which both involved pore pressure...

  20. Estimation of Design Wave Loads on the SSG WEC Pilot Plant based on 3-D Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Vicinanza, Diego; Osaland, Espen

    2006-01-01

    This paper discuss wave loadings acting on the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Seawave Slot-Cone Generator (SSG). The SSG is a new type of structure for wave energy conversion based on storing the incoming waves in several reservoirs placed one above the other. The wave forces on the main structure can...... be estimated using experiences from coastal protection structures, but the differences between the two types of structures are so large that more reliable knowledge on the wave forces is desired. Model tests were carried out to measure wave loads using realistic random 2D and 3D wave conditions. Pressure cells...

  1. Effect of random surface inhomogeneities on spectral properties of dielectric-disk microresonators: theory and modeling at millimeter wave range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapolskii, E M; Eremenko, Z E; Tarasov, Yu V

    2009-04-01

    The influence of random axially homogeneous surface roughness on spectral properties of dielectric resonators of circular disk form is studied both theoretically and experimentally. To solve the equations governing the dynamics of electromagnetic fields, the method of eigenmode separation is applied previously developed with reference to inhomogeneous systems subject to arbitrary external static potential. We prove theoretically that it is the gradient mechanism of wave-surface scattering that is highly responsible for nondissipative loss in the resonator. The influence of side-boundary inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum is shown to be described in terms of effective renormalization of mode wave numbers jointly with azimuth indices in the characteristic equation. To study experimentally the effect of inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum, the method of modeling in the millimeter wave range is applied. As a model object, we use a dielectric disk resonator (DDR) fitted with external inhomogeneities randomly arranged at its side boundary. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions as regards the predominance of the gradient scattering mechanism. It is shown theoretically and confirmed in the experiment that TM oscillations in the DDR are less affected by surface inhomogeneities than TE oscillations with the same azimuth indices. The DDR model chosen for our study as well as characteristic equations obtained thereupon enable one to calculate both the eigenfrequencies and the Q factors of resonance spectral lines to fairly good accuracy. The results of calculations agree well with obtained experimental data.

  2. Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.

  3. On the Security of Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems Using Random Antenna Subsets

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.

    2017-03-20

    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems have the potential to improve traffic efficiency and safety. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to a formidable set of abuses and attacks. To secure communication links, a physical layer precoding technique for mmWave vehicular communication systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits the large dimensional antenna arrays available at mmWave systems to produce direction dependent transmission. This results in coherent transmission to the legitimate receiver and artificial noise that jams eavesdroppers with sensitive receivers. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique and show that the proposed technique provides high secrecy throughput when compared to conventional array and switched array transmission techniques.

  4. Expansion of a quantum wave packet in a one-dimensional disordered potential in the presence of a uniform bias force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnier de Bellaistre, C.; Trefzger, C.; Aspect, A.; Georges, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.

    2018-01-01

    We study numerically the expansion dynamics of an initially confined quantum wave packet in the presence of a disordered potential and a uniform bias force. For white-noise disorder, we find that the wave packet develops asymmetric algebraic tails for any ratio of the force to the disorder strength. The exponent of the algebraic tails decays smoothly with that ratio and no evidence of a critical behavior on the wave density profile is found. Algebraic localization features a series of critical values of the force-to-disorder strength where the m th position moment of the wave packet diverges. Below the critical value for the m th moment, we find fair agreement between the asymptotic long-time value of the m th moment and the predictions of diagrammatic calculations. Above it, we find that the m th moment grows algebraically in time. For correlated disorder, we find evidence of systematic delocalization, irrespective to the model of disorder. More precisely, we find a two-step dynamics, where both the center-of-mass position and the width of the wave packet show transient localization, similar to the white-noise case, at short time and delocalization at sufficiently long time. This correlation-induced delocalization is interpreted as due to the decrease of the effective de Broglie wavelength, which lowers the effective strength of the disorder in the presence of finite-range correlations.

  5. Transfer functions of laminar premixed flames subjected to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and non-thermal plasma discharges

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna

    2016-06-23

    The responses of laminar methane-air flames to forcing by acoustic waves, AC electric fields, and nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) glow discharges are reported here. The experimental setup consists of an axisymmetric burner with a nozzle made from a quartz tube. Three different flame geometries have been studied: conical, M-shaped and V-shaped flames. A central stainless steel rod is used as a cathode for the electric field and plasma excitations. The acoustic forcing is obtained with a loudspeaker located at the bottom part of the burner. For forcing by AC electric fields, a metallic grid is placed above the rod and connected to an AC power supply. Plasma forcing is obtained by applying high-voltage pulses of 10-ns duration applied at 10 kHz, between the rod and an annular stainless steel ring, placed at the outlet of the quartz tube. The chemiluminescence of CH is used to determine the heat release rate fluctuations. For forcing by acoustic waves and plasma, the geometry of the flame plays a key role in the response of the combustion, while the flame shape does not affect the response of the combustion to electric field forcing. The flame response to acoustic forcing of about 10% of the incoming flow is similar to those obtained in the literature. The flames are found to be responsive to an AC electric field across the whole range of frequencies studied. A forcing mechanism, based on the generation of ionic wind, is proposed. The gain of the transfer function obtained for plasma forcing is found to be up to 5 times higher than for acoustic forcing. A possible mechanism of plasma forcing is introduced.

  6. Implementation of the vortex force formalism in the coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport (COAWST) modeling system for inner shelf and surf zone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nirnimesh; Voulgaris, George; Warner, John C.; Olabarrieta, Maitane

    2012-01-01

    The coupled ocean-atmosphere-wave-sediment transport modeling system (COAWST) enables simulations that integrate oceanic, atmospheric, wave and morphological processes in the coastal ocean. Within the modeling system, the three-dimensional ocean circulation module (ROMS) is coupled with the wave generation and propagation model (SWAN) to allow full integration of the effect of waves on circulation and vice versa. The existing wave-current coupling component utilizes a depth dependent radiation stress approach. In here we present a new approach that uses the vortex force formalism. The formulation adopted and the various parameterizations used in the model as well as their numerical implementation are presented in detail. The performance of the new system is examined through the presentation of four test cases. These include obliquely incident waves on a synthetic planar beach and a natural barred beach (DUCK' 94); normal incident waves on a nearshore barred morphology with rip channels; and wave-induced mean flows outside the surf zone at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO).

  7. A randomized comparison of intraoperative PerfecTemp and forced-air warming during open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Cameron; Bernstein, Ethan; Reddy, Desigen; Ali, Madi; Paul, James; Yang, Dongsheng; Sessler, Daniel I

    2011-11-01

    The PerfecTemp is an underbody resistive warming system that combines servocontrolled underbody warming with viscoelastic foam pressure relief. Clinical efficacy of the system has yet to be formally evaluated. We therefore tested the hypothesis that intraoperative distal esophageal (core) temperatures with the PerfecTemp (underbody resistive) warming system are noninferior to upper-body forced-air warming in patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery under general anesthesia. Adults scheduled for elective major open abdominal surgery (liver, pancreas, gynecological, and colorectal surgery) under general anesthesia were enrolled at 2 centers. Patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive or forced-air warming. Resistive heating started when patients were transferred to the operating room table; forced-air warming started after patients were draped. The primary outcome was noninferiority of intraoperative time-weighted average core temperature, adjusted for baseline characteristics and using a buffer of 0.5°C. Thirty-six patients were randomly assigned to underbody resistive heating and 34 to forced-air warming. Baseline and surgical characteristics were generally similar. We had sufficient evidence (P=0.018) to conclude that underbody resistive warming is not worse than (i.e., noninferior to) upper-body forced-air warming in the time-weighted average intraoperative temperature, with a mean difference of -0.12°C [95% confidence interval (CI) -0.37 to 0.14]. Core temperatures at the end of surgery averaged 36.3°C [95% CI 36 to 36.5] in the resistive warming patients and 36.6°C [95% CI 36.4 to 36.8] in those assigned to forced-air warming for a mean difference of -0.34°C [95% CI -0.69 to 0.01]. Mean intraoperative time-weighted average core temperatures were no different, and significantly noninferior, with underbody resistive heating in comparison with upper-body forced-air warming. Underbody resistive heating may be an alternative to forced

  8. DEEPWAVE Initial Investigation of Mesospheric Gravity Wave Signatures Generated by Variable Orographic Forcing Over Lauder Station (45°S). New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criddle, N.; Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Zhao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    DEEPWAVE is a new international collaborative research program focused on identifying, characterizing, and predicting the generation and propagation of deeply propagating atmospheric gravity waves from the Earth's surface up to ̴100 km altitude and beyond. An extended series of coordinated airborne and ground-based measurements were recently conducted from New Zealand's South Island to investigate gravity wave forcing during the winter months when strong North-Westerly winds are known to generate gravity waves capable of penetrating well into the stratosphere. As part of this collaborative effort the Atmospheric Imaging Lab at Utah State University (USU) deployed and operated an Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) at the National Institute for Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) Lauder research station, NZ (45°S 169°E). In the lee of the Southern Alps, Lauder is well positioned for measuring a broad spectrum of gravity waves launched from south island orography and from other meteorological sources. The AMTM is uniquely capable of mapping the wave-induced temperature perturbations to investigate the two-dimensional gravity wave field with high temporal ( ̴10 sec) and high temperature precision ( ̴1-2 K in 30 sec). High-quality infrared image measurements of the OH (3,1) band emission layer (altitude ̴ 87 km) were made nightly from May 31 to July 22, 2014. The DEEPWAVE program has been a resounding success and over 42 nights of data were obtained at Lauder with distinct mesospheric mountain wave signatures recorded there in OH intensity, and in temperatures for the first time. In this poster we provide a summary of the AMTM data set from Lauder, complemented by data from coincident airborne over-flights where appropriate, and we present initial results characterizing the mesopause gravity wave field under varying orographic forcings. We thank the NSF for sponsoring this research program.

  9. Acoustic radiation force impulse induced strain elastography and point shear wave elastography for evaluation of thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Gong, Xue-Hao; Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Jun-Mei; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao-Long; Li, Dan-Dan; Qu, Shen; Fang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) induced strain elastography (SE), point shear wave elastography (p-SWE), and their combined use in differentiating thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 155 thyroid nodules (94 benign and 61 malignant) in 136 patients. Ultrasound, ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE were performed on each nodule. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of ARFI-induced SE, p-SWE and their combined use to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules with histological results used as the reference standard. The areas under the ROC for ARFI-induced SE, p-SWE, and their combined use were 0.828, 0.829, and 0.840, respectively (both P > 0.05). The specificity of ARFI-induced SE was higher than that of p-SWE as well as their combined use (both P 10 mm, there were no significant differences in sensitivity and NPV among the three methods in differentiating thyroid nodules (all P > 0.05). In conclusions, ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE are both valuable tools for detecting malignant thyroid nodules. The combined use of ARFI-induced SE and p-SWE improves the diagnostic sensitivity and NPV significantly whereas ARFI-induced SE alone achieves the highest specificity.

  10. Postdeployment Battlemind Training for the U.K. Armed Forces: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Kathleen; Fear, Nicola T.; Jones, Norman; Alvarez, Helen; Hull, Lisa; Naumann, Ulrike; Wessely, Simon; Greenberg, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Combat exposure can increase the risk of subsequent psychological ill-health in armed forces (AF) personnel. A U.S. postdeployment psycho-educational intervention, Battlemind, showed a beneficial effect on mental health in U.S. military personnel exposed to high combat levels. We evaluated the effectiveness of an anglicized version of…

  11. Effect of dust ion collision on dust ion acoustic waves in the framework of damped Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation in presence of external periodic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti Das, Tushar; Ali, Rustam; Chatterjee, Prasanta

    2017-10-01

    The dynamics of dust ion acoustic waves (DIAWs) is investigated in a magnetized dusty plasma whose constituents are cold ions, superthermal electrons, and dust particles in the framework of a damped Zakharov-Kuznetsov (dZK) equation in the presence of externally applied periodic force. The dZK equation is derived employing the standard reductive perturbation technique. The effect of dust ion collision on the quasiperiodic and chaotic motion of dust ion acoustic waves is discussed. It is observed that the collision frequency νid 0 plays the role of a switching parameter from the quasiperiodic route to chaos for the DIAWs.

  12. Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Miyamoto, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first direct experimental evidence of the local properties of optical vortices in a random laser speckle field. We have observed the Berry anisotropy ellipse describing the anisotropic squeezing of phase lines close to vortex cores and quantitatively verified the Dennis angular mom...... momentum rule for its phase. Some statistics associated with vortices, such as density, anisotropy ellipse eccentricity, and its relation to zero crossings of real and imaginary parts of the random field, are also investigated by experiments....

  13. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training-Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-02-01

    Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training-progression styles. To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Randomized controlled trial. Research laboratory. A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults.

  14. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Pmuscle strength increased only ~5-6% [mean and 95% confidence interval for 2- and 12-min groups to control, respectively: 2.5 Nm (0.05-0.73) and 2.2 Nm (0.01-0.70)]. No significant differences between the 2- and 12-min groups were evident. A weak but significant relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Pmuscle strength and pain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  15. Analytical method for parameterizing the random profile components of nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mirsaidov, Utkur; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Misurkin, Pavel I; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of many technological surfaces in biotechnology, electronics, and mechanical engineering depend to a large degree on the individual features of their nanoscale surface texture, which in turn are a function of the surface manufacturing process. Among these features, the surface irregularities and self-similarity structures at different spatial scales, especially in the range of 1 to 100 nm, are of high importance because they greatly affect the surface interaction forces acting at a nanoscale distance. An analytical method for parameterizing the surface irregularities and their correlations in nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is proposed. In this method, flicker noise spectroscopy - a statistical physics approach - is used to develop six nanometrological parameters characterizing the high-frequency contributions of jump- and spike-like irregularities into the surface texture. These contributions reflect the stochastic processes of anomalous diffusion and inertial e...

  16. The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokipii, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.

  17. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the RMT approach, the distribution functions for the wave func- tions' amplitude (i.e. p(t)) are derived by means of RMT. It depends only on the global symmetry of the ensemble and has a chi-square form. The asymptotic form of p(t) in 2D samples for L ≪ ξ was found using the renormalization group and replica techniques ...

  18. Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac versus Landau-Lifshitz radiation friction force in the ultrarelativistic electron interaction with electromagnetic wave (exact solutions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Bulanov, Stepan S

    2011-11-01

    When the parameters of electron-extreme power laser interaction enter the regime of dominated radiation reaction, the electron dynamics changes qualitatively. The adequate theoretical description of this regime becomes crucially important with the use of the radiation friction force either in the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac form, which possesses unphysical runaway solutions, or in the Landau-Lifshitz form, which is a perturbation valid for relatively low electromagnetic wave amplitude. The goal of the present paper is to find the limits of the Landau-Lifshitz radiation force applicability in terms of the electromagnetic wave amplitude and frequency. For this, a class of the exact solutions to the nonlinear problems of charged particle motion in the time-varying electromagnetic field is used.

  19. Diuresis and inversion therapy to improve clearance of lower caliceal stones after shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul-fotouh Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To improve the clearance of lower caliceal stones (LCSs after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL using a combination of intra-operative forced diuresis and inversion therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven consecutive patients with symptomatic, single LCSs of 5-20 mm size were prospectively randomized into two groups. The first (study group, SG underwent SWL at the time of the maximum diuresis with the patient in the Trendelenburg position with an angle of 30 degree, while the second group (control group, CG underwent standard SWL. After the last SWL session, patients were followed-up regularly using plain abdominal X-ray and renal ultrasound. The primary endpoint of the study was the stone-free rate (SFR at 12 weeks. Results: A total of 141 patients completed the study treatment protocol and follow-up: 69 patients in SG and 72 patients in CG. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. SG showed significantly higher SFR at all follow-up time points. At week 12, 78.3% of SG were rendered stone free, whereas only 61.1% were stone free in CG (P = 0.030. Also, there was a significantly higher SFR for larger stones (>10 mm and stones with higher attenuation value (>500 Hounsfield units in SG than CG. Mild non-significant complications were reported in both groups. Conclusion: SWL with intraoperative forced diuresis and inversion seems to be an effective measure with minimal extra cost to improve LCS clearance post-SWL.

  20. Shear wave velocity measurements using acoustic radiation force impulse in young children with normal kidneys versus hydronephrotic kidneys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, Beom Seok; Kim, Myung Joon; Han, Sang Won; Im, Young Jae; Lee, Mi Jung [Severance Children' s Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To measure shear wave velocities (SWVs) by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) ultrasound elastography in normal kidneys and in hydronephrotic kidneys in young children and to compare SWVs between the hydronephrosis grades. This study was approved by an institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from the parents of all the children included. Children under the age of 24 months were prospectively enrolled. Hydronephrosis grade was evaluated on ultrasonography, and three valid ARFI measurements were attempted using a high-frequency transducer for both kidneys. Hydronephrosis was graded from 0 to 4, and high-grade hydronephrosis was defined as grades 3 and 4. Fifty-one children underwent ARFI measurements, and three valid measurements for both kidneys were obtained in 96% (49/51) of the patients. Nineteen children (38.8%) had no hydronephrosis. Twenty-three children (46.9%) had unilateral hydronephrosis, and seven children (14.3%) had bilateral hydronephrosis. Seven children had ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). Median SWVs in kidneys with high-grade hydronephrosis (2.02 m/sec) were higher than those in normal kidneys (1.75 m/sec; P=0.027). However, the presence of UPJO did not influence the median SWVs in hydronephrotic kidneys (P=0.362). Obtaining ARFI measurements of the kidney is feasible in young children with median SWVs of 1.75 m/sec in normal kidneys. Median SWVs increased in high-grade hydronephrotic kidneys but were not different between hydronephrotic kidneys with and without UPJO.

  1. Effect of Difference-frequency Forces on the Dynamics of a Semi-submersible Type FVAWT in Misaligned Wave-wind Condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Kai; Cheng, Zhengshun; Moan, Torgeir

    2015-01-01

    With increasing interests in the development of offshore floating vertical axis wind turbines (FVAWTs), a large amount of studies on the FVAWTs have been conducted. This paper focuses on evaluating the effect of second-order difference-frequency force on the dynamics of a 5 MW FVAWT in misaligned...... wave-wind condition. The studied FVAWT is composed of a 5 MW Darrieus rotor, a semi-submersible floater and a catenary mooring system. Fully coupled nonlinear time domain simulations were conducted using the state-of-art code Simo- Riflex-DMS. Several misaligned wave-wind conditions were selected...... to investigate the global dynamic responses of the FVAWT, such as the platform motions, structural responses and mooring line tensions. It has been found that the wave-wind misalignment does not significantly affect the mean values of the global responses since the global responses are primarily wind...

  2. Magnetic force analysis and performance of a tri-stable piezoelectric energy harvester under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yonggang; Tan, Dan; Liu, Jinjun; Zhang, Yuyang; Fan, Shengbo

    2017-10-01

    Recently, harvesting energy from environment has attracted lots of researchers' interests. Ambient vibrations are deemed as a promising power supply since it can be found almost everywhere. Piezoelectric effect has been exploited to convert mechanical energy to electricity. Nonlinearity techniques are favorable for improving the performance of piezoelectric energy harvesters. This paper focuses on a tri-stable piezoelectric energy harvester (TPEH) with two fixed external magnets. The lumped-parameter method is used to investigate the large-amplitude and broadband voltage response. A method based on equivalent magnetizing current theory is first applied to calculate the magnetic force and the potential function with triple wells. We find that this calculation method for magnetic force is more applicable for different magnet intervals compared with the magnetic dipoles method used before. Once the system parameters are chosen appropriately, large-amplitude interwell motion among three wells can be achieved. In our study, a filtered Gaussian noise within the frequency of 0-120 Hz is selected as harvester's excitation, which is similar with the realistic low-frequency vibration in environment. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the TPEH enhances the output voltage significantly compared to the conventional bi-stable piezoelectric energy harvester (BPEH). Also, the TPEH's frequency bandwidth is further broadened. Besides, it has been proved that the corresponding optimum magnet interval only changes slightly when the excitation intensity varies, therefore there is no need of adjusting the system parameters to meet practical conditions.

  3. Analytical method for parameterizing the random profile components of nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, Utkur; Timashev, Serge F; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Misurkin, Pavel I; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2011-02-07

    The functional properties of many technological surfaces in biotechnology, electronics, and mechanical engineering depend to a large degree on the individual features of their nanoscale surface texture, which in turn is a function of the surface manufacturing process. Among these features, the surface irregularities and self-similarity structures at different spatial scales, especially in the range of 1 to 100 nm, are of high importance because they greatly affect the surface interaction forces acting at a nanoscale distance. An analytical method for parameterizing the surface irregularities and their correlations in nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is proposed. In this method, flicker noise spectroscopy--a statistical physics approach--is used to develop six nanometrological parameters characterizing the high-frequency contributions of jump- and spike-like irregularities into the surface texture. These contributions reflect the stochastic processes of anomalous diffusion and inertial effects, respectively, in the process of surface manufacturing. The AFM images of the texture of corrosion-resistant magnetite coatings formed on low-carbon steel in hot nitrate solutions with coating growth promoters at different temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that the parameters characterizing surface spikiness are able to quantify the effect of process temperature on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. It is suggested that these parameters can be used for predicting and characterizing the corrosion-resistant properties of magnetite coatings.

  4. Spectral Characteristics of Wave Breaking and Dissipation in Combined Tsunami - Swell Wave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihatu, J. M.; Goertz, J.; Sheremet, A.; Weiss, R.

    2014-12-01

    It has been observed that the front face of landfalling tsunamis often feature dispersive "fission" waves. These are short, almost monochromatic coherent waves which result from the piling up of water as the tsunami rapidly decelerates upon encountering land. Photographs taken during the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami show these waves to resemble cnoidal waves in shape and have a spatial and temporal scale of the same order as swell waves. As part of our goal to study the tsunami in concert with other aspects of the physical environment, we investigate possible physical linkages between the background random swell, monochromatic fission waves, and the long-scale tsunami waves. This particular investigation involves the modification of the dissipation characteristics of random surface waves when interacting with a coherent wavefield (e.g., laboratory proxies for the fission wave or the tsunami). Data from laboratory experiments conducted at the Large Wave Flume at Oregon State University (part of the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation supported by the National Science Foundation) were analyzed and the dissipation characteristics inferred using a steepness-regulated instantaneous dissipation mechanism. It is shown that, for random waves, the instances of significant dissipation events temporally correspond to the appearance of high frequency energy in the time-frequency spectrogram. Furthermore, these observations are strongly affected by the presence of an underlying coherent wave signal, particularly in the case of interaction with a tsunami. We further discuss the possible effect of these interactions on the forces in the hydrodynamic field responsible for sediment transport.

  5. Physical and biological controls on the carbonate chemistry of coral reef waters: effects of metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, James L; Lowe, Ryan J; Zhang, Zhenlin; McCulloch, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model of a wave-driven coral-reef lagoon system using the circulation model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System) coupled with the wave transformation model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore). Simulations were used to explore the sensitivity of water column carbonate chemistry across the reef system to variations in benthic reef metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and system geomorphology. Our results show that changes in reef-water carbonate chemistry depend primarily on the ratio of benthic metabolism to the square root of the onshore wave energy flux as well as on the length and depth of the reef flat; however, they are only weakly dependent on channel geometry and the total frictional resistance of the reef system. Diurnal variations in pCO(2), pH, and aragonite saturation state (Ω(ar)) are primarily dependent on changes in net production and are relatively insensitive to changes in net calcification; however, net changes in pCO(2), pH, and Ω(ar) are more strongly influenced by net calcification when averaged over 24 hours. We also demonstrate that a relatively simple one-dimensional analytical model can provide a good description of the functional dependence of reef-water carbonate chemistry on benthic metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, reef flat morphology, and total system frictional resistance. Importantly, our results indicate that any long-term (weeks to months) net offsets in reef-water pCO(2) relative to offshore values should be modest for reef systems with narrow and/or deep lagoons. Thus, the long-term evolution of water column pCO(2) in many reef environments remains intimately connected to the regional-scale oceanography of offshore waters and hence directly influenced by rapid anthropogenically driven increases in pCO(2).

  6. Physical and biological controls on the carbonate chemistry of coral reef waters: effects of metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and geomorphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Falter

    Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model of a wave-driven coral-reef lagoon system using the circulation model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System coupled with the wave transformation model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore. Simulations were used to explore the sensitivity of water column carbonate chemistry across the reef system to variations in benthic reef metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, and system geomorphology. Our results show that changes in reef-water carbonate chemistry depend primarily on the ratio of benthic metabolism to the square root of the onshore wave energy flux as well as on the length and depth of the reef flat; however, they are only weakly dependent on channel geometry and the total frictional resistance of the reef system. Diurnal variations in pCO(2, pH, and aragonite saturation state (Ω(ar are primarily dependent on changes in net production and are relatively insensitive to changes in net calcification; however, net changes in pCO(2, pH, and Ω(ar are more strongly influenced by net calcification when averaged over 24 hours. We also demonstrate that a relatively simple one-dimensional analytical model can provide a good description of the functional dependence of reef-water carbonate chemistry on benthic metabolism, wave forcing, sea level, reef flat morphology, and total system frictional resistance. Importantly, our results indicate that any long-term (weeks to months net offsets in reef-water pCO(2 relative to offshore values should be modest for reef systems with narrow and/or deep lagoons. Thus, the long-term evolution of water column pCO(2 in many reef environments remains intimately connected to the regional-scale oceanography of offshore waters and hence directly influenced by rapid anthropogenically driven increases in pCO(2.

  7. Stochastic sensitivity technique in a persistence analysis of randomly forced population systems with multiple trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev; Ryazanova, Tatyana

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by important ecological applications we study how noise can reduce a number of trophic levels in hierarchically related multidimensional population systems. A nonlinear model with three trophic levels under the influence of external stochastic forcing is considered as a basic conceptual example. We analyze a probabilistic mechanism of noise-induced extinction of separate populations in this "prey-predator-top predator" system. We propose a new general mathematical approach for the estimation of the proximity of equilibrium regimes of this stochastic model to hazardous borders where abrupt changes in dynamics of ecological systems can occur. Our method is based on the stochastic sensitivity function technique and visualization method of confidence domains. Constructive abilities of this mathematical approach are demonstrated in the analysis of different scenaria of noise-induced reducing of the number of trophic levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seismic estimates of turbulent diffusivity and evidence of nonlinear internal wave forcing by geometric resonance in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, W. F. J.; Holbrook, W. S.; Schmitt, R. W.

