#### Sample records for random variable soft

1. Strong Decomposition of Random Variables

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hoffmann-Jørgensen, Jørgen; Kagan, Abram M.; Pitt, Loren D.

2007-01-01

A random variable X is stongly decomposable if X=Y+Z where Y=Φ(X) and Z=X-Φ(X) are independent non-degenerated random variables (called the components). It is shown that at least one of the components is singular, and we derive a necessary and sufficient condition for strong decomposability...... of a discrete random variable....

2. Students' Misconceptions about Random Variables

Science.gov (United States)

Kachapova, Farida; Kachapov, Ilias

2012-01-01

This article describes some misconceptions about random variables and related counter-examples, and makes suggestions about teaching initial topics on random variables in general form instead of doing it separately for discrete and continuous cases. The focus is on post-calculus probability courses. (Contains 2 figures.)

3. Free random variables

CERN Document Server

Voiculescu, Dan; Nica, Alexandru

1992-01-01

This book presents the first comprehensive introduction to free probability theory, a highly noncommutative probability theory with independence based on free products instead of tensor products. Basic examples of this kind of theory are provided by convolution operators on free groups and by the asymptotic behavior of large Gaussian random matrices. The probabilistic approach to free products has led to a recent surge of new results on the von Neumann algebras of free groups. The book is ideally suited as a textbook for an advanced graduate course and could also provide material for a seminar. In addition to researchers and graduate students in mathematics, this book will be of interest to physicists and others who use random matrices.

4. Symmetrization of binary random variables

OpenAIRE

Kagan, Abram; Mallows, Colin L.; Shepp, Larry A.; Vanderbei, Robert J.; Vardi, Yehuda

1999-01-01

A random variable [math] is called an independent symmetrizer of a given random variable [math] if (a) it is independent of [math] and (b) the distribution of [math] is symmetric about [math] . In cases where the distribution of [math] is symmetric about its mean, it is easy to see that the constant random variable [math] is a minimum-variance independent symmetrizer. Taking [math] to have the same distribution as [math] clearly produces a symmetric sum, but it may not be of minimum variance....

5. Low-temperature random matrix theory at the soft edge

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Edelman, Alan [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Persson, Per-Olof [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Sutton, Brian D. [Department of Mathematics, Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

2014-06-15

“Low temperature” random matrix theory is the study of random eigenvalues as energy is removed. In standard notation, β is identified with inverse temperature, and low temperatures are achieved through the limit β → ∞. In this paper, we derive statistics for low-temperature random matrices at the “soft edge,” which describes the extreme eigenvalues for many random matrix distributions. Specifically, new asymptotics are found for the expected value and standard deviation of the general-β Tracy-Widom distribution. The new techniques utilize beta ensembles, stochastic differential operators, and Riccati diffusions. The asymptotics fit known high-temperature statistics curiously well and contribute to the larger program of general-β random matrix theory.

6. Low-temperature random matrix theory at the soft edge

Science.gov (United States)

Edelman, Alan; Persson, Per-Olof; Sutton, Brian D.

2014-06-01

"Low temperature" random matrix theory is the study of random eigenvalues as energy is removed. In standard notation, β is identified with inverse temperature, and low temperatures are achieved through the limit β → ∞. In this paper, we derive statistics for low-temperature random matrices at the "soft edge," which describes the extreme eigenvalues for many random matrix distributions. Specifically, new asymptotics are found for the expected value and standard deviation of the general-β Tracy-Widom distribution. The new techniques utilize beta ensembles, stochastic differential operators, and Riccati diffusions. The asymptotics fit known high-temperature statistics curiously well and contribute to the larger program of general-β random matrix theory.

7. Random Matrix Theory of Rigidity in Soft Matter

Science.gov (United States)

Yamanaka, Masanori

2015-06-01

We study the rigidity or softness of soft matter using the characteristic scale of coupling formation developed in random matrix theory. The eigensystems of the timescale-dependent cross-correlation matrix, which are obtained from the time series data of the atomic coordinates of a protein produced by the all-atom molecular dynamics of the solvent, are analyzed. As an example, we present a result for a protein lysozyme, PDBID:1AKI. We find that there are at least three different time scales involved in the coupling formation of correlated sectors of atoms and at least two different time scales for the size of the correlated sectors. These five time scales coexist simultaneously. We compare the results with those of the normal mode analysis and find a crossover of the distribution of the dominant vibrational components.

8. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables.

Science.gov (United States)

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N; Cervantes, Víctor H; Kujala, Janne V

2017-11-13

Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables.This article is part of the themed issue 'Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'. © 2017 The Author(s).

9. Contextuality in canonical systems of random variables

Science.gov (United States)

Dzhafarov, Ehtibar N.; Cervantes, Víctor H.; Kujala, Janne V.

2017-10-01

Random variables representing measurements, broadly understood to include any responses to any inputs, form a system in which each of them is uniquely identified by its content (that which it measures) and its context (the conditions under which it is recorded). Two random variables are jointly distributed if and only if they share a context. In a canonical representation of a system, all random variables are binary, and every content-sharing pair of random variables has a unique maximal coupling (the joint distribution imposed on them so that they coincide with maximal possible probability). The system is contextual if these maximal couplings are incompatible with the joint distributions of the context-sharing random variables. We propose to represent any system of measurements in a canonical form and to consider the system contextual if and only if its canonical representation is contextual. As an illustration, we establish a criterion for contextuality of the canonical system consisting of all dichotomizations of a single pair of content-sharing categorical random variables. This article is part of the themed issue Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

10. Design of a Variable Stiffness Soft Dexterous Gripper

Science.gov (United States)

Nefti-Meziani, Samia; Davis, Steve

2017-01-01

Abstract This article presents the design of a variable stiffness, soft, three-fingered dexterous gripper. The gripper uses two designs of McKibben muscles. Extensor muscles that increase in length when pressurized are used to form the fingers of the gripper. Contractor muscles that decrease in length when pressurized are then used to apply forces to the fingers through tendons, which cause flexion and extension of the fingers. The two types of muscles are arranged to act antagonistically and this means that by raising the pressure in all of the pneumatic muscles, the stiffness of the system can be increased without a resulting change in finger position. The article presents the design of the gripper, some basic kinematics to describe its function, and then experimental results demonstrating the ability to adjust the bending stiffness of the gripper's fingers. It has been demonstrated that the fingers' bending stiffness can be increased by more than 150%. The article concludes by demonstrating that the fingers can be closed loop position controlled and are able to track step and sinusoidal inputs. PMID:29062630

11. Probabilistic graphs using coupled random variables

Science.gov (United States)

Nelson, Kenric P.; Barbu, Madalina; Scannell, Brian J.

2014-05-01

Neural network design has utilized flexible nonlinear processes which can mimic biological systems, but has suffered from a lack of traceability in the resulting network. Graphical probabilistic models ground network design in probabilistic reasoning, but the restrictions reduce the expressive capability of each node making network designs complex. The ability to model coupled random variables using the calculus of nonextensive statistical mechanics provides a neural node design incorporating nonlinear coupling between input states while maintaining the rigor of probabilistic reasoning. A generalization of Bayes rule using the coupled product enables a single node to model correlation between hundreds of random variables. A coupled Markov random field is designed for the inferencing and classification of UCI's MLR Multiple Features Data Set' such that thousands of linear correlation parameters can be replaced with a single coupling parameter with just a (3%, 4%) reduction in (classification, inference) performance.

