Sample records for random wave analysis

  1. Generation and Analysis of Random Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Frigaard, Peter

    Sea waves are the most important phenomenon to be considered in the design of coastal and offshore structures. It should be stressed that, even though all contents in the book are related to sea waves, they have a broader application in practice. For example, the extreme theory has also been......-requirement for the book is the knowledge of linear wave theory....

  2. Managing Information Uncertainty in Wave Height Modeling for the Offshore Structural Analysis through Random Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Yan


    Full Text Available This chapter presents a reliability study for an offshore jacket structure with emphasis on the features of nonconventional modeling. Firstly, a random set model is formulated for modeling the random waves in an ocean site. Then, a jacket structure is investigated in a pushover analysis to identify the critical wave direction and key structural elements. This is based on the ultimate base shear strength. The selected probabilistic models are adopted for the important structural members and the wave direction is specified in the weakest direction of the structure for a conservative safety analysis. The wave height model is processed in a P-box format when it is used in the numerical analysis. The models are applied to find the bounds of the failure probabilities for the jacket structure. The propagation of this wave model to the uncertainty in results is investigated in both an interval analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results are compared in context of information content and numerical accuracy. Further, the failure probability bounds are compared with the conventional probabilistic approach.

  3. Analysis and Computation of Acoustic and Elastic Wave Equations in Random Media

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad


    We propose stochastic collocation methods for solving the second order acoustic and elastic wave equations in heterogeneous random media and subject to deterministic boundary and initial conditions [1, 4]. We assume that the medium consists of non-overlapping sub-domains with smooth interfaces. In each sub-domain, the materials coefficients are smooth and given or approximated by a finite number of random variable. One important example is wave propagation in multi-layered media with smooth interfaces. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems [2, 3], the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence is only algebraic. A fast spectral rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solutions with particular types of data. We also show that the semi-discrete solution is analytic with respect to the random variables with the radius of analyticity proportional to the grid/mesh size h. We therefore obtain an exponential rate of convergence which deteriorates as the quantity h p gets smaller, with p representing the polynomial degree in the stochastic space. We have shown that analytical results and numerical examples are consistent and that the stochastic collocation method may be a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method. Here we focus on the stochastic acoustic wave equation. Similar results are obtained for stochastic elastic equations.

  4. Analysis and computation of the elastic wave equation with random coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad


    We consider the stochastic initial-boundary value problem for the elastic wave equation with random coefficients and deterministic data. We propose a stochastic collocation method for computing statistical moments of the solution or statistics of some given quantities of interest. We study the convergence rate of the error in the stochastic collocation method. In particular, we show that, the rate of convergence depends on the regularity of the solution or the quantity of interest in the stochastic space, which is in turn related to the regularity of the deterministic data in the physical space and the type of the quantity of interest. We demonstrate that a fast rate of convergence is possible in two cases: for the elastic wave solutions with high regular data; and for some high regular quantities of interest even in the presence of low regular data. We perform numerical examples, including a simplified earthquake, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo sampling method for approximating quantities with high stochastic regularity.

  5. Wave propagation and scattering in random media

    CERN Document Server

    Ishimaru, Akira


    Wave Propagation and Scattering in Random Media, Volume 2, presents the fundamental formulations of wave propagation and scattering in random media in a unified and systematic manner. The topics covered in this book may be grouped into three categories: waves in random scatterers, waves in random continua, and rough surface scattering. Random scatterers are random distributions of many particles. Examples are rain, fog, smog, hail, ocean particles, red blood cells, polymers, and other particles in a state of Brownian motion. Random continua are the media whose characteristics vary randomly an

  6. Wave Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alikhani, Amir; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.


    The data collected over the course of the experiment must be analysed and converted into a form suitable for its intended use. Type of analyses range from simple to sophisticated. Depending on the particular experiment and the needs of the researcher. In this study three main part of irregular wave...... data analyses are presented e.g. Time Domain (Statistical) Analyses, Frequency Domain (Spectral) Analyses and Wave Reflection Analyses. Random wave profile and definitions of representative waves, distributions of individual wave height and wave periods and spectra of sea waves are presented....

  7. Wave Propagation inside Random Media (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaojun

    This thesis presents results of studies of wave scattering within and transmission through random and periodic systems. The main focus is on energy profiles inside quasi-1D and 1D random media. The connection between transport and the states of the medium is manifested in the equivalence of the dimensionless conductance, g, and the Thouless number which is the ratio of the average linewidth and spacing of energy levels. This equivalence and theories regarding the energy profiles inside random media are based on the assumption that LDOS is uniform throughout the samples. We have conducted microwave measurements of the longitudinal energy profiles within disordered samples contained in a copper tube supporting multiple waveguide channels with an antenna moving along a slit on the tube. These measurements allow us to determine the local density of states (LDOS) at a location which is the sum of energy from all incoming channels on both sides. For diffusive samples, the LDOS is uniform and the energy profile decays linearly as expected. However, for localized samples, we find that the LDOS drops sharply towards the middle of the sample and the energy profile does not follow the result of the local diffusion theory where the LDOS is assumed to be uniform. We analyze the field spectra into quasi-normal modes and found that the mode linewidth and the number of modes saturates as the sample length increases. Thus the Thouless number saturates while the dimensionless conductance g continues to fall with increasing length, indicating that the modes are localized near the boundaries. This is in contrast to the general believing that g and Thouless number follow the same scaling behavior. Previous measurements show that single parameter scaling (SPS) still holds in the same sample where the LDOS is suppressed te{shi2014microwave}. We explore the extension of SPS to the interior of the sample by analyzing statistics of the logrithm of the energy density ln W(x) and found that

  8. Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Random Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans


    The propagation of a narrow frequency band beam of electromagnetic waves in a medium with randomly varying index of refraction is considered. A novel formulation of the governing equation is proposed. An equation for the average Green function (or transition probability) can then be derived....... A Fokker-Planck type equation is contained as a limiting case. The results are readily generalized to include the features of the random coupling model and it is argued that the present problem is particularly suited for an analysis of this type....

  9. Status inconsistency and mental health: A random effects and instrumental variables analysis using 14 annual waves of cohort data. (United States)

    Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis


    Status inconsistency refers to a discrepancy between the position a person holds in one domain of their social environment comparative to their position in another domain. For example, the experience of being overeducated for a job, or not using your skills in your job. We sought to assess the relationship between status inconsistency and mental health using 14 annual waves of cohort data. We used two approaches to measuring status inconsistency: 1) being overeducated for your job (objective measure); and b) not using your skills in your job (subjective measure). We implemented a number of methodological approaches to assess the robustness of our findings, including instrumental variable, random effects, and fixed effects analysis. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5. The random effects analysis indicates that only the subjective measure of status inconsistency was associated with a slight decrease in mental health (β-1.57, 95% -1.78 to -1.36, p social determinants (such as work and education) and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  11. Concentration fields near air-water interfaces during interfacial mass transport: oxygen transport and random square wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. E. Schulz


    Full Text Available Mass transfer across a gas-liquid interface was studied theoretically and experimentally, using transfer of oxygen into water as the gas-liquid system. The experimental results support the conclusions of a theoretical description of the concentration field that uses random square waves approximations. The effect of diffusion over the concentration records was quantified. It is shown that the peak of the normalized rms concentration fluctuation profiles must be lower than 0.5, and that the position of the peak of the rms value is an adequate measure of the thickness of the diffusive layer. The position of the peak is the boundary between the regions more subject to molecular diffusion or to turbulent transport of dissolved mass.

  12. Breather Rogue Waves in Random Seas (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ma, Q. W.; Yan, S.; Chabchoub, A.


    Rogue or freak waves are extreme wave events that have heights exceeding 8 times the standard deviation of surrounding waves and emerge, for instance, in the ocean as well as in other physical dispersive wave guides, such as in optical fibers. One effective and convenient way to model such an extreme dynamics in laboratory environments within a controlled framework as well as for short process time and length scales is provided through the breather formalism. Breathers are pulsating localized structures known to model extreme waves in several nonlinear dispersive media in which the initial underlying process is assumed to be narrow banded. On the other hand, several recent studies suggest that breathers can also persist in more complex environments, such as in random seas, beyond the attributed physical limitations. In this work, we study the robustness of the Peregrine breather (PB) embedded in Joint North Sea Wave Project (JONSWAP) configurations using fully nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical simulations in order to validate its practicalness for ocean engineering applications. We provide a specific range for both the spectral bandwidth of the dynamical process as well as the background wave steepness and, thus, quantify the applicability of the PB in modeling rogue waves in realistic oceanic conditions. Our results may motivate analogous studies in fields of physics such as optics and plasma to quantify the limitations of exact weakly nonlinear models, such as solitons and breathers, within the framework of the fully nonlinear governing equations of the corresponding medium.

  13. Hyperdiffusion of quantum waves in random photonic lattices (United States)

    Iomin, Alexander


    A quantum-mechanical analysis of hyperfast (faster than ballistic) diffusion of a quantum wave packet in random optical lattices is presented. The main motivation of the presented analysis is experimental demonstrations of hyperdiffusive spreading of a wave packet in random photonic lattices [L. Levi et al., Nature Phys. 8, 912 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2463]. A rigorous quantum-mechanical calculation of the mean probability amplitude is suggested, and it is shown that the power-law spreading of the mean-squared displacement (MSD) is ˜tα , where 2 <α ≤3 . The values of the transport exponent α depend on the correlation properties of the random potential V (x ,t ) , which describes random inhomogeneities of the medium. In particular, when the random potential is δ correlated in time, the quantum wave packet spreads according Richardson turbulent diffusion with the MSD ˜t3 . Hyperdiffusion with α =12 /5 is also obtained for arbitrary correlation properties of the random potential.

  14. Site Characterization in the Urban Area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico by Means of: H/V Spectral Ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves, and Random Decrement Method (United States)

    Tapia-Herrera, R.; Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Martinez-Cruzado, J. A.


    Results of site characterization for an experimental site in the metropolitan area of Tijuana, B. C., Mexico are presented as part of the on-going research in which time series of earthquakes, ambient noise, and induced vibrations were processed with three different methods: H/V spectral ratios, Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW), and the Random Decrement Method, (RDM). Forward modeling using the wave propagation stiffness matrix method (Roësset and Kausel, 1981) was used to compute the theoretical SH/P, SV/P spectral ratios, and the experimental H/V spectral ratios were computed following the conventional concepts of Fourier analysis. The modeling/comparison between the theoretical and experimental H/V spectral ratios was carried out. For the SASW method the theoretical dispersion curves were also computed and compared with the experimental one, and finally the theoretical free vibration decay curve was compared with the experimental one obtained with the RDM. All three methods were tested with ambient noise, induced vibrations, and earthquake signals. Both experimental spectral ratios obtained with ambient noise as well as earthquake signals agree quite well with the theoretical spectral ratios, particularly at the fundamental vibration frequency of the recording site. Differences between the fundamental vibration frequencies are evident for sites located at alluvial fill (~0.6 Hz) and at sites located at conglomerate/sandstones fill (0.75 Hz). Shear wave velocities for the soft soil layers of the 4-layer discrete soil model ranges as low as 100 m/s and up to 280 m/s. The results with the SASW provided information that allows to identify low velocity layers, not seen before with the traditional seismic methods. The damping estimations obtained with the RDM are within the expected values, and the dominant frequency of the system also obtained with the RDM correlates within the range of plus-minus 20 % with the one obtained by means of the H/V spectral

  15. Random vibration analysis of train-bridge under track irregularities and traveling seismic waves using train-slab track-bridge interaction model (United States)

    Zeng, Zhi-Ping; Zhao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Wen-Tao; Yu, Zhi-Wu; Chen, Ling-Kun; Lou, Ping


    The frequent use of bridges in high-speed railway lines greatly increases the probability that trains are running on bridges when earthquakes occur. This paper investigates the random vibrations of a high-speed train traversing a slab track on a continuous girder bridge subjected to track irregularities and traveling seismic waves by the pseudo-excitation method (PEM). To derive the equations of motion of the train-slab track-bridge interaction system, the multibody dynamics and finite element method models are used for the train and the track and bridge, respectively. By assuming track irregularities to be fully coherent random excitations with time lags between different wheels and seismic accelerations to be uniformly modulated, non-stationary random excitations with time lags between different foundations, the random load vectors of the equations of motion are transformed into a series of deterministic pseudo-excitations based on PEM and the wheel-rail contact relationship. A computer code is developed to obtain the time-dependent random responses of the entire system. As a case study, the random vibration characteristics of an ICE-3 high-speed train traversing a seven-span continuous girder bridge simultaneously excited by track irregularities and traveling seismic waves are analyzed. The influence of train speed and seismic wave propagation velocity on the random vibration characteristics of the bridge and train are discussed.

  16. Parametric analysis of change in wave number of surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the dependence of the change wave number of materials soil constants, ie the frequency of the waves. The starting point in this analysis cosists of wave equation and dynamic stiffness matrix of soil.

  17. Plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin [Department of Basic Sciences, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Science, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    The dispersion curves of the plasmonic waves of a semi-infinite random metal-dielectric nanocomposite, consisting of bulk metal embedded with dielectric inclusions, are presented. Two branches of p-polarized surface plasmon-polariton modes are found to exist. The possibility of experimentally observing the surface waves by attenuated total reflection is demonstrated.

  18. Effectiveness of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Without Local Anesthesia in Patients With Recalcitrant Plantar Fasciitis: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. (United States)

    Lou, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shuitao; Xing, Gengyan


    The objective of this meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis without local anesthesia. The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases were searched from inception to September 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing ESWT without local anesthesia versus placebo for treatment of plantar fasciitis in adults. The primary outcome was the 12-week post-intervention success rate of reducing the visual analog scale score by 60% from baseline at the first step in the morning, reducing the VAS score by 60% from baseline during daily activities, reducing the Roles and Maudsley score, reducing overall heel pain, and reducing pain after applying a force meter. Nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, ESWT significantly improved the success rate of reducing overall heel pain, reducing the VAS score by 60% at the first step in the morning and during daily activities, improving the Roles and Maudsley score to excellent or good, and reducing heel pain after application of a pressure meter. ESWT seems to be particularly effective in relieving pain associated with RPF. ESWT should be considered when traditional treatments have failed. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to (1) understand the recovery rates for nonsurgical treatment of plantar fasciitis, (2) understand the role of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis, and (3) understand the indications to incorporate ESWT in the treatment plan of recalcitrant plantar fasciitis. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of

  19. Controlling Random Waves with Digital Building Blocks Based on Supersymmetry (United States)

    Yu, Sunkyu; Piao, Xianji; Park, Namkyoo


    Harnessing multimode waves allows high information capacity through modal expansions. Although passive multimode devices for broadband responses have been demonstrated in momentum or frequency domains, the difficulty in achieving collective manipulation of all eigenmodes has hindered the implementation of digital multimode devices such as switching. Here we propose building blocks for digital switching of spatially random waves based on parity-converted supersymmetric pairs of multimode potentials. We reveal that unbroken supersymmetric transformations of any parity-symmetric potential derive the parity reversal of all eigenmodes, which allows the complete isolation of random waves in the "off" state. With two representative solvable potentials, building blocks for binary and many-valued logics are then demonstrated for random waves: a harmonic pair for binary switching of arbitrary wave fronts and a Pöschl-Teller pair for multilevel switching which implements fuzzy membership functions. Our results realizing the transfer of arbitrary wave fronts between wave elements will lay the foundation of high-bandwidth data processing.

  20. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed quasiperiodic surface (United States)

    Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.


    Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a quasi-periodic surface with random perturbations (as in the remote sensing of plowed fields) is investigated analytically, applying the Kirchhoff approximation and modeling the plowed fields by means of Gaussian random variation, sinusoidal variation, and Gaussian random variation about the spatial frequency. Coherent and incoherent bistatic scattering coefficients are derived in closed form by evaluating the physical-optics integral and shown to be proportional, in the geometric-optics limit, to the occurrence probability of slopes which reflect the incident wave specularly in the direction of the scattered wave. Backscattering cross sections are plotted as functions of incidence angle for a number of cases, demonstrating the strong effect of row direction.

  1. On the Extreme Wave Height Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou


    The determination of the design wave height is usually based on the statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurements. After an introduction to the procedure of the extreme wave height analysis, the paper presents new development concerning various aspects of the extreme wave...... height analysis. Finally, the paper gives a practical example based on a data set of the hindcasted wave heights for a deep water location in the Mediterranean Sea....

  2. Analysis of flexural wave cloaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Climente


    Full Text Available This work presents a comprehensive study of the cloak for bending waves theoretically proposed by Farhat et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 024301 (2009] and later on experimentally realized by Stenger et al. [see Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 014301 (2012]. This study uses a semi-analytical approach, the multilayer scattering method, which is based in the Kirchoff-Love wave equation for flexural waves in thin plates. Our approach was unable to reproduce the predicted behavior of the theoretically proposed cloak. This disagreement is here explained in terms of the simplified wave equation employed in the cloak design, which employed unusual boundary conditions for the cloaking shell. However, our approach reproduces fairly well the measured displacement maps for the fabricated cloak, indicating the validity of our approach. Also, the cloak quality has been here analyzed using the so called averaged visibility and the scattering cross section. The results obtained from both analysis let us to conclude that there is room for further improvements of this type of flexural wave cloak by using better design procedures.

  3. Random wave fields and scintillated beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS


    Full Text Available fields . Artificial vortex fields CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/29 Scintillated optical beams When an optical beam propagates through a turbulent atmosphere, the index variations cause random phase modulations that lead to distortions of the optical... beam. CSIR National Laser Centre – p.3/29 Weak scintillation If the scintillation is weak the resulting phase function of the optical beam is still continuous. Such a weakly scintillated beam can be corrected by an adaptive optical system. CSIR National...

  4. Prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVueTM STAR S4 IRTM in photorefractive keratectomy: analysis of visual outcomes and higher-order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikder S


    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Daniel S Churgin2, Brent S Betts3, Maylon Hsu1, Shameema Sikder4, Marcus Neuffer1, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11University of Utah, John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Arizona College of Medicine, Phoenix, AZ; 3Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare differences in visual outcomes, higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing photorefractive keratectomy using wavefront-guided VISX CustomVue™ and wavefront-optimized WaveLight® Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow-eye study, photorefractive keratectomy was performed on 46 eyes from 23 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Three-month postoperative outcome measures included uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refractive error, root mean square of total and grouped higher-order aberrations, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmer’s testing.Results: Mean values for uncorrected distance visual acuity (logMAR were —0.03 ± 0.07 and —0.06 ± 0.09 in the wavefront-optimized and wavefront-guided groups, respectively (P = 0.121. Uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes receiving wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy, and 87% of eyes receiving wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy, whereas uncorrected distance visual acuity of 20/15 was achieved in 35% of the wavefront-optimized group and 64% of the wavefront-guided group (P ≥ 0.296. While root mean square of total higher-order aberration, coma, and trefoil tended to increase in the wavefront

  5. Wave speed in excitable random networks with spatially constrained connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladimirov

    Full Text Available Very fast oscillations (VFO in neocortex are widely observed before epileptic seizures, and there is growing evidence that they are caused by networks of pyramidal neurons connected by gap junctions between their axons. We are motivated by the spatio-temporal waves of activity recorded using electrocorticography (ECoG, and study the speed of activity propagation through a network of neurons axonally coupled by gap junctions. We simulate wave propagation by excitable cellular automata (CA on random (Erdös-Rényi networks of special type, with spatially constrained connections. From the cellular automaton model, we derive a mean field theory to predict wave propagation. The governing equation resolved by the Fisher-Kolmogorov PDE fails to describe wave speed. A new (hyperbolic PDE is suggested, which provides adequate wave speed v( that saturates with network degree , in agreement with intuitive expectations and CA simulations. We further show that the maximum length of connection is a much better predictor of the wave speed than the mean length. When tested in networks with various degree distributions, wave speeds are found to strongly depend on the ratio of network moments / rather than on mean degree , which is explained by general network theory. The wave speeds are strikingly similar in a diverse set of networks, including regular, Poisson, exponential and power law distributions, supporting our theory for various network topologies. Our results suggest practical predictions for networks of electrically coupled neurons, and our mean field method can be readily applied for a wide class of similar problems, such as spread of epidemics through spatial networks.

  6. Computation of High-Frequency Waves with Random Uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malenova, Gabriela


    We consider the forward propagation of uncertainty in high-frequency waves, described by the second order wave equation with highly oscillatory initial data. The main sources of uncertainty are the wave speed and/or the initial phase and amplitude, described by a finite number of random variables with known joint probability distribution. We propose a stochastic spectral asymptotic method [1] for computing the statistics of uncertain output quantities of interest (QoIs), which are often linear or nonlinear functionals of the wave solution and its spatial/temporal derivatives. The numerical scheme combines two techniques: a high-frequency method based on Gaussian beams [2, 3], a sparse stochastic collocation method [4]. The fast spectral convergence of the proposed method depends crucially on the presence of high stochastic regularity of the QoI independent of the wave frequency. In general, the high-frequency wave solutions to parametric hyperbolic equations are highly oscillatory and non-smooth in both physical and stochastic spaces. Consequently, the stochastic regularity of the QoI, which is a functional of the wave solution, may in principle below and depend on frequency. In the present work, we provide theoretical arguments and numerical evidence that physically motivated QoIs based on local averages of |uE|2 are smooth, with derivatives in the stochastic space uniformly bounded in E, where uE and E denote the highly oscillatory wave solution and the short wavelength, respectively. This observable related regularity makes the proposed approach more efficient than current asymptotic approaches based on Monte Carlo sampling techniques.

  7. Evaluating Wave Random Path Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Fathi-Vajargah


    Full Text Available Wind waves are important due to their high energy and impact on marine activities. This phenomenon is affects directly or indirectly the construction of coastal infrastructure, shipping and recreational activities. Due to the issues presented, marine parameters are very important. In this study, we try to pay attention to wave as one of the most important marine parameters. As the movements of waves have high uncertainty, financial models can be used to simulate the wave's paths. We use the Monte Carlo method for this purpose. The Monte Carlo simulation is a flexible and simple tool that is widely used in the evaluation of random paths. To compute a random path, we require an integral discretization. In this paper, we study the valuation of European options using Monte Carlo simulation and then compare this result with multi-level Monte Carlo approach and other antithetic variables. Then, we use the multi-level Monte Carlo approach proposed by (M. B. Giles, 2008 for pricing under the two-factor stochastic volatility model. We show that the multi-level Monte Carlo method reduces the computational complexity and also cost of the two-factor stochastic volatility model when compared with the standard Monte Carlo method. Also, we compare the multi-level Monte Carlo method and standard Monte Carlo method using an Euler discretization scheme and then, analyze the numerical results.

  8. Pulse wave analysis with diffusing-wave spectroscopy. (United States)

    Belau, Markus; Scheffer, Wolfgang; Maret, Georg


    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thus at the origin of many deaths by e.g. heart attack or stroke. Hypertension is caused by many factors including an increase in arterial stiffness which leads to changes in pulse wave velocity and wave reflections. Those often result in an increased left ventricular load which may result in heart failure as well as an increased pulsatile pressure in the microcirculation l to damage to blood vessels. In order to specifically treat the different causes of hypertension it is desirable to perform a pulse wave analysis as a complement to measurements of systolic and diastolic pressure by brachial cuff sphygmomanometry. Here we show that Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive portable tool, is able to monitor blood flow changes with a high temporal resolution. The measured pulse travel times give detailed information of the pulse wave blood flow profile.

  9. A random matrix analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaos to galaxies. We demonstrate the applicability of random matrix theory for networks by pro- viding a new dimension to complex systems research. We show that in spite of huge differences ... as mentioned earlier, different types of networks can be constructed based on the nature of connections. For example,.

  10. Fractional White-Noise Limit and Paraxial Approximation for Waves in Random Media (United States)

    Gomez, Christophe; Pinaud, Olivier


    This work is devoted to the asymptotic analysis of high frequency wave propagation in random media with long-range dependence. We are interested in two asymptotic regimes, that we investigate simultaneously: the paraxial approximation, where the wave is collimated and propagates along a privileged direction of propagation, and the white-noise limit, where random fluctuations in the background are well approximated in a statistical sense by a fractional white noise. The fractional nature of the fluctuations is reminiscent of the long-range correlations in the underlying random medium. A typical physical setting is laser beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere. Starting from the high frequency wave equation with fast non-Gaussian random oscillations in the velocity field, we derive the fractional Itô-Schrödinger equation, that is, a Schrödinger equation with potential equal to a fractional white noise. The proof involves a fine analysis of the backscattering and of the coupling between the propagating and evanescent modes. Because of the long-range dependence, classical diffusion-approximation theorems for equations with random coefficients do not apply, and we therefore use moment techniques to study the convergence.

  11. Fractional White-Noise Limit and Paraxial Approximation for Waves in Random Media (United States)

    Gomez, Christophe; Pinaud, Olivier


    This work is devoted to the asymptotic analysis of high frequency wave propagation in random media with long-range dependence. We are interested in two asymptotic regimes, that we investigate simultaneously: the paraxial approximation, where the wave is collimated and propagates along a privileged direction of propagation, and the white-noise limit, where random fluctuations in the background are well approximated in a statistical sense by a fractional white noise. The fractional nature of the fluctuations is reminiscent of the long-range correlations in the underlying random medium. A typical physical setting is laser beam propagation in turbulent atmosphere. Starting from the high frequency wave equation with fast non-Gaussian random oscillations in the velocity field, we derive the fractional Itô-Schrödinger equation, that is, a Schrödinger equation with potential equal to a fractional white noise. The proof involves a fine analysis of the backscattering and of the coupling between the propagating and evanescent modes. Because of the long-range dependence, classical diffusion-approximation theorems for equations with random coefficients do not apply, and we therefore use moment techniques to study the convergence.

  12. Trend analysis of the wave storminess: the wave direction (United States)

    Casas Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.; Mösso, C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, A.


    directionality. It is based on 44 year hindcast model data (1958-2001) of the HIPOCAS project, enabling to work with a longer time series compared to the existing measured ones. 41 nodes of this database are used, containing 3 hourly simulated data of significant wave height and wave direction, among other parameters. For storm definition, the Peak Over Threshold (POT) method is used with some additional duration requirements in order to analyse statistically independent events (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2006). Including both wave height and storm duration, the wave storminess is characterised by the energy content (Mendoza & Jiménez, 2004), being in turn log-transformed because of its positive scale. Separately, the wave directionality itself is analysed in terms of different sectors and approaching their probability of occurrence by counting events and using Bayesian inference (Agresti, 2002). Therefore, the original data is transformed into compositional data and, before performing the trend analysis, the isometric logratio (ilr) transformation (Egozcue et al., 2003) is done. In general, the trend analysis methodology consists in two steps: 1) trend detection and 2) trend quantification. For 1) the Mann Kendall test is used in order to identify the nodes with significant trend. For these selected nodes, the trend quantification is done, comparing two methods: 1) a simple linear regression analysis complemented with the bootstrap technique and 2) a Bayesian analysis, assuming normally distributed data with linearly increasing mean. Preliminary results show no significant trend for both annual mean and maximum energy content except for some nodes located to the Northern Catalan coast. Regarding the wave direction (but not only considering stormy conditions) there is a tendency of North direction to decrease whereas South and Southeast direction seems to increase.

  13. A functional renormalization method for wave propagation in random media (United States)

    Lamagna, Federico; Calzetta, Esteban


    We develop the exact renormalization group approach as a way to evaluate the effective speed of the propagation of a scalar wave in a medium with random inhomogeneities. We use the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism to translate the problem into a non equilibrium field theory one, and then consider a sequence of models with a progressively lower infrared cutoff; in the limit where the cutoff is removed we recover the problem of interest. As a test of the formalism, we compute the effective dielectric constant of an homogeneous medium interspersed with randomly located, interpenetrating bubbles. A simple approximation to the renormalization group equations turns out to be equivalent to a self-consistent two-loops evaluation of the effective dielectric constant.

  14. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for ...

  15. Data analysis techniques for gravitational wave observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves fall broadly into three categories: (i) transient and bursts, (ii) periodic or continuous wave and (iii) stochastic. Each type of source requires a different type of data analysis strategy. In this talk various data analysis strategies will be reviewed. Optimal filtering is used for extracting ...

  16. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad


    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical space and depends on a finite number of random variables. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. This approach leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo method. We consider both full and sparse tensor product spaces of orthogonal polynomials. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points for full and sparse tensor product spaces and under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems, the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence may only be algebraic. An exponential/fast rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solution with particular types of data. We present numerical examples, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Estimation of near-surface shear-wave velocities and quality factors using multichannel analysis of surface-wave methods (United States)

    Xia, Jianghai


    This overview article gives a picture of multichannel analysis of high-frequency surface (Rayleigh and Love) waves developed mainly by research scientists at the Kansas Geological Survey, the University of Kansas and China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) during the last eighteen years by discussing dispersion imaging techniques, inversion systems, and real-world examples. Shear (S)-wave velocities of near-surface materials can be derived from inverting the dispersive phase velocities of high-frequency surface waves. Multichannel analysis of surface waves—MASW used phase information of high-frequency Rayleigh waves recorded on vertical component geophones to determine near-surface S-wave velocities. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode simultaneously can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. Multichannel analysis of Love waves—MALW used phase information of high-frequency Love waves recorded on horizontal (perpendicular to the direction of wave propagation) component geophones to determine S-wave velocities of shallow materials. Because of independence of compressional (P)-wave velocity, the MALW method has some attractive advantages, such as 1) Love-wave dispersion curves are simpler than Rayleigh wave's; 2) dispersion images of Love-wave energy have a higher signal to noise ratio and more focused than those generated from Rayleigh waves; and 3) inversion of Love-wave dispersion curves is less dependent on initial models and more stable than Rayleigh waves.

  18. The Effects of Wenxin Keli on P-Wave Dispersion and Maintenance of Sinus Rhythm in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of Wenxin Keli (WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, on P-wave dispersion (Pd and maintenance of sinus rhythm for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF. Methods. Seven major electronic databases were searched to retrieve randomized controlled trials (RCTs designed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, for PAF, with Pd or maintenance rate of sinus rhythm as the main outcome measure. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using criteria from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0, and analysed using RevMan 5.1.0 software. Results. Fourteen RCTs of WXKL were included. The methodological quality of the trials was generally evaluated as low. The results of meta-analysis showed that WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, was more effective in Pd and the maintenance of sinus rhythm, compared with no medicine or Western medicine alone, in patients with PAF or PAF complicated by other diseases. Seven of the trials reported adverse events, indicating that the safety of WXKL is still uncertain. Conclusions. WXKL, alone or combined with Western medicine, appears to be more effective in improving Pd as well as maintenance of sinus rhythm in patients with PAF and its complications.

  19. Generation of sound by Alfven waves with random phases in the solar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, N.S.; Fainshtein, S.M.


    The problem of the excitation of sound by Alfven waves meeting in the solar plasma is discussed. Kinetic equations for the interacting waves are derived and analyzed on the assumption that the Alfven waves have random phases. Estimates are given which show the possibility of the generation of LF-pulsations in the solar atmosphere.

  20. Energy loss and set-up due to breaking random waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Janssen, J.P.F.M.


    A description is given of a model developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach. The dissipation rate per breaking wave is estimated from that in a bore of corresponding height, while the probability of occurrence of breaking waves is estimated on the

  1. Slow vs rapid delivery rate shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric renal urolithiasis: a prospective randomized study. (United States)

    Salem, Hosni Khairy; Fathy, Hesham; Elfayoumy, Hanny; Aly, Hussein; Ghonium, Ahmed; Mohsen, Mostafa A; Hegazy, Abd El Rahim


    We compared slow vs fast shock wave frequency rates in disintegration of pediatric renal stones less than 20 mm. Our study included 60 children with solitary 10 to 20 mm radiopaque renal stones treated with shock wave lithotripsy. Patients were prospectively randomized into 2 groups, ie those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 80 shock waves per minute (group 1, 30 patients) and those undergoing lithotripsy at a rate of 120 shock waves per minute (group 2, 30 patients). The 2 groups were compared in terms of treatment success, anesthesia time, secondary procedures and efficiency quotient. Stone clearance rate was significantly higher in group 1 (90%) than in group 2 (73.3%, p = 0.025). A total of 18 patients in group 1 (60%) were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 8 required 2 sessions and 1 needed 3 sessions, while shock wave lithotripsy failed in 3 patients. By comparison, 8 patients (26.6%) in group 2 were rendered stone-free after 1 session, 10 (33.3%) required 2 sessions and 4 (13.3%) needed 3 sessions to become stone-free. Mean general anesthesia time was significantly longer in group 1 (p = 0.041). Postoperatively 2 patients in group 1 and 4 in group 2 suffered low grade fever (Clavien grade II). Significantly more secondary procedures (percutaneous nephrolithotomy, repeat shock wave lithotripsy) were required in group 2 (p = 0.005). The predominant stone analysis was calcium oxalate dihydrate in both groups. Efficiency quotient was 0.5869 and 0.3437 for group 1 and group 2, respectively (p = 0.0247). In children with renal stones slow delivery rates of shock wave lithotripsy have better results regarding stone clearance than fast delivery rates. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Remarks on the Radiative Transfer Approach to Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves in Layered Random Media (United States)



  3. Wave localization of linear gravity waves in shallow water: Global measurements and agreement between random matrix theory and experiments (United States)

    Schmessane, Andrea; Laboratory of matter out equilibrium Team


    Wave localization explains how a perturbation is trapped by the randomness present in a propagation medium. As it propagates, the localized wave amplitude decreases strongly by multiple internal reflections with randomly positioned scatterers, effectively trapping the perturbation inside the random region. The characteristic length where a localized wave is propagated before being extinguish by randomness is called localization length. We carried experiments in a quasi-onedimensional channel with random bottom in a shallow water regime for surface gravity water waves, using a Perfilometry Fourier Transform method, which enables us to obtain global surface measurements. We discuss keys aspects of the control of variables, the experimental setup and the implementation of the measurement method. Thus, we can control, measure and evaluate fundamental variables present in the localization phenomenon such as the type of randomness, scattering intensity and sample length, which allows us to characterize wave localization. We use the scattering matrix method to compare the experimental measurements with theoretical and numerical predictions, using the Lyapunov exponent of the scattering matrix, and discuss their agreement. Conicyt

  4. Wave pressure acting on V-shaped floating breakwater in random seas (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Ding, Ning; Lin, Jie; Hou, Jiajia


    Wave pressure on the wet surface of a V-shaped floating breakwater in random seas is investigated. Considering the diffraction effect, the unit velocity potential caused by the single regular waves around the breakwater is solved using the finite-depth Green function and boundary element method, in which the Green function is solved by integral method. The Response-Amplitude Operator (RAO) of wave pressure is acquired according to the Longuet-Higgins' wave model and the linear Bernoulli equation. Furthermore, the wave pressure's response spectrum is calculated according to the wave spectrum by discretizing the frequency domain. The wave pressure's characteristic value corresponding to certain cumulative probability is determined according to the Rayleigh distribution of wave heights. The numerical results and field test results are compared, which indicates that the wave pressure calculated in random seas agrees with that of field measurements. It is found that the bigger angle between legs will cause the bigger pressure response, while the increase in leg length does not influence the pressure significantly. The pressure at the side of head sea is larger than that of back waves. When the incident wave angle changes from 0° to 90°, the pressure at the side of back waves decreases clearly, while at the side of head sea, the situation is more complicated and there seems no obvious tendency. The concentration of wave energy around low frequency (long wavelength) will induce bigger wave pressure, and more attention should be paid to this situation for the structure safety.

  5. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes


    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... by the variability in the model input. Finally, we present a synthetic experiment studying the variance-based sensitivity of the wave load on an offshore structure to a number of input uncertainties. In the numerical examples presented the PC methods exhibit fast convergence, suggesting that the problem is amenable...

  6. Analysis of Bending Waves in Phononic Crystal Beams with Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Guo


    Full Text Available Existing investigations on imperfect phononic crystal beams mainly concern periodic multi-span beams carrying either one or two channel waves with random or deterministic disorder in span-length. This paper studies the two channel bending waves in phononic crystal beams consisting of many phases of materials with defects introduced as one structural segment having different cross-sectional dimensions or material parameters. The method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM based on the Timoshenko beam theory, which can conduct high-frequency analysis, is extended for the theoretical analysis of dispersion and transmission of bending waves. The supercell technique and the Floquet–Bloch theorem are adopted for modeling the dispersion characteristics, and the whole finite structural model is used to calculate the transmission spectra. Experimental measurements and numerical calculations are provided to validate the displacement transmission obtained by the proposed MRRM, with the effect of damping on transmission spectra being concerned. The high-frequency calculation applicability of the proposed MRRM is also confirmed by comparing the present results with the corresponding ones either using the transfer matrix method (TMM or MRRM based on Euler—Bernoulli beam theory. The influences of defect size, defect form, and unit-cell number on the transmission spectra and the band structures are discussed. The drawn conclusions may be useful for designing or evaluating the defected phononic crystal beams in bending wave control. In addition, our conclusions are especially potential for identifying the defect location through bending wave signals.

  7. Fractal fluctuations and quantum-like chaos in the brain by analysis of variability of brain waves: A new method based on a fractal variance function and random matrix theory: A link with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time and V. Weiss and H. Weiss golden ratio in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, Elio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari (Italy); School of Advanced International Studies on Theoretical and Nonlinear Methodologies-Bari (Italy)], E-mail:; Khrennikov, Andrei [International Center for Mathematical Modelling in Physics and Cognitive Sciences, M.S.I., University of Vaexjoe, S-35195 (Sweden); Federici, Antonio [Department of Pharmacology and Human Physiology and Tires, Center for Innovative Technologies for Signal Detection and Processing, University of Bari (Italy); Zbilut, Joseph P. [Department of Molecular Biophysics and Physiology, Rush University Medical Center, 1653W Congress, Chicago, IL 60612 (United States)


    We develop a new method for analysis of fundamental brain waves as recorded by the EEG. To this purpose we introduce a Fractal Variance Function that is based on the calculation of the variogram. The method is completed by using Random Matrix Theory. Some examples are given. We also discuss the link of such formulation with H. Weiss and V. Weiss golden ratio found in the brain, and with El Naschie fractal Cantorian space-time theory.

  8. Manual for wave generation and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten Møller

    This Manual is for the included wave generation and analysis software and graphical user interface. The package is made for Matlab and is meant for educational purposes. The code is free to use under the GNU Public License (GPL). It is still in development and should be considered as such. If you...

  9. Testing, Analysis and Control of Wave Dragon, Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James

    One of the prongs in the attack on climate change is the development of alternative, non-polluting sources of energy. Wave Dragon is a device at the forefront of this field of development, converting the energy of ocean waves into electricity. This thesis presents the author's work on the technical...... the expected performance. Other sources of generation are presented, including development and tank testing of a novel power absorbing joint. Wave Dragon belongs in the family of overtopping wave energy converters. The energy is captured by waves running up a ramp and overtopping the crest into a reservoir...... of the process Wave Dragon has undergone to develop from an inventor's concept to a serious contender in the wave energy industry is very valuable. This shows the gradual steps of development testing, increasing in scale and complexity, in parallel with the growth in the organisational structure behind...

  10. Is Tamsulosin Effective after Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Pediatric Renal Stones? A Randomized, Controlled Study. (United States)

    Shahat, Ahmed; Elderwy, Ahmad; Safwat, Ahmed S; Abdelkawi, Islam F; Reda, Ahmed; Abdelsalam, Yasser; Sayed, Mohamed; Hammouda, Hisham


    We assessed the effect of tamsulosin as an adjunctive therapy after shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric single renal pelvic stones. A total of 120 children with a unilateral single renal pelvic stone were included in a prospective randomized, controlled study. All children were randomized to 2 equal groups. Group 1 received tamsulosin (0.01 mg/kg once daily) as adjunctive therapy after shock wave lithotripsy in addition to paracetamol while group 2 received paracetamol only. Stone clearance was defined as no renal stone fragments or fragments less than 3 mm and no pelvicalyceal system dilatation. Our study included 69 boys and 51 girls with a median age of 3.5 years and a median stone size of 1.2 cm. There was no statistically significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in stone or patient criteria. Of the children 99 (82.5%) achieved stone clearance after the first session, including 50 in group 1 and 49 in group 2. All children in each group were cleared of stones after the second session. The overall complication rate was 14.2%. There was no statistically significant difference between single session stone clearance rates (p = 0.81) and complications rates (p = 0.432) in either group. On multivariate analysis using logistic regression smaller stone size (p = 0.016) and radiopaque stones (p = 0.019) were the only predictors of stone clearance at a single shock wave lithotripsy session. Tamsulosin therapy did not affect stone clearance (p = 0.649). Tamsulosin does not seem to improve renal stone clearance. Smaller and radiopaque renal stones have more chance of clearance after shock wave lithotripsy for pediatric single renal pelvic stones. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Analysis of Wave Climate Data Using Mixed Distributions and Extreme Wave Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li


    Full Text Available The investigation of various aspects of the wave climate at a wave energy test site is essential for the development of reliable and efficient wave energy conversion technology. This paper presents studies of the wave climate based on nine years of wave observations from the 2005–2013 period measured with a wave measurement buoy at the Lysekil wave energy test site located off the west coast of Sweden. A detailed analysis of the wave statistics is investigated to reveal the characteristics of the wave climate at this specific test site. The long-term extreme waves are estimated from applying the Peak over Threshold (POT method on the measured wave data. The significant wave height and the maximum wave height at the test site for different return periods are also compared. In this study, a new approach using a mixed-distribution model is proposed to describe the long-term behavior of the significant wave height and it shows an impressive goodness of fit to wave data from the test site. The mixed-distribution model is also applied to measured wave data from four other sites and it provides an illustration of the general applicability of the proposed model. The methodologies used in this paper can be applied to general wave climate analysis of wave energy test sites to estimate extreme waves for the survivability assessment of wave energy converters and characterize the long wave climate to forecast the wave energy resource of the test sites and the energy production of the wave energy converters.

  12. Spectral power density of the random excitation for the photoacoustic wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Erkol


    Full Text Available The superposition of the Green's function and its time reversal can be extracted from the photoacoustic point sources applying the representation theorems of the convolution and correlation type. It is shown that photoacoustic pressure waves at locations of random point sources can be calculated with the solution of the photoacoustic wave equation and utilization of the continuity and the discontinuity conditions of the pressure waves in the frequency domain although the pressure waves cannot be measured at these locations directly. Therefore, with the calculated pressure waves at the positions of the sources, the spectral power density can be obtained for any system consisting of two random point sources. The methodology presented here can also be generalized to any finite number of point like sources. The physical application of this study includes the utilization of the cross-correlation of photoacoustic waves to extract functional information associated with the flow dynamics inside the tissue.

  13. Bayesian analysis on gravitational waves and exoplanets (United States)

    Deng, Xihao

    Attempts to detect gravitational waves using a pulsar timing array (PTA), i.e., a collection of pulsars in our Galaxy, have become more organized over the last several years. PTAs act to detect gravitational waves generated from very distant sources by observing the small and correlated effect the waves have on pulse arrival times at the Earth. In this thesis, I present advanced Bayesian analysis methods that can be used to search for gravitational waves in pulsar timing data. These methods were also applied to analyze a set of radial velocity (RV) data collected by the Hobby- Eberly Telescope on observing a K0 giant star. They confirmed the presence of two Jupiter mass planets around a K0 giant star and also characterized the stellar p-mode oscillation. The first part of the thesis investigates the effect of wavefront curvature on a pulsar's response to a gravitational wave. In it we show that we can assume the gravitational wave phasefront is planar across the array only if the source luminosity distance " 2piL2/lambda, where L is the pulsar distance to the Earth (˜ kpc) and lambda is the radiation wavelength (˜ pc) in the PTA waveband. Correspondingly, for a point gravitational wave source closer than ˜ 100 Mpc, we should take into account the effect of wavefront curvature across the pulsar-Earth line of sight, which depends on the luminosity distance to the source, when evaluating the pulsar timing response. As a consequence, if a PTA can detect a gravitational wave from a source closer than ˜ 100 Mpc, the effects of wavefront curvature on the response allows us to determine the source luminosity distance. The second and third parts of the thesis propose a new analysis method based on Bayesian nonparametric regression to search for gravitational wave bursts and a gravitational wave background in PTA data. Unlike the conventional Bayesian analysis that introduces a signal model with a fixed number of parameters, Bayesian nonparametric regression sets

  14. Optimal Control of a Surge-Mode WEC in Random Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ceberio, Olivier [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Previsic, Mirko [Re Vision Consulting, Sacramento, CA (United States); Scruggs, Jeffrey [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Van de Ven, James [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    The objective of this project was to develop one or more real-time feedback and feed-forward (MPC) control algorithms for an Oscillating Surge Wave Converter (OSWC) developed by RME called SurgeWEC™ that leverages recent innovations in wave energy converter (WEC) control theory to maximize power production in random wave environments. The control algorithms synthesized innovations in dynamic programming and nonlinear wave dynamics using anticipatory wave sensors and localized sensor measurements; e.g. position and velocity of the WEC Power Take Off (PTO), with predictive wave forecasting data. The result was an advanced control system that uses feedback or feed-forward data from an array of sensor channels comprised of both localized and deployed sensors fused into a single decision process that optimally compensates for uncertainties in the system dynamics, wave forecasts, and sensor measurement errors.

  15. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arunjith


    Full Text Available The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to establish empirical relationships for the estimation of wave overtopping discharges over crown wall and run-up on Kolosarmoured slope exposed to random wave from the results of a comprehensive experimental program. Further, the results are compared with that of a tested section with natural rocks as armour layer and with that of other investigators.

  16. Time-series analysis of vibrational nuclear wave packet dynamics (United States)

    Thumm, Uwe; Niederhausen, Thomas; Feuerstein, Bernold


    We discuss the extent to which measured time-dependent fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra and calculated nuclear probability densities can reveal 1) the transition frequencies between stationary vibrational states, 2) the nodal structure of stationary vibrational states, 3) the ground-state adiabatic electronic potential curve of the molecular ion, and 4) the progression of decoherence induced by random interactions with the environment. We illustrate our discussion with numerical simulations for the time-dependent nuclear motion of vibrational wave packets in the D2^+ molecular ion caused by the ionization of its neutral D2 parent molecule with an intense pump laser pulse. Based on a harmonic time-series analysis, we suggest a general scheme for the full reconstruction, up to an overall phase factor, of the initial wave packets based on measured KER spectra, cf., Phys. Rev. A 77, 063401 (2008).

  17. Teaching time-series analysis. I. Finite Fourier analysis of ocean waves (United States)

    Whitford, Dennis J.; Vieira, Mario E. C.; Waters, Jennifer K.


    The introduction of students to methods of time-series analysis is a pedagogical challenge, since the availability of easily manipulated computer software presents an attractive alternative to an understanding of the computations, as well as their assumptions and limitations. A two-part pedagogical tutorial exercise is offered as a hands-on laboratory to complement classroom discussions or as a reference for students involved in independent research projects. The exercises are focused on the analysis of ocean waves, specifically wind-generated surface gravity waves. The exercises are cross-disciplinary in nature and can be extended to any other field dealing with random signal analysis. The first exercise introduces the manual arithmetic steps of a finite Fourier analysis of a wave record, develops a spectrum, and compares these results to the results obtained using a fast Fourier transform (FFT). The second part of the exercise, described in the subsequent article, takes a longer wave record and addresses the theoretical and observed wave probability distributions of wave heights and sea surface elevations. These results are then compared to a FFT, thus linking the two pedagogical laboratory exercise parts for a more complete understanding of both exercises.

  18. Review article: Wave analysis methods for space plasma experiment (United States)

    Narita, Yasuhito


    A review of analysis methods is given on quasi-monochromatic waves, turbulent fluctuations, and wave-wave and wave-particle interactions for single-spacecraft data in situ in near-Earth space and interplanetary space, in particular using magnetic field and electric field data. Energy spectra for different components of the fluctuating fields, minimum variance analysis, propagation and polarization properties of electromagnetic waves, wave distribution function, helicity quantities, higher-order statistics, and detection methods for wave-particle interactions are explained.

  19. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 24, 2011 ... This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid. (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave.

  20. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  1. Human action analysis with randomized trees

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Gang; Liu, Zicheng


    This book will provide a comprehensive overview on human action analysis with randomized trees. It will cover both the supervised random trees and the unsupervised random trees. When there are sufficient amount of labeled data available, supervised random trees provides a fast method for space-time interest point matching. When labeled data is minimal as in the case of example-based action search, unsupervised random trees is used to leverage the unlabelled data. We describe how the randomized trees can be used for action classification, action detection, action search, and action prediction.

  2. Novel wave power analysis linking pressure-flow waves, wave potential, and the forward and backward components of hydraulic power. (United States)

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J


    Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Multiple Scattering of Waves in Discrete Random Media. (United States)


    chiral inclusions themselves made up of microminiature helices suspended in some other, or the same, host medium. As a wave traverses such a composite...compuietvedrs functio fo fequ omoen forb ledt[ proiaearemn]ih.h esre auso Fe~ artcls dsprse i aPVCmarix Te delcti agn r e art [2]fo the dicpoite propties

  4. Electromagnetic wave scattering in a two-layer anisotropic random medium (United States)

    Lee, J. K.; Kong, J. A.


    For electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering in an anisotropic random medium, the Dyson equation for the mean field and the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the correlation or the covariance of the field were derived. With the random permittivity expressed in a general anisotropic form, the bilocal and the nonlinear approximations are employed to solve the Dyson equation, and the ladder approximation to solve the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The mean dyadic Green's function for a two-layer anisotropic random medium with arbitrary three-dimensional correlation functions has been investigated with the zeroth-order solutions to the Dyson equation under the nonlinear approximation. The effective propagation constants are calculated for the four characteristic waves associated with the coherent vector fields, propagating in an anisotropic random-medium layer, which are the ordinary and extraordinary waves with upward- and downward-propagating vectors.

  5. Notes on fk analysis of surface waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Socco


    Full Text Available The dispersive nature of Rayleigh waves is the basis of many identification procedures to infer the site stiffness profile from surface measurements. This article presents some important aspects related to fk analysis of seismic gathers, which is one of the procedures commonly used to obtain the experimental dispersion curve, focusing on the great influence that the scale of the survey has in the global process. At a short distance from the source, the seismic signal contains information related to different modes of propagation in a composite form. As the wave travels away, the different modal group velocities produce a separation of such information. Hence only if the testing array is sufficiently long is it possible to assume mode separation and to invert the dispersion curve for modal velocities. Otherwise the effects of mode superposition need to be carefully accounted for. To clarify this concept, the results of some numerical simulations are reported, together with some experimental results.

  6. Lamb wave structural health monitoring using frequency-wavenumber analysis (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu


    Lamb waves have shown great potential for structural health monitoring (SHM) in plate-like structures. Their attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distance. However, Lamb waves are dispersive and multimodal. Moreover, the propagating Lamb waves may include incident, reflected and converted waves. Various wave modes make the interpretation of Lamb wave signal very difficult. This paper presents studies on Lamb wave propagation using frequency-wavenumber analysis. By using two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FT), the time-space wavefield can be transformed into frequency-wavenumber domain, where various wave modes and waves propagating in different directions can be clearly discerned. By a frequency-wavenumber filtering strategy, the desired wave modes or wave propagation at certain direction can be extracted and further utilized for the purpose of SHM. The frequency-wavenumber analysis and its applications to Lamb wave SHM are illustrated through two experimental investigations. One is Lamb wave propagation in a plate half immersed in water and the other is Lamb wave mode decomposition by using two-dimensional frequency-wavenumber filtering strategy. Lamb waves are excited by piezoelectric wafer sensor and measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Various wave modes were visualized and successfully decomposed.