    2017-10-01

    The Luzon Passage generates some of the largest amplitude internal waves in the global ocean as the result of coupling between strong tides, strong stratification, and topography. These internal waves propagate into the South China Sea (SCS) and develop into soliton-like internal wave pulses that are observed by moored instruments and satellite backscatter data. Despite the observation of these waves, little is known of the mechanisms related to their evolution into nonlinear wave pulses. Using seismic data, we find evidence that the geometry of bathymetric conditions between the Heng-Chun and Lan-Yu ridges drive nonlinear internal wave pulse generation. We produce three seismic images and associated maps of turbulent diffusivity to investigate structure around the two ridges and into the SCS. We do not observe large amplitude soliton-like internal waves between the ridges, but do observe one outside the ridges, a finding in accord with the interpretation that wave pulses form due to geometrical resonance. Additionally, we find no evidence for lee wave activity above the ridges in either the seismic images or associated turbulence maps, suggesting an unlikelihood of hydraulic jump driven generation around the ridges. Our results show increased levels of turbulent diffusivity (1) in deep water below 1000 m, (2) associated with internal tide pulses, and (3) near the steep slopes of the Heng-Chun and Lan-Yu ridges as explored in this paper.

  9. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping

    2015-04-01

    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  10. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.

    1991-01-01

    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  11. Polarization of an electromagnetic wave in a randomly birefringent medium: a stochastic theory of the Stokes parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botet, Robert; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    We present a framework for the stochastic features of the polarization state of an electromagnetic wave propagating through the optical medium with both deterministic (controlled) and disordered birefringence. In this case, the Stokes parameters obey a Langevin-type equation on the Poincaré sphere. The functional integral method provides for a natural tool to derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution of the Stokes parameters. We solve the Fokker-Planck equation in the case of a random anisotropic active medium submitted to a homogeneous electromagnetic field. The possible dissipation and relaxation phenomena are studied in general and in various cases, and we give hints about how to validate experimentally the corresponding phenomenological equations.

  12. Concentration fields near air-water interfaces during interfacial mass transport: oxygen transport and random square wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Schulz

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Mass transfer across a gas-liquid interface was studied theoretically and experimentally, using transfer of oxygen into water as the gas-liquid system. The experimental results support the conclusions of a theoretical description of the concentration field that uses random square waves approximations. The effect of diffusion over the concentration records was quantified. It is shown that the peak of the normalized rms concentration fluctuation profiles must be lower than 0.5, and that the position of the peak of the rms value is an adequate measure of the thickness of the diffusive layer. The position of the peak is the boundary between the regions more subject to molecular diffusion or to turbulent transport of dissolved mass.

  13. Angular spectral plane-wave expansion of nonstationary random fields in stochastic mode-stirred reverberation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaut, Luk R

    2010-04-01

    We derive an integral expression for the plane-wave expansion of the time-varying (nonstationary) random field inside a mode-stirred reverberation chamber. It is shown that this expansion is a so-called oscillatory process, whose kernel can be expressed explicitly in closed form. The effect of nonstationarity is a modulation of the spectral density of the field on a time scale that is a function of the cavity relaxation time. It is also shown how the contribution by a nonzero initial value of the field can be incorporated into the expansion. The results are extended to a special class of second-order processes, relevant to the reception of a mode-stirred reverberation field by a device under test with a first-order (relaxation-type) frequency response.

  14. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  15. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard

    1993-01-01

    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  16. Comparative Effects of Different Balance-Training–Progression Styles on Postural Control and Ankle Force Production: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuğ, Mutlu; Duncan, Ashley; Wikstrom, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Context:  Despite the effectiveness of balance training, the exact parameters needed to maximize the benefits of such programs remain unknown. One such factor is how individuals should progress to higher levels of task difficulty within a balance-training program. Yet no investigators have directly compared different balance-training–progression styles. Objective:  To compare an error-based progression (ie, advance when proficient at a task) with a repetition-based progression (ie, advance after a set amount of repetitions) style during a balance-training program in healthy individuals. Design:  Randomized controlled trial. Setting:  Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants:  A total of 28 (16 women, 12 men) physically healthy young adults (age = 21.57 ± 3.95 years, height = 171.60 ± 11.03 cm, weight = 72.96 ± 16.18 kg, body mass index = 24.53 ± 3.7). Intervention(s):  All participants completed 12 supervised balance-training sessions over 4 weeks. Each session consisted of a combination of dynamic unstable-surface tasks that incorporated a BOSU ball and lasted about 30 minutes. Main Outcome Measure(s):  Static balance from an instrumented force plate, dynamic balance as measured via the Star Excursion Balance Test, and ankle force production in all 4 cardinal planes of motion as measured with a handheld dynamometer before and after the intervention. Results:  Selected static postural-control outcomes, dynamic postural control, and ankle force production in all planes of motion improved (P .05) for any of the outcome measures. Conclusions:  A 4-week balance-training program consisting of dynamic unstable-surface exercises on a BOSU ball improved dynamic postural control and ankle force production in healthy young adults. These results suggest that an error-based balance-training program is comparable with but not superior to a repetition-based balance-training program in improving postural control and ankle force production in

  17. Keratoconus progression is not inhibited by reducing eyelid muscular force with botulinum toxin A treatment: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adimara da Candelaria Renesto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate whether reducing eyelid muscular force through the administration of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A to the orbicularis oculi muscles of patients with keratoconus affected corneal parameters indicative of disease progression. Methods: In this prospective parallel randomized clinical trial, 40 eyes of 40 patients with keratoconus were randomized into equally sized control and BTX-A groups. Patients in the BTX-A group received subcutaneous BTX-A injections into the orbicularis muscle. The control group received no intervention. Palpebral fissure height, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA, and corneal topographic parameters were evaluated at baseline and at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-ups. Results: The mean ± standard deviation vertical palpebral fissure heights were 9.74 ± 1.87 mm and 9.45 ± 1.47 mm at baseline in the control and BTX-A groups, respectively, and 10.0 ± 1.49 mm and 9.62 ± 1.73 mm at 18 months, with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.337. BSCVA values were 0.63 ± 0.56 and 0.60 ± 0.27 at baseline in the control and BTX-A groups (p=0.643, and 0.52 ± 0.59 and 0.45 ± 0.26 at 18 months, again with no significant difference between the groups (p=0.452. In addition, there were no statistical differences between the groups at 18 months for the three keratometry topographic parameters: flattest (K1, steepest (K2, and mean (Km keratometry (p=0.562. Conclusion: BTX-A inhibition of eyelid force generation did not result in detectable changes in corneal parameters in keratoconic patients during 18 months of follow-up.

  18. Driven interfaces in random media at finite temperature: existence of an anomalous zero-velocity phase at small external force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The motion of driven interfaces in random media at finite temperature T and small external force F is usually described by a linear displacement h{G}(t) approximately V(F,T)t at large times, where the velocity vanishes according to the creep formula as V(F,T) approximately e;{-K(T)F;{mu}} for F-->0 . In this paper, we question this picture on the specific example of the directed polymer in a two-dimensional random medium. We have recently shown [C. Monthus and T. Garel, J. Phys. A 41, 255002 (2008)] that its dynamics for F=0 can be analyzed in terms of a strong disorder renormalization procedure, where the distribution of renormalized barriers flows towards some "infinite disorder fixed point." In the present paper, we obtain that for small F , this "infinite disorder fixed point" becomes a "strong disorder fixed point" with an exponential distribution of renormalized barriers. The corresponding distribution of trapping times then only decays as a power law P(tau) approximately 1tau;{1+alpha} , where the exponent alpha(F,T) vanishes as alpha(F,T) proportional, variant F micro as F-->0 . Our conclusion is that in the small force region alpha(F,T)infinity induces strong non-self-averaging effects that invalidate the usual creep formula obtained by replacing all trapping times by the typical value. We find instead that the motion is only sublinearly in time h{G}(t) approximately t;{alpha(F,T)} , i.e., the asymptotic velocity vanishes V=0 . This analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations of a directed polymer with a metric constraint driven in a traps landscape. We moreover obtain that the roughness exponent, which is governed by the equilibrium value zeta{eq}=23 up to some large scale, becomes equal to zeta=1 at the largest scales.

  19. Comparison of ultrasound B-mode, strain imaging, acoustic radiation force impulse displacement and shear wave velocity imaging using real time clinical breast images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kavitha; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy; Raghavan, Bagyam

    2016-04-01

    It has been observed that many pathological process increase the elastic modulus of soft tissue compared to normal. In order to image tissue stiffness using ultrasound, a mechanical compression is applied to tissues of interest and local tissue deformation is measured. Based on the mechanical excitation, ultrasound stiffness imaging methods are classified as compression or strain imaging which is based on external compression and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) imaging which is based on force generated by focused ultrasound. When ultrasound is focused on tissue, shear wave is generated in lateral direction and shear wave velocity is proportional to stiffness of tissues. The work presented in this paper investigates strain elastography and ARFI imaging in clinical cancer diagnostics using real time patient data. Ultrasound B-mode imaging, strain imaging, ARFI displacement and ARFI shear wave velocity imaging were conducted on 50 patients (31 Benign and 23 malignant categories) using Siemens S2000 machine. True modulus contrast values were calculated from the measured shear wave velocities. For ultrasound B-mode, ARFI displacement imaging and strain imaging, observed image contrast and Contrast to Noise Ratio were calculated for benign and malignant cancers. Observed contrast values were compared based on the true modulus contrast values calculated from shear wave velocity imaging. In addition to that, student unpaired t-test was conducted for all the four techniques and box plots are presented. Results show that, strain imaging is better for malignant cancers whereas ARFI imaging is superior than strain imaging and B-mode for benign lesions representations.

  20. Topical EMLA for pain control during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego Vilar, D; García Fadrique, G; Di Capua Sacoto, C; Beltran Persiva, J; Perez Mestre, M; De Francia, J A; Povo Martin, I; Miralles Aguado, J; Garau Perelló, C; Sanchis Verdu, L; Gallego Gomez, J

    2012-10-01

    Patient collaboration in external shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is critical for its correct application, making proper analgesic selection indispensable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined application of EMLA and intravenous (i.v.) pethidine compared with pethidine plus placebo cream in patients undergoing ESWL for ureteral and/or renal lithiasis. Prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted in patients receiving ESWL for renal and/or ureterolithiasis. The patients were randomly assigned to receive i.v. pethidine plus either EMLA cream (group A) or placebo hydrating cream (group B). Evaluated were type, location, and size of lithiasis, patient's sex, age, body mass index, comorbidity, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of pain, and degree of lithiasis fragmentation. EMLA cream provided significantly better pain relief and lithiasis fragmentation and more completed ESWL treatment. Topical application of EMLA cream combined with i.v. pethidine improved VAS scores and lithiasis fragmentation and decreased the rate of withdrawal from ESWL procedure versus i.v. pethidine plus placebo therapy.

  1. Status inconsistency and mental health: A random effects and instrumental variables analysis using 14 annual waves of cohort data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis

    2017-09-01

    Status inconsistency refers to a discrepancy between the position a person holds in one domain of their social environment comparative to their position in another domain. For example, the experience of being overeducated for a job, or not using your skills in your job. We sought to assess the relationship between status inconsistency and mental health using 14 annual waves of cohort data. We used two approaches to measuring status inconsistency: 1) being overeducated for your job (objective measure); and b) not using your skills in your job (subjective measure). We implemented a number of methodological approaches to assess the robustness of our findings, including instrumental variable, random effects, and fixed effects analysis. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5. The random effects analysis indicates that only the subjective measure of status inconsistency was associated with a slight decrease in mental health (β-1.57, 95% -1.78 to -1.36, p social determinants (such as work and education) and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase synchronization of baroclinic waves in a differentially heated rotating annulus experiment subject to periodic forcing with a variable duty cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P. L.; Morice-Atkinson, X.; Allen, E. J.; Castrejón-Pita, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    A series of laboratory experiments in a thermally driven, rotating fluid annulus are presented that investigate the onset and characteristics of phase synchronization and frequency entrainment between the intrinsic, chaotic, oscillatory amplitude modulation of travelling baroclinic waves and a periodic modulation of the (axisymmetric) thermal boundary conditions, subject to time-dependent coupling. The time-dependence is in the form of a prescribed duty cycle in which the periodic forcing of the boundary conditions is applied for only a fraction δ of each oscillation. For the rest of the oscillation, the boundary conditions are held fixed. Two profiles of forcing were investigated that capture different parts of the sinusoidal variation and δ was varied over the range 0.1 ≤δ≤1 . Reducing δ was found to act in a similar way to a reduction in a constant coupling coefficient in reducing the width of the interval in forcing frequency or period over which complete synchronization was observed (the "Arnol'd tongue") with respect to the detuning, although for the strongest pulse-like forcing profile some degree of synchronization was discernible even at δ=0.1 . Complete phase synchronization was obtained within the Arnol'd tongue itself, although the strength of the amplitude modulation of the baroclinic wave was not significantly affected. These experiments demonstrate a possible mechanism for intraseasonal and/or interannual "teleconnections" within the climate system of the Earth and other planets that does not rely on Rossby wave propagation across the planet along great circles.

  3. Study on driving forces of wetland change in the Western Liaohe River basin based on random forest model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Menghong; Yang, Changbao; Zhang, Yanhong; Lin, Nan

    2017-05-01

    Based on the platform of RS and GIS, random forest progression model is used for study driving force of wetland change in western Liaohe river basin, five influencing factors which include elevation, slope, temperature, precipitation and population density are chosen to establish random forest progression model about the wetland change and the driving factors. Using the the mean value of the prediction accuracy outside the bag calculated by the model to evaluate the importance of the variables. The result indicates that the coefficient of partial correlation between precipitation and wetland density is the largest among the five influencing factors, followed by temperature, population density, elevation and slope is smallest. The influence of natural factors on the change of wetland density is mainly reflected in precipitation and temperature factors, and the precipitation is obviously higher than that of temperature, under the influence of human factors, the influence of population density factor on wetland density is higher than that of elevation and slope factor. The result shows that in the past 40 years, the human activities in the study area have increased the density of wetland to some extent, but it is not the main factor.

  4. Investigating the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on reducing chronic pain in patients with pes anserine bursitis: A randomized, clinical- controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Taheri, Parisa; Ketabi, Marziyeh

    ... treatments, were randomly divided into two 20-member experimental groups (extracorporeal shock wave therapy [ESWT] and sham ESWT). Pain scores of all patients were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) (total and present pain indexes [TPIs and PPIs]) before intervention, immediately after intervention ...

  5. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  6. Derivation of force field parameters for SnO2-H2O surface systems from plane-wave density functional theory calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, A V; Sofo, J O; Kubicki, J D

    2006-04-27

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT-PW) calculations were performed on bulk SnO2 (cassiterite) and the (100), (110), (001), and (101) surfaces with and without H2O present. A classical interatomic force field has been developed to describe bulk SnO2 and SnO2-H2O surface interactions. Periodic density functional theory calculations using the program VASP (Kresse et al., 1996) and molecular cluster calculations using Gaussian 03 (Frisch et al., 2003) were used to derive the parametrization of the force field. The program GULP (Gale, 1997) was used to optimize parameters to reproduce experimental and ab initio results. The experimental crystal structure and elastic constants of SnO2 are reproduced reasonably well with the force field. Furthermore, surface atom relaxations and structures of adsorbed H2O molecules agree well between the ab initio and force field predictions. H2O addition above that required to form a monolayer results in consistent structures between the DFT-PW and classical force field results as well.

  7. Prospective randomized comparative study of the effectiveness and safety of electrohydraulic and electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheir, Khaled Z; Madbouly, Khaled; Elsobky, Emad

    2003-08-01

    We compared the efficacy of 2 shock wave energy sources, electrohydraulic (Dornier MFL 5000, Dornier MedTech, Wessling, Germany) and electromagnetic (DLS, Dornier Lithotriptor S, Dornier MedTech), for the treatment of urinary calculi. A prospective randomized study of 694 patients with urinary stones was conducted during 12 months to compare the efficacy of the 2 machines. Entrance criteria were radiopaque single or multiple stones at any location within the kidney or the ureter, 25 mm or smaller that had not previously been treated by any means. Patients with congenital anomalies were excluded from this study with all other contraindications for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Following lithotripsy a plain abdominal film and tomograms were done 1 week after each session to determine if there were residual stones and assess the need for re-treatment. Patients were evaluated 4 weeks after lithotripsy by plane abdominal x-ray and spiral computerized tomography. Success was defined as no residual stones. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed for different variables that may have an impact on the success rate, including the type of lithotriptor. Comparisons of treatment parameters, complications and success rate for both lithotriptors were done. Of 9 variables examined with univariate analysis 6 had a significant impact on the success rate. Of these 4 maintained their statistical impact on multivariate analysis. These were side, site of the stones, renal morphology and type of lithotriptor. Treatment time was significantly shortened for DLS (54 +/- 32.9 minutes compared to 65.7 +/- 44.7 for MFL, p 0.05). The success rate was higher in the DLS group for renal stones especially lower caliceal and pyelic stones (p 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the complication rate for the groups. Steinstrasse were noted in 4% of patients treated with MFL and 3% of those treated with DLS. Subcapsular hematomas were noted in 2

  8. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Boesby

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized that aldosterone receptor inhibition with eplerenone could reduce arterial stiffness in CKD stage 3-4.The design was randomized, open, parallel group. Measurements of arterial stiffness markers were undertaken at weeks 1 and 24.24 weeks of add-on treatment with 25-50 mg eplerenone or standard medication.Primary outcome parameter was carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Secondary outcomes were augmentation index (AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and urinary albumin excretion.Fifty-four CKD patients (mean eGFR 36 mL/min/1.73 m(2, SD 11 were randomized. Forty-six patients completed the trial. The mean difference in cfPWV changes between groups was 0.1 m/s (95%CI: -1.0, 1.3, P = 0.8. The mean difference in AIx changes between groups was 4.4% (0.1, 8.6, P = 0.04. AASI was unchanged in both groups. The ratio of change in urinary albumin excretion in the eplerenone group compared to the control was 0.61 (0.37, 1.01, P = 0.05. Four patients were withdrawn from the eplerenone group including three because of possible side effects; one was withdrawn from the control group. Mild hyperkalemia was seen on three occasions and was easily managed.The full planned number of patients was not attained. The duration of the trial may have been too short to obtain full effect of eplerenone on the arteries.Add-on treatment with eplerenone in CKD stage 3-4 did not significantly reduce cfPWV. There may be beneficial vascular effects leading to attenuated pulse wave reflection. Treatment was well-tolerated.ClinicalTrials.govNCT01100203.

  9. Wave Loads on Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area.......Wave loads may be defined as time varying forces on a body resulting from the wave induced flow fields which surrounds the body in whole or in part. Such unsteady fluid forces are the net result of pressure and shear forces integrated over the instantaneous wetted area....

  10. Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M

    2015-10-01

    Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.

  11. Radiation forces and torque on a rigid elliptical cylinder in acoustical plane progressive and (quasi)standing waves with arbitrary incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitri, F. G., E-mail: F.G.Mitri@ieee.org [Chevron, Area 52 Technology—ETC, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87508 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This paper presents two key contributions; the first concerns the development of analytical expressions for the axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces exerted on a 2D rigid elliptical cylinder placed in the field of plane progressive, quasi-standing, or standing waves with arbitrary incidence. The second emphasis is on the acoustic radiation torque per length. The rigid elliptical cylinder case is important to be considered as a first-order approximation of the behavior of a cylindrical fluid column trapped in air because of the significant acoustic impedance mismatch at the particle boundary. Based on the rigorous partial-wave series expansion method in cylindrical coordinates, non-dimensional acoustic radiation force and torque functions are derived and defined in terms of the scattering coefficients of the elliptic cylinder. A coupled system of linear equations is obtained after applying the Neumann boundary condition for an immovable surface in a non-viscous fluid and solved numerically by matrix inversion after performing a single numerical integration procedure. Computational results for the non-dimensional force components and torque, showing the transition from the progressive to the (equi-amplitude) standing wave behavior, are performed with particular emphasis on the aspect ratio a/b, where a and b are the semi-axes of the ellipse, the dimensionless size parameter, as well as the angle of incidence ranging from end-on to broadside incidence. The results show that the elliptical geometry has a direct influence on the radiation force and torque, so that the standard theory for circular cylinders (at normal incidence) leads to significant miscalculations when the cylinder cross section becomes non-circular. Moreover, the elliptical cylinder experiences, in addition to the acoustic radiation force, a radiation torque that vanishes for the circular cylinder case. The application of the formalism presented here may be extended to other 2D surfaces of

  12. Neuro-fuzzy control strategy for an offshore steel jacket platform subjected to wave-induced forces using magneto rheological dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrafan, Atabak; Zareh, Seiyed Hamid; Khayyat, Amir Ali Akbar; Zabihollah, Abolghassem [Sharif University of Technology, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Magnetorheological (MR) damper is a prominent semi-active control device to vibrate mitigation of structures. Due to the inherent non-linear nature of MR damper, an intelligent non-linear neuro-fuzzy control strategy is designed to control wave-induced vibration of an offshore steel jacket platform equipped with MR dampers. In the proposed control system, a dynamic-feedback neural network is adapted to model non-linear dynamic system, and the fuzzy logic controller is used to determine the control forces of MR dampers. By use of two feed forward neural networks required voltages and actual MR damper forces are obtained, in which the first neural network and the second one acts as the inverse dynamics model, and the forward dynamics model of the MR dampers, respectively. The most important characteristic of the proposed intelligent control strategy is its inherent robustness and its ability to handle the non-linear behavior of the system. Besides, no mathematical model needed to calculate forces produced by MR dampers. According to linearized Morison equation, wave-induced forces are determined. The performance of the proposed neuro-fuzzy control system is compared with that of a traditional semi-active control strategy, i.e., clipped optimal control system with LQG-target controller, through computer simulations, while the uncontrolled system response is used as the baseline. It is demonstrated that the design of proposed control system framework is more effective than that of the clipped optimal control scheme with LQG-target controller to reduce the vibration of offshore structure. Furthermore, the control strategy is very important for semi-active control.

  13. Imaging feedback for histotripsy by characterizing dynamics of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI)-induced shear waves excited in a treated volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J Brian; Cain, Charles A

    2014-07-01

    Our previous study indicated that shear waves decay and propagate at a lower speed as they propagate into a tissue volume mechanically fractionated by histotripsy. In this paper, we hypothesize that the change in the shear dynamics is related to the degree of tissue fractionation, and can be used to predict histotripsy treatment outcomes. To test this hypothesis, lesions with different degrees of tissue fractionation were created in agar-graphite tissue phantoms and ex vivo kidneys with increasing numbers of therapy pulses, from 0 to 2000 pulses per treatment location. The therapy pulses were 3-cycle 750-kHz focused ultrasound delivered at a peak negative/positive pressure of 17/108 MPa and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. The shear waves were excited by acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) focused at the center of the lesion. The spatial and temporal behavior of the propagating shear waves was measured with ultrasound plane wave imaging. The temporal displacement profile at a lateral location 10 mm offset to the shear excitation region was detected with M-mode imaging. The decay and delay of the shear waves were quantitatively characterized on the temporal displacement profile. Results showed significant changes in two characteristics on the temporal displacement profile: the peak-to-peak displacement decayed exponentially with increasing numbers of therapy pulses; the relative time-to-peak displacement increased with increasing numbers of therapy pulses, and appeared to saturate at higher numbers of pulses. Correspondingly, the degree of tissues fractionation, as indicated by the percentage of structurally intact cell nuclei, decreased exponentially with increasing numbers of therapy pulses. Strong linear correlations were found between the two characteristics and the degree of tissue fractionation. These results suggest that the characteristics of the shear temporal displacement profile may provide useful feedback information regarding the treatment outcomes.

  14. Wave Stresses in the Anvil Hammer Rods under Impact Including Ram Mass and Deformation Force of Forgings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sinitskiy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When operating the anvil hammers there occur impacts of die tooling and as a consequence, virtually instantaneous impact stops of motion of drop hammer parts. Such operating conditions come with accelerated failures of the anvil hammer rods because of emerging significant wave stresses. Engineering practice widely uses variation, difference, and integral methods to calculate wave stresses. However, to use them a researcher has to acquire certain skills, and the special programs should be available. The paper considers a method for estimating the wave stress changes in the anvil hammer rods, which is based on the wave equation of the Laplace transform. It presents a procedure for generating differential equations and their solution using the operator method. These equations describe the wave processes of strain and stress propagation in the anvil hammer rod under non-rigid impact with the compliance obstacle of the drop hammer parts. The work defines how the piston and rod mass and also the mechanical and geometric parameters of the rod influence on the stress level in the rod sealing of the hammer ram. Analysis of the results shows that the stresses in the rod sealing are proportional to the total amount of wave stresses caused by the rod and piston impact included in the total weight of the system. The piston influence on the stresses in the rod under impact is in direct proportion to the ratio of its mass to the mass of the rod. Geometric parameters of the rod and speed of drop parts before the impact influence on the stress value as well. It was found that if the time of impact is less than the time of the shock wave running in forward and backward direction, the impact with a compliance obstacle is equivalent to that of with a rigid obstacle, and the dependence of the wave stresses follows the Zhukovsky formula of direct pressure shock. The presented method of stress calculation can be successfully used to select the optimal mass and the rod

  15. Importance of Second-Order Difference-Frequency Wave-Diffraction Forces in the Validation of a Fast Semi-Submersible Floating Wind Turbine Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couling, A. J.; Goupee, A. J.; Robertson, A. N.; Jonkman, J. M.