12. Microwave single-scattering properties of randomly oriented soft-ice hydrometeors

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

D. Casella

2008-11-01

Full Text Available Large ice hydrometeors are usually present in intense convective clouds and may significantly affect the upwelling radiances that are measured by satellite-borne microwave radiometers – especially, at millimeter-wavelength frequencies. Thus, interpretation of these measurements (e.g., for precipitation retrieval requires knowledge of the single scattering properties of ice particles. On the other hand, shape and internal structure of these particles (especially, the larger ones is very complex and variable, and therefore it is necessary to resort to simplifying assumptions in order to compute their single-scattering parameters.

In this study, we use the discrete dipole approximation (DDA to compute the absorption and scattering efficiencies and the asymmetry factor of two kinds of quasi-spherical and non-homogeneous soft-ice particles in the frequency range 50–183 GHz. Particles of the first kind are modeled as quasi-spherical ice particles having randomly distributed spherical air inclusions. Particles of the second kind are modeled as random aggregates of ice spheres having random radii. In both cases, particle densities and dimensions are coherent with the snow hydrometeor category that is utilized by the University of Wisconsin – Non-hydrostatic Modeling System (UW-NMS cloud-mesoscale model. Then, we compare our single-scattering results for randomly-oriented soft-ice hydrometeors with corresponding ones that make use of: a effective-medium equivalent spheres, b solid-ice equivalent spheres, and c randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders. Finally, we extend to our particles the scattering formulas that have been developed by other authors for randomly-oriented aggregates of ice cylinders.

13. Maximal Inequalities for Dependent Random Variables

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hoffmann-Jorgensen, Jorgen

2016-01-01

Maximal inequalities play a crucial role in many probabilistic limit theorem; for instance, the law of large numbers, the law of the iterated logarithm, the martingale limit theorem and the central limit theorem. Let X-1, X-2,... be random variables with partial sums S-k = X-1 + ... + X......-k. Then a maximal inequality gives conditions ensuring that the maximal partial sum M-n = max(1) (...

14. Fast Generation of Discrete Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

George Marsaglia

2004-07-01

Full Text Available We describe two methods and provide C programs for generating discrete random variables with functions that are simple and fast, averaging ten times as fast as published methods and more than five times as fast as the fastest of those. We provide general procedures for implementing the two methods, as well as specific procedures for three of the most important discrete distributions: Poisson, binomial and hypergeometric.

15. Lightweight, Soft Variable Stiffness Gel Spats for Walking Assistance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yi Li

2015-12-01

Full Text Available With the rapid development of the aging society, many of the elderly people are in need of nursing care for their daily activities. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed to support the daily activities of elderly people and to lighten the heavy burden of nursing. We think the technology of soft actuators should be one of the key issues for developing such technologies. In this study, we focused on walking assistance for daily life and presented a preliminary work of developing novel poly vinyl chloride (PVC gel actuator-based lightweight and soft wearable assistive spats for supporting the walking motion of human. The PVC gel devices are incorporated in the generally used spats. The stiffness of the gel spats can be actively varied with the applied DC field turned on and off. The gel spats have the characteristics of a simple structure, a lightweight, easy to put on and take off, and with a high flexibility. A prototype was tested in the motions of lifting a foot and walking. It was found that the integrated electromyogram (IEMG and maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC values of the rectus femoris muscle reduced with the assistance of the gel spats, which demonstrated the potential of the gel spats as a device for walking assistance.

16. Intrinsic variability in shell and soft tissue growth of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis siliquoidea.

Science.gov (United States)

Larson, James H; Eckert, Nathan L; Bartsch, Michelle R

2014-01-01

Freshwater mussels are ecologically and economically important members of many aquatic ecosystems, but are globally among the most imperiled taxa. Propagation techniques for mussels have been developed and used to boost declining and restore extirpated populations. Here we use a cohort of propagated mussels to estimate the intrinsic variability in size and growth rate of Lampsilis siliquoidea (a commonly propagated species). Understanding the magnitude and pattern of variation in data is critical to determining whether effects observed in nature or experimental treatments are likely to be important. The coefficient of variation (CV) of L. siliquoidea soft tissues (6.0%) was less than the CV of linear shell dimensions (25.1-66.9%). Size-weight relationships were best when mussel width (the maximum left-right dimension with both valves appressed) was used as a predictor, but 95% credible intervals on these predictions for soft tissues were ∼145 mg wide (about 50% of the mean soft tissue mass). Mussels in this study were treated identically, raised from a single cohort and yet variation in soft tissue mass at a particular size class (as determined by shell dimensions) was still high. High variability in mussel size is often acknowledged, but seldom discussed in the context of mussel conservation. High variability will influence the survival of stocked juvenile cohorts, may affect the ability to experimentally detect sublethal stressors and may lead to incongruities between the effects that mussels have on structure (via hard shells) and biogeochemical cycles (via soft tissue metabolism). Given their imperiled status and longevity, there is often reluctance to destructively sample unionid mussel soft tissues even in metabolic studies (e.g., studies of nutrient cycling). High intrinsic variability suggests that using shell dimensions (particularly shell length) as a response variable in studies of sublethal stressors or metabolic processes will make confident

17. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 22; Issue 4. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright ... no correlation between them. There is no distinct variation of the photon index in the case of simple power law model fitting. For power law + free absorption model fitting, the average photon index () is 2.08.

18. The Common Information of N Dependent Random Variables

CERN Document Server

Liu, Wei; Chen, Biao

2010-01-01

This paper generalizes Wyner's definition of common information of a pair of random variables to that of $N$ random variables. We prove coding theorems that show the same operational meanings for the common information of two random variables generalize to that of $N$ random variables. As a byproduct of our proof, we show that the Gray-Wyner source coding network can be generalized to $N$ source squences with $N$ decoders. We also establish a monotone property of Wyner's common information which is in contrast to other notions of the common information, specifically Shannon's mutual information and G\\'{a}cs and K\\"{o}rner's common randomness. Examples about the computation of Wyner's common information of $N$ random variables are also given.

19. Soft sensor modeling based on variable partition ensemble method for nonlinear batch processes

Science.gov (United States)

Wang, Li; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Kai; Jin, Huaiping

2017-01-01

Batch processes are always characterized by nonlinear and system uncertain properties, therefore, the conventional single model may be ill-suited. A local learning strategy soft sensor based on variable partition ensemble method is developed for the quality prediction of nonlinear and non-Gaussian batch processes. A set of input variable sets are obtained by bootstrapping and PMI criterion. Then, multiple local GPR models are developed based on each local input variable set. When a new test data is coming, the posterior probability of each best performance local model is estimated based on Bayesian inference and used to combine these local GPR models to get the final prediction result. The proposed soft sensor is demonstrated by applying to an industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

20. The impact of soft skills training on female youth employment: Evidence from a randomized experiment in Jordan

OpenAIRE

Groh, Matthew; Krishnan, Nandini; McKenzie, David; Vishwanath, Tara

2016-01-01

Employers around the world complain that youth lack the soft skills needed for success in the workplace. In response, a number of employment programs have begun to incorporate soft skills training, but to date there has been little evidence as to the effectiveness of such programs. This paper reports on a randomized experiment in Jordan in which female community college graduates were randomly assigned to a soft skills training program. Despite this program being twice as long in length as th...