  7. Generation mechanism of nonlinear ultrasonic Lamb waves in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks. (United States)

    Zhao, Youxuan; Li, Feilong; Cao, Peng; Liu, Yaolu; Zhang, Jianyu; Fu, Shaoyun; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Ning


    Since the identification of micro-cracks in engineering materials is very valuable in understanding the initial and slight changes in mechanical properties of materials under complex working environments, numerical simulations on the propagation of the low frequency S 0 Lamb wave in thin plates with randomly distributed micro-cracks were performed to study the behavior of nonlinear Lamb waves. The results showed that while the influence of the randomly distributed micro-cracks on the phase velocity of the low frequency S 0 fundamental waves could be neglected, significant ultrasonic nonlinear effects caused by the randomly distributed micro-cracks was discovered, which mainly presented as a second harmonic generation. By using a Monte Carlo simulation method, we found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increased linearly with the micro-crack density and the size of micro-crack zone, and it was also related to the excitation frequency and friction coefficient of the micro-crack surfaces. In addition, it was found that the nonlinear effect of waves reflected by the micro-cracks was more noticeable than that of the transmitted waves. This study theoretically reveals that the low frequency S 0 mode of Lamb waves can be used as the fundamental waves to quantitatively identify micro-cracks in thin plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.



    Rosencwaig, A.


    Nonspectroscopic applications of thermal-wave physics, in particular those involving materials analysis through thermal-wave imaging, and quantitative thin-film thickness measurements, are described for the study of semiconductor materials and devices.

  9. Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in randomly-stratified magnetodielectric media with uniform impedance. (United States)

    Kim, Kihong


    The propagation and the Anderson localization of electromagnetic waves in a randomly-stratified slab, where both the dielectric permittivity and the magnetic permeability depend on one spatial coordinate in a random manner, is theoretically studied. The case where the wave impedance is uniform, while the refractive index is random, is considered in detail. The localization length and the disorder-averaged transmittance of s and p waves incident obliquely on the slab are calculated as a function of the incident angle θ and the strength of randomness in a numerically precise manner, using the invariant imbedding method. It is found that the waves incident perpendicularly on the slab are delocalized, while those incident obliquely are localized. As the incident angle increases from zero, the localization length decreases from infinity monotonically to some finite value. The localization length is found to depend on the incident angle as θ-4 and a simple analytical formula, which works quite well for weak disorder and small incident angles, is derived. The localization length does not depend on the wave polarization, but the disorder-averaged transmittance generally does.

  10. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, Afshin, E-mail: [Department of Engineering Physics, Kermanshah University of Technology, Kermanshah, Iran and Department of Nano Sciences, Institute for Studies in Theoretical Physics and Mathematics (IPM), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a random distribution of C{sub 60} molecules are investigated, within the framework of the classical electrodynamics. Electronic excitations over the each C{sub 60} molecule surface are modeled by a spherical layer of electron gas represented by two interacting fluids, which takes into account the different nature of the π and σ electrons. It is found that the present medium supports four modes of electromagnetic waves, where they can be divided into two groups: one group with shorter wavelength than the light waves of the same frequency and the other with longer wavelength than the free-space radiation.

  11. Simulations of ultrasound propagation in random arrangements of elliptic scatterers: occurrence of two longitudinal waves. (United States)

    Mézière, Fabien; Muller, Marie; Dobigny, Blandine; Bossy, Emmanuel; Derode, Arnaud


    Ultrasound propagation in clusters of elliptic (two-dimensional) or ellipsoidal (three-dimensional) scatterers randomly distributed in a fluid is investigated numerically. The essential motivation for the present work is to gain a better understanding of ultrasound propagation in trabecular bone. Bone microstructure exhibits structural anisotropy and multiple wave scattering. Some phenomena remain partially unexplained, such as the propagation of two longitudinal waves. The objective of this study was to shed more light on the occurrence of these two waves, using finite-difference simulations on a model medium simpler than bone. Slabs of anisotropic, scattering media were randomly generated. The coherent wave was obtained through spatial and ensemble-averaging of the transmitted wavefields. When varying relevant medium parameters, four of them appeared to play a significant role for the observation of two waves: (i) the solid fraction, (ii) the direction of propagation relatively to the scatterers orientation, (iii) the ability of scatterers to support shear waves, and (iv) a continuity of the solid matrix along the propagation. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that fast waves are guided by the locally plate/bar-like solid matrix. If confirmed, this interpretation could significantly help developing approaches for a better understanding of trabecular bone micro-architecture using ultrasound.



    Zainul Hidayah


    This research was intended to understand the wave’s characteristics of the study area. Wave’s parameters that were observed in this research including wave period (T), wave length (L), wave height (H), wave velocity (C) and wave energy (E). Another objective of this study was also to produce a topographic map of the sea floor for the study area. Wave’s data of this study was gain from an electronic sensor called MAWS (Marine Automatic Wave Sensor). This sensor is located in a Naval Base of Su...

  13. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 24, 2011 ... right wave length for cobalt analysis with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. And this problem on wave length might exist also on the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) method. The wave length generally employed for cobalt determination is. 240.7 nm (Shapiro and Martin, 1988) ...

  14. Statistical analysis on extreme wave height

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Teena, N.V.; SanilKumar, V.; Sudheesh, K.; Sajeev, R.

    The classical extreme value theory based on generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution and generalized Pareto distribution (GPD) is applied to the wave height estimate based on wave hindcast data covering a period of 31 years for a location...

  15. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process.

  16. DANWEC - Empirical Analysis of the Wave Climate at the Danish Wave Energy Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetu, Amelie; Nielsen, Kim; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The wave energy sector is at a development stage where real-sea testing is imperative. Dedicated test sites for wave energy converters (WECs) [1-6] are being established around Europe to facilitate sea trials. The Danish Wave Energy Centre (DanWEC) test site at Hanstholm has been the preferred test......, as for example scatter diagram (Hm0, Tz) will be analysed and wave power distribution given. Based on the data gathered so far a preliminary analysis of extreme events at the DanWEC test site will be presented. Deployment, control strategies and O&M strategies of wave energy converters are sensitive to the wave...... site for several Danish WECs. In 2013 DanWEC has received Greenlab funding from the EUDP programme to establish the site including more detailed information on its wave climate and bathymetry and seabed conditions. The project “Resource Assessment, Forecasts and WECs O&M strategies at DanWEC and beyond...

  17. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last decade, it was shown that the Liouville field theory is an effective theory of Dirac fermions in the random gauge potential (FRGP). We show that the Dirac wave functions in FRGP can be written in terms of descendents of the Liouville vertex operator. In the quasiclassical approximation of the Liouville theory, our ...

  18. On the time varying horizontal water velocity of single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.


    In this dissertation some characteristics of the horizontal water velocity for single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains are studied. This work consists of two parts, an analogue study and hydraulic measurements. An important aspect in this work is to suggest the horizontal water velocity

  19. Localization of transverse waves in randomly layered media at oblique incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bliokh, K.Yu.; Freilikher, V.D.


    We investigate the oblique incidence of electromagnetic waves on a randomly layered medium in the limit of strong disorder. An approximate method for calculating the inverse localization length based on the assumptions of zero-energy flux and complete phase stochastization is presented. Two effects

  20. CFD Analysis of Water Solitary Wave Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smida


    Full Text Available A new numerical wave generation method is used to investigate the head-on collision of two solitary waves. The reflection at vertical wall of a solitary wave is also presented. The originality of this model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is the specification of an internal inlet velocity, defined as a source line within the computational domain for the generation of these non linear waves. This model was successfully implemented in the PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series code. The collision of two counter-propagating solitary waves is similar to the interaction of a soliton with a vertical wall. This wave generation method allows the saving of considerable time for this collision process since the counter-propagating wave is generated directly without reflection at vertical wall. For the collision of two solitary waves, numerical results show that the run-up phenomenon can be well explained, the solution of the maximum wave run-up is almost equal to experimental measurement. The simulated wave profiles during the collision are in good agreement with experimental results. For the reflection at vertical wall, the spatial profiles of the wave at fixed instants show that this problem is equivalent to the collision process.

  1. Wave-equation Migration Velocity Analysis Using Plane-wave Common Image Gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag common image gathers (CIGs) requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, a WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs is presented. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the computational cost and memory storage because they are directly calculated from prestack plane-wave migration, and the number of plane waves is often much smaller than the number of shots. In the case of an inaccurate migration velocity, the moveout of plane-wave CIGs is automatically picked by a semblance analysis method, which is then linked to the migration velocity update by a connective function. Numerical tests on two synthetic datasets and a field dataset validate the efficiency and effectiveness of this method.

  2. Simulation study of localization of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional random dipolar systems. (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen


    We study the propagation and scattering of electromagnetic waves by random arrays of dipolar cylinders in a uniform medium. A set of self-consistent equations, incorporating all orders of multiple scattering of the electromagnetic waves, is derived from first principles and then solved numerically for electromagnetic fields. For certain ranges of frequencies, spatially localized electromagnetic waves appear in such a simple but realistic disordered system. Dependence of localization on the frequency, radiation damping, and filling factor is shown. The spatial behavior of the total, coherent, and diffusive waves is explored in detail, and found to comply with a physical intuitive picture. A phase diagram characterizing localization is presented, in agreement with previous investigations on other systems.

  3. Estimate of damage area due to a random optical wave (United States)

    Kragh, Frank E.; Phillips, Ronald L.


    The light intensity of a laser beam which has propagated through the atmosphere will be irregular due to inhomogeneities in the atmosphere. Thus the intensity falling on a target is higher on some target areas and lower in others leading to damaged areas randomly distributed over the illuminated area. This study predicts the average area, A, of a single damaged area using a mathematical treatment, focusing largely on the concepts of two dimensional level crossings and excursion areas. After developing a solution for A for arbitrary probability density function (pdf), a solution for gamma distributed intensity is developed. This solution is then applied to several models for the spectral distribution of the intensity, including graphs illustrating the results. To reduce the problem to a manageable task, several assumptions and approximations are made. First, the pdf for the intensity is assumed to be the gamma distribution. This gamma distribution is applicable for the intensity of a gaussian field, a sum of gaussian fields, and therefore thermal light'. Second, the covariance function of the intensity is assumed to be isotropic. Furthermore, the intensity required to damage an area, Icrit, is assumed to be sufficiently high so that the probability of a damaged area containing an island of undamaged area is small. Although this assumption makes the calculated results approximate, these results become a better approximation for larger values of Icrit. Lastly, the variations in intensity are assumed to be spacially ergodic.

  4. Random field Ising model swept by propagating magnetic field wave: Athermal nonequilibrium phasediagram (United States)

    Acharyya, Muktish


    The dynamical steady state behaviour of the random field Ising ferromagnet swept by a propagating magnetic field wave is studied at zero temperature by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The distribution of the random field is bimodal type. For a fixed set of values of the frequency, wavelength and amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of the random field, four distinct dynamical steady states or nonequilibrium phases were identified. These four nonequilibrium phases are characterised by different values of structure factors. State or phase of first kind, where all spins are parallel (up). This phase is a frozen or pinned where the propagating field has no effect. The second one is the propagating type, where the sharp strips formed by parallel spins are found to move coherently. The third one is also propagating type, where the boundary of the strips of spins is not very sharp. The fourth kind shows no propagation of strips of magnetic spins, forming a homogeneous distribution of up and down spins. This is disordered phase. The existence of these four dynamical phases or modes depends on the value of the amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of random (static) field. A phase diagram has also been drawn, in the plane formed by the amplitude of propagating field and the strength of random field. It is also checked that the existence of these dynamical phases is neither a finite size effect nor a transient phenomenon.

  5. Electromagnetic Cyclotron Waves in the Solar Wind: Wind Observation and Wave Dispersion Analysis (United States)

    Jian, L. K.; Moya, P. S.; Vinas, A. F.; Stevens, M.


    Wind observed long-lasting electromagnetic cyclotron waves near the proton cyclotron frequency on 11 March 2005, in the descending part of a fast wind stream. Bi-Maxwellian velocity distributions are fitted for core protons, beam protons, and alpha-particles. Using the fitted plasma parameters we conduct kinetic linear dispersion analysis and find ion cyclotron and/or firehose instabilities grow in six of 10 wave intervals. After Doppler shift, some of the waves have frequency and polarization consistent with observation, thus may be correspondence to the cyclotron waves observed.

  6. P-Wave Indices and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    He, Jinli; Tse, Gary; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Letsas, Konstantinos P; Ali-Hasan-Al-Saegh, Sadeq; Kamel, Hooman; Li, Guangping; Lip, Gregory Y H; Liu, Tong


    Atrial cardiomyopathy is associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke. P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are electrocardiographic parameters that have been used to assess left atrial abnormalities related to developing atrial fibrillation. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine their values for predicting ischemic stroke risk. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched until December 2016 for studies that evaluated the association between P-wave indices and stroke risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the overall effect estimates. Ten studies examining P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area were included. P-wave terminal force in lead V1 was found to be an independent predictor of stroke as both a continuous variable (odds ratio [OR] per 1 SD change, 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.25; PP=0.01). P-wave duration was a significant predictor of incident ischemic stroke when analyzed as a categorical variable (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.37-2.52; PP=0.15). Maximum P-wave area also predicted the risk of incident ischemic stroke (OR per 1 SD change, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). P-wave terminal force in lead V1, P-wave duration, and maximum P-wave area are useful electrocardiographic markers that can be used to stratify the risk of incident ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Variance of phase fluctuations of waves propagating through a random medium (United States)

    Chu, Nelson C.; Kong, Jin AU; Yueh, Simon H.; Nghiem, Son V.; Fleischman, Jack G.; Ayasli, Serpil; Shin, Robert T.


    As an electromagnetic wave propagates through a random scattering medium, such as a forest, its energy is attenuated and random phase fluctuations are induced. The magnitude of the random phase fluctuations induced is important in estimating how well a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) can image objects within the scattering medium. The two-layer random medium model, consisting of a scattering layer between free space and ground, is used to calculate the variance of the phase fluctuations induced between a transmitter located above the random medium and a receiver located below the random medium. The scattering properties of the random medium are characterized by a correlation function of the random permittivity fluctuations. The effective permittivity of the random medium is first calculated using the strong fluctuation theory, which accounts for large permittivity fluctuations of the scatterers. The distorted Born approximation is used to calculate the first-order scattered field. A perturbation series for the phase of the received field in the Rytov approximation is then introduced and the variance of the phase fluctuations is also calculated assuming that the transmitter and receiver are in the paraxial limit of the random medium, which allows an analytic solution to be obtained. Results are compared using the paraxial approximation, scalar Green's function formulation, and dyadic Green's function formulation. The effects studied are the dependence of the variance of the phase fluctuations on receiver location in lossy and lossless regions, medium thickness, correlation length and fractional volume of scatterers, depolarization of the incident wave, ground layer permittivity, angle of incidence, and polarization.

  8. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven


    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  9. Brain Wave Analysis and School Achievement. (United States)

    Wilson, Barry; And Others

    The Brain Wave Analyzer (BWA Ertl 02) was used to measure the brain potentials of 110 public school children. Resulting scores were correlated with concurrent measures of school achievement. Results indicate that certain brain wave scores have relatively low correlations with school achievement compared to traditional intelligence measures but may…

  10. Condition for invariant spectrum of an electromagnetic wave scattered from an anisotropic random media. (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Pinghui; Chang, Liping


    Within the accuracy of the first-order Born approximation, sufficient conditions are derived for the invariance of spectrum of an electromagnetic wave, which is generated by the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave from an anisotropic random media. We show that the following restrictions on properties of incident fields and the anisotropic media must be simultaneously satisfied: 1) the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media must obey the scaling law; 2) the spectral components of the incident field are proportional to each other; 3) the second moments of the elements of the dielectric susceptibility matrix of the media are inversely proportional to the frequency.

  11. Wave propagation through random media: A local method of small perturbations based on the Helmholtz equation (United States)

    Grosse, Ralf


    Propagation of sound through the turbulent atmosphere is a statistical problem. The randomness of the refractive index field causes sound pressure fluctuations. Although no general theory to predict sound pressure statistics from given refractive index statistics exists, there are several approximate solutions to the problem. The most common approximation is the parabolic equation method. Results obtained by this method are restricted to small refractive index fluctuations and to small wave lengths. While the first condition is generally met in the atmosphere, it is desirable to overcome the second. A generalization of the parabolic equation method with respect to the small wave length restriction is presented.

  12. A prospective, randomized, fellow eye comparison of WaveLight® Allegretto Wave® Eye-Q versus VISX CustomVue™ STAR S4 IR™ in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK: analysis of visual outcomes and higher order aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M


    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Brent S Betts2, Daniel S Churgin3, Maylon Hsu1, Marcus Neuffer1, Shameema Sikder4, Dane Church5, Mark D Mifflin11John A Moran Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3University of Arizona College of Medicine – Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 4Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA, USAPurpose: To compare outcomes in visual acuity, refractive error, higher-order aberrations (HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and dry eye in patients undergoing laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using wavefront (WF guided VISX CustomVue and WF optimized WaveLight Allegretto platforms.Methods: In this randomized, prospective, single-masked, fellow eye study, LASIK was performed on 44 eyes (22 patients, with one eye randomized to WaveLight Allegretto, and the fellow eye receiving VISX CustomVue. Postoperative outcome measures at 3 months included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, refractive error, root-mean-square (RMS value of total and grouped HOAs, contrast sensitivity, and Schirmers testing.Results: Mean values for UDVA (logMAR were -0.067 ± 0.087 and -0.073 ± 0.092 in the WF optimized and WF guided groups, respectively (P = 0.909. UDVA of 20/20 or better was achieved in 91% of eyes undergoing LASIK with both lasers while UDVA of 20/15 or better was achieved in 64% of eyes using the Allegretto platform, and 59% of eyes using VISX CustomVue (P = 1.000. In the WF optimized group, total HOA increased 4% (P = 0.012, coma increased 11% (P = 0.065, and spherical aberration increased 19% (P = 0.214, while trefoil decreased 5% (P = 0.490. In the WF guided group, total HOA RMS decreased 9% (P = 0.126, coma decreased 18% (P = 0.144, spherical aberration decreased 27% (P = 0.713 and trefoil

  13. Chorus Wave Energy Budget Analysis in the Earth's Radiation Belts (United States)

    Blancarte, J.; Agapitov, O. V.; Mozer, F.


    Whistler-mode chorus emissions are important electromagnetic waves in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously scatter and accelerate electrons of the outer radiation belt, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts. Here, we present an analysis of Van Allen Probes electric and magnetic field VLF waveform data, evaluating the wave energy budget, and show that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to very oblique waves. Such waves, with a generally much smaller (up to 10 times) magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have comparable or even larger total energy. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts and also provide nonlinear effects due to wave-particle interaction through the Landau resonance due to the significant electric field component parallel to the background magnetic field.

  14. Diffusely scattered and transmitted elastic waves by random rough solid-solid interfaces using an elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Lowe, Mike; Craster, Richard


    Elastic waves scattered by random rough interfaces separating two distinct media play an important role in modeling phonon scattering and impact upon thermal transport models, and are also integral to ultrasonic inspection. We introduce theoretical formulas for the diffuse field of elastic waves scattered by, and transmitted across, random rough solid-solid interfaces using the elastodynamic Kirchhoff approximation. The new formulas are validated by comparison with numerical Monte Carlo simulations, for a wide range of roughness (rms σ ≤λ /3 , correlation length λ0≥ wavelength λ ), demonstrating a significant improvement over the widely used small-perturbation approach, which is valid only for surfaces with small rms values. Physical analysis using the theoretical formulas derived here demonstrates that increasing the rms value leads to a considerable change of the scattering patterns for each mode. The roughness has different effects on the reflection and the transmission, with a strong dependence on the material properties. In the special case of a perfect match of the wave speed of the two solid media, the transmission is the same as the case for a flat interface. We pay particular attention to scattering in the specular direction, often used as an observable quantity, in terms of the roughness parameters, showing a peak at an intermediate value of rms; this rms value coincides with that predicted by the Rayleigh parameter.

  15. Random-Access Technique for Self-Organization of 5G Millimeter-Wave Cellular Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Meynard Arana


    Full Text Available The random-access (RA technique is a key procedure in cellular networks and self-organizing networks (SONs, but the overall processing time of this technique in millimeter-wave (mm-wave cellular systems with directional beams is very long because RA preambles (RAPs should be transmitted in all directions of Tx and Rx beams. In this paper, two different types of preambles (RAP-1 and RAP-2 are proposed to reduce the processing time in the RA stage. After analyzing the correlation property, false-alarm probability, and detection probability of the proposed RAPs, we perform simulations to show that the RAP-2 is suitable for RA in mm-wave cellular systems with directional beams because of the smaller processing time and high detection probability in multiuser environments.

  16. Effective medium approximation for effective propagation constant calculation in a dense random medium. [electromagnetic wave scattering (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.; Fung, A. K.


    The effective medium approximation (EMA) formalism developed for scalar wave calculations in solid state physics is generalized to electromagnetic wave scattering in a dense random medium. Results are applied to compute the effective propagation constant in a dense medium involving discrete spherical scatterers. When compared with a common quasicrystalline approximation (QCA), it is found that EMA accounts for backward scattering and the effect of correlation among three scatterers which are not available in QCA. It is also found that there is not much difference in the calculated normalized phase velocity between the use of these two approximations. However, there is a significant difference in the computed effective loss tangent in a nonabsorptive random medium. The computed effective loss tangent using EMA and measurements from a snow medium are compared, showing good agreement.

  17. Wave-number-frequency spectrum for turbulence from a random sweeping hypothesis with mean flow. (United States)

    Wilczek, M; Narita, Y


    We derive the energy spectrum in wave-number-frequency space for turbulent flows based on Kraichnan's idealized random sweeping hypothesis with additional mean flow, which yields the instantaneous energy spectrum multiplied by a Gaussian frequency distribution. The model spectrum has two adjustable parameters, the mean flow velocity and the sweeping velocity, and has the property that the power-law index of the wave-number spectrum translates to the frequency spectrum, invariant for arbitrary choices of the mean velocity and sweeping velocity. The model spectrum incorporates both Taylor's frozen-in flow approximation and the random sweeping approximation in a natural way and can be used to distinguish between these two effects when applied to real time-resolved multipoint turbulence data. Evaluated in real space, its properties with respect to space-time velocity correlations are discussed, and a comparison to the recently introduced elliptic model is drawn.

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a periodic surface with random roughness (United States)

    Yueh, H. A.; Shin, R. T.; Kong, J. A.


    Equations for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a randomly perturbed periodic surface have been formulated using the extended boundary condition method and solved using the small perturbation method. Surface currents and scattered fields are solved for up to the second order. The results indicate that as the correlation length of the random roughness increases, the bistatic scattering patterns of the scattered fields show several beams associated with each Bragg diffraction direction of the periodic surface. The beam shape becomes broader with smaller correlation length. Results obtained using the Kirchhoff approximation are found to agree well with the present results for the hh and vv polarized backscattering coefficients for small angles of incidence.

  19. Teaching time-series analysis. II. Wave height and water surface elevation probability distributions (United States)

    Whitford, Dennis J.; Waters, Jennifer K.; Vieira, Mario E. C.


    This paper describes the second of a two-part series of pedagogical exercises to introduce students to methods of time-series analysis. While these exercises are focused on the analysis of wind generated surface gravity waves, they are cross-disciplinary in nature and can be applied to other fields dealing with random signal analysis. Two computer laboratory exercises are presented which enable students to understand many of the facets of random signal analysis with less difficulty and more understanding than standard classroom instruction alone. The first pedagogical exercise, described in the previous article, uses mathematical software on which the students execute the manual arithmetic operations of a finite Fourier analysis on a complex wave record. The results are then compared to those obtained by a fast Fourier transform. This article, the second of this two-part pedagogical series, addresses analysis of a complex sea using observed and theoretical wave height and water surface elevation probability distributions and wave spectra. These results are compared to a fast Fourier transform analysis, thus providing a link back to the first exercise.

  20. Diffusive and localization behavior of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random medium. (United States)

    Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Ye, Zhen


    In this paper, we discuss the transport phenomena of electromagnetic waves in a two-dimensional random system which is composed of arrays of electrical dipoles, following the model presented earlier by Erdogan et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 391 (1993)]. A set of self-consistent equations is presented, accounting for the multiple scattering in the system, and is then solved numerically. A strong localization regime is discovered in the frequency domain. The transport properties within, near the edge of, and nearly outside the localization regime are investigated for different parameters such as filling factor and system size. The results show that within the localization regime, waves are trapped near the transmitting source. Meanwhile, the diffusive waves follow an intuitive but expected picture. That is, they increase with traveling path as more and more random scattering incurs, followed by a saturation, then start to decay exponentially when the travelling path is large enough, signifying the localization effect. For the cases where the frequencies are near the boundary of or outside the localization regime, the results of diffusive waves are compared with the diffusion approximation, showing less encouraging agreement as in other systems [Asatryan et al., Phys. Rev. E 67, 036605 (2003)].

  1. A Lagrangian description of nearshore hydrodynamics and rip currents forced by a random wave field (United States)

    Leandro, S.; Cienfuegos, R.; Escauriaza, C. R.


    Nonlinear processes become important for waves propagating in the shoaling and surf zones. Wave shape changes when approaching the coast under the influence of bathymetry, becoming increasingly asymmetric until reaching the breaking limit. In the shoaling zone, non-linearities induce a net velocity in the direction of wave propagation, a phenomenon called Stokes drift, while in the surf zone, currents are mainly driven by spatio-temporal variations in energy dissipation gradients. In this work we aim at investigating and characterizing the nearshore circulation forced by a random wave field propagating over a variable bathymetry. We carry out numerical simulations over a laboratory experiment conducted in a wave basin over a realistic bathymetry [Michallet et al. 2010]. For the hydrodynamics, we use a 2D shock-capturing finite-volume model that solves the non-linear shallow water equations, taking into account energy dissipation by breaking, friction, bed-slope variations, and an accurate description for the moving shoreline in the swash zone [Marche et al. 2007;Guerra et al. 2010]. Model predictions are compared and validated against experimental data giving confidence for its use in the description of wave propagation in the surf/swash zone, together with mean eulerian velocities. The resulting wave propagation and circulation provided by the 2D model will then be used to describe drifter's patterns in the surf zone and construct Lagrangian particle tracking. The chosen experimental configuration is of great interest due to the random wave forcing (slowly modulated), the beach non-uniformities, and the existence of several bar-rip channels that enhance quasi-periodic rip instabilities. During the experiment, balloons filled with water, with a diameter between 5 and 10 cm, were placed in the surf zone in order to characterize circulation in a Lagrangian framework [Castelle et al. 2010]. The time-location of the balloons was continuously tracked by a shore

  2. Ultrasound shear wave simulation based on nonlinear wave propagation and Wigner-Ville Distribution analysis (United States)

    Bidari, Pooya Sobhe; Alirezaie, Javad; Tavakkoli, Jahan


    This paper presents a method for modeling and simulation of shear wave generation from a nonlinear Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) that is considered as a distributed force applied at the focal region of a HIFU transducer radiating in nonlinear regime. The shear wave propagation is simulated by solving the Navier's equation from the distributed nonlinear ARFI as the source of the shear wave. Then, the Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD) as a time-frequency analysis method is used to detect the shear wave at different local points in the region of interest. The WVD results in an estimation of the shear wave time of arrival, its mean frequency and local attenuation which can be utilized to estimate medium's shear modulus and shear viscosity using the Voigt model.



    K. Ravindranath Tagore, Rachumalla Pallavi


    In this thesis, a sandwich composite for Semi-monocoque construction in aircraft fuselage is analyzed for its strength under different loading conditions using different materials for Stringers balsa wood, syntactic foams, and honeycombs and Carbon Fiber reinforced thermoplastics is used as skin material. 3D modeling is done in Pro/Engineer. Static, Modal and Random Vibration analysis is done on the beam using finite element analysis software Ansys.

  4. An improved numerical model for wave rotor design and analysis (United States)

    Paxson, Daniel E.; Wilson, Jack


    A numerical model has been developed which can predict both the unsteady flows within a wave rotor and the steady averaged flows in the ports. The model is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, unsteady, and perfect gas flow. Besides the dominant wave behavior, it is also capable of predicting the effects of finite tube opening time, leakage from the tube ends, and viscosity. The relative simplicity of the model makes it useful for design, optimization, and analysis of wave rotor cycles for any application. This paper discusses some details of the model and presents comparisons between the model and two laboratory wave rotor experiments.

  5. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu


    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  6. Bifurcation analysis and the travelling wave solutions of the Klein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Math. Comput. 189, 271 (2007); Li et al, Appl. Math. Comput. 175, 61 (2006)). Keywords. Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations; travelling wave solutions; bifurcation analysis. PACS Nos 05.45.Yv; 2.30.Jr; 04.20.Jb .... level h, it is shown that the exact periodic solutions evolute into solitary wave solution. In ref. [27], by using the ...

  7. Hydrodynamic analysis of oscillating water column wave energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Ducasse, Damien; Nielsen, Kim


    for wave-body interactions, 2014, http://​www.​wamit.​com) is used for the basic wave-structure interaction analysis. The damping applied to each chamber by the power take off is modeled in the experiment by forcing the air through a hole with an area of about 1 % of the chamber water surface area...

  8. Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis (United States)

    Kanli, A. I.


    Fast and Efficient Approach in Surface Wave Analysis Ali Ismet KANLI Istanbul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Geophysical Engineering, 34320, Avcilar Campus, Istanbul-Turkey, E-mail: Abstract: A two-step surface wave analysis method is proposed including both the MASW (Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Waves) and Micro-tremor based techniques. This is an integrated approach and the MASW survey data are gathered to obtain the shear wave velocity-depth information up to at least 30 meters by using a special type active seismic source called as SR-II or Kangaroo. In the second step, the microtremor data which are based on surface waves from seismic noise at each site are used to determine the shear-wave velocity-depth profiles. In the second step of the process, the multichannel analysis of surface waves data are given as constraints in the microtremor inversion process. This proposed algorithm allows us to calculate shear wave velocity-depth information with all geotechnical parameters from near surface to bedrock depths very fast and efficiently.

  9. Analysis of Surface Wave Attenuation in Mangrove Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safwan Hadi


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study on surface wave attenuation in mangrove forest using analytical model developed by Massel (1999. The energy dissipation in the frequency domain is determined by treating the mangrove forest as a random media with certain characteristics using the geometry of mangrove trunks and their locations. Initial nonlinear governing equations are linearized using the concept of minimalization in the stochastic sense and interactions between mangrove trunks and roots have been introduced through the modification of the drag coefficients. To see the effectiveness of the mangrove forest in attenuating wave energy the analytical model was applied to two types of mangrove forest i.e. Rhizophora and Ceriops forests. The resulting rate of wave energy attenuation depends strongly on the density of the mangrove forest, and on diameter of mangrove roots and trunks. More effective wave energy attenuation is shown by Rhizophora.

  10. Random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating based on SVD method for ground penetrating radar signals (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Song, Chao; Lu, Qi


    In this paper, we present a method using singular value decomposition (SVD) which aims at eliminating the random noise and direct wave from ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. To demonstrate the validity and high efficiency of the SVD method in eliminating random noise, we compare the SVD de-noising method with wavelet threshold de-noising method and bandpass filtering method on both noisy synthetic data and field data. After that, we compare the SVD method with the mean trace deleting in eliminating direct wave on synthetic data and field data. We set general and quantitative criteria on choosing singular values to carry out the random noise de-noising and direct wave eliminating process. We find that by choosing appropriate singular values, SVD method can eliminate the random noise and direct wave in the GPR data validly and efficiently to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the GPR profiles and make effective reflection signals clearer.

  11. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Internal Wave Analysis Spatial Extent (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains the spatial extent of the internal wave analysis. This area of interest was defined in interests of time. A cusory review of the 66 SAR...

  12. Partial wave analysis of oriented collisions (United States)

    Harris, A. L.; Amami, S.; Saxton, T.; Madison, D. H.


    We present fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) for two collision processes with oriented atoms. The first collision is electron-impact ionization of oriented Mg (3p), and the second collision is electron-impact excitation-ionization (EI) of helium with an oriented final state He+(2p0) ion. Surprisingly, the theoretical functional form of the FDCS is the same for both processes, despite the fact that the only physical similarity is an oriented excited state in both processes. We present FDCS as a function of orientation angle and ejected electron angle for both ionization of oriented Mg(3p) and EI of helium in order to explore possible physical similarities between the two processes. We examine the contributions to the FDCS of individual partial waves of the ionized electron and projectile. For the ionization of oriented Mg, we show that the FDCS are dominated by larger partial waves of the ejected electron, with the dominant partial waves having a dependence on scattering angle and outgoing electron energy sharing. For the EI process, the FDCS is dominated by the L = 2 partial wave, independent of scattering angle or energy sharing. Also, for EI it is possible to have angular momentum transferred from either the target helium atom or the incident projectile.

  13. Two dimensional kinetic analysis of electrostatic harmonic plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca-Pongutá, E. C.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); SSR, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Electrostatic harmonic Langmuir waves are virtual modes excited in weakly turbulent plasmas, first observed in early laboratory beam-plasma experiments as well as in rocket-borne active experiments in space. However, their unequivocal presence was confirmed through computer simulated experiments and subsequently theoretically explained. The peculiarity of harmonic Langmuir waves is that while their existence requires nonlinear response, their excitation mechanism and subsequent early time evolution are governed by essentially linear process. One of the unresolved theoretical issues regards the role of nonlinear wave-particle interaction process over longer evolution time period. Another outstanding issue is that existing theories for these modes are limited to one-dimensional space. The present paper carries out two dimensional theoretical analysis of fundamental and (first) harmonic Langmuir waves for the first time. The result shows that harmonic Langmuir wave is essentially governed by (quasi)linear process and that nonlinear wave-particle interaction plays no significant role in the time evolution of the wave spectrum. The numerical solutions of the two-dimensional wave spectra for fundamental and harmonic Langmuir waves are also found to be consistent with those obtained by direct particle-in-cell simulation method reported in the literature.

  14. Comparative study of standing wave reduction methods using random modulation for transcranial ultrasonication. (United States)

    Furuhata, Hiroshi; Saito, Osamu


    Various transcranial sonotherapeutic technologies have risks related to standing waves in the skull. In this study, we present a comparative study on standing waves using four different activation methods: sinusoidal (SIN), frequency modulation by noise (FMN), periodic selection of random frequency (PSRF), and random switching of both inverse carriers (RSBIC). The standing wave was produced and monitored by the schlieren method using a flat plane and a human skull. The minimum ratio RSW, which is defined by the ratio of the mean of the difference between local maximal value and local minimal value of amplitude to the average value of the amplitude, was 36% for SIN, 24% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 4%for RSBIC for the flat reflective plate, and it was 25% for SIN, 11% for FMN, 13% for PSRF, and 5% for RSBIC for the inner surface of the human skull. This study is expected to have a role in the development of safer therapeutic equipment. Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Internal wave generation by tidal flow over periodically and randomly distributed seamounts (United States)

    Zhang, Likun; Buijsman, Maarten C.; Comino, Eva; Swinney, Harry L.


    We examine numerically the conversion of barotropic tidal energy into internal waves by flow over an isolated seamount and over systems of periodically and randomly distributed 1100 m tall seamounts with Gaussian profiles. The simulations use the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) to calculate for an infinitely deep ocean the dependence of the energy conversion on seamount slope, seamount separation, tidal direction, and the size and aspect ratio of the simulation domain. For neighboring seamounts with a slope greater than the internal wave beam slope, wave interference reduces the conversion relative to that calculated for an isolated seamount, and relative to that predicted by linear theory for a seamount of slope less than the beam slope. The conversion by an individual seamount in a system of random seamounts separated by an average distance of 18 km is found to be suppressed by 16% relative to the conversion by an isolated seamount. This study provides insight into tidal conversion by ocean seamounts modeled as Gaussian mountains with slopes both smaller and larger than the beam slope. We conclude that the total energy conversion by all seamounts (peak height ≥1000 m) and knolls (peak height 500-1000 m), taking into account interference affects, is of the order of 1% of the total barotropic to baroclinic energy conversion in the oceans, which is about twice as large as previous estimates.

  16. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail:; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)


    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  17. Methods and analysis of realizing randomized grouping. (United States)

    Hu, Liang-Ping; Bao, Xiao-Lei; Wang, Qi


    Randomization is one of the four basic principles of research design. The meaning of randomization includes two aspects: one is to randomly select samples from the population, which is known as random sampling; the other is to randomly group all the samples, which is called randomized grouping. Randomized grouping can be subdivided into three categories: completely, stratified and dynamically randomized grouping. This article mainly introduces the steps of complete randomization, the definition of dynamic randomization and the realization of random sampling and grouping by SAS software.

  18. Optimizing detection and analysis of slow waves in sleep EEG. (United States)

    Mensen, Armand; Riedner, Brady; Tononi, Giulio


    Analysis of individual slow waves in EEG recording during sleep provides both greater sensitivity and specificity compared to spectral power measures. However, parameters for detection and analysis have not been widely explored and validated. We present a new, open-source, Matlab based, toolbox for the automatic detection and analysis of slow waves; with adjustable parameter settings, as well as manual correction and exploration of the results using a multi-faceted visualization tool. We explore a large search space of parameter settings for slow wave detection and measure their effects on a selection of outcome parameters. Every choice of parameter setting had some effect on at least one outcome parameter. In general, the largest effect sizes were found when choosing the EEG reference, type of canonical waveform, and amplitude thresholding. Previously published methods accurately detect large, global waves but are conservative and miss the detection of smaller amplitude, local slow waves. The toolbox has additional benefits in terms of speed, user-interface, and visualization options to compare and contrast slow waves. The exploration of parameter settings in the toolbox highlights the importance of careful selection of detection METHODS: The sensitivity and specificity of the automated detection can be improved by manually adding or deleting entire waves and or specific channels using the toolbox visualization functions. The toolbox standardizes the detection procedure, sets the stage for reliable results and comparisons and is easy to use without previous programming experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Searching for Survivors through Random Human-Body Movement Outdoors by Continuous-Wave Radar Array. (United States)

    Li, Chuantao; Chen, Fuming; Qi, Fugui; Liu, Miao; Li, Zhao; Liang, Fulai; Jing, Xijing; Lu, Guohua; Wang, Jianqi


    It is a major challenge to search for survivors after chemical or nuclear leakage or explosions. At present, biological radar can be used to achieve this goal by detecting the survivor's respiration signal. However, owing to the random posture of an injured person at a rescue site, the radar wave may directly irradiate the person's head or feet, in which it is difficult to detect the respiration signal. This paper describes a multichannel-based antenna array technology, which forms an omnidirectional detection system via 24-GHz Doppler biological radar, to address the random positioning relative to the antenna of an object to be detected. Furthermore, since the survivors often have random body movement such as struggling and twitching, the slight movements of the body caused by breathing are obscured by these movements. Therefore, a method is proposed to identify random human-body movement by utilizing multichannel information to calculate the background variance of the environment in combination with a constant-false-alarm-rate detector. The conducted outdoor experiments indicate that the system can realize the omnidirectional detection of random human-body movement and distinguish body movement from environmental interference such as movement of leaves and grass. The methods proposed in this paper will be a promising way to search for survivors outdoors.

  20. Uncertainty analysis of wind-wave predictions in Lake Michigan (United States)

    Nekouee, Navid; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad; Hamidi, Sajad Ahmad


    With all the improvement in wave and hydrodynamics numerical models, the question rises in our mind that how the accuracy of the forcing functions and their input can affect the results. In this paper, a commonly used numerical third-generation wave model, SWAN is applied to predict waves in Lake Michigan. Wind data are analyzed to determine wind variation frequency over Lake Michigan. Wave predictions uncertainty due to wind local effects are compared during a period where wind has a fairly constant speed and direction over the northern and southern basins. The study shows that despite model calibration in Lake Michigan area, the model deficiency arises from ignoring wind effects in small scales. Wave prediction also emphasizes that small scale turbulence in meteorological forces can increase prediction errors by 38%. Wave frequency and coherence analysis show that both models can predict the wave variation time scale with the same accuracy. Insufficient number of meteorological stations can result in neglecting local wind effects and discrepancies in current predictions. The uncertainty of wave numerical models due to input uncertainties and model principals should be taken into account for design risk factors.

  1. Analysis of Rectangular Folded-Waveguide Millimeter-Wave Slow-wave Structures using Conformal Transformations (United States)

    Sumathy, M.; Vinoy, K. J.; Datta, S. K.


    An analysis of rectangular folded-waveguide slow-wave structure was developed using conformal mapping technique through Schwarz’s polygon transformation and closed form expressions for the lumped capacitance and inductance per period of the slow-wave structure were derived in terms of the physical dimensions of the structure, incorporating the effects of the beam hole in the lumped parameters. The lumped parameters were subsequently interpreted for obtaining the dispersion and interaction impedance characteristics of the structure. The analysis was benchmarked for two typical millimeter-wave structures, one operating in Ka-band and the other operating in Q-band, against measurement and 3D electromagnetic modeling using MAFIA.

  2. Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.


    Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...... of wave spreading becomes wider, the wave run-up at some points around the cylinders is found to increase. This suggests that multi-directional wave run-up tends to be larger than unidirectional wave run-up. In addition, the wave directionality has a significant influence on the transverse force...

  3. Applications of random process excursion analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brainina, Irina S


    This book addresses one of the key problems in signal processing, the problem of identifying statistical properties of excursions in a random process in order to simplify the theoretical analysis and make it suitable for engineering applications. Precise and approximate formulas are explained, which are relatively simple and can be used for engineering applications such as the design of devices which can overcome the high initial uncertainty of the self-training period. The information presented in the monograph can be used to implement adaptive signal processing devices capable of d

  4. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators. (United States)


    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered; I .,.,•• n .„^iMl~^.-». H .,il~l.*...,...-•..,.,.., • 1 ——’"- •"•’ ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE RANDOM...among my teachers two of the best: my parents, Bil and Marleen Reiser. - , i — - •- - J I " ii. .1 I l. Kl U...the period, we know that r(pa*z) * pr(pa) and k - • - ----• •--- - -— — ...., . H ..J 1-..11.111 ’ Introduction that r(pa *’) divides

  5. Broadband diffuse terahertz wave scattering by flexible metasurface with randomized phase distribution. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Liang, Lanju; Yang, Jing; Feng, Yijun; Zhu, Bo; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Jin, Biaobing; Liu, Weiwei


    Suppressing specular electromagnetic wave reflection or backward radar cross section is important and of broad interests in practical electromagnetic engineering. Here, we present a scheme to achieve broadband backward scattering reduction through diffuse terahertz wave reflection by a flexible metasurface. The diffuse scattering of terahertz wave is caused by the randomized reflection phase distribution on the metasurface, which consists of meta-particles of differently sized metallic patches arranged on top of a grounded polyimide substrate simply through a certain computer generated pseudorandom sequence. Both numerical simulations and experimental results demonstrate the ultralow specular reflection over a broad frequency band and wide angle of incidence due to the re-distribution of the incident energy into various directions. The diffuse scattering property is also polarization insensitive and can be well preserved when the flexible metasurface is conformably wrapped on a curved reflective object. The proposed design opens up a new route for specular reflection suppression, and may be applicable in stealth and other technology in the terahertz spectrum.

  6. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin


    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

  7. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo


    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  8. Statistical parameters of random heterogeneity estimated by analysing coda waves based on finite difference method (United States)

    Emoto, K.; Saito, T.; Shiomi, K.


    Short-period (seismic waves and randomly distributed small-scale heterogeneities. Statistical properties of the random heterogeneities have been estimated by analysing short-period seismograms. However, generally, the small-scale random heterogeneity is not taken into account for the modelling of long-period (>2 s) seismograms. We found that the energy of the coda of long-period seismograms shows a spatially flat distribution. This phenomenon is well known in short-period seismograms and results from the scattering by small-scale heterogeneities. We estimate the statistical parameters that characterize the small-scale random heterogeneity by modelling the spatiotemporal energy distribution of long-period seismograms. We analyse three moderate-size earthquakes that occurred in southwest Japan. We calculate the spatial distribution of the energy density recorded by a dense seismograph network in Japan at the period bands of 8-16 s, 4-8 s and 2-4 s and model them by using 3-D finite difference (FD) simulations. Compared to conventional methods based on statistical theories, we can calculate more realistic synthetics by using the FD simulation. It is not necessary to assume a uniform background velocity, body or surface waves and scattering properties considered in general scattering theories. By taking the ratio of the energy of the coda area to that of the entire area, we can separately estimate the scattering and the intrinsic absorption effects. Our result reveals the spectrum of the random inhomogeneity in a wide wavenumber range including the intensity around the corner wavenumber as P(m) = 8πε2a3/(1 + a2m2)2, where ε = 0.05 and a = 3.1 km, even though past studies analysing higher-frequency records could not detect the corner. Finally, we estimate the intrinsic attenuation by modelling the decay rate of the energy. The method proposed in this study is suitable for quantifying the statistical properties of long-wavelength subsurface random inhomogeneity, which

  9. Hydrodynamic analysis of oscillating water column wave energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Ducasse, Damien; Nielsen, Kim


    A 40-chamber I-Beam attenuator-type, oscillating water column, wave energy converter is analyzed numerically based on linearized potential flow theory, and experimentally via model test experiments. The high-order panel method WAMIT by Newman and Lee (WAMIT; a radiation–diffraction panel program...... for wave-body interactions, 2014, http://​www.​wamit.​com) is used for the basic wave-structure interaction analysis. The damping applied to each chamber by the power take off is modeled in the experiment by forcing the air through a hole with an area of about 1 % of the chamber water surface area....... In the numerical model, this damping is modeled by an equivalent linearized damping coefficient which extracts the same amount of energy over one cycle as the experimentally measured quadratic damping coefficient. The pressure in each chamber in regular waves of three different height-to-length ratios is measured...

  10. Wave intensity analysis and its application to the coronary circulation (United States)

    Davies, JE; Escaned, JE; Hughes, A; Parker, K

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is a technique developed from the field of gas dynamics that is now being applied to assess cardiovascular physiology. It allows quantification of the forces acting to alter flow and pressure within a fluid system, and as such it is highly insightful in ascribing cause to dynamic blood pressure or velocity changes. When co-incident waves arrive at the same spatial location they exert either counteracting or summative effects on flow and pressure. WIA however allows waves of different origins to be measured uninfluenced by other simultaneously arriving waves. It therefore has found particular applicability within the coronary circulation where both proximal (aortic) and distal (myocardial) ends of the coronary artery can markedly influence blood flow. Using these concepts, a repeating pattern of 6 waves has been consistently identified within the coronary arteries, 3 originating proximally and 3 distally. Each has been associated with a particular part of the cardiac cycle. The most clinically relevant wave to date is the backward decompression wave, which causes the marked increase in coronary flow velocity observed at the start of the diastole. It has been proposed that this wave is generated by the elastic re-expansion of the intra-myocardial blood vessels that are compressed during systolic contraction. Particularly by quantifying this wave, WIA has been used to provide mechanistic and prognostic insight into a number of conditions including aortic stenosis, left ventricular hypertrophy, coronary artery disease and heart failure. It has proven itself to be highly sensitive and as such a number of novel research directions are encouraged where further insights would be beneficial. PMID:28971104

  11. Pulse wave analysis and diabetes mellitus. A systematic review. (United States)

    Gajdova, Jaromira; Karasek, David; Goldmannova, Dominika; Krystynik, Ondrej; Schovanek, Jan; Vaverkova, Helena; Zadrazil, Josef


    Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the primary cause of death in diabetic patients and one of the explanations may be increased arterial stiffness. Arterial stiffness assessment using pulse wave analysis, is a predictive factor of CV events. The aim of this paper is to review the current knowledge of relations between diabetes mellitus and pulse wave analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed to retrieve both original and review articles addressing the relations and influences on arterial stiffness in diabetics. Pulse wave analysis is considered as a gold standard in CV risk evaluation for patients at risk, especially diabetics. Arterial stiffness assessment may be helpful for choosing more aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic strategies, particularly in younger patients to reduce the incidence of CV disease in these patients.

  12. W-Band Millimeter-Wave Vector Signal Generation Based on Precoding-Assisted Random Photonic Frequency Tripling Scheme Enabled by Phase Modulator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun


    We propose W-band photonic millimeter-wave (mm-wave) vector signal generation employing a precoding-assisted random frequency tripling scheme enabled by a single phase modulator cascaded with a wavelength selective switch (WSS...

  13. Sensitivity analysis of P-waves and S-waves to gas hydrate in the Shenhu area using OBS (United States)

    Xing, Lei; Liu, Xueqin; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Huaishan; Zhang, Jing; Li, Zizheng; Wang, Jianhua


    Compared to towed streamers, ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) obtain both S-wave data and richer wavefield information. In this paper, the induced polarization method is used to conduct wavefield separation on OBS data obtained from the Shenhu area in the South China Sea. A comparison of the changes in P- and S-waves, and a comprehensive analysis of geological factors within the area, enable analysis and description of the occurrence of natural gas hydrate in the study area. Results show an increase in P-wave velocity when natural gas hydrate exists in the formation, whereas the S-wave velocity remains almost constant, as S-waves can only propagate through the rock skeleton. Therefore, the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) response of the P-wave is better than that of the S-wave in the frequency analysis profile. In a wide-angle section, the refractive wave of the hydrate layer is evident when using P-wave components but identification is difficult with S-wave components. This velocity model illustrates the sensitivity of P- and S-wave components to gas hydrate. The use of this polarization method and results of analysis provide technical and theoretical support for research on hydrate deposits and other geological features in the Shenhu area.

  14. Analysis of slow-wave activity and slow-wave oscillations prior to somnambulism. (United States)

    Jaar, Olivier; Pilon, Mathieu; Carrier, Julie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio


    STUDY OBJECTIVIES: several studies have investigated slow wave sleep EEG parameters, including slow-wave activity (SWA) in relation to somnambulism, but results have been both inconsistent and contradictory. The first goal of the present study was to conduct a quantitative analysis of sleepwalkers' sleep EEG by studying fluctuations in spectral power for delta (1-4 Hz) and slow delta (0.5-1 Hz) before the onset of somnambulistic episodes. A secondary aim was to detect slow-wave oscillations to examine changes in their amplitude and density prior to behavioral episodes. twenty-two adult sleepwalkers were investigated polysomnographically following 25 h of sleep deprivation. analysis of patients' sleep EEG over the 200 sec prior to the episodes' onset revealed that the episodes were not preceded by a gradual increase in spectral power for either delta or slow delta over frontal, central, or parietal leads. However, time course comparisons revealed significant changes in the density of slow-wave oscillations as well as in very slow oscillations with significant increases occurring during the final 20 sec immediately preceding episode onset. the specificity of these sleep EEG parameters for the occurrence and diagnosis of NREM parasomnias remains to be determined.

  15. A Dynamic Analysis of Hydrodynamic Wave Journal Bearings (United States)

    Ene, Nicoleta M.; Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G.