    2013-06-01

    To better access the abundant offshore wind resource, efforts across the world are being undertaken to develop and improve floating offshore wind turbine technologies. A critical aspect of creating reliable, mature floating wind turbine technology is the development, verification, and validation of efficient computer-aided-engineering (CAE) tools that can be relied upon in the design process. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has created a comprehensive, coupled analysis CAE tool for floating wind turbines, FAST, which has been verified and utilized in numerous floating wind turbine studies. Several efforts are currently underway that leverage the extensive 1/50th-scale DeepCwind wind/wave basin model test dataset, obtained at the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) in 2011, to validate the floating platform functionality of FAST to complement its already validated aerodynamic and structural simulation capabilities. In this paper, further work is undertaken to continue this validation. In particular, the ability of FAST to replicate global response behaviors associated with dynamic wind forces, second-order difference-frequency wave-diffraction forces and their interaction with one another are investigated.

  16. Wave-turbulence theory of four-wave nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Josserand, Christophe; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2017-08-01

    The Sagdeev-Zaslavski (SZ) equation for wave turbulence is analytically derived, both in terms of a generating function and of a multipoint probability density function (PDF), for weakly interacting waves with initial random phases. When the initial amplitudes are also random, a one-point PDF equation is derived. Such analytical calculations remarkably agree with results obtained in totally different fashions. Numerical investigations of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and of a vibrating plate prove the following: (i) Generic Hamiltonian four-wave systems rapidly attain a random distribution of phases independently of the slower dynamics of the amplitudes, vindicating the hypothesis of initially random phases. (ii) Relaxation of the Fourier amplitudes to the predicted stationary distribution (exponential) happens on a faster time scale than relaxation of the spectrum (Rayleigh-Jeans distribution). (iii) The PDF equation correctly describes dynamics under different forcings: The NLSE has an exponential PDF corresponding to a quasi-Gaussian solution, as the vibrating plates, that also shows some intermittency at very strong forcings.

  17. Suppression of scroll wave turbulence by noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, S.; Sancho, J. M.; Sagués, F.

    2004-12-01

    Rotating scroll waves are dynamical spatiotemporal structures characteristic of three-dimensional active media. It is well known that, under low excitability conditions, scroll waves develop an intrinsically unstable dynamical regime that leads to a highly disorganized pattern of wave propagation. Such a “turbulent” state bears some resemblance to fibrillation states in cardiac tissue. We show here that this unstable regime can be controlled by using a spatially distributed random forcing superimposed on a control parameter of the system. Our results are obtained from numerical simulations but an explicit analytical argument that rationalizes our observations is also presented.

  18. Dynamics of Sandwaves under Combined Wave - Current Forcing and Mine Burial Processes, and RIVET I and Mine Burial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    boat with an ADCP, and motorized kayak with sidescan, echosounder and post-processing kinetic (PPK) GPS system and a REMUS-100 AUV with an ADCP...we developed a motorized kayak shipboard bathymetry and sidescan system to document the spatial variability of the bedform field. This system...of absence of breaking waves. Based on the success of the motorized kayak , in 2013, in collaboration with Hanu Singh we developed an autonomous

  19. Strong fluctuation theory for electromagnetic wave scattering by a layer of random discrete scatterers. [in microwave remote sensing of snow fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account in the calculation of the effective permittivity functions. The correlation functions for the random medium with different scatterer constituents and size distributions are derived. Applying the dyadic Green's function for a two-layer medium and using the bilocal and distorted Born approximations, the first and the second moments of the fields are then calculated. Both the backscattering and bistatic scattering coefficients are obtained, and the former is shown to match favorably with experimental data obtained from snow fields.

  20. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from random media with strong permittivity fluctuations. [with application to atmospheric turbulence effects on microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    By taking into account the singularity of the dyadic Green's function in the renormalization method, a theory is derived for vector electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium with large permittivity fluctuations and with anisotropic correlation function. The strong fluctuation theory is then applied to a discrete scatterer problem in which the permittivity can assume only two values. The results are found to be consistent with those derived from discrete scatterer theory for all values of dielectric constants of the scatterers.

  1. Topographical effects on wave exciting forces on huge floating structure. 2; Ogata futaishiki kaiyo kozobutsu ni sayosuru haryoku ni kansuru kenkyu. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Y. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Okusu, M. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1996-12-31

    A method to predict drift force acting on a floating structure has been developed for a marine structure consisting of a number of floating elements, positioned in a region having a slope at the sea bottom. When a huge marine structure, such as floating air port, is located in a coastal area, scale of the overall structure is very large, of the order of scale of water depth change. The new method assumes that a marine structure consisting of an infinite number of cylindrical floating elements is installed in parallel to the seashore, where symmetrical nature of the configuration allows to predict behavior of the whole system by analyzing one element. Integration of pressures acting on structure surfaces determines the horizontal component of the drift force acting on the structure. Being influenced by topography, drift force predicted peaks at a frequency different from that for the level predicted on the assumption of constant water depth. This indicates the necessity for consideration of seabottom slope and effects of broken waves at the seashore. 6 refs., 12 figs.

  2. Deep-ocean Internal Wave Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, H.

    Details of the internal wave frequency band (IWB) are studied using yearlong current observations in the lowest 1000 m above the bottom of the continental slope into the abyssal plain of the Bay of Biscay. It is shown that the first half decade of the IWB is dominated by forced phase- locked motions rather than random free waves, except at fundamental inertial (f) and semidiurnal tidal frequencies. A finestructure of non- linear motions fills the spectrum. All non-linear motions are induced by an interaction between the tidal and atmospherically induced near-inertial motions. Using a simple model it is shown that such interactions imply maximum wave steepness in a balance between forcing and dissipation. Above the abyssal plain tidal and inertial motions are equally important factors in non-linear internal wave interactions, suggesting equal importance for deep-ocean mixing.

  3. Benchmark Database on Isolated Small Peptides Containing an Aromatic Side Chain: Comparison Between Wave Function and Density Functional Theory Methods and Empirical Force Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes, Haydee; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Pitonak, Michal; Rezac, Jan; Hobza, Pavel

    2008-03-13

    A detailed quantum chemical study on five peptides (WG, WGG, FGG, GGF and GFA) containing the residues phenylalanyl (F), glycyl (G), tryptophyl (W) and alanyl (A)—where F and W are of aromatic character—is presented. When investigating isolated small peptides, the dispersion interaction is the dominant attractive force in the peptide backbone–aromatic side chain intramolecular interaction. Consequently, an accurate theoretical study of these systems requires the use of a methodology covering properly the London dispersion forces. For this reason we have assessed the performance of the MP2, SCS-MP2, MP3, TPSS-D, PBE-D, M06-2X, BH&H, TPSS, B3LYP, tight-binding DFT-D methods and ff99 empirical force field compared to CCSD(T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit benchmark data. All the DFT techniques with a ‘-D’ symbol have been augmented by empirical dispersion energy while the M06-2X functional was parameterized to cover the London dispersion energy. For the systems here studied we have concluded that the use of the ff99 force field is not recommended mainly due to problems concerning the assignment of reliable atomic charges. Tight-binding DFT-D is efficient as a screening tool providing reliable geometries. Among the DFT functionals, the M06-2X and TPSS-D show the best performance what is explained by the fact that both procedures cover the dispersion energy. The B3LYP and TPSS functionals—not covering this energy—fail systematically. Both, electronic energies and geometries obtained by means of the wave-function theory methods compare satisfactorily with the CCSD(T)/CBS benchmark data.

  4. The efficacy of a resistive heating under-patient blanket versus a forced-air warming system: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Andrea; Danelli, Giorgio; Ghisi, Daniela; Ortu, Andrea; Moschini, Elisa; Fanelli, Guido

    2009-01-01

    We compared temperature changes in patients undergoing hip replacement during warming with a resistive heating blanket or air-forced system. Fifty-six patients were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to the "forced-air group" (forced-air system) or to the "heating-blanket group" (resistive heating under-patient blanket). Baseline tympanic temperatures were 36.0 +/- 0.6 degrees C in the forced-air group and 36.1 +/- 0.4 degrees C in the heating-blanket group (P > 0.05). At the end of surgery tympanic temperatures were 35.3 +/- 0.5 degrees C in the forced-air group and 35.1 +/- 0.6 degrees C in the heating-pad group (P > 0.05). We demonstrated that, using either a resistive heating-blanket or forced-air warming systems, patients ended surgery in mild hypothermia after elective total hip replacement, but without significant differences between these two warming devices.

  5. Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Without Local Anesthesia in Patients With Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shuitao; Xing, Gengyan

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis without local anesthesia. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing ESWT without local anesthesia versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis in adults. The primary outcome was the 12-week post-intervention success rate of reducing the visual analog scale score by 60% from baseline at the first step in the morning, reducing the VAS score by 60% from baseline during daily activities, reducing the Roles and Maudsley score, reducing overall heel pain, and reducing pain after applying a force meter. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, ESWT significantly improved the success rate of reducing overall heel pain, reducing the VAS score by 60% at the first step in the morning and during daily activities, improving the Roles and Maudsley score to excellent or good, and reducing heel pain after application of a pressure meter. ESWT seems to be particularly effective in relieving pain associated with RPF. ESWT should be considered when traditional treatments have failed. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to (1) understand the recovery rates for nonsurgical treatment of plantar fasciitis, (2) understand the role of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis, and (3) understand the indications to incorporate ESWT in the treatment plan of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of

  6. Age-Related Corresponding Relationships of Controlled Force Exertion Measured by a Computer-Generated Sinusoidal and Quasi-Random Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yoshinori; Demura, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    This study examined age-group corresponding relationships of the controlled force exertion based on sinusoidal and quasi-random waveforms in 175 right-handed male adults aged 20 to 86 years. The subjects were divided into 3 groups based on age-level: 53 young (mean age 24.6, SD = 3.3 years), 71 middle aged (mean age 44.3, SD = 8.7 years), and 51…

  7. Effects of Computer-Aided Interlimb Force Coupling Training on Paretic Hand and Arm Motor Control following Chronic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chou, Li-Wei; Luo, Hong-Ji; Tsai, Po-Yi; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the training effects of interlimb force coupling training on paretic upper extremity outcomes in patients with chronic stroke and analyzed the relationship between motor recovery of the paretic hand, arm and functional performances on paretic upper limb. A randomized controlled trial with outcome assessment at baseline and after 4 weeks of intervention. Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National Yang-Ming University. Thirty-three subjects with chronic stroke were recruited and randomly assigned to training (n = 16) and control groups (n = 17). The computer-aided interlimb force coupling training task with visual feedback included different grip force generation methods on both hands. The Barthel Index (BI), the upper extremity motor control Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE), the Motor Assessment Score (MAS), and the Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). All assessments were executed by a blinded evaluator, and data management and statistical analysis were also conducted by a blinded researcher. The training group demonstrated greater improvement on the FMA-UE (pcontrol group after 4 weeks of intervention. In addition, a moderate correlation was found between the improvement of scores for hand scales of the FMA and other portions of the FMA UE (r = .528, p = .018) or MAS (r = .596, p = .015) in the training group. Computer-aided interlimb force coupling training improves the motor recovery of a paretic hand, and facilitates motor control and enhances functional performance in the paretic upper extremity of people with chronic stroke. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02247674.

  8. Normal values of liver shear wave velocity in healthy children assessed by acoustic radiation force impulse imaging using a convex probe and a linear probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanilla, Teresa; Cañas, Teresa; Macia, Araceli; Alfageme, Marta; Gutierrez Junquera, Carolina; Malalana, Ana; Luz Cilleruelo, Maria; Roman, Enriqueta; Miralles, Maria

    2014-03-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is an image-guided ultrasound elastography method that allows quantification of liver stiffness by measurement of shear wave velocity. One purpose of the work described in this article was to determine the normal liver stiffness values of healthy children using ARFI with two different probes, 4 C1 and 9 L4. Another purpose was to evaluate the effects of site of measurement, age, gender and body mass index on liver stiffness values. This prospective study included 60 healthy children (newborn to 14 y) divided into four age groups. One thousand two hundred ARFI measurements were performed, that is, 20 measurements per patient (5 measurements in each lobe, with each probe). Means, standard deviations (SD) and confidence intervals for velocity were calculated for each hepatic lobe and each probe in each age group and for the whole group. Mean shear wave velocity measured in the right lobe was 1.19 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.13) with the 4 C1 transducer and 1.15 ± 0.04 m/s (SD = 0.15) with the 9 L4 transducer. Age had a small effect on shear wave measurements. Body mass index and sex had no significant effects on ARFI values, whereas site of measurement had a significant effect, with lower ARFI values in the right hepatic lobe. ARFI is a non-invasive technique that is feasible to perform in children with both the 4 C1 and 9 L4 probes. The aforementioned velocity values obtained in the right lobe may be used as reference values for normal liver stiffness in children. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Parameterizing the Effects of Finite Crested Wave Breaking in Wave-Averaged Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N.; Suanda, S. H.; Feddersen, F.

    2016-02-01

    Finite crested breaking waves generate a rotational body force that creates two-dimensional turbulent eddies with strong rotational velocities, capable of tracer exchange (sediment, pathogens, contaminants) between the surfzone and the inner shelf. This eddy generation mechanism is strongly tied to the wave directional spread. Wave-resolving Boussinesq models like funwaveC include finite crest length breaking and accurately simulate surfzone eddy generation. However, this surfzone eddy generation mechanism is not included in existing wave-averaged models (e.g., Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport Modeling System, COAWST), leading to an incomplete representation of exchange between the surf zone and the inner shelf. In this study 250 funwaveC simulations with random, directionally spread waves spanning a range of beach slopes and wave conditions are used to simulate surfzone eddies. With these simulations, the stream function associated with breaking wave eddy forcing is isolated and quantified in the form of intensity, cross- and alongshore widths and propagation rates, followed by parameterization as a function of wave parameters and the beach slope. Parameterized stream function is implemented into COAWST as a stochastic surf zone eddy module which is used to study vorticity evolution from the surfzone to the inner-shelf, interaction between stratified water column and surfzone eddies, and overall provides a more complete representation of surfzone eddy induced cross-shore exchange. Funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  10. Corrugation in the Weakly Interacting Hexagonal-BN/Cu(111) System: Structure Determination by Combining Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Standing Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Martin; Riss, Alexander; Garnica, Manuela; Ducke, Jacob; Deimel, Peter S; Duncan, David A; Thakur, Pardeep Kumar; Lee, Tien-Lin; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Barth, Johannes V; Allegretti, Francesco; Auwärter, Willi

    2017-09-26

    Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers on metallic supports represent a promising platform for the selective adsorption of atoms, clusters, and molecular nanostructures. Specifically, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies revealed an electronic corrugation of h-BN/Cu(111), guiding the self-assembly of molecules and their energy level alignment. A detailed characterization of the h-BN/Cu(111) interface including the spacing between the h-BN sheet and its support-elusive to STM measurements-is crucial to rationalize the interfacial interactions within these systems. To this end, we employ complementary techniques including high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy, STM, low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the X-ray standing wave method, and density functional theory. Our multimethod study yields a comprehensive, quantitative structure determination including the adsorption height and the corrugation of the sp(2) bonded h-BN layer on Cu(111). Based on the atomic contrast in atomic force microscopy measurements, we derive a measurable-hitherto unrecognized-geometric corrugation of the h-BN monolayer. This experimental approach allows us to spatially resolve minute height variations in low-dimensional nanostructures, thus providing a benchmark for theoretical modeling. Regarding potential applications, e.g., as a template or catalytically active support, the recognition of h-BN on Cu(111) as a weakly bonded and moderately corrugated overlayer is highly relevant.

  11. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant $C(2) $ C 2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de

    2015-09-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two

  12. Unmasking the Effect of Analgesics on Endodontic Diagnosis Using a Novel Bite Force Sensor Device: A Prospective, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishnani, Sushil; Saha, Suparna Ganguly; Bhardwaj, Anuj; Dubey, Sandeep; Saha, Mainak; Kala, Shubham; Jain, Sohini; Narwani, Shweta

    2016-10-01

    A definitive diagnosis is of primary importance before initiating any endodontic treatment; yet, there are occasions when the dental professional is unable to accurately reproduce the patient's chief complaint, as it can pose a dilemma and may require consideration of multiple variables in order to reach an accurate diagnosis. So to overcome this problem, a methodical approach in providing endodontic treatment should be implemented which includes diagnosis, definitive dental treatment and adjunctive drug therapy, known as the "3D" strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible "masking" effect of these analgesics on endodontic diagnosis using a novel bite force sensor device. A total of 90 patients with endodontic pain were selected and they were given either a placebo or 400 mg ibuprofen (brufen) or 50mg diclofenac sodium (voveron). Both patients and operators were completely blinded to the drugs administered. Bite force tolerance values were noted before and one hour after administration of medication using the self designed bite force sensor. The pre- and post-bite force tolerance values were tabulated for both contralateral and affected tooth. For the affected tooth, there was statistically significant difference between pre- and post-bite force tolerance values in Group I (i.e., ibuprofen) and Group II (i.e., diclofenac sodium) (p<0.05) with no significant difference observed in Group III (placebo). The easily available over the counter self administered analgesics in addition to providing symptomatic relief to patients suffering from symptomatic apical periodontitis may also cloud the definitive diagnosis of the clinician, thus jeopardising the treatment plan. The self designed bite force sensor was effective in arriving at a definitive diagnosis in teeth with chronic irreversible pulpitis with symptomatic apical periodontitis, where the allodynia has been camouflaged by the use of analgesics like ibuprofen and diclofenac sodium.

  13. Influence of second-order random wave kinematics on the design loads of offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand

    2014-01-01

    The impact of wave model nonlinearities on the design loads of wind turbine monopile foundations is delineated based on a second-order nonlinear randomwave model that satisfies the boundary conditions at the free surface and by including the effects of convective acceleration in the inertial load...

  14. Effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation on the balance and prevention of falls in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Force platform training with functional electric stimulation aimed at improving balance may be effective in fall prevention for older adults. Aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the visual-feedback-based force platform balance training with functional electric stimulation on balance and fall prevention in older adults. Methods A single-centre, unblinded, randomized controlled trial was conducted. One hundred and twenty older adults were randomly allocated to two groups: the control group (n = 60, one-leg standing balance exercise, 12 min/d or the intervention group (n = 60, force platform training with functional electric stimulation, 12 min/d. The training was provided 15 days a month for 3 months by physical therapists. Medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed, the Berg Balance Scale, the Barthel Index, the Falls Efficacy scale-International were assessed at baseline and after the 3-month intervention. A fall diary was kept by each participant during the 6-month follow-up. Results On comparing the two groups, the intervention group showed significantly decreased (p < 0.01 medial–lateral and anterior–posterior maximal range of sway with eyes open and closed. There was significantly higher improvement in the Berg Balance Scale (p < 0.05, the Barthel Index (p < 0.05 and the Falls Efficacy Scale-International (p < 0.05, along with significantly lesser number of injurious fallers (p < 0.05, number of fallers (p < 0.05, and fall rates (p < 0.05 during the 6-month follow-up in the intervention group. Conclusion This study showed that the visual feedback-based force platform training with functional electric stimulation improved balance and prevented falls in older adults.

  15. Forced use of the upper extremity in chronic stroke patients : results from a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lee, J H; Wagenaar, R C; Lankhorst, G J; Vogelaar, T W; Devillé, W L; Bouter, L M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Of all stroke survivors, 30% to 66% are unable to use their affected arm in performing activities of daily living. Although forced use therapy appears to improve arm function in chronic stroke patients, there is no conclusive evidence. This study evaluates the effectiveness

  16. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of efficacy of scaling and root planing using magnification: A randomized controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Agrawal, Sudhanshu; Gundappa, Mohan

    2013-07-01

    A randomized controlled clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of scaling and root planing (SRP) by using Magnifying Loupes (ML) and dental operating microscope (DOM). A total of 90 human teeth scheduled for extraction from 18 patients aged between 25 and 65 years suffering from generalized chronic severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 consisted SRP performed without using magnification (unaided), Group 2-SRP with ML and Group 3-SRP with DOM. Following extractions, samples were prepared for (i) evaluation of surface topography by atomic force microscopy, (ii) presence of smear layer, debris by scanning electron microscopy (iii) elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance, post-hoc (Tukey-HSD) and Chi-square test. Statistically significant (P Magnification tools significantly enhance the efficacy of supragingival and subgingival SRP.

  17. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  18. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, thorough QTc study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J; Kanters, Jørgen K; Andersen, Mads P; Toft, Egon; Tyl, Benoît

    2012-05-01

    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine. Thirty participants in this crossover study were randomly assigned to receive placebo, moxifloxacin 400 mg, bilastine at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses (20 and 100 mg) and bilastine 20 mg co-administered with ketoconazole 400 mg. Resting ECGs recorded at 12 nominal time points before and after treatments were used to determine Fridericia corrected QTc (QTcF) and MCS from the T-wave characteristics: asymmetry, flatness and notching. There were no effects of bilastine monotherapy (20 and 100 mg) on MCS or QTcF at those study times where the bilastine plasma concentrations were highest. MCS changes for bilastine monotherapy did not exceed the normal intrasubject variance of T-wave shapes for triplicate ECG recordings. Maximum QTcF prolongation for bilastine monotherapy was 5 ms or less: 3.8 ms (90% CI 0.3, 7.3 ms) for bilastine 20 mg and 5.0 ms (90% CI 2.0, 8.0 ms) for bilastine 100 mg. There were no indications of bilastine inducing larger repolarization effects on T-wave morphology as compared with the QTcF interval, as evidenced by the similarity of z-score equivalents for placebo-corrected changes in MCS and QTcF values. This study shows that bilastine, at therapeutic and supratherapeutic dosages, does not induce any effects on T-wave morphology or QTcF. These results confirm the absence of an effect for bilastine on cardiac repolarization.

  19. Effect of various periodic forces on Duffing oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Bifurcations and chaos in the ubiquitous Duffing oscillator equation with different external periodic forces are studied numerically. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, rectified sine wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, asymmetric saw-tooth wave, rectangular wave with ...

  20. Effect of various periodic forces on Duffing oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bifurcations and chaos in the ubiquitous Duffing oscillator equation with different external periodic forces are studied numerically. The external periodic forces considered are sine wave, square wave, rectified sine wave, symmetric saw-tooth wave, asymmetric saw-tooth wave, rectangular wave with amplitude-dependent ...

  1. Forces and stress in second order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory for condensed phase systems within the resolution-of-identity Gaussian and plane waves approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Ben, Mauro; Hutter, Jürg; VandeVondele, Joost

    2015-09-14

    The forces acting on the atoms as well as the stress tensor are crucial ingredients for calculating the structural and dynamical properties of systems in the condensed phase. Here, these derivatives of the total energy are evaluated for the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation energy (MP2) in the framework of the resolution of identity Gaussian and plane waves method, in a way that is fully consistent with how the total energy is computed. This consistency is non-trivial, given the different ways employed to compute Coulomb, exchange, and canonical four center integrals, and allows, for example, for energy conserving dynamics in various ensembles. Based on this formalism, a massively parallel algorithm has been developed for finite and extended system. The designed parallel algorithm displays, with respect to the system size, cubic, quartic, and quintic requirements, respectively, for the memory, communication, and computation. All these requirements are reduced with an increasing number of processes, and the measured performance shows excellent parallel scalability and efficiency up to thousands of nodes. Additionally, the computationally more demanding quintic scaling steps can be accelerated by employing graphics processing units (GPU's) showing, for large systems, a gain of almost a factor two compared to the standard central processing unit-only case. In this way, the evaluation of the derivatives of the RI-MP2 energy can be performed within a few minutes for systems containing hundreds of atoms and thousands of basis functions. With good time to solution, the implementation thus opens the possibility to perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in various ensembles (microcanonical ensemble and isobaric-isothermal ensemble) at the MP2 level of theory. Geometry optimization, full cell relaxation, and energy conserving MD simulations have been performed for a variety of molecular crystals including NH3, CO2, formic acid, and benzene.

  2. Oscillating Square Wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Delivered During Slow Wave Sleep Does Not Improve Declarative Memory More Than Sham: A Randomized Sham Controlled Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; Halford, Jonathan J; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L; Uhde, Thomas W; Borckardt, Jeffery J; George, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current waveform (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517 mA/cm(2), and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75 Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with 1-min inter-block intervals (25 min total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1 ± 3.0 SD more associations) (sham = 3.8 ± 3.1 SD more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6 ± 2.7 SD correctly typed sequences) compared to sham stimulation (2.3 ± 2.2 SD correctly typed

  3. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun

    2017-03-01

    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  4. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with plantar fasciitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with ultrasonographic and subjective outcome assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vahdatpour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Results of previous studies have been conflicting on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the effects of ESWT on plantar fasciitis in terms of ultrasonographic and subjective evaluations. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, patients with plantar fasciitis were assigned to receive ESWT (4000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm 2 in 3 sessions at weekly intervals or sham therapy (n = 20 in each group. Outcomes were documented by the ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients′ pain scores, performed at baseline and 12 weeks after completion of the therapy. Results : The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics. Over the study period, plantar fascia thickness significantly reduced in the ESWT group (4.1 ± 1.3 to 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, P < 0.001, but slightly increased in the sham group (4.1 ± 0.8 to 4.5 ± 0.9 mm, P = 0.03. Both groups showed significant pain improvement over the course of the study (P < 0.001, though pain scores were significantly more reduced in the ESWT than the sham group (-4.2 ± 2.9 vs. -2.7 ± 1.8, P = 0.049. Conclusions: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy contributes to healing and pain reduction in plantar fasciitis and ultrasound imaging is able to depict the morphologic changes related to plantar fasciitis as a result of this therapy.

  5. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2009-05-01

    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  6. Beneficial effects on arterial stiffness and pulse-wave reflection of combined enalapril and candesartan in chronic kidney disease--a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Frimodt-Møller

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensinsystem (RAS in hypertension causes differential effects on central and brachial blood pressure (BP, which has been translated into improved outcome. The objective was to examine if a more complete inhibition of RAS by combining an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and an angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB compared to monotherapy has an additive effect on central BP and pulse-wave velocity (PWV, which are known markers of CVD.Sixty-seven CKD patients (mean GFR 30, range 13-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2 participated in an open randomized study of 16 weeks of monotherapy with either enalapril or candesartan followed by 8 weeks of dual blockade aiming at a total dose of 16 mg candesartan and 20 mg enalapril o.d. Pulse-wave measurements were performed at week 0, 8, 16 and 24 by the SphygmoCor device.Significant additive BP independent reductions were found after dual blockade in aortic PWV (-0.3 m/s, P<0.05 and in augmentation index (-2%, P<0.01 compared to monotherapy. Furthermore pulse pressure amplification was improved (P<0.05 and central systolic BP reduced (-6 mmHg, P<0.01.Dual blockade of the RAS resulted in an additive BP independent reduction in pulse-wave reflection and arterial stiffness compared to monotherapy in CKD patients.Clinical trial.gov NCT00235287.