1. Ensemble of randomized soft decision trees for robust classification

G KISHOR KUMAR

τ + w/2 then it belongs to fuzzy block B2 called with a linguistic variable “tall”, otherwise it belongs to both fuzzy blocks “short” and “tall” with some fuzzy membership val- ues as shown in figure 1(b) where w is overlapping width of two fuzzy blocks “short” and “tall”. The fuzzy membership value can be calculated as follows.

2. A bootstrapping soft shrinkage approach for variable selection in chemical modeling.

Science.gov (United States)

Deng, Bai-Chuan; Yun, Yong-Huan; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Yin, Yu-Long; Wang, Wei-Ting; Lu, Hong-Mei; Luo, Qian-Yi; Liang, Yi-Zeng

2016-02-18

In this study, a new variable selection method called bootstrapping soft shrinkage (BOSS) method is developed. It is derived from the idea of weighted bootstrap sampling (WBS) and model population analysis (MPA). The weights of variables are determined based on the absolute values of regression coefficients. WBS is applied according to the weights to generate sub-models and MPA is used to analyze the sub-models to update weights for variables. The optimization procedure follows the rule of soft shrinkage, in which less important variables are not eliminated directly but are assigned smaller weights. The algorithm runs iteratively and terminates until the number of variables reaches one. The optimal variable set with the lowest root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV) is selected. The method was tested on three groups of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic datasets, i.e. corn datasets, diesel fuels datasets and soy datasets. Three high performing variable selection methods, i.e. Monte Carlo uninformative variable elimination (MCUVE), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and genetic algorithm partial least squares (GA-PLS) are used for comparison. The results show that BOSS is promising with improved prediction performance. The Matlab codes for implementing BOSS are freely available on the website: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/52770-boss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

3. Fuzzy random variables — I. definitions and theorems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kwakernaak, H.

1978-01-01

Fuzziness is discussed in the context of multivalued logic, and a corresponding view of fuzzy sets is given. Fuzzy random variables are introduced as random variables whose values are not real but fuzzy numbers, and subsequently redefined as a particular kind of fuzzy set. Expectations of fuzzy

4. On complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mi-Hwa Ko

2016-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to establish the complete moment convergence for nonstationary negatively associated random variables satisfying the weak mean domination condition. The result is an improvement of complete convergence in Marcinkiewicz-Zygmund-type SLLN for negatively associated random variables in Kuczmaszewska (Acta Math. Hung. 128:116-130, 2010.

5. Characterizations of Distributions of Ratios of Certain Independent Random Variables

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Hamedani G.G.

2013-05-01

Full Text Available Various characterizations of the distributions of the ratio of two independent gamma and exponential random variables as well as that of two independent Weibull random variables are presented. These characterizations are based, on a simple relationship between two truncated moments ; on hazard function ; and on functions of order statistics.

6. On the product and ratio of Bessel random variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2005-01-01

Full Text Available The distributions of products and ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this paper, the exact distributions of the product |XY| and the ratio |X/Y| are derived when X and Y are independent Bessel function random variables. An application of the results is provided by tabulating the associated percentage points.

7. Probability, random variables, and random processes theory and signal processing applications

CERN Document Server

Shynk, John J

2012-01-01

Probability, Random Variables, and Random Processes is a comprehensive textbook on probability theory for engineers that provides a more rigorous mathematical framework than is usually encountered in undergraduate courses. It is intended for first-year graduate students who have some familiarity with probability and random variables, though not necessarily of random processes and systems that operate on random signals. It is also appropriate for advanced undergraduate students who have a strong mathematical background. The book has the following features: Several app

8. Efficacy of two soft-bristle toothbrushes in plaque removal: a randomized controlled trial

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Cassiano Kuchenbecker ROSING

Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy in supragingival plaque removal of two soft-bristle toothbrushes. Seventy volunteers were allocated randomly to the Colgate Slim Soft or Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush grourps. At baseline appointment, volunteers underwent plaque examination using the Rustogi Modification of the Navy Plaque Index. Under supervision, they then brushed their teeth for 1minute with their assigned toothbrushes and the plaque examination was repeated. Volunteers performed daily oral hygiene with their assigned toothbrush and a regular dentifrice provided by the researchers for 7 days. The baseline experimental procedures were then repeated. Separate analyses of variance were performed for the whole-mouth, interproximal, and gumline plaque scores (p < 0.05. No difference in baseline pre-brushing scores was found between groups. After a single toothbrushing, the mean plaque score was significantly reduced in both groups (p < 0.05, with greater reduction of whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores observed in the SlimSoft group compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05. After 7 days, the SlimSoft group showed greater reduction of the whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores compared with the Curaprox group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the SlimSoft toothbrush presented greater efficacy in supragingival plaque removal than did the Curaprox CS5460 toothbrush, as reflected by whole-mouth and interproximal plaque scores.

9. Variability of the soft X-ray excess in IRAS 13224-3809

Science.gov (United States)

Kammoun, E.; Papadakis, I.; Sabra, B.

2016-06-01

We study the soft excess variability of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS 13224-3809. We applied the flux-flux plot' (FFP) method to the five archival XMM-Newton observations. We found that the FFPs are highly affected by the choice of the light curves' time bin size, due to the fast and large amplitude variations, and the intrinsic non-linear flux-flux relations in this source. We constructed FFPs in 11 energy bands below 1.7 keV, and considered the 1.7-3 keV band, as representative of the primary emission. The FFPs are well fitted by a power-law plus a constant' model. The constants are positive in three out of five observations, consistent with zero in one observation, and negative below 1 keV in another. The best-fit slopes are flatter than unity at energies below ˜ 0.9 keV, suggesting the presence of intrinsic spectral variability. A power-law-like primary component, variable in flux and spectral slope (Γ∝ N_{PL}^{0.1}) and a soft-excess component, varying with the primary continuum (F_{excess}∝ F_{primary}^{0.46}), can explain the FFPs. In fact, this can create positive constants', even when a stable spectral component does not exist. The negative and null constants, unexplainable by spectral variability, may signify the presence of an intrinsic variable, warm absorber.

10. Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

2012-01-01

Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.......e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization...... of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects...

11. Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications

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Yang Shanchao

2008-01-01

Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.

12. Separation metrics for real-valued random variables

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Michael D. Taylor

1984-01-01

Full Text Available If W is a fixed, real-valued random variable, then there are simple and easily satisfied conditions under which the function dW, where dW(X,Y= the probability that W separates the real-valued random variables X and Y, turns out to be a metric. The observation was suggested by work done in [1].