    The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a three-wave journal bearing using a transient approach. The transient analysis permits the determination of the rotor behavior after the fractional frequency whirl appears. The journal trajectory is determined by solving a set of nonlinear equations of motion using the Runge-Katta method. The fluid film forces are computed by integrating the transient Reynolds equation at each time step location of the shaft with respect to the bearing. Because of the large values of the rotational speeds, turbulent effects were included in the computations. The influence of the temperature on the viscosity was also considered. Numerical results were compared to experimenta1 results obtained at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Comparisons of the theoretical results with experimental data were found to be in good agreement. The numerical and experimental results showed that the fluid film of a three-wave journal bearing having a diameter of 30 mm, a length of 27 mm, and a wave amplitude ratio greater than 0.15 is stable even at rotational speeds of 60,000 RPM. For lower wave amplitude ratios, the threshold speed at which the fluid film becomes unstable depends on the wave amplitude and on the supply pocket pressure. Even if the fluid film is unstable, the wave bearing maintains the whirl orbit inside the bearing clearance.

  16. Analysis of the Giacobini-Zinner bow wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E.J.; Slavin, J.A.; Bame, S.J.; Thomsen, M.F.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Hovestadt, D.; Ipavich, F.M.; Ogilvie, K.W.; Coplan, M.A.


    The cometary bow wave of P/Giacobini-Zinner has been analyzed using the complete set of ICE field and particle observations to determine if it is a shock. Changes in the magnetic field and plasma flow velocities from upstream to downstream have been analyzed to determine the direction of the normal and the propagation velocity of the bow wave. The velocity has then been compared with the fast magnetosonic wave speed upstream to derive the Mach number and establish whether it is ''supersonic'', i.e., a shock, or ''subsonic,'' i.e., a large amplitude wave. The various measurements have also been compared with values derived from a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis. The results indicate that, inbound, the bow wave is a shock with M = 1.5. Outbound, a subsonic mach number is obtained, however, arguments are presented that the bow wave is also likely to be a shock at this location. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. A New Approach for the Stability Analysis of Wave Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Xuan Zhang


    Full Text Available We introduce a new approach to investigate the stability of controlled tree-shaped wave networks and subtrees of complex wave networks. It is motivated by regarding the network as branching out from a single edge. We present the recursive relations of the Laplacian transforms of adjacent edges of the system in its branching order, which form the characteristic equation. In the stability analysis, we estimate the infimums of the recursive expressions in the inverse order based on the spectral analysis. It is a feasible way to check whether the system is exponentially stable under any control strategy or parameter choice. As an application we design the control law and study the stability of a 12-edge tree-shaped wave network.

  18. Random matrix approach to categorical data analysis (United States)

    Patil, Aashay; Santhanam, M. S.


    Correlation and similarity measures are widely used in all the areas of sciences and social sciences. Often the variables are not numbers but are instead qualitative descriptors called categorical data. We define and study similarity matrix, as a measure of similarity, for the case of categorical data. This is of interest due to a deluge of categorical data, such as movie ratings, top-10 rankings, and data from social media, in the public domain that require analysis. We show that the statistical properties of the spectra of similarity matrices, constructed from categorical data, follow random matrix predictions with the dominant eigenvalue being an exception. We demonstrate this approach by applying it to the data for Indian general elections and sea level pressures in the North Atlantic ocean.

  19. Source-wave analysis by using AE method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Sok; Choi, Chang Jung; Yang, Sung Pil; Jung, Hyoun Chel; Lee, Do Yun; Kim, Tae Youl; Kim Hyoung Taek [Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    At this study, we used AE method which is advantage in inspecting structures to study the fracture toughness, the source location and the quantitative analysis of the specimen made by ASTM standard for developing the stabilized measuring performance system. AE measurement system was worked to obtain acoustic emission energy from the specimen which was shown in the Time-Energy domain and that was a raid increasement at yielding point. This point`s load was determined as the yielding point of AE. At this loading, the fracture toughness, by AE method were compared with those prescribed by ASTM and the comparison shows earlier yielding point by AE test than those by ASTM about 85%. Also, we found source location by calculating wave velocity and time duration. For the quantitative analysis, a detected wave obtained by the testing device(MISTRAS 2001 system) was transformed into source wave by using deconvolution method. And in the evaluation of a default by deconvolution method, the volume of the default was calculated 2.65 x 10{sup -4} {mu}m. These test results were used in setting up this system for testing other materials, and the source wave transformed by deconvolution included the property of the default. Using the method we think that the wave is classified into the kind of default. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  20. Analysis of android random number generator


    Sarıtaş, Serkan


    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  1. Analysis of wave directional spreading using neural networks

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    !. ‘‘Analysis of directional wave energy using neu- ral networks.’’ MS thesis, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India. Kosko, B. ~1992!. Neural networks and fuzzy systems, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Kuik, A. J., Vledder, G., and Holthuijsen, L...

  2. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp. 555–570. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on Vaidya manifolds. R NARAIN and A H KARA. ∗. School of Mathematics and Centre for Differential Equations, Continuum Mechanics and. Applications, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050,. South Africa. ∗.

  3. A Two Wave Analysis of Hospitalizations and Mortality from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Two Wave Analysis of Hospitalizations and Mortality from Seasonal and Pandemic 2009 A (H1N1) Influenza in Saurashtra, India: 2009‑2011. ... Real‑time reverse‑transcriptase‑polymerase‑chain‑reaction (RT‑PCR) testing was used to confirm the infection. The clinico‑epidemiological features of the patients were closely ...

  4. Gravitational wave detection and data analysis for pulsar timing arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasteren, Rutger van


    Long-term precise timing of Galactic millisecond pulsars holds great promise for measuring long-period (months-to-years) astrophysical gravitational waves. In this work we develop a Bayesian data analysis method for projects called pulsar timing arrays; projects aimed to detect these gravitational

  5. Frequency domain response of a parametrically excited riser under random wave forces (United States)

    Lei, Song; Zhang, Wen-Shou; Lin, Jia-Hao; Yue, Qian-Jin; Kennedy, D.; Williams, F. W.


    Floating Production, Drilling, Storage and Offloading units represent a new technology with a promising future in the offshore oil industry. An important role is played by risers, which are installed between the subsea wellhead and the Tension Leg Deck located in the middle of the moon-pool in the hull. The inevitable heave motion of the floating hull causes a time-varying axial tension in the riser. This time dependent tension may have an undesirable influence on the lateral deflection response of the riser, with random wave forces in the frequency domain. To investigate this effect, a riser is modeled as a Bernoulli-Euler beam. The axial tension is expressed as a static part, along with a harmonic dynamic part. By linearizing the wave drag force, the riser's lateral deflection is obtained through a partial differential equation containing a time-dependent coefficient. Applying the Galerkin method, the equation is reduced to an ordinary differential equation that can be solved using the pseudo-excitation method in the frequency domain. Moreover, the Floquet-Liapunov theorem is used to estimate the stability of the vibration system in the space of parametric excitation. Finally, stability charts are obtained for some numerical examples, the correctness of the proposed method is verified by comparing with Monte-Carlo simulation and the influence of the parametric excitation on the frequency domain responses of the riser is discussed.

  6. Hybrid geometric-random template-placement algorithm for gravitational wave searches from compact binary coalescences (United States)

    Roy, Soumen; Sengupta, Anand S.; Thakor, Nilay


    Astrophysical compact binary systems consisting of neutron stars and black holes are an important class of gravitational wave (GW) sources for advanced LIGO detectors. Accurate theoretical waveform models from the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases of such systems are used to filter detector data under the template-based matched-filtering paradigm. An efficient grid over the parameter space at a fixed minimal match has a direct impact on the overall time taken by these searches. We present a new hybrid geometric-random template placement algorithm for signals described by parameters of two masses and one spin magnitude. Such template banks could potentially be used in GW searches from binary neutron stars and neutron star-black hole systems. The template placement is robust and is able to automatically accommodate curvature and boundary effects with no fine-tuning. We also compare these banks against vanilla stochastic template banks and show that while both are equally efficient in the fitting-factor sense, the bank sizes are ˜25 % larger in the stochastic method. Further, we show that the generation of the proposed hybrid banks can be sped up by nearly an order of magnitude over the stochastic bank. Generic issues related to optimal implementation are discussed in detail. These improvements are expected to directly reduce the computational cost of gravitational wave searches.

  7. Wavelet Analysis of Blood Pressure Waves in Vasovagal Syncope


    Marrone, A.; Polosa, A.D.; Scioscia, G.; Stramaglia, S.; Zenzola, A.


    We describe the multiresolution wavelet analysis of blood pressure waves in vasovagal syncope affected patients compared with healthy people. We argue that there exist discriminating criteria which allow us to isolate particular features, common to the syncope-affected patients sample, indicating an alternative diagnosis methodology for this syndrome. We perform a throughout analysis both in the Haar basis and in a Gaussian one, with an attempt to grasp the underlying dynamics.

  8. Wavelet analysis of blood pressure waves in vasovagal syncope (United States)

    Marrone, A.; Polosa, A. D.; Scioscia, G.; Stramaglia, S.; Zenzola, A.


    We describe the multiresolution wavelet analysis of blood pressure waves in vasovagal syncope affected patients compared with healthy people. We argue that there exist discriminating criteria which allow us to isolate particular features, common to syncope-affected patients sample, indicating a tentative, alternative diagnosis methodology for this syndrome. We perform a throughout analysis both in the Haar basis and in a Gaussian one, with an attempt to grasp the underlying dynamics.

  9. Guided Wave Delamination Detection and Quantification With Wavefield Data Analysis (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Campbell Leckey, Cara A.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Yu, Lingyu


    Unexpected damage can occur in aerospace composites due to impact events or material stress during off-nominal loading events. In particular, laminated composites are susceptible to delamination damage due to weak transverse tensile and inter-laminar shear strengths. Developments of reliable and quantitative techniques to detect delamination damage in laminated composites are imperative for safe and functional optimally-designed next-generation composite structures. In this paper, we investigate guided wave interactions with delamination damage and develop quantification algorithms by using wavefield data analysis. The trapped guided waves in the delamination region are observed from the wavefield data and further quantitatively interpreted by using different wavenumber analysis methods. The frequency-wavenumber representation of the wavefield shows that new wavenumbers are present and correlate to trapped waves in the damage region. These new wavenumbers are used to detect and quantify the delamination damage through the wavenumber analysis, which can show how the wavenumber changes as a function of wave propagation distance. The location and spatial duration of the new wavenumbers can be identified, providing a useful means not only for detecting the presence of delamination damage but also allowing for estimation of the delamination size. Our method has been applied to detect and quantify real delamination damage with complex geometry (grown using a quasi-static indentation technique). The detection and quantification results show the location, size, and shape of the delamination damage.

  10. Weakly nonlinear analysis of short-wave elliptical instability (United States)

    Rodrigues, Savio B.; De Luca, Jayme


    Two-dimensional inviscid flows with elliptical streamlines have linearly unstable three-dimensional modes close to the center of the ellipse. The linear instability equilibrates in the presence of enough viscosity, yielding a continuous set of neutrally stable plane waves known as Craik-Criminale waves (CCWs). For initial disturbance in a discrete superposition of plane waves our weakly nonlinear analysis yields a cubic ordinary differential equation for the slow-time evolution of the neutrally stable plane-wave amplitudes. In the subcritical region we find that all solutions eventually vanish, while in the supercritical region the amplitudes either saturate or have exponential growth; the existence of a finite-time blowup at cubic order being unlikely. The saturation to a steady state is possible only for special initial conditions, and for generic initial conditions the amplitudes saturate to a chaotic state. In contrast, a single CCW with exponential growth is still unstable, but it loses stability to cycles of growth and decay among the plane waves.

  11. A phase-plane analysis of localized frictional waves (United States)

    Putelat, T.; Dawes, J. H. P.; Champneys, A. R.


    Sliding frictional interfaces at a range of length scales are observed to generate travelling waves; these are considered relevant, for example, to both earthquake ground surface movements and the performance of mechanical brakes and dampers. We propose an explanation of the origins of these waves through the study of an idealized mechanical model: a thin elastic plate subject to uniform shear stress held in frictional contact with a rigid flat surface. We construct a nonlinear wave equation for the deformation of the plate, and couple it to a spinodal rate-and-state friction law which leads to a mathematically well-posed problem that is capable of capturing many effects not accessible in a Coulomb friction model. Our model sustains a rich variety of solutions, including periodic stick-slip wave trains, isolated slip and stick pulses, and detachment and attachment fronts. Analytical and numerical bifurcation analysis is used to show how these states are organized in a two-parameter state diagram. We discuss briefly the possible physical interpretation of each of these states, and remark also that our spinodal friction law, though more complicated than other classical rate-and-state laws, is required in order to capture the full richness of wave types.

  12. Wave Overtopping over Crown Walls and Run-up on Rubble Mound Breakwaters with Kolos Armour under Random Waves


    A. Arunjith; S. A. Sannasiraj; V. Sundar


    The design of rubble mound structures like breakwaters and seawalls are influenced by the wave run-up and overtopping over them. The above phenomena largely depend on the type of the armour units as they directly interact with the incident waves. The hydrodynamic characteristics of various concrete armour units have been established by several researchers. A new armour block, ‘Kolos’, a modified version of Dolos, is considered in this study for a detailed investigation. An attempt is made to ...

  13. Numerical Modelling and Statistical Analysis of Ocean Wave Energy Converters and Wave Climates


    Li, Wei


    Ocean wave energy is considered to be one of the important potential renewable energy resources for sustainable development. Various wave energy converter technologies have been proposed to harvest the energy from ocean waves. This thesis is based on the linear generator wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University. The research in this thesis focuses on the foundation optimization and the power absorption optimization of the wave energy converters and on the wave climate modelling a...

  14. Wave reflection from randomly inhomogeneous ionospheric layer: 1. The method of describing the wavefield in a reflecting layer with random irregularities (United States)

    Tinin, Mikhail


    It has been previously proposed to describe wave propagation in inhomogeneous media in a small-angle approximation with the aid of a double weighted Fourier transform (DWFT) method. This method agrees with the methods of geometrical optics, smooth perturbations, and phase screen in domains of their applicability; therefore, it can be employed to solve direct and inverse problems of radio wave propagation in multiscale inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma. In this paper, for the DWFT wide-angle generalization a wave equation is preliminary reduced using the Fock proper-time method to a parabolic equation that then is solved by the DWFT method. The resulting solution is analyzed for the case of wave reflection and scattering by a layer with random irregularities and linear profile of average permittivity. We show the transformation of this solution into strict results in the absence of irregularities and in the single-scatter approximation, including backscattering, during weak phase fluctuations. Under certain conditions, the solution takes the form of the small-angle DWFT with respect to refraction in the layer and backscatter effects. Spatial processing in source and observer coordinates brings a beam of received waves into one wave without amplitude fluctuations, which allows an increase in resolution of vertical ionospheric sounding systems.

  15. Wave intensity analysis in air-filled flexible vessels. (United States)

    Clavica, Francesco; Parker, Kim H; Khir, Ashraf W


    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) is an analytical technique generally used to investigate the propagation of waves in the cardiovascular system. Despite its increasing usage in the cardiovascular system, to our knowledge WIA has never been applied to the respiratory system. Given the analogies between arteries and airways (i.e. fluid flow in flexible vessels), the aim of this work is to test the applicability of WIA with gas flow instead of liquid flow. The models employed in this study are similar to earlier studies used for arterial investigations. Simultaneous pressure (P) and velocity (U) measurements were initially made in a single tube and then in several flexible tubes connected in series. Wave speed was calculated using the foot-to-foot method (cf), which was used to separate analytically the measured P and U waveforms into their forward and backward components. Further, the data were used to calculate wave intensity, which was also separated into its forward and backward components. Although the measured wave speed was relatively high, the results showed that the onsets and the nature of reflections (compression/expansion) derived with WIA, corresponded well to those anticipated using the theory of waves in liquid-filled elastic tubes. On average the difference between the experimental and theoretical arrival time of reflection was 6.1% and 3.6% for the single vessel and multivessel experiment, respectively. The results suggest that WIA can provide relatively accurate information on reflections in air-filled flexible tubes, warranting further studies to explore the full potential of this technique in the respiratory system. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cluster analysis of simulated gravitational wave triggers using constrained validation clustering (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Tang, Lappoon; Mukherjee, Soma


    The data collected in the science run of LIGO calls for a thorough analysis of the glitches seen in the gravitational wave channels, as well as in the auxiliary and environmental channels. Rapid growth in size and number of available databases requires fast and accurate data mining algorithms for timely glitch analysis. The study presents a new technique in cluster analysis that we call constrained validation clustering (CV clustering) for mining patterns in gravitational wave burst triggers. The approach avoids using Gaussianity assumptions on data distribution, and was shown to outperform a state of the art in clustering -- G-means -- when K, the number of clusters, is unknown (Tang et. al., 08); experimental results suggested that Guassian mixture assumption can be too strong as a machine learning bias in mining gravitational wave data, evidenced by very severe overfitting of data by G-means. Our current focus is on upgrading CV clustering to utilizing random sampling and stochastic optimization techniques. Preliminary results indicate that such an enhancement can potentially bring about a forty fold increase in computational efficiency while suffering minor degrade in model quality. A current future direction is in further improving quality of models learned by the algorithm for making it an effective approach for real LIGO data analysis.

  17. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berginc, G [THALES, 2 avenue Gay-Lussac 78995 ELANCOURT (France)


    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  18. Prospective randomized comparative study of the effectiveness and safety of electrohydraulic and electromagnetic extracorporeal shock wave lithotriptors. (United States)

    Sheir, Khaled Z; Madbouly, Khaled; Elsobky, Emad


    We compared the efficacy of 2 shock wave energy sources, electrohydraulic (Dornier MFL 5000, Dornier MedTech, Wessling, Germany) and electromagnetic (DLS, Dornier Lithotriptor S, Dornier MedTech), for the treatment of urinary calculi. A prospective randomized study of 694 patients with urinary stones was conducted during 12 months to compare the efficacy of the 2 machines. Entrance criteria were radiopaque single or multiple stones at any location within the kidney or the ureter, 25 mm or smaller that had not previously been treated by any means. Patients with congenital anomalies were excluded from this study with all other contraindications for extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Following lithotripsy a plain abdominal film and tomograms were done 1 week after each session to determine if there were residual stones and assess the need for re-treatment. Patients were evaluated 4 weeks after lithotripsy by plane abdominal x-ray and spiral computerized tomography. Success was defined as no residual stones. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed for different variables that may have an impact on the success rate, including the type of lithotriptor. Comparisons of treatment parameters, complications and success rate for both lithotriptors were done. Of 9 variables examined with univariate analysis 6 had a significant impact on the success rate. Of these 4 maintained their statistical impact on multivariate analysis. These were side, site of the stones, renal morphology and type of lithotriptor. Treatment time was significantly shortened for DLS (54 +/- 32.9 minutes compared to 65.7 +/- 44.7 for MFL, p 0.05). The success rate was higher in the DLS group for renal stones especially lower caliceal and pyelic stones (p 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the complication rate for the groups. Steinstrasse were noted in 4% of patients treated with MFL and 3% of those treated with DLS. Subcapsular hematomas were noted in 2

  19. Lithospheric and sublithospheric anisotropy beneath the Baltic shield from surface-wave array analysis (United States)

    Pedersen, Helle A.; Bruneton, Marianne; Maupin, Valérie; Svekalapko Seismic Tomography Working Group


    We report measurements of radial and azimuthal anisotropy in the upper mantle beneath southern and central Finland, which we obtained by array analysis of fundamental-mode Rayleigh and Love waves. Azimuthally averaged phase velocities were analysed in the period range 15 to 190 s for Rayleigh waves and 15 to 100 s for Love waves. The azimuthal variation of the Rayleigh wave phase velocities was obtained in the period range 20 to 100 s. The limited depth resolution of fundamental-mode surface waves necessitated strong damping constraints in the inversion for anisotropic parameters. We investigated the effects of non-unicity on the final model by experimenting with varying model geometries. The radial anisotropy beneath Finland can be explained by a lithosphere at least 200 km thick, predominantly (> 50% by volume) composed of olivine crystals having their a-axes randomly distributed in the horizontal plane. On the contrary, the measured lithospheric azimuthal anisotropy is small. This can be reconciled with body-wave observations made in the area that indicate a complex pattern of rapidly varying anisotropy. Below 200-250 km depth, that is below the petrologic lithosphere as revealed by xenolith analyses conducted in the area, the magnitude of the azimuthal anisotropy increases and would be compatible with a mantle containing 15-20% by volume of olivine crystals whose a-axes are coherently aligned in the N-NE direction. The alignment of the a-axes is off the direction of present-day absolute plate motion in either the no-net-rotation or hot-spot reference frame, currently N55-N60. We interpret this mismatch as evidence for a complex convective flow pattern of the mantle beneath the shield, which, by inference, is decoupled from the overlying lithosphere.

  20. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts


    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  1. Stochastic analysis model for vehicle-track coupled systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Zhai, Wanming


    This paper devotes to develop a computational model for stochastic analysis and reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems subject to earthquakes and track random irregularities. In this model, the earthquake is expressed as non-stationary random process simulated by spectral representation and random function, and the track random irregularities with ergodic properties on amplitudes, wavelengths and probabilities are characterized by a track irregularity probabilistic model, and then the number theoretical method (NTM) is applied to effectively select representative samples of earthquakes and track random irregularities. Furthermore, a vehicle-track coupled model is presented to obtain the dynamic responses of vehicle-track systems due to the earthquakes and track random irregularities at time-domain, and the probability density evolution method (PDEM) is introduced to describe the evolutionary process of probability from excitation input to response output by assuming the vehicle-track system as a probabilistic conservative system, which lays the foundation on reliability assessment of vehicle-track systems. The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by comparing to the results of Monte-Carlo method from statistical viewpoint. As an illustrative example, the random vibrations of a high-speed railway vehicle running on the track slabs excited by lateral seismic waves and track random irregularities are analyzed, from which some significant conclusions can be drawn, e.g., track irregularities will additionally promote the dynamic influence of earthquakes especially on maximum values and dispersion degree of responses; the characteristic frequencies or frequency ranges respectively governed by earthquakes and track random irregularities are greatly different, moreover, the lateral seismic waves will dominate or even change the characteristic frequencies of system responses of some lateral dynamic indices at low frequency.

  2. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing


    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  3. Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.


    When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.

  4. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  5. YAP. Yet another partial-wave-analysis toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Giglio, Paolo; Greenwald, Daniel; Rauch, Johannes [TUM, Munich (Germany)


    We present a new C++ library: YAP, the Yet Another Partial-wave-analysis toolkit. The library calculates amplitudes for multibody particle decays in several model frameworks. It is intended for the analysis of spin-0 heavy mesons, but is programmed with the flexibility to handle other decays. The library implements isobar decompositions, K-matrix formalism, and model-independent approaches for mass-dependent amplitudes; and both Wigner rotation and Zemach (for 3 particles) formalism for spin amplitudes. We introduce the software and give example use cases.

  6. Cloud Computing for Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L. Kazanskiy


    Full Text Available Design and analysis of complex nanophotonic and nanoelectronic structures require significant computing resources. Cloud computing infrastructure allows distributed parallel applications to achieve greater scalability and fault tolerance. The problems of effective use of high-performance computing systems for modeling and simulation of subwavelength diffraction gratings are considered. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA is adapted to cloud computing environment. In order to accomplish this, data flow of the RCWA is analyzed and CPU-intensive operations are converted to data-intensive operations. The generated data sets are structured in accordance with the requirements of MapReduce technology.

  7. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo


    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  8. Validation of oscillometric pulse wave analysis measurements in children. (United States)

    Stoner, Lee; Lambrick, Danielle M; Westrupp, Nicole; Young, Joanna; Faulkner, James


    Pulse wave analysis (PWA) has emerged as a noninvasive, valid, reliable, and widely used technique to investigate central blood pressures and systemic arterial wave reflection (augmentation index). The gold-standard technique is tonometry, but this technique can be challenging, especially when used on children. The purpose of this study was to validate oscillometric PWA for use in children. Fifty-seven healthy children were recruited for participation. Central blood pressures and peripheral augmentation index (pAIx) were measured objectively using oscillometric (Pulsecor R7) and tonometric (SphygmaCor) devices. All measurements were made during the same visit under standardized conditions between the hours of 8 am and 10 am in the fasted state. Tonometric measurements were unsuccessful on 1 child. Comparisons were made on 56 children (mean age = 9.8±1.0 y; 57% male). A very strong relationship was found between devices for central systolic (r = 0.94; P blood pressures. However, Bland-Altman analysis indicated a bias toward greater systolic blood pressures with the oscillometric monitor (mean difference = 4.5mm Hg; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -5.16 to -3.89). A good relationship was found for pAIx (r = 0.71; P oscillometric PWA provides valid measures of central blood pressure and arterial wave reflection in children aged 8-10 years.

  9. Quantitative subsurface analysis using frequency modulated thermal wave imaging (United States)

    Subhani, S. K.; Suresh, B.; Ghali, V. S.


    Quantitative depth analysis of the anomaly with an enhanced depth resolution is a challenging task towards the estimation of depth of the subsurface anomaly using thermography. Frequency modulated thermal wave imaging introduced earlier provides a complete depth scanning of the object by stimulating it with a suitable band of frequencies and further analyzing the subsequent thermal response using a suitable post processing approach to resolve subsurface details. But conventional Fourier transform based methods used for post processing unscramble the frequencies with a limited frequency resolution and contribute for a finite depth resolution. Spectral zooming provided by chirp z transform facilitates enhanced frequency resolution which can further improves the depth resolution to axially explore finest subsurface features. Quantitative depth analysis with this augmented depth resolution is proposed to provide a closest estimate to the actual depth of subsurface anomaly. This manuscript experimentally validates this enhanced depth resolution using non stationary thermal wave imaging and offers an ever first and unique solution for quantitative depth estimation in frequency modulated thermal wave imaging.

  10. Multidirectional random wave diffraction in a real harbor by using 3-D boundary element method (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Gulshan, Rajni


    The mathematical model is constructed based on 3-D Boundary Element Method (BEM) with the consideration of diffraction, reflection and refraction of multidirectional incident waves utilizing the Laplace equation in a complex geometry harbors. The geometry of the harbor is divided into bounded and open sea region. The partial reflection boundary with variable bathymetry is also considered to analyze the wave spectrum. A Mitsuyasu's wave spectrum is applied to estimate the wave spectrum with multidirectional incident waves. The current numerical approach is practically applied on realistic Pohang New Harbor (PNH), Pohang South Korea. The validation of numerical scheme is done by comparison of measurement data with simulation results at different port stations. Therefore, the current numerical approach is provide the efficient numerical tool to foster the prediction of wave-induced oscillation in a harbor with irregular geometry.

  11. Analysis of missing data with random forests


    Hapfelmeier, Alexander


    Random Forests are widely used for data prediction and interpretation purposes. They show many appealing characteristics, such as the ability to deal with high dimensional data, complex interactions and correlations. Furthermore, missing values can easily be processed by the built-in procedure of surrogate splits. However, there is only little knowledge about the properties of recursive partitioning in missing data situations. Therefore, extensive simulation studies and empir...

  12. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panigrahi Jitendra K.


    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity- to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  13. Inner harbour wave agitation using boussinesq wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra K. Panigrahi


    Full Text Available Short crested waves play an important role for planning and design of harbours. In this context a numerical simulation is carried out to evaluate wave tranquility inside a real harbour located in east coast of India. The annual offshore wave climate proximity to harbour site is established using Wave Model (WAM hindcast wave data. The deep water waves are transformed to harbour front using a Near Shore spectral Wave model (NSW. A directional analysis is carried out to determine the probable incident wave directions towards the harbour. Most critical threshold wave height and wave period is chosen for normal operating conditions using exceedence probability analysis. Irregular random waves from various directions are generated confirming to Pierson Moskowitz spectrum at 20 m water depth. Wave incident into inner harbor through harbor entrance is performed using Boussinesq Wave model (BW. Wave disturbance experienced inside the harbour and at various berths are analysed. The paper discusses the progresses took place in short wave modeling and it demonstrates application of wave climate for the evaluation of harbor tranquility using various types of wave models.

  14. Coherent electromagnetic waves in the presence of a half space of randomly distributed scatterers (United States)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.


    The present investigation of coherent field propagation notes, upon solving the Foldy-Twersky integral equation for a half-space of small spherical scatterers illuminated by a plane wave at oblique incidence, that the coherent field for a horizontally-polarized incident wave exhibits reflectivity and transmissivity consistent with the Fresnel formula for an equivalent continuous effective medium. In the case of a vertically polarized incident wave, both the vertical and longitudinal waves obtained for the coherent field have reflectivities and transmissivities that do not agree with the Fresnel formula.

  15. Optical analysis of human eye using electromagnetic wave theory. (United States)

    Can, Melih G; Oner, Bilgehan B; Kurt, Hamza


    We present a two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of light propagation through the human eye to examine the eye's optical properties. The electromagnetic approach has intriguing advantages over the conventional and frequently implemented ray optics analysis. The chromatic, spherical, and coma aberrations and the intensity of the focused light at the retina are computed in this work via full-wave analysis. We also investigate the effects of the cornea's and lens's curved structures on the focusing mechanism. The focal length and chromatic and spherical aberrations are observed to change owing to age-related refractive index variation in the lens. In addition, the effects of the lens and curvatures of the human eye on focusing are analyzed. Consequently, for both young and old human eye lenses, the differences due to the aberration variations, curvature surfaces, and gradient index are explored by the wave approach. The intensity distributions on the retina for both on- and off-axis illumination are calculated. A strong correlation between the locations of the nerve fibers and the intensity distribution is confirmed. On the basis of the findings, we can conclude that visual impairment due to deterioration of the human eye structure is more dramatic than that due to aging.

  16. Basic gait analysis based on continuous wave radar. (United States)

    Zhang, Jun


    A gait analysis method based on continuous wave (CW) radar is proposed in this paper. Time-frequency analysis is used to analyze the radar micro-Doppler echo from walking humans, and the relationships between the time-frequency spectrogram and human biological gait are discussed. The methods for extracting the gait parameters from the spectrogram are studied in depth and experiments on more than twenty subjects have been performed to acquire the radar gait data. The gait parameters are calculated and compared. The gait difference between men and women are presented based on the experimental data and extracted features. Gait analysis based on CW radar will provide a new method for clinical diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Wave Climate Resource Analysis Based on a Revised Gamma Spectrum for Wave Energy Conversion Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah Pastor


    Full Text Available In order to correctly predict and evaluate the response of wave energy converters (WECs, an accurate representation of wave climate resource is crucial. This paper gives an overview of wave resource modeling techniques and applies a methodology to estimate the naturally available and technically recoverable resource in a given deployment site. The methodology was initially developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI, which uses a modified gamma spectrum to interpret sea state hindcast parameter data produced by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA’s WaveWatch III. This gamma spectrum is dependent on the calibration of two variables relating to the spectral width parameter and spectral peakedness parameter. In this study, this methodology was revised by the authors to increase its accuracy in formulating wavelength. The revised methodology shows how to assess a given geographic area’s wave resource based on its wave power density and total annual wave energy flux.

  18. Efficiency Analysis of a Wave Power Generation System by Using Multibody Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Soo; Sohn, Jeong Hyun [Pukyong National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Hee; Sung, Yong Jun [INGINE Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The energy absorption efficiency of a wave power generation system is calculated as the ratio of the wave power to the power of the system. Because absorption efficiency depends on the dynamic behavior of the wave power generation system, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system is required to estimate the energy absorption efficiency of the system. In this study, a dynamic analysis of the wave power generation system under wave loads is performed to estimate the energy absorption efficiency. RecurDyn is employed to carry out the dynamic analysis of the system, and the Morison equation is used for the wave load model. According to the results, the lower the wave height and the shorter the period, the higher is the absorption efficiency of the system.

  19. Time-series analysis of vibrational nuclear wave-packet dynamics in D2+ (United States)

    Thumm, Uwe; Niederhausen, Thomas; Feuerstein, Bernold


    We discuss the extent to which measured time-dependent fragment kinetic energy release (KER) spectra and calculated nuclear probability densities can reveal (1) the transition frequencies between stationary vibrational states, (2) the nodal structure of stationary vibrational states, (3) the ground-state adiabatic electronic potential curve of the molecular ion, and (4) the progression of decoherence induced by random interactions with the environment. We illustrate our discussion with numerical simulations for the time-dependent nuclear motion of vibrational wave packets in the D2+ molecular ion caused by the ionization of its neutral D2 parent molecule with an intense pump laser pulse. Based on a harmonic time-series analysis, we suggest a general scheme for the full reconstruction, up to an overall phase factor, of the initial wave packets based on measured KER spectra. We apply this scheme in a numerical simulation for vibrational wave packets in D2+ molecular ions and show how this reconstruction allows the clear distinction between commonly assumed stationary vibrational state distributions of the molecular ion following the ionization of D2 .

  20. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy. (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Agapitov, O V; Mourenas, D; Krasnoselskikh, V V; Mozer, F S


    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave-particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity.

  1. Direct analysis of dispersive wave fields from near-field pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horchens, L.


    Flexural waves play a significant role for the radiation of sound from plates. The analysis of flexural wave fields enables the detection of sources and transmission paths in plate-like structures. The measurement of these wave fields can be carried out indirectly by means of near-field acoustic

  2. Effect of random surface inhomogeneities on spectral properties of dielectric-disk microresonators: theory and modeling at millimeter wave range. (United States)

    Ganapolskii, E M; Eremenko, Z E; Tarasov, Yu V


    The influence of random axially homogeneous surface roughness on spectral properties of dielectric resonators of circular disk form is studied both theoretically and experimentally. To solve the equations governing the dynamics of electromagnetic fields, the method of eigenmode separation is applied previously developed with reference to inhomogeneous systems subject to arbitrary external static potential. We prove theoretically that it is the gradient mechanism of wave-surface scattering that is highly responsible for nondissipative loss in the resonator. The influence of side-boundary inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum is shown to be described in terms of effective renormalization of mode wave numbers jointly with azimuth indices in the characteristic equation. To study experimentally the effect of inhomogeneities on the resonator spectrum, the method of modeling in the millimeter wave range is applied. As a model object, we use a dielectric disk resonator (DDR) fitted with external inhomogeneities randomly arranged at its side boundary. Experimental results show good agreement with theoretical predictions as regards the predominance of the gradient scattering mechanism. It is shown theoretically and confirmed in the experiment that TM oscillations in the DDR are less affected by surface inhomogeneities than TE oscillations with the same azimuth indices. The DDR model chosen for our study as well as characteristic equations obtained thereupon enable one to calculate both the eigenfrequencies and the Q factors of resonance spectral lines to fairly good accuracy. The results of calculations agree well with obtained experimental data.

  3. On the Security of Millimeter Wave Vehicular Communication Systems Using Random Antenna Subsets

    KAUST Repository

    Eltayeb, Mohammed E.


    Millimeter wave (mmWave) vehicular communication systems have the potential to improve traffic efficiency and safety. Lack of secure communication links, however, may lead to a formidable set of abuses and attacks. To secure communication links, a physical layer precoding technique for mmWave vehicular communication systems is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique exploits the large dimensional antenna arrays available at mmWave systems to produce direction dependent transmission. This results in coherent transmission to the legitimate receiver and artificial noise that jams eavesdroppers with sensitive receivers. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique and show that the proposed technique provides high secrecy throughput when compared to conventional array and switched array transmission techniques.

  4. Analysis of plasma waves observed in the inner Saturn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti


    Full Text Available Plasma waves observed in the Saturn magnetosphere provide an indication of the plasma population present in the rotationally dominated inner magnetosphere. Electrostatic cyclotron emissions often with harmonics and whistler mode emission are a common feature of Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The electron observations for a region near 5 RS outside and near a plasma injection region indicate a cooler low-energy (<100 eV, nearly isotropic plasma, and a much warmer (E>1000 eV more pancake or butterfly distribution. We model the electron plasma distributions to conduct a linear dispersion analysis of the wave modes. The results suggest that the electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions can be generated by phase space density gradients associated with a loss cone that may be up to 20° wide. This loss cone is sometimes, but not always, observed because the field of view of the electron detectors does not include the magnetic field line at the time of the observations. The whistler mode emission can be generated by the pancake-like distribution and temperature anisotropy (T⊥/T||>1 of the warmer plasma population.

  5. Analysis of plasma waves observed in the inner Saturn magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Menietti


    Full Text Available Plasma waves observed in the Saturn magnetosphere provide an indication of the plasma population present in the rotationally dominated inner magnetosphere. Electrostatic cyclotron emissions often with harmonics and whistler mode emission are a common feature of Saturn's inner magnetosphere. The electron observations for a region near 5 RS outside and near a plasma injection region indicate a cooler low-energy (<100 eV, nearly isotropic plasma, and a much warmer (E>1000 eV more pancake or butterfly distribution. We model the electron plasma distributions to conduct a linear dispersion analysis of the wave modes. The results suggest that the electrostatic electron cyclotron emissions can be generated by phase space density gradients associated with a loss cone that may be up to 20° wide. This loss cone is sometimes, but not always, observed because the field of view of the electron detectors does not include the magnetic field line at the time of the observations. The whistler mode emission can be generated by the pancake-like distribution and temperature anisotropy (T/T||>1 of the warmer plasma population.

  6. Dispersion analysis for waves propagated in fractured media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesniak, A.; Niitsuma, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Dispersion of velocity is defined as a variation of the phase velocity with frequency. This paper describes the dispersion analysis of compressional body waves propagated in the heterogeneous fractured media. The new method proposed and discussed here permitted the evaluation of the variation in P wave arrival with frequency. For this processing method, any information about the attenuation of the medium are not required, and only an assumption of weak heterogeneity is important. It was shown that different mechanisms of dispersion can be distinguished and its value can be quantitatively estimated. Although the frequency used in this study was lower than those in most previous experiments reported in literature, the evaluated dispersion was large. It was suggested that such a large dispersion may be caused by the velocity structure of the media studied and by frequency dependent processes in a highly fractured zone. It was demonstrated that the present method can be used in the evaluation of subsurface fracture systems or characterization of any kind of heterogeneities. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Analytical travelling wave solutions and parameter analysis for the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By using dynamical system method, this paper considers the (2+1)-dimensional Davey–Stewartson-type equations. The analytical parametric representations of solitary wave solutions, periodic wave solutions as well as unbounded wave solutions are obtained under different parameter conditions. A few diagrams ...

  8. Invariance analysis and conservation laws of the wave equation on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we discuss symmetries of classes of wave equations that arise as a consequence of some Vaidya metrics. We show how the wave equation is altered by the underlying geometry. In particular, a range of consequences on the form of the wave equation, the symmetries and number of conservation laws, inter alia ...

  9. Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This mathematical model concerns the theory of Stokes waves. These wave types belong to the class of ocean surface waves found in deep and intermediate waters. In this consideration, the fifth order expansion was obtained using Korteweg de Vries equation with diffusion term. This study suggests that the phase velocity ...

  10. Electrocardiogram ST Analysis During Labor : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Schuit, Ewoud; Amer-Wåhlin, Isis; Xodo, Serena; Berghella, Vincenzo

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of cardiotocography plus ST analysis with cardiotocography alone during labor. DATA SOURCES: Randomized controlled trials were identified by searching electronic databases. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: We included all randomized controlled trials comparing

  11. Analysis of the {sup 238}U resonance parameters using random-matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courcelle, A. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Derrien, H.; Leal, L.C.; Larson, N.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    Random-matrix theories (RMTs) provide valuable statistical tools to analyze neutron-resonance data. The predictive power of the random-matrix theories, which do not contain any adjustable parameters, is striking, and the application is rather simple and fast. A new evaluation of {sup 238}U resonance parameters has recently been performed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory; the objective of this paper is to illustrate the use of RMT in the field of resonance-parameter evaluation with the newly evaluated {sup 239}U energy levels and widths. Several statistics were computed using the s-wave resonances up to 20 keV and compared to the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble predictions. It is shown that a good agreement is observed between RMT and the experimental data up to 2.5 keV. The F-Dyson statistic was especially investigated because of its claimed ability to detect locally missed and spurious levels in the sample (p-resonances contamination or unresolved multiplets). As expected, the entire set of evaluated {sup 238}U s-wave resonances up to 20 keV disagrees significantly with the theory. There are two reasons for this: First, it is difficult to distinguish s- and p-wave resonances in the analysis. Secondly, especially above 10 keV, it is impossible to determine reliable resonance energies from the available experimental data. It is concluded that the use of RMT can help nuclear data specialists to improve their evaluations in the resonance range. (authors)

  12. Statistical analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in simulated Langmuir turbulence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek


    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of strong turbulence of Langmuir and ion-sound waves resulting from beam-plasma interaction. The analysis is carried out on data sets produced by a numerical simulation of one-dimensional Zakharov’s equations. The nonlinear wave interactions are studied using two different approaches: high-order spectra and Volterra models. These methods were applied to identify two and three wave processes in the data, and the Volterra model was furthermore employed to evaluate the direction and magnitude of energy transfer between the wave modes in the case of Langmuir wave decay. We demonstrate that these methods allow one to determine the relative importance of strongly and weakly turbulent processes. The statistical validity of the results was thoroughly tested using surrogated data set analysis.Key words. Space plasma physics (wave-wave interactions; experimental and mathematical techniques; nonlinear phenomena

  13. Statistical analysis of nonlinear wave interactions in simulated Langmuir turbulence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Soucek

    Full Text Available We present a statistical analysis of strong turbulence of Langmuir and ion-sound waves resulting from beam-plasma interaction. The analysis is carried out on data sets produced by a numerical simulation of one-dimensional Zakharov’s equations. The nonlinear wave interactions are studied using two different approaches: high-order spectra and Volterra models. These methods were applied to identify two and three wave processes in the data, and the Volterra model was furthermore employed to evaluate the direction and magnitude of energy transfer between the wave modes in the case of Langmuir wave decay. We demonstrate that these methods allow one to determine the relative importance of strongly and weakly turbulent processes. The statistical validity of the results was thoroughly tested using surrogated data set analysis.

    Key words. Space plasma physics (wave-wave interactions; experimental and mathematical techniques; nonlinear phenomena

  14. On the Efficiency of the Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Wave Method for Shallow and Semi-Deep Loose Soil Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasgin Khaheshi Banab


    Full Text Available The multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASWs method was used to obtain the shear wave velocity variations through near surface (depth 2,300 m/s is very large. The MASW velocity results compared with those of other geophysical approaches, such as seismic reflection/refraction methods and borehole data, where available, mostly confirming the capability of the MASW method to distinguish the high shear wave velocity contrast in the study area. We have found that, of the inversion procedures of MASW data, the random search inversion technique provides better results than the analytical generalized inversion method.

  15. Fatigue Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Taking into Account Different Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars


    Point absorber wave energy converters (WEC) are subjected to random wave loads. In addition, the power production of a WEC and the motions are considerably influenced by the applied control mechanism. For small waves, with a wave period close to the natural period of the oscillating system......, the power output may be controlled passively by means of a constant damping coefficient. The energy is extracted proportionally to the square of the body′s velocity. If the wave period is away from the natural period, reactive power may be applied in order to enlarge the resonance bandwidth. Recent studies...... favorable regarding the trade off between the fatigue damage and power production of the wave energy device....

  16. Analysis of Random Segment Errors on Coronagraph Performance (United States)

    Stahl, Mark T.; Stahl, H. Philip; Shaklan, Stuart B.; N'Diaye, Mamadou


    At 2015 SPIE O&P we presented "Preliminary Analysis of Random Segment Errors on Coronagraph Performance" Key Findings: Contrast Leakage for 4thorder Sinc2(X) coronagraph is 10X more sensitive to random segment piston than random tip/tilt, Fewer segments (i.e. 1 ring) or very many segments (> 16 rings) has less contrast leakage as a function of piston or tip/tilt than an aperture with 2 to 4 rings of segments. Revised Findings: Piston is only 2.5X more sensitive than Tip/Tilt

  17. Stochastic analysis for gaussian random processes and fields with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mandrekar, Vidyadhar S


    Stochastic Analysis for Gaussian Random Processes and Fields: With Applications presents Hilbert space methods to study deep analytic properties connecting probabilistic notions. In particular, it studies Gaussian random fields using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs).The book begins with preliminary results on covariance and associated RKHS before introducing the Gaussian process and Gaussian random fields. The authors use chaos expansion to define the Skorokhod integral, which generalizes the Itô integral. They show how the Skorokhod integral is a dual operator of Skorokhod differenti

  18. The analysis of optical wave beams propagation in lens systems (United States)

    Kazakov, I.; Mosentsov, S.; Moskaletz, O.


    In this paper some aspects of the formation and propagation of optical wave beams in lens systems were considered. As an example, the two-lens optical information processing system was considered. Analysis of the two-lens optical circuit has been made with a systems approach perspective. As part of the radio-optical analogies had been applied certain provisions of the theory of dynamical systems to the spatial optical system. The lens system is represented as a simple series-connected optical elements with known spatial impulse response. General impulse response of such a system has been received, as well as consider some special cases of the impulse response. The question of the relationship between the parameters and the size of the input aperture lenses for undistorted transmission of the optical signal has been considered. Analysis of the energy loss resulting from the finite aperture of the lens. It's based on an assessment of the fraction of radiation that propagates beyond the lens. Analysis showed that the energy losses depend explicitly on the following parameters: radiation wavelength, distance between input aperture and lens, and ratio of the input aperture and lens aperture. With the computer help simulation the dependence of losses was shown on the above parameters

  19. Structural Modeling and Analysis of a Wave Energy Converter Applying Dynamical Substructuring Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Damkilde, Lars; Gao, Zhen


    This paper deals with structural modeling and analysis of a wave energy converter. The device, called Wavestar, is a bottom fixed structure, located in a shallow water environment at the Danish Northwest coast. The analysis is concentrated on a single float and its structural arm which connects...... the WEC to a jackup structure. The wave energy converter is characterized by having an operational and survival mode. The survival mode drastically reduces the exposure to waves and therfore to the wave loads. Structural response analysis of the Wavestar arm is carried out in this study. Due...

  20. Determinants of radial artery pulse wave analysis in asymptomatic individuals. (United States)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kaiser, Daniel R; Whitwam, Wayne; Finkelstein, Stanley; Belalcazar, Andres; Patterson, Robert; Glasser, Stephen; Cohn, Jay N


    Noninvasive techniques to evaluate arterial stiffness include noninvasive radial artery pulse contour analysis. Diastolic pulse contour analysis provides a separate assessment of large (C1) and small artery (C2) elasticity. Analysis of the systolic pulse contour identifies two pressure peaks (P1 and P2) that relate to incident and reflected waves. This study aimed to compare indices from systolic and diastolic pulse contour analysis from the radial pressure waveform and to correlate these indices with traditional risk factors in asymptomatic individuals screened for cardiovascular disease. In 298 consecutive subjects (206 male and 92 female healthy subjects with a mean age of 50 +/- 12 years), noninvasive radial artery pressure waveforms were acquired with a piezoelectric transducer and analyzed for 1) diastolic indices of C1 and C2 from the CR-2000 CVProfiler, and 2) systolic indices of augmentation as defined by augmentation pressure (AP), augmentation index (AIx), and systolic reflective index (SRI = P2/P1). These indices were then correlated to each other as well as to individual traditional risk factors and the Framingham Risk Score. Diastolic indices were significantly and inversely correlated to systolic indices with C2 showing a stronger inverse association than C1. C2 and Alx were significantly correlated with height, weight, and body mass index in men but not in women. All indices correlated better to blood pressure in women than men. In women, only systolic indices were significantly correlated to HDL cholesterol and only diastolic indices were significantly correlated to LDL cholesterol. All indices were significantly correlated to the Framingham Risk Score, which was stronger in women then men, but when adjusted for age only diastolic indices remained significant in women. Diastolic and systolic indices of pulse contour analysis correlate differently with traditional risk factors in men and women. Copyright 2004 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  1. Structural Loads Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    This study explores and verifies the generalized body-modes method for evaluating the structural loads on a wave energy converter (WEC). Historically, WEC design methodologies have focused primarily on accurately evaluating hydrodynamic loads, while methodologies for evaluating structural loads have yet to be fully considered and incorporated into the WEC design process. As wave energy technologies continue to advance, however, it has become increasingly evident that an accurate evaluation of the structural loads will enable an optimized structural design, as well as the potential utilization of composites and flexible materials, and hence reduce WEC costs. Although there are many computational fluid dynamics, structural analyses and fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) codes available, the application of these codes is typically too computationally intensive to be practical in the early stages of the WEC design process. The generalized body-modes method, however, is a reduced order, linearized, frequency-domain FSI approach, performed in conjunction with the linear hydrodynamic analysis, with computation times that could realistically be incorporated into the WEC design process. The objective of this study is to verify the generalized body-modes approach in comparison to high-fidelity FSI simulations to accurately predict structural deflections and stress loads in a WEC. Two verification cases are considered, a free-floating barge and a fixed-bottom column. Details for both the generalized body-modes models and FSI models are first provided. Results for each of the models are then compared and discussed. Finally, based on the verification results obtained, future plans for incorporating the generalized body-modes method into the WEC simulation tool, WEC-Sim, and the overall WEC design process are discussed.

  2. Wave and ray analysis of a type of cloak exhibiting magnified and shifted scattering effect


    Luo, Yu; Zhang, Jingjing; Chen, Hongsheng; Wu, Bae-Ian; Ran, Lixin; Kong, Jin Au


    Ray-tracing exercise and full-wave analysis were performed to validate the performance of a new type of cloak composed of isotropic metamaterials. It is shown that objects inside the folded region of this cloak appear invisible to the incoming light from a ray tracing exercise, but exhibit magnified and shifted scattering under a plane wave illumination from a full wave analysis. Gaussian beams are introduced to resolve this interesting paradox resulted from these two methods. We show that at...

  3. Ocean Surface Wave Optical Roughness: Analysis of Innovative Measurements (United States)


    waves, breaking waves as well as the foam, subsurface bubbles and spray they produce, contribute substantially to the distortion of the optical...representation of nonlinearity and breaking surface wave effects including bubbles , passive foam, active whitecap cover and spray, as well as micro...for slick conditions which are consistent with the surfactant levels in the region during the experiment. Publication of the first manuscript

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  5. Clinical Use of Pulse Wave Analysis: Proceedings From a Symposium Sponsored by North American Artery. (United States)

    Townsend, Raymond R; Black, Henry R; Chirinos, Julio A; Feig, Peter U; Ferdinand, Keith C; Germain, Michael; Rosendorff, Clive; Steigerwalt, Susan P; Stepanek, Jan A


    The use of pulse wave analysis may guide the provider in making choices about blood pressure treatment in prehypertensive or hypertensive patients. However, there is little clinical guidance on how to interpret and use pulse wave analysis data in the management of these patients. A panel of clinical researchers and clinicians who study and clinically use pulse wave analysis was assembled to discuss strategies for using pulse wave analysis in the clinical encounter. This manuscript presents an approach to the clinical application of pulse waveform analysis, how to interpret central pressure waveforms, and how to use existing knowledge about the pharmacodynamic effect of antihypertensive drug classes in combination with brachial and central pressure profiles in clinical practice. The discussion was supplemented by case-based examples provided by panel members, which the authors hope will provoke discussion on how to understand and incorporate pulse wave analysis into clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Reference-free path length interferometry of random media with the intensity moments analysis. (United States)

    Zimnyakov, Dmitry A; Yuvchenko, Sergey A; Pavlova, Maria V; Alonova, Marina V


    Stochastic interference of partially coherent light multiple scattered by a random medium is considered. The relationship between the second- and third-order moments of intensity fluctuations in random interference patterns, the coherence function of probe radiation, and the probability density of path differences for the interfering partial waves in the medium are established. The obtained relationships were verified using the statistical analysis of spectrally selected fluorescence radiation emitted by the laser-pumped dye-doped random medium. Rhodamine 6G water solution was applied as the doping agent for the ensembles of densely packed silica grains which were pumped by the CW radiation (532 nm) from the diode-pumped solid state laser. Experimentally observed abrupt decay of the second- and third-order moments of fluorescence intensity fluctuations for the wavelengths ranging from 620 nm to 680 nm is interpreted in terms of amplification of spontaneous emission at large dye concentrations. This paper discusses the new optical probe of random media defined as "the reference-free path length interferometry with the intensity moments analysis".