  7. Analytical linear theory for the interaction of a planar shock wave with a two- or three-dimensional random isotropic density field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.; Velikovich, A. L.; Wouchuk, J. G.

    2011-05-01

    We present an analytical linear model describing the interaction of a planar shock wave with an isotropic random pattern of density nonuniformities. This kind of interaction is important in inertial confinement fusion where shocks travel into weakly inhomogeneous cryogenic deuterium-wicked foams, and also in astrophysics, where shocks interact with interstellar density clumps. The model presented here is based on the exact theory of space and time evolution of the perturbed quantities generated by a corrugated shock wave traveling into a small-amplitude single-mode density field. Corresponding averages in both two and three dimensions are obtained as closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, acoustic energy flux, density amplification, and vorticity generation downstream. They are given as explicit functions of the two parameters (adiabatic exponent γ and shock strength M1) that govern the dynamics of the problem. In addition, these explicit formulas are simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak and strong shocks and highly compressible fluids.

  8. Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis, a Single Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamian, Fariba; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Jahanjoo, Fatemeh; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Notghi, Faraz

    2016-09-01

    Plantar fasciitis is a self-limiting condition, but can be painful and disabling. Among the different treatments which exist, corticosteroid injections are effective and popular. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is another treatment modality used for resistant conditions. In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of radial ESWT versus corticosteroid injections in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Randomized clinical trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation research center in a university hospital. Forty patients with plantar fasciitis who did not respond to conservative treatment. Patients were allocated to radial ESWT with 2000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm(2) (n = 20) or local methylprednisolone injections (n = 20). Pain in the morning and during the day based on a visual analog scale (VAS), functional abilities using the foot function index (FFI), and satisfaction were evaluated before treatment and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Patients (average age: 42.1± 8.20) received five sessions of ESWT or single steroid injection. Changes in the VAS in morning and during the day and the FFI throughout the study period were significant in both groups (P plantar fasciitis. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with plantar fasciitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with ultrasonographic and subjective outcome assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Sajadieh, Sepideh; Bateni, Vahid; Karami, Mehdi; Sajjadieh, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aim: Results of previous studies have been conflicting on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the effects of ESWT on plantar fasciitis in terms of ultrasonographic and subjective evaluations. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, patients with plantar fasciitis were assigned to receive ESWT (4000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm2) in 3 sessions at weekly intervals) or sham therapy (n = 20 in each group). Outcomes were documented by the ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients’ pain scores, performed at baseline and 12 weeks after completion of the therapy. Results: The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics. Over the study period, plantar fascia thickness significantly reduced in the ESWT group (4.1 ± 1.3 to 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, P plantar fasciitis and ultrasound imaging is able to depict the morphologic changes related to plantar fasciitis as a result of this therapy. PMID:23826009

  10. Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter with Particular Focus on the Effects of Power Take-Off Forces on the Structural Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen

    Wave energy is regarded as a major and promising renewable energy resource. The most critical factor to the success of deploying a wave energy converter in an ocean environment is the cost. The key factors affecting the costs include the performance, capital costs, operation and maintenance costs...... and risk. Changes to the design can affect both the performance and the costs simultaneously. The objective of this thesis is to develop design tools and methods for the design process of wave energy converters in order to make them more competitive. Wave to wire models are numerical models used...... the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping power take-off the moment due to viscous drag is found to be negligible. In the second part of the thesis the focus lies on the structural modeling of a wave energy converter. The challenge here is to incorporate...

  11. Well-posedness of semilinear stochastic wave equations with Hölder continuous coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiero, Federica; Priola, Enrico

    2017-08-01

    We prove that semilinear stochastic abstract wave equations, including wave and plate equations, are well-posed in the strong sense with an α-Hölder continuous drift coefficient, if α ∈ (2 / 3 , 1). The uniqueness may fail for the corresponding deterministic PDE and well-posedness is restored by adding an external random forcing of white noise type. This shows a kind of regularization by noise for the semilinear wave equation. To prove the result we introduce an approach based on backward stochastic differential equations. We also establish regularizing properties of the transition semigroup associated to the stochastic wave equation by using control theoretic results.

  12. Anomalous random correlations of force constants on the lattice dynamical properties of disordered Au-Fe alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangsabanik, Jiban; Chouhan, Rajiv K.; Johnson, D. D.; Alam, Aftab

    2017-09-01

    Gold iron (Au-Fe) alloys are of immense interest due to their biocompatibility, anomalous Hall conductivity, and applications in various medical treatments. However, irrespective of the method of preparation, they often exhibit a high level of disorder with properties sensitive to the thermal or magnetic annealing temperatures. We calculate the lattice dynamical properties of Au1 -xFex alloys using density functional theory methods where, being multisite properties, reliable interatomic force constant (IFC) calculations in disordered alloys remain a challenge. We follow a twofold approach: (1) an accurate IFC calculation in an environment with nominally zero chemical pair correlations to mimic the homogeneously disordered alloy and (2) a configurational averaging for the desired phonon properties (e.g., dispersion, density of states, and entropy). We find an anomalous change in the IFC's and phonon dispersion (split bands) near x =0.19 , which is attributed to the local stiffening of the Au-Au bonds when Au is in the vicinity of Fe. Other results based on mechanical and thermophysical properties reflect a similar anomaly: Phonon entropy, e.g., becomes negative below x =0.19 , suggesting a tendency for chemical unmixing, reflecting the onset of a miscibility gap in the phase diagram. Our results match fairly well with reported data wherever available.

  13. Comparison of Two Different Distraction Methods Affecting the Level of Pain and Anxiety during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginci, Elif; Iyigun, Emine; Yalcin, Serdar; Bedir, Selahattin; Ozgok, I Yasar

    2017-12-13

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause pain and anxiety for patients. Despite the use of many distraction methods to reduce pain and anxiety, there is no study on the use of stress balls during lithotripsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of use of stress balls and music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. This was a single-center, parallel randomized controlled trial. The study involved the lithotripsy unit in a training and research hospital in Turkey. The study included 120 patients who had kidney or ureter stones. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (group 1) received no interference, whereas experimental groups received stress ball (group 2) and music (group 3) interventions during lithotripsy, respectively. Data were collected using the Patient Information Form, visual analog scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups in regard to anxiety and pain mean scores (p > .05). No statistically significant difference was found between anxiety scores before and after lithotripsy in each group (p > .05), whereas there was a statistically significant difference between pain scores during and after lithotripsy (p stress balls and music in reducing pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress balls used during lithotripsy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy and ultrasound therapy in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konjen, Nipaporn; Napnark, Tapakorn; Janchai, Siriporn

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness ofradial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rSWET) and ultrasound therapy (US) in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Thirty patients who were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis for at least 3 months and who had not responded to other forms of conservative treatment were recruited for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients. The rESWT group was treated with 1 session per week and the US group with 3 sessions per week, with both groups undergoing a total of 6 consecutive weeks of treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS) assessments were performed before and after treatment at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. The mobility subscale of the plantar fasciitis pain and disability scale (PFPS) was measured before and after treatment. Patient satisfaction was evaluated at the conclusion of the 6-week treatment protocol. VAS pain intensity scores were significantly decreased in both groups (p plantar fasciitis treatment, both rESWT and US were found to be effective in reducing pain and increasing mobility; however, statistical analysis showed that rESWT is significantly more effective than US.

  15. Application of strong fluctuation random medium theory to scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of dielectric mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Newton, R. W.; Kong, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The strong fluctuation random medium theory is applied to calculate scattering from a half-space of dielectric mixture. The first and second moments of the fields are calculated, respectively, by using the bilocal and the distorted Born approximations, and the low frequency limit is taken. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account. Expressions for the effective permittivity for the full space case are derived. It is shown that the derived result of the effect permittivity is identical to that of the Polder and van Santern mixing formula. The correlation function of the random medium is obtained by using simple physical arguments and is expressed in terms of the fractional volumes and particle sizes of the constituents of the mixture. Backscattering coefficients of a half-space dielectric mixture are also calculated. Numerical results of the effective permittivity and backscattering coefficients are illustrated using typical parameters encountered in microwave remote sensing of dry and wet snow. It is also shown that experimental data can be matched with the theory by using physical parameters of the medium as obtained from ground truth measurements.

  16. A randomized trial investigating a chiropractic manual placebo: a novel design using standardized forces in the delivery of active and control treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Cheryl; Long, Cynthia R; Rowell, Robert M; Gudavalli, M Ram; Jedlicka, James

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the proposed manual placebo in terms of success in blinding patients to treatment group assignment and outcomes between the treatment groups. Randomized controlled trial. A chiropractic college research clinic in the midwestern United States. One hundred and eleven (111) individuals aged 18 years and over with subacute or chronic lowback pain. The active treatment consisted of flexion-distraction chiropractic manipulation and trigger point therapy and the control treatment of sham manipulation and effleurage; both groups received eight treatments over a 3-week period. The application of prescribed ranges of biomechanical forces for each treatment was standardized using specialized computerized equipment. "Nontreatment" aspects of the clinical encounter were to be standardized across groups. A primary clinician blinded to treatment assignment provided interpersonal interactions and treating clinicians delivered treatments with a minimum of interaction. The accuracy of the patient's perception of group assignment at visit 4 and the mean change in the Pain Disability Index (PDI) over the treatment period were the primary outcome variables. Patients in the control group were more likely to perceive their treatment assignment accurately than those in the active group (78% versus 54%, respectively). Patients in both treatment groups improved on the PDI and the Roland-Morris Questionnaire; there were no significant differences in improvement between the groups. Age, gender, prior chiropractic experience and expectation of treatment at baseline had no effect on outcomes. Patients in the control group were not successfully blinded; however, patients' perceptions of treatment group assignment did not significantly affect outcomes. The clinically significant improvement in both groups, independent of patient or clinician expectations, suggests the presence of therapeutic factors common to both groups, other than biomechanical force. Further studies examining other

  17. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of efficacy of scaling and root planing using magnification: A randomized controlled clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjana Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A randomized controlled clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of scaling and root planing (SRP by using Magnifying Loupes (ML and dental operating microscope (DOM. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 human teeth scheduled for extraction from 18 patients aged between 25 and 65 years suffering from generalized chronic severe periodontitis were randomly assigned to three treatment groups. Group 1 consisted SRP performed without using magnification (unaided, Group 2-SRP with ML and Group 3-SRP with DOM. Following extractions, samples were prepared for (i evaluation of surface topography by atomic force microscopy, (ii presence of smear layer, debris by scanning electron microscopy (iii elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Data was subjected to statistical analysis using analysis of variance, post-hoc (Tukey-HSD and Chi-square test. Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.001 difference was found among the different treatment groups. Group 3 was the best while Group 1 was the least effective technique for SRP. Order of efficacy in terms of the surface was found to be - Palatal < Lingual < Distal ≅ Mesial < Buccal. Efficiency in mandibular to maxillary teeth was found to be significant (P < 0.05, also anterior to posterior teeth (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Magnification tools significantly enhance the efficacy of supragingival and subgingival SRP.

  18. Widespread tsunami-like waves of 23-27 June in the Mediterranean and Black Seas generated by high-altitude atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šepić, Jadranka; Vilibić, Ivica; Rabinovich, Alexander B.; Monserrat, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    A series of tsunami-like waves of non-seismic origin struck several southern European countries during the period of 23 to 27 June 2014. The event caused considerable damage from Spain to Ukraine. Here, we show that these waves were long-period ocean oscillations known as meteorological tsunamis which are generated by intense small-scale air pressure disturbances. An unique atmospheric synoptic pattern was tracked propagating eastward over the Mediterranean and the Black seas in synchrony with onset times of observed tsunami waves. This pattern favoured generation and propagation of atmospheric gravity waves that induced pronounced tsunami-like waves through the Proudman resonance mechanism. This is the first documented case of a chain of destructive meteorological tsunamis occurring over a distance of thousands of kilometres. Our findings further demonstrate that these events represent potentially dangerous regional phenomena and should be included in tsunami warning systems. PMID:26119833

  19. P-Wave Indices and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinli; Tse, Gary; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Kamel, Hooman; Li, Guangping; Lip, Gregory Y H; Liu, Tong

    2017-08-01

    Atrial cardiomyopathy is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are electrocardiographic parameters that have been used to assess left atrial abnormalities related to developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine their values for predicting ischemic stroke risk. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched until December 2016 for studies that evaluated the association between P-wave indices and stroke risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the overall effect estimates. Ten studies examining P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area were included. P-wave terminal force in lead V1 was found to be an independent predictor of stroke as both a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD change, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.25; PP=0.01). P-wave duration was a significant predictor of incident ischemic stroke when analyzed as a categorical variable (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37-2.52; PP=0.15). Maximum P-wave area also predicted the risk of incident ischemic stroke (OR per 1 SD change, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are useful electrocardiographic markers that can be used to stratify the risk of incident ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Dynamics and impacts of fine-scale climate change: greenhouse forcing, heat-waves, and corn price volatility in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Ashfaq, M.; Hertel, T. W.; Scherer, M.; Verma, M.

    2012-12-01

    We explore the use of climate impacts as a probe for understanding the dynamics governing the response of the climate system to changes in radiative forcing. As a case study, we focus on the volatility of corn prices in the U.S. Recent price spikes have raised concern that climate change could increase food insecurity by reducing grain yields in the coming decades. However, commodity price volatility is also influenced by other factors, which may either exacerbate or buffer the effects of climate change. Here we show that US corn price volatility exhibits higher sensitivity to near-term climate change than to energy policy influences or agriculture-energy market integration, and that the presence of a biofuels mandate enhances the sensitivity to climate change by more than 50%. The climate change impact is driven primarily by intensification of severe hot conditions in the primary corn-growing region of the US, which causes US corn price volatility to increase sharply in response to global warming projected to occur over the next three decades. Given this sensitivity to severe heat, we next explore the dynamics shaping the projected near-term intensification of severe heat over the US in our high-resolution ensemble climate model experiment. We find that the intensification of hot extremes is associated not only with increased downward long-wave radiation from increasing greenhouse gases, but also with a shift towards more anticyclonic atmospheric circulation during the warm season, along with warm season drying over much of the US. We find that the coupling between surface temperature change and surface moisture change is robust across a suite of global climate model experiments. Given these projected changes in climate dynamics associated with near-term intensification of severe hot events, we next explore the transient response of summer climate in the US to increasing greenhouse forcing through the end of the 21st century. We find that the central US exhibits

  1. Listening to music during shock wave lithotripsy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction : A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Cimen, Sertac; Tarhan, Huseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Ulker, Volkan; Celik, Orcun; Yucel, Cem; Kisa, Erdem; Ergani, Batuhan; Cetin, Taha; Kozacioglu, Zafer

    2017-05-17

    We analyzed the effects of music on pain, anxiety, and overall satisfaction in patients undergoing a shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) procedure. A total of 200 patients scheduled to undergo SWL were included in this study. Group 1 consisted of 95 patients who listened to music during the SWL session while group 2 included 105 patients who did not listen music during the procedure. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used at the end of the session in order to assess pain, willingness to repeat the procedure, and overall patient satisfaction. Hemodynamic parameters including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and after the session. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of stone characteristics, SWL parameters, pre-SWL STAI-T/S scores, and pre-SWL hemodynamic parameters. Post-SWL STAI-S scores were found to be lower in patients who listened to music (p = 0.006). At the end of the SWL, VAS scores of pain, satisfaction, and willingness to repeat procedure were significantly different in favor of the music group (p = 0.007, p = 0.001, p = 0.015, respectively). SBP, DBP, and HR were significantly higher in patients who did not listen to music (p = 0.002, p = 0.024, p = 0.001, respectively). Music can be an ideal adjunctive treatment modality for patients undergoing SWL treatment. It has the potential to enhance patient compliance and treatment satisfaction by reducing the procedure-related anxiety and pain perception.

  2. Randomized, Controlled Trial of the Safety and Effectiveness of a Contact Force-Sensing Irrigated Catheter for Ablation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: Results of the TactiCath Contact Force Ablation Catheter Study for Atrial Fibrillation (TOCCASTAR) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vivek Y; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Neuzil, Petr; Natale, Andrea; Albenque, Jean-Paul; Kautzner, Josef; Shah, Dipen; Michaud, Gregory; Wharton, Marcus; Harari, David; Mahapatra, Srijoy; Lambert, Hendrik; Mansour, Moussa

    2015-09-08

    Contact force (CF) is a major determinant of lesion size and transmurality and has the potential to improve efficacy of atrial fibrillation ablation. This study sought to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a novel irrigated radiofrequency ablation catheter that measures real-time CF in the treatment of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. A total of 300 patients with symptomatic, drug-refractory, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation were enrolled in a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial and randomized to radiofrequency ablation with either a novel CF-sensing catheter or a non-CF catheter (control). The primary effectiveness end point consisted of acute electrical isolation of all pulmonary veins and freedom from recurrent symptomatic atrial arrhythmia off all antiarrhythmic drugs at 12 months. The primary safety end point included device-related serious adverse events. End points were powered to show noninferiority. All pulmonary veins were isolated in both groups. Effectiveness was achieved in 67.8% and 69.4% of subjects in the CF and control arms, respectively (absolute difference, -1.6%; lower limit of 1-sided 95% confidence interval, -10.7%; P=0.0073 for noninferiority). When the CF arm was stratified into optimal CF (≥90% ablations with ≥10 g) and nonoptimal CF groups, effectiveness was achieved in 75.9% versus 58.1%, respectively (P=0.018). The primary safety end point occurred in 1.97% and 1.40% of CF patients and control subjects, respectively (absolute difference, 0.57%; upper limit of 1-sided 95% confidence interval, 3.61%; P=0.0004 for noninferiority). The CF ablation catheter met the primary safety and effectiveness end points. Additionally, optimal CF was associated with improved effectiveness. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01278953. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Daniel S Churgin2, Brent S Betts3, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder4, Marcus Neuffer1, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11University of Utah, John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ; 3Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing.Results: Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR were —0.03 ± 0.07 and —0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121. Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296. While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront

  4. Derivation of Force field Parameters for SnO2-H2O Surface Systems from Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesolowski, David J [ORNL; Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University

    2006-01-01

    Plane-wave density functional theory (DFT-PW) calculations were performed on bulk SnO{sub 2} (cassiterite) and the (100), (110), (001), and (101) surfaces with and without H{sub 2}O present. A classical interatomic force field has been developed to describe bulk SnO{sub 2} and SnO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O surface interactions. Periodic density functional theory calculations using the program VASP (Kresse et al., 1996) and molecular cluster calculations using Gaussian 03 (Frisch et al., 2003) were used to derive the parametrization of the force field. The program GULP (Gale, 1997) was used to optimize parameters to reproduce experimental and ab initio results. The experimental crystal structure and elastic constants of SnO{sub 2} are reproduced reasonably well with the force field. Furthermore, surface atom relaxations and structures of adsorbed H{sub 2}O molecules agree well between the ab initio and force field predictions. H{sub 2}O addition above that required to form a monolayer results in consistent structures between the DFT-PW and classical force field results as well.

  5. Comparison of the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy and a vacuum erectile device on penile erectile dysfunction: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Tao; Ye, Lei; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jun

    2017-11-01

    This randomized clinical trial (October 2012-December 2013) compared extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and a vacuum erectile device (VED) for management of erectile dysfunction (ED). Consecutive Chinese patients (20-55 years) with ED, abnormal nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR), and international index of erectile function-5 items (IIEF-5) score <22 were randomized to receive ESWT or VED (twice weekly, 4 weeks). Primary outcomes were treatment efficacy and success rate 4 weeks after completion of therapy. Secondary outcomes included changes in IIEF-5 score, sex encounter profile (SEP) score, erection hardness score (EHS) and NPTR assessments 4 weeks post-therapy. All enrolled patients (n = 30 per group) completed the study. At baseline, age, IIEF-5 score, SEP score, EHS, and NPTR assessments were similar between groups. Four weeks post-therapy, IIEF-5 score increased in the ESWT (15.03 ± 3.00 vs. 11.60 ± 2.28) and VED (15.10 ± 3.06 vs. 11.53 ± 2.27) groups, as did SEP score, EHS, and NPTR measures (all P < .05). Efficacy in the ESWT and VED groups was excellent in 10% and 13.3%, respectively, and moderate in 63.3% and 53.3%, respectively. Treatment success rate in the ESWT and VED groups was 73.3% and 67.7%, respectively. VED use and ESWT have comparable efficacies in the treatment of ED in Chinese patients.

  6. Placebo controlled, prospectively randomized, double-blinded study for the investigation of the effectiveness and safety of the acoustic wave therapy (AWT(®)) for cellulite treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russe-Wilflingseder, Katharina; Russe-Wilfingsleder, Katharina; Russe, Elisabeth; Vester, Johannes C; Haller, Gerd; Novak, Pavel; Krotz, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Placebo controlled double-blinded, prospectively randomized clinical trial with 17 patients (11 verum, 5 placebo) for evaluation of cellulite treatment with Acoustic Wave Therapy, (AWT(®)) was performed. The patients were treated once a week for 7 weeks, a total of 8 treatments with the D-ACTOR(®) 200 by Storz Medical AG. Data were collected at baseline, before 8th treatment, at 1 month (follow-up 1) and at 3 months (follow-up 2) after the last treatment with a patients' questionnaire, weight control, measurement of circumference and standardized photography. Treatment progress was further documented using a specially designed 3D imaging system (SkinSCAN(3D), 3D-Shape GmbH) providing an objective measure of cellulite (primary efficacy criteria). Patient's questionnaire in the verum group revealed an improvement in number and depth of dimples, skin firmness and texture, in shape and in reduction of circumference. The overall result (of skin waviness, Sq and Sz, surface and volume of depressions and elevations, Vvv and Vmp) at two follow-up visits indicates a more than medium sized superiority (MW = 0.6706) and is statistically significant (pWei-Lachin = 0.0106). The placebo group revealed no statistical significance. No side effects were seen. This indicates the efficacy and safety of AWT(®) for patients with cellulite.

  7. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for non-calcific supraspinatus tendinitis - 10-year follow-up of a randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Turgay; Felgentreff, Markus; Heyse, Thomas J; Stein, Thomas; Timmesfeld, Nina; Schmitt, Jan; Roessler, Philip P

    2014-10-01

    Evidence for the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in supraspinatus tendinopathy without calcification is sparse, and therefore this treatment option is often controversial. Patients of a randomized placebo-controlled study to analyze the effects of ESWT on function and pain were revisited 10 years after the initial consultation. The former verum group received 6000 impulses (energy flux density, 0.11 mJ/mm²) in three sessions after local anesthesia between 1999 and 2000. The placebo group had 6000 impulses of a sham ESWT after local anesthesia in the same period. Re-evaluation of the patients included a relative Constant score as well as pain measurements (visual analogue scale) during activity and at rest. No significant changes (p>0.05) in relative Constant scores, pain at rest, or pain during activity could be found after a 10-year follow-up between the placebo and verum groups after ESWT. The treatment of non-calcific supraspinatus tendinopathy with ESWT does not seem to have an effect on function or pain improvement in the long run. The results of the present study cannot advise the use of ESWT in cases of non-calcific supraspinatus tendinopathy.

  8. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy of gastroc-soleus trigger points in patients with plantar fasciitis: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghtaderi, Alireza; Khosrawi, Saeid; Dehghan, Farnaz

    2014-01-01

    Plantar fasciitis is the most common cause of heel pain. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is an alternative treatment for refractory cases of plantar fasciitis. Studies also demonstrated that ESWT may be an appropriate treatment for myofascial trigger points. This study was designed to evaluate its effectiveness by comparing the ESWT of Gastrocnemius/Soleus (gastroc-soleus) trigger points and heel region with the ESWT of the heel region alone. The study was carried out among 40 patients with a clinical diagnosis of plantar fasciitis, divided randomly to case (n = 20) and control (n = 20) groups. The case group received ESWT for the heel region and for the gastroc-soleus trigger points. The control group received ESWT just for the heel region. The protocol was the same in both groups and they were treated for three sessions every week. The pain score (100 mm visual analog score [VAS]) and the modified Roles and Maudsley score was evaluated before the first session and eight weeks after the last session. Eight weeks after the last session, although the mean VAS had decreased significantly in both groups, this decrement was more significant in the case group. (P = 0.04). According to the modified Roles and Maudsley score, there was a significant improvement in both the case (P plantar fasciitis and gastroc-soleus trigger points in treating patients with plantar fasciitis is more effective than utilizing it solely for plantar fasciitis.

  9. Treatment Outcomes of Corticosteroid Injection and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy as Two Primary Therapeutic Methods for Acute Plantar Fasciitis: A Prospective Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Karimi Mobarakeh, Mahmoud; Hassanzadeh, Zabihallah; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Asadi, Kamran; Ettehad, Hossein; Hashemi-Motlagh, Keyvan; Saheb-Ekhtiari, Khashayar; Fallah-Alipour, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of corticosteroid injection (CSI) and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) as primary treatment of acute plantar fasciitis has been debated. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the therapeutic effects of CSI and ESWT in patients with acute (plantar fasciitis. Of the 116 eligible patients, 68 were randomized to 2 equal groups of 34 patients, each undergoing either ESWT or CSI. The ESWT method included 2000 impulses with energy of 0.15 mJ/mm(2) and a total energy flux density of 900 mJ/mm(2) for 3 consecutive sessions at 1-week intervals. In the CSI group, 40 mg of methyl prednisolone acetate plus 1 mL of lidocaine 2% was injected into the maximal tenderness point at the inframedial calcaneal tuberosity. The success and recurrence rates and pain intensity measured using the visual analog scale, were recorded and compared at the 3-month follow-up visit. The pain intensity had reduced significantly in all patients undergoing either technique. However, the value and trend of pain reduction in the CSI group was significantly greater than those in the ESWT group (p  .05). Both ESWT and CSI can be used as the primary and/or initial treatment option for treating patients with acute plantar fasciitis; however, the CSI technique had better therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The swim force as a body force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wen; Brady, John

    2015-11-01

    Net (as opposed to random) motion of active matter results from an average swim (or propulsive) force. It is shown that the average swim force acts like a body force - an internal body force [Yan and Brady, Soft Matter, DOI:10.1039/C5SM01318F]. As a result, the particle-pressure exerted on a container wall is the sum of the swim pressure [Takatori et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 028103] and the `weight' of the active particles. A continuum mechanical description is possible when variations occur on scales larger than the run length of the active particles and gives a Boltzmann-like distribution from a balance of the swim force and the swim pressure. Active particles may also display `action at a distance' and accumulate adjacent to (or be depleted from) a boundary without any external forces. In the momentum balance for the suspension - the mixture of active particles plus fluid - only external body forces appear.