13. On Approach of Intelligent Soft Computing for Variables Estimate of Process Control System

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Zaiwen; Wang, Xiaoyi; Cui, Lifeng

A new approach of intelligent soft computing based on process neural network for variables estimate of process control system was proposed. Process neural network (PNN) is a new type of artificial neural network put forward in recent years. Some algorithms of PNN were discussed, and convergence rate was comparatively low. An improved algorithm for raising training speed based on function orthogonal basis expansion in PNN for soft computing was researched. After increasing the normalizing rule on original algorithm, and introducing function momentum adjustment item and learning rate automatically adjustment method for network weight function, the training time of learning algorithm for PNN was reduced. The fact showed that the stability and training precision was improved with the learning rate automatic adjustment method, and it can also restrain the network falls into local least by introducing momentum adjustment item,and a good result of application in sewage disposal system was represented.

14. Rational design of soft mechanical metamaterials: Independent tailoring of elastic properties with randomness

Science.gov (United States)

Mirzaali, M. J.; Hedayati, R.; Vena, P.; Vergani, L.; Strano, M.; Zadpoor, A. A.

2017-07-01

The elastic properties of mechanical metamaterials are direct functions of their topological designs. Rational design approaches based on computational models could, therefore, be used to devise topological designs that result in the desired properties. It is of particular importance to independently tailor the elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio of metamaterials. Here, we present patterned randomness as a strategy for independent tailoring of both properties. Soft mechanical metamaterials incorporating various types of patterned randomness were fabricated using an indirect additive manufacturing technique and mechanically tested. Computational models were also developed to predict the topology-property relationship in a wide range of proposed topologies. The results of this study show that patterned randomness allows for independent tailoring of the elastic properties and covering a broad area of the elastic modulus-Poisson's ratio plane. The uniform and homogenous topologies constitute the boundaries of the covered area, while topological designs with patterned randomness fill the enclosed area.

15. Randomly weighted sums of subexponential random variables with application to ruin theory

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Tang, Q.; Tsitsiashvili, G.

2003-01-01

Let {X k , 1 k n} be n independent and real-valued random variables with common subexponential distribution function, and let {k, 1 k n} be other n random variables independent of {X k , 1 k n} and satisfying a k b for some 0 < a b < for all 1 k n. This paper proves that the asymptotic relations P

16. Pseudo-random Aloha for inter-frame soft combining in RFID systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Castiglione, Paolo; Ricciato, Fabio; Popovski, Petar

2013-01-01

In this work we consider a recently proposed variant of the classical Framed Slotted-ALOHA where slot selection is based on a pseudo-random function of the message to be transmitted and of the frame index. We couple this feature with convolutional encoding, that allows to perform Inter-frame Soft...... cancellation (instead of combining). Numerical simulation results show that the ISoC scheme brings a noticeable throughput gain over traditional schemes in a dense RFID scenario with multiple concurrent Tag transmissions....

17. Random Walk Graph Laplacian-Based Smoothness Prior for Soft Decoding of JPEG Images.

Science.gov (United States)

Liu, Xianming; Cheung, Gene; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhao, Debin

2017-02-01

Given the prevalence of joint photographic experts group (JPEG) compressed images, optimizing image reconstruction from the compressed format remains an important problem. Instead of simply reconstructing a pixel block from the centers of indexed discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficient quantization bins (hard decoding), soft decoding reconstructs a block by selecting appropriate coefficient values within the indexed bins with the help of signal priors. The challenge thus lies in how to define suitable priors and apply them effectively. In this paper, we combine three image priors-Laplacian prior for DCT coefficients, sparsity prior, and graph-signal smoothness prior for image patches-to construct an efficient JPEG soft decoding algorithm. Specifically, we first use the Laplacian prior to compute a minimum mean square error initial solution for each code block. Next, we show that while the sparsity prior can reduce block artifacts, limiting the size of the overcomplete dictionary (to lower computation) would lead to poor recovery of high DCT frequencies. To alleviate this problem, we design a new graph-signal smoothness prior (desired signal has mainly low graph frequencies) based on the left eigenvectors of the random walk graph Laplacian matrix (LERaG). Compared with the previous graph-signal smoothness priors, LERaG has desirable image filtering properties with low computation overhead. We demonstrate how LERaG can facilitate recovery of high DCT frequencies of a piecewise smooth signal via an interpretation of low graph frequency components as relaxed solutions to normalized cut in spectral clustering. Finally, we construct a soft decoding algorithm using the three signal priors with appropriate prior weights. Experimental results show that our proposal outperforms the state-of-the-art soft decoding algorithms in both objective and subjective evaluations noticeably.

18. Prophylactic laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy: a prospective, randomized Nordic study.

Science.gov (United States)

Frennesson, Christina I; Bek, Toke; Jaakkola, Aino; Nilsson, Sven Erik G

2009-11-01

This study aimed to investigate whether mild laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy might reduce the incidence of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and/or significantly reduce loss of visual acuity compared with outcomes in a control group.  A total of 135 patients (mean age 70.4 years) were randomized into a treatment group of 67 subjects and a control group of 68 subjects. The treatment group was subdivided into a group of 54 subjects with bilateral soft drusen and a group of 13 subjects with unilateral soft drusen in the study eye and advanced AMD in the fellow eye. The control group was subdivided into a bilateral group of 54 subjects and a unilateral group of 14 subjects. Sub-threshold or barely visible laser spots were scattered on and between drusen in the posterior pole. Inclusion of patients was stopped prematurely as other studies did not show any benefit from the treatment. Mean follow-up time was 3.7 years. More CNVs developed in the treated group (4/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 3/13 eyes in the unilateral group; 7/67 eyes in total) than in the control group (3/54 eyes in the bilateral group, 2/14 eyes in the unilateral group; 5/68 eyes in total) but these differences were not statistically significant for either the bilateral or unilateral groups (p = 0.20-0.32). No CNV developed in the bilateral treated group before 4 years of follow-up. Visual acuity was significantly reduced from baseline to the last follow-up in all groups (p laser treatment of soft drusen maculopathy was neither beneficial nor harmful and cannot be recommended.

19. Influence of plasma cleaning procedure on the interaction between soft tissue and abutments: a randomized controlled histologic study.

Science.gov (United States)

Garcia, Berta; Camacho, Fabio; Peñarrocha, David; Tallarico, Marco; Perez, Sara; Canullo, Luigi

2017-10-01

Plasma application can lead to an improved adhesion between soft tissue and abutments and promotes cell spreading. A triple-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was performed to in vivo test the effect of cleaning abutment titanium surfaces with plasma of argon on cell adhesion and collagen fiber orientation at an early healing time. Thirty healthy patients with 30 submerged implants, at the second surgery, randomly received either a specially designed abutment with no additional treatment (as they come from industry; control group, G1) or cleaned by plasma of argon (test group, G2). Two weeks thereafter, a small biopsy including abutment and soft tissues around the abutment was performed. Abutments were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy to assess cell adhesion to the abutment surface. Outcome measures were the following: percentage of area occupied by cells, the presence or absence of cells, aspect of adhered cells, and the presence of contaminants. At the same time, the soft tissue histological analysis evaluated density and orientation of collagen fibers. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and Levene variance homogeneity test. Data were analyzed using a nonparametric ranking test. The associations between the different qualitative variables were studied using Pearson's chi-squared test. The Mann-Whitney U-test (for two independent samples) was applied for quantitative variables. Mean percentages of area occupied by cells were 15.14% (range 2.91-44.27) and 33.75% (range 2.37-68.4) for G1 and G2, respectively. Differences were close to significance (P = 0.089). The proportion of samples presenting adhered cells was homogeneous between the two groups (P = 0.142). In all cases, cells presented a flattened aspect, but not in three cases in the G2; in 17 cases, cells were efficiently adhered, and in 11 cases, cells presented filopodia with no statistical differences between groups (P > 0.05). No case

20. Study on genetic variability of Cassidula aurisfelis (snail) by random ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The genetic variability among individuals of Cassidula aurisfelis from Setiu Wetland, Terengganu Darul Iman was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Ten oligonucleotide primers were screened and three primers were selected (OPA 02, OPA 04 and OPA 10) to amplify DNA from ...