  7. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis. (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R


    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis.

  8. Analysis of bubble plume spacing produced by regular breaking waves (United States)

    Phaksopa, J.; Haller, M. C.


    The breaking wave process in the ocean is a significant mechanism for energy dissipation, splash, and entrainment of air. The relationship between breaking waves and bubble plume characteristics is still a mystery because of the complexity of the breaking wave mechanism. This study takes a unique approach to quantitatively analyze bubble plumes produced by regular breaking waves. Various previous studies have investigated the formation and the characteristics of bubble plumes using either field observations, laboratory experiments, or numerical modeling However, in most observational work the plume characteristics have been studied from the underneath the water surface. In addition, though numerical simulations are able to include much of the important physics, the computational costs are high and bubble plume events are only simulated for short times. Hence, bubble plume evolution and generation throughout the surf zone is not yet computationally feasible. In the present work we take a unique approach to analyzing bubble plumes. These data may be of use for model/data comparisons as numerical simulations become more tractable. The remotely sensed video data from freshwater breaking waves in the OSU Large Wave Flume (Catalan and Haller, 2008) are analyzed. The data set contains six different regular wave conditions and the video intensity data are used to estimate the spacing of plume events (wavenumber spectrum), to calculate the spectral width (i.e. the range of plume spacing), and to relate these with the wave conditions. The video intensity data capture the evolution of the wave passage over a fixed bed arranged in a bar-trough morphology. Bright regions represent the moving path or trajectory coincident with bubble plume of each wave. It also shows the bubble foam were generated and released from wave crest shown in the form of bubble tails with almost regular spacing for each wave. The bubble tails show that most bubbles did not move along with wave. For the

  9. Experimental investigation of local properties and statistics of optical vortices in random wave fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Miyamoto, Y.


    We present the first direct experimental evidence of the local properties of optical vortices in a random laser speckle field. We have observed the Berry anisotropy ellipse describing the anisotropic squeezing of phase lines close to vortex cores and quantitatively verified the Dennis angular mom...... momentum rule for its phase. Some statistics associated with vortices, such as density, anisotropy ellipse eccentricity, and its relation to zero crossings of real and imaginary parts of the random field, are also investigated by experiments....

  10. Multi-component joint analysis of surface waves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Moura, R.M.M.; Moustafa, S.S.R.


    Roč. 119, AUG (2015), s. 128-138 ISSN 0926-9851 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : surface waves * surface wave dispersion * seismic data acquisition * seismic data inversion * velocity spectrum Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.355, year: 2015

  11. Polar Plasma Wave Investigation Data Analysis in the Extended Mission (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.


    The low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) is a region where solar wind momentum and energy is transferred to the magnetosphere. Enhanced "broadband" electric plasma waves from less than 5 Hz to 10(exp 5) Hz and magnetic waves from less than 5 Hz to the electron cyclotron frequency are characteristic of the LLBL. Analyses of Polar plasma waves show that these "broadband" waves are actually discrete electrostatic and electromagnetic modes as well as solitary bipolar pulses (electron holes). It is noted that all wave modes can be generated by approx. 100 eV to approx. 10 keV auroral electrons and protons. We will review wave-particle interactions, with focus on cross-diffusion rates and the contributions of such interactions toward the formation of the boundary layer. In summary, we will present a scenario where the global solar wind-magnetosphere interaction is responsible for the auroral zone particle beams, and hence for the generation of plasma waves and the formation of the boundary layer. It is speculated that all planetary magnetospheres will have boundary layers and they will be characterized by similar currents and plasma wave modes.

  12. Analysis and design of efficient planar leaky-wave antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettore, M.


    This thesis deals with the effective design of planar leaky-wave antennas. The work describes a methodology based on the polar expansion of Green's function representations to address very different geometrical configurations which might appear to have little in common. In fact leaky waves with

  13. Bifurcation analysis and the travelling wave solutions of the Klein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we investigate the bifurcations and dynamic behaviour of travelling wave solutions of the Klein–Gordon–Zakharov equations given in Shang et al, Comput. Math. Appl. 56, 1441 (2008). Under different parameter conditions, we obtain some exact explicit parametric representations of travelling wave solutions by ...

  14. Physiology and analysis of the electrocardiographic T wave in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speerschneider, T; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard


    The murine electrocardiogram (ECG) is a valuable tool in cardiac research, although the definition of the T wave has been a matter of debate for several years potentially leading to incomparable data. By this study, we seek to make a clear definition of the murine T wave. Moreover, we investigate...

  15. Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wave propagation in an infinitely long poroelastic composite hollow cylinder in is examined by employing Biot's theory of wave propagation in poroelastic media. A poroelastic composite hollow cylinder consists of two concentric poroelastic cylindrical layers both of which are made of different poroelastic materials with each ...

  16. Time dependent wave envelope finite difference analysis of sound propagation (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.


    A transient finite difference wave envelope formulation is presented for sound propagation, without steady flow. Before the finite difference equations are formulated, the governing wave equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the propagation direction. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. The derivation for the wave envelope transient wave equation and appropriate boundary conditions are presented as well as the difference equations and stability requirements. To illustrate the method, example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a straight hard wall duct and in a two dimensional straight soft wall duct. The numerical results are in good agreement with exact analytical results.

  17. Integrated analysis of energy transfers in elastic-wave turbulence. (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori


    In elastic-wave turbulence, strong turbulence appears in small wave numbers while weak turbulence does in large wave numbers. Energy transfers in the coexistence of these turbulent states are numerically investigated in both the Fourier space and the real space. An analytical expression of a detailed energy balance reveals from which mode to which mode energy is transferred in the triad interaction. Stretching energy excited by external force is transferred nonlocally and intermittently to large wave numbers as the kinetic energy in the strong turbulence. In the weak turbulence, the resonant interactions according to the weak turbulence theory produce cascading net energy transfer to large wave numbers. Because the system's nonlinearity shows strong temporal intermittency, the energy transfers are investigated at active and moderate phases separately. The nonlocal interactions in the Fourier space are characterized by the intermittent bundles of fibrous structures in the real space.

  18. Modal analysis of wave propagation in dispersive media (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M. Ismail; Gralak, B.


    Surveys on wave propagation in dispersive media have been limited since the pioneering work of Sommerfeld [Ann. Phys. 349, 177 (1914), 10.1002/andp.19143491002] by the presence of branches in the integral expression of the wave function. In this article a method is proposed to eliminate these critical branches and hence to establish a modal expansion of the time-dependent wave function. The different components of the transient waves are physically interpreted as the contributions of distinct sets of modes and characterized accordingly. Then, the modal expansion is used to derive a modified analytical expression of the Sommerfeld precursor improving significantly the description of the amplitude and the oscillating period up to the arrival of the Brillouin precursor. The proposed method and results apply to all waves governed by the Helmholtz equations.

  19. Nonlinear Modeling and Analysis of Pressure Wave inside CEUP Fuel Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qaisar Hayat


    Full Text Available Operating conditions dependent large pressure variations are one of the working characteristics of combination electronic unit pump (CEUP fuel injection system for diesel engines. We propose a precise and accurate nonlinear numerical model of pressure inside HP fuel pipeline of CEUP using wave equation (WE including both viscous and frequency dependent frictions. We have proved that developed hyperbolic approximation gives more realistic description of pressure wave as compared to classical viscous damped wave equation. Frictional effects of various frequencies on pressure wave have been averaged out across valid frequencies to represent the combined effect of all frequencies on pressure wave. Dynamic variations of key fuel properties including density, acoustic wave speed, and bulk modulus with varying pressures have also been incorporated. Based on developed model we present analysis on effect of fuel pipeline length on pressure wave propagation and variation of key fuel properties with both conventional diesel and alternate fuel rapeseed methyl ester (RME for CEUP pipeline.

  20. Analysis of Wave Reflection from Wave Energy Converters Installed as Breakwaters in Harbour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanuttigh, B.; Margheritini, Lucia; Gambles, L.


    loads on the structure, i.e. better survivability. Nevertheless these devices must comply with the requirements of harbour protection structures and thus cope with problems due to reflection of incoming waves, i.e. dangerous sea states close to harbors entrances and intensified sediment scour, which can...... lead to structure destabilization. The present paper aims to analyse wave reflection from OWC and Sea Slot-cone Generator (SSG) converters, based on experimental results obtained in 2D and 3D facilities. The applicability of formulae available in the literature and derived from costal structures...

  1. Optimal Analysis of Left Atrial Strain by Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: P-wave versus R-wave Trigger. (United States)

    Hayashi, Shuji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Bando, Mika; Saijo, Yoshihito; Nishio, Susumu; Hirata, Yukina; Klein, Allan L; Sata, Masataka


    Left atrial (LA) strain analysis using speckle tracking echocardiography is useful for assessing LA function. However, there is no established procedure for this method. Most investigators have determined the electrocardiographic R-wave peak as the starting point for LA strain analysis. To test our hypothesis that P-wave onset should be used as the starting point, we measured LA strain using 2 different starting points and compared the strain values with the corresponding LA volume indices obtained by three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. We enrolled 78 subjects (61 ± 17 years, 25 males) with and without various cardiac diseases in this study and assessed global longitudinal LA strain by two-dimensional speckle tracking strain echocardiography using EchoPac software. We used either R-wave peak or P-wave onset as the starting point for determining LA strains during the reservoir (Rres, Pres), conduit (Rcon, Pcon), and booster pump (Rpump, Ppump) phases. We determined the maximum, minimum, and preatrial contraction LA volumes, and calculated the LA total, passive, and active emptying fractions using 3D echocardiography. The correlation between Pres and LA total emptying fraction was better than the correlation between Rres and LA total emptying fraction (r = 0.458 vs. 0.308, P = 0.026). Pcon and Ppump exhibited better correlation with the corresponding 3D echocardiographic parameters than Rcon (r = 0.560 vs. 0.479, P = 0.133) and Rpump (r = 0.577 vs. 0.345, P = 0.003), respectively. LA strain in any phase should be analyzed using P-wave onset as the starting point rather than R-wave peak. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. On the excited state wave functions of Dirac fermions in the random ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the RMT approach, the distribution functions for the wave func- tions' amplitude (i.e. p(t)) are derived by means of RMT. It depends only on the global symmetry of the ensemble and has a chi-square form. The asymptotic form of p(t) in 2D samples for L ≪ ξ was found using the renormalization group and replica techniques ...

  3. Using wavelet spectrum analysis to resolve breaking events in the wind wave time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new approach, based on wavelet spectrum analysis, for the detection of breaking waves in a time series of surface wave fluctuations. The approach is shown to be capable of producing equivalent wave breaking statistics as field measurements based on detection of whitecaps at a fixed point of observation. This wavelet-based approach is applicable to both deep water and finite depth environments. Based on applications of this approach to the analysis of available field data, a novel classification of wave breaking processes that consists of incipient, developing, and subsiding phases is proposed.

  4. Analysis of magnetometer data/wave signals in the Earth's magnetosphere (United States)

    Engebretson, Mark J.


    Work on the reduction and analysis of Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellite magnetometer data with special emphasis on the ULF fluctuations and waves evident in such data is described. Research focused on the following: (1) studies of Pc 1 wave packets near the plasmapause; (2) satellite-ground pulsation study; (3) support for studies of ion energization processes; (4) search for Pc 1 wave events in 1981 DE 1 data; (5) study of Pc 3-5 events observed simultaneously by DE 1 and by AMPTE CCE; (6) support for studies of electromagnetic transients on DE 1; and (7) analysis of wave events induced by sudden impulses.

  5. Analysis of Covariance and Randomized Block Design with Heterogeneous Slopes. (United States)

    Klockars, Alan J.; Beretvas, S. Natasha


    Compared the Type I error rate and the power to detect differences in slopes and additive treatment effects of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and randomized block designs through a Monte Carlo simulation. Results show that the more powerful option in almost all simulations for tests of both slope and means was ANCOVA. (SLD)

  6. Finite Element Modeling of scattered electromagnetic waves for stroke analysis. (United States)

    Priyadarshini, N; Rajkumar, E R


    Stroke has become one of the leading causes of mortality worldwide and about 800 in every 100,000 people suffer from stroke each year. The occurrence of stroke is ranked third among the causes of acute death and first among the causes for neurological dysfunction. Currently, Neurological examinations followed by medical imaging with CT, MRI or Angiography are used to provide better identification of the location and the type of the stroke, however they are neither fast, cost-effective nor portable. Microwave technology has emerged to complement these modalities to diagnose stroke as it is sensitive to the differences between the distinct dielectric properties of the brain tissues and blood. This paper investigates the possibility of diagnosing the type of stroke using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The object of interest is a simulated head phantom with stroke, created with its specifying material characteristics like electrical conductivity and relative permittivity. The phantom is then placed in an electromagnetic field generated by a dipole antenna radiating at 1 GHz. The FEM forward model solver computes the scattered electromagnetic field by finding the solution for the Maxwell's wave equation in the head volume. Subsequently the inverse scattering problem is solved using the Contrast Source Inversion (CSI) method to reconstruct the dielectric profile of the head phantom.

  7. Gravitational Wave Detection of Compact Binaries Through Multivariate Analysis (United States)

    Atallah, Dany Victor; Dorrington, Iain; Sutton, Patrick


    The first detection of gravitational waves (GW), GW150914, as produced by a binary black hole merger, has ushered in the era of GW astronomy. The detection technique used to find GW150914 considered only a fraction of the information available describing the candidate event: mainly the detector signal to noise ratios and chi-squared values. In hopes of greatly increasing detection rates, we want to take advantage of all the information available about candidate events. We employ a technique called Multivariate Analysis (MVA) to improve LIGO sensitivity to GW signals. MVA techniques are efficient ways to scan high dimensional data spaces for signal/noise classification. Our goal is to use MVA to classify compact-object binary coalescence (CBC) events composed of any combination of black holes and neutron stars. CBC waveforms are modeled through numerical relativity. Templates of the modeled waveforms are used to search for CBCs and quantify candidate events. Different MVA pipelines are under investigation to look for CBC signals and un-modelled signals, with promising results. One such MVA pipeline used for the un-modelled search can theoretically analyze far more data than the MVA pipelines currently explored for CBCs, potentially making a more powerful classifier. In principle, this extra information could improve the sensitivity to GW signals. We will present the results from our efforts to adapt an MVA pipeline used in the un-modelled search to classify candidate events from the CBC search.

  8. Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves to Detect Buried Concrete Conduits (United States)

    Hajiani, P.; Anderson, N.; Rogers, J. D.; Elkrry, A.


    The detection of underground cavities is of significant concern to geotechnical engineers working in karst terrain. In spite of the marked progress in nondestructive geophysical methods for detecting shallow underground voids, no unique methodology has emerged that can be applied globally. Various studies have been performed on the use of Rayleigh waves to detect shallow tunnels. In this study, we examined the potential of both Rayleigh and Love waves for detecting subsurface voids. Vertical geophones with Eigen-frequencies of 4.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 100 Hz were utilized to evaluate Rayleigh waves to resolve near-surface tunnels. Seismic surveys were carried out using horizontal 14 Hz geophones to verify the feasibility of using Love waves to detect shallow tunnels. Two buried conduits of known size and embedment were chosen for the study. One conduit serves as a spillway outfall for an embankment dam, and the other as a low flow outlet for aa flood retention basin. Attenuation analyses of surface waves were performed on all of the data sets to identify locations of the buried concrete conduits. In order to minimize the far-field effects, such as body-wave domination, or low signal-to-noise ratio, it was suggested that we try muting the direct waves, refraction, reflection, air wave, and ambient noise. An amplification of energy on, or in front of the near boundary of the conduits was thereby observed. The muting process greatly reduced the number of false positives. The results of this study not only confirmed previous work, but also displayed the ability of Love waves in detecting the shallow subsurface tunnels or conduits.

  9. Randomized Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis for Scene Recognition (United States)

    Rodner, Erik; Denzler, Joachim

    The concept of probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (pLSA) has gained much interest as a tool for feature transformation in image categorization and scene recognition scenarios. However, a major issue of this technique is overfitting. Therefore, we propose to use an ensemble of pLSA models which are trained using random fractions of the training data. We analyze empirically the influence of the degree of randomization and the size of the ensemble on the overall classification performance of a scene recognition task. A thoughtful evaluation shows the benefits of this approach compared to a single pLSA model.

  10. Fast Fourier transform analysis of dynamic data: sine wave stress-strain analysis of biological tissue. (United States)

    Wang, L; Bert, J L; Okazawa, M; Paré, P D; Pinder, K L


    We propose an improvement to the dynamic oscillation method using as an example the measurement of the tensile stiffness of the rabbit tracheal mucosal membrane. A sine wave oscillation technique was used to study the tissue mechanical properties. A mathematical model was developed using fast Fourier analysis. After mathematically eliminating the machine response, this analysis reveals the tissue frequency response over a wide range of frequencies. This study addresses the advantages of using Fourier analysis to interpret dynamic properties of biological tissue and provides a complete description of how to obtain the pure tissue response.

  11. Analysis and synthesis of cascaded metasurfaces using wave matrices (United States)

    Ranjbar, Amin; Grbic, Anthony


    Various matrix representations are used to analyze the propagation of electromagnetic waves through stratified (layered) media or cascaded circuit networks. These include ABCD matrices, scattering matrices, impedance matrices, and hybrid matrices. A less known network representation is the wave matrix. In this paper, a brief review of wave matrices is presented and their relation to other network representations derived. Wave matrices are found for common interfaces such as boundaries between dielectric media, dielectric slabs, as well as electric, magnetic, and magneto-electric sheet boundaries (generalized sheet transition conditions). These results are then used to develop an analytical synthesis approach for cascaded metasurfaces: metasurfaces consisting of a cascade of sheets separated by dielectric spacers. This is in contrast to earlier works which relied on numerical solvers or optimization methods to design such structures. A few design examples are presented to demonstrate the utility of the synthesis approach.

  12. Distribution analysis of segmented wave sea clutter in littoral environments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strempel, MD


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the littoral sea clutter amplitude distributions associated with individual segments within a periodic wave. Low grazing angle, X-Band sea clutter data, obtained from the CSIR online database was utilised for this study...

  13. Dispersion analysis of passive surface-wave noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Willis, Mark; Snieder, Roel; Haines, Seth S.; Behura, Jyoti; Batzle, Mike; Davidson, Michael


    Surface-wave dispersion analysis is useful for estimating near-surface shear-wave velocity models, designing receiver arrays, and suppressing surface waves. Here, we analyze whether passive seismic noise generated during hydraulic-fracturing operations can be used to extract surface-wave dispersion characteristics. Applying seismic interferometry to noise measurements, we extract surface waves by cross-correlating several minutes of passive records; this approach is distinct from previous studies that used hours or days of passive records for cross-correlation. For comparison, we also perform dispersion analysis for an active-source array that has some receivers in common with the passive array. The active and passive data show good agreement in the dispersive character of the fundamental-mode surface-waves. For the higher mode surface waves, however, active and passive data resolve the dispersive properties at different frequency ranges. To demonstrate an application of dispersion analysis, we invert the observed surface-wave dispersion characteristics to determine the near-surface, one-dimensional shear-wave velocity.

  14. Numerical analysis of Bragg regime polarization gratings by rigorous coupled-wave analysis (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao; Escuti, Michael J.


    We report on the numerical analysis of Bragg polarization gratings (PGs), especially those formed with liquid crystals, and study their general diffraction properties by Rigorous Coupled-Wave Analysis (RCWA). Different from traditional Bragg (isotropic) gratings, Bragg PGs are verified to have high diffraction efficiency for large field of view, which is ideal for exit-pupil-expanders in waveguide-based head-mounted-displays, spectroscopy, and fiber-optic telecommunication systems. The RCWA approach allows for a rigorous and accurate solution without paraxial approximations to be obtained with much lower computational cost and time, as compared to finite-element, finite-difference, or analytical coupled-wave approaches. Therefore, it enables the study of the complete transmittance and reflectance behavior of Bragg PGs in the most computationally efficient way. Diffraction characteristics including angular response and polarization sensitivity are investigated. The spectral response and thickness dependence are also examined.

  15. Rayleigh waves ellipticity and mode mis-identification in multi-channel analysis of surface waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boaga, Jacopo; Cassiani, Giorgio; Strobbia, Claudio

    the vertical component of ground motion, as the mode osculation is linked to the Rayleigh wave ellipticity polarization, and therefore we conclude that multi-component data, using also horizontal receivers, can help discern the multi-modal nature of surface waves. Finally we introduce a-priori detectors...... dispersion curve which is then inverted. Typically, single component vertical and multi channel receivers are used. In most cases the inversion of the dispersion properties is carried out assuming that the experimental dispersion curve corresponds to a single mode, mostly the fundamental Rayleigh mode......, unless clear evidence dictates the existence of a more complex response, e,g. in presence of low velocity layers and inversely dispersive sites. A correct identification of the modes is essential to avoid serious misinterpretation of the subsoil model. Here we consider the typical case of higher mode mis...

  16. Crust and upper mantle shear wave structure of Northeast Algeria from Rayleigh wave dispersion analysis (United States)

    Radi, Zohir; Yelles-Chaouche, Abdelkrim; Corchete, Victor; Guettouche, Salim


    We resolve the crust and upper mantle structure beneath Northeast Algeria at depths of 0-400 km, using inversion of fundamental mode Rayleigh wave. Our data set consists of 490 earthquakes recorded between 2007 and 2014 by five permanent broadband seismic stations in the study area. Applying a combination of different filtering technics and inversion method shear wave velocities structure were determined as functions of depth. The resolved changes in Vs at 50 km depth are in perfect agreement with crustal thickness estimates, which reflect the study area's orogenic setting, partly overlying the collision zone between the African and Eurasian plates. The inferred Moho discontinuity depths are close to those estimated for other convergent areas. In addition, there is good agreement between our results and variations in orientations of regional seismic anisotropy. At depths of 80-180 km, negative Vs anomalies at station CBBR suggest the existence of a failed subduction slab.

  17. FDTD Analysis of Spatial Filtering of Scattered Waves for Optical CT of Medical Diagnosis (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yasumitsu; Kouno, Kouhei

    Medical image diagnosis and computer aided diagnosis are modern important medical techniques developed with computer technology. Particularly, medical image diagnosis using optical waves of lasers is very important technical tools for physiological examination of human body. Transmission properties mainly depend on optical absorption effects due to biological characteristics consisting of atomic and molecular structures. Image responses of optical transmitted projection include optical scattering characteristics that disturb transmission properties through biological structures. Computer numerical simulations of spatial filtering for optical scattering waves superposed on transmitted and attenuated waves are discussed to improve image diagnosis. By numerical simulation of FDTD method, statistical characteristics of optical waves are discussed for optical propagation, attenuation and scattering in random inhomogeneous biological media that consist of random particle models given by random numbers programming. Spatial filtering characteristics of grid structure are shown for exact image optical projection excluding scattering effects through physiological media. Spatial filtering characteristics for off-axial scattering optical waves are graphically shown by propagation properties with large attenuation in lossy waveguide-type grids by FDTD method.

  18. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Strength Analysis of a Novel Dot-matrix Oscillating Wave Energy Converter (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Xiao, Chengsi; Sun, Jinwei; Shao, Zhuxiao; Zheng, Qiuhong


    The paper analyzes hydrodynamic characteristics and the strength of a novel dot-matrix oscillating wave energy converter, which is in accordance with nowadays’ research tendency: high power, high efficiency, high reliability and low cost. Based on three-dimensional potential flow theory, the paper establishes motion control equations of the wave energy converter unit and calculates wave loads and motions. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model of the device is built to check its strength. Through the analysis, it can be confirmed that the WEC is feasible and the research results could be a reference for wave energy’s exploration and utilization.

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of randomly distributed discrete scatterers and polarized backscattering ratio law (United States)

    Zhu, P. Y.


    The effective-medium approximation is applied to investigate scattering from a half-space of randomly and densely distributed discrete scatterers. Starting from vector wave equations, an approximation, called effective-medium Born approximation, a particular way, treating Green's functions, and special coordinates, of which the origin is set at the field point, are used to calculate the bistatic- and back-scatterings. An analytic solution of backscattering with closed form is obtained and it shows a depolarization effect. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental measurements in the cases of snow, multi- and first-year sea-ice. The root product ratio of polarization to depolarization in backscattering is equal to 8; this result constitutes a law about polarized scattering phenomena in the nature.

  20. Polarization of an electromagnetic wave in a randomly birefringent medium: a stochastic theory of the Stokes parameters. (United States)

    Botet, Robert; Kuratsuji, Hiroshi


    We present a framework for the stochastic features of the polarization state of an electromagnetic wave propagating through the optical medium with both deterministic (controlled) and disordered birefringence. In this case, the Stokes parameters obey a Langevin-type equation on the Poincaré sphere. The functional integral method provides for a natural tool to derive the Fokker-Planck equation for the probability distribution of the Stokes parameters. We solve the Fokker-Planck equation in the case of a random anisotropic active medium submitted to a homogeneous electromagnetic field. The possible dissipation and relaxation phenomena are studied in general and in various cases, and we give hints about how to validate experimentally the corresponding phenomenological equations.

  1. Angular spectral plane-wave expansion of nonstationary random fields in stochastic mode-stirred reverberation processes. (United States)

    Arnaut, Luk R


    We derive an integral expression for the plane-wave expansion of the time-varying (nonstationary) random field inside a mode-stirred reverberation chamber. It is shown that this expansion is a so-called oscillatory process, whose kernel can be expressed explicitly in closed form. The effect of nonstationarity is a modulation of the spectral density of the field on a time scale that is a function of the cavity relaxation time. It is also shown how the contribution by a nonzero initial value of the field can be incorporated into the expansion. The results are extended to a special class of second-order processes, relevant to the reception of a mode-stirred reverberation field by a device under test with a first-order (relaxation-type) frequency response.

  2. Linearized potential flow analysis of a 40 chamber, oscillating water column wave energy device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Read, Robert

    This abstract presents an analysis of an attenuator-type Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with 40 Os- cillating Water Column (OWC) chambers for the extraction of wave energy. Linearized potential flow calculations are made in the frequency-domain using WAMIT [8]. An equivalent linearized damping...

  3. Effect of disorder on bulk sound wave speed : A multiscale spectral analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan


    Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed

  4. Full-wave analysis of the high frequency characteristics of the sine waveguide slow-wave structure (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Qing; Wu, Gangxiong; Ding, Chong; Li, Qian; Zhang, Luqi; Jiang, Xuebing; Gong, Yubin; Wang, Wenxiang


    A theoretical model for calculation of the high frequency characteristics of the sine waveguide slow-wave structure (SWS) is proposed. The formulas of dispersion and interaction impedances of the hybrid modes are obtained by combining the Helmholtz equation with the appropriate boundary conditions. Using the full wave analysis method, it is proved that the periodic structures with a half-period shift followed leads to a pairwise closing of passbands characteristic of adjacent mode. The sine waveguide SWS for 0.22THz traveling wave tube (TWT) is chosen as an illustrative example to verify the validity of the theoretical model, and the calculation results of the dispersion curve and interaction impedance curve are consistent with the HFSS simulation results. In addition, the influences of dimensions of sine waveguide on the high frequency characteristics of +1st spatial harmonic wave are investigated by numerical calculation. The study indicates that the appropriate SWS parameters are helpful for improving the bandwidth and increasing output power of TWT.

  5. Full-wave analysis of the high frequency characteristics of the sine waveguide slow-wave structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Lei


    Full Text Available A theoretical model for calculation of the high frequency characteristics of the sine waveguide slow-wave structure (SWS is proposed. The formulas of dispersion and interaction impedances of the hybrid modes are obtained by combining the Helmholtz equation with the appropriate boundary conditions. Using the full wave analysis method, it is proved that the periodic structures with a half-period shift followed leads to a pairwise closing of passbands characteristic of adjacent mode. The sine waveguide SWS for 0.22THz traveling wave tube (TWT is chosen as an illustrative example to verify the validity of the theoretical model, and the calculation results of the dispersion curve and interaction impedance curve are consistent with the HFSS simulation results. In addition, the influences of dimensions of sine waveguide on the high frequency characteristics of +1st spatial harmonic wave are investigated by numerical calculation. The study indicates that the appropriate SWS parameters are helpful for improving the bandwidth and increasing output power of TWT.

  6. Joint analysis of shear wave velocity from SH-wave refraction and MASW techniques for SPT-N estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawasdee Yordkayhun


    Full Text Available Horizontally polarized shear wave (SH refraction and multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW methods have been carried out in Hatyai City, southern Thailand, a pilot study for site classification, part of the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP. The objectives of this study are the comparison of the efficiencies of different shear wave velocity (Vs determination techniques and the use of Vs measurements of the prediction of standard penetration resistance (SPT-N. Good correlation between all Vs profiles and SPT-N values and local lithology are observed. However, there are systematic differences between SH-refraction based-Vs and MASW based-Vs, which might be explained by possible converted waves, limitations of the assumptions used, poor quality of the acquired data, and limitations of the inversion procedures of the methods applied. From the integrated use of Vs from both methods an empirical formula to describe the correlation between Vs and SPT-N values has been proposed and can be used to estimate geotechnical parameters in areas where no borehole or geophysical investigation exist.

  7. Multiple Volume Scattering in Random Media and Periodic Structures with Applications in Microwave Remote Sensing and Wave Functional Materials (United States)

    Tan, Shurun

    The objective of my research is two-fold: to study wave scattering phenomena in dense volumetric random media and in periodic wave functional materials. For the first part, the goal is to use the microwave remote sensing technique to monitor water resources and global climate change. Towards this goal, I study the microwave scattering behavior of snow and ice sheet. For snowpack scattering, I have extended the traditional dense media radiative transfer (DMRT) approach to include cyclical corrections that give rise to backscattering enhancements, enabling the theory to model combined active and passive observations of snowpack using the same set of physical parameters. Besides DMRT, a fully coherent approach is also developed by solving Maxwell's equations directly over the entire snowpack including a bottom half space. This revolutionary new approach produces consistent scattering and emission results, and demonstrates backscattering enhancements and coherent layer effects. The birefringence in anisotropic snow layers is also analyzed by numerically solving Maxwell's equation directly. The effects of rapid density fluctuations in polar ice sheet emission in the 0.5˜2.0 GHz spectrum are examined using both fully coherent and partially coherent layered media emission theories that agree with each other and distinct from incoherent approaches. For the second part, the goal is to develop integral equation based methods to solve wave scattering in periodic structures such as photonic crystals and metamaterials that can be used for broadband simulations. Set upon the concept of modal expansion of the periodic Green's function, we have developed the method of broadband Green's function with low wavenumber extraction (BBGFL), where a low wavenumber component is extracted and results a non-singular and fast-converging remaining part with simple wavenumber dependence. We've applied the technique to simulate band diagrams and modal solutions of periodic structures, and to

  8. Inclusion of Structural Flexibility in Design Load Analysis for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yi [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); van Rij, Jennifer A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    Hydroelastic interactions, caused by ocean wave loading on wave energy devices with deformable structures, are studied in the time domain. A midfidelity, hybrid modeling approach of rigid-body and flexible-body dynamics is developed and implemented in an open-source simulation tool for wave energy converters (WEC-Sim) to simulate the dynamic responses of wave energy converter component structural deformations under wave loading. A generalized coordinate system, including degrees of freedom associated with rigid bodies, structural modes, and constraints connecting multiple bodies, is utilized. A simplified method of calculating stress loads and sectional bending moments is implemented, with the purpose of sizing and designing wave energy converters. Results calculated using the method presented are verified with those of high-fidelity fluid-structure interaction simulations, as well as low-fidelity, frequency-domain, boundary element method analysis.

  9. Statistical analysis of monochromatic whistler waves near the Moon detected by Kaguya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tsugawa


    Full Text Available Observations are presented of monochromatic whistler waves near the Moon detected by the Lunar Magnetometer (LMAG on board Kaguya. The waves were observed as narrowband magnetic fluctuations with frequencies close to 1 Hz, and were mostly left-hand polarized in the spacecraft frame. We performed a statistical analysis of the waves to identify the distributions of their intensity and occurrence. The results indicate that the waves were generated by the solar wind interaction with lunar crustal magnetic anomalies. The conditions for observation of the waves strongly depend on the solar zenith angle (SZA, and a high occurrence rate is recognized in the region of SZA between 40° to 90° with remarkable north-south and dawn-dusk asymmetries. We suggest that ion beams reflected by the lunar magnetic anomalies are a possible source of the waves.

  10. Dispersion-based short-time Fourier transform applied to dispersive wave analysis (United States)

    Hong, Jin-Chul; Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Yoon Young


    Although time-frequency analysis is effective for characterizing dispersive wave signals, the time-frequency tilings of most conventional analysis methods do not take into account dispersion phenomena. An adaptive time-frequency analysis method is introduced whose time-frequency tiling is determined with respect to the wave dispersion characteristics. In the dispersion-based time-frequency tiling, each time-frequency atom is adaptively rotated in the time-frequency plane, depending on the local wave dispersion. Although this idea can be useful in various problems, its application to the analysis of dispersive wave signals has not been made. In this work, the adaptive time-frequency method was applied to the analysis of dispersive elastic waves measured in waveguide experiments and a theoretical investigation on its time-frequency resolution was presented. The time-frequency resolution of the proposed transform was then compared with that of the standard short-time Fourier transform to show its effectiveness in dealing with dispersive wave signals. In addition, to facilitate the adaptive time-frequency analysis of experimentally measured signals whose dispersion relations are not known, an iterative scheme for determining the relationships was developed. The validity of the present approach in dealing with dispersive waves was verified experimentally. .

  11. Dynamics of actin waves on patterned substrates: a quantitative analysis of circular dorsal ruffles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Bernitt

    Full Text Available Circular Dorsal Ruffles (CDRs have been known for decades, but the mechanism that organizes these actin waves remains unclear. In this article we systematically analyze the dynamics of CDRs on fibroblasts with respect to characteristics of current models of actin waves. We studied CDRs on heterogeneously shaped cells and on cells that we forced into disk-like morphology. We show that CDRs exhibit phenomena such as periodic cycles of formation, spiral patterns, and mutual wave annihilations that are in accord with an active medium description of CDRs. On cells of controlled morphologies, CDRs exhibit extremely regular patterns of repeated wave formation and propagation, whereas on random-shaped cells the dynamics seem to be dominated by the limited availability of a reactive species. We show that theoretical models of reaction-diffusion type incorporating conserved species capture partially the behavior we observe in our data.

  12. Hydrodynamic analysis and shape optimization for vertical axisymmetric wave energy converters (United States)

    Zhang, Wan-chao; Liu, Heng-xu; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Xue-wei


    The absorber is known to be vertical axisymmetric for a single-point wave energy converter (WEC). The shape of the wetted surface usually has a great influence on the absorber's hydrodynamic characteristics which are closely linked with the wave power conversion ability. For complex wetted surface, the hydrodynamic coefficients have been predicted traditionally by hydrodynamic software based on the BEM. However, for a systematic study of various parameters and geometries, they are too multifarious to generate so many models and data grids. This paper examines a semi-analytical method of decomposing the complex axisymmetric boundary into several ring-shaped and stepped surfaces based on the boundary discretization method (BDM) which overcomes the previous difficulties. In such case, by using the linear wave theory based on eigenfunction expansion matching method, the expressions of velocity potential in each domain, the added mass, radiation damping and wave excitation forces of the oscillating absorbers are obtained. The good astringency of the hydrodynamic coefficients and wave forces are obtained for various geometries when the discrete number reaches a certain value. The captured wave power for a same given draught and displacement for various geometries are calculated and compared. Numerical results show that the geometrical shape has great effect on the wave conversion performance of the absorber. For absorbers with the same outer radius and draught or displacement, the cylindrical type shows fantastic wave energy conversion ability at some given frequencies, while in the random sea wave, the parabolic and conical ones have better stabilization and applicability in wave power conversion.

  13. Performance analysis of WAVE communication under high-speed driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-young Kang


    Full Text Available Although WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments is a technology designed for the high-speed mobile environments, WAVE communication performance in a real road environment is highly dependent on the surrounding environments such as moving vehicles, road shape, and topography. In particular, when a vehicle moves at high speed, the location of the vehicle and its proximity to the road-side device are rapidly changed and thus affect communication performance. Accordingly, we build a performance evaluation system based on the WAVE-LTE network cooperative operation. We also analyzed the performance differences based on external environmental factors, such as information volume and velocity, from the data acquired through actual vehicle tests.

  14. Non-linear Static Analysis of Offshore Steep Wave Riser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Hongdong


    Full Text Available A new solution combining finite difference method and shooting method is developed to analyze the behavior of steep wave riser suffering from current loading. Based on the large deformation beam theory and mechanics equilibrium principle, a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations describing the motion of the steep wave riser are obtained. Then, finite difference method and shooting method are adopted and combined to solve the ordinary differential equations with zero moment boundary conditions at both the seabed end and surface end of the steep wave riser. The resulting non-linear finite difference formulations can be solved effectively by Newton-Raphson method. To improve iterative efficiency, shooting method is also employed to obtain the initial value for Newton-Raphson method. Results are compared with that of FEM by OrcaFlex, to verify the accuracy and reliability of the numerical method.

  15. Evanescent wave induced fluorescence. A tool for quantitative interfacial analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Byrne, C D


    Time-resolved angle-resolved evanescent wave induced fluorescence spectroscopy (EWIFS) has been used, for the first time, to determine interfacial concentration distributions of molecular species. Theoretical calculations demonstrate that in dynamic systems the non-radiative fluorescence decay coefficients of molecular species are effected only in a minor way by the presence of a dielectric interface. Consequently, measurements of interfacial fluorescence decay times are used to probe variations in molecular fluorescence quantum efficiencies, caused by the presence of an interface. The understanding of these variations is combined with angle-resolved evanescent wave theory. Examination of derived theoretical models using simulated data demonstrates that angle-resolved EWIFS is capable of measuring interfacial interactions on a nanometer scale. An evanescent wave induced fluorescence spectrometer is designed and fabricated to allow the measurement of the time-integrated and time-resolved interfacial emission. ...

  16. Single realization stochastic FDTD for weak scattering waves in biological random media. (United States)

    Tan, Tengmeng; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim


    This paper introduces an iterative scheme to overcome the unresolved issues presented in S-FDTD (stochastic finite-difference time-domain) for obtaining ensemble average field values recently reported by Smith and Furse in an attempt to replace the brute force multiple-realization also known as Monte-Carlo approach with a single-realization scheme. Our formulation is particularly useful for studying light interactions with biological cells and tissues having sub-wavelength scale features. Numerical results demonstrate that such a small scale variation can be effectively modeled with a random medium problem which when simulated with the proposed S-FDTD indeed produces a very accurate result.

  17. Wave Data Processing and Analysis, Part 2: Codes for Coupling GenCade and CMS-Wave (United States)


    matches the file name used in the CMS‐Wave *.sim file. B. Select CMS-Wave Observation Cells Step 1. Determine the location where breaking waves...Development Center. Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, H. Mase , J. Zheng, and F. Yamada. 2008. CMS-Wave: A nearshore spectral wave processes model for coastal

  18. A comparison of the effectiveness of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy and ultrasound therapy in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Konjen, Nipaporn; Napnark, Tapakorn; Janchai, Siriporn


    To compare the effectiveness ofradial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rSWET) and ultrasound therapy (US) in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Randomized controlled trial. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Thirty patients who were diagnosed with plantar fasciitis for at least 3 months and who had not responded to other forms of conservative treatment were recruited for this study. They were randomly divided into two groups of 15 patients. The rESWT group was treated with 1 session per week and the US group with 3 sessions per week, with both groups undergoing a total of 6 consecutive weeks of treatment. Visual analog scale (VAS) assessments were performed before and after treatment at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks. The mobility subscale of the plantar fasciitis pain and disability scale (PFPS) was measured before and after treatment. Patient satisfaction was evaluated at the conclusion of the 6-week treatment protocol. VAS pain intensity scores were significantly decreased in both groups (p plantar fasciitis treatment, both rESWT and US were found to be effective in reducing pain and increasing mobility; however, statistical analysis showed that rESWT is significantly more effective than US.

  19. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan


    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  20. Topical EMLA for pain control during extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind study. (United States)

    Gallego Vilar, D; García Fadrique, G; Di Capua Sacoto, C; Beltran Persiva, J; Perez Mestre, M; De Francia, J A; Povo Martin, I; Miralles Aguado, J; Garau Perelló, C; Sanchis Verdu, L; Gallego Gomez, J


    Patient collaboration in external shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is critical for its correct application, making proper analgesic selection indispensable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined application of EMLA and intravenous (i.v.) pethidine compared with pethidine plus placebo cream in patients undergoing ESWL for ureteral and/or renal lithiasis. Prospective, controlled, randomized, double-blind study was conducted in patients receiving ESWL for renal and/or ureterolithiasis. The patients were randomly assigned to receive i.v. pethidine plus either EMLA cream (group A) or placebo hydrating cream (group B). Evaluated were type, location, and size of lithiasis, patient's sex, age, body mass index, comorbidity, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of pain, and degree of lithiasis fragmentation. EMLA cream provided significantly better pain relief and lithiasis fragmentation and more completed ESWL treatment. Topical application of EMLA cream combined with i.v. pethidine improved VAS scores and lithiasis fragmentation and decreased the rate of withdrawal from ESWL procedure versus i.v. pethidine plus placebo therapy.

  1. Origin and Structure of Nearshore Internal Tides and Waves: Data Analysis and Linear Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendershott, Myrl


    Analysis of the data set obtained during the 1996-97 summer and autumn deployments of ADCP and T-logger internal wave antennas of Mission Beach, CA, was the principle activity during the reporting period...

  2. Multipath propagation of low‐frequency radio waves inferred from high‐resolution array analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Füllekrug, Martin; Smith, Nathan; Mezentsev, Andrew; Watson, Robert; Astin, Ivan; Gaffet, Stéphane; Evans, Adrian; Rycroft, Michael


    .... Here we report a thorough high‐resolution analysis of radio waves from low‐frequency (∼20–150 kHz) radio communication transmitters which are recorded with a small aperture array of radio receivers during the day...

  3. Comparative shock wave analysis during corneal ablation with an excimer laser, picosecond laser, and femtosecond laser (United States)

    Krueger, Ronald R.; Juhasz, Tibor


    With the event of topographic steep central islands following excimer laser surgery and the potential damage to the corneal endothelium, shock waves are playing an increasingly important role in laser refractive surgery. With this in mind, we performed a comparative shock wave analysis in corneal tissue using an excimer laser, picosecond laser, and femtosecond laser. We used a Lambda Physik excimer laser at 308 nm wavelength, a Nd:YLF picosecond laser at 1053 nm wavelength and a synchronously pumped linear cavity femtosecond laser at 630 nm wavelength. The pulse widths of the corresponding lasers were 8 ns, 18 ps, 150 fs, respectively. The energy density of irradiation was 2.5 to 8 times the threshold level being 2 J/cm2 (excimer laser), 86 J/cm2 (picosecond laser) and 10.3 J/cm2 (femtosecond laser). Shock wave dynamics were analyzed using time-resolved photography on a nanosecond time scale using the picosecond laser in corneal tissue, water and air. Shock wave dynamics using the femtosecond laser were studied in water only while the excimer laser induced shock wave during corneal ablation was studied in air only. We found the dynamics of shock waves to be similar in water and corneal tissue indicating that water is a good model to investigate shock wave effects in the cornea. The magnitude of the shock wave velocity and pressure decays over time to that of a sound wave. The distance over which it decays is 3 mm in air with the excimer laser and 600 - 700 micrometers in air with the picosecond laser. In water, the picosecond laser shock wave decays over a distance of 150 micrometers compared to the femtosecond laser shock wave which decays over a distance of 30 micrometers . Overall the excimer laser shock wave propagates 5 times further than that of the picosecond laser and the picosecond laser shock wave propagates 5 times further than that of the femtosecond laser. In this preliminary comparison, the time and distance for shock wave decay appears to be directly

  4. Full wave analysis of non-radiative dielectric waveguide modulator ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    determined experimentally using vector network analyzer. Full wave FEM simulator HFSS ... It is important to design a suitable matching network to minimize reflection loss. The circuit used for impedance ... The flip chip Schottky barrier diode from Alpha Industries (DMK2790) is bonded. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol. 71, No.

  5. A numerical model for dynamic wave rotor analysis (United States)

    Paxson, D. E.


    A numerical model has been developed which can predict the dynamic (and steady state) performance of a wave rotor, given the geometry and time dependent boundary conditions. The one-dimensional, perfect gas, CFD based code tracks the gasdynamics in each of the wave rotor passages as they rotate past the various ducts. The model can operate both on and off-design, allowing dynamic behavior to be studied throughout the operating range of the wave rotor. The model accounts for several major loss mechanisms including finite passage opening time, fluid friction, heat transfer to and from the passage walls, and leakage to and from the passage ends. In addition, it can calculate the amount of work transferred to and from the fluid when the flow in the ducts is not aligned with the passages such as occurs in off-design operation. Since it is one-dimensional, the model runs reasonably fast on a typical workstation. This paper will describe the model and present the results of some transient calculations for a conceptual four port wave rotor designed as a topping cycle for a small gas turbine engine.

  6. Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    and Tajuddin (2010) studied axially symmetric vibrations of composite poroelastic cylinders. Sharma and Sharma (2010) analyzed free vibration in a homogeneous transradially isotropic thermoelastic sphere. Flexural wave propagation in coated poroelastic cylinders is presented by Ahmed shah (2011). Tajuddin (2011) et ...

  7. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.


    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  8. Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis (United States)

    Ventura, Daniel Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Dias, Marco Adriano


    The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be formed by an elastic deformation, a variation of pressure, changes in the intensity of electric or magnetic fields, a propagation of a temperature variation, or other disturbances. Moreover, a wave can be categorized as pulsed or periodic. Most importantly, conditions can be set such that waves interfere with one another, resulting in standing waves. These have many applications in technology, although they are not always readily identified and/or understood by all students. In this work, we use a simple setup including a low-cost constant spring, such as a Slinky, and the free software Tracker for video analysis. We show they can be very useful for the teaching of mechanical wave propagation and the analysis of harmonics in standing waves.

  9. Investigating the effect of extracorporeal shock wave therapy on reducing chronic pain in patients with pes anserine bursitis: A randomized, clinical- controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khosrawi, Saeid; Taheri, Parisa; Ketabi, Marziyeh

    ... treatments, were randomly divided into two 20-member experimental groups (extracorporeal shock wave therapy [ESWT] and sham ESWT). Pain scores of all patients were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) (total and present pain indexes [TPIs and PPIs]) before intervention, immediately after intervention ...

  10. Effects of short-wave therapy in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Wang, Haiming; Zhang, Chi; Gao, Chengfei; Zhu, Siyi; Yang, Lijie; Wei, Quan; He, Chengqi


    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-wave therapy with sham or no intervention for the management of patients with knee osteoarthritis. We searched the following databases from their inception up to 26 October 2016: MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Physiotherapy Evidence Database, CINAHL and OpenGrey. Studies included randomized controlled trials compared with a sham or no intervention in patients with knee osteoarthritis. The results were calculated via standardized mean difference (SMD) and risk ratio for continuous variables outcomes as well as dichotomous variables, respectively. Heterogeneity was explored by the I2 test and inverse-variance random effects analysis was applied to all studies. Eight trials (542 patients) met the inclusion criteria. The effect of short-wave therapy on pain was found positive (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.21). The pain subgroup showed that patients received pulse modality achieved clinical improvement (SMD, -0.83; 95% CI, -1.14 to -0.52) and the pain scale in female patients decreased (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -0.98 to -0.08). In terms of extensor strength, short-wave therapy was superior to the control group ( p physical function (SMD, -0.16; 95% CI, -0.36 to 0.05). For adverse effects, there was no significant difference between the treatment and control group. Short-wave therapy is beneficial for relieving pain caused by knee osteoarthritis (the pulse modality seems superior to the continuous modality), and knee extensor muscle combining with isokinetic strength. Function is not improved.

  11. Modeling and Analysis of Lateral Propagation of Surface Acoustic Waves Including Coupling Between Different Waves. (United States)

    Zhang, Benfeng; Han, Tao; Tang, Gongbin; Zhang, Qiaozhen; Omori, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Ken-Ya


    This paper discusses lateral propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic grating structures when two types of SAWs exist simultaneously and are coupled. The thin plate model proposed by the authors is extended to include the coupling between two different SAW modes. First, lateral SAW propagation in an infinitely long periodic grating is modeled and discussed. Then, the model is applied to the Al-grating/42° YX-LiTaO3 (42-LT) substrate structure, and it is shown that the slowness curve shape changes from concave to convex with the Al grating thickness. The transverse responses are also analyzed on an infinitely long interdigital transducer on the structure, and good agreement is achieved between the present and the finite-element method analyses. Finally, SAW resonators are fabricated on the Cu grating/42-LT substrate structure, and it is experimentally verified that the slowness curve shape of the shear horizontal SAW changes with the Cu thickness.

  12. Parametric uncertainty analysis of pulse wave propagation in a model of a human arterial network (United States)

    Xiu, Dongbin; Sherwin, Spencer J.


    Reduced models of human arterial networks are an efficient approach to analyze quantitative macroscopic features of human arterial flows. The justification for such models typically arise due to the significantly long wavelength associated with the system in comparison to the lengths of arteries in the networks. Although these types of models have been employed extensively and many issues associated with their implementations have been widely researched, the issue of data uncertainty has received comparatively little attention. Similar to many biological systems, a large amount of uncertainty exists in the value of the parameters associated with the models. Clearly reliable assessment of the system behaviour cannot be made unless the effect of such data uncertainty is quantified. In this paper we present a study of parametric data uncertainty in reduced modelling of human arterial networks which is governed by a hyperbolic system. The uncertain parameters are modelled as random variables and the governing equations for the arterial network therefore become stochastic. This type stochastic hyperbolic systems have not been previously systematically studied due to the difficulties introduced by the uncertainty such as a potential change in the mathematical character of the system and imposing boundary conditions. We demonstrate how the application of a high-order stochastic collocation method based on the generalized polynomial chaos expansion, combined with a discontinuous Galerkin spectral/hp element discretization in physical space, can successfully simulate this type of hyperbolic system subject to uncertain inputs with bounds. Building upon a numerical study of propagation of uncertainty and sensitivity in a simplified model with a single bifurcation, a systematical parameter sensitivity analysis is conducted on the wave dynamics in a multiple bifurcating human arterial network. Using the physical understanding of the dynamics of pulse waves in these types of

  13. Pseudo-Random Modulation of a Laser Diode for Generating Ultrasonic Longitudinal Waves (United States)

    Madaras, Eric I.; Anatasi, Robert F.