  11. Investigating the Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on reducing Chronic Pain in Patients with Pes Anserine Bursitis: A Randomized, Clinical- Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Khosrawi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knee pain, is one of the most common causes of patients' referring to physiatric clinics, and several factors, are involved in its creation. One of these factors is pes anserine bursitis (PAB for which various treatment methods are used. This study aims to investigate the effect of this method on reducing chronic pain in these patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in 2013- 2014 on patients with PAB referring to academic, physical medicine clinics. The patients with chronic PAB (pain duration more than 3 months, who were refractory to conservative treatments, were randomly divided into two 20-member experimental groups (extracorporeal shock wave therapy [ESWT] and sham ESWT. Pain scores of all patients were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ (total and present pain indexes [TPIs and PPIs] before intervention, immediately after intervention (3rd week, and after 8 weeks. The pain scores were then compared and statistically analyzed. Results: In the ESWT group, the mean patient pain score of the VAS and TPI in MPQ were significantly lower than in the sham ESWT group immediately after intervention (3rd week: P=0.02, P= 0.04 respectively; and 8 weeks after the end of treatment: P=0.01, P= 0.000. Moreover, the PPI in both groups had significantly decreased over time, although in ESWT group this decrement was significantly more than sham ESWT group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that ESWT could be effective in reducing the pain and treating PAB.

  12. Investigating the Effect of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy on Reducing Chronic Pain in Patients with Pes Anserine Bursitis: A Randomized, Clinical- Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Taheri, Parisa; Ketabi, Marziyeh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knee pain, is one of the most common causes of patients’ referring to physiatric clinics, and several factors, are involved in its creation. One of these factors is pes anserine bursitis (PAB) for which various treatment methods are used. This study aims to investigate the effect of this method on reducing chronic pain in these patients. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted in 2013- 2014 on patients with PAB referring to academic, physical medicine clinics. The patients with chronic PAB (pain duration more than 3 months), who were refractory to conservative treatments, were randomly divided into two 20-member experimental groups (extracorporeal shock wave therapy [ESWT] and sham ESWT). Pain scores of all patients were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) (total and present pain indexes [TPIs and PPIs]) before intervention, immediately after intervention (3rd week), and after 8 weeks. The pain scores were then compared and statistically analyzed. Results: In the ESWT group, the mean patient pain score of the VAS and TPI in MPQ were significantly lower than in the sham ESWT group immediately after intervention (3rd week): P =0.02, P = 0.04 respectively; and 8 weeks after the end of treatment: P =0.01, P = 0.000. Moreover, the PPI in both groups had significantly decreased over time, although in ESWT group this decrement was significantly more than sham ESWT group (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The results showed that ESWT could be effective in reducing the pain and treating PAB. PMID:28626745

  13. Long-wave infrared radiation reflected by compression stockings in the treatment of cellulite: a clinical double-blind, randomized and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagatin, E; Miot, H A; Soares, J L M; Sanudo, A; Afonso, J P J M; de Barros Junior, N; Talarico, S

    2013-10-01

    Cellulite refers to changes in skin relief on the thighs and buttocks of women, with a prevalence of 80-90%, causing dissatisfaction and search for treatment. Etiopathogenesis is multifactorial, as follows: herniation of the hypodermis towards the dermis, facilitated by perpendicular fibrous septa, changes in the dermal extracellular matrix, decreased adiponectin, genetic polymorphism, microcirculation alterations and inflammatory process. There are numerous therapeutic approaches, with little evidence of effectiveness. The long-wave infrared (LWIR) radiation interacts with water, improves microcirculation and stimulates metabolic processes. To date, the use of tissues with potential reflection of LWIR radiation has not been systematically investigated as adjuvant treatment for cellulite. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of cellulite through the use of compression stockings made with thread reflecting LWIR radiation. Clinical study of therapeutic intervention, controlled and double-blind, including 30 women, aging from 25 to 40 years, with cellulite of grades II and III on the thighs and buttocks who used compression stockings, "pantyhose" model, made with reflector thread of LWIR radiation, on only one randomized side. Women under other treatments for cellulite and with venous and/or blood insufficiencies were excluded. Evaluation of efficacy by clinical parameters, photographs, Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), cutometry and high frequency ultrasonography and security by observation of adverse events and venous EcoDoppler recordings. DLQI scores showed significant reduction; the two-dimensional high-frequency ultrasonography showed an insignificant increase in dermal echogenicity as well as other efficacy parameters demonstrated no or slight improvement, with no differences between the sides exposed or not to LWIR; and there were no severe adverse events. Compression stockings, with or without thread reflector of LWIR, showed slight

  14. Which method is more effective in treatment of calcific tendinitis in the shoulder? Prospective randomized comparison between ultrasound-guided needling and extracorporeal shock wave therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yang-Soo; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Yoon-vin; Kong, Chae-Gwan

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound (US)-guided needling with subacromial corticosteroid injection is more effective than extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for function restoration and pain relief in patients with calcific tendinitis of the shoulder. Fifty-four patients diagnosed with unilateral painful calcific tendinitis were randomly allocated to a US needling or ESWT group. The US needling group underwent US-guided needling and received a subacromial corticosteroid injection. The ESWT group received ESWT 3 times a week. All patients were prospectively evaluated; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, Simple Shoulder Test, and visual analog scale for pain scores were recorded before the procedure and at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, 6 months, 12 months, and the last follow-up. The size and morphology of the deposits were evaluated by radiography. The average follow-up period was 23.0 months. At last follow-up, the mean size of the deposits was significantly different between the 2 groups (P = .001); it decreased to 0.5 mm from 14.8 mm in the US needling group and to 5.6 mm from 11.0 mm in the ESWT group. There were also significant improvements in clinical outcomes in both groups after treatment (P .05). Both treatment modalities for calcific tendinitis improved clinical outcomes and eliminated calcium deposits. US-guided needling treatment, however, was more effective in function restoration and pain relief in the short term. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Wind Generated Rogue Waves in an Annular Wave Flume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, A; Proment, D; Salman, H; Monbaliu, J; Frascoli, F; Dafilis, M; Stramignoni, E; Forza, R; Manfrin, M; Onorato, M

    2017-04-07

    We investigate experimentally the statistical properties of a wind-generated wave field and the spontaneous formation of rogue waves in an annular flume. Unlike many experiments on rogue waves where waves are mechanically generated, here the wave field is forced naturally by wind as it is in the ocean. What is unique about the present experiment is that the annular geometry of the tank makes waves propagating circularly in an unlimited-fetch condition. Within this peculiar framework, we discuss the temporal evolution of the statistical properties of the surface elevation. We show that rogue waves and heavy-tail statistics may develop naturally during the growth of the waves just before the wave height reaches a stationary condition. Our results shed new light on the formation of rogue waves in a natural environment.

  16. Influence of the excitation force estimator methodology within a predictive controller framework on the overall cost of energy minimisation of a wave energy converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Ambühl, Simon; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    is linked to the cost of the energy (CoE) produced from the different wave energy converters (WEC). The CoE from the different WECs is not yet comparable with other energy resources, due to a relative low efficiency coupled with the high structural costs. Within the sector a large effort has been addressed...... investigated witha sequential approach, and the results have been reported for different control strategies. The Model Predictive Controller (MPC) seemed to have superior performance in terms of energy maximisation and loads on the structure, leading to a minimal CoE. But as presented in [3] the MPC......A large amount of energy is freely roaming around the world each day, without us being able to exploit it: wave energy is a largely untapped source of renewable energy, which can have a substantial influence in the future energy mix. The reason behind the inability of using this free resource...

  17. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function $Z$ is obtained within an "interaction representation" and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for $Z$. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the $N$-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency.

  18. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Jitendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity- to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  19. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra K. Panigrahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20 m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  20. Random operator equations in mathematical physics. I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomian, G.

    1970-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations objectives, limitations and restrictive assumptions in physical problems, discussing electromagnetic wave propagation in random continuum or random dAlembertian operator

  1. Nonstationary distributions of wave intensities in wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yeontaek; Jo, Sanggyu; Kwon, Young-Sam; Nazarenko, Sergey

    2017-09-01

    We obtain a general solution for the probability density function (PDF) of wave intensities in non-stationary wave turbulence. The solution is expressed in terms of the initial PDF and the wave action spectrum satisfying the wave-kinetic equation. We establish that, in the absence of wave breaking, the wave statistics converge to a Gaussian distribution in forced-dissipated wave systems while approaching a steady state. Also, we find that in non-stationary systems, if the statistic is Gaussian initially, it will remain Gaussian for all time. Generally, if the statistic is not initially Gaussian, it will remain non-Gaussian over the characteristic nonlinear evolution time of the wave spectrum. In freely decaying wave turbulence, substantial deviations from Gaussianity may persist infinitely long.

  2. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter Bak; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57 x 27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world's first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. During the last months, extensive testing has started...

  3. Prototype Testing of the Wave Energy Converter Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    The Wave Dragon is an offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. It consists of two wave reflectors focusing the incoming waves towards a ramp, a reservoir for collecting the overtopping water and a number of hydro turbines for converting the pressure head into power. In the period...... from 1998 to 2001 extensive wave tank testing on a scale model was carried at Aalborg University. Then, a 57!27 m wide and 237 tonnes heavy (incl. ballast) prototype of the Wave Dragon, placed in Nissum Bredning, Denmark, was grid connected in May 2003 as the world’s first offshore wave energy...... converter. The prototype is fully equipped with hydro turbines and automatic control systems, and is instrumented in order to monitor power production, wave climate, forces in mooring lines, stresses in the structure and movements of the Wave Dragon. In the period May 2003 to January 2005 an extensive...

  4. Numerical Analysis for the Dynamic Forces and Operational Risk Accomplished for a “Hiload DP1” Unit Docked to MT “Navion Anglia” at Sea Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author depicts the results of the sea trials of the operational test of a Hiload technology at sea waves with the numerical analysis for the dynamic forces and operational risk. The research was carried out on board MT “Navion Anglia” which was engaged in a towing operation through the Atlantic Ocean with a “Hiload DP1” prototype unit docked on her portside alongside, with different ship’s draft and in different weather conditions. Additionally in this paper author presents the methods that can be used for estimating the safety factor SF against sliding and/or operational risk for the towing and/or manoeuvring operation with a “Hiload DP1” unit docked alongside at the open sea.

  5. Coupled wind-forced controls of the Bering-Chukchi shelf circulation and the Bering Strait throughflow: Ekman transport, continental shelf waves, and variations of the Pacific-Arctic sea surface height gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Seth L.; Weingartner, Thomas J.; Hedstrom, Katherine S.; Aagaard, Knut; Woodgate, Rebecca; Curchitser, Enrique; Stabeno, Phyllis J.

    2014-06-01

    We develop a conceptual model of the closely co-dependent Bering shelf, Bering Strait, and Chukchi shelf circulation fields by evaluating the effects of wind stress over the North Pacific and western Arctic using atmospheric reanalyses, current meter observations, satellite-based sea surface height (SSH) measurements, hydrographic profiles, and numerical model integrations. This conceptual model suggests Bering Strait transport anomalies are primarily set by the longitudinal location of the Aleutian Low, which drives oppositely signed anomalies at synoptic and annual time scales. Synoptic time scale variations in shelf currents result from local wind forcing and remotely generated continental shelf waves, whereas annual variations are driven by basin scale adjustments to wind stress that alter the magnitude of the along-strait (meridional) pressure gradient. In particular, we show that storms centered over the Bering Sea excite continental shelf waves on the eastern Bering shelf that carry northward velocity anomalies northward through Bering Strait and along the Chukchi coast. The integrated effect of these storms tends to decrease the northward Bering Strait transport at annual to decadal time scales by imposing cyclonic wind stress curl over the Aleutian Basin and the Western Subarctic Gyre. Ekman suction then increases the water column density through isopycnal uplift, thereby decreasing the dynamic height, sea surface height, and along-strait pressure gradient. Storms displaced eastward over the Gulf of Alaska generate an opposite set of Bering shelf and Aleutian Basin responses. While Ekman pumping controls Canada Basin dynamic heights (Proshutinsky et al., 2002), we do not find evidence for a strong relation between Beaufort Gyre sea surface height variations and the annually averaged Bering Strait throughflow. Over the western Chukchi and East Siberian seas easterly winds promote coastal divergence, which also increases the along-strait pressure head, as

  6. Infragravity wave generation and dynamics over a mild slope beach : Experiments and numerical computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Duarte, L.; Hernandez, E.

    2008-12-01

    Charasteristic frequencies of gravity waves generated by wind and propagating towards the coast are usually comprised between 0.05Hz and 1Hz. Nevertheless, lower frequecy waves, in the range of 0.001Hz and 0.05Hz, have been observed in the nearshore zone. Those long waves, termed as infragravity waves, are generated by complex nonlinear mechanisms affecting the propagation of irregular waves up to the coast. The groupiness of an incident random wave field may be responsible for producing a slow modulation of the mean water surface thus generating bound long waves travelling at the group speed. Similarly, a quasi- periodic oscillation of the break-point location, will be accompained by a slow modulation of set-up/set-down in the surf zone and generation and release of long waves. If the primary structure of the carrying incident gravity waves is destroyed (e.g. by breaking), forced long waves can be freely released and even reflected at the coast. Infragravity waves can affect port operation through resonating conditions, or strongly affect sediment transport and beach morphodynamics. In the present study we investigate infragravity wave generation mechanisms both, from experiments and numerical computations. Measurements were conducted at the 70-meter long wave tank, located at the Instituto Nacional de Hidraulica (Chile), prepared with a beach of very mild slope of 1/80 in order to produce large surf zone extensions. A random JONSWAP type wave field (h0=0.52m, fp=0.25Hz, Hmo=0.17m) was generated by a piston wave-maker and measurements of the free surface displacements were performed all over its length at high spatial resolution (0.2m to 1m). Velocity profiles were also measured at four verticals inside the surf zone using an ADV. Correlation maps of wave group envelopes and infragravity waves are computed in order to identify long wave generation and dynamics in the experimental set-up. It appears that both mechanisms (groupiness and break-point oscillation) are

  7. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  8. Sound Waves Levitate Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Wang, T. G.

    1982-01-01

    System recently tested uses acoustic waves to levitate liquid drops, millimeter-sized glass microballoons, and other objects for coating by vapor deposition or capillary attraction. Cylindrical contactless coating/handling facility employs a cylindrical acoustic focusing radiator and a tapered reflector to generate a specially-shaped standing wave pattern. Article to be processed is captured by the acoustic force field under the reflector and moves as reflector is moved to different work stations.

  9. Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis

    2015-04-01

    Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The

  10. Key features of wave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, R C T

    2012-01-28

    For a weak point source or dipole, or a small body operating as either, we show that the power from a wave energy converter (WEC) is the product of the particle velocity in the waves, and the wave force (suitably defined). There is a thus a strong analogy with a wind or tidal turbine, where the power is the product of the fluid velocity through the turbine, and the force on it. As a first approximation, the cost of a structure is controlled by the force it has to carry, which governs its strength, and the distance it has to be carried, which governs its size. Thus, WECs are at a disadvantage compared with wind and tidal turbines because the fluid velocities are lower, and hence the forces are higher. On the other hand, the distances involved are lower. As with turbines, the implication is also that a WEC must make the most of its force-carrying ability-ideally, to carry its maximum force all the time, the '100% sweating WEC'. It must be able to limit the wave force on it in larger waves, ultimately becoming near-transparent to them in the survival condition-just like a turbine in extreme conditions, which can stop and feather its blades. A turbine of any force rating can achieve its maximum force in low wind speeds, if its diameter is sufficiently large. This is not possible with a simple monopole or dipole WEC, however, because of the 'nλ/2π' capture width limits. To achieve reasonable 'sweating' in typical wave climates, the force is limited to about 1 MN for a monopole device, or 2 MN for a dipole. The conclusion is that the future of wave energy is in devices that are not simple monopoles or dipoles, but multi-body devices or other shapes equivalent to arrays.

  11. Autoresonant control of drift waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shagalov, A.G.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined...... on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear...... waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes....

  12. Application of the extended boundary condition method to Monte Carlo simulations of scattering of waves by two-dimensional random rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Lou, S. H.; Chan, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    The extended boundary condition method is applied to Monte Carlo simulations of two-dimensional random rough surface scattering. The numerical results are compared with one-dimensional random rough surfaces obtained from the finite-element method. It is found that the mean scattered intensity from two-dimensional rough surfaces differs from that of one dimension for rough surfaces with large slopes.

  13. Overview of Wave to Wire Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Ferri, Francesco

    A “Wave to Wire” (W2W) model is a numerical tool that can calculate the power output from a specified Wave Energy Converter (WEC), under specified ocean wave conditions. The tool can be used to assess and optimize the performance of a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) design and provide knowledge...... of the WEC behavior – such as motions and forces – in its operating wave conditions....

  14. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  15. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  16. Wave-Current Interactions in the Vicinity of the Sea Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmedal, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    The intention of the work carried out in the present thesis is to span a part of the range of sea bed boundary layer research by three separate parts. The two first parts deal with the sea bed boundary layer beneath random waves and current, while the third part represents a more fundamental approach towards the smooth turbulent boundary layer under a horizontally uniform sinusoidal plus steady forcing. The first part focuses on the bottom shear stress amplitudes under random waves plus current. Shear stresses on a rough seabed under irregular waves plus current are calculated. Parameterized models valid for regular waves plus current have been used in Monte Carlo simulations, assuming the wave amplitudes to be Rayleigh distributed. Numerical estimates of the probability distribution functions are presented. For waves only, the shear stress maxima follow a two-parameter Weibull distribution, while for waves plus current, both the maximum and time-averaged shear stresses are well represented by a three-parameter Weibull distribution. The behaviour of the maximum shear stresses under a wide range of wave-current conditions has been investigated, and it appears that under certain conditions the current has a significant influence on the maximum shear stresses. Results of comparison between predictions and measurements of the maximum bottom shear stresses from laboratory and field experiments are presented. The second part extends the first approach by applying a dynamic eddy viscosity model; the boundary layer under random waves alone as well as under random waves plus current have been examined by a dynamic turbulent boundary layer model based on the linearized boundary layer equations with horizontally uniform forcing. The turbulence closure is provided by a high Reynolds number k - {epsilon} model. The model appears to be verified as far as data exists, i.e., for sinusoidal waves alone as well as for sinusoidal waves plus a mean current. The time and space

  17. Slow frictional waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Koushik; Sundaram, Narayan; Chandrasekar, Srinivasan

    Stick-slip, manifest as intermittent tangential motion between two dry solid surfaces, is a friction instability that governs diverse phenomena from automobile brake squeals to earthquakes. We show, using high-speed in situ imaging of an adhesive polymer interface, that low velocity stick-slip is fundamentally of three kinds, corresponding to passage of three different surface waves -- separation pulses, slip pulses and the well-known Schallamach waves. These waves, traveling much slower than elastic waves, have clear distinguishing properties. Separation pulses and Schallamach waves involve local interface separation, and propagate in opposite directions while slip pulses are characterized by a sharp stress front and do not display any interface detachment. A change in the stick-slip mode from separation to slip pulse is effected simply by increasing the normal force. Together, these three waves constitute all possible stick-slip modes in adhesive friction and are shown to have direct analogues in muscular locomotory waves in soft bodied invertebrates. A theory for slow wave propagation is also presented which is capable of explaining the attendant interface displacements, velocities and stresses.

  18. A Numerical Study of the Regimes of Weak Fluctuation Theory for Ocean Acoustic Propagation through Random Internal Wave Sound Speed Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    applied to a radio wave propagation problem in the atmosphere ( Jensen , Kuperman, Porter & Schmidt, 2000). The parabolic equation (PE) method has found...wide application in the field of underwater acoustics after Hardin and Tappert (1973) devised an efficient model based on Fourier transforms. The PE...equation follows the treatment by Jensen , Kuperman, Porter & Schmidt (2000). There are different kinds of parabolic equations, but this thesis

  19. Dynamics of actin waves on patterned substrates: a quantitative analysis of circular dorsal ruffles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bernitt

    Full Text Available Circular Dorsal Ruffles (CDRs have been known for decades, but the mechanism that organizes these actin waves remains unclear. In this article we systematically analyze the dynamics of CDRs on fibroblasts with respect to characteristics of current models of actin waves. We studied CDRs on heterogeneously shaped cells and on cells that we forced into disk-like morphology. We show that CDRs exhibit phenomena such as periodic cycles of formation, spiral patterns, and mutual wave annihilations that are in accord with an active medium description of CDRs. On cells of controlled morphologies, CDRs exhibit extremely regular patterns of repeated wave formation and propagation, whereas on random-shaped cells the dynamics seem to be dominated by the limited availability of a reactive species. We show that theoretical models of reaction-diffusion type incorporating conserved species capture partially the behavior we observe in our data.

  20. Wave loads on foundations for wind turbines. A literature survey; Vaaglaster paa fundament till vindkraftverk - systemdynamik och utmattning: Litteraturstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlen, Ingemar

    2001-05-01

    This report is an overview of literature covering the influence of wave loads on foundations for wind power plants. Relevant subjects are wave motion, wave forces on slender structures, wave statistics for the Swedish coast together with planning and certification.

  1. Hydrodynamic analysis and shape optimization for vertical axisymmetric wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-chao; Liu, Heng-xu; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xue-wei

    2016-12-01

    The absorber is known to be vertical axisymmetric for a single-point wave energy converter (WEC). The shape of the wetted surface usually has a great influence on the absorber's hydrodynamic characteristics which are closely linked with the wave power conversion ability. For complex wetted surface, the hydrodynamic coefficients have been predicted traditionally by hydrodynamic software based on the BEM. However, for a systematic study of various parameters and geometries, they are too multifarious to generate so many models and data grids. This paper examines a semi-analytical method of decomposing the complex axisymmetric boundary into several ring-shaped and stepped surfaces based on the boundary discretization method (BDM) which overcomes the previous difficulties. In such case, by using the linear wave theory based on eigenfunction expansion matching method, the expressions of velocity potential in each domain, the added mass, radiation damping and wave excitation forces of the oscillating absorbers are obtained. The good astringency of the hydrodynamic coefficients and wave forces are obtained for various geometries when the discrete number reaches a certain value. The captured wave power for a same given draught and displacement for various geometries are calculated and compared. Numerical results show that the geometrical shape has great effect on the wave conversion performance of the absorber. For absorbers with the same outer radius and draught or displacement, the cylindrical type shows fantastic wave energy conversion ability at some given frequencies, while in the random sea wave, the parabolic and conical ones have better stabilization and applicability in wave power conversion.

  2. 4-wave dynamics in kinetic wave turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    A general Hamiltonian wave system with quartic resonances is considered, in the standard kinetic limit of a continuum of weakly interacting dispersive waves with random phases. The evolution equation for the multimode characteristic function Z is obtained within an ;interaction representation; and a perturbation expansion in the small nonlinearity parameter. A frequency renormalization is performed to remove linear terms that do not appear in the 3-wave case. Feynman-Wyld diagrams are used to average over phases, leading to a first order differential evolution equation for Z. A hierarchy of equations, analogous to the Boltzmann hierarchy for low density gases is derived, which preserves in time the property of random phases and amplitudes. This amounts to a general formalism for both the N-mode and the 1-mode PDF equations for 4-wave turbulent systems, suitable for numerical simulations and for investigating intermittency. Some of the main results which are developed here in detail have been tested numerically in a recent work.

  3. Self-expanding nitinol stents of high versus low chronic outward force in de novo femoropopliteal occlusive arterial lesions (BIOFLEX-COF trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wressnegger, Alexander; Kaider, Alexandra; Funovics, Martin A

    2017-12-14

    Self-expanding nitinol stents must be oversized at least by a minimal amount to ensure contact with the vessel wall and prevent migration. Once the stent is deployed it exerts a continuous force upon the vascular wall, termed chronic outward force (COF). Animal studies have found an increased neointimal hyperplasia in stents with high oversizing and thus high COF. Data about correlation between COF and neointimal hyperplasia in humans are currently lacking. The objective of the BIOFLEX-COF trial is to prospectively investigate differences in formation of intimal hyperplasia at 1 and 2 years after implantation of nitinol stents with high versus low COF in de novo femoropopliteal occlusive arterial lesions. The BIOFLEX-COF trial is a prospective, quantitative, randomized study. Eighty subjects with symptomatic peripheral arterial lesions eligible for endovascular stent implantation will be enrolled and randomly assigned to either a high COF group (LifeStent Flexstar, Bard Peripheral Vascular Inc., Tempe, AZ, USA) or low COF group (Pulsar, Biotronik AG, Bülach, Switzerland) using an online randomization program to generate a random 1:1 group allocation (block randomization). After implantation and dilatation, COF at every 2 mm along the stent axis will be calculated from the actual stent diameter versus its nominal diameter. There will be two follow-up evaluations at 12 and 24 months. Primary endpoint is the amount of in-stent neointima at 1 year, assessed by contrast-enhanced CT angiography (CTA). In the control examinations, stent diameter and true lumen diameter will be measured on DICOM images every 2 mm along the stent axis to quantify the relative amount of in-stent restenosis. Secondary objectives are the amount of in-stent neointima at 2 years, device- and procedure-related adverse events and target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate. The scheduled time for recruitment is 2 years. Recruitment is expected to be complete in October 2017. This trial is the

  4. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  5. Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Jain, Sudhir

    2016-05-01

    Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.