1. Variability in response to albuminuria lowering drugs : true or random?

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Petrykiv, Sergei I.; de Zeeuw, Dick; Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Laverman, Gozewijn D.; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

AIMS Albuminuria-lowering drugs have shown different effect size in different individuals. Since urine albumin levels are known to vary considerably from day- to-day, we questioned whether the between-individual variability in albuminuria response after therapy initiation reflects a random

2. How a dependent's variable non-randomness affects taper equation ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Regression results, for the two methods, were compared using the confidence interval estimates for the regression coefficients, the multicollinearity tests and Fit Index (FI) values as criteria. The comparison of results showed that randomness of the dependent variable (second method) did not improve the estimates, in any of ...

3. Study on genetic variability of Cassidula aurisfelis (snail) by random ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

PRECIOUS

2009-11-16

Nov 16, 2009 ... genetic variability is Random Amplified Polymorphic. DNAs (RAPD) (Williams et al., 1990). The technique requires no prior knowledge of the genome and it needs ... quantity of DNA was measured by obtaining the absorbance read- ... 1994) and Numerical taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System.

4. An infinite-dimensional weak KAM theory via random variables

KAUST Repository

Gomes, Diogo A.

2016-08-31

We develop several aspects of the infinite-dimensional Weak KAM theory using a random variables\\' approach. We prove that the infinite-dimensional cell problem admits a viscosity solution that is a fixed point of the Lax-Oleinik semigroup. Furthermore, we show the existence of invariant minimizing measures and calibrated curves defined on R.

5. Softly, Softly

Science.gov (United States)

Diamond, Abigail

2008-01-01

The term "soft skills" encompasses a cluster of personality traits, language abilities, personal habits and, ultimately, values and attitudes. Soft skills complement "harder", more technical, skills, such as being able to read or type a letter, but they also have a significant impact on the ability of people to do their jobs…

6. Limit theorems for multi-indexed sums of random variables

CERN Document Server

Klesov, Oleg

2014-01-01

Presenting the first unified treatment of limit theorems for multiple sums of independent random variables, this volume fills an important gap in the field. Several new results are introduced, even in the classical setting, as well as some new approaches that are simpler than those already established in the literature. In particular, new proofs of the strong law of large numbers and the Hajek-Renyi inequality are detailed. Applications of the described theory include Gibbs fields, spin glasses, polymer models, image analysis and random shapes. Limit theorems form the backbone of probability theory and statistical theory alike. The theory of multiple sums of random variables is a direct generalization of the classical study of limit theorems, whose importance and wide application in science is unquestionable. However, to date, the subject of multiple sums has only been treated in journals. The results described in this book will be of interest to advanced undergraduates, graduate students and researchers who ...

7. A review of instrumental variable estimators for Mendelian randomization.

Science.gov (United States)

Burgess, Stephen; Small, Dylan S; Thompson, Simon G

2017-10-01

Instrumental variable analysis is an approach for obtaining causal inferences on the effect of an exposure (risk factor) on an outcome from observational data. It has gained in popularity over the past decade with the use of genetic variants as instrumental variables, known as Mendelian randomization. An instrumental variable is associated with the exposure, but not associated with any confounder of the exposure-outcome association, nor is there any causal pathway from the instrumental variable to the outcome other than via the exposure. Under the assumption that a single instrumental variable or a set of instrumental variables for the exposure is available, the causal effect of the exposure on the outcome can be estimated. There are several methods available for instrumental variable estimation; we consider the ratio method, two-stage methods, likelihood-based methods, and semi-parametric methods. Techniques for obtaining statistical inferences and confidence intervals are presented. The statistical properties of estimates from these methods are compared, and practical advice is given about choosing a suitable analysis method. In particular, bias and coverage properties of estimators are considered, especially with weak instruments. Settings particularly relevant to Mendelian randomization are prioritized in the paper, notably the scenario of a continuous exposure and a continuous or binary outcome.

8. Stochastic hyperelastic constitutive laws and identification procedure for soft biological tissues with intrinsic variability.

Science.gov (United States)

Staber, B; Guilleminot, J

2017-01-01

In this work, we address the constitutive modeling, in a probabilistic framework, of the hyperelastic response of soft biological tissues. The aim is on the one hand to mimic the mean behavior and variability that are typically encountered in the experimental characterization of such materials, and on the other hand to derive mathematical models that are almost surely consistent with the theory of nonlinear elasticity. Towards this goal, we invoke information theory and discuss a stochastic model relying on a low-dimensional parametrization. We subsequently propose a two-step methodology allowing for the calibration of the model using standard data, such as mean and standard deviation values along a given loading path. The framework is finally applied and benchmarked on three experimental databases proposed elsewhere in the literature. It is shown that the stochastic model allows experiments to be accurately reproduced, regardless of the tissue under consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

9. A protocol for measuring spatial variables in soft-sediment tide pools

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marina R. Brenha-Nunes

2016-01-01

Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present a protocol for measuring spatial variables in large (>50 m2 soft-sediment tide pool. Secondarily, we present the fish capture efficiency of a sampling protocol that based on such spatial variables to calculate relative abundances. The area of the pool is estimated by summing areas of basic geometric forms; the depth, by taken representative measurements of the depth variability of each pool's sector, previously determined according to its perimeter; and the volume, by considering the pool as a prism. These procedures were a trade-off between the acquisition of reliable estimates and the minimization of both the cost of operating and the time spent in field. The fish sampling protocol is based on two con secutive stages: 1 two people search for fishes under structures (e.g., rocks and litters on the pool and capture them with hand seines; 2 these structures are removed and then a beach-seine is hauled over the whole pool. Our method is cheaper than others and fast to operate considering the time in low tides. The method to sample fish is quite efficient resulting in a capture efficiency of 89%.