    Laser generated ultrasound systems have historically been more complicated and expensive than conventional piezoelectric based systems, and this fact has relegated the acceptance of laser based systems to niche applications for which piezoelectric based systems are less suitable. Lowering system costs, while improving throughput, increasing ultrasound signal levels, and improving signal-to-noise are goals which will help increase the general acceptance of laser based ultrasound. One current limitation with conventional laser generated ultrasound is a material s damage threshold limit. Increasing the optical power to generate more signal eventually damages the material being tested due to rapid, high heating. Generation limitations for laser based ultrasound suggests the use of pulse modulation techniques as an alternate generation method. Pulse modulation techniques can spread the laser energy over time or space, thus reducing laser power densities and minimizing damage. Previous experiments by various organizations using spatial or temporal pulse modulation have been shown to generate detectable surface, plate, and bulk ultrasonic waves with narrow frequency bandwidths . Using narrow frequency bandwidths improved signal detectability, but required the use of expensive and powerful lasers and opto-electronic systems. The use of a laser diode to generate ultrasound is attractive because of its low cost, small size, light weight, simple optics and modulation capability. The use of pulse compression techniques should allow certain types of laser diodes to produce usable ultrasonic signals. The method also does not need to be limited to narrow frequency bandwidths. The method demonstrated here uses a low power laser diode (approximately 150 mW) that is modulated by controlling the diode s drive current and the resulting signal is recovered by cross correlation. A potential application for this system which is briefly demonstrated is in detecting signals in thick

  14. Random number datasets generated from statistical analysis of randomly sampled GSM recharge cards. (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Ugwoke, Paulinus O


    In this article, a random number of datasets was generated from random samples of used GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communications) recharge cards. Statistical analyses were performed to refine the raw data to random number datasets arranged in table. A detailed description of the method and relevant tests of randomness were also discussed.

  15. An evaluation of directional analysis techniques for multidirectional, partially reflected waves .1. numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilic, C; Chadwick, A; Helm-Petersen, Jacob


    , non-phased locked methods are more appropriate. In this paper, the accuracy of two non-phased locked methods of directional analysis, the maximum likelihood method (MLM) and the Bayesian directional method (BDM) have been quantitatively evaluated using numerical simulations for the case......Recent studies of advanced directional analysis techniques have mainly centred on incident wave fields. In the study of coastal structures, however, partially reflective wave fields are commonly present. In the near structure field, phase locked methods can be successfully applied. In the far field...... of multidirectional waves with partial reflections. It is shown that the results are influenced by the ratio of distance from the reflector (L) to the length of the time series (S) used in the spectral analysis. Both methods are found to be capable of determining the incident and reflective wave fields when US > 0...

  16. Analysis of strain wave propagation in polymeric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harstad, E.N.; Foster, J.C., Jr; Wilson, L.L.: Maudlin, P.J.; Schreyer, H.L.


    Polymeric materials used as binders in energetic materials exhibit interesting and unique material behavior. These include full geometrical recovery after deformation and a rate dependent stress strain relationship which can be categorized as viscoelastic. Taylor Cylinder Impact Tests have been conducted for adiprene-100 polyurethane. These produce time resolved cylinder profiles from which deformation wave speed can be extracted as a function of strain and strain-rate. Using this information and a set of conservation `Jump` relationships applied across the deformation wave front, stress points as a function of strain and strain rate can be extracted. This discretized information then can be used in the development of a constitutive relationship suitable for use in a three dimensional computer code calculation.

  17. Analysis of dam break waves; Analyse av dambruddsboelger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttoemme, Grethe Holm (ed.)


    The project objective was to improve knowledge and methodology for dam break wave calculations in relation to current practice and NVE's current requirements. The reason was the experience of flood in Troendelag in 2006, which indicated that NVE's policies was not good enough for small and / or erosion prone rivers. The project has shown that erosion processes can be at least as large consequences as the dam break flood, and that degree of detail with respect to terrain data and the choice of roughness is important for the results in a watercourse as Lauvsnes waterway. It is also shown that the results from the use of 2D model may differ significantly from results from the 1D model. The report is making recommendations for updating guidelines for dam break wave calculations. (AG)

  18. Wave analysis of porous geometry with linear resistance law (United States)

    Dokken, Jørgen; Grue, John; Karstensen, Lars Petter


    The wave diffraction-radiation problem of a porous geometry of arbitrary shape located in the free surface of a fluid is formulated by a set of integral equations, assuming a linear resistance law at the geometry. The linear forces, the energy relation and the mean horizontal drift force are evaluated for non-porous and porous geometries. A geometry of large porosity has an almost vanishing added mass. The exciting forces are a factor of 5-20 smaller compared to a solid geometry. In the long wave regime, the porous geometry significantly enhances both the damping and the mean drift force, where the latter grows linearly with the wavenumber. The calculated mean drift force on a porous hemisphere and a vertical truncated cylinder, relevant to the construction of fish cages, is compared to available published results.

  19. Analysis of efficient preconditioned defect correction methods for nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter


    Robust computational procedures for the solution of non-hydrostatic, free surface, irrotational and inviscid free-surface water waves in three space dimensions can be based on iterative preconditioned defect correction (PDC) methods. Such methods can be made efficient and scalable to enable...... prediction of free-surface wave transformation and accurate wave kinematics in both deep and shallow waters in large marine areas or for predicting the outcome of experiments in large numerical wave tanks. We revisit the classical governing equations are fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow...... equations. We present new detailed fundamental analysis using finite-amplitude wave solutions for iterative solvers. We demonstrate that the PDC method in combination with a high-order discretization method enables efficient and scalable solution of the linear system of equations arising in potential flow...

  20. Finite element analysis for the inhibition of electromagnetic acoustic testing (EMAT) Lamb waves multi-modes (United States)

    Liu, Suzhen; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Qingxin


    Lamb waves are widely used in nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) for its obvious advantages, such as good directionality, longer-range propagation and lower loss etc. However, it is difficult to analysis and to interpret the echo signals because of its multi-modes and dispersion. In this paper, the properties of single-mode Lamb waves which were excited by double EMAT were studied based on the principles of multi-modes and the characteristics of wave structure. Simulation results show that the double transducer excitation structure can stimulate single-mode Lamb waves and eliminate the extra modes, which are produced by modal conversion at ends of the specimen. The single-mode excitation of Lamb waves is beneficial to reduce the difficulty of signal processing and provide reliable information to locate the defect. The researches in this paper can be used as a theoretical basis to design double transducer excitation system.

  1. Effect of disorder on bulk sound wave speed: a multiscale spectral analysis (United States)

    Shrivastava, Rohit Kumar; Luding, Stefan


    Disorder of size (polydispersity) and mass of discrete elements or particles in randomly structured media (e.g., granular matter such as soil) has numerous effects on the materials' sound propagation characteristics. The influence of disorder on energy and momentum transport, the sound wave speed and its low-pass frequency-filtering characteristics is the subject of this study. The goal is understanding the connection between the particle-microscale disorder and dynamics and the system-macroscale wave propagation, which can be applied to nondestructive testing, seismic exploration of buried objects (oil, mineral, etc.) or to study the internal structure of the Earth. To isolate the longitudinal P-wave mode from shear and rotational modes, a one-dimensional system of equally sized elements or particles is used to study the effect of mass disorder alone via (direct and/or ensemble averaged) real time signals, signals in Fourier space, energy and dispersion curves. Increase in mass disorder (where disorder has been defined such that it is independent of the shape of the probability distribution of masses) decreases the sound wave speed along a granular chain. Energies associated with the eigenmodes can be used to obtain better quality dispersion relations for disordered chains; these dispersion relations confirm the decrease in pass frequency and wave speed with increasing disorder acting opposite to the wave acceleration close to the source.

  2. SplitRacer - a semi-automatic tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting (United States)

    Reiss, Miriam Christina; Rümpker, Georg


    We present a semi-automatic, graphical user interface tool for the analysis and interpretation of teleseismic shear-wave splitting in MATLAB. Shear wave splitting analysis is a standard tool to infer seismic anisotropy, which is often interpreted as due to lattice-preferred orientation of e.g. mantle minerals or shape-preferred orientation caused by cracks or alternating layers in the lithosphere and hence provides a direct link to the earth's kinematic processes. The increasing number of permanent stations and temporary experiments result in comprehensive studies of seismic anisotropy world-wide. Their successive comparison with a growing number of global models of mantle flow further advances our understanding the earth's interior. However, increasingly large data sets pose the inevitable question as to how to process them. Well-established routines and programs are accurate but often slow and impractical for analyzing a large amount of data. Additionally, shear wave splitting results are seldom evaluated using the same quality criteria which complicates a straight-forward comparison. SplitRacer consists of several processing steps: i) download of data per FDSNWS, ii) direct reading of miniSEED-files and an initial screening and categorizing of XKS-waveforms using a pre-set SNR-threshold. iii) an analysis of the particle motion of selected phases and successive correction of the sensor miss-alignment based on the long-axis of the particle motion. iv) splitting analysis of selected events: seismograms are first rotated into radial and transverse components, then the energy-minimization method is applied, which provides the polarization and delay time of the phase. To estimate errors, the analysis is done for different randomly-chosen time windows. v) joint-splitting analysis for all events for one station, where the energy content of all phases is inverted simultaneously. This allows to decrease the influence of noise and to increase robustness of the measurement

  3. Eplerenone attenuates pulse wave reflection in chronic kidney disease stage 3-4--a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Boesby

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD have high cardiovascular mortality and morbidity associated with increased arterial stiffness. Plasma aldosterone levels are increased in CKD, and aldosterone has been found to increase vascular inflammation and fibrosis. It was hypothesized that aldosterone receptor inhibition with eplerenone could reduce arterial stiffness in CKD stage 3-4.The design was randomized, open, parallel group. Measurements of arterial stiffness markers were undertaken at weeks 1 and 24.24 weeks of add-on treatment with 25-50 mg eplerenone or standard medication.Primary outcome parameter was carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV. Secondary outcomes were augmentation index (AIx, ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI and urinary albumin excretion.Fifty-four CKD patients (mean eGFR 36 mL/min/1.73 m(2, SD 11 were randomized. Forty-six patients completed the trial. The mean difference in cfPWV changes between groups was 0.1 m/s (95%CI: -1.0, 1.3, P = 0.8. The mean difference in AIx changes between groups was 4.4% (0.1, 8.6, P = 0.04. AASI was unchanged in both groups. The ratio of change in urinary albumin excretion in the eplerenone group compared to the control was 0.61 (0.37, 1.01, P = 0.05. Four patients were withdrawn from the eplerenone group including three because of possible side effects; one was withdrawn from the control group. Mild hyperkalemia was seen on three occasions and was easily managed.The full planned number of patients was not attained. The duration of the trial may have been too short to obtain full effect of eplerenone on the arteries.Add-on treatment with eplerenone in CKD stage 3-4 did not significantly reduce cfPWV. There may be beneficial vascular effects leading to attenuated pulse wave reflection. Treatment was well-tolerated.ClinicalTrials.govNCT01100203.

  4. Wave energy budget analysis in the Earth's radiation belts uncovers a missing energy (United States)

    Artemyev, A.V.; Agapitov, O.V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V.V.; Mozer, F.S.


    Whistler-mode emissions are important electromagnetic waves pervasive in the Earth's magnetosphere, where they continuously remove or energize electrons trapped by the geomagnetic field, controlling radiation hazards to satellites and astronauts and the upper-atmosphere ionization or chemical composition. Here, we report an analysis of 10-year Cluster data, statistically evaluating the full wave energy budget in the Earth's magnetosphere, revealing that a significant fraction of the energy corresponds to hitherto generally neglected very oblique waves. Such waves, with 10 times smaller magnetic power than parallel waves, typically have similar total energy. Moreover, they carry up to 80% of the wave energy involved in wave–particle resonant interactions. It implies that electron heating and precipitation into the atmosphere may have been significantly under/over-valued in past studies considering only conventional quasi-parallel waves. Very oblique waves may turn out to be a crucial agent of energy redistribution in the Earth's radiation belts, controlled by solar activity. PMID:25975615

  5. Analysis of Rayleigh waves with circular wavefront: a maximum likelihood approach (United States)

    Maranò, Stefano; Hobiger, Manuel; Bergamo, Paolo; Fäh, Donat


    Analysis of Rayleigh waves is an important task in seismology and geotechnical investigations. In fact, properties of Rayleigh waves such as velocity and polarization are important observables that carry information about the structure of the subsoil. Applications analysing Rayleigh waves include active and passive seismic surveys. In active surveys, there is a controlled source of seismic energy and the sensors are typically placed near the source. In passive surveys, there is not a controlled source, rather, seismic waves from ambient vibrations are analysed and the sources are assumed to be far outside the array, simplifying the analysis by the assumption of plane waves. Whenever the source is in the proximity of the array of sensors or even within the array it is necessary to model the wave propagation accounting for the circular wavefront. In addition, it is also necessary to model the amplitude decay due to geometrical spreading. This is the case of active seismic surveys in which sensors are located near the seismic source. In this work, we propose a maximum likelihood (ML) approach for the analysis of Rayleigh waves generated at a near source. Our statistical model accounts for the curvature of the wavefront and amplitude decay due to geometrical spreading. Using our method, we show applications on real data of the retrieval of Rayleigh wave dispersion and ellipticity. We employ arrays with arbitrary geometry. Furthermore, we show how it is possible to combine active and passive surveys. This enables us to enlarge the analysable frequency range and therefore the depths investigated. We retrieve properties of Rayleigh waves from both active and passive surveys and show the excellent agreement of the results from the two surveys. In our approach we use the same array of sensors for both the passive and the active survey. This greatly simplifies the logistics necessary to perform a survey.

  6. Spectrum analysis of seismic surface waves and its applications in seismic landmine detection. (United States)

    Alam, Mubashir; McClellan, James H; Scott, Waymond R


    In geophysics, spectrum analysis of surface waves (SASW) refers to a noninvasive method for soil characterization. However, the term spectrum analysis can be used in a wider sense to mean a method for determining and identifying various modes of seismic surface waves and their properties such as velocity, polarization, etc. Surface waves travel along the free boundary of a medium and can be easily detected with a transducer placed on the free surface of the boundary. A new method based on vector processing of space-time data obtained from an array of triaxial sensors is proposed to produce high-resolution, multimodal spectra from surface waves. Then individual modes can be identified in the spectrum and reconstructed in the space-time domain; also, reflected waves can be separated easily from forward waves in the spectrum domain. This new SASW method can be used for detecting and locating landmines by analyzing the reflected waves for resonance. Processing examples are presented for numerically generated data, experimental data collected in a laboratory setting, and field data.

  7. Reconstruction of Interfering Waves from Three Dimensional Analysis of Their Interference Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Tavassoli


    Full Text Available   Optical interferometry is being used as an efficient tool to analyse smooth surfaces for more than a century. Although, due to introduction of novel computer assisted analyzing techniques and array detectors, like CCD, the speed and the precision of processing have been increased tremendously, but the main equation involved is not changed. The main equation is the intensity distribution in the interference pattern of a plane reference wave and the required wave.   In the paper it is shown that by analysis of the interference pattern of two unknown waves in three dimension (which is possible for coherent waves it is possible to reconstruct each wave separately. This approach has several useful applications, namely, on can do without reference plane wave in the interferometric surface analysis and, it is possible to reconstruct an unknown wave by making it to interfere with itself. This is very useful in determining the profile of laser beams and erasing the effect of atmospheric disturbances on observing astronomical objects.

  8. Finite element analysis of electromagnetic propagation in an absorbing wave guide (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.


    Wave guides play a significant role in microwave space communication systems. The attenuation per unit length of the guide depends on its construction and design frequency range. A finite element Galerkin formulation has been developed to study TM electromagnetic propagation in complex two-dimensional absorbing wave guides. The analysis models the electromagnetic absorptive characteristics of a general wave guide which could be used to determine wall losses or simulate resistive terminations fitted into the ends of a guide. It is believed that the general conclusions drawn by using this simpler two-dimensional geometry will be fundamentally the same for other geometries.

  9. Using high speed smartphone cameras and video analysis techniques to teach mechanical wave physics (United States)

    Bonato, Jacopo; Gratton, Luigi M.; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano


    We propose the use of smartphone-based slow-motion video analysis techniques as a valuable tool for investigating physics concepts ruling mechanical wave propagation. The simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for both high school and undergraduate students, allows one to measure, in a simple yet rigorous way, the speed of pulses along a spring and the period of transverse standing waves generated in the same spring. These experiments can be helpful in addressing several relevant concepts about the physics of mechanical waves and in overcoming some of the typical student misconceptions in this same field.

  10. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy an introduction to theory, experiment and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Creighton, Jolien D E


    This most up-to-date, one-stop reference combines coverage of both theory and observational techniques, with introductory sections to bring all readers up to the same level. Written by outstanding researchers directly involved with the scientific program of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the book begins with a brief review of general relativity before going on to describe the physics of gravitational waves and the astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Further sections cover gravitational wave detectors, data analysis, and the outlook of gravitation

  11. Vector wave analysis of an electromagnetic high-order Bessel vortex beam of fractional type α. (United States)

    Mitri, F G


    The scalar wave theory of nondiffracting electromagnetic (EM) high-order Bessel vortex beams of fractional type α has been recently explored, and their novel features and promising applications have been revealed. However, complete characterization of the properties for this new type of beam requires a vector analysis to determine the fields' components in space because scalar wave theory is inadequate to describe such beams, especially when the central spot is comparable to the wavelength (k(r)/k≈1, where k(r) is the radial component of the wavenumber k). Stemming from Maxwell's vector equations and the Lorenz gauge condition, a full vector wave analysis for the electric and magnetic fields is presented. The results are of particular importance in the study of EM wave scattering of a high-order Bessel vortex beam of fractional type α by particles.

  12. Electromagnetic Waves


    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.


    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  13. Data Analysis of Gravitational Waves Signals from Millisecond Pulsars

    CERN Document Server

    de Oliveira, F G; Coelho, J G; Magalhaes, N


    The present work is devoted to the detection of monochromatic gravitational waves signals from pulsars using the ALLEGRO's data detector. In this work we will present the region (in frequency) of millisecond pulsars of the 47 Tucanae (NGC 104) in the band of detector. According with this result was possible to analyse the frequency of the pulsar J1748-2446L and J1342+2822c, searching annual Doppler variations using power spectrum estimates for the year 1999. We tested this method injecting a simulated signal in real data and we were able to detect it.

  14. Non-invasive measurement of aortic pressure in patients: Comparing pulse wave analysis and applanation tonometry


    Naidu, M.U.R.; C Prabhakar Reddy


    Objective: The aim of the present study was to validate and compare novel methods to determine aortic blood pressure non-invasively based on Oscillometric Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) measurement using four limb-cuff pressure waveforms and two lead Electrocardiogram (ECG) with a validated tonometric pulse wave analysis system in patients. Materials and Methods: After receiving the consent, in 49 patients with hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, PWV, and central blood p...

  15. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs


    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  16. A Temporal and Spatial Analysis of Wave-Generated Foam Patterns in the Surf Zone (United States)


    December 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF WAVE–GENERATED FOAM PATTERNS IN...14. SUBJECT TERMS Wave Breaking, Foam, Obliquely Descending Eddies, Aerial Imagery, Image Processing 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 57 16. PRICE CODE 17...converted to still images and were georectified, georeferenced, and post processed . The size, shape, and evolution of the wave generated foam patterns

  17. Pseudospectral modeling and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Chen, C.


    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) is one of the most widely used techniques in environmental and engineering geophysics to determine shear-wave velocities and dynamic properties, which is based on the elastic layered system theory. Wave propagation in the Earth, however, has been recognized as viscoelastic and the propagation of Rayleigh waves presents substantial differences in viscoelastic media as compared with elastic media. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out numerical simulation and dispersion analysis of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media to better understand Rayleigh-wave behaviors in the real world. We apply a pseudospectral method to the calculation of the spatial derivatives using a Chebyshev difference operator in the vertical direction and a Fourier difference operator in the horizontal direction based on the velocity-stress elastodynamic equations and relations of linear viscoelastic solids. This approach stretches the spatial discrete grid to have a minimum grid size near the free surface so that high accuracy and resolution are achieved at the free surface, which allows an effective incorporation of the free surface boundary conditions since the Chebyshev method is nonperiodic. We first use an elastic homogeneous half-space model to demonstrate the accuracy of the pseudospectral method comparing with the analytical solution, and verify the correctness of the numerical modeling results for a viscoelastic half-space comparing the phase velocities of Rayleigh wave between the theoretical values and the dispersive image generated by high-resolution linear Radon transform. We then simulate three types of two-layer models to analyze dispersive-energy characteristics for near-surface applications. Results demonstrate that the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in viscoelastic media is relatively higher than in elastic media and the fundamental mode increases by 10-16% when the frequency is above 10. Hz due to the velocity dispersion of P

  18. Slope failure analysis using the random material point method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.; Vardon, P.J.


    The random material point method (RMPM), which combines random field theory and the material point method (MPM), is proposed. It differs from the random finite-element method (RFEM), by assigning random field (cell) values to material points that are free to move relative to the computational grid

  19. Surface Acoustic Wave Monitor for Deposition and Analysis of Ultra-Thin Films (United States)

    Hines, Jacqueline H. (Inventor)


    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) based thin film deposition monitor device and system for monitoring the deposition of ultra-thin films and nanomaterials and the analysis thereof is characterized by acoustic wave device embodiments that include differential delay line device designs, and which can optionally have integral reference devices fabricated on the same substrate as the sensing device, or on a separate device in thermal contact with the film monitoring/analysis device, in order to provide inherently temperature compensated measurements. These deposition monitor and analysis devices can include inherent temperature compensation, higher sensitivity to surface interactions than quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) devices, and the ability to operate at extreme temperatures.

  20. Connectivity Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Device-to-Device Networks with Blockage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haejoon Jung


    Full Text Available We consider device-to-device (D2D communications in millimeter-wave (mm Wave for the future fifth generation (5G cellular networks. While the mm Wave systems can support multiple D2D pairs simultaneously through beamforming with highly directional antenna arrays, the mm Wave channel is significantly more susceptible to blockage compared to microwave; mm Wave channel studies indicate that if line-of-sight (LoS paths are blocked, reliable mm Wave communications may not be achieved for high data-rate applications. Therefore, assuming that an outage occurs in the absence of the LoS path between two wireless devices by obstructions, we focus on connectivity of the mm Wave D2D networks. We consider two types of D2D communications: direct and indirect schemes. The connectivity performances of the two schemes are investigated in terms of (i the probability to achieve a fully connected network PFC and (ii the average number of reliably connected devices γ. Through analysis and simulation, we show that, as the network size increases, PFC and γ decrease. Also, PFC and γ decrease, when the blockage parameter increases. Moreover, simulation results indicate that the hybrid direct and indirect scheme can improve both PFC and γ up to about 35% compared to the nonhybrid scheme.

  1. Multi-method observation and analysis of an impulse wave and tsunami caused by glacier calving (United States)

    Lüthi, M. P.; Vieli, A.


    Glacier calving can cause violent impulse waves which, upon landfall, can lead to destructive tsunami-like waves. Here we present data acquired during a calving event from Eqip Sermia, an ocean-terminating glacier in West Greenland. During an exceptionally well documented event, the collapse of 9 × 105 m3 ice from a 200 m high ice cliff caused an impulse wave of 50 m height, traveling at a speed of 25-30 m s-1. This wave was filmed from a tour boat in 800 m distance from the calving face, and simultaneously measured with a terrestrial radar interferometer and a tide gauge. Tsunami wave run-up height on the steep opposite shore in 4 km distance was 10-15 m, destroying infrastructure and eroding old vegetation. These observations indicate that such high tsunami waves are a recent phenomenon in the history of this glacier. Analysis of the data shows that only moderately bigger tsunami waves are to be expected in the future, even under rather extreme scenarios.

  2. Mendelian randomization analysis with multiple genetic variants using summarized data. (United States)

    Burgess, Stephen; Butterworth, Adam; Thompson, Simon G


    Genome-wide association studies, which typically report regression coefficients summarizing the associations of many genetic variants with various traits, are potentially a powerful source of data for Mendelian randomization investigations. We demonstrate how such coefficients from multiple variants can be combined in a Mendelian randomization analysis to estimate the causal effect of a risk factor on an outcome. The bias and efficiency of estimates based on summarized data are compared to those based on individual-level data in simulation studies. We investigate the impact of gene-gene interactions, linkage disequilibrium, and 'weak instruments' on these estimates. Both an inverse-variance weighted average of variant-specific associations and a likelihood-based approach for summarized data give similar estimates and precision to the two-stage least squares method for individual-level data, even when there are gene-gene interactions. However, these summarized data methods overstate precision when variants are in linkage disequilibrium. If the P-value in a linear regression of the risk factor for each variant is less than 1×10⁻⁵, then weak instrument bias will be small. We use these methods to estimate the causal association of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) on coronary artery disease using published data on five genetic variants. A 30% reduction in LDL-C is estimated to reduce coronary artery disease risk by 67% (95% CI: 54% to 76%). We conclude that Mendelian randomization investigations using summarized data from uncorrelated variants are similarly efficient to those using individual-level data, although the necessary assumptions cannot be so fully assessed. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  3. Orbit analysis of a geostationary gravitational wave interferometer detector array

    CERN Document Server

    Tinto, Massimo; Kuga, Helio K; Alves, Marcio E S; Aguiar, Odylio D


    We analyze the trajectories of three geostationary satellites forming the GEOstationary GRAvitational Wave Interferometer (GEOGRAWI)~\\cite{tinto}, a space-based laser interferometer mission aiming to detect and study gravitational radiation in the ($10^{-4} - 10$) Hz band. The combined effects of the gravity fields of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon make the three satellites deviate from their nominally stationary, equatorial and equilateral configuration. Since changes in the satellites relative distances and orientations could negatively affect the precision of the laser heterodyne measurements, we have derived the time-dependence of the inter-satellite distances and velocities, the variations of the polar angles made by the constellation's three arms with respect to a chosen reference frame, and the time changes of the triangle's enclosed angles. We find that, during the time between two consecutive station-keeping maneuvers (about two weeks), the relative variations of the inter-satellite distances do not...

  4. Baryon Spectroscopy Through Partial-Wave Analysis and Meson Photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manley, D. Mark [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)


    The principal goal of this project is the experimental and phenomenological study of baryon spectroscopy. The PI's group consists of himself and three graduate students. This final report summarizes research activities by the PI's group during the period 03/01/2015 to 08/14/2016. During this period, the PI co-authored 11 published journal papers and one proceedings article and presented three invited talks. The PI's general interest is the investigation of the baryon resonance spectrum up to masses of ~ 2 GeV. More detail is given on two research projects: Neutral Kaon Photoproduction and Partial-Wave Analyses of γp → η p, γn → η n, and γp → K⁺ Λ.

  5. Auto-correlation analysis of wave heights in the Bay of Bengal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time series observations of significant wave heights in the Bay of Bengal were subjected to auto- correlation analysis to determine temporal variability scale. The analysis indicates an exponen- tial fall of auto-correlation in the first few hours with a decorrelation time scale of about six hours. A similar figure was found earlier ...

  6. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation. (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V


    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Change Analysis of Laser Scans of Laboratory Rock Slopes Subject to Wave Attack Testing (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Lindenbergh, R.; Hofland, B.; Kramer, R.


    For better understanding how coastal structures with gentle slopes behave during high energy events, a wave attack experiment representing a storm of 3000 waves was performed in a flume facility. Two setups with different steepness of slope were compared under the same conditions. In order to quantify changes in the rock slopes after the wave attack, a terrestrial laser scanner was used to obtain 3D coordinates of the rock surface before and after each experiment. Next, through a series of processing steps, the point clouds were converted to a suitable 2D raster for change analysis. This allowed to estimate detailed and quantitative change information. The results indicate that the area around the artificial coast line, defined as the intersection between sloped surface and wave surface, is most strongly affected by wave attacks. As the distances from the sloped surface to the waves are shorter, changes for the mildly sloped surface, slope 1 (1 : 10), are distributed over a larger area compared to the changes for the more steeply sloped surface, slope 2 (1 : 5). The results of this experiment show that terrestrial laser scanning is an effective and feasible method for change analysis of rock slopes in a laboratory setting. Most striking results from a process point of view is that the transport direction of the rocks change between the two different slopes: from seaward transport for the steeper slope to landward transport for the milder slope.

  8. Performance Analysis of Multiple Wave Energy Converters Placed on a Floating Platform in the Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyebin Lee


    Full Text Available Wind-wave hybrid power generation systems have the potential to become a significant source of affordable renewable energy. However, their strong interactions with both wind- and wave-induced forces raise a number of technical challenges for modelling. The present study undertakes a numerical investigation on multi-body hydrodynamic interaction between a wind-wave hybrid floating platform and multiple wave energy converters (WECs in a frequency domain. In addition to the exact responses of the platform and the WECs, the power take-off (PTO mechanism was taken into account for analysis. The coupled hydrodynamic coefficients and wave exciting forces were obtained from WAMIT, the 3D diffraction/radiation solver based on the boundary element method. The overall performance of the multiple WECs is presented and compared with the performance of a single isolated WEC. The analysis showed significant differences in the dynamic responses of the WECs when the multi-body interaction was considered. In addition, the PTO damping effect made a considerable difference to the responses of the WECs. However, the platform response was only minimally affected by PTO damping. With regard to energy capture, the interaction effect of the designed multiple WEC array layout is evaluated. The WEC array configuration showed both constructive and destructive effects in accordance with the incident wave frequency and direction.

  9. A Guided Wave Sensor Enabling Simultaneous Wavenumber-Frequency Analysis for Both Lamb and Shear-Horizontal Waves. (United States)

    Ren, Baiyang; Cho, Hwanjeong; Lissenden, Cliff J


    Guided waves in plate-like structures have been widely investigated for structural health monitoring. Lamb waves and shear horizontal (SH) waves, two commonly used types of waves in plates, provide different benefits for the detection of various types of defects and material degradation. However, there are few sensors that can detect both Lamb and SH waves and also resolve their modal content, namely the wavenumber-frequency spectrum. A sensor that can detect both waves is desirable to take full advantage of both types of waves in order to improve sensitivity to different discontinuity geometries. We demonstrate that polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) film provides the basis for a multi-element array sensor that detects both Lamb and SH waves and also measures their modal content, i.e., the wavenumber-frequency spectrum.

  10. Analysis of global multiscale finite element methods for wave equations with continuum spatial scales

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Lijian


    In this paper, we discuss a numerical multiscale approach for solving wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients. Our interest comes from geophysics applications and we assume that there is no scale separation with respect to spatial variables. To obtain the solution of these multiscale problems on a coarse grid, we compute global fields such that the solution smoothly depends on these fields. We present a Galerkin multiscale finite element method using the global information and provide a convergence analysis when applied to solve the wave equations. We investigate the relation between the smoothness of the global fields and convergence rates of the global Galerkin multiscale finite element method for the wave equations. Numerical examples demonstrate that the use of global information renders better accuracy for wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients than the local multiscale finite element method. © 2010 IMACS.

  11. Wavelet analysis of the slow non-linear dynamics of wave turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miquel, Benjamin; Mordant, Nicolas, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure (France)


    In wave turbulence, the derivation of solutions in the frame of the Weak Turbulence Theory relies on the existence of a double time-scale separation: first, between the period of the waves and characteristic nonlinear time t{sub NL} corresponding to energy exchange among waves; and secondly, between t{sub NL} and the characteristic dissipation time t{sub d}. Due to the lack of space and time resolved measurement, this hypothesis have remained unverified so far. We study the turbulence of flexion waves in thin elastic plates. t{sub d} is measured using the decline stage of the turbulence whereas a wavelet analysis is performed to measure the characteristic non-linear time t{sub NL}.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Infragravity Waves in a Dissipative Beach (United States)

    Conde, M. A.; Otero Diaz, L.; Restrepo L, J. C.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Osorio Arías, A.; Ruiz Merchan, J. K.; Montaño Muñoz, J. K.


    For experimental analysis of infragravity waves in a dissipative beach we carried out a field campaign. A crosshore array of pressure sensors, located outside the surf zone and inside the surf zone, was used. These sensors measured for 12 hours continuously with a rate of 1 Hz by 3 days. A Fourier analysis was applied to the free surface data to identify infragravity energy. A FIR filter was applied to obtain the infragravity signal along the array of pressure sensors; we found an increase in the height of the infragravity wave as it approaches to the coast of almost 50%. The evolution of the infragravity wave signal was analyzed outside and inside the surf zone for the biggest wave event recorded in the field campaign, finding a significant increase in the height of the infragravity wave. Finally, using a wavelet analysis we observed that as the infragravity wave was approaching to the coast, the energy within the infragravity frequencies increase for lower frequencies. For the numerical analysis of infragravity waves in the dissipative beach, we use the SWASH model that is a non-hydrostatic model which phase-resolves the free surface and fluid motions throughout the water column. The model was validated (Willmott index of 95% of agreement between the simulated and measured time series) with data from the experimental array of pressure sensors. We ran the model by changing the boundary condition to analyze the swash oscillation in the selected beach. We found that the model was able to predict the swash oscillation and confirms that in a dissipative beach the energy in the swash zone was dominated by the infragravity energy. These results help to understand the role of infragravity regime in coastal flooding processes and morphological changes in natural beaches.

  13. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates. (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza


    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Random vibrations theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wirsching, Paul H; Ortiz, Keith


    Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice covers the theory and analysis of mechanical and structural systems undergoing random oscillations due to any number of phenomena— from engine noise, turbulent flow, and acoustic noise to wind, ocean waves, earthquakes, and rough pavement. For systems operating in such environments, a random vibration analysis is essential to the safety and reliability of the system. By far the most comprehensive text available on random vibrations, Random Vibrations: Theory and Practice is designed for readers who are new to the subject as well as those who are familiar with the fundamentals and wish to study a particular topic or use the text as an authoritative reference. It is divided into three major sections: fundamental background, random vibration development and applications to design, and random signal analysis. Introductory chapters cover topics in probability, statistics, and random processes that prepare the reader for the development of the theory of random vibrations a...

  15. Frequency domain analysis of the random loading of cracked panels (United States)

    Doyle, James F.


    The primary effort concerned the development of analytical methods for the accurate prediction of the effect of random loading on a panel with a crack. Of particular concern was the influence of frequency on the stress intensity factor behavior. Many modern structures, such as those found in advanced aircraft, are lightweight and susceptible to critical vibrations, and consequently dynamic response plays a very important role in their analysis. The presence of flaws and cracks can have catastrophic consequences. The stress intensity factor, K, emerges as a very significant parameter that characterizes the crack behavior. In analyzing the dynamic response of panels that contain cracks, the finite element method is used, but because this type of problem is inherently computationally intensive, a number of ways of calculating K more efficiently are explored.

  16. Strong fluctuation theory for electromagnetic wave scattering by a layer of random discrete scatterers. [in microwave remote sensing of snow fields (United States)

    Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.


    The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account in the calculation of the effective permittivity functions. The correlation functions for the random medium with different scatterer constituents and size distributions are derived. Applying the dyadic Green's function for a two-layer medium and using the bilocal and distorted Born approximations, the first and the second moments of the fields are then calculated. Both the backscattering and bistatic scattering coefficients are obtained, and the former is shown to match favorably with experimental data obtained from snow fields.

  17. Random Matrix Theory Approach to Indonesia Energy Portfolio Analysis (United States)

    Mahardhika, Alifian; Purqon, Acep


    In a few years, Indonesia experienced difficulties in maintaining energy security, the problem is the decline in oil production from 1.6 million barrels per day to 861 thousand barrels per day in 2012. However, there is a difference condition in 2015 until the third week in 2016, world oil prices actually fell at the lowest price level since last 12 years. The decline in oil prices due to oversupply of oil by oil-producing countries of the world due to the instability of the world economy. Wave of layoffs in Indonesia is a response to the decline in oil prices, this led to the energy and mines portfolios Indonesia feared would not be more advantageous than the portfolio in other countries. In this research, portfolio analysis will be done on energy and mining in Indonesia by using stock price data of energy and mines in the period 26 November 2010 until April 1, 2016. It was found that the results have a wide effect of the market potential is high in the determination of the return on the portfolio energy and mines. Later, it was found that there are eight of the thirty stocks in the energy and mining portfolio of Indonesia which have a high probability of return relative to the average return of stocks in a portfolio of energy and mines.

  18. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from random media with strong permittivity fluctuations. [with application to atmospheric turbulence effects on microwave remote sensing (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Kong, J. A.


    By taking into account the singularity of the dyadic Green's function in the renormalization method, a theory is derived for vector electromagnetic wave propagation in a random medium with large permittivity fluctuations and with anisotropic correlation function. The strong fluctuation theory is then applied to a discrete scatterer problem in which the permittivity can assume only two values. The results are found to be consistent with those derived from discrete scatterer theory for all values of dielectric constants of the scatterers.

  19. Screening of Available Tools for Dynamic Mooring Analysis of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    The focus on alternative energy sources has increased significantly throughout the last few decades, leading to a considerable development in the wave energy sector. In spite of this, the sector cannot yet be considered commercialized, and many challenges still exist, in which mooring of floating...... wave energy converters is included. Different methods for assessment and design of mooring systems have been described by now, covering simple quasi-static analysis and more advanced and sophisticated dynamic analysis. Design standards for mooring systems already exist, and new ones are being developed...

  20. Design and Analysis of Tubular Permanent Magnet Linear Wave Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jikai Si


    Full Text Available Due to the lack of mature design program for the tubular permanent magnet linear wave generator (TPMLWG and poor sinusoidal characteristics of the air gap flux density for the traditional surface-mounted TPMLWG, a design method and a new secondary structure of TPMLWG are proposed. An equivalent mathematical model of TPMLWG is established to adopt the transformation relationship between the linear velocity of permanent magnet rotary generator and the operating speed of TPMLWG, to determine the structure parameters of the TPMLWG. The new secondary structure of the TPMLWG contains surface-mounted permanent magnets and the interior permanent magnets, which form a series-parallel hybrid magnetic circuit, and their reasonable structure parameters are designed to get the optimum pole-arc coefficient. The electromagnetic field and temperature field of TPMLWG are analyzed using finite element method. It can be included that the sinusoidal characteristics of air gap flux density of the new secondary structure TPMLWG are improved, the cogging force as well as mechanical vibration is reduced in the process of operation, and the stable temperature rise of generator meets the design requirements when adopting the new secondary structure of the TPMLWG.

  1. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas


    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, whi...

  2. Spectral analysis of intraocular pressure pulse wave in ocular hypertensive and primary open angle glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija M Bozic


    Full Text Available Context: In attempt to find an alternative way to determine conversion from ocular hypertension to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG (besides visual field and optic disc changes, we analyzed intraocular pressure (IOP pulse wave in spectral domain. Aims: The aim of this study was to test the potential differences in spectral content of IOP pulse wave between ocular hypertension and POAG patients, which could indicate conversion. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study designed to test the differences in the spectral content of pressure pulse wave between nontreated ocular hypertensive and nontreated, freshly diagnosed POAG patients. Methods: The total of 40 eyes of 40 subjects was included: 20 previously untreated ocular hypertensive patients, and 20 previously untreated POAG patients. Continuous IOP measuring gained by dynamic contour tonometry was submitted to fast Fourier transform signal analysis and further statistical data processing. Statistics Analysis Used: Ocular and systemic characteristics of the tested subjects were compared by analysis of variance appropriate for this study design. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Higher spectral components of the IOP pulse wave was discerned up to the fifth harmonic in both of the tested groups. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the tested harmonic amplitudes. Conclusions: There are no differences in the spectral content of IOP pulse wave between ocular hypertensive and primary open angle glaucoma patients which could be indicative for conversion.

  3. A Critical Analysis and Validation of the Accuracy of Wave Overtopping Prediction Formulae for OWECs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gallach-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The development of wave energy devices is growing in recent years. One type of device is the overtopping wave energy converter (OWEC, for which the knowledge of the wave overtopping rates is a basic and crucial aspect in their design. In particular, the most interesting range to study is for OWECs with steep slopes to vertical walls, and with very small freeboards and zero freeboards where the overtopping rate is maximized, and which can be generalized as steep low-crested structures. Recently, wave overtopping prediction formulae have been published for this type of structures, although their accuracy has not been fully assessed, as the overtopping data available in this range is scarce. We performed a critical analysis of the overtopping prediction formulae for steep low-crested structures and the validation of the accuracy of these formulae, based on new overtopping data for steep low-crested structures obtained at Ghent University. This paper summarizes the existing knowledge about average wave overtopping, describes the physical model tests performed, analyses the results and compares them to existing prediction formulae. The new dataset extends the wave overtopping data towards vertical walls and zero freeboard structures. In general, the new dataset validated the more recent overtopping formulae focused on steep slopes with small freeboards, although the formulae are underpredicting the average overtopping rates for very small and zero relative crest freeboards.

  4. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu


    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  5. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Jiang, Junhai; Guo, Shicheng; Xiong, Momiao


    Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA) from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis. PMID:26196383

  6. Functional Principal Component Analysis and Randomized Sparse Clustering Algorithm for Medical Image Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lin

    Full Text Available Due to the advancement in sensor technology, the growing large medical image data have the ability to visualize the anatomical changes in biological tissues. As a consequence, the medical images have the potential to enhance the diagnosis of disease, the prediction of clinical outcomes and the characterization of disease progression. But in the meantime, the growing data dimensions pose great methodological and computational challenges for the representation and selection of features in image cluster analysis. To address these challenges, we first extend the functional principal component analysis (FPCA from one dimension to two dimensions to fully capture the space variation of image the signals. The image signals contain a large number of redundant features which provide no additional information for clustering analysis. The widely used methods for removing the irrelevant features are sparse clustering algorithms using a lasso-type penalty to select the features. However, the accuracy of clustering using a lasso-type penalty depends on the selection of the penalty parameters and the threshold value. In practice, they are difficult to determine. Recently, randomized algorithms have received a great deal of attentions in big data analysis. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for accurate feature selection in image clustering analysis. The proposed method is applied to both the liver and kidney cancer histology image data from the TCGA database. The results demonstrate that the randomized feature selection method coupled with functional principal component analysis substantially outperforms the current sparse clustering algorithms in image cluster analysis.

  7. Analysis of wrinkled membrane structures based on a wrinkle-wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Liu


    Full Text Available As research on the applications of high-precision membrane structures develops, wrinkling has become a popular topic. Here, we present a new wrinkle-wave model to describe wrinkles more accurately. First, the characteristics of wrinkle-waves that result from radial tension stress applied at the vertex of a triangular structure were analyzed. However, for polygonal structures under more than two tensions, the influence of the other vertexes should also be considered. Therefore, by introducing a load ratio, we constructed a wrinkle-wave model of a square membrane structure subjected to corner forces. This model is applicable to various loading cases and polygonal membrane structures. Comparison among the results of the finite element analysis, and the experimental and analytical results showed that the proposed model more accurately described the wrinkling details and solved the problem of convergence that is encountered during finite element analysis.

  8. Analysis and classification of ECG-waves and rhythms using circular statistics and vector strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janßen Jan-Dirk


    Full Text Available The most common way to analyse heart rhythm is to calculate the RR-interval and the heart rate variability. For further evaluation, descriptive statistics are often used. Here we introduce a new and more natural heart rhythm analysis tool that is based on circular statistics and vector strength. Vector strength is a tool to measure the periodicity or lack of periodicity of a signal. We divide the signal into non-overlapping window segments and project the detected R-waves around the unit circle using the complex exponential function and the median RR-interval. In addition, we calculate the vector strength and apply circular statistics as wells as an angular histogram on the R-wave vectors. This approach enables an intuitive visualization and analysis of rhythmicity. Our results show that ECG-waves and rhythms can be easily visualized, analysed and classified by circular statistics and vector strength.

  9. Efficient randomized methods for stability analysis of fluids systems (United States)

    Dawson, Scott; Rowley, Clarence


    We show that probabilistic algorithms that have recently been developed for the approximation of large matrices can be utilized to numerically evaluate the properties of linear operators in fluids systems. In particular, we present an algorithm that is well suited for optimal transient growth (i.e., nonmodal stability) analysis. For non-normal systems, such analysis can be important for analyzing local regions of convective instability, and in identifying high-amplitude transients that can trigger nonlinear instabilities. Our proposed algorithms are easy to wrap around pre-existing timesteppers for linearized forward and adjoint equations, are highly parallelizable, and come with known error bounds. Furthermore, they allow for efficient computation of optimal growth modes for numerous time horizons simultaneously. We compare the proposed algorithm to both direct matrix-forming and Krylov subspace approaches on a number of test problems. We will additionally discuss the potential for randomized methods to assist more broadly in the speed-up of algorithms for analyzing both fluids data and operators. Supported by AFOSR Grant FA9550-14-1-0289.

  10. Statistical analysis of compressive low rank tomography with random measurements (United States)

    Acharya, Anirudh; Guţă, Mădălin


    We consider the statistical problem of ‘compressive’ estimation of low rank states (r\\ll d ) with random basis measurements, where r, d are the rank and dimension of the state respectively. We investigate whether for a fixed sample size N, the estimation error associated with a ‘compressive’ measurement setup is ‘close’ to that of the setting where a large number of bases are measured. We generalise and extend previous results, and show that the mean square error (MSE) associated with the Frobenius norm attains the optimal rate rd/N with only O(r log{d}) random basis measurements for all states. An important tool in the analysis is the concentration of the Fisher information matrix (FIM). We demonstrate that although a concentration of the MSE follows from a concentration of the FIM for most states, the FIM fails to concentrate for states with eigenvalues close to zero. We analyse this phenomenon in the case of a single qubit and demonstrate a concentration of the MSE about its optimal despite a lack of concentration of the FIM for states close to the boundary of the Bloch sphere. We also consider the estimation error in terms of a different metric-the quantum infidelity. We show that a concentration in the mean infidelity (MINF) does not exist uniformly over all states, highlighting the importance of loss function choice. Specifically, we show that for states that are nearly pure, the MINF scales as 1/\\sqrt{N} but the constant converges to zero as the number of settings is increased. This demonstrates a lack of ‘compressive’ recovery for nearly pure states in this metric.

  11. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform (United States)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.


    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  12. Numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore oscillating water column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davyt, D.P.; Teixeira, P.R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)], E-mail:; Ramalhais, R. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Didier, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail:


    The potential of wave energy along coastal areas is a particularly attractive option in regions of high latitude, such as the coasts of northern Europe, North America, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina where high densities of annual average wave energy are found (typically between 40 and 100 kW/m of wave front). Power estimated in the south of Brazil is 30kW/m, creating a possible alternative of source energy in the region. There are many types and designs of equipment to capture energy from waves under analysis, such as the oscillating water column type (OWC) which has been one of the first to be developed and installed at sea. Despite being one of the most analyzed wave energy converter devices, there are few case studies using numerical simulation. In this context, the numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore OWC is the main objective of this paper. The numerical models FLUINCO and FLUENT are used for achieving this goal. The FLUINCO model is based on RANS equations which are discretized using the two-step semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin method. An arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation is used to enable the solution of problems involving free surface movements. The FLUENT code (version 6.3.26) is based on the finite volume method to solve RANS equations. Volume of Fluid method (VOF) is used for modeling free surface flows. Time integration is achieved by a second order implicit scheme, momentum equations are discretized using MUSCL scheme and HRIC (High Resolution Interface Capturing) scheme is used for convective term of VOF transport equation. The case study consists of a 10.m deep channel with a 10 m wide chamber at its end. One meter high waves with different periods are simulated. Comparisons between FLUINCO and FLUENT results are presented. Free surface elevation inside the chamber; velocity distribution and streamlines; amplification factor (relation between wave height inside the chamber and incident wave height); phase angle (angular

  13. Wave intensity analysis of a computational model of the pulmonary circulation (United States)

    Hill, Nicholas A.; Qureshi, Muhammad Umar


    A multiscale computational model has been developed to predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary circulation, in which the flow and pressure in the smaller blood vessels are described using linearised equations in pairs of asymmetric structured trees joined at the roots. The geometric and elastic properties of all the blood vessels are described by physiological parameters. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to determine the geometry of the large pulmonary arteries and veins, and to measure the cardiac output from the right ventricle. The flow in the large blood vessels is solved using a Lax-Wendroff scheme, and the admittances of the structured trees provide the boundary conditions linking each large artery to its respective large vein. The results of simulating various pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment of circulatory diseases within the lung. We use wave intensity analysis to study the propagation of forward and backward, compression and decompression waves in our model. The approximations for the pulse wave velocity used in experiments on wave intensity analysis are assessed, and reflected waves lower the peak pressure in the right ventricle.

  14. Wave Dynamic Analysis of the Seismic Response of a Reinforced Concrete Building (United States)

    Astroza, Rodrigo; Saragoni, G. Rodolfo


    This paper evaluates the response of the seven-story instrumented building, Holiday Inn Hotel, during the 1994 Northridge earthquake through the wave propagation dynamic analysis. The building has been instrumented during other earthquakes, the most important of these was the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, where the building was located only 22 [km] from the epicenter and didn't showing structural damage. From the accelerograms analysis is detected the propagation of Rayleigh and soil waves in the building, where the first has a polarized particle motion on a vertical plane and the second has a coupled particle motion in the horizontal plane. Both waves impose their frequencies to the building response, whose fundamental frequency (1.4 [Hz] according to ambient vibration test) is less than the frequencies of the identified waves. Due to the impact that these observations have in the seismic design of buildings, as a first attempt, a simple method is proposed to estimate the drift produced by the propagation of a Rayleigh wave in buildings.

  15. Analysis of MMS observations of Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Magnetosheath (United States)

    Boardsen, S. A.; Vinas, A. F.; Gershman, D. J.; Dorelli, J.; Bellan, P. M.; Wendel, D. E.; Avanov, L. A.; Barrie, A. C.; Giles, B. L.; Moore, T. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Pollock, C.; Le, G.; Russell, C. T.; Fuselier, S. A.; Strangeway, R. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Burch, J. L.


    We will analyze magnetosheath ion cyclotron waves observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Spacecraft. One such event occurred on October 7, 2016, in which strong ion cyclotron waves were observed in the magnetosheath, near the bowshock, lasting for 1 hour. We will perform a detailed wave analysis of this and similar events, comparing and contrasting single spacecraft and multi-spacecraft analysis techniques. The later will consist of a) Balikhin's phase difference method, b) Bellan's k-spectral plasma current method, and c) k-Filtering multi-spacecraft technique. For the identified wave mode based on these techniques, the self-consistency between the ion/electron fluctuations and the electric and magnetic field fluctuations of these waves will be explored. No Fast Plasma Investigation burst mode data exists for these events, so trigger data, which is at the same temporal resolution as that of the burst mode will be used to compare the ion/electron fluctuations with that of the electric and magnetic fields

  16. Physics Structure Analysis of Parallel Waves Concept of Physics Teacher Candidate (United States)

    Sarwi, S.; Supardi, K. I.; Linuwih, S.