  6. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  7. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  8. Comparing hot pack, short-wave diathermy, ultrasound, and TENS on isokinetic strength, pain, and functional status of women with osteoarthritic knees: a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Nuri; Aytar, Aydan; Atalay, Ayce; Akman, Mahmut Nafiz

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of physical agents administered before isokinetic exercise in women with knee osteoarthritis. One hundred patients with bilateral knee osteoarthritis were randomized into five groups of 20 patients each: group 1 received short-wave diathermy + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 2 received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 3 received ultrasound + hot packs and isokinetic exercise; group 4 received hot packs and isokinetic exercise; and group 5 served as controls and received only isokinetic exercise. Pain and disability index scores were significantly reduced in each group. Patients in the study groups had significantly greater reductions in their visual analog scale scores and scores on the Lequesne index than did patients in the control group (group 5). They also showed greater increases than did controls in muscular strength at all angular velocities. In most parameters, improvements were greatest in groups 1 and 2 compared with groups 3 and 4. Using physical agents before isokinetic exercises in women with knee osteoarthritis leads to augmented exercise performance, reduced pain, and improved function. Hot pack with a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator or short-wave diathermy has the best outcome.

  9. Hydrodynamic Excitation Forces on Floating Structures with Finite Displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present an extended version of the classic linear wave excitation force theory. Linear wave theory implies that the wave load is applied in the referential state of the structure. In reality, the load is acting in the dynamically altered state. In the classic notation the wave ...

  10. Planetary dynamos driven by helical waves - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, P. A.; Ranjan, A.

    2015-09-01

    In most numerical simulations of the Earth's core the dynamo resides outside the tangent cylinder and may be crudely classified as being of the α2 type. In this region the flow comprises a sea of thin columnar vortices aligned with the rotation axis, taking the form of alternating cyclones and anticyclones. The dynamo is thought to be driven by these columnar vortices within which the flow is observed to be highly helical, helicity being a crucial ingredient of planetary dynamos. As noted in Davidson, one of the mysteries of this dynamo cartoon is the origin of the helicity, which is observed to be positive in the south and negative in the north. While Ekman pumping at the mantle can induce helicity in some of the overly viscous numerical simulations, it is extremely unlikely to be a significant source within planets. In this paper we return to the suggestion of Davidson that the helicity observed in the less viscous simulations owes its existence to helical wave packets, launched in and around the equatorial plane where the buoyancy flux is observed to be strong. Here we show that such wave packets act as a potent source of planetary helicity, constituting a simple, robust mechanism that yields the correct sign for h north and south of the equator. Since such a mechanism does not rely on the presence of a mantle, it can operate within both the Earth and the gas giants. Moreover, our numerical simulations show that helical wave packets dispersing from the equator produce a random sea of thin, columnar cyclone/anticyclone pairs, very like those observed in the more strongly forced dynamo simulations. We examine the local dynamics of helical wave packets dispersing from the equatorial regions, as well as the overall nature of an α2-dynamo driven by such wave packets. Our local analysis predicts the mean emf induced by helical waves, an analysis that rests on a number of simple approximations which are consistent with our numerical experiments, while our global

  11. Water Waves The Mathematical Theory with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J J

    2011-01-01

    Offers an integrated account of the mathematical hypothesis of wave motion in liquids with a free surface, subjected to gravitational and other forces. Uses both potential and linear wave equation theories, together with applications such as the Laplace and Fourier transform methods, conformal mapping and complex variable techniques in general or integral equations, methods employing a Green's function. Coverage includes fundamental hydrodynamics, waves on sloping beaches, problems involving waves in shallow water, the motion of ships and much more.

  12. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  13. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  14. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  15. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  16. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  17. The diagnostic performances of conventional strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and point shear-wave speed (pSWS) measurement for non-calcified thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Ding; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Zhang, Yi-Feng; Liu, Bo-Ji; Guo, Le-Hang; Li, Dan-Dan; Zhao, Chong-Ke; Li, Xiao-Long; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Non-calcified thyroid nodules are relatively difficult to diagnose only relying on features of at conventional US images. To investigate the diagnostic performances of conventional strain elastography (SE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) SE and point shear-wave speed (pSWS) measurement for non-calcified thyroid nodules. A total of 201 non-calcified thyroid nodules in 195 patients were studied. They were examined with conventional ultrasound (US), conventional SE, ARFI SE and pSWS measurement. Their diagnostic performances and multivariable models were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression analyses respectively. There were 156 benign and 45 malignant non-calcified nodules proven by histopathology or cystology. The mean diameters of the nodules were 21.2±10.8 mm. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) of elastography features (ranged, 0.488-0.745) were all greater than that of US (ranged, 0.111-0.332). At multivariate analysis, there were three predictors of malignancy for non-calcified nodules, including pSWS of nodule (odds ratio [OR], 34.960; 95% CI, 11.582-105.529), marked hypoechogenicity (OR, 16.223; 95% CI, 1.761-149.454) and ARFI SE grade (OR, 10.900; 95% CI, 3.567-33.310). US+SE+pSWS owned the largest AUC (0.936; 95% CI, 0.887-0.985; P < 0.05), followed by US+pSWS (0.889; 95% CI, 0.823-0.955), and the poorest was US (0.727; 95% CI, 0.635-0.819). ARFI SE and pSWS measurement had better diagnostic performances than conventional SE and US. When US combined with SE and pSWS measurement, it could achieve an excellent diagnostic performance and might contribute a better decision-making of FNA for non-calcified thyroid nodules.

  18. [The value of terminal force of P wave in V1 lead in the diagnosis of coal-worker's pneumoconiosis with pulmonary heart disease complicated by left ventricular hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    To determine the value of terminal force of P wave in V1 lead (Ptf-V1) in the diagnosis of coal-workers' pneumoconiosis with pulmonary heart disease complicated by left ventricular hypertrophy. Select the coal-worker with pneumoconiosis postmortem examination cases which were pathologically diagnosed as pulmonary heart disease complicated by left ventricular hypertrophy and can measure Ptf-V1. Select 14 cases with ECG left axis deviation, no deviation and right axis deviation. Measure and analyze the Ptf-V1 value, the thickness of left and right ventricular wall. There's obvious discrepancy in ventricular wall thickness mean in ECG left axis deviation, no deviation and right axis deviation groups, the discrepancy have statistical significance (F1 = 32.18, P left ventricular wall is thicker in ECG left axis deviation group [(1.81 +/- 0.18) cm] than in no deviation [(1.47 +/- 0.15) cm] and right axis deviation groups [(1.39 +/- 0.10) cm], the discrepancy have statistical significance with (P left axis deviation group [(0.79 +/- 0.14) cm] than in no deviation group [(0.58 +/- 0.14) cm], the discrepancy have statistical significance with (P axis deviation group [(0.71 +/- 0.14) cm] than in no deviation group, the discrepancy have statistical significance with (P left axis deviation Ptf-V1 relevance ratio 85.71% is higher than in no deviation (35.70%) and right axis deviation groups (28.57%), the discrepancy have statistical significance with (P left ventricular wall thickness in ECG left axis deviation and no deviation groups (r1 = 0.92, P left ventricular morphosis and function especially left atrium loading change. ECG Ptf-V1 combined with ECG left axis deviation is valuable to the diagnosis of coal-workers with pneumoconiosis complicated by left ventricular hypertrophy.

  19. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M.

    2016-01-01

    contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pw......-Fampridine on functional capacity of the lower limbs were replicated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01656148.......DESIGN: This study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial preceded by open label enrichment phase. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the effect of SR-Fampridine treatment on muscle strength in terms of maximal voluntary...

  20. Numerical Investigation of Sediment Suspension Above Plane Bed Under Skewed Grouping Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, J.; Li, M.; Apte, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sediment suspension above a plane bed under oscillatory flow is of particular importance to coastal engineering in terms of understanding the influence of surface waves on beach and estuary transport processes. Existing studies, however, largely focus a on single representative wave condition and the randomness of natural waves are not taken into account. The present study aims to investigate wave grouping effects together with wave skewness on near bed boundary layer processes and sediment suspension using a newly developed three dimensional, multiphase, Euler-Lagrange point-particle model, e.g. Finn et al (2016). The sediment in the model is treated as a collection of Lagrangian particles that respond to both hydrodynamic and inter-particle forces, and particle motion is coupled to the near-bed hydrodynamics through the volume filtered Navier Stokes equations, which are solved in a finite volume LES framework at near-particle scale. The experiment by Bhawanin et al (2014) was used to validate the model's prediction on hydrodynamics and turbulence characteristics above boundary layer. Figure 1 shows the computed streamwise flow velocity within the wave group under a velocity-skewed signal in comparison with the measured values at different levels above the bed. The corresponding turbulence kinetic energy distribution under the wave group show similar level of agreement. The signature of waves with different strength within the group is clearly seen in the TKE distribution close to the bed. Subsequently, the Euler-Lagrange point-particle model was activated to investigate sediment suspension under the complex grouped waves. The particle size was chosen as 0.46mm sand. Initial examination of the model results reveals the immediate resuspension of sediment under large waves within the group and rapid drop of concentration under smaller waves, largely due to the coarse grain size and short wave period used in the test. However, the signature of near-bed turbulence on

  1. Alveolar bone response to light-force tipping and bodily movement in maxillary incisor advancement:A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimongkol, Priyakorn; Thongudomporn, Udom; Lindauer, Steven J

    2017-10-30

    To compare alveolar bone thickness and height changes between untreated incisors (control), incisors advanced with light-force tipping, and incisors advanced with bodily movement mechanics. Forty-three subjects (aged 9.49 ± 1.56 years) with anterior crossbite were allocated into an untreated group (control), tipping group, or bodily movement group. Lateral cephalograms were taken before advancement (T0) and after obtaining normal overjet (T1). Changes in labial and palatal alveolar bone thickness and height surrounding maxillary incisors were evaluated with limited field-of-view cone-beam computed tomography before advancement (CT0) and 4 months after normal overjet was obtained (CT1). Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank and Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA tests were used to compare changes within and between groups, as appropriate. The significance level was set at .05. Labial alveolar bone thickness at the midroot and apical levels were significantly decreased in the bodily movement group (P tipping group compared with the control and bodily movement groups (P tipping and bodily movement in growing patients resulted in labial alveolar bone thickness and labial and palatal alveolar bone height changes that were similar to the untreated group.

  2. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  3. Effects of ground and joint reaction force exercise on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley George A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low bone mineral density (BMD and subsequent fractures are a major public health problem in postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to use the aggregate data meta-analytic approach to examine the effects of ground (for example, walking and/or joint reaction (for example, strength training exercise on femoral neck (FN and lumbar spine (LS BMD in postmenopausal women. Methods The a priori inclusion criteria were: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 exercise intervention ≥ 24 weeks, (3 comparative control group, (4 postmenopausal women, (5 participants not regularly active, i.e., less than 150 minutes of moderate intensity (3.0 to 5.9 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, less than 75 minutes of vigorous intensity (> 6.0 metabolic equivalents weight bearing endurance activity per week, resistance training g was calculated for each FN and LS BMD result and pooled using random-effects models. Z-score alpha values, 95%confidence intervals (CI and number-needed-to-treat (NNT were calculated for pooled results. Heterogeneity was examined using Q and I2. Mixed-effects ANOVA and simple meta-regression were used to examine changes in FN and LS BMD according to selected categorical and continuous variables. Statistical significance was set at an alpha value ≤0.05 and a trend at >0.05 to ≤ 0.10. Results Small, statistically significant exercise minus control group improvements were found for both FN (28 g’s, 1632 participants, g = 0.288, 95% CI = 0.102, 0.474, p = 0.002, Q = 90.5, p I2 = 70.1%, NNT = 6 and LS (28 g’s, 1504 participants, g = 0.179, 95% CI = −0.003, 0.361, p = 0.05, Q = 77.7, p I2 = 65.3%, NNT = 6 BMD. Clinically, it was estimated that the overall changes in FN and LS would reduce the 20-year relative risk of osteoporotic fracture at any site by approximately 11% and 10%, respectively. None of the mixed

  4. The Radiation Magnetic Force (FmR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    The detection of Circular Magnetic Field (CMF), associated with electrons movement, not incorporated in theoretical works; is introduced as elements of attraction and repulsion for magnetic force between two conductors carrying electric currents; it also created magnetic force between charged particles and magnetic field, or Lorentz force; CMF contain energy of Electromagnetic Radiation (EM-R); a relationship has been established between the magnetic part of the EM-R, and radiation force, showing the magnetic force as a frequency controlled entity, in which a Radiation Magnetic Force formula is derived, the force embedded EM-Wave, similar to Electromagnetic Radiation Energy given by Planck's formula; the force is accountable for electron removal from atom in the Photoelectric Effects, stabilizing orbital atoms, excitation and ionization atoms, initiating production of secondary EM-R in Compton Effect mechanism; the paper aimed at reviving the wave nature of EM-R, which could reflects in a better understanding of the microscopic-world.

  5. Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Force Dynamics of Verb Complementation The concepts of motion and force are both extensively discussed in cognitive linguistics literature. But they are discussed separately. The first usually in the context of ‘motion situations’ (Talmy, Slobin, Zlatev, the other as part of the Force Dynamics framework, which was developed by Talmy. The aim of this paper is twofold: first, to argue that the concepts of force and motion should not be isolated but considered as two inseparable parts of force-motion events. The second goal is to prove that the modified Force Dynamics (force-motion framework can be used for precise characterization of the verb complementation patterns. To this end, a random sample of 50 sentences containing the verb ‘went’ is analyzed, demonstrating the differences between the categories of intensive and intransitive complementation with respect to the linguistically coded parameters of force and motion.

  6. Triple-Bead Mixed Amphetamine Salts (SHP465) in Adults With ADHD: Results of a Phase 3, Double-Blind, Randomized, Forced-Dose Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Glen; Yan, Brian; Adler, Lenard A

    2017-04-01

    Evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of triple-bead mixed amphetamine salts (MAS) in ADHD. Adults with ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total scores ≥32 were randomized to 6 weeks of triple-bead MAS (25, 50, or 75 mg) or placebo. The primary endpoint was ADHD-RS-IV total score change from baseline at end of study (EOS). Least squares mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) treatment differences for ADHD-RS-IV total score changes from baseline to EOS significantly favored triple-bead MAS (all doses combined: -10.6 [-13.2, -8.0]; p triple-bead MAS dosages. The most frequently reported TEAEs with triple-bead MAS (all doses combined) included insomnia, decreased appetite, and dry mouth. Mean ± SD pulse and systolic blood pressure increases at EOS were 3.5 ± 10.33 bpm and 0.3 ± 10.48 mmHg with triple-bead MAS (all doses combined). Triple-bead MAS significantly reduced adult ADHD symptoms; the safety profile was consistent with previous triple-bead MAS studies.

  7. Drinking water to reduce alcohol craving? A randomized controlled study on the impact of ghrelin in mediating the effects of forced water intake in alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmann, Anne; Lippmann, Katharina; Schuster, Rilana; Reinhard, Iris; Bach, Patrick; Weil, Georg; Rietschel, Marcella; Witt, Stephanie H; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kiefer, Falk

    2017-11-01

    Recent data suggest that ghrelin is involved in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders, affecting alcohol self-administration and craving. Gastric ghrelin secretion is reduced by stomach distension. We now tested the hypothesis whether the clinically well-known effects of high-volume water intake on craving reduction in alcoholism is mediated by acute changes in ghrelin secretion. In this randomized human laboratory study, we included 23 alcohol-dependent male inpatient subjects who underwent alcohol cue exposure. Participants of the intervention group drank 1000ml of mineral water within 10min directly thereafter, compared to the participants of the control group who did not. Craving and plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were measured ten times during the 120min following the alcohol cue exposure session. In the intervention group, a significant decrease in acetylated ghrelin in plasma compared to the control group was observed. This decrease was correlated to a reduction in patients' subjective level of craving. In the control group, no decrease of acetylated ghrelin in plasma and no association between alcohol craving and changes in plasma concentrations of acetylated ghrelin were observed. Our results present new evidence that the modulation in the ghrelin system by oral water intake mediates the effects of volume intake with craving reduction in alcohol use disorders. Hence, in addition to pharmacological interventions with ghrelin antagonists, the reduction of physiological ghrelin secretion might be a target for future interventions in the treatment of alcohol craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Piezoelectric wave motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2001-07-17

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  9. Wave scattering from statistically rough surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bass, F G; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Wave Scattering from Statistically Rough Surfaces discusses the complications in radio physics and hydro-acoustics in relation to wave transmission under settings seen in nature. Some of the topics that are covered include radar and sonar, the effect of variations in topographic relief or ocean waves on the transmission of radio and sound waves, the reproduction of radio waves from the lower layers of the ionosphere, and the oscillations of signals within the earth-ionosphere waveguide. The book begins with some fundamental idea of wave transmission theory and the theory of random processes a

  10. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  11. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko

    2016-03-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.

  12. Plane waves as tractor beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  13. Matter-Wave Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorlach, Alexey A.; Gorlach, Maxim A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Optical and acoustic tractor beams are currently the focus of intense research due to their counterintuitive property of exerting a pulling force on small scattering objects. In this Letter we propose a matter-wave tractor beam and utilize the de Broglie waves of nonrelativistic matter particles...... in analogy to "classical" tractor beams. We reveal the presence of the quantum-mechanical pulling force for the variety of quantum mechanical potentials observing the resonant enhancement of the pulling effect under the conditions of the suppressed scattering known as the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. We also...... are compared, and the matter-wave pulling force is found to have exclusive properties of dragging slow particles in short-range potentials. We envisage that the use of tractor beams could lead to the unprecedented precision in manipulation with atomic-scale quantum objects....

  14. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Evolution of basic equations for nearshore wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISOBE, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a systematic, overall view of theories for periodic waves of permanent form, such as Stokes and cnoidal waves, is described first with their validity ranges. To deal with random waves, a method for estimating directional spectra is given. Then, various wave equations are introduced according to the assumptions included in their derivations. The mild-slope equation is derived for combined refraction and diffraction of linear periodic waves. Various parabolic approximations and time-dependent forms are proposed to include randomness and nonlinearity of waves as well as to simplify numerical calculation. Boussinesq equations are the equations developed for calculating nonlinear wave transformations in shallow water. Nonlinear mild-slope equations are derived as a set of wave equations to predict transformation of nonlinear random waves in the nearshore region. Finally, wave equations are classified systematically for a clear theoretical understanding and appropriate selection for specific applications. PMID:23318680

  16. Comparison between retrograde intrarenal surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in the treatment of lower pole kidney stones up to 15 mm. Prospective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilches, R M; Aliaga, A; Reyes, D; Sepulveda, F; Mercado, A; Moya, F; Ledezma, R; Hidalgo, J P; Olmedo, T; Marchant, F

    2015-05-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) is currently the recommended treatment for intra-renal calculi smaller than 2 cm. However the low Stone Free Rate (SFR) in lower pole calculi gives rise to new techniques, such us retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS), for improve the surgery outcomes. To compare the efficacy of a treatment with ESWL with RIRS, in terms of SFR after surgery, in patients with kidney stones up to 15 mm in the lower pole. A prospective study was carried out in order to assess the results of ESWL and RIRS in patients with lower pole stones less than 15 mm. Among a total of 55 patients, 31 were underwent to ESWL (Group 1) and the remaining 24 to RIRS (Group 2). Clinical data recorded, including general characteristics of each patient, were: calculi size, side, operative time, complications according to Clavien scale, SFR and the presence of residual fragments at 2 months post-treatment assessed by a CT scan. STATA 11 was used to perform the statistical analysis. There were no differences for general descriptors among groups with the exception of a significantly longer operative time for RIRS. The rates of SFR and residual fragments lesser than 3 mm. were lower in the RIRS group than in ESWL ones. RIRS also showed a lower rate of clinically significant fragments (0% vs 42.3%. P 3 mm (0% vs. 58.8%), being statistically significant (P < .05). Clavien III or higher complications were not reported in any of the groups. In the treatment of lower pole stone RIRS has the same results than ESWL in terms of SFR. Regarding absence of a clinically significant residual fragment, RIRS was superior to ESWL. A bigger sample size is required in order to confirm this results. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Robot-assisted gait training improves brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity and peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation: Randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, Bo Ryun; Seo, Min Ji; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2016-10-01

    Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) evaluates arterial stiffness and also predicts early outcome in stroke patients. The objectives of this study were to investigate arterial stiffness of subacute nonfunctional ambulatory stroke patients and to compare the effects of robot-assisted gait therapy (RAGT) combined with rehabilitation therapy (RT) on arterial stiffness and functional recovery with those of RT alone. The RAGT group (N = 30) received 30 minutes of robot-assisted gait therapy and 30 minutes of conventional RT, and the control group (N = 26) received 60 minutes of RT, 5 times a week for 4 weeks. baPWV was measured and calculated using an automated device. The patients also performed a symptom-limited graded exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer, and parameters of cardiopulmonary fitness were recorded. Clinical outcome measures were categorized into 4 categories: activities of daily living, balance, ambulatory function, and paretic leg motor function and were evaluated before and after the 4-week intervention. Both groups exhibited significant functional recovery in all clinical outcome measures after the 4-week intervention. However, peak aerobic capacity, peak heart rate, exercise tolerance test duration, and baPWV improved only in the RAGT group, and the improvements in baPWV and peak aerobic capacity were more noticeable in the RAGT group than in the control group. Robot-assisted gait therapy combined with conventional rehabilitation therapy represents an effective method for reversing arterial stiffness and improving peak aerobic capacity in subacute stroke patients with totally dependent ambulation. However, further large-scale studies with longer term follow-up periods are warranted to measure the effects of RAGT on secondary prevention after stroke.

  18. Segregation of helicity in inertial wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, A.

    2017-03-01

    Inertial waves are known to exist in the Earth's rapidly rotating outer core and could be important for the dynamo generation. It is well known that a monochromatic inertial plane wave traveling parallel to the rotation axis (along positive z ) has negative helicity while the wave traveling antiparallel (negative z ) has positive helicity. Such a helicity segregation, north and south of the equator, is necessary for the α2-dynamo model based on inertial waves [Davidson, Geophys. J. Int. 198, 1832 (2014), 10.1093/gji/ggu220] to work. The core is likely to contain a myriad of inertial waves of different wave numbers and frequencies. In this study, we investigate whether this characteristic of helicity segregation also holds for an inertial wave packet comprising waves with the same sign of Cg ,z, the z component of group velocity. We first derive the polarization relations for inertial waves and subsequently derive the resultant helicity in wave packets forming as a result of superposition of two or more waves. We find that the helicity segregation does hold for an inertial wave packet unless the wave numbers of the constituent waves are widely separated. In the latter case, regions of opposite color helicity do appear, but the mean helicity retains the expected sign. An illustration of this observation is provided by (a) calculating the resultant helicity for a wave packet formed by superposition of four upward-propagating inertial waves with different wave vectors and (b) conducting the direct numerical simulation of a Gaussian eddy under rapid rotation. Last, the possible effects of other forces such as the viscous dissipation, the Lorentz force, buoyancy stratification, and nonlinearity on helicity are investigated and discussed. The helical structure of the wave packet is likely to remain unaffected by dissipation or the magnetic field, but can be modified by the presence of linearly stable stratification and nonlinearity.

  19. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  20. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  1. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  2. Tsunami Energy, Ocean-Bottom Pressure, and Hydrodynamic Force from Stochastic Bottom Displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Khaled T.; Omar, M. A.; Allam, Allam A.

    2017-03-01

    Tsunami generation and propagation due to a randomly fluctuating of submarine earthquake modeled by vertical time-dependent of a stochastic bottom displacement are investigated. The increase in oscillations and amplitude in the free surface elevation are controlled by the noise intensity parameter of the stochastic bottom displacement. Evolution of kinetic and potential energy of the resulting waves by the stochastic bottom displacement is examined. Exchange between potential and kinetic energy was achieved in the propagation process. The dynamic ocean-bottom pressure during tsunami generation is investigated. As the vertical displacement of the stochastic bottom increases, the peak amplitude of the ocean-bottom pressure increases through the dynamic effect. Time series of the maximum tsunami wave amplitude, kinetic and potential energy, wave and ocean-bottom pressure gauges and the hydrodynamic force caused by the stochastic source model under the effect of the water depth of the ocean are investigated.

  3. Forced marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Guidelines to help A&E staff and other healthcare professionals who suspect cases of forced marriage were launched this month by the government. The guidelines provide practical advice on how to recognise the warning signs, and what to do if patients disclose that they have been, or are about to be, forced to marry. The guidelines, Dealing with Cases of Forced Marriage, are available at www.fco.gov.uk/forcedmarriage.

  4. Roles of physical and mental health in suicidal ideation in Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force veterans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thompson, James M; Zamorski, Mark A; Sweet, Jill; VanTil, Linda; Sareen, Jitender; Pietrzak, Robert H; Hopman, Wilma H; MacLean, Mary Beth; Pedlar, Dave

    2014-01-01

    .... Subjects were a stratified random sample of 2,658 veterans who had been released from the Canadian Armed Forces Regular Force during 1998-2007 and had participated in the 2010 Survey on Transition to Civilian Life...

  5. Backward Wave Oscillation Thresholds in a Traveling-Wave Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassem, Abhijit; Wong, Patrick; Antoulinakis, Foivos; Lau, Y. Y.

    2017-10-01

    The threshold for the onset of backward wave oscillation (BWO) in a traveling-wave tube (TWT) was formulated by Johnson. In this paper, we extend Johnson's model to include random variations of circuit phase velocity along the tube axis. We find that Johnson's BWO threshold is minimally affected by these random variations. We next ignore these random variations, but include finite reflections at the two ends of a TWT and study their effects on Johnson's threshold. The latter theory is developed and being compared with results from an experimental helix test circuit. We will explore a 4-wave treatment for BWO, and its connection with the Briggs-Bers criterion for the existence of absolute instability. Work supported by DARPA, contract HR0011-16-C-0080 with Leidos, Inc., AFOSR Awards Nos. FA9550-15-1-0097, FA9550-14-1-0309, and L-3 Communications.