10. A Randomized Trial of Soft Multifocal Contact Lenses for Myopia Control: Baseline Data and Methods.

Science.gov (United States)

Walline, Jeffrey J; Gaume Giannoni, Amber; Sinnott, Loraine T; Chandler, Moriah A; Huang, Juan; Mutti, Donald O; Jones-Jordan, Lisa A; Berntsen, David A

2017-09-01

11. Instrumental variable analyses. Exploiting natural randomness to understand causal mechanisms.

Science.gov (United States)

Iwashyna, Theodore J; Kennedy, Edward H

2013-06-01

Instrumental variable analysis is a technique commonly used in the social sciences to provide evidence that a treatment causes an outcome, as contrasted with evidence that a treatment is merely associated with differences in an outcome. To extract such strong evidence from observational data, instrumental variable analysis exploits situations where some degree of randomness affects how patients are selected for a treatment. An instrumental variable is a characteristic of the world that leads some people to be more likely to get the specific treatment we want to study but does not otherwise change those patients' outcomes. This seminar explains, in nonmathematical language, the logic behind instrumental variable analyses, including several examples. It also provides three key questions that readers of instrumental variable analyses should ask to evaluate the quality of the evidence. (1) Does the instrumental variable lead to meaningful differences in the treatment being tested? (2) Other than through the specific treatment being tested, is there any other way the instrumental variable could influence the outcome? (3) Does anything cause patients to both receive the instrumental variable and receive the outcome?

12. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

KAUST Repository

Ahmed, Sajid

2016-01-13

Various examples of methods and systems are provided for generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using Gaussian random variables in, e.g., radar and communication applications. In one example, a method includes mapping an input signal comprising Gaussian random variables (RVs) onto finite-alphabet non-constant-envelope (FANCE) symbols using a predetermined mapping function, and transmitting FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The FANCE waveforms can be based upon the mapping of the Gaussian RVs onto the FANCE symbols. In another example, a system includes a memory unit that can store a plurality of digital bit streams corresponding to FANCE symbols and a front end unit that can transmit FANCE waveforms through a uniform linear array of antenna elements to obtain a corresponding beampattern. The system can include a processing unit that can encode the input signal and/or determine the mapping function.

13. Seasonal variability of emerging invertebrate assemblages in a sheltered soft-bottom sublittoral habitat

Science.gov (United States)

Pacheco, Aldo S.; Santoro, Pablo A.; Goméz, Gonzalo E.; Malebran, Maritza I.; Riascos, José M.

2015-09-01

In the Humboldt Current upwelling ecosystem of northern Chile, seasonal variation in the assemblage structure of pelagic invertebrates is strongly coupled with seasonal oscillations in upwelling intensity, however, benthic assemblages apparently show no clear responses to seasonal changes in the environment. Herein, we assess seasonal variability in the structure of the emerging assemblage (i.e., invertebrates that migrate nocturnally from the seabed to the water column, returning to the seabed during the day). This assemblage uses both the pelagic and benthic habitats daily, and thus offers an interesting group to study in order to assess their response to seasonal variability. We carried out replicated sampling during the austral autumn, winter, and spring of 2012 and the summer of 2013 in the subtidal zone of Bolsico (northern of Chile), using traps specifically designed to capture emerging benthic invertebrates, at 7 m depth in a sheltered soft-bottom habitat. We observed clear seasonal effects, with total abundance increasing during spring and a cyclical pattern in assemblage structure of the emerging benthos. Three main patterns characterized seasonal changes in species abundance; peaks of abundances during autumn (e.g. amphipods Eudevenopus gracilipes and Liljeborgia sp.), summer (e.g. amphipods Aora typica and Microphoxus sp.) and spring (e.g. copepods Tigriopus sp. and Corycaeus sp.). Strong seasonal patterns in emerging invertebrates closely resembled the pattern observed in the pelagic fauna.

14. Higher moments of Banach space valued random variables

CERN Document Server

Janson, Svante

2015-01-01

The authors define the k:th moment of a Banach space valued random variable as the expectation of its k:th tensor power; thus the moment (if it exists) is an element of a tensor power of the original Banach space. The authors study both the projective and injective tensor products, and their relation. Moreover, in order to be general and flexible, we study three different types of expectations: Bochner integrals, Pettis integrals and Dunford integrals.

15. Entropy power inequality for a family of discrete random variables

CERN Document Server

Sharma, Naresh; Muthukrishnan, Siddharth

2010-01-01

It is known that the Entropy Power Inequality (EPI) always holds if the random variables have density. Not much work has been done to identify discrete distributions for which the inequality holds with the differential entropy replaced by the discrete entropy. Harremo\\"{e}s and Vignat showed that it holds for the pair (B(m,p), B(n,p)), m,n \\in \\mathbb{N}, (where B(n,p) is a Binomial distribution with n trials each with success probability p) for p = 0.5. In this paper, we considerably expand the set of Binomial distributions for which the inequality holds and, in particular, identify n_0(p) such that for all m,n \\geq n_0(p), the EPI holds for (B(m,p), B(n,p)). We further show that the EPI holds for the discrete random variables that can be expressed as the sum of n independent identical distributed (IID) discrete random variables for large n.

16. Constraints on spatial variability in soft-sediment communities affected by contamination from an Antarctic waste disposal site

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stark, Jonathan S. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia); Snape, Ian [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)]. E-mail: ian.snape@aad.gov.au; Riddle, Martin J. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia); Stark, Scott C. [Australian Antarctic Division, Human Impacts Research, Channel Highway, Kingston, Tasmania 7050 (Australia)

2005-03-01

A small-scale (<500 m length) transect-based survey was conducted in December 1998 to examine the spatial distribution of soft-sediment communities and of concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons in sediments in Brown Bay, adjacent to an abandoned waste dump, at Casey Station, Antarctica. Samples were taken along three transects at increasing distances (nine stations) from the shore-line waste dump. A gradient of contamination was detected, but concentrations of contaminants were very variable with 'hotspots' or high levels of contaminants at some stations. Multivariate analysis revealed that the distribution of soft-sediment communities was distinctly different between the inner, middle and outer stations. Abundances of most taxa were very variable with few patterns apparent, but some fauna displayed an abundance gradient from the inner to the outer part of the bay. Many taxa had maximum abundances at outer stations and minimum at inner stations. Multivariate correlations between environmental variables and soft-sediment communities indicated that combinations of some metals (Cd, Cu, Sn, Pb) and grain size (mainly finer fractions, fine sands and coarse silts) were the variables that best 'matched' the community patterns within Brown Bay. This study indicated that there were significant correlations between the presence of contaminants and the distribution and composition of soft-sediment communities over very small spatial scales.

17. Non-Shannon Information Inequalities in Four Random Variables

CERN Document Server

Dougherty, Randall; Zeger, Kenneth

2011-01-01

Any unconstrained information inequality in three or fewer random variables can be written as a linear combination of instances of Shannon's inequality I(A;B|C) >= 0 . Such inequalities are sometimes referred to as "Shannon" inequalities. In 1998, Zhang and Yeung gave the first example of a "non-Shannon" information inequality in four variables. Their technique was to add two auxiliary variables with special properties and then apply Shannon inequalities to the enlarged list. Here we will show that the Zhang-Yeung inequality can actually be derived from just one auxiliary variable. Then we use their same basic technique of adding auxiliary variables to give many other non-Shannon inequalities in four variables. Our list includes the inequalities found by Xu, Wang, and Sun, but it is by no means exhaustive. Furthermore, some of the inequalities obtained may be superseded by stronger inequalities that have yet to be found. Indeed, we show that the Zhang-Yeung inequality is one of those that is superseded. We al...