    The aim of this research was to find a parallel structure concept of wave physics and the factors that influence on the formation of parallel conceptions of physics teacher candidates. The method used qualitative research which types of cross-sectional design. These subjects were five of the third semester of basic physics and six of the fifth semester of wave course students. Data collection techniques used think aloud and written tests. Quantitative data were analysed with descriptive technique-percentage. The data analysis technique for belief and be aware of answers uses an explanatory analysis. Results of the research include: 1) the structure of the concept can be displayed through the illustration of a map containing the theoretical core, supplements the theory and phenomena that occur daily; 2) the trend of parallel conception of wave physics have been identified on the stationary waves, resonance of the sound and the propagation of transverse electromagnetic waves; 3) the influence on the parallel conception that reading textbooks less comprehensive and knowledge is partial understanding as forming the structure of the theory.

  17. Slow feature analysis on retinal waves leads to V1 complex cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dähne


    Full Text Available The developing visual system of many mammalian species is partially structured and organized even before the onset of vision. Spontaneous neural activity, which spreads in waves across the retina, has been suggested to play a major role in these prenatal structuring processes. Recently, it has been shown that when employing an efficient coding strategy, such as sparse coding, these retinal activity patterns lead to basis functions that resemble optimal stimuli of simple cells in primary visual cortex (V1. Here we present the results of applying a coding strategy that optimizes for temporal slowness, namely Slow Feature Analysis (SFA, to a biologically plausible model of retinal waves. Previously, SFA has been successfully applied to model parts of the visual system, most notably in reproducing a rich set of complex-cell features by training SFA with quasi-natural image sequences. In the present work, we obtain SFA units that share a number of properties with cortical complex-cells by training on simulated retinal waves. The emergence of two distinct properties of the SFA units (phase invariance and orientation tuning is thoroughly investigated via control experiments and mathematical analysis of the input-output functions found by SFA. The results support the idea that retinal waves share relevant temporal and spatial properties with natural visual input. Hence, retinal waves seem suitable training stimuli to learn invariances and thereby shape the developing early visual system such that it is best prepared for coding input from the natural world.

  18. Preliminary Analysis of an Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Controlled Geometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan; Lawson, Michael; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Wright, Alan


    The aim of this paper is to present a novel wave energy converter device concept that is being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The proposed concept combines an oscillating surge wave energy converter with active control surfaces. These active control surfaces allow for the device geometry to be altered, which leads to changes in the hydrodynamic properties. The device geometry will be controlled on a sea state time scale and combined with wave-to-wave power-take-off control to maximize power capture, increase capacity factor, and reduce design loads. The paper begins with a traditional linear frequency domain analysis of the device performance. Performance sensitivity to foil pitch angle, the number of activated foils, and foil cross section geometry is presented to illustrate the current design decisions; however, it is understood from previous studies that modeling of current oscillating wave energy converter designs requires the consideration of nonlinear hydrodynamics and viscous drag forces. In response, a nonlinear model is presented that highlights the shortcomings of the linear frequency domain analysis and increases the precision in predicted performance.

  19. Integrated optical NIR-evanescent wave absorbance sensorfor chemical analysis. (United States)

    Bürck, J; Zimmermann, B; Mayer, J; Ache, H J


    A new, long-path integrated optical (IO) sensor for the detection of non-polar organic substances is described. The sensing layer deposited on a planar multimode IO structure is built by a suitable silicone polymer with lower refractive index (RI). It acts as a hydrophobic matrix for the reversible enrichment of non-polar organic contaminants from water or air. Light from the near-infrared (NIR) range is coupled into the planar structure and the evanescent wave part of the light field penetrating into the silicone layer interacts with the enriched organic species. As a result, light is absorbed at the characteristic frequencies of the corresponding C-H, N-H or O-H overtone and combination band vibrations of the analytes. To perform evanescent field absorbance (EFA) measurements, the arc-shaped strip waveguide structure of 172 mm interaction length was adapted to a tungsten-halogen lamp and an InGaAs diode array spectrograph over gradient index fibers. Dimethyl-co-methly(phenyl)polysiloxanes with varying degrees of phenylation were prepared and used as sensitive coating materials for the IO structure. Light attenuation in the arc-shaped waveguides is high and typical insertion losses in the range of 14-18 dB were obtained. When the coated sensors were brought in contact with aqueous samples, the light transmission decreases, which is due to the formation of H(2)O micro-emulsions in the silicone superstrates. Nevertheless, after reaching constant light transmissions, absorbance spectra of aqueous trichloroethene samples were successfully collected. For gas measurements, where water cross sensitivity problems are absent, the sensitivity of the IO device for trichloroethene was tested as a function of the RI of the silicone superstrate. The slope of the TCE calibration function increases by a factor of 10 by using a poly(methylphenylsiloxane) layer with a RI of 1.449 instead of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (RI: 1.41). A comparison of the IO-EFA and an earlier developed fiber

  20. Finite-element based perturbation analysis of wave propagation in nonlinear periodic structures (United States)

    Manktelow, Kevin; Narisetti, Raj K.; Leamy, Michael J.; Ruzzene, Massimo


    Wave propagation in continuous, periodic structures subject to weak nonlinearities is studied using a finite-element discretization of a single unit cell followed by a perturbation analysis. The dispersion analysis is integrated with commercial finite-element analysis (FEA) software to expedite nonlinear analysis of geometrically-complex unit cells. A simple continuous multilayer system is used to illustrate the principle aspects of the procedure. A periodic structure formed by membrane elements on nonlinear elastic supports is used to demonstrate the versatility of the procedure. Weakly nonlinear band diagrams are generated in which amplitude-dependent bandgaps and group velocities are identified. The nonlinear dispersion analysis procedure described, coupled with commercial FEA software, should facilitate the study of wave propagation in a wide-variety of geometrically-complex, nonlinear periodic structures.

  1. Wave Data Processing and Analysis Tools for Developing Wave Boundary Forcing for CMS-Wave and GenCade Numerical Models: Part 1 (United States)


    execution of JP_WaveBin.m. The tool accepts input through a series of command prompt questions in order to determine the desired wave binning strategy... determining the percent occurrence of each binned event in each seasonal bin. The data input type is used to determine which columns in the data file signify...Report 25-12. Vicksburg, MS: US Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Lin, L., Z. Demirbilek, H. Mase , J. Zheng, and F. Yamada. 2008. CMS-Wave

  2. Time-frequency analysis of spike-wave discharges using a modified wavelet transform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosnyakova, D.Y.; Gabova, A.V.; Kuznetsova, G.D.; Obukhov, Y.; Midzyanovskaya, I.S.; Salonin, D.V.; Rijn, C.M. van; Coenen, A.M.L.; Tuomisto, L.M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van


    The continuous Morlet wavelet transform was used for the analysis of the time-frequency pattern of spike-wave discharges (SWD) as can be recorded in a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy (rats of the WAG/Rij strain). We developed a new wavelet transform that allows to obtain the time-frequency

  3. Using High Speed Smartphone Cameras and Video Analysis Techniques to Teach Mechanical Wave Physics (United States)

    Bonato, Jacopo; Gratton, Luigi M.; Onorato, Pasquale; Oss, Stefano


    We propose the use of smartphone-based slow-motion video analysis techniques as a valuable tool for investigating physics concepts ruling mechanical wave propagation. The simple experimental activities presented here, suitable for both high school and undergraduate students, allows one to measure, in a simple yet rigorous way, the speed of pulses…

  4. Electromagnetically-induced phase grating: a coupled-wave theory analysis. (United States)

    de Carvalho, Silvânia A; de Araujo, Luis E E


    We use a coupled-wave theory analysis to describe an atomic phase grating based on the giant Kerr nonlinearity of an atomic medium under electromagnetically induced transparency. An analytical expression is found for the diffraction efficiency of the grating. Efficiencies greater than 70% are predicted for incidence at the Bragg angle.

  5. Using Musical Intervals to Demonstrate Superposition of Waves and Fourier Analysis (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.


    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A partial-wave analysis of all ppBAR scattering data below 925 MeV/c antiproton laboratory momentum is presented. The method used is adapted from the Nijmegen phase-shift analyses of pp and np scattering data. We solve the Schrodinger equation for the coupled ppBAR and nnBAR channels where the long-

  7. Analysis of some parameters for random nodes in priority trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alois Panholzer


    Full Text Available Priority trees are a certain data structure used for priority queue administration. Under the model that all permutations of the numbers $1, dots, n$ are equally likely to construct a priority tree of size $n$ we study the following parameters in size-$n$ trees: depth of a random node, number of right edges to a random node, and number of descendants of a random node. For all parameters studied we give limiting distribution results.

  8. Random versus Deterministic Descent in RNA Energy Landscape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Day


    Full Text Available Identifying sets of metastable conformations is a major research topic in RNA energy landscape analysis, and recently several methods have been proposed for finding local minima in landscapes spawned by RNA secondary structures. An important and time-critical component of such methods is steepest, or gradient, descent in attraction basins of local minima. We analyse the speed-up achievable by randomised descent in attraction basins in the context of large sample sets where the size has an order of magnitude in the region of ~106. While the gain for each individual sample might be marginal, the overall run-time improvement can be significant. Moreover, for the two nongradient methods we analysed for partial energy landscapes induced by ten different RNA sequences, we obtained that the number of observed local minima is on average larger by 7.3% and 3.5%, respectively. The run-time improvement is approximately 16.6% and 6.8% on average over the ten partial energy landscapes. For the large sample size we selected for descent procedures, the coverage of local minima is very high up to energy values of the region where the samples were randomly selected from the partial energy landscapes; that is, the difference to the total set of local minima is mainly due to the upper area of the energy landscapes.

  9. Sequential methods for random-effects meta-analysis (United States)

    Higgins, Julian P T; Whitehead, Anne; Simmonds, Mark


    Although meta-analyses are typically viewed as retrospective activities, they are increasingly being applied prospectively to provide up-to-date evidence on specific research questions. When meta-analyses are updated account should be taken of the possibility of false-positive findings due to repeated significance tests. We discuss the use of sequential methods for meta-analyses that incorporate random effects to allow for heterogeneity across studies. We propose a method that uses an approximate semi-Bayes procedure to update evidence on the among-study variance, starting with an informative prior distribution that might be based on findings from previous meta-analyses. We compare our methods with other approaches, including the traditional method of cumulative meta-analysis, in a simulation study and observe that it has Type I and Type II error rates close to the nominal level. We illustrate the method using an example in the treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21472757

  10. A Novel Approach to Constrain Near-Surface Seismic Wave Speed Based on Polarization Analysis (United States)

    Park, S.; Ishii, M.


    Understanding the seismic responses of cities around the world is essential for the risk assessment of earthquake hazards. One of the important parameters is the elastic structure of the sites, in particular, near-surface seismic wave speed, that influences the level of ground shaking. Many methods have been developed to constrain the elastic structure of the populated sites or urban basins, and here, we introduce a new technique based on analyzing the polarization content or the three-dimensional particle motion of seismic phases arriving at the sites. Polarization analysis of three-component seismic data was widely used up to about two decades ago, to detect signals and identify different types of seismic arrivals. Today, we have good understanding of the expected polarization direction and ray parameter for seismic wave arrivals that are calculated based on a reference seismic model. The polarization of a given phase is also strongly sensitive to the elastic wave speed immediately beneath the station. This allows us to compare the observed and predicted polarization directions of incoming body waves and infer the near-surface wave speed. This approach is applied to High-Sensitivity Seismograph Network in Japan, where we benchmark the results against the well-log data that are available at most stations. There is a good agreement between our estimates of seismic wave speeds and those from well logs, confirming the efficacy of the new method. In most urban environments, where well logging is not a practical option for measuring the seismic wave speeds, this method can provide a reliable, non-invasive, and computationally inexpensive estimate of near-surface elastic properties.

  11. The Analysis of Random Effects in Modeling Studies. (United States)

    Scheirer, C. James; Geller, Sanford E.


    Argues that in research on the effects of modeling, models must be analyzed as a random factor in order to avoid a positive bias in the results. The concept of a random factor is discussed, worked examples are provided, and a practical solution to the problem is proposed. (JMB)

  12. Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave for Empirical Elastic Design of Anchored Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Chen


    Full Text Available Helical anchors are vital support components for power transmission lines. Failure of a single anchor can lead to the loss of an entire transmission line structure which results in the loss of power for downstream community. Despite being important, it is not practical to use conventional borehole method of subsurface exploration, which is labor intensive and costly, for estimating soil properties and anchor holding capacity. This paper describes the use of an empirical and elasticity-based design technique coupled with the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW technique to provide subsurface information for anchor foundation designs. Based on small-strain wave propagation, SASW determines shear wave velocity profile which is then correlated to anchor holding capacity. A pilot project involving over 400 anchor installations has been performed and demonstrated that such technique is reliable and can be implemented into transmission line structure designs.

  13. Characterization of a Continuous Wave Laser for Resonance Ionization Mass Spectroscopy Analysis in Nuclear Forensics (United States)


    OF A CONTINUOUS WAVE LASER FOR RESONANCE IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS by Sunny G. Lau June 2015 Thesis...IONIZATION MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS IN NUCLEAR FORENSICS 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Sunny G. Lau 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...200 words) The application of resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS) to nuclear forensics involves the use of lasers to selectively ionize

  14. Full-Wave Analysis Of MMICs Using A Generalized Yee Algorithm (United States)

    Lansing, Faiza S.; Gedney, Stephen D.; Rascoe, Daniel L.


    Improved method of temporal analysis of propagation of electro-magnetic waves in monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) implemented by generalized version of traditional Yee algorithm. Provides more accurate mathematical modeling for analysis and design of MMICs. Based on unstructured and otherwise irregular grids. Grids readily fitted to conductive and dielectric circuit elements having realistically complex three-dimensional shapes. Better for modeling important and geometrically complex phenomena like fringing fields.

  15. Design and Analysis for a Floating Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. H.; Li, Y.; Hallett, K.; Hotimsky, C.


    This paper presents a recent study on the design and analysis of an oscillating surge wave energy converter. A successful wave energy conversion design requires the balance between the design performance and cost. The cost of energy is often used as the metric to judge the design of the wave energy conversion system. It is often determined based on the device power performance, the cost for manufacturing, deployment, operation and maintenance, as well as the effort to ensure the environmental compliance. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of a cost driven design strategy and how it can affect a WEC design. Three oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) designs were used as the example. The power generation performance of the design was modeled using a time-domain numerical simulation tool, and the mass properties of the design were determined based on a simple structure analysis. The results of those power performance simulations, the structure analysis and a simple economic assessment were then used to determine the cost-efficiency of selected OSWEC designs. Finally, a discussion on the environmental barrier, integrated design strategy and the key areas that need further investigation is also presented.

  16. Automated T-wave analysis can differentiate acquired QT prolongation from congenital long QT syndrome. (United States)

    Sugrue, Alan; Noseworthy, Peter A; Kremen, Vaclav; Bos, J Martijn; Qiang, Bo; Rohatgi, Ram K; Sapir, Yehu; Attia, Zachi I; Brady, Peter; Caraballo, Pedro J; Asirvatham, Samuel J; Friedman, Paul A; Ackerman, Michael J


    Prolongation of the QT on the surface electrocardiogram can be due to either genetic or acquired causes. Distinguishing congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) from acquired QT prolongation has important prognostic and management implications. We aimed to investigate if quantitative T-wave analysis could provide a tool for the physician to differentiate between congenital and acquired QT prolongation. Patients were identified through an institution-wide computer-based QT screening system which alerts the physician if the QTc ≥ 500 ms. ECGs were retrospectively analyzed with an automated T-wave analysis program. Congenital LQTS was compared in a 1:3 ratio to those with an identified acquired etiology for QT prolongation (electrolyte abnormality and/or prescription of known QT prolongation medications). Linear discriminant analysis was performed using 10-fold cross-validation to statistically test the selected features. The 12-lead ECG of 38 patients with congenital LQTS and 114 patients with drug-induced and/or electrolyte-mediated QT prolongation were analyzed. In lead V5 , patients with acquired QT prolongation had a shallower T wave right slope (-2,322 vs. -3,593 mV/s), greater T-peak-Tend interval (109 vs. 92 ms), and smaller T wave center of gravity on the x axis (290 ms vs. 310 ms; p QT prolongation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Superstatistical analysis and modelling of heterogeneous random walks (United States)

    Metzner, Claus; Mark, Christoph; Steinwachs, Julian; Lautscham, Lena; Stadler, Franz; Fabry, Ben


    Stochastic time series are ubiquitous in nature. In particular, random walks with time-varying statistical properties are found in many scientific disciplines. Here we present a superstatistical approach to analyse and model such heterogeneous random walks. The time-dependent statistical parameters can be extracted from measured random walk trajectories with a Bayesian method of sequential inference. The distributions and correlations of these parameters reveal subtle features of the random process that are not captured by conventional measures, such as the mean-squared displacement or the step width distribution. We apply our new approach to migration trajectories of tumour cells in two and three dimensions, and demonstrate the superior ability of the superstatistical method to discriminate cell migration strategies in different environments. Finally, we show how the resulting insights can be used to design simple and meaningful models of the underlying random processes.

  18. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  19. An analysis of heat wave trends using heat index in East Malaysia (United States)

    Suparta, W.; Yatim, A. N. M.


    This paper aimed to investigate the heat wave trends in East Malaysia based on the National Weather Services (NWS) Heat Index. The heat index was calculated by using mean temperature and mean relative humidity on monthly basis for 5 meteorological stations in East Malaysia during the period 2008 to 2010. The trends for heat wave were estimated from Heat Index based on the least square regression analysis at each station level. Results showed that the heat wave trends are increasing at all stations. The highest heat index was occurred in Sandakan on July 2010 with heat index 35°C while the lowest heat index happened at Kuching in January 2009 with 27.3°C. From the heat wave observed, East Malaysia is still in caution categories or normal condition (27°C-32°C) and the extreme caution (32°C-41°C) was observed during southwest monsoon (May-July). The safety condition of heat waves in East Malaysia is possibly due to weak to moderate El Nino occurred during the period of observation.

  20. Interferometric analysis of laser-driven cylindrically focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer. (United States)

    Veysset, David; Мaznev, Alexei A; Pezeril, Thomas; Kooi, Steven; Nelson, Keith A


    Shock waves in condensed matter are of great importance for many areas of science and technology ranging from inertially confined fusion to planetary science and medicine. In laboratory studies of shock waves, there is a need in developing diagnostic techniques capable of measuring parameters of materials under shock with high spatial resolution. Here, time-resolved interferometric imaging is used to study laser-driven focusing shock waves in a thin liquid layer in an all-optical experiment. Shock waves are generated in a 10 µm-thick layer of water by focusing intense picosecond laser pulses into a ring of 95 µm radius. Using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and time-delayed femtosecond laser pulses, we obtain a series of images tracing the shock wave as it converges at the center of the ring before reemerging as a diverging shock, resulting in the formation of a cavitation bubble. Through quantitative analysis of the interferograms, density profiles of shocked samples are extracted. The experimental geometry used in our study opens prospects for spatially resolved spectroscopic studies of materials under shock compression.

  1. Experimental analysis and prediction of antisymmetric wave motion in a tapered anisotropic waveguide. (United States)

    Moll, Jochen; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Radzienski, Maciej; Opoka, Szymon; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw


    This paper presents experimental results for wave propagation in an anisotropic multilayered structure with linearly varying cross section. Knowing the dispersion and wave propagation properties in such a structure is of great importance for non-destructive material testing and structural health monitoring applications for accurate damage detection and localization. In the proposed study, the wavefield is generated by a circular piezoelectric wafer active sensor and measured by a scanning laser-Doppler-vibrometer. The measurements are compared with a theoretical group delay estimation and a signal prediction for the antisymmetric wave motion along the non-uniform propagation path. The required dispersion curves are derived from the well-known global matrix method for segments of constant thickness. A multidimensional frequency-wavenumber analysis of linescan data and the full wavefield provides further insight of the adiabatic wave motion because the wavenumber changes along the tapered geometry of the waveguide. In addition, it is demonstrated that a terahertz time-domain system can be used in glass-fiber reinforced plastic structures as a tool to estimate the thickness profile of thin structures by means of time-of-flight measurements. This information is particularly important for guided wave-based diagnostics of structures with unknown thickness.

  2. Analysis of Longitudinal Waves in Rod-Type Piezoelectric Phononic Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfei Li


    Full Text Available Phononic crystals can be used to control elastic waves due to their frequency bands. This paper analyzes the passive and active control as well as the dispersion properties of longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals over large frequency ranges. Based on the Love rod theory for modeling the longitudinal wave motions in the constituent rods and the method of reverberation-ray matrix (MRRM for deriving the member transfer matrices of the constituent rods, a modified transfer matrix method (MTMM is proposed for the analysis of dispersion curves by combining with the Floquet–Bloch principle and for the calculation of transmission spectra. Numerical examples are provided to validate the proposed MTMM for analyzing the band structures in both low and high frequency ranges. The passive control of longitudinal-wave band structures is studied by discussing the influences of the electrode’s thickness, the Poisson’s effect and the elastic rod inserts in the unit cell. The influences of electrical boundaries (including electric-open, applied electric capacity, electric-short and applied feedback control conditions on the band structures are investigated to illustrate the active control scheme. From the calculated comprehensive frequency spectra over a large frequency range, the dispersion properties of the characteristic longitudinal waves in rod-type piezoelectric phononic crystals are summarized.

  3. Born reflection kernel analysis and wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion in elastic media

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tengfei


    Elastic reflection waveform inversion (ERWI) utilize the reflections to update the low and intermediate wavenumbers in the deeper part of model. However, ERWI suffers from the cycle-skipping problem due to the objective function of waveform residual. Since traveltime information relates to the background model more linearly, we use the traveltime residuals as objective function to update background velocity model using wave equation reflected traveltime inversion (WERTI). The reflection kernel analysis shows that mode decomposition can suppress the artifacts in gradient calculation. We design a two-step inversion strategy, in which PP reflections are firstly used to invert P wave velocity (Vp), followed by S wave velocity (Vs) inversion with PS reflections. P/S separation of multi-component seismograms and spatial wave mode decomposition can reduce the nonlinearity of inversion effectively by selecting suitable P or S wave subsets for hierarchical inversion. Numerical example of Sigsbee2A model validates the effectiveness of the algorithms and strategies for elastic WERTI (E-WERTI).

  4. An analysis of short pulse and dual frequency radar techniques for measuring ocean wave spectra from satellites (United States)

    Jackson, F. C.


    Scanning beam microwave radars were used to measure ocean wave directional spectra from satellites. In principle, surface wave spectral resolution in wave number can be obtained using either short pulse (SP) or dual frequency (DF) techniques; in either case, directional resolution obtains naturally as a consequence of a Bragg-like wave front matching. A four frequency moment characterization of backscatter from the near vertical using physical optics in the high frequency limit was applied to an analysis of the SP and DF measurement techniques. The intrinsic electromagnetic modulation spectrum was to the first order in wave steepness proportional to the large wave directional slope spectrum. Harmonic distortion was small and was a minimum near 10 deg incidence. NonGaussian wave statistics can have an effect comparable to that in the second order of scattering from a normally distributed sea surface. The SP technique is superior to the DF technique in terms of measurement signal to noise ratio and contrast ratio.

  5. EM wave propagation analysis in plasma covered radar absorbing material

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Rawat, Harish Singh


    This book focuses on EM propagation characteristics within multilayered plasma-dielectric-metallic media. The method used for analysis is impedance transformation method. Plasma covered radar absorbing material is approximated as a multi-layered dielectric medium. The plasma is considered to be bounded homogeneous/inhomogeneous medium. The reflection coefficient and hence return loss is analytically derived. The role of plasma parameters, such as electron density, collision frequency, plasma thickness, and plasma density profile in the absorption behavior of multi-layered plasma-RAM structure is described. This book provides a clearer picture of EM propagation within plasma. The reader will get an insight of plasma parameters that play significant role in deciding the absorption characteristics of plasma covered surfaces.

  6. Advanced spectral analysis of ionospheric waves observed with sparse arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Helmboldt, Joseph


    This paper presents a case study from a single, six-hour observing period to illustrate the application of techniques developed for interferometric radio telescopes to the spectral analysis of observations of ionospheric fluctuations with sparse arrays. We have adapted the deconvolution methods used for making high dynamic range images of cosmic sources with radio arrays to making comparably high dynamic range maps of spectral power of wavelike ionospheric phenomena. In the example presented here, we have used observations of the total electron content (TEC) gradient derived from Very Large Array (VLA) observations of synchrotron emission from two galaxy clusters at 330 MHz as well as GPS-based TEC measurements from a sparse array of 33 receivers located within New Mexico near the VLA. We show that these techniques provide a significant improvement in signal to noise (S/N) of detected wavelike structures by correcting for both measurement inaccuracies and wavefront distortions. This is especially true for the...

  7. Survey of the Frequency Dependent Latitudinal Distribution of the Fast Magnetosonic Wave Mode from Van Allen Probes Electric and Magnetic Field Instrument and Integrated Science Waveform Receiver Plasma Wave Analysis (United States)

    Boardsen, Scott A.; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kletzing, Craig A.; Engebretson, Mark J.; Pfaff, Robert F.; Wygant, John R.; Kurth, William S.; Averkamp, Terrance F.; Bounds, Scott R.; Green, Jim L.; hide


    We present a statistical survey of the latitudinal structure of the fast magnetosonic wave mode detected by the Van Allen Probes spanning the time interval of 21 September 2012 to 1 August 2014. We show that statistically, the latitudinal occurrence of the wave frequency (f) normalized by the local proton cyclotron frequency (f(sub cP)) has a distinct funnel-shaped appearance in latitude about the magnetic equator similar to that found in case studies. By comparing the observed E/B ratios with the model E/B ratio, using the observed plasma density and background magnetic field magnitude as input to the model E/B ratio, we show that this mode is consistent with the extra-ordinary (whistler) mode at wave normal angles (theta(sub k)) near 90 deg. Performing polarization analysis on synthetic waveforms composed from a superposition of extra-ordinary mode plane waves with theta(sub k) randomly chosen between 87 and 90 deg, we show that the uncertainty in the derived wave normal is substantially broadened, with a tail extending down to theta(sub k) of 60 deg, suggesting that another approach is necessary to estimate the true distribution of theta(sub k). We find that the histograms of the synthetically derived ellipticities and theta(sub k) are consistent with the observations of ellipticities and theta(sub k) derived using polarization analysis.We make estimates of the median equatorial theta(sub k) by comparing observed and model ray tracing frequency-dependent probability occurrence with latitude and give preliminary frequency dependent estimates of the equatorial theta(sub k) distribution around noon and 4 R(sub E), with the median of approximately 4 to 7 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 2 and dropping to approximately 0.5 deg from 90 deg at f/f(sub cP) = 30. The occurrence of waves in this mode peaks around noon near the equator at all radial distances, and we find that the overall intensity of these waves increases with AE*, similar to findings of other studies.

  8. Toward the detection of gravitational waves under non-Gaussian noises II. Independent component analysis. (United States)

    Morisaki, Soichiro; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi; Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke


    We introduce a new analysis method to deal with stationary non-Gaussian noises in gravitational wave detectors in terms of the independent component analysis. First, we consider the simplest case where the detector outputs are linear combinations of the inputs, consisting of signals and various noises, and show that this method may be helpful to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Next, we take into account the time delay between the inputs and the outputs. Finally, we extend our method to nonlinearly correlated noises and show that our method can identify the coupling coefficients and remove non-Gaussian noises. Although we focus on gravitational wave data analysis, our methods are applicable to the detection of any signals under non-Gaussian noises.

  9. Gravitational-Wave Data Analysis. Formalism and Sample Applications: The Gaussian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jaranowski


    Full Text Available The article reviews the statistical theory of signal detection in application to analysis of deterministic gravitational-wave signals in the noise of a detector. Statistical foundations for the theory of signal detection and parameter estimation are presented. Several tools needed for both theoretical evaluation of the optimal data analysis methods and for their practical implementation are introduced. They include optimal signal-to-noise ratio, Fisher matrix, false alarm and detection probabilities, ℱ-statistic, template placement, and fitting factor. These tools apply to the case of signals buried in a stationary and Gaussian noise. Algorithms to efficiently implement the optimal data analysis techniques are discussed. Formulas are given for a general gravitational-wave signal that includes as special cases most of the deterministic signals of interest.

  10. Gravitational-Wave Data Analysis. Formalism and Sample Applications: The Gaussian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Królak Andrzej


    Full Text Available The article reviews the statistical theory of signal detection in application to analysis of deterministic gravitational-wave signals in the noise of a detector. Statistical foundations for the theory of signal detection and parameter estimation are presented. Several tools needed for both theoretical evaluation of the optimal data analysis methods and for their practical implementation are introduced. They include optimal signal-to-noise ratio, Fisher matrix, false alarm and detection probabilities, F-statistic, template placement, and fitting factor. These tools apply to the case of signals buried in a stationary and Gaussian noise. Algorithms to efficiently implement the optimal data analysis techniques are discussed. Formulas are given for a general gravitational-wave signal that includes as special cases most of the deterministic signals of interest.

  11. Impact of galactic foreground characterization on a global analysis for the LISA gravitational wave observatory (United States)

    Robson, Travis; Cornish, Neil


    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will explore the source-rich milli-Hertz band of the gravitational wave spectrum. In contrast to ground based detectors, where typical signals are short-lived and discrete, LISA signals are typically long-lived and over-lapping, thus requiring a global data analysis solution that is very different to the source-by-source analysis that has been developed for ground based gravitational wave astronomy. Across the LISA band, gravitational waves are both signals and noise. The dominant contribution to this so-called confusion noise (better termed unresolved signal noise) is expected to come from short period galactic white dwarf binaries, but all sources, including massive black hole binaries and extreme mass ratio captures will also contribute. Previous estimates for the galactic confusion noise have assumed perfect signal subtraction. Here we provide analytic estimates for the signal subtraction residuals and the impact they have on parameter estimation while for the first time incorporating the effects of noise modeling. The analytic estimates are found using a maximum likelihood approximation to the full global Bayesian analysis. We find that while the confusion noise is lowered in the global analysis, the waveform errors for individual sources are increased relative to estimates for isolated signals. We provide estimates for how parameter estimation errors are inflated from various parts of a global analysis.

  12. Superresolution Imaging Using Resonant Multiples and Plane-wave Migration Velocity Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Bowen


    Seismic imaging is a technique that uses seismic echoes to map and detect underground geological structures. The conventional seismic image has the resolution limit of λ/2, where λ is the wavelength associated with the seismic waves propagating in the subsurface. To exceed this resolution limit, this thesis develops a new imaging method using resonant multiples, which produces superresolution images with twice or even more the spatial resolution compared to the conventional primary reflection image. A resonant multiple is defined as a seismic reflection that revisits the same subsurface location along coincident reflection raypath. This reverberated raypath is the reason for superresolution imaging because it increases the differences in reflection times associated with subtle changes in the spatial location of the reflector. For the practical implementation of superresolution imaging, I develop a post-stack migration technique that first enhances the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of resonant multiples by a moveout-correction stacking method, and then migrates the post-stacked resonant multiples with the associated Kirchhoff or wave-equation migration formula. I show with synthetic and field data examples that the first-order resonant multiple image has about twice the spatial resolution compared to the primary reflection image. Besides resolution, the correct estimate of the subsurface velocity is crucial for determining the correct depth of reflectors. Towards this goal, wave-equation migration velocity analysis (WEMVA) is an image-domain method which inverts for the velocity model that maximizes the similarity of common image gathers (CIGs). Conventional WEMVA based on subsurface-offset, angle domain or time-lag CIGs requires significant computational and memory resources because it computes higher dimensional migration images in the extended image domain. To mitigate this problem, I present a new WEMVA method using plane-wave CIGs. Plane-wave CIGs reduce the

  13. Recurrence Quantification Analysis of F-Waves and the Evaluation of Neuropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris A. Fisher


    Full Text Available Electrodiagnostic (EDX patterns of neuropathic dysfunction have been based on axonal/demyelinating criteria requiring prior assumptions. This has not produced classifications of desired sensitivity or specificity. Furthermore, standard nerve conduction studies have limited reproducibility. New methodologies in EDX seem important. Recurrent Quantification Analysis (RQA is a nonlinear method for examining patterns of recurrence. RQA might provide a unique method for the EDX evaluation of neuropathies. RQA was used to analyze F-wave recordings from the abductor hallucis muscle in 61 patients with neuropathies. Twenty-nine of these patients had diabetes as the sole cause of their neuropathies. In the other 32 patients, the etiologies of the neuropathies were diverse. Commonly used EDX variables were also recorded. RQA data could separate the 29 patients with diabetic neuropathies from the other 32 patients (P<0.009. Statistically significant differences in two EDX variables were also present: compound muscle action potential amplitudes (P<0.007 and F-wave persistence (P<0.001. RQA analysis of F-waves seemed able to distinguish diabetic neuropathies from the other neuropathies studied, and this separation was associated with specific physiological abnormalities. This study would therefore support the idea that RQA of F-waves can distinguish between types of neuropathic dysfunction based on EDX data alone without prior assumptions.

  14. Wave based analysis of the Green's function for a layered cylindrical shell. (United States)

    Magliula, Elizabeth A; McDaniel, J Gregory


    Cylindrical shells composed of concentric layers may be designed to affect the way that elastic waves are generated and propagated, particularly when some layers are anisotropic. To aid the design process, the present work develops a wave based analysis of the Green's function for a layered cylindrical shell in which the response is given as a sum of waves propagating in the axial coordinate. The analysis assumes linear Hookean materials for each layer. It uses finite element discretizations in the radial coordinate and Fourier series expansions in the circumferential coordinate, leading to linear equations in the axial wavenumber domain that relate shell displacements and forces. Inversion to the axial domain is accomplished via a state-space formulation that is evaluated using residue integration. The resulting expression for the Green's function for each circumferential harmonic is a summation over the natural waves of the shell. The finite element discretization in the radial direction allows the approach to be used for arbitrarily thick shells. The approach is benchmarked to results from an isotropic shell and numerical examples are given for a shell composed of a fiber-reinforced material. The numerical examples illustrate the effect of fiber orientation on the Green's function.

  15. Biomimetic Bacterial Identification Platform Based on Thermal Wave Transport Analysis (TWTA) through Surface-Imprinted Polymers. (United States)

    Steen Redeker, Erik; Eersels, Kasper; Akkermans, Onno; Royakkers, Jeroen; Dyson, Simba; Nurekeyeva, Kunya; Ferrando, Beniamino; Cornelis, Peter; Peeters, Marloes; Wagner, Patrick; Diliën, Hanne; van Grinsven, Bart; Cleij, Thomas Jan


    This paper introduces a novel bacterial identification assay based on thermal wave analysis through surface-imprinted polymers (SIPs). Aluminum chips are coated with SIPs, serving as synthetic cell receptors that have been combined previously with the heat-transfer method (HTM) for the selective detection of bacteria. In this work, the concept of bacterial identification is extended toward the detection of nine different bacterial species. In addition, a novel sensing approach, thermal wave transport analysis (TWTA), is introduced, which analyzes the propagation of a thermal wave through a functional interface. The results presented here demonstrate that bacterial rebinding to the SIP layer resulted in a measurable phase shift in the propagated wave, which is most pronounced at a frequency of 0.03 Hz. In this way, the sensor is able to selectively distinguish between the different bacterial species used in this study. Furthermore, a dose-response curve was constructed to determine a limit of detection of 1 × 104 CFU mL-1, indicating that TWTA is advantageous over HTM in terms of sensitivity and response time. Additionally, the limit of selectivity of the sensor was tested in a mixed bacterial solution, containing the target species in the presence of a 99-fold excess of competitor species. Finally, a first application for the sensor in terms of infection diagnosis is presented, revealing that the platform is able to detect bacteria in clinically relevant concentrations as low as 3 × 104 CFU mL-1 in spiked urine samples.

  16. Analysis of entropy extraction efficiencies in random number generation systems (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Wei; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Zheng-Fu


    Random numbers (RNs) have applications in many areas: lottery games, gambling, computer simulation, and, most importantly, cryptography [N. Gisin et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 74 (2002) 145]. In cryptography theory, the theoretical security of the system calls for high quality RNs. Therefore, developing methods for producing unpredictable RNs with adequate speed is an attractive topic. Early on, despite the lack of theoretical support, pseudo RNs generated by algorithmic methods performed well and satisfied reasonable statistical requirements. However, as implemented, those pseudorandom sequences were completely determined by mathematical formulas and initial seeds, which cannot introduce extra entropy or information. In these cases, “random” bits are generated that are not at all random. Physical random number generators (RNGs), which, in contrast to algorithmic methods, are based on unpredictable physical random phenomena, have attracted considerable research interest. However, the way that we extract random bits from those physical entropy sources has a large influence on the efficiency and performance of the system. In this manuscript, we will review and discuss several randomness extraction schemes that are based on radiation or photon arrival times. We analyze the robustness, post-processing requirements and, in particular, the extraction efficiency of those methods to aid in the construction of efficient, compact and robust physical RNG systems.

  17. Plasma Waves Observed in the Cusp Turbulent Boundary Layer: An Analysis of High Time Resolution Wave and Particle Measurements from the Polar Spacecraft (United States)

    Pickett, J. S.; Franz, J. R.; Scudder, J. D.; Menietti, J. D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Braunger, R. M.; Kintner, P. M.; Kurth, W. S.


    The boundary layer located in the cusp and adjacent to the magnetopause is a region that is quite turbulent and abundant with waves. The Polar spacecraft's orbit and sophisticated instrumentation are ideal for studying this region of space. Our analysis of the waveform data obtained in this turbulent boundary layer shows broadband magnetic noise extending up to a few kilohertz (but less than the electron cyclotron frequency); sinusoidal bursts (a few tenths of a second) of whistler mode waves at around a few tens of hertz, a few hundreds of hertz, and just below the electron cyclotron frequency; and bipolar pulses, interpreted as electron phase-space holes. In addition, bursts of electron cyclotron harmonic waves are occasionally observed with magnetic components. We show evidence of broadband electrostatic bursts covering a range of approx. 3 to approx. 25 kHz (near but less than the plasma frequency) occurring in packets modulated at the frequency of some of the whistler mode waves. On the basis of high time resolution particle data from the Polar HYDRA instrument, we show that these bursts are consistent with generation by the resistive medium instability. The most likely source of the whistler mode waves is the magnetic reconnection site closest to the spacecraft, since the waves are observed propagating both toward and away from the Earth, are bursty, which is often the case with reconnection, and do not fit on the theoretical cold plasma dispersion relation curve.

  18. Time-Frequency-Wavenumber Analysis of Surface Waves Using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (United States)

    Poggi, V.; Fäh, D.; Giardini, D.


    A modified approach to surface wave dispersion analysis using active sources is proposed. The method is based on continuous recordings, and uses the continuous wavelet transform to analyze the phase velocity dispersion of surface waves. This gives the possibility to accurately localize the phase information in time, and to isolate the most significant contribution of the surface waves. To extract the dispersion information, then, a hybrid technique is applied to the narrowband filtered seismic recordings. The technique combines the flexibility of the slant stack method in identifying waves that propagate in space and time, with the resolution of f- k approaches. This is particularly beneficial for higher mode identification in cases of high noise levels. To process the continuous wavelet transform, a new mother wavelet is presented and compared to the classical and widely used Morlet type. The proposed wavelet is obtained from a raised-cosine envelope function (Hanning type). The proposed approach is particularly suitable when using continuous recordings (e.g., from seismological-like equipment) since it does not require any hardware-based source triggering. This can be subsequently done with the proposed method. Estimation of the surface wave phase delay is performed in the frequency domain by means of a covariance matrix averaging procedure over successive wave field excitations. Thus, no record stacking is necessary in the time domain and a large number of consecutive shots can be used. This leads to a certain simplification of the field procedures. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the method, we tested it on synthetics as well on real field data. For the real case we also combine dispersion curves from ambient vibrations and active measurements.

  19. Shear-wave velocity of slope sediments near Hudson Canyon from analysis of ambient noise (United States)

    Miller, N. C.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Collins, J. A.; McGuire, J. J.; Flores, C. H.


    We present new ambient noise data that help constrain the shear strength of marine sediments on the continental slope north of Hudson Canyon on the U.S. Atlantic margin. Sediment shear strength is a key parameter in models of potentially tsunamigenic, submarine slope failures, but shear strength is difficult to measure in situ and is expected to evolve in time with changes in pore pressure. The ambient noise data were recorded by 11 short-period, ocean-bottom seismometers and hydrophones deployed in a ~1 by 1.5 km array for ~6 months on the continental slope. These high frequency (~0.1 - 50 Hz), narrow-aperture data are expected to record noise propagating as interface waves and/or resonating in the upper ~500 m of sediment. Propagation of interface waves is controlled by the shear-wave velocity of the sediment, which we measure by calculating lag-times in cross-correlations of waveforms recorded by pairs of receivers. These measurements of shear-wave velocity will be used to constrain shear strength. The data also appear to record wind-generated noise resonating in layered sediment. We expect this resonance to also be sensitive to shear-wave velocity, and spectral analysis and modeling of harmonics may provide a second constraint on sediment shear strength. Both the correlogram- and spectral-based measurements can be made using hour- to day-long segments of data, enabling us to constrain temporal evolution of shear-wave velocity and potential forcing mechanisms (e.g., tidal and storm loading and submarine groundwater discharge) through the ~6 month deployment.

  20. Nonstandard Analysis and Shock Wave Jump Conditions in a One-Dimensional Compressible Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy S. Baty, F. Farassat, John A. Hargreaves


    Nonstandard analysis is a relatively new area of mathematics in which infinitesimal numbers can be defined and manipulated rigorously like real numbers. This report presents a fairly comprehensive tutorial on nonstandard analysis for physicists and engineers with many examples applicable to generalized functions. To demonstrate the power of the subject, the problem of shock wave jump conditions is studied for a one-dimensional compressible gas. It is assumed that the shock thickness occurs on an infinitesimal interval and the jump functions in the thermodynamic and fluid dynamic parameters occur smoothly across this interval. To use conservations laws, smooth pre-distributions of the Dirac delta measure are applied whose supports are contained within the shock thickness. Furthermore, smooth pre-distributions of the Heaviside function are applied which vary from zero to one across the shock wave. It is shown that if the equations of motion are expressed in nonconservative form then the relationships between the jump functions for the flow parameters may be found unambiguously. The analysis yields the classical Rankine-Hugoniot jump conditions for an inviscid shock wave. Moreover, non-monotonic entropy jump conditions are obtained for both inviscid and viscous flows. The report shows that products of generalized functions may be defined consistently using nonstandard analysis; however, physically meaningful products of generalized functions must be determined from the physics of the problem and not the mathematical form of the governing equations.

  1. The relevance of the whitecapping term in wave forecasting. An analysis for the wave period of the Catalan coast. (United States)

    Pallares, Elena; Espino, Manuel; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín


    The Catalan Coast is located in the North Western Mediterranean Sea. It is a region with highly heterogeneous wind and wave conditions, characterized by a microtidal environment, and economically very dependent from the sea and the coastal zone activities. Because some of the main coastal conflicts and management problems occur within a few kilometers of the land-ocean boundary, the level of resolution and accuracy from meteo-oceanographic predictions required is not currently available. The current work is focused on improving high resolution wave forecasting very near the coast. The SWAN wave model is used to simulate the waves in the area, and various buoy data and field campaigns are used to validate the results. The simulations are structured in four different domains covering all the North Western Mediterranean Sea, with a grid resolution from 9 km to 250 meters in coastal areas. Previous results show that the significant wave height is almost always underpredicted in this area, and the underprediction is higher during storm events. However, the error in the peak period and the mean period is almost always constantly under predicted with a bias between one and two seconds, plus some residual error. This systematic error represents 40% of the total error. To improve the initial results, the whiteccaping dissipation term is studied and modified. In the SWAN model, the whitecapping is mainly controlled by the steepness of the waves. Although the by default parameter is not depending on the wave number, there is a new formulation in the last SWAN version (40.81) to include it in the calculations. Previous investigations show that adjusting the dependence for the wave number improved the predictions for the wave energy at lower frequencies, solving the underprediction of the period mentioned before. In the present work different simulations are developed to calibrate the new formulation, obtaining important improvements in the results. For the significant wave

  2. Gravitational waves: search results, data analysis and parameter estimation: Amaldi 10 Parallel session C2. (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michał; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Robinet, Florent; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory; Veitch, John; Wade, Madeline; Aoudia, Sofiane; Bose, Sukanta; Calderon Bustillo, Juan; Canizares, Priscilla; Capano, Colin; Clark, James; Colla, Alberto; Cuoco, Elena; Da Silva Costa, Carlos; Dal Canton, Tito; Evangelista, Edgar; Goetz, Evan; Gupta, Anuradha; Hannam, Mark; Keitel, David; Lackey, Benjamin; Logue, Joshua; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan; Piergiovanni, Francesco; Privitera, Stephen; Prix, Reinhard; Pürrer, Michael; Re, Virginia; Serafinelli, Roberto; Wade, Leslie; Wen, Linqing; Wette, Karl; Whelan, John; Palomba, C; Prodi, G

    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave (GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  3. Gravitational Waves: Search Results, Data Analysis and Parameter Estimation. Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 (United States)

    Astone, Pia; Weinstein, Alan; Agathos, Michalis; Bejger, Michal; Christensen, Nelson; Dent, Thomas; Graff, Philip; Klimenko, Sergey; Mazzolo, Giulio; Nishizawa, Atsushi


    The Amaldi 10 Parallel Session C2 on gravitational wave(GW) search results, data analysis and parameter estimation included three lively sessions of lectures by 13 presenters, and 34 posters. The talks and posters covered a huge range of material, including results and analysis techniques for ground-based GW detectors, targeting anticipated signals from different astrophysical sources: compact binary inspiral, merger and ringdown; GW bursts from intermediate mass binary black hole mergers, cosmic string cusps, core-collapse supernovae, and other unmodeled sources; continuous waves from spinning neutron stars; and a stochastic GW background. There was considerable emphasis on Bayesian techniques for estimating the parameters of coalescing compact binary systems from the gravitational waveforms extracted from the data from the advanced detector network. This included methods to distinguish deviations of the signals from what is expected in the context of General Relativity.

  4. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao


    Full Text Available The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibration transfer path systems was provided. The transfer reliability of vibration transfer path system with uncertain path parameters including path mass and path stiffness was analyzed theoretically and computed numerically, and the correlated mathematical expressions were derived. Thus, it provides the theoretical foundation for the dynamic design of vibration systems in practical project, so that most random path parameters can be considered to solve the random problems for vibration transfer path systems, which can avoid the system resonance failure.

  5. Analysis of the depth of field of integral imaging displays based on wave optics


    Luo, Cheng-Gao; Xiao, Xiao; Martínez Corral, Manuel; Chen, Chih-Wei; Javidi, Bahram; Wang, Qiong-Hua


    In this paper, we analyze the depth of field (DOF) of integral imaging displays based on wave optics. With considering the diffraction effect, we analyze the intensity distribution of light with multiple microlenses and derive a DOF calculation formula for integral imaging display system. We study the variations of DOF values with different system parameters. Experimental results are provided to verify the accuracy of the theoretical analysis. The analyses and experimental results presented i...

  6. Wave Concept Iterative Procedure Analysis of Patch Antennas on Nanostructured Ceramic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Silva Neto


    Full Text Available The wave concept iterative procedure (WCIP is proposed to analyze rectangular and circular patch antennas on nanostructured ceramic substrates. Principles of WCIP are described and advantages are emphasized. The analysis of microstrip antennas on double layered substrates is performed in space and spectral domains. In addition, Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT is used to improve the efficiency of the method. WCIP simulated results are compared to HFSS software ones. A good agreement is observed.

  7. Geo-Spatial Multi-criteria Analysis for Wave Energy System Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Ana; Pacheco, Miguel (Instituto Hidrografico, Rua das Trinas, 49, Lisboa (PT)); Jorge, Raquel Lopes, M. F. P.; Gato, L. M. C. (IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa (PT))


    The growing requirements for renewable energy production lead to the development of a new series of systems, including wave energy conversion systems. Due to their sensitivity and the impact of the aggressive marine environment, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a major and very important task. Several factors, such as technological limitations, environmental conditions, administrative and logistic conditions, have to be taken into account in order to support the decision for best location. This paper describes a geo-spatial multi-criteria analysis methodology, based on geographic information systems technology, for selection of the best location to deploy a wave energy farm. This methodology is not conversion system dependent and therefore can be easily customized for different systems and conditions. Selection factors can include, for example, ocean depth, bottom type, underwater cables, marine protected areas, ports location, shoreline, power grid location, military exercise areas, climatology of wave significant height, period and direction. A case study demonstrating this methodology is presented, for an area offshore the Portuguese southwest coast. The system output allows a clear identification of the best spots for a wave energy farm. It is not just a simple Boolean result showing valid and invalid locations, but a layer with a graded suitability for farm deployment.

  8. Geo-spatial multi-criteria analysis for wave energy conversion system deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobre, Ana; Pacheco, Miguel [Data Centre, Instituto Hidrografico, Portuguese Navy, Rua das Trinas 49, 1249-093 Lisboa (Portugal); Jorge, Raquel; Lopes, M.F.P.; Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001, Lisboa (Portugal)


    The growing requirements for renewable energy production lead to the development of a new series of systems, including wave energy conversion systems. Due to their sensitivity and the impact of the aggressive marine environment, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a major and very important task. Several factors, such as technological limitations, environmental conditions, administrative and logistic conditions, have to be taken into account in order to support the decision for best location. This paper describes a geo-spatial multi-criteria analysis methodology, based on geographic information systems technology, for identification of the best location to deploy a wave energy farm. This methodology is not conversion system dependent and therefore can be easily customized for different systems and implementation conditions. Selection factors can include, for example, ocean depth, sea bottom type, existing underwater cables, marine protected areas, ports location, shoreline, power grid location, military exercise areas, climatology of wave significant height, period and power. A case study demonstrating this methodology is presented, for an area offshore the Portuguese southwest coast. The system output allows a clear differential identification of the best spots for implementing a wave energy farm. It is not just a simple Boolean result showing valid and invalid locations, but a layer with a valued suitability for farm deployment. (author)

  9. Model-independent partial wave analysis using a massively-parallel fitting framework (United States)

    Sun, L.; Aoude, R.; dos Reis, A. C.; Sokoloff, M.


    The functionality of GooFit, a GPU-friendly framework for doing maximum-likelihood fits, has been extended to extract model-independent {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes in three-body decays such as D + → h + h + h ‑. A full amplitude analysis is done where the magnitudes and phases of the {\\mathscr{S}}-wave amplitudes are anchored at a finite number of m 2(h + h ‑) control points, and a cubic spline is used to interpolate between these points. The amplitudes for {\\mathscr{P}}-wave and {\\mathscr{D}}-wave intermediate states are modeled as spin-dependent Breit-Wigner resonances. GooFit uses the Thrust library, with a CUDA backend for NVIDIA GPUs and an OpenMP backend for threads with conventional CPUs. Performance on a variety of platforms is compared. Executing on systems with GPUs is typically a few hundred times faster than executing the same algorithm on a single CPU.