  6. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  7. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  8. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  9. Short-term outcomes of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of chronic non-calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galasso Olimpio

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence supporting the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff, but the best current evidence does not support its use in non-calcifying tendinopathy. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of low energy ESWT for non-calcifying tendinopathy of the rotator cuff. Methods 20 patients with non-calcifying supraspinatus tendinopathy (NCST were randomized to an active or a sham treatment group. Physical, blood, roentgenographic, and MRI examinations of the shoulder were conducted to verify that patients met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. These examinations were repeated six and twelve weeks after treatments. Effectiveness was determined by comparison of the mean improvement in the Constant and Murley score (CMS between the treatment and the placebo groups at three months. Safety was assessed by analyzing the number and severity of adverse events. Results All the patients completed the investigation protocol. At the final follow-up, significant improvement in the total CMS score and most of the CMS subscales was observed in the ESWT group when compared to the baseline values. Significantly higher total CMS, and significantly higher scores for CMS pain and ROM were observed in the ESWT group when compared to the placebo. No serious adverse events were noted after ESWT. Conclusions Patients suffering from NCST may benefit from low energy ESWT, at least in short-term. The application protocol of ESWT is likely to play a key-role in a successful treatment. Future investigations should be undertaken on the long-term effects of this technique for the treatment of NCST. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN41236511

  10. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  11. Wind wave source functions in opposing seas

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2015-08-26

    The Red Sea is a challenge for wave modeling because of its unique two opposed wave systems, forced by opposite winds and converging at its center. We investigate the different physical aspects of wave evolution and propagation in the convergence zone. The two opposing wave systems have similar amplitude and frequency, each driven by the action of its own wind. Wave patterns at the centre of the Red Sea, as derived from extensive tests and intercomparison between model and measured data, suggest that the currently available wave model source functions may not properly represent the evolution of the local fields that appear to be characterized by a less effective wind input and an enhanced white-capping. We propose and test a possible simple solution to improve the wave-model simulation under opposing winds and waves condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of slow release-Fampridine on muscle strength, rate of force development, functional capacity and cognitive function in an enriched population of MS patients. A randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, H B; Nielsen, J L; Ravnborg, M; Dalgas, U; Aagaard, P; Stenager, E

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted as a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled parallel group trial preceded by open label enrichment phase. The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the effect of SR-Fampridine treatment on muscle strength in terms of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and rate of force development (RFD) of the lower extremities and 2) to replicate previously published data on the effect of slow release-Fampridine (SR-Fampridine) on the functional capacity of the lower limbs, the upper limb and cognitive function, in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). Previously identified responders to SR-Fampridine were randomized to SR- Fampridine or placebo treatment for four weeks. On days 0 and 26-28 participants underwent testing by isokinetic dynamometry, Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Six Spot Step Test (SSST), Timed 25 Foot Walk Test (T25FW) and 5-Times Sit-to-Stand (5-STS). A statistical significant effect of SR-Fampridine on MVC was demonstrated during knee extension, knee flexion and hip flexion of the weakest leg, as well as on RFD during knee extension and knee flexion of the weakest leg. Furthermore, a significant effect of SR-Fampridine on T25FW, SSST and 5-STS was demonstrated. Gold standard dynamometry assessment of muscle strength showed improved MVC and RFD in persons with MS treated with SR-Fampridine compared to placebo. Furthermore, previous findings on the effects of SR-Fampridine on functional capacity of the lower limbs were replicated. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01656148. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Effects of Wenxin Keli on P-Wave Dispersion and Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, on P-wave dispersion (Pd and maintenance of sinus rhythm for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF. Methods. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, for PAF, with Pd or maintenance rate of sinus rhythm as the main outcome measure. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0, and analysed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. Fourteen RCTs of WXKL were included. The methodological quality of the trials was generally evaluated as low. The results of meta-analysis showed that WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, was more effective in Pd and the maintenance of sinus rhythm, compared with no medicine or Western medicine alone, in patients with PAF or PAF complicated by other diseases. Seven of the trials reported adverse events, indicating that the safety of WXKL is still uncertain. Conclusions. WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, appears to be more effective in improving Pd as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with PAF and its complications.

  14. Unpinning of spiral waves from rectangular obstacles by stimulated wave trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponboonjaroenchai, Benjamas; Srithamma, Panatda; Kumchaiseemak, Nakorn; Sutthiopad, Malee; Müller, Stefan C.; Luengviriya, Chaiya; Luengviriya, Jiraporn

    2017-09-01

    Pinned spiral waves are exhibited in many excitable media. In cardiology, lengthened tachycardia correspond to propagating action potential in forms of spiral waves pinned to anatomical obstacles including veins and scares. Thus, elimination such waves is important particularly in medical treatments. We present study of unpinning of a spiral wave by a wave train initiated by periodic stimuli at a given location. The spiral wave is forced to leave the rectangular obstacle when the period of the wave train is shorter than a threshold Tunpin. For small obstacles, Tunpin decreases when the obstacle size is increased. Furthermore, Tunpin depends on the obstacle orientation with respect to the wave train propagation. For large obstacles, Tunpin is independent to the obstacle size. It implies that the orientation of the obstacle plays an important role in the unpinning of the spiral wave, especially for small rectangular obstacles.

  15. Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, C.; Ruigrok, E.; Shiomi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal

  16. Force-plate analyses of balance following a balance exercise program during acute post-operative phase in individuals with total hip and knee arthroplasty: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Jogi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Typical rehabilitation programs following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty include joint range of motion and muscle-strengthening exercises. Balance and balance exercises following total hip arthroplasty and total knee arthroplasty have not received much attention. The purpose of this study was to determine whether an intervention of balance exercises added to a typical rehabilitation program positively affects patients’ balance. Methods: A total of 63 patients were provided with outpatient physical therapy at their home. Patients were randomly assigned to either typical (n = 33 or balance (n = 30 exercise group. The typical group completed seven typical surgery-specific joint range of motion and muscle-strengthening exercises, while the balance group completed the typical exercises plus three balance exercises. After 5 weeks of administering the rehabilitation program, patients’ balance was assessed on a force plate using 95% ellipse area of the center of pressure amplitude. Results: Patients in the balance group demonstrated significant reduction in the 95% ellipse area for the anterior and posterior lean standing conditions (p < 0.01. Conclusion: Balance exercises added to the typical outpatient physical therapy program resulted in significantly greater improvements in balance for participants with total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty, compared to the typical exercise program alone. Physical therapists might consider the use of balance exercises to improve balance in individuals in the acute post-operative phase following total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty.

  17. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  18. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  19. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  20. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  1. A numerical study of microparticle acoustophoresis driven by acoustic radiation forces and streaming-induced drag forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Peter Barkholt; Barnkob, Rune; Jensen, Mads Jakob Herring

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the transient acoustophoretic motion of microparticles suspended in a liquid-filled microchannel and driven by the acoustic forces arising from an imposed standing ultrasound wave: the acoustic radiation force from the scattering of sound waves on the particles and...

  2. Consolidation Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Ward; Smit, Han

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explains why consolidation acquisitions occur in waves and it predicts the differing role each firm is likely to play in the consolidation game. We propose that whether a firm assumes the role of rival consolidator, target, or passive observer depends on the position of the firm relative to the entity that merges first. Our model predicts that an initial acquisition triggers a wave of follow-on acquisitions, where the process of asset accumulation by the consolidator is...

  3. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  4. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Byggeri og Anlæg med bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  5. Blast Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Needham, Charles E

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this text is to document many of the lessons that have been learned during the author’s more than forty years in the field of blast and shock. The writing therefore takes on an historical perspective, in some sense, because it follows the author’s experience. The book deals with blast waves propagating in fluids or materials that can be treated as fluids. It begins by distinguishing between blast waves and the more general category of shock waves. It then examines several ways of generating blast waves, considering the propagation of blast waves in one, two and three dimensions as well as through the real atmosphere. One section treats the propagation of shocks in layered gases in a more detailed manner. The book also details the interaction of shock waves with structures in particular reflections, progressing from simple to complex geometries, including planar structures, two-dimensional structures such as ramps or wedges, reflections from heights of burst, and three-dimensional st...

  6. Ponderomotive Force in the Presence of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Krivorutsky, E. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents averaged equations of particle motion in an electromagnetic wave of arbitrary frequency with its wave vector directed along the ambient magnetic field. The particle is also subjected to an E cross B drift and a background electric field slowly changing in space and acting along the magnetic field line. The fields, wave amplitude, and the wave vector depend on the coordinate along the magnetic field line. The derivations of the ponderomotive forces are done by assuming that the drift velocity in the ambient magnetic field is comparable to the particle velocity. Such a scenario leads to new ponderomotive forces, dependent on the wave magnetic field intensity, and, as a result, to the additional energy exchange between the wave and the plasma particles. It is found that the parallel electric field can lead to the change of the particle-wave energy exchange rate comparable to that produced by the previously discussed ponderomotive forces.

  7. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  8. Universal Spin-Momentum Locked Optical Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Kalhor, Farid; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-01-01

    Evanescent electromagnetic waves possess spin-momentum locking, where the direction of propagation (momentum) is locked to the inherent polarization of the wave (transverse spin). We study the optical forces arising from this universal phenomenon and show that the fundamental origin of recently reported non-trivial optical chiral forces is spin-momentum locking. For evanescent waves, we show that the direction of energy flow, direction of decay, and direction of spin follow a right hand rule for three different cases of total internal reflection, surface plasmon polaritons, and $HE_{11}$ mode of an optical fiber. Furthermore, we explain how the recently reported phenomena of lateral optical force on chiral and achiral particles is caused by the transverse spin of the evanescent field and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon. Finally, we propose an experiment to identify the unique lateral forces arising from the transverse spin in the optical fiber and point to fundamental differences of the spin density from...

  9. Fractal fluctuations and quantum-like chaos in the brain by analysis of variability of brain waves: A new method based on a fractal variance function and random matrix theory: A link with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time and V. Weiss and H. Weiss golden ratio in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Elio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari (Italy); School of Advanced International Studies on Theoretical and Nonlinear Methodologies-Bari (Italy)], E-mail: elio.conte@fastwebnet.it; Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, M.S.I., University of Vaexjoe, S-35195 (Sweden); Federici, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653W Congress, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    We develop a new method for analysis of fundamental brain waves as recorded by the EEG. To this purpose we introduce a Fractal Variance Function that is based on the calculation of the variogram. The method is completed by using Random Matrix Theory. Some examples are given. We also discuss the link of such formulation with H. Weiss and V. Weiss golden ratio found in the brain, and with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time theory.

  10. Application of CFD based wave loads in aeroelastic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schløer, Signe; Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Two fully nonlinear irregular wave realizations with different significant wave heights are considered. The wave realizations are both calculated in the potential flow solver Ocean-Wave3D and in a coupled domain decomposed potential-flow CFD solver. The surface elevations of the calculated wave...... domain decomposed potentialflow CFD solver result in different dynamic forces in the tower and monopile, despite that the static forces on a fixed monopile are similar. The changes are due to differences in the force profiles and wave steepness in the two solvers. The results indicate that an accurate...... description of the wave loads is very important in aeroelastic calculations especially in cases where the aerodynamic loads and damping are insignificant....

  11. Clustering of cycloidal wave energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Stefan G.

    2016-03-29

    A wave energy conversion system uses a pair of wave energy converters (WECs) on respective active mountings on a floating platform, so that the separation of the WECs from each other or from a central WEC can be actively adjusted according to the wavelength of incident waves. The adjustable separation facilitates operation of the system to cancel reactive forces, which may be generated during wave energy conversion. Modules on which such pairs of WECs are mounted can be assembled with one or more central WECs to form large clusters in which reactive forces and torques can be made to cancel. WECs of different sizes can be employed to facilitate cancelation of reactive forces and torques.

  12. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified ...

  13. Casimir force on interacting Bose-Einstein condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Shyamal; Bhattacharjee, J K; Majumder, Dwipesh; Saha, Kush; Chakravarty, Nabajit

    2009-01-01

    We have presented an analytic theory for the Casimir force on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) which is confined between two parallel plates. We have considered Dirichlet boundary conditions for the condensate wave function as well as for the phonon field. We have shown that, the condensate wave function (which obeys the Gross-Pitaevskii equation) is responsible for the mean field part of Casimir force, which usually dominates over the quantum (fluctuations) part of the Casimir force.

  14. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith

    1995-01-01

    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  15. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  16. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    The purpose of this project is to make an accurate, robust, geometric flexible and efficient model for calculation of forces on structures from nonlinear ocean waves and breaking wave impacts. Accurate prediction of the extreme forces on wind turbine foundations, breakwaters and tidal or wave power...... devises are important for enhancement structural designs. The proposed model is based on an incompressible and inviscid flow approximation and the governing equations are applied in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian moving frame of reference (ALE). The Runge-Kutta method (RK) is used for time integration...... compare reasonably well. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is coupled with the potential flow model of Engsig-Karup et al. [2009], to perform multiscale calculation of breaking wave impacts on a vertical breakwater. The potential flow model provides accurate calculation of the wave...

  17. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  18. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  19. Wave groups in unidirectional surface wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)

  20. Acoustic radiation force control: Pulsating spherical carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Majid; Mojahed, Alireza

    2018-02-01

    The interaction between harmonic plane progressive acoustic beams and a pulsating spherical radiator is studied. The acoustic radiation force function exerted on the spherical body is derived as a function of the incident wave pressure and the monopole vibration characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) of the body. Two distinct strategies are presented in order to alter the radiation force effects (i.e., pushing and pulling states) by changing its magnitude and direction. In the first strategy, an incident wave field with known amplitude and phase is considered. It is analytically shown that the zero- radiation force state (i.e., radiation force function cancellation) is achievable for specific pulsation characteristics belong to a frequency-dependent straight line equation in the plane of real-imaginary components (i.e., Nyquist Plane) of prescribed surface displacement. It is illustrated that these characteristic lines divide the mentioned displacement plane into two regions of positive (i.e., pushing) and negative (i.e., pulling) radiation forces. In the second strategy, the zero, negative and positive states of radiation force are obtained through adjusting the incident wave field characteristics (i.e., amplitude and phase) which insonifies the radiator with prescribed pulsation characteristics. It is proved that zero radiation force state occurs for incident wave pressure characteristics belong to specific frequency-dependent circles in Nyquist plane of incident wave pressure. These characteristic circles divide the Nyquist plane into two distinct regions corresponding to positive (out of circles) and negative (in the circles) values of radiation force function. It is analytically shown that the maximum amplitude of negative radiation force is exactly equal to the amplitude of the (positive) radiation force exerted upon the sphere in the passive state, by the same incident field. The developed concepts are much more deepened by considering the required

  1. The 2010 Pakistan Flood and the Russia Heat Wave: Teleconnection of Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, William K.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    The Pakistan flood and the Russia heat wave/Vvild fires of the summer of2010 were two of the most extreme, and catastrophic events in the histories of the two countries occurring at about the same time. To a casual observer, the timing may just be a random coincidence of nature, because the two events were separated by long distances, and represented opposite forces of nature, i.e., flood vs. drought, and water vs. fire. In this paper, using NASA satellite and NOAA reanalysis data, we presented observation evidences that that the two events were indeed physically connected.

  2. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter

    På foranledning af Löwenmark F.R.I, er der udført numeriske beregninger af Wave Dragons (herefter WD) armes effektivitet for forskellige geometriske udformninger. 5 geometriske modeller, hvor WD's arme er forkortet/forlænget er undersøgt for 3 forskellige drejninger af armene. I alt er 15...

  3. Rotational waves in geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  4. Inventing a Better Way to Capture the Energy of Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    NREL's ocean energy research team's efforts to develop more robust and cost-effective wave energy converters have yielded a record of invention titled, 'Wave Energy Conversion Devices with Actuated Geometry.' This innovative wave device features a wave converter with controlled geometry that increases energy capture and prevents large waves from overloading the generator. The invention's control system actuates flaps that open and close depending on wave conditions. Better control of the wave forces acting on wave energy conversion devices provides a solution to one of wave energy's biggest challenges -- and could cut the cost of wave energy in half.

  5. Influence of subtropical Rossby wave trains on planetary wave activity over Antarctica in September 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter H. W. Peters

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of September 2002, strong convection processes over south-eastern Indonesia and over south-eastern Africa have been observed. Due to the strong upper tropospheric divergent outflow, two Rossby wave trains (RWTs were generated. Their south-eastward propagation was controlled by the mean background flow. These two wave trains are visible in observations. It is hypothesised that these wave trains cause enhanced planetary wave activity fluxes which are a result of an amplified planetary wave 2 in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Antarctica. Such a change of the planetary wave structure was diagnosed in September 2002, prior to the first observed major sudden stratospheric warming event on the Southern Hemisphere. A simplified version of GCM ECHAM4 is used to evaluate the hypothesis. Sensitivity experiments were performed for a mean background flow similar to September 2002. Furthermore, the wave maker approach was used to generate Rossby waves in the subtropical upper troposphere at two distinct locations which are corresponding to the observed regions of divergent outflow. As a main result, after about 2 weeks of model integration with wave maker forcing, we find two RWTs with a south-eastward propagation inducing a polar amplification of planetary wave 2 in the upper troposphere and lower/middle stratosphere. The poleward wave activity flux is enhanced in comparison to the control run without any wave maker forcing. The convergence of the Eliassen–Palm flux causes a 25% deceleration of zonal mean zonal wind in the model stratosphere but no wind reversal. Sensitivity runs support the robustness of these results. The obtained model results highlight the mechanism and confirm the hypothesis that enhanced planetary wave activity in austral polar region in 2002 is caused by enhanced subtropical forcing of two RWTs.

  6. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  7. Towards measuring the Archimedes force of vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Calloni, Enrico; De Rosa, Rosario; Di Fiore, Luciano; Esposito, Giampiero; Garufi, Fabio; Rosa, Luigi; Rovelli, Carlo; Ruggi, Paolo; Tafuri, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the force exerted by the gravitational field on a Casimir cavity in terms of Archimedes' force of vacuum, we identify the force that can be tested against observation and we show that the present technology makes it possible to perform the first experimental tests. We motivate the use of suitable high-Tc superconductors as modulators of Archimedes' force. We analyze the possibility of using gravitational wave interferometers as detectors of the force, transported through an optical spring from the Archimedes vacuum force apparatus to the gravitational interferometers test masses to maintain the two systems well separated. We also analyze the use of balances to actuate and detect the force, we compare different solutions and discuss the most important experimental issues.

  8. Nonlinear Passive Control of a Wave Energy Converter Subject to Constraints in Irregular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a passive control method of a point absorbing wave energy converter by considering the displacement and velocity constraints under irregular waves in the time domain. A linear generator is used as a power take-off unit, and the equivalent damping force is optimized to improve the power production of the wave energy converter. The results from nonlinear and linear passive control methods are compared, and indicate that the nonlinear passive control method leads to the excitation force in phase with the velocity of the converter that can significantly improve the energy production of the converter.

  9. Wave-structure interaction for long wave models with a freely moving bottom

    OpenAIRE

    Benyo, Krisztian

    2017-01-01

    43 pages; In this paper we address a particular fluid-solid interaction problem in which the solid object is lying at the bottom of a layer of fluid and moves under the forces created by waves travelling on the surface of this layer. More precisely, we consider the water waves problem in a fluid of fixed depth with a flat bottom topography and with an object lying on the bottom, allowed to move horizontally under the pressure forces created by the waves. After establishing the physical settin...

  10. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  11. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Frigaard, Peter; Brorsen, Michael

    Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004.......Nærværende rapport beskriver foreløbige hovedkonklusioner på modelforsøg udført på Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Vand, Jord og Miljøteknik med bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star i perioden 13/9 2004 til 12/11 2004....

  12. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  13. Simple waves in Hertzian chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, B Edward; Calvo, David

    2012-06-01

    The discrete system of equations for a chain consisting of a large number of spheres interacting via the Hertz force of index 3/2 in strain is examined in the very long wavelength limit, yielding an effective medium description. The resulting continuum second-order equation of motion possesses a subset of simple waves obeying a first-order equation of reduced index 5/4. These simple waves appear not to have examined before. For a given initial strain, the simple wave solution prescribes initial sphere centroid velocities. Together the initial strain and velocities are used in the second-order discrete system. Results for shock wave development compare very well between the second-order discrete system (minus physically valid oscillations) and the reduced first-order equation. A second-order simulation of colliding waves examines the ability of waves to pass through each other, with a phase advance accruing during the collision process. An arbitrary initial condition is shown to evolve toward a universal similarity solution proportional to (x/t)(4). A closed-form solution is given including the complete history of the waveform, shock location, and amplitude.

  14. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  15. Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Z

    2005-01-01

    The International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW) is a well established series of conferences held every two years in a different location. A unique feature of the ISSW is the emphasis on bridging the gap between physicists and engineers working in fields as different as gas dynamics, fluid mechanics and materials sciences. The main results presented at these meetings constitute valuable proceedings that offer anyone working in this field an authoritative and comprehensive source of reference.

  16. Experiments with Point Absorber Type Wave Energy Converters in a Large-Scale Wave Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stratigaki, Vasiliki; Troch, Peter; Stallard, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WECs) extract energy from ocean waves and have the potential to produce a significant contribution of electricity from renewable sources. However, large "WEC farms" or "WEC arrays" are expected to have "WEC array effects", expressed as the impact of the WECs on the wave...... of geometric layout configurations and wave conditions. WEC response, wave induced forces on the WECs and wave field modifications have been measured. Each WEC consists of a buoy with diameter of 0.315 m. Power take-off is modeled by realizing friction based energy dissipation through damping of the WECs...... array effects and for validation and extension of numerical models. This model validation will enable optimization of the geometrical layout of WEC arrays for real applications and reduction of the cost of energy from wave energy systems....

  17. Forced cocurrent smoldering combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosanjh, Sudip S.; Pagni, Patrick J.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model of cocurrent smoldering combustion through a very porous solid fuel is developed. Smoldering is initiated at the top of a long radially insulated uniform fuel cylinder, so that the smolder wave propagates downward, opposing an upward-forced flow of oxidizer, with the solid fuel and the gaseous oxidizer entering the reaction zone from the same direction (hence, cocurrent). Radiative heat transfer was incorporated using a diffusion approximation, and smoldering was modeled using a one-step reaction mechanism. The results indicate that, for a given fuel, the final temperature depends only on the initial oxygen mass flux, increasing logarithmically with the mass flux. The smolder velocity is linearly dependent on the initial oxygen mass flux, and, at a fixed value of the flux, increases with initial oxygen mass fraction. The mathematical relationship determining the conditions for steady smolder propagation is presented.

  18. Controls on flood and sediment wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Maarten; Lane, Stuart N.; Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The understanding of flood wave propagation - celerity and transformation - through a fluvial system is of generic importance for flood forecasting/mitigation. In association with flood wave propagation, sediment wave propagation may induce local erosion and sedimentation, which will affect infrastructure and riparian natural habitats. Through analysing flood and sediment wave propagation, we gain insight in temporal changes in transport capacity (the flood wave) and sediment availability and transport (the sediment wave) along the river channel. Heidel (1956) was amongst the first to discuss the progressive lag of sediment concentration behind the corresponding flood wave based on field measurements. Since then this type of hysteresis has been characterized in a number of studies, but these were often based on limited amount of floods and measurement sites, giving insufficient insight into associated forcing mechanisms. Here, as part of a project concerned with the hydrological and geomorphic forcing of sediment transfer processes in alpine environments, we model the downstream propagation of short duration, high frequency releases of water and sediment (purges) from a flow intake in the Borgne d'Arolla River in south-west Switzerland. A total of >50 events were measured at 1 minute time intervals using pressure transducers and turbidity probes at a number of sites along the river. We show that flood and sediment wave propagation can be well represented through simple convection diffusion models. The models are calibrated/validated to describe the set of measured waves and used to explain the observed variation in wave celerity and diffusion. In addition we explore the effects of controlling factors including initial flow depth, flood height, flood duration, bed roughness, bed slope and initial sediment concentration, on the wave propagation processes. We show that the effects of forcing mechanisms on flood and sediment wave propagation will lead to different

  19. Short-term outcomes of extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of chronic non-calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galasso, Olimpio; Amelio, Ernesto; Riccelli, Daria Anna; Gasparini, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence supporting the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in calcific tendinopathy of the rotator cuff, but the best current evidence does not support its use in non-calcifying tendinopathy...

  20. Ultrasound shear wave simulation based on nonlinear wave propagation and Wigner-Ville Distribution analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidari, Pooya Sobhe; Alirezaie, Javad; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling and simulation of shear wave generation from a nonlinear Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) that is considered as a distributed force applied at the focal region of a HIFU transducer radiating in nonlinear regime. The shear wave propagation is simulated by solving the Navier's equation from the distributed nonlinear ARFI as the source of the shear wave. Then, the Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) as a time-frequency analysis method is used to detect the shear wave at different local points in the region of interest. The WVD results in an estimation of the shear wave time of arrival, its mean frequency and local attenuation which can be utilized to estimate medium's shear modulus and shear viscosity using the Voigt model.

  1. REFLECTION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES FROM SOUND WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The reflection of electromagnetic waves normally incident on the wavefronts of a semi-infinite standing sound wave is discussed. By analogy with the...with the sound frequency. An experiment is described in which the Bragg reflection of 3 cm electromagnetic waves from a standing sound wave beneath a water surface is observed.

  2. Impact of Wave Dragon on Wave Climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Tedd, James; Kramer, Morten

    This report is an advisory paper for use in determining the wave dragon effects on hydrography, by considering the effect on the wave climate in the region of a wave dragon. This is to be used in the impact assessment for the Wave Dragon pre-commercial demonstrator....

  3. Experimental Study on the Langlee Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecher, Arthur; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Weisz, A.

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Langlee wave energy converter (WEC). It focused mainly on evaluating the power generating capabilities of the device, including investigations of the following issues: Scaling ratiosPTO loadingWave...... height and wave period dependencyOblique incoming waves and directional spreading of waves (3D waves)Damping platesMooring forces and fixed structure setupPitch, surge and heave motion During the study the model supplied by the client (Langlee Wave Power AS) has been heavily instrumented - up to 23...... different instruments was deployed to measure and record data. Tests were performed at scales of 1:30 and 1:20 based on the realized reference wave states....