18. Soft Robotic Haptic Interface with Variable Stiffness for Rehabilitation of Neurologically Impaired Hand Function

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Frederick Sebastian

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The human hand comprises complex sensorimotor functions that can be impaired by neurological diseases and traumatic injuries. Effective rehabilitation can bring the impaired hand back to a functional state because of the plasticity of the central nervous system to relearn and remodel the lost synapses in the brain. Current rehabilitation therapies focus on strengthening motor skills, such as grasping, employ multiple objects of varying stiffness so that affected persons can experience a wide range of strength training. These devices have limited range of stiffness due to the rigid mechanisms employed in their variable stiffness actuators. This paper presents a novel soft robotic haptic device for neuromuscular rehabilitation of the hand, which is designed to offer adjustable stiffness and can be utilized in both clinical and home settings. The device eliminates the need for multiple objects by employing a pneumatic soft structure made with highly compliant materials that act as the actuator of the haptic interface. It is made with interchangeable sleeves that can be customized to include materials of varying stiffness to increase the upper limit of the stiffness range. The device is fabricated using existing 3D printing technologies, and polymer molding and casting techniques, thus keeping the cost low and throughput high. The haptic interface is linked to either an open-loop system that allows for an increased pressure during usage or closed-loop system that provides pressure regulation in accordance to the stiffness the user specifies. Preliminary evaluation is performed to characterize the effective controllable region of variance in stiffness. It was found that the region of controllable stiffness was between points 3 and 7, where the stiffness appeared to plateau with each increase in pressure. The two control systems are tested to derive relationships between internal pressure, grasping force exertion on the surface, and displacement using

19. Effect of hydralazine on duration of soft tissue local anesthesia following dental treatment: a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

2015-01-01

Prolonged numbness following routine dental treatments can cause difficulties in speaking and swallowing and may result in inadvertent biting of soft tissues. Local injection of vasodilator agents may represent a solution to this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of submucosal injection of hydralazine hydrochloride (HCl) on the duration of oral soft tissue anesthesia after routine dental treatment. This randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial included 50 patients who received inferior alveolar nerve block (2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine) for simple restorative treatment. Upon completion of the dental treatment, patients randomly received a hydralazine HCl or sham injection in the same site as the local anesthetic injection. The reversal time to normal sensation of soft tissues (lips, tongue, and perioral skin) was evaluated and reported every 5 minutes by the patients, who followed an assessment protocol that they were taught in advance of treatment. Median recovery times in the hydralazine group and the sham group were 81.4 (SD, 3.6) and 221.8 (SD, 6.3) minutes, respectively. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of soft tissue anesthesia in the 2 groups was significantly different (P local anesthetic-induced soft tissue numbness and the related functional problems.

20. Generation of correlated finite alphabet waveforms using gaussian random variables

KAUST Repository

Jardak, Seifallah

2014-09-01

Correlated waveforms have a number of applications in different fields, such as radar and communication. It is very easy to generate correlated waveforms using infinite alphabets, but for some of the applications, it is very challenging to use them in practice. Moreover, to generate infinite alphabet constant envelope correlated waveforms, the available research uses iterative algorithms, which are computationally very expensive. In this work, we propose simple novel methods to generate correlated waveforms using finite alphabet constant and non-constant-envelope symbols. To generate finite alphabet waveforms, the proposed method map the Gaussian random variables onto the phase-shift-keying, pulse-amplitude, and quadrature-amplitude modulation schemes. For such mapping, the probability-density-function of Gaussian random variables is divided into M regions, where M is the number of alphabets in the corresponding modulation scheme. By exploiting the mapping function, the relationship between the cross-correlation of Gaussian and finite alphabet symbols is derived. To generate equiprobable symbols, the area of each region is kept same. If the requirement is to have each symbol with its own unique probability, the proposed scheme allows us that as well. Although, the proposed scheme is general, the main focus of this paper is to generate finite alphabet waveforms for multiple-input multiple-output radar, where correlated waveforms are used to achieve desired beampatterns. © 2014 IEEE.

1. Analysis of Secret Key Randomness Exploiting the Radio Channel Variability

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Taghrid Mazloum

2015-01-01

Full Text Available A few years ago, physical layer based techniques have started to be considered as a way to improve security in wireless communications. A well known problem is the management of ciphering keys, both regarding the generation and distribution of these keys. A way to alleviate such difficulties is to use a common source of randomness for the legitimate terminals, not accessible to an eavesdropper. This is the case of the fading propagation channel, when exact or approximate reciprocity applies. Although this principle has been known for long, not so many works have evaluated the effect of radio channel properties in practical environments on the degree of randomness of the generated keys. To this end, we here investigate indoor radio channel measurements in different environments and settings at either 2.4625 GHz or 5.4 GHz band, of particular interest for WIFI related standards. Key bits are extracted by quantizing the complex channel coefficients and their randomness is evaluated using the NIST test suite. We then look at the impact of the carrier frequency, the channel variability in the space, time, and frequency degrees of freedom used to construct a long secret key, in relation to the nature of the radio environment such as the LOS/NLOS character.

2. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

Science.gov (United States)

2012-05-10

Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

3. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2012-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

4. Effectiveness of a Treatment Involving Soft Tissue Techniques and/or Neural Mobilization Techniques in the Management of Tension-Type Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Jesús; Llabrés-Bennasar, Bartomeu; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

2017-02-01

5. A lower bound on the probability that a binomial random variable is exceeding its mean

OpenAIRE

Pelekis, Christos; Ramon, Jan

2016-01-01

We provide a lower bound on the probability that a binomial random variable is exceeding its mean. Our proof employs estimates on the mean absolute deviation and the tail conditional expectation of binomial random variables.

6. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

Science.gov (United States)

Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

2008-01-01

Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to write macros in Microsoft Excel that will generate variable-ratio, variable-interval, variable-time, random-ratio, random-interval, and random-time reinforcement schedule values. PMID:18595286

7. Generating Correlated QPSK Waveforms By Exploiting Real Gaussian Random Variables

KAUST Repository

Jardak, Seifallah

2012-11-01

The design of waveforms with specified auto- and cross-correlation properties has a number of applications in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, one of them is the desired transmit beampattern design. In this work, an algorithm is proposed to generate quadrature phase shift- keying (QPSK) waveforms with required cross-correlation properties using real Gaussian random-variables (RV’s). This work can be considered as the extension of what was presented in [1] to generate BPSK waveforms. This work will be extended for the generation of correlated higher-order phase shift-keying (PSK) and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) schemes that can better approximate the desired beampattern.

8. Soft X-ray Variability of the Bright Quasar 3C273

R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

By encouraging this discovery, we try to analyze the four ROSAT PSPC data sets of. 3C273 which were not included in the investigation by Leach et al. (1995) in order to search any periodic long-term soft X-ray variation. We present the observation in section 2, an analysis and the results in section 3, and discussion and ...