  10. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a storm surge and wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bastidas


    Full Text Available Development and simulation of synthetic hurricane tracks is a common methodology used to estimate hurricane hazards in the absence of empirical coastal surge and wave observations. Such methods typically rely on numerical models to translate stochastically generated hurricane wind and pressure forcing into coastal surge and wave estimates. The model output uncertainty associated with selection of appropriate model parameters must therefore be addressed. The computational overburden of probabilistic surge hazard estimates is exacerbated by the high dimensionality of numerical surge and wave models. We present a model parameter sensitivity analysis of the Delft3D model for the simulation of hazards posed by Hurricane Bob (1991 utilizing three theoretical wind distributions (NWS23, modified Rankine, and Holland. The sensitive model parameters (of 11 total considered include wind drag, the depth-induced breaking γB, and the bottom roughness. Several parameters show no sensitivity (threshold depth, eddy viscosity, wave triad parameters, and depth-induced breaking αB and can therefore be excluded to reduce the computational overburden of probabilistic surge hazard estimates. The sensitive model parameters also demonstrate a large number of interactions between parameters and a nonlinear model response. While model outputs showed sensitivity to several parameters, the ability of these parameters to act as tuning parameters for calibration is somewhat limited as proper model calibration is strongly reliant on accurate wind and pressure forcing data. A comparison of the model performance with forcings from the different wind models is also presented.

  11. Transverse plane wave analysis of short elliptical chamber mufflers: An analytical approach (United States)

    Mimani, A.; Munjal, M. L.


    Short elliptical chamber mufflers are used often in the modern day automotive exhaust systems. The acoustic analysis of such short chamber mufflers is facilitated by considering a transverse plane wave propagation model along the major axis up to the low frequency limit. The one dimensional differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation in such short chambers is solved using the segmentation approaches which are inherently numerical schemes, wherein the transfer matrix relating the upstream state variables to the downstream variables is obtained. Analytical solution of the transverse plane wave model used to analyze such short chambers has not been reported in the literature so far. This present work is thus an attempt to fill up this lacuna, whereby Frobenius solution of the differential equation governing the transverse plane wave propagation is obtained. By taking a sufficient number of terms of the infinite series, an approximate analytical solution so obtained shows good convergence up to about 1300 Hz and also covers most of the range of muffler dimensions used in practice. The transmission loss (TL) performance of the muffler configurations computed by this analytical approach agrees excellently with that computed by the Matrizant approach used earlier by the authors, thereby offering a faster and more elegant alternate method to analyze short elliptical muffler configurations.

  12. Angle-domain Migration Velocity Analysis using Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong


    The main difficulty with an iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in a local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. This is because the waveform misfit function is highly non-linear with respect to changes in the velocity model. To reduce this nonlinearity, we present a reflection traveltime tomography method based on the wave equation which enjoys a more quasi-linear relationship between the model and the data. A local crosscorrelation of the windowed downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the image point yields the lag time that maximizes the correlation. This lag time represents the reflection traveltime residual that is back-projected into the earth model to update the velocity in the same way as wave-equation transmission traveltime inversion. The residual movemout analysis in the angle-domain common image gathers provides a robust estimate of the depth residual which is converted to the reflection traveltime residual for the velocity inversion. We present numerical examples to demonstrate its efficiency in inverting seismic data for complex velocity model.

  13. Millimeter-Wave Thermal Analysis Development and Application to GEN IV Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wosko, Paul; Sundram, S. K.


    New millimeter-wave thermal analysis instrumentation has been developed and studied for characterization of materials required for diverse fuel and structural needs in high temperature reactor environments such as the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). A two-receiver 137 GHz system with orthogonal polarizations for anisotropic resolution of material properties has been implemented at MIT. The system was tested with graphite and silicon carbide specimens at temperatures up to 1300 ºC inside an electric furnace. The analytic and hardware basis for active millimeter-wave radiometry of reactor materials at high temperature has been established. Real-time, non contact measurement sensitivity to anisotropic surface emissivity and submillimeter surface displacement was demonstrated. The 137 GHz emissivity of reactor grade graphite (NBG17) from SGL Group was found to be low, ~ 5 %, in the 500 – 1200 °C range and increases by a factor of 2 to 4 with small linear grooves simulating fracturing. The low graphite emissivity would make millimeter-wave active radiometry a sensitive diagnostic of graphite changes due to environmentally induced stress fracturing, swelling, or corrosion. The silicon carbide tested from Ortek, Inc. was found to have a much higher emissivity at 137 GHz of ~90% Thin coatings of silicon carbide on reactor grade graphite supplied by SGL Group were found to be mostly transparent to millimeter-waves, increasing the 137 GHz emissivity of the coated reactor grade graphite to about ~14% at 1250 ºC.

  14. A nonlinear analysis of the terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ke, E-mail:; Cao, Miaomiao, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Electronics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Wenxin, E-mail:; Wang, Yong, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of High Power Microwave Sources and Technologies, Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    A nonlinear model for the numerical simulation of terahertz serpentine waveguide traveling-wave tube (SW-TWT) is described. In this model, the electromagnetic wave transmission in the SW is represented as an infinite set of space harmonics to interact with an electron beam. Analytical expressions for axial electric fields in axisymmetric interaction gaps of SW-TWTs are derived and compared with the results from CST simulation. The continuous beam is treated as discrete macro-particles with different initial phases. The beam-tunnel field equations, space-charge field equations, and motion equations are combined to solve the beam-wave interaction. The influence of backward wave and relativistic effect is also considered in the series of equations. The nonlinear model is used to design a 340 GHz SW-TWT. Several favorable comparisons of model predictions with results from a 3-D Particle-in-cell simulation code CHIPIC are presented, in which the output power versus beam voltage and interaction periods are illustrated. The relative error of the predicted output power is less than 15% in the 3 dB bandwidth and the relative error of the saturated length is less than 8%.The results show that the 1-D nonlinear analysis model is appropriate to solve the terahertz SW-TWT operation characteristics.

  15. Influence of second-order random wave kinematics on the design loads of offshore wind turbine support structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natarajan, Anand


    The impact of wave model nonlinearities on the design loads of wind turbine monopile foundations is delineated based on a second-order nonlinear randomwave model that satisfies the boundary conditions at the free surface and by including the effects of convective acceleration in the inertial load...

  16. Shear-wave velocity structure of young Atlantic Lithosphere from dispersion analysis and waveform modelling of Rayleigh waves (United States)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Lange, Dietrich; Schippkus, Sven


    The lithosphere is the outermost solid layer of the Earth and includes the brittle curst and brittle uppermost mantle. It is underlain by the asthenosphere, the weaker and hotter portion of the mantle. The boundary between the brittle lithosphere and the asthenosphere is call the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, or LAB. The oceanic lithosphere is created at spreading ridges and cools and thickens with age. Seismologists define the LAB by the presence of a low shear wave velocity zone beneath a high velocity lid. Surface waves from earthquakes occurring in young oceanic lithosphere should sample lithospheric structure when being recorded in the vicinity of a mid-ocean ridge. Here, we study group velocity and dispersion of Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes occurring at transform faults in the Central Atlantic Ocean. Earthquakes were recorded either by a network of wide-band (up to 60 s) ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) deployed at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge near 15°N or at the Global Seismic Network (GSN) Station ASCN on Ascension Island. Surface waves sampling young Atlantic lithosphere indicate systematic age-dependent changes of group velocities and dispersion of Rayleigh waves. With increasing plate age maximum group velocity increases (as a function of period), indicating cooling and thickening of the lithosphere. Shear wave velocity is derived inverting the observed dispersion of Rayleigh waves. Further, models derived from the OBS records were refined using waveform modelling of vertical component broadband data at periods of 15 to 40 seconds, constraining the velocity structure of the uppermost 100 km and hence in the depth interval of the mantle where lithospheric cooling is most evident. Waveform modelling supports that the thickness of lithosphere increases with age and that velocities in the lithosphere increase, too.

  17. Multicriteria analysis to evaluate wave energy converters based on their environmental impact: an Italian case study (United States)

    Azzellino, Arianna; Contestabile, Pasquale; Lanfredi, Caterina; Vicinanza, Diego


    The exploitation of renewable energy resources is fast becoming a key objective in many countries. Countries with coastlines have particularly valuable renewable energy resources in the form of tides, currents, waves and offshore wind. Due to the visual impact of siting large numbers of energy generating devices (eg. wind turbines) in terrestrial landscapes, considerable attention is now being directed towards coastal waters. Due to their environmental sensitivity, the selection of the most adequate location for these systems is a critical factor. Multi-criteria analysis allows to consider a wide variety of key characteristics (e.g. water depth, distance to shore, distance to the electric grid in land, geology, environmental impact) that may be converted into a numerical index of suitability for different WEC devices to different locations. So identifying the best alternative between an offshore or a onshore device may be specifically treated as a multicriteria problem. Special enphasisi should be given in the multicriteria analysis to the environmental impact issues. The wave energy prospective in the Italian seas is relatively low if compared to the other European countries faced to the ocean. Based on the wave climate, the Alghero site, (NW Sardinia, Italy) is one of the most interesting sites for the wave energy perspective (about 10 kW/m). Alghero site is characterized by a high level of marine biodiversity. In 2002 the area northern to Alghero harbour (Capo Caccia-Isola Piana) was established a Marine Protected Area (MPA). It could be discussed for this site how to choose between the onshore/offshore WEC alternative. An offshore device like Wave Dragon ( installed at -65m depth (width=300m and length=170 m) may approximately produce about 3.6 GWh/y with a total cost of about 9,000,000 €. On the other hand, an onshore device like SSG (, employed as crown wall for a vertical breakwater to enlarge the present

  18. Software package for analysis of completely randomized block design

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is to design and develop statistical software (package), OYSP1.0 which conveniently accommodates and analyzes large mass of data emanating from experimental designs, in particular, completely Randomized Block design. Visual Basic programming is used in the design. The statistical package OYSP 1.0 ...

  19. Random issues in workspace analysis for a mobile robot (United States)

    Stǎnescu, Tony; Dolga, Valer; Mondoc, Alina


    Evolution of the mobile robot is currently characterized by multiple applications in dynamic workspaces and low initial knowledge. In this paper presents aspects of approaching random processes of evolution of a mobile robot in an unstructured environment . The experimental results are used for modeling an infrared sensor (integrated in the mobile robot structure) and to assess the probability of locating obstacles in the environment.

  20. Buffalos milk yield analysis using random regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Schierholt


    Full Text Available Data comprising 1,719 milk yield records from 357 females (predominantly Murrah breed, daughters of 110 sires, with births from 1974 to 2004, obtained from the Programa de Melhoramento Genético de Bubalinos (PROMEBUL and from records of EMBRAPA Amazônia Oriental - EAO herd, located in Belém, Pará, Brazil, were used to compare random regression models for estimating variance components and predicting breeding values of the sires. The data were analyzed by different models using the Legendre’s polynomial functions from second to fourth orders. The random regression models included the effects of herd-year, month of parity date of the control; regression coefficients for age of females (in order to describe the fixed part of the lactation curve and random regression coefficients related to the direct genetic and permanent environment effects. The comparisons among the models were based on the Akaike Infromation Criterion. The random effects regression model using third order Legendre’s polynomials with four classes of the environmental effect were the one that best described the additive genetic variation in milk yield. The heritability estimates varied from 0.08 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between milk yields in younger ages was close to the unit, but in older ages it was low.

  1. Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF

  2. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW) framework (United States)

    Kozarev, Kamen A.; Davey, Alisdair; Kendrick, Alexander; Hammer, Michael; Keith, Celeste


    Coronal bright fronts (CBF) are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light) as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW). It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs). The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  3. Insights into performance of pattern search algorithms for high-frequency surface wave analysis (United States)

    Song, Xianhai; Li, Duanyou; Gu, Hanming; Liao, Yonglong; Ren, Dachun


    Inversion of high-frequency surface wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this paper, we implemented an investigation to fully exploit and utilize the potentiality of pattern search algorithms and to further enhance their performance for surface wave analysis. We first investigate effects of different inversion strategies, initial mesh size and final mesh size, expansion factor, and contraction factor, as well as inclusion of noise in surface wave data on the performance of the approaches, by three synthetic earth models. Then, a comparative analysis with genetic algorithms is made to further highlight the advantages of the proposed inverse procedure. Finally, the insights issued from this analysis are verified by a real-world example from Henan, China. Results from both synthetic and field data demonstrate: (a) generalized pattern search (GPS) algorithm with the maximal positive basis set 2 N vectors works better than GPS algorithm with the minimal positive basis set N+1 vectors; (b) if one gets a suitable initial mesh size by taking some experimentation, then setting expansion factor Λ=1 (i.e., not allow expansions) and contraction factor θ=1/2 can greatly enhance the performance of pattern search algorithms. This is particularly true as the algorithm converges and final mesh size should go to zero; and (c) pattern search algorithms possess stronger immunity with respect to noise and should be considered good not only in terms of accuracy but also in terms of computation effort, especially when compared to the application of genetic algorithms to Rayleigh wave inversion.

  4. Functional connectivity between brain areas estimated by analysis of gamma waves. (United States)

    Kheiri, Farshad; Bragin, Anatol; Engel, Jerome


    The goal of this study is to investigate functional connectivity between different brain regions by analyzing the temporal relationship of the maxima of gamma waves recorded in multiple brain areas. Local field potentials were recorded from motor cortex, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and piriform cortex of rats. Gamma activity was filtered and separated into two bands; high (65-90Hz) and low (30-55Hz) gamma. Maxima for gamma activity waves were detected and functional connectivity between different brain regions was determined using Shannon entropy for perievent histograms for each pair channels. Significant Shannon entropy values were reported as connectivity factors. We defined a connectivity matrix based the connectivity factors between different regions. We found that maxima of low and high frequency gamma occur in strong temporal relationship between some brain areas, indicating the existence of functional connections between these areas. The spatial pattern of functional connections between brain areas was different for slow wave sleep and waking states. However for each behavioral state in the same animal the pattern of functional connections was stable over time within 30min of continuous analysis and over a 5 day period. With the same electrode montage the pattern of functional connectivity varied from one subject to another. Analysis of the temporal relationship of maxima of gamma waves between various brain areas could be a useful tool for investigation of functional connections between these brain areas. This approach could be applied for analysis of functional alterations occurring in these connections during different behavioral tasks and during processes related to learning and memory. The specificity in the connectivity pattern from one subject to another can be explained by the existence of unique functional networks for each subject. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Coronal Analysis of SHocks and Waves (CASHeW framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozarev Kamen A.


    Full Text Available Coronal bright fronts (CBF are large-scale wavelike disturbances in the solar corona, related to solar eruptions. They are observed (mostly in extreme ultraviolet (EUV light as transient bright fronts of finite width, propagating away from the eruption source location. Recent studies of individual solar eruptive events have used EUV observations of CBFs and metric radio type II burst observations to show the intimate connection between waves in the low corona and coronal mass ejection (CME-driven shocks. EUV imaging with the atmospheric imaging assembly instrument on the solar dynamics observatory has proven particularly useful for detecting large-scale short-lived CBFs, which, combined with radio and in situ observations, holds great promise for early CME-driven shock characterization capability. This characterization can further be automated, and related to models of particle acceleration to produce estimates of particle fluxes in the corona and in the near Earth environment early in events. We present a framework for the coronal analysis of shocks and waves (CASHeW. It combines analysis of NASA Heliophysics System Observatory data products and relevant data-driven models, into an automated system for the characterization of off-limb coronal waves and shocks and the evaluation of their capability to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs. The system utilizes EUV observations and models written in the interactive data language. In addition, it leverages analysis tools from the SolarSoft package of libraries, as well as third party libraries. We have tested the CASHeW framework on a representative list of coronal bright front events. Here we present its features, as well as initial results. With this framework, we hope to contribute to the overall understanding of coronal shock waves, their importance for energetic particle acceleration, as well as to the better ability to forecast SEP events fluxes.

  6. The physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Georgi, Howard


    The first complete introduction to waves and wave phenomena by a renowned theorist. Covers damping, forced oscillations and resonance; normal modes; symmetries; traveling waves; signals and Fourier analysis; polarization; diffraction.

  7. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design


    Radu E. SESTRAŞ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ


    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  8. A Lower-hybrid/Fast-wave package for the TRANSP transport analysis code (United States)

    Jobes, F. C.; Ignat, D. W.; McCune, D. C.


    A software package is being added to the TRANSP code which will permit analysis of tokamak plasmas with either lower hybrid current drive or fast wave heating or current drive. The package is a outgrowth of the LSC (Lower Hybrid Simulation) code(Ignat, D. W. et al.), Nucl. Fusion 34 837 (1994). used in conjunction with TSC (Tokamak Simulation Code)(Jardin, S. C. et al.), J. Comput. Phys. 66 481 (1986). The fastwave analysis was added to LSC, and and that combined package then adapted to TRANSP usage.

  9. Analysis framework for the prompt discovery of compact binary mergers in gravitational-wave data (United States)

    Messick, Cody; Blackburn, Kent; Brady, Patrick; Brockill, Patrick; Cannon, Kipp; Cariou, Romain; Caudill, Sarah; Chamberlin, Sydney J.; Creighton, Jolien D. E.; Everett, Ryan; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew; Lang, Ryan N.; Li, Tjonnie G. F.; Meacher, Duncan; Nielsen, Alex; Pankow, Chris; Privitera, Stephen; Qi, Hong; Sachdev, Surabhi; Sadeghian, Laleh; Singer, Leo; Thomas, E. Gareth; Wade, Leslie; Wade, Madeline; Weinstein, Alan; Wiesner, Karsten


    We describe a stream-based analysis pipeline to detect gravitational waves from the merger of binary neutron stars, binary black holes, and neutron-star-black-hole binaries within ˜1 min of the arrival of the merger signal at Earth. Such low-latency detection is crucial for the prompt response by electromagnetic facilities in order to observe any fading electromagnetic counterparts that might be produced by mergers involving at least one neutron star. Even for systems expected not to produce counterparts, low-latency analysis of the data is useful for deciding when not to point telescopes, and as feedback to observatory operations. Analysts using this pipeline were the first to identify GW151226, the second gravitational-wave event ever detected. The pipeline also operates in an offline mode, in which it incorporates more refined information about data quality and employs acausal methods that are inapplicable to the online mode. The pipeline's offline mode was used in the detection of the first two gravitational-wave events, GW150914 and GW151226, as well as the identification of a third candidate, LVT151012.

  10. The numerical analysis of general SAW and leaky wave devices using approximate Green's function representations. (United States)

    Peach, Robert C


    The Green's function or boundary element method (BEM) is the best available technique for rigorous surface acoustic wave (SAW) device analysis. However, its computational cost usually means that it cannot be applied directly to devices with complex, nonperiodic electrode structures. In this paper, approximate forms for the Green's function are employed. They are based on rigorous representations, they can represent the Green's function to any required degree of accuracy, and they can be applied to any type of substrate and acoustic wave. The use of this type of approximation for practical device analysis is considered, and computational procedures are presented that can exploit the special approximate Green's function structure. It is shown that highly efficient computational algorithms can be constructed, in which the computational effort increases linearly with the number of electrodes in the device. These methods can be applied to any type of device structure, and they do not require any empirically derived parameters. The practical application of the methods is illustrated by examples of longitudinally coupled resonator filter (LCRF) designs implemented using leaky wave cuts of lithium tantalate. Agreement between theory and experiment is excellent, even for devices of this complexity.

  11. Random matrix analysis for gene interaction networks in cancer cells

    CERN Document Server

    Kikkawa, Ayumi


    Motivation: The investigation of topological modifications of the gene interaction networks in cancer cells is essential for understanding the desease. We study gene interaction networks in various human cancer cells with the random matrix theory. This study is based on the Cancer Network Galaxy (TCNG) database which is the repository of huge gene interactions inferred by Bayesian network algorithms from 256 microarray experimental data downloaded from NCBI GEO. The original GEO data are provided by the high-throughput microarray expression experiments on various human cancer cells. We apply the random matrix theory to the computationally inferred gene interaction networks in TCNG in order to detect the universality in the topology of the gene interaction networks in cancer cells. Results: We found the universal behavior in almost one half of the 256 gene interaction networks in TCNG. The distribution of nearest neighbor level spacing of the gene interaction matrix becomes the Wigner distribution when the net...

  12. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune


    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data fro the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e. g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... is investigated by assuming that the response level of the bridge is dependent on the mass of the vehicle load. The eigenfrequencies of the bridge is estimated as a function of the response level. This indicates the degree of influence of the mass load on the estimated eigenfrequencies. The results...

  13. Random Decrement and Regression Analysis of Traffic Responses of Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Ibrahim, S. R.; Brincker, Rune

    The topic of this paper is the estimation of modal parameters from ambient data by applying the Random Decrement technique. The data from the Queensborough Bridge over the Fraser River in Vancouver, Canada have been applied. The loads producing the dynamic response are ambient, e.g. wind, traffic...... and small ground motion. The Random Decrement technique is used to estimate the correlation function or the free decays from the ambient data. From these functions, the modal parameters are extracted using the Ibrahim Time Domain method. The possible influence of the traffic mass load on the bridge...... is investigated by assuming that the response level of the bridge is dependent on the mass of the vehicle load. The eigenfrequencies of the bridge are estimated as a function of the response level. This indicates the degree of influence of the mass load on the estimated eigenfrequencies. The results...

  14. Analysis of optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Cao, Xiaoguang


    The turbulence effect models derived with the Rytov theory method cannot be applied in the analysis of moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. In this work, new expressions of the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations are derived theoretically for optical waves propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are developed under Andrews' assumption that small-scale irradiance fluctuations are modulated by large-scale irradiance fluctuations of the optical wave. A wide range of turbulence strength is considered instead of a limited range for weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. These expressions have general spectral power law values in the range 3 to 4 instead of the standard power law value of 11/3 for Kolmogorov turbulence. Calculations are performed to analyze turbulence strength and turbulence spectral power law's variations on the final expressions.

  15. Reliability Analysis of Random Vibration Transmission Path Systems


    Wei Zhao; Yi-Min Zhang


    The vibration transmission path systems are generally composed of the vibration source, the vibration transfer path, and the vibration receiving structure. The transfer path is the medium of the vibration transmission. Moreover, the randomness of transfer path influences the transfer reliability greatly. In this paper, based on the matrix calculus, the generalized second moment technique, and the stochastic finite element theory, the effective approach for the transfer reliability of vibratio...

  16. Analysis of Secret Key Randomness Exploiting the Radio Channel Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghrid Mazloum


    Full Text Available A few years ago, physical layer based techniques have started to be considered as a way to improve security in wireless communications. A well known problem is the management of ciphering keys, both regarding the generation and distribution of these keys. A way to alleviate such difficulties is to use a common source of randomness for the legitimate terminals, not accessible to an eavesdropper. This is the case of the fading propagation channel, when exact or approximate reciprocity applies. Although this principle has been known for long, not so many works have evaluated the effect of radio channel properties in practical environments on the degree of randomness of the generated keys. To this end, we here investigate indoor radio channel measurements in different environments and settings at either 2.4625 GHz or 5.4 GHz band, of particular interest for WIFI related standards. Key bits are extracted by quantizing the complex channel coefficients and their randomness is evaluated using the NIST test suite. We then look at the impact of the carrier frequency, the channel variability in the space, time, and frequency degrees of freedom used to construct a long secret key, in relation to the nature of the radio environment such as the LOS/NLOS character.

  17. Issues of terrorism on the internet in the wave of democratization of post-reform Indonesia: A semiotic analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aceng Ruhendi Saifullah


    .... This study sought to dismantle the controversy of meanings through the analysis of signs and meanings, with a view to explore and demonstrate the wave of democratization that took place in post-reform era in Indonesia...

  18. Screening of Available Tools for Dynamic Mooring Analysis of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Bjerg Thomsen


    Full Text Available The focus on alternative energy sources has increased significantly throughout the last few decades, leading to a considerable development in the wave energy sector. In spite of this, the sector cannot yet be considered commercialized, and many challenges still exist, in which mooring of floating wave energy converters is included. Different methods for assessment and design of mooring systems have been described by now, covering simple quasi-static analysis and more advanced and sophisticated dynamic analysis. Design standards for mooring systems already exist, and new ones are being developed specifically forwave energy converter moorings, which results in other requirements to the chosen tools, since these often have been aimed at other offshore sectors. The present analysis assesses a number of relevant commercial software packages for full dynamic mooring analysis in order to highlight the advantages and drawbacks. The focus of the assessment is to ensure that the software packages are capable of fulfilling the requirements of modeling, as defined in design standards and thereby ensuring that the analysis can be used to get a certified mooring system. Based on the initial assessment, the two software packages DeepC and OrcaFlex are found to best suit the requirements. They are therefore used in a case study in order to evaluate motion and mooring load response, and the results are compared in order to provide guidelines for which software package to choose. In the present study, the OrcaFlex code was found to satisfy all requirements.

  19. Eigenvalues analysis for EM waves in anisotropic materials and its applications for unidirectional transmission and unidirectional invisibility (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohu; Jin, Can; Fu, Ceji


    We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the eigenvalues for propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in anisotropic materials. The analysis can be employed to judge the characteristics of the eigenvalues for EM waves in anisotropic materials. Taking the advantage of the non-opposite eigenvalues, we show that unidirectional transmission and unidirectional invisibility can be realized with a slab of natural anisotropic material. Our results in this work may provide important guidelines for design of novel devices of unidirectional transmission or unidirectional invisibility.

  20. Understanding the role of Whistler waves at the Bow shock of Earth: MMS observations and dispersion analysis (United States)

    Wei, H.; Russell, C.; Schwartz, S. J.; An, X.; Strangeway, R. J.


    Abundant wave activity is generated at the bow shock of the Earth, that plays an important role in heating the electrons and ions and dissipating the excess energy of supercritical shocks. The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecrafts, with their state-of-the-art plasma and field instruments onboard, allow us to study these waves and better understand the role they play at the bow shock. We have find broad-band waves up to the electron cyclotron frequency across the shock ramp and slightly downstream of it, with large propagation angles with respect to the background magnetic field direction. Simultaneously, the electrons have quite disturbed velocities and are anisotropic in velocity space. In the same region, narrow-band waves at a few hundred Hertz are also observed with durations under a second. These waves are right-handed circularly polarized and propagate along the magnetic field lines. Both wave types are likely to be whistler mode, probably associated with electron streams in the shock ramp. We perform wave analysis of the magnetic and electric fields observed by MMS and carry out dispersion analysis with the guidance of the plasma observations to understand the wave generation and their effects on the shock and magnetosheath plasmas.

  1. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the reduction of post stroke spasticity: review article and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Azimpour


    Methods: All primary reports of spasticity indexed in PubMed, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus and search engine of Google Scholar from January 2000 to December 2016 were searched. The following terms were used as keywords: Spasticity, muscle hypertonicity, ESWT, stroke and hemiplegia. Any report was included if it met the following criteria: involving clinical trials, full-version availability, and being written in english. Two reviewers selected articles independently and reviewed the studies considering quality and eligibility, and then they extracted general information on objectives, design, participants, and outcomes. The methodologic quality of each study was assessed using the Pedro Scale. In the statistical analyses, we considered two outcomes; Modified Ashworth scale (MAS grade and passive rang of movement (PROM. The meta-analysis was done using random effect model in Stata, version 11 (Stata Corp., TX, USA. Results: Eleven studies within a total of 261 patients were included in this review. In seven studies the shock waves were applied to the upper limb muscles, and in four other studies, the effects of ESWT on the spasticity of the lower limb muscles were assessed. Immediately after applying the ESW, MAS grade was significantly decreased in comparison to the baseline values. (Standardized mean difference [SMD], -1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.2 to -1.04. The PROM was significantly increased immediately after ESWT in comparison to the baseline values (SMD, 3.23; CI 95%, 1.35 to 5.12. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ESWT can immediately improve the spasticity and increased PROM, but it seems that the mechanism of action of shock waves on spasticity is still unclear. Further clinical trial studies with higher methodological quality should be recommended.

  2. Analysis of Random Drop for Gateway Congestion Control (United States)


    tcp- 1 2b PAPAYA PANANA berE. TUTAH- G W utah-Link 177 12a User Za U= lb ep-12& trp-2- WP-1b U PPRnk2 &fficns IQYd GUAVA sw-link SACmGW TJ. 2b Uzer 7b...yield more efficient overall behavior. The chapter concludes with a comparison of the performance of Random Drop to that of No Gateway Policy congestion...share of the available buffers, any of its packets that leaves the bottleneck will be shortly replaced by a new data packet. On the other hand, the second

  3. Random Fatigue Analysis of Drill-Strings in Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng JiaHao


    Full Text Available Predicting fatigue damage induced by vibrations is of benefit to oil and gas industry. In this paper a spectral method is developed to estimate the damage of vibration, including both deterministic and random vibration, on the fatigue life of drillstrings. The drill-string is first modeled by the continuous parameter method with two vibration modes: axial and torsional. After the vibration response is obtained, the equivalent stress spectra are calculated for any position along the drill-string, based on maximum shear stress fatigue failure criterion. The fatigue life of the drill-string at arbitrary position is then estimated by the developed spectral methods

  4. Approximate Green's function representations for the analysis of SAW and leaky wave devices. (United States)

    Peach, Robert C


    The Green's function or boundary element method (BEM) is the preferred technique for rigorous SAW device analysis. However, because of its computational cost, its principal application is the analysis of mode propagation in periodic structures to determine parameters that can then be used in simplified coupling of modes (COM) or P-matrix models. In this paper, rigorous representations are derived that express the Green's function in terms of a continuous superposition of modes. The derivations include detailed analysis of the Green's function properties as a function of both frequency and wavenumber, and representations are obtained for both the slowness and spatial domains. Approximate forms are then generated by replacing the continuous mode superposition by a discrete one. The Green's function can be approximated to any required degree of accuracy, and the resulting approximations are applicable to any type of wave on any type of substrate. The long-range spatial components in the approximate forms are represented by exponential terms. The separable properties of these terms allow this class of approximation to be applied to general SAW and leaky wave device analysis in such a way that the computational effort increases only linearly with device size.

  5. Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle production data in South Africa: Creating the framework. EF Dzomba, KA Nephawe, AN Maiwashe, SWP Cloete, M Chimonyo, CB Banga, CJC Muller, K Dzama ...

  6. Antiarrhythmic effect of statin therapy and atrial fibrillation a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fauchier, Laurent; Pierre, Bertrand; de Labriolle, Axel; Grimard, Caroline; Zannad, Noura; Babuty, Dominique


    To improve the evaluation of the possible antiarrhythmic effect of statins, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials with statins on the end point of incidence or recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF...

  7. Signal-averaged P wave analysis for delineation of interatrial conduction – Further validation of the method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havmöller Rasmus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was designed to investigate the effect of different measuring methodologies on the estimation of P wave duration. The recording length required to ensure reproducibility in unfiltered, signal-averaged P wave analysis was also investigated. An algorithm for automated classification was designed and its reproducibility of manual P wave morphology classification investigated. Methods Twelve-lead ECG recordings (1 kHz sampling frequency, 0.625 μV resolution from 131 healthy subjects were used. Orthogonal leads were derived using the inverse Dower transform. Magnification (100 times, baseline filtering (0.5 Hz high-pass and 50 Hz bandstop filters, signal averaging (10 seconds and bandpass filtering (40–250 Hz were used to investigate the effect of methodology on the estimated P wave duration. Unfiltered, signal averaged P wave analysis was performed to determine the required recording length (6 minutes to 10 s and the reproducibility of the P wave morphology classification procedure. Manual classification was carried out by two experts on two separate occasions each. The performance of the automated classification algorithm was evaluated using the joint decision of the two experts (i.e., the consensus of the two experts. Results The estimate of the P wave duration increased in each step as a result of magnification, baseline filtering and averaging (100 ± 18 vs. 131 ± 12 ms; P μV, 138 ± 13 ms (0.1 μV and 143 ± 18 ms (0.05 μV. (P = 0.01 for all comparisons. The mean errors associated with the P wave morphology parameters were comparable in all segments analysed regardless of recording length (95% limits of agreement within 0 ± 20% (mean ± SD. The results of the 6-min analyses were comparable to those obtained at the other recording lengths (6 min to 10 s. The intra-rater classification reproducibility was 96%, while the interrater reproducibility was 94%. The automated classification algorithm agreed with the

  8. Phase and group velocity tracing analysis of projected wave packet motion along oblique radar beams – qualitative analysis of QP echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. Kuo


    Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.

  9. Spectral BEM for the Analysis of Wave Propagation and Fracture Mechanics (United States)

    Li, Jun; Khodaei, Zahra Sharif; Aliabadi, M. H.

    This paper presents a spectral boundary element formulation for analysis of structures subjected to dynamic loading. Two types of spectral elements based on Lobatto polynomials and Legendre polynomials are used. Two-dimensional analyses of elastic wave propagation in solids with and without cracks are carried out in the Laplace frequency domain with both conventional BEM and the spectral BEM. By imposing the requirement of the same level of accuracy, it was found that the use of spectral elements, compared with conventional quadratic elements, reduced the total number of nodes required for modeling high-frequency wave propagation. Benchmark examples included a simple one-dimensional bar for which analytical solution is available and a more complex crack problem where stress intensity factors were evaluated. Special crack tip elements are developed for the first time for the spectral elements to accurately model the crack tip fields. Although more integration points were used for the integrals associated with spectral elements than the conventional quadratic elements, shorter computation times were achieved through the application of the spectral BEM. This indicates that the spectral BEM is a more efficient method for the numerical modeling of structural health monitoring (SHM) processes, in which high-frequency waves are commonly used to detect damage, such as cracks, in structures.

  10. Multiridge-based analysis for separating individual modes from multimodal guided wave signals in long bones. (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Wang, Weiqi


    Quantitative ultrasound has great potential for assessing human bone quality. Considered as an elastic waveguide, long bone supports propagation of several guided modes, most of which carry useful information, individually, on different aspects of long bone properties. Therefore, precise knowledge of the behavior of each mode, such as velocity, attenuation, and amplitude, is important for bone quality assessment. However, because of the complicated characteristics of the guided waves, including dispersion and mode conversion, the measured signal often contains multiple wave modes, which yields the problem of mode separation. In this paper, some novel signal processing approaches were introduced to solve this problem. First, a crazy-climber algorithm was used to separate time-frequency ridges of individual modes from time-frequency representations (TFR) of multimodal signals. Next, corresponding time domain signals representing individual modes were reconstructed from the TFR ridges. It was found that the separated TFR ridges were in agreement with the theoretical dispersion, and the reconstructed signals were highly representative of the individual guided modes as well. The validations of this study were analyzed by simulated multimodal signals, with or without noise, and by in vitro experiments. Results of this study suggest that the ridge detection and individual reconstruction method are suitable for separating individual modes from multimodal signals. Such a method can improve the analysis of skeletal guided wave signals by providing accurate assessment of mode-specific ultrasonic parameters, such as group velocity, and indicate different bone quality properties.

  11. Explaining the success of Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory by means of perturbation analysis: discussion. (United States)

    Schmidt, Heinz-Jürgen; Imlau, Mirco; Voit, Kay-Michael


    The problem of diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a thick hologram grating can be solved by the famous Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory (CWT) to a very high degree of accuracy. We confirm this finding by comparing the CWT and the exact result for a typical example and propose an explanation in terms of perturbation theory. To this end we formulate the problem of diffraction as a matrix problem following similar well-known approaches, especially rigorous coupled-wave theory (RCWT). We allow for a complex permittivity modulation and a possible phase shift between refractive index and absorption grating and explicitly incorporate appropriate boundary conditions. The problem is solved numerically exact for the specific case of a planar unslanted grating and a set of realistic values of the material's parameters and experimental conditions. Analogously, the same problem is solved for a two-dimensional truncation of the underlying matrix that would correspond to a CWT approximation but without the usual further approximations. We verify a close coincidence of both results even in the off-Bragg region and explain this result by means of a perturbation analysis of the underlying matrix problem. Moreover, the CWT is found not only to coincide with the perturbational approximation in the in-Bragg and the extreme off-Bragg cases, but also to interpolate between these extremal regimes.

  12. Mapping buried parts of a megalithic tomb with multichannel analysis of Rayleigh-waves and GPR (United States)

    Wilken, D.; Erkul, E.; Glomb, V.; Rabbel, W.


    The objective of the presented study was to image buried parts of a megalithic tomb in northern Germany with GPR and multichannel analysis of surface-waves (MASW). The latter method was applied with the aim of testing its feasibility when used on intermediate scale archaeological targets. As we do not expect MASW of being able to resolve archaeological objects in terms of inverted velocity structure, we look for spectral effects due to subsurface heterogeneity. Identifying and mapping these effects would give a distribution of possibly archaeological objects. The presented seismic dataset shows an amplitude shift between normal and a guided Rayleigh-wave mode. When mapped along parallel profiles the spatial distribution of this effect matches the geometry of the grave. The observed anomalies show good correlation to GPR results that included strong reflectors inside the grave border. Elastic finite difference modelling of the surface-wave propagation showed that the spectral effect can be reproduced by a compacted or bulked column above the GPR anomaly depth indicating that the observed anomalies may be caused by construction activities or load effects during multiple construction phases of the tomb. Observed GPR reflectors thus indicate the bottom of the disturbed zones and MASW effects map the distribution of disturbed subsoil columns.

  13. Analysis of complex contagions in random multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Yagan, Osman


    We study the diffusion of influence in random multiplex networks where links can be of $r$ different types, and for a given content (e.g., rumor, product, political view), each link type is associated with a content dependent parameter $c_i$ in $[0,\\infty]$ that measures the relative bias type-$i$ links have in spreading this content. In this setting, we propose a linear threshold model of contagion where nodes switch state if their "perceived" proportion of active neighbors exceeds a threshold \\tau. Namely, a node connected to $m_i$ active neighbors and $k_i-m_i$ inactive neighbors via type-$i$ links will turn active if $\\sum{c_i m_i}/\\sum{c_i k_i}$ exceeds its threshold \\tau. Under this model, we obtain the condition, probability and expected size of global spreading events. Our results extend the existing work on complex contagions in several directions by i) providing solutions for coupled random networks whose vertices are neither identical nor disjoint, (ii) highlighting the effect of content on the dyn...

  14. Analysis of Stationary Random Responses for Non-Parametric Probabilistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao


    Full Text Available The move from conceptual design, through fabrication to observation and measurement on the resulting physical structure is fraught with uncertainty. This, together with the necessary simplifications inherent when using the finite element technique, makes the development of a predictive model for the physical structure sufficiently approximate that the use of random structural models is often to be preferred. In this paper, the random uncertainties of the mass, damping and stiffness matrices in a finite element model are replaced by random matrices, and a highly efficient pseudo excitation method for the dynamic response analysis of non-parametric probability systems subjected to stationary random loads is developed. A numerical example shows that the dynamic responses calculated using a conventional (mean finite element model may be quite different from those based on a random matrix model. For precise fabrication, the uncertainties of models cannot be ignored and the proposed method should be useful in the analysis of such problems.

  15. Wave Propagation Analysis in Composite Laminates Containing a Delamination Using a Three-Dimensional Spectral Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fucai Li


    Full Text Available A three-dimensional spectral element method (SEM was developed for analysis of Lamb wave propagation in composite laminates containing a delamination. SEM is more efficient in simulating wave propagation in structures than conventional finite element method (FEM because of its unique diagonal form of the mass matrix. Three types of composite laminates, namely, unidirectional-ply laminates, cross-ply laminates, and angle-ply laminates are modeled using three-dimensional spectral finite elements. Wave propagation characteristics in intact composite laminates are investigated, and the effectiveness of the method is validated by comparison of the simulation results with analytical solutions based on transfer matrix method. Different Lamb wave mode interactions with delamination are evaluated, and it is demonstrated that symmetric Lamb wave mode may be insensitive to delamination at certain interfaces of laminates while the antisymmetric mode is more suited for identification of delamination in composite structures.

  16. Importance of a 3D forward modeling tool for surface wave analysis methods (United States)

    Pageot, Damien; Le Feuvre, Mathieu; Donatienne, Leparoux; Philippe, Côte; Yann, Capdeville


    Since a few years, seismic surface waves analysis methods (SWM) have been widely developed and tested in the context of subsurface characterization and have demonstrated their effectiveness for sounding and monitoring purposes, e.g., high-resolution tomography of the principal geological units of California or real time monitoring of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano. Historically, these methods are mostly developed under the assumption of semi-infinite 1D layered medium without topography. The forward modeling is generally based on Thomson-Haskell matrix based modeling algorithm and the inversion is driven by Monte-Carlo sampling. Given their efficiency, SWM have been transfered to several scale of which civil engineering structures in order to, e.g., determine the so-called V s30 parameter or assess other critical constructional parameters in pavement engineering. However, at this scale, many structures may often exhibit 3D surface variations which drastically limit the efficiency of SWM application. Indeed, even in the case of an homogeneous structure, 3D geometry can bias the dispersion diagram of Rayleigh waves up to obtain discontinuous phase velocity curves which drastically impact the 1D mean velocity model obtained from dispersion inversion. Taking advantages of high-performance computing center accessibility and wave propagation modeling algorithm development, it is now possible to consider the use of a 3D elastic forward modeling algorithm instead of Thomson-Haskell method in the SWM inversion process. We use a parallelized 3D elastic modeling code based on the spectral element method which allows to obtain accurate synthetic data with very low numerical dispersion and a reasonable numerical cost. In this study, we choose dike embankments as an illustrative example. We first show that their longitudinal geometry may have a significant effect on dispersion diagrams of Rayleigh waves. Then, we demonstrate the necessity of 3D elastic modeling as a forward

  17. Comparison of High, Intermediate, and Low Frequency Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Tract Stone Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Kang, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Kang Su; Ham, Won Sik; Lee, Hyungmin; Kwon, Jong Kyou; Choi, Young Deuk; Lee, Joo Yong


    To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to determine the optimal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) frequency range for treating urinary stones, i.e., high-frequency (100-120 waves/minute), intermediate-frequency (80-90 waves/minute), and low-frequency (60-70 waves/minute) lithotripsy. Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of SWL success and complication rates. Using pairwise and network meta-analyses, comparisons were made by qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Outcome variables are provided as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis using pairwise and network meta-analyses. On pairwise meta-analyses, comparable inter-study heterogeneity was observed for the success rate. On network meta-analyses, the success rates of low- (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-2.6) and intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6) were higher than high-frequency SWL. Forest plots from the network meta-analysis showed no significant differences in the success rate between low-frequency SWL versus intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.51-1.7). There were no differences in complication rate across different SWL frequency ranges. By rank-probability testing, intermediate-frequency SWL was ranked highest for success rate, followed by low-frequency and high-frequency SWL. Low-frequency SWL was also ranked highest for low complication rate, with high- and intermediate-frequency SWL ranked lower. Intermediate- and low-frequency SWL have better treatment outcomes than high-frequency SWL when considering both efficacy and complication.

  18. Comparison of High, Intermediate, and Low Frequency Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Urinary Tract Stone Disease: Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Hyuk Kang

    Full Text Available To perform a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to determine the optimal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL frequency range for treating urinary stones, i.e., high-frequency (100-120 waves/minute, intermediate-frequency (80-90 waves/minute, and low-frequency (60-70 waves/minute lithotripsy.Relevant RCTs were identified from electronic databases for meta-analysis of SWL success and complication rates. Using pairwise and network meta-analyses, comparisons were made by qualitative and quantitative syntheses. Outcome variables are provided as odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Thirteen articles were included in the qualitative and quantitative synthesis using pairwise and network meta-analyses. On pairwise meta-analyses, comparable inter-study heterogeneity was observed for the success rate. On network meta-analyses, the success rates of low- (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.5-2.6 and intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.3-4.6 were higher than high-frequency SWL. Forest plots from the network meta-analysis showed no significant differences in the success rate between low-frequency SWL versus intermediate-frequency SWL (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.51-1.7. There were no differences in complication rate across different SWL frequency ranges. By rank-probability testing, intermediate-frequency SWL was ranked highest for success rate, followed by low-frequency and high-frequency SWL. Low-frequency SWL was also ranked highest for low complication rate, with high- and intermediate-frequency SWL ranked lower.Intermediate- and low-frequency SWL have better treatment outcomes than high-frequency SWL when considering both efficacy and complication.

  19. Effects of bilastine on T-wave morphology and the QTc interval: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, thorough QTc study. (United States)

    Graff, Claus; Struijk, Johannes J; Kanters, Jørgen K; Andersen, Mads P; Toft, Egon; Tyl, Benoît


    The International Conference of Harmonisation (ICH) E14 guideline for thorough QT studies requires assessing the propensity of new non-antiarrhythmic drugs to affect cardiac repolarization. The present study investigates whether a composite ECG measure of T-wave morphology (Morphology Combination Score [MCS]) can be used together with the heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) in a fully ICH E14-compliant thorough QT study to exclude clinically relevant repolarization effects of bilastine, a novel antihistamine. Thirty participants in this crossover study were randomly assigned to receive placebo, moxifloxacin 400 mg, bilastine at therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses (20 and 100 mg) and bilastine 20 mg co-administered with ketoconazole 400 mg. Resting ECGs recorded at 12 nominal time points before and after treatments were used to determine Fridericia corrected QTc (QTcF) and MCS from the T-wave characteristics: asymmetry, flatness and notching. There were no effects of bilastine monotherapy (20 and 100 mg) on MCS or QTcF at those study times where the bilastine plasma concentrations were highest. MCS changes for bilastine monotherapy did not exceed the normal intrasubject variance of T-wave shapes for triplicate ECG recordings. Maximum QTcF prolongation for bilastine monotherapy was 5 ms or less: 3.8 ms (90% CI 0.3, 7.3 ms) for bilastine 20 mg and 5.0 ms (90% CI 2.0, 8.0 ms) for bilastine 100 mg. There were no indications of bilastine inducing larger repolarization effects on T-wave morphology as compared with the QTcF interval, as evidenced by the similarity of z-score equivalents for placebo-corrected changes in MCS and QTcF values. This study shows that bilastine, at therapeutic and supratherapeutic dosages, does not induce any effects on T-wave morphology or QTcF. These results confirm the absence of an effect for bilastine on cardiac repolarization.

  20. Probabilistic Analysis of Facility Location on Random Shortest Path Metrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klootwijk, Stefan; Manthey, Bodo

    The facility location problem is an NP-hard optimization problem. Therefore, approximation algorithms are often used to solve large instances. Probabilistic analysis is a widely used tool to analyze such algorithms. Most research on probabilistic analysis of NP-hard optimization problems involving

  1. A Variational Formulation for the Finite Element Analysis of Sound Wave Propagation in a Spherical Shell (United States)

    Lebiedzik, Catherine


    Development of design tools to furnish optimal acoustic environments for lightweight aircraft demands the ability to simulate the acoustic system on a workstation. In order to form an effective mathematical model of the phenomena at hand, we have begun by studying the propagation of acoustic waves inside closed spherical shells. Using a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction model based upon variational principles, we have written a finite element analysis program and are in the process of examining several test cases. Future investigations are planned to increase model accuracy by incorporating non-linear and viscous effects.

  2. Analysis and Comparison of 24 GHz cmWave Radio Propagation in Urban and Suburban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Ignacio; Portela Lopes de Almeida, Erika; Abreu, Renato


    This paper presents a measurement-based comparison of cm-wave propagation in urban and suburban scenarios at 24 GHz with transmitter antennas located above rooftop level. Different sets of directional measurements, exploring the full azimuth and the range from -30 to +30 degrees in elevation, were...... performed with horn antennas located close to street level, in order to explore the spatial characteristics of the channel in both LOS and NLOS conditions. The statistical analysis of different directional indicators shows how, at 24 GHz, outdoor propagation is quite different in the suburban scenario...

  3. Analysis of the electromagnetic wave resistivity tool in deviated well drilling (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Xu, Lijun; Cao, Zhang


    Electromagnetic wave resistivity (EWR) tools are used to provide real-time measurements of resistivity in the formation around the tool in Logging While Drilling (LWD). In this paper, the acquired resistivity information in the formation is analyzed to extract more information, including dipping angle and azimuth direction of the drill. A finite element (FM) model of EWR tool working in layered earth formations is established. Numerical analysis and FM simulations are employed to analyze the amplitude ratio and phase difference between the voltages measured at the two receivers of the EWR tool in deviated well drilling.

  4. Real-time Analysis of Global Waves Accompanying Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)


    papers by e.g. , Dere et al. 1997; Moses et al. 1997; Thompson et al. 1998). This global “EIT wave” was interpreted as the coronal counterpart to the...typical velocities of 200–400 km s−1 observed by Thompson & Myers (2009). Although higher average velocities closer to ∼650 km s−1 have been observed by...detailed examination of solar eruptive events both with and without Moreton– Ramsey waves for definitive proof . However, a statistical analysis of the

  5. Partial wave analysis of $J/\\psi \\to \\gamma \\eta \\eta$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Albayrak, O; Ambrose, D J; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Becker, J; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bian, J M; Boger, E; Bondarenko, O; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Bytev, V; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, Y P; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; Ding, W M; Ding, Y; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Du, S X; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fava, L; Feng, C Q; Friedel, P; Fu, C D; Fu, J L; Gao, Y; Geng, C; Goetzen, K; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, T; Guo, Y P; Han, Y L; Harris, F A; He, K L; He, M; He, Z Y; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Huang, G M; Huang, G S; Huang, J S; Huang, L; Huang, X T; Huang, Y; Huang, Y P; Hussain, T; Ji, C S; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L L; Jiang, X S; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Jing, F F; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kavatsyuk, M; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kuehn, W; Lai, W; Lange, J S; Leyhe, M; Li, C H; Li, Cheng; Li, Cui; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, J C; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, Q J; Li, S L; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, X R; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Liao, X T; Lin, D; Liu, B J; Liu, C L; Liu, C X; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, H W; Liu, J P; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, Kai; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lu, G R; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Q W; Lu, X R; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lv, M; Ma, C L; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, Q M; Ma, S; Ma, T; Ma, X Y; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Messchendorp, J G; Min, J; Min, T J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Nefedov, Y; Nicholson, C; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Park, J W; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prencipe, E; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, X S; Qin, Y; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Rong, G; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Schaefer, B D; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shepherd, M R; Song, X Y; Spataro, S; Spruck, B; Sun, D H; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Toth, D; Ullrich, M; Uman, I U; Varner, G S; Wang, B Q; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, Q J; Wang, S G; Wang, X F; Wang, X L; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z Y; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, Q G; Wen, S P; Werner, M; Wiedner, U; Wu, L H; Wu, N; Wu, S X; Wu, W; Wu, Z; Xia, L G; Xia, Y X; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, G M; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Xu, Z R; Xue, F; Xue, Z; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, Y H; Yang, H X; Yang, Y; Yang, Y X; Ye, H; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, H W; Yu, J S; Yu, S P; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, Y; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, Li Li; Zhang, R; Zhang, S H; Zhang, X J; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhang, Zhenghao; Zhao, G; Zhao, H S; Zhao, J W; Zhao, K X; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q Z; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, X H; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhong, Z; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhu, C; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y M; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zou, B S; Zou, J H


    Based on a sample of $2.25\\times 10^{8}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected with the BESIII detector at BEPCII, a full partial wave analysis on $J/\\psi\\to\\gamma\\eta\\eta$ was performed using the relativistic covariant tensor amplitude method. The results show that the dominant $0^{++}$ and $2^{++}$ components are from the $f_0(1710)$, $f_0(2100)$, $f_0(1500)$, $f_2'(1525)$, $f_2(1810)$ and $f_2(2340)$. The resonance parameters and branching fractions are also presented.