  4. The dynamics of infragravity wave transformation over a fringing reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Andrew; Lowe, Ryan; Symonds, Graham; van Dongeren, Ap; Moore, Christine

    2012-11-01

    A 3 week field study was conducted to investigate the dynamics of low-frequency (infragravity) wave motions over a fringing reef at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia. Short-period wave motions (0.04-0.2 Hz) were observed to dissipate on the reef crest beyond which infragravity wave motions (0.004-0.04 Hz) gradually dominated toward the lagoon. However, both the short waves and the infragravity waves were relatively small (both surf zone generation of free infragravity wave motions on the steep (˜1:20) fore-reef slope was dominated by breakpoint forcing (as opposed to shoaling bound waves), which was also supported by detailed numerical simulations of the generation process. This is consistent with theory suggesting the efficiency of the breakpoint forcing mechanism should be high in this steep-slope regime. Shoreward propagating infragravity waves traveled across the reef but were damped by bottom friction dissipation; however, this was at a rate much smaller than experienced by the residual short waves. With these rates of frictional dissipation also strongly dependent on the water depth over the reef, the infragravity wave heights increased at higher water levels and hence were strongly modulated by the tide. Due to the strong dissipation of infragravity waves over this wide and shallow reef that is hydraulically rough, any seaward propagating infragravity waves that reflected at the shoreline were small, leading to the dominance of progressive (shoreward propagating) infragravity wave motions throughout the reef and lagoon.

  5. Wave Induced Stresses Measured at the Wave Dragon Nissum Bredning Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, L.; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the wave induced loading on the overtopping based wave energy converter Wave Dragon. Focus is put on the junction between the main body and the reflector, also called the "shoulder part", where large cross sectional forces and bending moments acts. There are two main objectives...... for this paper, first to verify the FEM results obtained by Niras, Danish society in charge of the finite element modelling and structural design, and then to make a first experimental fatigue analysis of a particular part of the Wave Dragon. This last part shall be considered as an exercise for the further work...

  6. -Advanced Models for Tsunami and Rogue Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. W. Pravica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A wavelet , that satisfies the q-advanced differential equation for , is used to model N-wave oscillations observed in tsunamis. Although q-advanced ODEs may seem nonphysical, we present an application that model tsunamis, in particular the Japanese tsunami of March 11, 2011, by utilizing a one-dimensional wave equation that is forced by . The profile is similar to tsunami models in present use. The function is a wavelet that satisfies a q-advanced harmonic oscillator equation. It is also shown that another wavelet, , matches a rogue-wave profile. This is explained in terms of a resonance wherein two small amplitude forcing waves eventually lead to a large amplitude rogue. Since wavelets are used in the detection of tsunamis and rogues, the signal-analysis performance of and is examined on actual data.

  7. Love waves excited by a moving source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslavskii, Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    The study analyzes the characteristics of surface Love waves excited by the moment of an oscillating torsional force with a point of action that moves uniformly and rectilinearly along the free flat boundary of a medium having the structure of a "layer on a half-space." The azimuthal-angular distribution of the amplitude and Doppler shift in frequency of the wave modes is studied as a function of the motion velocity of a vibrating source and the parameters of the medium.

  8. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands......, Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco-industrialism...

  9. Coriolis Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciuc, Daly; Solschi, Viorel

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the Coriolis effect is essential for explaining the movement of air masses and ocean currents. The lesson we propose aims to familiarize students with the manifestation of the Coriolis effect. Students are guided to build, using the GeoGebra software, a simulation of the motion of a body, related to a rotating reference system. The mathematical expression of the Coriolis force is deduced, for particular cases, and the Foucault's pendulum is presented and explained. Students have the opportunity to deepen the subject, by developing materials related to topics such as: • Global Wind Pattern • Ocean Currents • Coriolis Effect in Long Range Shooting • Finding the latitude with a Foucault Pendulum

  10. Random matrix theory for underwater sound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, K. C.; Tomsovic, S.

    2012-02-01

    Ocean acoustic propagation can be formulated as a wave guide with a weakly random medium generating multiple scattering. Twenty years ago, this was recognized as a quantum chaos problem, and yet random matrix theory, one pillar of quantum or wave chaos studies, has never been introduced into the subject. The modes of the wave guide provide a representation for the propagation, which in the parabolic approximation is unitary. Scattering induced by the ocean's internal waves leads to a power-law random banded unitary matrix ensemble for long-range deep-ocean acoustic propagation. The ensemble has similarities, but differs, from those introduced for studying the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The resulting long-range propagation ensemble statistics agree well with those of full wave propagation using the parabolic equation.

  11. Wave induced coastal cliff top ground motions and infragravity wave dissipation under high energy wave conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlie, C. S.; le Dantec, N.; Young, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal cliff erosion is a widespread problem that threatens property and infrastructure globally. The prediction of this risk calls for robust understanding of the processes and mechanisms involved in causing coastal cliff failure. Over the last decade, a number of geomorphological studies have highlighted the importance of the relationship between the offshore wave climate and cliff-toe water levels, and the resultant coastal response in terms of cliff-top ground motion and erosion. Field-based studies of instantaneous cliff response to direct wave impact have shown that wave-induced loading of the foreshore leads to cliff-top ground motions that may have the potential to weaken the integrity of the rocks and prepare them for failure. In order to understand wave-cliff interaction and how beach morphodynamics influences cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion, two field experiments were carried out simultaneously at two locations in Northern Brittany (France). This three-month long winter field campaign (Jan-Mar 2016) included, for the first time, a comparison of cliff-top ground motion and cliff erosion at sites fronted by different beach morphologies (reflective/dissipative), along with monitoring of hydrodynamic forcing and beach topography. The magnitude of cliff-top displacements at both sites were dependent on tidal stage and free water surface elevation at the cliff toe, with the greatest contributions of cliff-top ground motions found at infragravity frequencies (0.05-0.005 Hz). Vertical displacements at infragravity and incident sea-swell (0.1-0.5 Hz) frequencies were greater at the dissipative site, apart from during spring high tide and energetic wave conditions, where displacements were two times that at the reflective site. Combining these wave-cliff interaction data with beach morphology and nearshore bathymetry will be key to understanding the spatial variability in cliff erosion under a variety of environmental settings and forcing conditions.

  12. Calculating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, P.L.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Near-bed wave orbital velocities and shear stresses are important parameters in many sediment-transport and hydrodynamic models of the coastal ocean, estuaries, and lakes. Simple methods for estimating bottom orbital velocities from surface-wave statistics such as significant wave height and peak period often are inaccurate except in very shallow water. This paper briefly reviews approaches for estimating wave-generated bottom orbital velocities from near-bed velocity data, surface-wave spectra, and surface-wave parameters; MATLAB code for each approach is provided. Aspects of this problem have been discussed elsewhere. We add to this work by providing a method for using a general form of the parametric surface-wave spectrum to estimate bottom orbital velocity from significant wave height and peak period, investigating effects of spectral shape on bottom orbital velocity, comparing methods for calculating bottom orbital velocity against values determined from near-bed velocity measurements at two sites on the US east and west coasts, and considering the optimal representation of bottom orbital velocity for calculations of near-bed processes. Bottom orbital velocities calculated using near-bed velocity data, measured wave spectra, and parametric spectra for a site on the northern California shelf and one in the mid-Atlantic Bight compare quite well and are relatively insensitive to spectral shape except when bimodal waves are present with maximum energy at the higher-frequency peak. These conditions, which are most likely to occur at times when bottom orbital velocities are small, can be identified with our method as cases where the measured wave statistics are inconsistent with Donelan's modified form of the Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) spectrum. We define the 'effective' forcing for wave-driven, near-bed processes as the product of the magnitude of forcing times its probability of occurrence, and conclude that different bottom orbital velocity statistics

  13. PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERLUMINAL STRONG WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teraki, Yuto; Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro, E-mail: yuto.teraki@riken.jp [Astrophysical Big Bang Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them using numerical methods in the context of the termination shocks of pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the orbit of electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of a primary SLS and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave for electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared with the oscillation of the wave, which is “phase-locked,” and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in pre-shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. However, when the amplitude of the secondary waves is not extremely weaker than that of the primary wave, the typical frequency can be estimated from synchro-Compton theory using the secondary waves. The primary wave does not contribute to the radiation because the SLSW accelerates electrons almost linearly. This radiation can be observed as a radio knot at the upstream of the termination shocks of the pulsar wind nebulae without counterparts in higher frequency ranges.

  14. Particle Acceleration in Superluminal Strong Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraki, Yuto; Ito, Hirotaka; Nagataki, Shigehiro

    2015-06-01

    We calculate the electron acceleration in random superluminal strong waves (SLSWs) and radiation from them using numerical methods in the context of the termination shocks of pulsar wind nebulae. We pursue the orbit of electrons by solving the equation of motion in the analytically expressed electromagnetic turbulences. These consist of a primary SLS and isotropically distributed secondary electromagnetic waves. Under the dominance of the secondary waves, all electrons gain nearly equal energy. On the other hand, when the primary wave is dominant, selective acceleration occurs. The phase of the primary wave for electrons moving nearly along the wavevector changes very slowly compared with the oscillation of the wave, which is “phase-locked,” and such electrons are continuously accelerated. This acceleration by SLSWs may play a crucial role in pre-shock acceleration. In general, the radiation from the phase-locked population is different from the synchro-Compton radiation. However, when the amplitude of the secondary waves is not extremely weaker than that of the primary wave, the typical frequency can be estimated from synchro-Compton theory using the secondary waves. The primary wave does not contribute to the radiation because the SLSW accelerates electrons almost linearly. This radiation can be observed as a radio knot at the upstream of the termination shocks of the pulsar wind nebulae without counterparts in higher frequency ranges.

  15. Modeling fluctuations in scattered waves

    CERN Document Server

    Jakeman, E

    2006-01-01

    Fluctuations in scattered waves limit the performance of imaging and remote sensing systems that operate on all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. To better understand these fluctuations, Modeling Fluctuations in Scattered Waves provides a practical guide to the phenomenology, mathematics, and simulation of non-Gaussian noise models and discusses how they can be used to characterize the statistics of scattered waves.Through their discussion of mathematical models, the authors demonstrate the development of new sensing techniques as well as offer intelligent choices that can be made for system analysis. Using experimental results and numerical simulation, the book illustrates the properties and applications of these models. The first two chapters introduce statistical tools and the properties of Gaussian noise, including results on phase statistics. The following chapters describe Gaussian processes and the random walk model, address multiple scattering effects and propagation through an extended med...

  16. The effect of statistical wind corrections on global wave forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Tom H.; Greenslade, Diana J. M.; Simmonds, Ian

    2013-10-01

    The skill of modern wave models is such that the quality of their forecasts is, to a large degree, determined by errors in the forcing wind field. This work explores the extent to which large-scale systematic biases in modelled waves from a third generation wave model can be attributed to the forcing winds. Three different sets of winds with known global bias characteristics are used to force the WAVEWATCH III model. These winds are based on the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's ACCESS model output, with different statistical corrections applied. Wave forecasts are verified using satellite altimeter data. It is found that a negative bias in modelled Significant Wave Height (Hs) has its origins primarily in the forcing, however, the reduction of systematic wind biases does not result in universal improvement in modelled Hs. A positive bias is present in the Southern Hemisphere due primarily to an overestimation of high Hs values in the Southern Ocean storm tracks. A positive bias is also present in the east Pacific and East Indian Ocean. This is due both to the over-prediction of waves in the Southern Ocean and lack of swell attenuation in the wave model source terms used. Smaller scale features are apparent, such as a positive bias off the Cape of Good Hope, and a negative bias off Cape Horn. In some situations, internal wave model error has been compensated for by error in the forcing winds.

  17. Conditional Short-crested second order waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes' wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...... approach as design waves is given....

  18. Solitonic lattice and Yukawa forces in the rare-earth orthoferrite TbFeO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artyukhin, Sergey; Mostovoy, Maxim; Jensen, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    The random fluctuations of spins give rise to many interesting physical phenomena, such as the ‘order-from-disorder’ arising in frustrated magnets and unconventional Cooper pairing in magnetic superconductors. Here we show that the exchange of spin waves between extended topological defects...... of higher-order harmonics. These domain walls are formed by Ising-like Tb spins. They interact by exchanging magnons propagating through the Fe magnetic sublattice. The resulting force between the domain walls has a rather long range that determines the period of the incommensurate state and is analogous...... to the pion-mediated Yukawa interaction between protons and neutrons in nuclei....

  19. Analytical Solution for Waves in Planets with Atmospheric Superrotation. II. Lamb, Surface, and Centrifugal Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta, J.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.; López-Valverde, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  20. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. II. LAMB, SURFACE, AND CENTRIFUGAL WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía, 18008 Granada (Spain); Imamura, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Read, P. L. [Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford (United Kingdom); Luz, D. [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa (CAAUL), Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisboa (Portugal); Piccialli, A., E-mail: peralta@iaa.es [LATMOS, UVSQ, 11 bd dAlembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the second in a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases where the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this second part, we study the waves' solutions when several atmospheric approximations are applied: Lamb, surface, and centrifugal waves. Lamb and surface waves are found to be quite similar to those in a geostrophic regime. By contrast, centrifugal waves turn out to be a special case of Rossby waves that arise in atmospheres in cyclostrophic balance. Finally, we use our results to identify the nature of the waves behind atmospheric periodicities found in polar and lower latitudes of Venus's atmosphere.

  1. Efficient Wave Energy Amplification with Wave Reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2002-01-01

    Wave Energy Converters (WEC's) extract wave energy from a limited area, often a single point or line even though the wave energy is generally spread out along the wave crest. By the use of wave reflectors (reflecting walls) the wave energy is effectively focused and increased to approximately 130......-140%. In the paper a procedure for calculating the efficiency and optimizing the geometry of wave reflectors are described, this by use of a 3D boundary element method. The calculations are verified by laboratory experiments and a very good agreement is found. The paper gives estimates of possible power benifit...... for different geometries of the wave reflectors and optimal geometrical design parameters are specified. On this basis inventors of WEC's can evaluate whether a specific WEC possible could benefit from wave reflectors....

  2. Wave-induced dynamics of flexible blades

    CERN Document Server

    Luhar, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental and numerical study that describes the motion of flexible blades, scaled to be dynamically similar to natural aquatic vegetation, forced by wave-induced oscillatory flows. For the conditions tested, blade motion is governed primarily by two dimensionless variables: (i) the Cauchy number, $Ca$, which represents the ratio of the hydrodynamic forcing to the restoring force due to blade stiffness, and (ii) the ratio of the blade length to the wave orbital excursion, $L$. For flexible blades with $Ca \\gg 1$, the relationship between drag and velocity can be described by two different scaling laws at the large- and small-excursion limits. For large excursions ($L \\ll 1$), the flow resembles a unidirectional current and the scaling laws developed for steady-flow reconfiguration studies hold. For small excursions ($L \\gg 1$), the beam equations may be linearized and a different scaling law for drag applies. The experimental force measurements suggest that the small-excursion scaling applies...

  3. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Domino, L; Patinet, Sylvain; Eddi, A

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying sub-wavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  4. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A

    2016-05-01

    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  5. Springing response due to bidirectional wave excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena

    2005-01-01

    Springing is a two-node high frequency resonant vibration of the hull induced by unsteady wave pressure field on the hull. The excitation force may be rather complex - any wave activity (or their combination) in the Ocean matching the two-node natural hull vibration frequency. With some ship...... designs the hull natural frequency may get low enough that the corresponding level of excitation energy becomes large. Springing vibration negatively influences the fatigue life of the ship but, paradoxically, it still doesn't get much attention of the technical society. Usually, non-linear hydroelastic...... theories deal with the unidirectional wave excitation. This is quite standard. The problem is how to include more than one directional wave systems described by a wave spectrum with arbitrary heading. The main objective of the present work has been to account for the additional second-order springing...

  6. Extreme Loads on the Mooring Lines and Survivability Mode for the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parmeggiani, Stefano; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges Wave Energy Converters have to face on the road towards commercialization is to ensure survivability in extreme condition at a reasonable capital costs. For a floating device like the Wave Dragon, a reliable mooring system is essential. The control strategy of the Wave...... Dragon aims at optimizing the power production by adapting the floating level to the incoming waves and by activating the hydro-turbines and regulating their working speed. In extreme conditions though, the control strategy could be changed in order to reduce the forces in the mooring system, lowering...... the design requirements with almost no added cost. The paper presents the result of the tank testing of a 1:51.8 scale model of a North Sea Wave Dragon in extreme wave conditions of up to 100 years of return period. The results show that the extreme loads in the main mooring line can be reduced...

  7. Self-propulsion and crossing statistics under random initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, M.; Labousse, M.; Perrard, S.

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the crossing of an energy barrier by a self-propelled particle described by a Rayleigh friction term. We reveal the existence of a sharp transition in the external force field whereby the amplitude dramatically increases. This corresponds to a saddle point transition in the velocity flow phase space, as would be expected for any type of repulsive force field. We use this approach to rationalize the results obtained by Eddi et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 240401 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.240401] who studied the interaction between a drop propelled by its accompanying wave field and a submarine obstacle. This wave particle entity can overcome potential barrier, suggesting the existence of a "macroscopic tunneling effect." We show that the effect of self-propulsion is sufficiently strong to generate crossing of the high-energy barrier. By assuming a random distribution of initial angles, we define a probability distribution to cross the potential barrier that matches with the data of Eddi et al. This probability is similar to the one encountered in statistical physics for Hamiltonian systems, i.e., a Boltzmann exponential law.

  8. Local large deviations principle for occupation measures of the damped nonlinear wave equation perturbed by a white noise

    OpenAIRE

    Martirosyan, Davit; Nersesyan, Vahagn

    2015-01-01

    We consider the damped nonlinear wave (NLW) equation driven by a spatially regular white noise. Assuming that the noise is non-degenerate in all Fourier modes, we establish a large deviations principle (LDP) for the occupation measures of the trajectories. The lower bound in the LDP is of a local type, which is related to the weakly dissipative nature of the equation and seems to be new in the context of randomly forced PDE's. The proof is based on an extension of methods developed in \\cite{J...

  9. Cryogenic Impinging Jets Subjected to High Frequency Transverse Acoustic Forcing in a High Pressure Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-27

    Unlimited. PA# 16333 14 Acoustic Forcing: Max PAN Forcing ′ 1 2 2 = 58.1 PN Forcing ′ 1 2 2 = 40 • Impact waves appear to...acoustic forcing. Distribution A: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. PA# 16333 19 Phased Average: Max Forcing PAN Forcing ′ 1...Fluids with an Impinging Jet Injector in Dependence upon Reynolds and Weber Numbers,” AIAA 2005-4477 41th ASM 13. N. Yatsuyanagi, “The Effect of

  10. Changes in the Precision of a Study from Planning Phase to Implementation Phase: Evidence from the First Wave of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Lininger, Monica; Cullen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to extend the work of Spybrook and Raudenbush (2009) and examine how the research designs and sample sizes changed from the planning phase to the implementation phase in the first wave of studies funded by IES. The authors examine the impact of the changes in terms of the changes in the precision of the study from the…

  11. Acoustic interaction forces between small particles in an ideal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Glauber T.; Bruus, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -interaction potentials with no restriction on the interparticle distance. The theory is applied to studies of the acoustic interaction force on a particle suspension in either standing or traveling plane waves. The results show aggregation regions along the wave propagation direction, while particles may attract...

  12. Experimental Studies on Wave Interactions of Partially Perforated Wall under Obliquely Incident Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-In Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees, and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall.

  13. Short wave diathermy for small spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Y.; Li, J; Liu, Y.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of small spontaneous pneumothorax can involve observation, tube thoracostomy, and surgery. This study evaluated the use of short wave diathermy as a method of accelerating the resolution of small pneumothoraces. METHODS: Twenty two patients with pneumothoraces of less than 30% by volume were randomly allocated to receive short wave diathermy for 25 minutes each day (n = 11) or observation with bed rest (n = 11). Chest radiographs were taken until the pneumothor...

  14. Aerosol absorption and radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stier

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive examination of aerosol absorption with a focus on evaluating the sensitivity of the global distribution of aerosol absorption to key uncertainties in the process representation. For this purpose we extended the comprehensive aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM by effective medium approximations for the calculation of aerosol effective refractive indices, updated black carbon refractive indices, new cloud radiative properties considering the effect of aerosol inclusions, as well as by modules for the calculation of long-wave aerosol radiative properties and instantaneous aerosol forcing. The evaluation of the simulated aerosol absorption optical depth with the AERONET sun-photometer network shows a good agreement in the large scale global patterns. On a regional basis it becomes evident that the update of the BC refractive indices to Bond and Bergstrom (2006 significantly improves the previous underestimation of the aerosol absorption optical depth. In the global annual-mean, absorption acts to reduce the short-wave anthropogenic aerosol top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiative forcing clear-sky from −0.79 to −0.53 W m−2 (33% and all-sky from −0.47 to −0.13 W m−2 (72%. Our results confirm that basic assumptions about the BC refractive index play a key role for aerosol absorption and radiative forcing. The effect of the usage of more accurate effective medium approximations is comparably small. We demonstrate that the diversity in the AeroCom land-surface albedo fields contributes to the uncertainty in the simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcings: the usage of an upper versus lower bound of the AeroCom land albedos introduces a global annual-mean TOA forcing range of 0.19 W m−2 (36% clear-sky and of 0.12 W m−2 (92% all-sky. The consideration of black carbon inclusions on cloud radiative properties results in a small global annual-mean all-sky absorption of 0.05 W

  15. Acoustic gravity wave growth and damping in convecting plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    Full Text Available The propagation of acoustic gravity waves through steadily convecting plasma in the thermosphere has been analysed theoretically. The growth and damping rates of internal gravity waves due to the feedback effects of wave-modulated Joule heating and Laplace forcing have been calculated. It is found that large convection flow velocities lead to the growth of large-scale internal gravity waves, whilst small- and medium-scale waves are heavily damped, under similar conditions. It has also been shown that wave growth is favoured for waves travelling against the plasma flow direction. The effects of critical coupling when wave phase speeds match the plasma flow speed have also been investigated. The results of these calculations are discussed in the context of the atmospheric energy budget and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  16. Acoustic gravity wave growth and damping in convecting plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Robinson

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The propagation of acoustic gravity waves through steadily convecting plasma in the thermosphere has been analysed theoretically. The growth and damping rates of internal gravity waves due to the feedback effects of wave-modulated Joule heating and Laplace forcing have been calculated. It is found that large convection flow velocities lead to the growth of large-scale internal gravity waves, whilst small- and medium-scale waves are heavily damped, under similar conditions. It has also been shown that wave growth is favoured for waves travelling against the plasma flow direction. The effects of critical coupling when wave phase speeds match the plasma flow speed have also been investigated. The results of these calculations are discussed in the context of the atmospheric energy budget and thermosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  17. Universality of Sea Wave Growth and Its Physical Roots

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, Vladimir E; Hwang, Paul A; Caulliez, Guillemette

    2014-01-01

    Modern day studies of wind-driven sea waves are usually focused on wind forcing rather than on the effect of resonant nonlinear wave interactions. The authors assume that these effects are dominating and propose a simple relationship between instant wave steepness and time or fetch of wave development expressed in wave periods or lengths. This law does not contain wind speed explicitly and relies upon this asymptotic theory. The validity of this law is illustrated by results of numerical simulations, in situ measurements of growing wind seas and wind wave tank experiments. The impact of the new vision of sea wave physics is discussed in the context of conventional approaches to wave modeling and forecasting.

  18. Hydraulic Evaluation of the Crest Wing Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Antonishen, Michael Patrick

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the wave energy converting abilities of the Crest Wing wave energy converter (WEC). The Crest Wing is a WEC that uses its movement in matching the shape of an oncoming wave to generate power. Model tests have been performed using a scale...... model (length scale 1:30), provided by WaveEnergyFyn, in regular and irregular wave states that can be found in Assessment of Wave Energy Devices. Best Practice as used in Denmark (Frigaard et al., 2008). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Frigaard et al., 2008......). The tests were carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank. The displacement and force applied to a power take off system, provided by WaveEnergyFyn, were measured and used to calculate total power take off....

  19. Copepod Behavior Response in an Internal Wave Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Jung, S.; Haas, K. A.

    2017-11-01

    This study is motivated to understand the bio-physical forcing in zooplankton transport in and near internal waves, where high levels of zooplankton densities have been observed in situ. A laboratory-scale internal wave apparatus was designed to create a standing internal wave for various physical arrangements that mimic conditions observed in the field. A theoretical analysis of a standing internal wave inside a two-layer stratification system including non-linear wave effects was conducted to derive the expressions for the independent variables controlling the wave motion. Focusing on a case with a density jump of 1.0 σt, a standing internal wave was generated with a clean interface and minimal mixing across the pycnocline. Spatial and frequency domain measurements of the internal wave were evaluated in the context of the theoretical analysis. Behavioral assays with a mixed population of three marine copepods were conducted in control (stagnant homogeneous fluid), stagnant density jump interface, and internal wave flow configurations. In the internal wave treatment, the copepods showed an acrobatic, orbital-like motion in and around the internal wave region (bounded by the crests and the troughs of the waves). Trajectories of passive, neutrally-buoyant particles in the internal wave flow reveal that they generally oscillate back-and-forth along fixed paths. Thus, we conclude that the looping, orbital trajectories of copepods in the region near the internal wave interface are due to animal behavior rather than passive transport.

  20. Traveling waves in a spring-block chain sliding down a slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J. E.; James, G.; Tonnelier, A.

    2017-07-01

    Traveling waves are studied in a spring slider-block model. We explicitly construct front waves (kinks) for a piecewise-linear spinodal friction force. Pulse waves are obtained as the matching of two traveling fronts with identical speeds. Explicit formulas are obtained for the wavespeed and the wave form in the anticontinuum limit. The link with localized waves in a Burridge-Knopoff model of an earthquake fault is briefly discussed.