  6. JHSS Baseline Shaft and Strut (BSS) Model 5653-3 Added Resistance and Powering and Ship Motions, Sea State 6 Random Waves and Regular Waves (United States)


    r^ N- r^ t^- dddddddddd d d d d Ul u. ~"" 5 (A a> c •c > 3 to UJ cvnnmfNiO) Nif )<NtoN CM m o h~ o 2 mmmmcMcommmm in in s o re .c a...Figure C2. Coordinate System on Model 5653 C4 Hull Surface Analysis 0 086 0 085 [0.086"] High Spot -0.177"! Low Spot 0 084 0 083 0 082 o at i...within ± 2mm (0.0787 in) of the CAD file. Figure C4 shows that the maximum positive deviation (red) is 0.142 in, and occurs in two regions. One region

  7. Oscillating Square Wave Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Delivered During Slow Wave Sleep Does Not Improve Declarative Memory More Than Sham: A Randomized Sham Controlled Crossover Study. (United States)

    Sahlem, Gregory L; Badran, Bashar W; Halford, Jonathan J; Williams, Nolan R; Korte, Jeffrey E; Leslie, Kimberly; Strachan, Martha; Breedlove, Jesse L; Runion, Jennifer; Bachman, David L; Uhde, Thomas W; Borckardt, Jeffery J; George, Mark S


    A 2006 trial in healthy medical students found that anodal slow oscillating tDCS delivered bi-frontally during slow wave sleep had an enhancing effect in declarative, but not procedural memory. Although there have been supporting animal studies, and similar findings in pathological groups, this study has not been replicated, or refuted, in the intervening years. We therefore tested these earlier results for replication using similar methods with the exception of current waveform (square in our study, nearly sinusoidal in the original). Our objective was to test the findings of a 2006 trial suggesting bi-frontal anodal tDCS during slow wave sleep enhances declarative memory. Twelve students (mean age 25, 9 women) free of medical problems underwent two testing conditions (active, sham) in a randomized counterbalanced fashion. Active stimulation consisted of oscillating square wave tDCS delivered during early Non-Rapid Eye Movement (NREM) sleep. The sham condition consisted of setting-up the tDCS device and electrodes, but not turning it on during sleep. tDCS was delivered bi-frontally with anodes placed at F3/F4, and cathodes placed at mastoids. Current density was 0.517 mA/cm(2), and oscillated between zero and maximal current at a frequency of 0.75 Hz. Stimulation occurred during five-five minute blocks with 1-min inter-block intervals (25 min total stimulation). The primary outcomes were both declarative memory consolidation measured by a paired word association test (PWA), and non-declarative memory, measured by a non-dominant finger-tapping test (FTT). We also recorded and analyzed sleep EEG. There was no difference in the number of paired word associations remembered before compared to after sleep [(active = 3.1 ± 3.0 SD more associations) (sham = 3.8 ± 3.1 SD more associations)]. Finger tapping improved, (non-significantly) following active stimulation [(3.6 ± 2.7 SD correctly typed sequences) compared to sham stimulation (2.3 ± 2.2 SD correctly typed

  8. Scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer random rough surfaces based on the second-order small perturbation method: energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity. (United States)

    Sanamzadeh, Mohammadreza; Tsang, Leung; Johnson, Joel T; Burkholder, Robert J; Tan, Shurun


    A theoretical investigation of energy conservation, reflectivity, and emissivity in the scattering of electromagnetic waves from 3D multilayer media with random rough interfaces using the second-order small perturbation method (SPM2) is presented. The approach is based on the extinction theorem and develops integral equations for surface fields in the spectral domain. Using the SPM2, we calculate the scattered and transmitted coherent fields and incoherent fields. Reflected and transmitted powers are then found in the form of 2D integrations over wavenumber in the spectral domain. In the integrand, there is a summation over the spectral densities of each of the rough interfaces with each weighted by a corresponding kernel function. We show in this paper that there exists a "strong" condition of energy conservation in that the kernel functions multiplying the spectral density of each interface obey energy conservation exactly. This means that energy is conserved independent of the roughness spectral densities of the rough surfaces. Results of this strong condition are illustrated numerically for up to 50 rough interfaces without requiring specification of surface roughness properties. Two examples are illustrated. One is a multilayer configuration having weak contrasts between adjacent layers, random layer thicknesses, and randomly generated permittivity profiles. The second example is a photonic crystal of periodically alternating permittivities of larger dielectric contrast. The methodology is applied to study the effect of roughness on the brightness temperatures of the Antarctic ice sheet, which is characterized by layers of ice with permittivity fluctuations in addition to random rough interfaces. The results show that the influence of roughness can significantly increase horizontally polarized thermal emission while leaving vertically polarized emissions relatively unaffected.

  9. Analysis of heat wave occurrences in the Carpathian basin using regional climate model simulations (United States)

    Bartha, E. B.; Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.


    Human health is very likely affected by regional consequences of global warming. One of the most severe impacts is probably associated to temperature-related climatological extremes, such as heat waves. In the coming decades hot conditions in most regions of the world are very likely to occur more frequently and more intensely than in the recent decades. In order to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies on local scale, it is essential to analyze the projected changes related to warming climatic conditions including heat waves. In 2004, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in Hungary on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. In the frame of this recently introduced Health Watch System, three levels of heat wave warning are applied. They are associated to the daily mean temperature values, and defined as follows: - Warning level 1 (advisory for internal use) is issued when the daily mean temperature exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 2 (heat wave watch) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 25 °C. - Warning level 3 (heat wave alert) is issued when the daily mean temperature for at least 3 consecutive days exceeds 27 °C. In the present study, frequency of the above climatic conditions are analyzed using regional climate model (RCM) experiments are analyzed for the recent past and the coming decades (1961-2100) for the Carpathian basin. At the Dept. of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University two different RCMs have been adapted: RegCM (with 10 km horizontal resolution, originally developed by Giorgi et al., currently, available from the International Centre for Theoretical Physics, ICTP) and PRECIS (with 25 km horizontal resolution, developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre). Their initial and lateral boundary conditions have been provided by global climate models ECHAM and HadCM3, respectively. For

  10. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with plantar fasciitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with ultrasonographic and subjective outcome assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vahdatpour


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Results of previous studies have been conflicting on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the effects of ESWT on plantar fasciitis in terms of ultrasonographic and subjective evaluations. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, patients with plantar fasciitis were assigned to receive ESWT (4000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm 2 in 3 sessions at weekly intervals or sham therapy (n = 20 in each group. Outcomes were documented by the ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients′ pain scores, performed at baseline and 12 weeks after completion of the therapy. Results : The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics. Over the study period, plantar fascia thickness significantly reduced in the ESWT group (4.1 ± 1.3 to 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, P < 0.001, but slightly increased in the sham group (4.1 ± 0.8 to 4.5 ± 0.9 mm, P = 0.03. Both groups showed significant pain improvement over the course of the study (P < 0.001, though pain scores were significantly more reduced in the ESWT than the sham group (-4.2 ± 2.9 vs. -2.7 ± 1.8, P = 0.049. Conclusions: Extracorporeal shock wave therapy contributes to healing and pain reduction in plantar fasciitis and ultrasound imaging is able to depict the morphologic changes related to plantar fasciitis as a result of this therapy.

  11. Beneficial effects on arterial stiffness and pulse-wave reflection of combined enalapril and candesartan in chronic kidney disease--a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Frimodt-Møller

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is highly prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensinsystem (RAS in hypertension causes differential effects on central and brachial blood pressure (BP, which has been translated into improved outcome. The objective was to examine if a more complete inhibition of RAS by combining an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI and an angiotensin receptor antagonist (ARB compared to monotherapy has an additive effect on central BP and pulse-wave velocity (PWV, which are known markers of CVD.Sixty-seven CKD patients (mean GFR 30, range 13-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2 participated in an open randomized study of 16 weeks of monotherapy with either enalapril or candesartan followed by 8 weeks of dual blockade aiming at a total dose of 16 mg candesartan and 20 mg enalapril o.d. Pulse-wave measurements were performed at week 0, 8, 16 and 24 by the SphygmoCor device.Significant additive BP independent reductions were found after dual blockade in aortic PWV (-0.3 m/s, P<0.05 and in augmentation index (-2%, P<0.01 compared to monotherapy. Furthermore pulse pressure amplification was improved (P<0.05 and central systolic BP reduced (-6 mmHg, P<0.01.Dual blockade of the RAS resulted in an additive BP independent reduction in pulse-wave reflection and arterial stiffness compared to monotherapy in CKD patients.Clinical NCT00235287.

  12. Spectroscopic analysis of stellar mass black-hole mergers in our local universe with ground-based gravitational wave detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bhagwat, Swetha; Ballmer, Stefan W


    Motivated by the recent discoveries of binary black-hole mergers by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO), we investigate the prospects of ground-based detectors to perform a spectroscopic analysis of signals emitted during the ringdown of the final Kerr black-hole formed by a stellar mass binary black-hole merger. Although it is unlikely that Advanced LIGO can measure multiple modes of the ringdown, assuming an optimistic rate of 240 Gpc$^{-3}$yr$^{-1}$, upgrades to the existing LIGO detectors could measure multiple ringdown modes in $\\sim$6 detections per year. New ground-based facilities such as Einstein Telescope or Cosmic Explorer could measure multiple ringdown modes in over 300 events per year. We perform Monte-Carlo injections of $10^{6}$ binary black-hole mergers in a search volume defined by a sphere of radius 1500 Mpc centered at the detector, for various proposed ground-based detector models. We assume a uniform random distribution in component masses of ...

  13. Analytical linear theory for the interaction of a planar shock wave with a two- or three-dimensional random isotropic density field (United States)

    Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.; Velikovich, A. L.; Wouchuk, J. G.


    We present an analytical linear model describing the interaction of a planar shock wave with an isotropic random pattern of density nonuniformities. This kind of interaction is important in inertial confinement fusion where shocks travel into weakly inhomogeneous cryogenic deuterium-wicked foams, and also in astrophysics, where shocks interact with interstellar density clumps. The model presented here is based on the exact theory of space and time evolution of the perturbed quantities generated by a corrugated shock wave traveling into a small-amplitude single-mode density field. Corresponding averages in both two and three dimensions are obtained as closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, acoustic energy flux, density amplification, and vorticity generation downstream. They are given as explicit functions of the two parameters (adiabatic exponent γ and shock strength M1) that govern the dynamics of the problem. In addition, these explicit formulas are simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak and strong shocks and highly compressible fluids.

  14. Extra Corporeal Shock Wave Therapy Versus Local Corticosteroid Injection in the Treatment of Chronic Plantar Fasciitis, a Single Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Eslamian, Fariba; Shakouri, Seyed Kazem; Jahanjoo, Fatemeh; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Notghi, Faraz


    Plantar fasciitis is a self-limiting condition, but can be painful and disabling. Among the different treatments which exist, corticosteroid injections are effective and popular. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) is another treatment modality used for resistant conditions. In this study, the authors evaluated the efficacy of radial ESWT versus corticosteroid injections in the treatment of chronic plantar fasciitis. Randomized clinical trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation research center in a university hospital. Forty patients with plantar fasciitis who did not respond to conservative treatment. Patients were allocated to radial ESWT with 2000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm(2) (n = 20) or local methylprednisolone injections (n = 20). Pain in the morning and during the day based on a visual analog scale (VAS), functional abilities using the foot function index (FFI), and satisfaction were evaluated before treatment and at 4 and 8 weeks after treatment. Patients (average age: 42.1± 8.20) received five sessions of ESWT or single steroid injection. Changes in the VAS in morning and during the day and the FFI throughout the study period were significant in both groups (P plantar fasciitis. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  15. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy in patients with plantar fasciitis. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial with ultrasonographic and subjective outcome assessments (United States)

    Vahdatpour, Babak; Sajadieh, Sepideh; Bateni, Vahid; Karami, Mehdi; Sajjadieh, Hamidreza


    Background and Aim: Results of previous studies have been conflicting on the efficacy of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of plantar fasciitis. We evaluated the effects of ESWT on plantar fasciitis in terms of ultrasonographic and subjective evaluations. Materials and Methods: In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, patients with plantar fasciitis were assigned to receive ESWT (4000 shock waves/session of 0.2 mJ/mm2) in 3 sessions at weekly intervals) or sham therapy (n = 20 in each group). Outcomes were documented by the ultrasonographic appearance of the aponeurosis and by patients’ pain scores, performed at baseline and 12 weeks after completion of the therapy. Results: The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics. Over the study period, plantar fascia thickness significantly reduced in the ESWT group (4.1 ± 1.3 to 3.6 ± 1.2 mm, P plantar fasciitis and ultrasound imaging is able to depict the morphologic changes related to plantar fasciitis as a result of this therapy. PMID:23826009

  16. Large-scale dynamical influence of a gravity wave generated over the Antarctic Peninsula – regional modelling and budget analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOEL Arnault


    Full Text Available The case study of a mountain wave triggered by the Antarctic Peninsula on 6 October 2005, which has already been documented in the literature, is chosen here to quantify the associated gravity wave forcing on the large-scale flow, with a budget analysis of the horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy. In particular, a numerical simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model is compared to a control simulation with flat orography to separate the contribution of the mountain wave from that of other synoptic processes of non-orographic origin. The so-called differential budgets of horizontal wind components and horizontal kinetic energy (after subtracting the results from the simulation without orography are then averaged horizontally and vertically in the inner domain of the simulation to quantify the mountain wave dynamical influence at this scale. This allows for a quantitative analysis of the simulated mountain wave's dynamical influence, including the orographically induced pressure drag, the counterbalancing wave-induced vertical transport of momentum from the flow aloft, the momentum and energy exchanges with the outer flow at the lateral and upper boundaries, the effect of turbulent mixing, the dynamics associated with geostrophic re-adjustment of the inner flow, the deceleration of the inner flow, the secondary generation of an inertia–gravity wave and the so-called baroclinic conversion of energy between potential energy and kinetic energy.

  17. An introduction to random vibrations, spectral & wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newland, D E


    One of the first engineering books to cover wavelet analysis, this classic text describes and illustrates basic theory, with a detailed explanation of the workings of discrete wavelet transforms. Computer algorithms are explained and supported by examples and a set of problems, and an appendix lists ten computer programs for calculating and displaying wavelet transforms.Starting with an introduction to probability distributions and averages, the text examines joint probability distributions, ensemble averages, and correlation; Fourier analysis; spectral density and excitation response relation

  18. Finite-fault source inversion using teleseismic P waves: Simple parameterization and rapid analysis (United States)

    Mendoza, C.; Hartzell, S.


    We examine the ability of teleseismic P waves to provide a timely image of the rupture history for large earthquakes using a simple, 2D finite‐fault source parameterization. We analyze the broadband displacement waveforms recorded for the 2010 Mw∼7 Darfield (New Zealand) and El Mayor‐Cucapah (Baja California) earthquakes using a single planar fault with a fixed rake. Both of these earthquakes were observed to have complicated fault geometries following detailed source studies conducted by other investigators using various data types. Our kinematic, finite‐fault analysis of the events yields rupture models that similarly identify the principal areas of large coseismic slip along the fault. The results also indicate that the amount of stabilization required to spatially smooth the slip across the fault and minimize the seismic moment is related to the amplitudes of the observed P waveforms and can be estimated from the absolute values of the elements of the coefficient matrix. This empirical relationship persists for earthquakes of different magnitudes and is consistent with the stabilization constraint obtained from the L‐curve in Tikhonov regularization. We use the relation to estimate the smoothing parameters for the 2011 Mw 7.1 East Turkey, 2012 Mw 8.6 Northern Sumatra, and 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku, Japan, earthquakes and invert the teleseismic P waves in a single step to recover timely, preliminary slip models that identify the principal source features observed in finite‐fault solutions obtained by the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/NEIC) from the analysis of body‐ and surface‐wave data. These results indicate that smoothing constraints can be estimated a priori to derive a preliminary, first‐order image of the coseismic slip using teleseismic records.

  19. Investigation of a soil stratification upper section by rapid methods of wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antipov Vadim Valer’evich


    Full Text Available This article presents the comparative results of an investigation of the low-velocity zone of the area near the housing of the PNRPU engineering faculty by active and passive methods of multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW. MASW is a modern nondestructive method researching the soil massif. It lets to obtain profiles of transverse velocities and to find initial elastic modulus and initial shear modulus by using these profiles. The purpose of the investigation is a study of low-velocity zone by active and passive methods of MASW. The passive method of MASW has not been used previously on the territory of Russian Federation. In the passive method, geophones have been placed by “circle,” “square” and “triangle” layouts. Also, the special case of the passive method has been applied - passive roadside MASW. The telemetry system TELSS-3 has been used to register surface Rayleigh waves. The parameters of surveying system have been selected using the optimal recommended parameters and the reconnaissance surveys. Obtained seismograms have been processed using ParkSeis software. In the stage of dispersion analysis of MASW, the dispersion images have been obtained with clearly visible fundamental modes. The obtained dispersion curves have allowed making 2D profiles of shear-wave velocities for an active method and 1D profiles for passive methods of MASW. On the basis of these profiles the models of investigated soil stratification have been obtained. The presented results allow evaluating the effectiveness of the passive method of MASW as a tool for geotechnical investigations in cramped conditions, where deployment of surveying system for the active method is impossible.

  20. Performance Analysis of 5G Transmission over Fading Channels with Random IG Distributed LOS Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jaksic


    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling of the behavior of the radio propagation at mmWave bands is crucial to the development of transmission and reception algorithms of new 5G systems. In this study we will model 5G propagation in nondeterministic line-of-sight (LOS conditions, when the random nature of LOS component ratio will be observed as Inverse Gamma (IG distributed process. Closed-form expressions will be presented for the probability density function (PDF and cumulative distribution function (CDF of such random process. Further, closed-form expressions will be provided for important performance measures such as level crossing rate (LCR and average fade duration (AFD. Capitalizing on proposed expressions, LCR and AFD will be discussed in the function of transmission parameters.

  1. Stereoscopy of dust density waves under microgravity: Velocity distributions and phase-resolved single-particle analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himpel, Michael, E-mail:; Killer, Carsten; Melzer, André [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Bockwoldt, Tim; Piel, Alexander [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Ole Menzel, Kristoffer [ABB Switzerland Ltd, Corporate Research Center, 5405 Dättwil (Switzerland)


    Experiments on dust-density waves have been performed in dusty plasmas under the microgravity conditions of parabolic flights. Three-dimensional measurements of a dust density wave on a single particle level are presented. The dust particles have been tracked for many oscillation periods. A Hilbert analysis is applied to obtain trajectory parameters such as oscillation amplitude and three-dimensional velocity amplitude. While the transverse motion is found to be thermal, the velocity distribution in wave propagation direction can be explained by harmonic oscillations with added Gaussian (thermal) noise. Additionally, it is shown that the wave properties can be reconstructed by means of a pseudo-stroboscopic approach. Finally, the energy dissipation mechanism from the kinetic oscillation energy to thermal motion is discussed and presented using phase-resolved analysis.

  2. Security Analysis of Randomize-Hash-then-Sign Digital Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauravaram, Praveen; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde


    a variant of the RMX hash function mode and published this standard in the Special Publication (SP) 800-106.In this article, we first discuss a generic online birthday existential forgery attack of Dang and Perlner on the RMX-hash-then-sign schemes. We show that a variant of this attack can be applied...... to forge the other randomize-hash-then-sign schemes. We point out practical limitations of the generic forgery attack on the RMX-hash-then-sign schemes. We then show that these limitations can be overcome for the RMX-hash-then-sign schemes if it is easy to find fixed points for the underlying compression...... birthday forgery attack on this class of signatures by using a variant of Dean’s method of finding fixed point expandable messages for hash functions based on the Davies-Meyer construction. This forgery attack is also applicable to signature schemes based on the variant of RMX standardized by NIST in SP...

  3. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)


    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Analysis of dynamic wave model for flood routing in natural rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza BARATI


    Full Text Available Flooding is a common natural disaster that causes enormous economic, social, and human losses. Of various flood routing methods, the dynamic wave model is one of the best approaches for the prediction of the characteristics of floods during their propagations in natural rivers because all of the terms of the momentum equation are considered in the model. However, no significant research has been conducted on how the model sensitivity affects the accuracy of the downstream hydrograph. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the input parameters of the dynamic wave model was performed through field applications in natural rivers and routing experiments in artificial channels using the graphical multi-parametric sensitivity analysis (GMPSA. The results indicate that the effects of input parameter errors on the output results are more significant in special situations, such as lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the characteristics of a design hydrograph, larger values of the skewness factor and/or time to peak on the channel characteristics, larger values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or the bed slope on the space step, and lower values of Manning’s roughness coefficient and/or a steeper bed slope on the time step and weighting factor.

  5. Studies in astronomical time series analysis: Modeling random processes in the time domain (United States)

    Scargle, J. D.


    Random process models phased in the time domain are used to analyze astrophysical time series data produced by random processes. A moving average (MA) model represents the data as a sequence of pulses occurring randomly in time, with random amplitudes. An autoregressive (AR) model represents the correlations in the process in terms of a linear function of past values. The best AR model is determined from sampled data and transformed to an MA for interpretation. The randomness of the pulse amplitudes is maximized by a FORTRAN algorithm which is relatively stable numerically. Results of test cases are given to study the effects of adding noise and of different distributions for the pulse amplitudes. A preliminary analysis of the optical light curve of the quasar 3C 273 is given.

  6. a meta analysis study on randomized controlled trials

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 3, 2011 ... BACKGROUND: Penile erection is a hemodynamic process involving increased arterial inflow and restricted venous ... management of Erectile Dysfunction of arterogenic origin using Meta analysis. .... selected for review; The main outcome measure .... and hormonal changes in the blood vessel walls.

  7. Comparison of Two Different Distraction Methods Affecting the Level of Pain and Anxiety during Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Gezginci, Elif; Iyigun, Emine; Yalcin, Serdar; Bedir, Selahattin; Ozgok, I Yasar


    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause pain and anxiety for patients. Despite the use of many distraction methods to reduce pain and anxiety, there is no study on the use of stress balls during lithotripsy. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of use of stress balls and music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. This was a single-center, parallel randomized controlled trial. The study involved the lithotripsy unit in a training and research hospital in Turkey. The study included 120 patients who had kidney or ureter stones. The patients were randomly divided into three groups. The control group (group 1) received no interference, whereas experimental groups received stress ball (group 2) and music (group 3) interventions during lithotripsy, respectively. Data were collected using the Patient Information Form, visual analog scale, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. There was no statistically significant difference among the three groups in regard to anxiety and pain mean scores (p > .05). No statistically significant difference was found between anxiety scores before and after lithotripsy in each group (p > .05), whereas there was a statistically significant difference between pain scores during and after lithotripsy (p stress balls and music in reducing pain and anxiety during lithotripsy. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of stress balls used during lithotripsy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of strong fluctuation random medium theory to scattering of electromagnetic waves from a half-space of dielectric mixture (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Newton, R. W.; Kong, J. A.


    The strong fluctuation random medium theory is applied to calculate scattering from a half-space of dielectric mixture. The first and second moments of the fields are calculated, respectively, by using the bilocal and the distorted Born approximations, and the low frequency limit is taken. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account. Expressions for the effective permittivity for the full space case are derived. It is shown that the derived result of the effect permittivity is identical to that of the Polder and van Santern mixing formula. The correlation function of the random medium is obtained by using simple physical arguments and is expressed in terms of the fractional volumes and particle sizes of the constituents of the mixture. Backscattering coefficients of a half-space dielectric mixture are also calculated. Numerical results of the effective permittivity and backscattering coefficients are illustrated using typical parameters encountered in microwave remote sensing of dry and wet snow. It is also shown that experimental data can be matched with the theory by using physical parameters of the medium as obtained from ground truth measurements.

  9. Wave Intensity Analysis in the Human Coronary Circulation in Health and Disease (United States)

    Sen, Sayan; Petraco, Ricardo; Mayet, Jamil; Davies, Justin


    Coronary artery hemodynamics are very different to that of the systemic arteries; unlike the systemic circulation, in the coronary circulation pressure is generated from both the proximal and distal end of the artery – due to the effect of contraction and relaxation of the myocardium on the microvasculature. As a result, the systemic artery hemodynamic model cannot be used to explain the pressure-flow relationship in the coronaries. Wave intensity analysis is an investigative tool that is able to distinguish simultaneous proximal and distal influences on coronary blood flow and is therefore uniquely suitable for the study of coronary haemodynamics. This review discusses the concept behind waveintensity analysis and evaluates how it has been used to characterise and provide new insights on coronary haemodynamics in health and disease. PMID:23642024

  10. Stochastic Geometric Coverage Analysis in mmWave Cellular Networks with a Realistic Channel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebato, Mattia; Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar


    Millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands have been attracting growing attention as a possible candidate for next-generation cellular networks, since the available spectrum is orders of magnitude larger than in current cellular allocations. To precisely design mmWave systems, it is important to examine mmWave...... interference and SIR coverage under large-scale deployments. For this purpose, we apply an accurate mmWave channel model, derived from experiments, into an analytical framework based on stochastic geometry. In this way we obtain a closed-form SIR coverage probability in large-scale mmWave cellular networks....

  11. Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics. (United States)

    Jung, Haejoon; Lee, In-Ho


    As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.

  12. In vivo evaluation of the elastic anisotropy of the human Achilles tendon using shear wave dispersion analysis (United States)

    Brum, J.; Bernal, M.; Gennisson, J. L.; Tanter, M.


    Non-invasive evaluation of the Achilles tendon elastic properties may enhance diagnosis of tendon injury and the assessment of recovery treatments. Shear wave elastography has shown to be a powerful tool to estimate tissue mechanical properties. However, its applicability to quantitatively evaluate tendon stiffness is limited by the understanding of the physics on the shear wave propagation in such a complex medium. First, tendon tissue is transverse isotropic. Second, tendons are characterized by a marked stiffness in the 400 to 1300 kPa range (i.e. fast shear waves). Hence, the shear wavelengths are greater than the tendon thickness leading to guided wave propagation. Thus, to better understand shear wave propagation in tendons and consequently to properly estimate its mechanical properties, a dispersion analysis is required. In this study, shear wave velocity dispersion was measured in vivo in ten Achilles tendons parallel and perpendicular to the tendon fibre orientation. By modelling the tendon as a transverse isotropic viscoelastic plate immersed in fluid it was possible to fully describe the experimental data (deviation<1.4%). We show that parallel to fibres the shear wave velocity dispersion is not influenced by viscosity, while it is perpendicularly to fibres. Elasticity (found to be in the range from 473 to 1537 kPa) and viscosity (found to be in the range from 1.7 to 4 Pa.s) values were retrieved from the model in good agreement with reported results.

  13. Efficacy of Virtual Patients in Medical Education: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Studies (United States)

    Consorti, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Rosaria; Nocioni, Martina; Piccolo, Annalisa


    A meta-analysis was performed to assess the Effect Size (ES) from randomized studies comparing the effect of educational interventions in which Virtual patients (VPs) were used either as an alternative method or additive to usual curriculum versus interventions based on more traditional methods. Meta-analysis was designed, conducted and reported…

  14. Considering Horn’s parallel analysis from a random matrix theory point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    Horn’s parallel analysis is a widely used method for assessing the number of principal components and common factors. We discuss the theoretical foundations of parallel analysis for principal components based on a covariance matrix by making use of arguments from random matrix theory. In particular,

  15. Considering Horn’s Parallel Analysis from a Random Matrix Theory Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E.


    Horn’s parallel analysis is a widely used method for assessing the number of principal components and common factors. We discuss the theoretical foundations of parallel analysis for principal components based on a covariance matrix by making use of arguments from random matrix theory. In

  16. Synthetic spectral analysis of a kinetic model for slow-magnetosonic waves in solar corona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruan, Wenzhi; He, Jiansen; Tu, Chuanyi; Wang, Linghua [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China, E-mail: (China); Zhang, Lei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Vocks, Christian [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, 14482, Potsdam (Germany); Marsch, Eckart [Institute for Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, 24118 Kiel (Germany); Peter, Hardi [Max Plank Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 3, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)


    We propose a kinetic model of slow-magnetosonic waves to explain various observational features associated with the propagating intensity disturbances (PIDs) occurring in the solar corona. The characteristics of slow mode waves, e.g, inphase oscillations of density, velocity, and thermal speed, are reproduced in this kinetic model. Moreover, the red-blue (R-B) asymmetry of the velocity distribution as self-consistently generated in the model is found to be contributed from the beam component, as a result of the competition between Landau resonance and Coulomb collisions. Furthermore, we synthesize the spectral lines and make the spectral analysis, based on the kinetic simulation data of the flux tube plasmas and the hypothesis of the surrounding background plasmas. It is found that the fluctuations of parameters of the synthetic spectral lines are basically consistent with the observations: (1) the line intensity, Doppler shift, and line width are fluctuating in phase; (2) the R-B asymmetry usually oscillate out of phase with the former three parameters; (3) the blueward asymmetry is more evident than the redward asymmetry in the R-B fluctuations. The oscillations of line parameters become weakened for the case with denser surrounding background plasmas. Similar to the observations, there is no doubled-frequency oscillation of the line width for the case with flux-tube plasmas flowing bulkly upward among the static background plasmas. Therefore, we suggest that the “wave + beam flow” kinetic model may be a viable interpretation for the PIDs observed in the solar corona.

  17. Measuring the linear and nonlinear elastic properties of brain tissue with shear waves and inverse analysis. (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Li, Guoyang; Qian, Lin-Xue; Liang, Si; Destrade, Michel; Cao, Yanping


    We use supersonic shear wave imaging (SSI) technique to measure not only the linear but also the nonlinear elastic properties of brain matter. Here, we tested six porcine brains ex vivo and measured the velocities of the plane shear waves induced by acoustic radiation force at different states of pre-deformation when the ultrasonic probe is pushed into the soft tissue. We relied on an inverse method based on the theory governing the propagation of small-amplitude acoustic waves in deformed solids to interpret the experimental data. We found that, depending on the subjects, the resulting initial shear modulus [Formula: see text] varies from 1.8 to 3.2 kPa, the stiffening parameter [Formula: see text] of the hyperelastic Demiray-Fung model from 0.13 to 0.73, and the third- [Formula: see text] and fourth-order [Formula: see text] constants of weakly nonlinear elasticity from [Formula: see text]1.3 to [Formula: see text]20.6 kPa and from 3.1 to 8.7 kPa, respectively. Paired [Formula: see text] test performed on the experimental results of the left and right lobes of the brain shows no significant difference. These values are in line with those reported in the literature on brain tissue, indicating that the SSI method, combined to the inverse analysis, is an efficient and powerful tool for the mechanical characterization of brain tissue, which is of great importance for computer simulation of traumatic brain injury and virtual neurosurgery.

  18. Addressing Data Analysis Challenges in Gravitational Wave Searches Using the Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm (United States)

    Weerathunga, Thilina Shihan


    Gravitational waves are a fundamental prediction of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. The first experimental proof of their existence was provided by the Nobel Prize winning discovery by Taylor and Hulse of orbital decay in a binary pulsar system. The first detection of gravitational waves incident on earth from an astrophysical source was announced in 2016 by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, launching the new era of gravitational wave (GW) astronomy. The signal detected was from the merger of two black holes, which is an example of sources called Compact Binary Coalescences (CBCs). Data analysis strategies used in the search for CBC signals are derivatives of the Maximum-Likelihood (ML) method. The ML method applied to data from a network of geographically distributed GW detectors--called fully coherent network analysis--is currently the best approach for estimating source location and GW polarization waveforms. However, in the case of CBCs, especially for lower mass systems (O(1M solar masses)) such as double neutron star binaries, fully coherent network analysis is computationally expensive. The ML method requires locating the global maximum of the likelihood function over a nine dimensional parameter space, where the computation of the likelihood at each point requires correlations involving O(104) to O(106) samples between the data and the corresponding candidate signal waveform template. Approximations, such as semi-coherent coincidence searches, are currently used to circumvent the computational barrier but incur a concomitant loss in sensitivity. We explored the effectiveness of Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), a well-known algorithm in the field of swarm intelligence, in addressing the fully coherent network analysis problem. As an example, we used a four-detector network consisting of the two LIGO detectors at Hanford and Livingston, Virgo and Kagra, all having initial LIGO noise power spectral densities, and show that PSO can locate the global

  19. Coherent-state analysis of the seismic head wave problem: an overcomplete representation and its relationship to rays and beams (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.


    caustic and pseudocaustic problems. It may be said to unify the Maslov and standard Gaussian-beam methods of seismic modelling, in part by avoiding the ray-centered coordinates conventionally employed in the latter. The general idea of such overlapping partial wave expansions, their flexibility and the smoothing they impart may have other benefits in seismic analysis and processing.

  20. Full-Wave Analysis of Traveling-Wave Field-Effect Transistors Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Narahara


    Full Text Available Nonlinear transmission lines, which define transmission lines periodically loaded with nonlinear devices such as varactors, diodes, and transistors, are modeled in the framework of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. Originally, some root-finding routine is needed to evaluate the contributions of nonlinear device currents appropriately to the temporally advanced electrical fields. Arbitrary nonlinear transmission lines contain large amount of nonlinear devices; therefore, it costs too much time to complete calculations. To reduce the calculation time, we recently developed a simple model of diodes to eliminate root-finding routines in an FDTD solver. Approximating the diode current-voltage relation by a piecewise-linear function, an extended Ampere's law is solved in a closed form for the time-advanced electrical fields. In this paper, we newly develop an FDTD model of field-effect transistors (FETs, together with several numerical examples that demonstrate pulse-shortening phenomena in a traveling-wave FET.

  1. MmWave Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication :Analysis of Urban Microcellular Networks (United States)


    Vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communication may provide high data rates to vehicles via millimeterwave (mmWave) microcellular networks. This report uses stochastic geometry to analyze the coverage of urban mmWave microcellular networks. Prior work ...

  2. Listening to music during shock wave lithotripsy decreases anxiety, pain, and dissatisfaction : A randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Cakmak, Ozgur; Cimen, Sertac; Tarhan, Huseyin; Ekin, Rahmi Gokhan; Akarken, Ilker; Ulker, Volkan; Celik, Orcun; Yucel, Cem; Kisa, Erdem; Ergani, Batuhan; Cetin, Taha; Kozacioglu, Zafer


    We analyzed the effects of music on pain, anxiety, and overall satisfaction in patients undergoing a shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) procedure. A total of 200 patients scheduled to undergo SWL were included in this study. Group 1 consisted of 95 patients who listened to music during the SWL session while group 2 included 105 patients who did not listen music during the procedure. State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used to assess state and trait anxiety (STAI-S/T). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used at the end of the session in order to assess pain, willingness to repeat the procedure, and overall patient satisfaction. Hemodynamic parameters including systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded before and after the session. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of stone characteristics, SWL parameters, pre-SWL STAI-T/S scores, and pre-SWL hemodynamic parameters. Post-SWL STAI-S scores were found to be lower in patients who listened to music (p = 0.006). At the end of the SWL, VAS scores of pain, satisfaction, and willingness to repeat procedure were significantly different in favor of the music group (p = 0.007, p = 0.001, p = 0.015, respectively). SBP, DBP, and HR were significantly higher in patients who did not listen to music (p = 0.002, p = 0.024, p = 0.001, respectively). Music can be an ideal adjunctive treatment modality for patients undergoing SWL treatment. It has the potential to enhance patient compliance and treatment satisfaction by reducing the procedure-related anxiety and pain perception.

  3. Comparison of YAG Laser Lithotripsy and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy in Treatment of Ureteral Calculi: A Meta-Analysis. (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Li, Shijun; Cui, Yingdong


    To evaluate the clinical efficiency and safety of ureteroscopy lithotripsy (URSL) with holmium laser technology and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) on ureteral calculi using systematic reviews. Randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled trials accorded with inclusion among PubMed Database, EmBase Database, Cochrane Library and China National Knowledge Infrastructure were collected. Review Manager 5.0 was adopted to estimate the effects of the results among selected articles. Forest plots, sensitivity analysis and bias analysis for the articles included were also conducted. Pooled estimate of risk ratios and standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% CIs were used as measures of effect sizes. Finally 1,770 patients were included in the 14 studies, which eventually satisfied the eligibility criteria. The number of patients in URSL group and ESWL group were 885 and 885, respectively. The results of heterogeneity test suggested that complication events (RR 1.12 (95% CI 0.63-2.00), p = 0.70), hospital days (SMD = -0.08 (95% CI -1.14 to 0.98), p = 0.88) and efficiency quotient (RR 1.31 (95% CI 0.96-1.80), p = 0.09) were insignificantly different, while the stone-free rate (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.06-1.26), p = 0.002) and operation time (SMD = -2.27 (95% CI -3.42 to -1.11), p = 0.0001) between ESWL and URSL were significantly different. Although both URSL and ESWL have its own advantages and drawbacks, URSL is relatively a more efficient and safe method to treat ureteric stones, since it has shorter operation time and a better stone-free rate. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Hydrodynamic analysis of a floating body with an open chamber using a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed Uzair


    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic analysis of a surface-piercing body with an open chamber was performed with incident regular waves and forced-heaving body motions. The floating body was simulated in the time domain using a 2D fully nonlinear numerical wave tank (NWT technique based on potential theory. This paper focuses on the hydrodynamic behavior of the free surfaces inside the chamber for various input conditions, including a two-input system: both incident wave profiles and forced body velocities were implemented in order to calculate the maximum surface elevations for the respective inputs and evaluate their interactions. An appropriate equivalent linear or quadratic viscous damping coefficient, which was selected from experimental data, was employed on the free surface boundary inside the chamber to account for the viscous energy loss on the system. Then a comprehensive parametric study was performed to investigate the nonlinear behavior of the wave-body interaction.

  5. Newmark-Beta-FDTD method for super-resolution analysis of time reversal waves (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bing; Shao, Wei; Ma, Jing; Jin, Congjun; Wang, Xiao-Hua


    In this work, a new unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with the split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the analysis of time reversal (TR) waves. The proposed method is very suitable for multiscale problems involving microstructures. The spatial and temporal derivatives in this method are discretized by the central difference technique and Newmark-Beta algorithm, respectively, and the derivation results in the calculation of a banded-sparse matrix equation. Since the coefficient matrix keeps unchanged during the whole simulation process, the lower-upper (LU) decomposition of the matrix needs to be performed only once at the beginning of the calculation. Moreover, the reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) technique, an effective preprocessing technique in bandwidth compression of sparse matrices, is used to improve computational efficiency. The super-resolution focusing of TR wave propagation in two- and three-dimensional spaces is included to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  6. Experiment and analysis of shock waves radiated from pulse laser focusing in a gelatin gel (United States)

    Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Ando, Keita


    A fundamental understanding of shock and bubble dynamics in human tissues is essential to laser application for medical purposes. Here, we experimentally study the dynamics of shock waves in viscoelastic media. A nanosecond laser pulse of wavelength at 532 nm and of energy up to 2.66 +/- 0.09 mJ was focused through a microscope objective lens (10 x, NA = 0.30) into a gel of gelatin concentration at 3 and 10 wt%; a shock wave and a bubble can be generated, respectively, by rapid expansion of the laser-induced plasma and local heat deposition after the plasma recombines. The shock propagation and the bubble growth were recorded by a ultra-high-speed camera at 100 Mfps. The shock evolution was determined by image analysis of the recording and the shock pressure in the near field was computed according to the Rankine-Hugoniot relation. The far-field pressure was measured by a hydrophone. In the poster, we will present the decay rate of the shock pressure in the near and far fields and examine viscous effects on the shock dynamics. The Research Grant of Keio Leading-edge Laboratory of Science & Technology.

  7. Energy decomposition analysis of intermolecular interactions using a block-localized wave function approach (United States)

    Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Peyerimhoff, Sigrid D.


    An energy decomposition scheme based on the block-localized wave function (BLW) method is proposed. The key of this scheme is the definition and the full optimization of the diabatic state wave function, where the charge transfer among interacting molecules is deactivated. The present energy decomposition (ED), BLW-ED, method is similar to the Morokuma decomposition scheme in definition of the energy terms, but differs in implementation and the computational algorithm. In addition, in the BLW-ED approach, the basis set superposition error is fully taken into account. The application of this scheme to the water dimer and the lithium cation-water clusters reveals that there is minimal charge transfer effect in hydrogen-bonded complexes. At the HF/aug-cc-PVTZ level, the electrostatic, polarization, and charge-transfer effects contribute 65%, 24%, and 11%, respectively, to the total bonding energy (-3.84 kcal/mol) in the water dimer. On the other hand, charge transfer effects are shown to be significant in Lewis acid-base complexes such as H3NSO3 and H3NBH3. In this work, the effect of basis sets used on the energy decomposition analysis is addressed and the results manifest that the present energy decomposition scheme is stable with a modest size of basis functions.

  8. Mantle upwelling beneath Madagascar: evidence from receiver function analysis and shear wave splitting (United States)

    Paul, Jonathan D.; Eakin, Caroline M.


    Crustal receiver functions have been calculated from 128 events for two three-component broadband seismomenters located on the south coast (FOMA) and in the central High Plateaux (ABPO) of Madagascar. For each station, crustal thickness and V p / V s ratio were estimated from H- κ plots. Self-consistent receiver functions from a smaller back-azimuthal range were then selected, stacked and inverted to determine shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. These results were corroborated by guided forward modeling and by Monte Carlo error analysis. The crust is found to be thinner (39 ± 0.7 km) beneath the highland center of Madagascar compared to the coast (44 ± 1.6 km), which is the opposite of what would be expected for crustal isostasy, suggesting that present-day long wavelength topography is maintained, at least in part, dynamically. This inference of dynamic support is corroborated by shear wave splitting analyses at the same stations, which produce an overwhelming majority of null results (>96 %), as expected for vertical mantle flow or asthenospheric upwelling beneath the island. These findings suggest a sub-plate origin for dynamic support.

  9. Theoretical analysis of four wave mixing in quantum dot optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Tommy Winther; Mørk, Jesper


    The four wave mixing properties of semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers have been investigated. The combination of strong non-equilibrium depletion of dot levels and a small linewidth enhancement factor results in efficient and symmetric four wave mixing.......The four wave mixing properties of semiconductor quantum dot amplifiers have been investigated. The combination of strong non-equilibrium depletion of dot levels and a small linewidth enhancement factor results in efficient and symmetric four wave mixing....

  10. Constrained Parameterization of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Approach with Application at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona (United States)

    Schwenk, Jacob Tyler

    Field data from Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona was used to test the feasibility of merging common multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) processing routines with mode-consistent shear-wave refraction traveltime tomography and synthetic modeling to optimize and constrain inversion results. Shear-wave first-arrival refraction tomography was used to enhance layer-model resolution and refine the MASW layer model with independent body-wave information. Shear-wave tomograms suggested a high-velocity layer, not found in initial 'smooth' MASW velocity sections that were used as initial models for tomographic inversion. Increasing the stratification of the MASW layer model, to generally match tomogram structure, resulted in a higher-resolution MASW model constrained through joint analysis. This mutual analysis of shear-wave velocity (Vs) provided multiplicity to the structural interpretation of the site. Constrained-parameterization MASW results, compressional-wave tomography (Vp:Vs ratio), and density well logs populated a 2D model for numerical modeling, which was manually updated over several iterations to converge upon the site's first-arrival and dispersion characteristics. Further evaluation of the synthetic seismograms gave insight into the relationship between acquisition geometry (offset selection) and the associated dispersion-image character. Furthermore, modeling gave a secondary measurement on depth to half-space, velocity structure, and relative Vp:Vs ratios, which formulated a final MASW profile. The gradual change of the earth model, given an evolving hierarchy of constraint, is seen as the main finding of this thesis. The calculated movement towards a higher-resolution inversion based on joint geophysical measurements, analysis, and interpretation, engenders a constrained-parameterization solution with highest confidence.

  11. Standing Waves in an Elastic Spring: A Systematic Study by Video Analysis (United States)

    Rodrigues Ventura, Daniel; Simeão de Carvalho, Paulo; Adriano Dias, Marco


    The word "wave" is part of the daily language of every student. However, the physical understanding of the concept demands a high level of abstract thought. In physics, waves are oscillating variations of a physical quantity that involve the transfer of energy from one point to another, without displacement of matter. A wave can be…

  12. Stochastic Geometric Coverage Analysis in mmWave Cellular Networks with a Realistic Channel Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebato, Mattia; Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar


    Wave interference and SIR coverage under large-scale deployments. For this purpose, we apply an accurate mmWave channel model, derived from experiments, into an analytical framework based on stochastic geometry. In this way we obtain a closed-form SIR coverage probability in large-scale mmWave cellular networks....

  13. Analysis on Non-Resonance Standing Waves and Vibration Tracks of Strings (United States)

    Fang, Tian-Shen


    This paper presents an experimental technique to observe the vibration tracks of string standing waves. From the vibration tracks, we can analyse the vibration directions of harmonic waves. For the harmonic wave vibrations of strings, when the driving frequency f[subscript s] = Nf[subscript n] (N = 1, 2, 3, 4,...), both resonance and non-resonance…

  14. Random-effects regression analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. (United States)

    Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Hu, F B


    Random-effects regression modelling is proposed for analysis of correlated grouped-time survival data. Two analysis approaches are considered. The first treats survival time as an ordinal outcome, which is either right-censored or not. The second approach treats survival time as a set of dichotomous indicators of whether the event occurred for time periods up to the period of the event or censor. For either approach both proportional hazards and proportional odds versions of the random-effects model are developed, while partial proportional hazards and odds generalizations are described for the latter approach. For estimation, a full-information maximum marginal likelihood solution is implemented using numerical quadrature to integrate over the distribution of multiple random effects. The quadrature solution allows some flexibility in the choice of distributions for the random effects; both normal and rectangular distributions are considered in this article. An analysis of a dataset where students are clustered within schools is used to illustrate features of random-effects analysis of clustered grouped-time survival data.

  15. Analysis and Synthesis of Leaky-Wave Devices in Planar Technology (United States)

    Martinez Ros, Alejandro Javier

    The work developed along this doctoral thesis has been focused on the analysis and synthesis of microwave devices in planar technology. In particular, several types of devices based on the radiation mechanism of leaky waves have been studied. Typically, the radiation properties in leaky-wave devices are determined by the complex propagation constant of the leaky mode, wherein the phase constant is responsible for the pointing angle and the leakage rate for the intensity of the radiated fields. In this manner, by controlling both amplitude and phase of the leaky mode, an effective control over the device's radiation diagram can be obtained. Moreover, with the purpose of efficiently obtaining the leaky mode's radiation properties as function of the main geometrical parameters of the structure, several modal tools based on the transverse resonance analysis of the structure have been performed. In order to demonstrate this simultaneous control over the complex propagation constant in planar technology, several types of leaky-wave devices, including antennas (LWAs), multiplexors and near-field focusing systems, have been designed and manufactured in the technology of substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). This recently proposed technology, allows the design of devices based on classical waveguide technology with standard manufacturing techniques used for printed circuit board (PCB) designs. In this way, most of the parts that form a communication system can be integrated into a single substrate, thus reducing its cost and providing a more robust and compact device, which has less losses compared to other planar technologies such as the microstrip. El trabajo llevado a cabo durante la realizacion de esta tesis doctoral, se ha centrado en el analisis y sintesis de dispositivos de microondas en tecnologia planar. En concreto, se han estudiado diferentes tipos de dispositivos basados en radiacion por ondas de fuga "leaky waves", en los cuales las propiedades de radiacion

  16. Experimental approach to validation of an analytical and numerical thermal analysis of a travelling wave tube (United States)

    Wiejak, W.; Wymysłowski, A.


    Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) is an electronic vacuum microwave device, which is used as a high power microwave amplifier, mainly in telecommunication purposes, e.g. radar systems. TWT's is an alternative solution in comparison to semiconductor devices in case of high power and high frequency applications. Thermal behaviour of TWT is one of the key aspects influencing its reliability and working parameters. The main goal of the research was to perform analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of a temperature distribution of a low band TWT in case of a typical working condition. Because the theoretical analysis seems to be very complex thus it was decided to compare the experimental results with the numerical simulations as well as with the simplified analytical formulas. As a first step of the presented research, the analytical analysis and numerical modelling of the helix TWT was carried out. The objective of the thermal analysis was to assess the temperature distribution in different parts of the helix TWT assembly during the extreme standard and working conditions. As a second stage of the research the numerical results were validated by the experimental measurements, which were carried out using a specially designed TWT test samples and corresponding experimental measurement tools.

  17. Physical modeling and analysis of P-wave attenuation anisotropy in transversely isotropic media

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zhu, Y.; Tsvankin, I.; Dewangan, P.; Van Wijk, K.

    , weakly anisotropic media H20849for more details, see Zhu and Ts- vankin, 2006H20850. Hereafter, we assume that wave propagation is homo- geneous and k? = nH20849k - ikIH20850, where n is the unit slowness vector. As discussed in Carcione H208492001H20850..., and type-II S waves in anelastic solids; Inhomogeneous wave fields in low-loss solids: Bulletin of the Seismological Society ofAmerica, 75, 1729?1763. Carcione, J. M., 2001, Wave fields in real media: Wave propagation in aniso- tropic, anelastic, and porous...

  18. Central blood pressure assessment using 24-hour brachial pulse wave analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiesan ML


    Full Text Available Maria Lorenza Muiesan, Massimo Salvetti, Fabio Bertacchini, Claudia Agabiti-Rosei, Giulia Maruelli, Efrem Colonetti, Anna Paini Clinica Medica, Department of Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy Abstract: This review describes the use of central blood pressure (BP measurements during ambulatory monitoring, using noninvasive devices. The principles of measuring central BP by applanation tonometry and by oscillometry are reported, and information on device validation studies is described. The pathophysiological basis for the differences between brachial and aortic pressure is discussed. The currently available methods for central aortic pressure measurement are relatively accurate, and their use has important clinical implications, such as improving diagnostic and prognostic stratification of hypertension and providing a more accurate assessment of the effect of treatment on BP. Keywords: aortic blood pressure measurements, ambulatory monitoring, pulse wave analysis

  19. Analysis of 38 GHz mmWave Propagation Characteristics of Urban Scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Larrad, Ignacio; Nguyen, Huan Cong; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard


    The 38 GHz mm-wave frequency band is a strong candidate for the future deployment of wireless systems. Compared to lower frequency bands, propagation in the 38 GHz band is relatively unexplored for access networks in urban scenarios. This paper presents a detailed measurement-based analysis......, diffraction, transmission, as well as polarization effects. The measurement results confirm that, at this particular frequency, propagation in urban scenarios is mainly driven by line-of-sight and reflection. The proposed models are practical for implementation in system level simulators or ray-tracing tools...... of urban outdoor and outdoor-to-indoor propagation characteristics at 38 GHz. Different sets of measurements were performed in order to understand, quantify and model the behavior of the different underlying propagation mechanisms. The study considers line-of-sight propagation, reflection, scattering...

  20. Numerical Analysis of a Large Floating Wave Energy Converter with Adjustable Structural Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferri, Francesco; Pecher, Arthur Francois Serge; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    The current cost of energy (CoE) from wave energy converters (WECs) is still significantly higher than other renewable energy resources, thus the sector has not yet reached a competitive level. WECs have a relative small turnover compared to the high capital cost, which to a large extent is driven...... by the structural loads in extreme conditions. TheWeptos is a large floating WEC, with multiple absorbers, which has proven to be a serious candidate for the renewable energy market, due to both relevant power performance and reduced cost if compared with other WECs. The scope of this article is to compare two...... different configurations of the Weptos machine, using the cost of energy (CoE) as a base of comparison. The numerical results are obtained via a multi-body analysis carried out in frequency domain....