9. Instrumental variables and Mendelian randomization with invalid instruments

Science.gov (United States)

Kang, Hyunseung

Instrumental variables (IV) methods have been widely used to determine the causal effect of a treatment, exposure, policy, or an intervention on an outcome of interest. The IV method relies on having a valid instrument, a variable that is (A1) associated with the exposure, (A2) has no direct effect on the outcome, and (A3) is unrelated to the unmeasured confounders associated with the exposure and the outcome. However, in practice, finding a valid instrument, especially those that satisfy (A2) and (A3), can be challenging. For example, in Mendelian randomization studies where genetic markers are used as instruments, complete knowledge about instruments' validity is equivalent to complete knowledge about the involved genes' functions. The dissertation explores the theory, methods, and application of IV methods when invalid instruments are present. First, when we have multiple candidate instruments, we establish a theoretical bound whereby causal effects are only identified as long as less than 50% of instruments are invalid, without knowing which of the instruments are invalid. We also propose a fast penalized method, called sisVIVE, to estimate the causal effect. We find that sisVIVE outperforms traditional IV methods when invalid instruments are present both in simulation studies as well as in real data analysis. Second, we propose a robust confidence interval under the multiple invalid IV setting. This work is an extension of our work on sisVIVE. However, unlike sisVIVE which is robust to violations of (A2) and (A3), our confidence interval procedure provides honest coverage even if all three assumptions, (A1)-(A3), are violated. Third, we study the single IV setting where the one IV we have may actually be invalid. We propose a nonparametric IV estimation method based on full matching, a technique popular in causal inference for observational data, that leverages observed covariates to make the instrument more valid. We propose an estimator along with

10. Xenogeneic collagen matrix versus connective tissue graft for buccal soft tissue augmentation at implant site. A randomized, controlled clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Cairo, Francesco; Barbato, Luigi; Tonelli, Paolo; Batalocco, Guido; Pagavino, Gabriella; Nieri, Michele

2017-07-01

Peri-implant soft tissue may be critical to prevent inflammation and promote gingival margin stability. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial (RCT) is to compare xenogeneic collagen matrix (XCM) versus connective tissue graft (CTG) to increase buccal soft tissue thickness at implant site. Soft tissue augmentation with XCM (test) or CTG (control) was performed at 60 implants in 60 patients at the time of implant uncovering. Measurements were performed by a blinded examiner at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Outcome measures included buccal soft tissue thickness (GT), apico-coronal keratinized tissue (KT), chair time and post-operative discomfort. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to evaluate patient satisfaction. After 6 months, the final GT increase was 0.9 ± 0.2 in the XCM group and 1.2 ± 0.3 mm in the CTG group, with a significant difference favouring the control group (0.3 mm; p = .0001). Both procedures resulted in similar final KT amount with no significant difference between treatments. XCM was associated with significant less chair-time (p tissue thickness. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

11. Automatic Probabilistic Program Verification through Random Variable Abstraction

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Damián Barsotti

2010-06-01

Full Text Available The weakest pre-expectation calculus has been proved to be a mature theory to analyze quantitative properties of probabilistic and nondeterministic programs. We present an automatic method for proving quantitative linear properties on any denumerable state space using iterative backwards fixed point calculation in the general framework of abstract interpretation. In order to accomplish this task we present the technique of random variable abstraction (RVA and we also postulate a sufficient condition to achieve exact fixed point computation in the abstract domain. The feasibility of our approach is shown with two examples, one obtaining the expected running time of a probabilistic program, and the other the expected gain of a gambling strategy. Our method works on general guarded probabilistic and nondeterministic transition systems instead of plain pGCL programs, allowing us to easily model a wide range of systems including distributed ones and unstructured programs. We present the operational and weakest precondition semantics for this programs and prove its equivalence.

12. Rates of profit as correlated sums of random variables

Science.gov (United States)

Greenblatt, R. E.

2013-10-01

Profit realization is the dominant feature of market-based economic systems, determining their dynamics to a large extent. Rather than attaining an equilibrium, profit rates vary widely across firms, and the variation persists over time. Differing definitions of profit result in differing empirical distributions. To study the statistical properties of profit rates, I used data from a publicly available database for the US Economy for 2009-2010 (Risk Management Association). For each of three profit rate measures, the sample space consists of 771 points. Each point represents aggregate data from a small number of US manufacturing firms of similar size and type (NAICS code of principal product). When comparing the empirical distributions of profit rates, significant ‘heavy tails’ were observed, corresponding principally to a number of firms with larger profit rates than would be expected from simple models. An apparently novel correlated sum of random variables statistical model was used to model the data. In the case of operating and net profit rates, a number of firms show negative profits (losses), ruling out simple gamma or lognormal distributions as complete models for these data.

13. Effect of different implant placement depths on crestal bone levels and soft tissue behavior: a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

de Siqueira, Rafael Amorim Cavalcanti; Fontão, Flávia Noemy Gasparini Kiatake; Sartori, Ivete Aparecida de Mattias; Santos, Paulo Gustavo Freitas; Bernardes, Sérgio Rocha; Tiossi, Rodrigo

2017-10-01

This randomized clinical trial analyzed crestal bone changes and soft tissue dimensions surrounding implants with an internal tapered connection placed in the mandible anterior region at different depths (equicrestal and subcrestal). Eleven edentulous patients (five implants per patient) were randomly divided in a split-mouth design: G1, 28 equicrestal implants; and G2, 27 subcrestal implants. All implants were immediately loaded. Correlation between keratinized tissue width (KTW) and vertical mucosa thickness (MT) with soft tissue recession was analyzed. Intraoral radiographs were used to evaluate crestal bone changes. Patients were assessed immediately, 4-, and 8-months after implant placement. Rank-based ANOVA-type statistical test was used for comparison between groups (α = 0.05). Fifty-five implants (G1 = 28 and G2 = 27) were assessed in 11 patients. Implant survival rate was 100% for both groups. Both tested implant placement depths presented similar crestal bone loss (P > 0.05). Significant crestal bone loss for each group was found in the different measurement times (T4 and T8) (P  0.05). Different implant placement depths do not influence crestal bone changes. Soft tissue behavior is not influenced by different implant placement depths or by the amount of keratinized tissue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

14. Benefits and side effects of bandage soft contact lens application after LASIK: a prospective randomized study.

Science.gov (United States)

Sekundo, Walter; Dick, H Burkhard; Meyer, Carsten H

2005-12-01

To evaluate benefits and side effects of bandage soft contact lens (BSCL) insertion after LASIK in relation to patients' characteristics. Prospective, randomized, bicenter comparative investigational trial. One hundred patients (200 eyes) with myopia and/or myopic astigmatism. Each patient underwent consecutive (Marburg, Germany) or simultaneous (Mainz, Germany) bilateral LASIK. At the end of the procedure, the first treated eye received a drop of ofloxacin and dexamethasone, patch, and transparent protective shield for 2 to 4 hours. The fellow eye received in addition a BSCL, soaked in the same eyedrops for 20 to 24 hours. Schirmer II test results, first-day uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and tolerance of contact lens wear (poor, moderate, good) were recorded. Patients' subjective preference for the BSCL on the first postoperative day was graded as more comfortable than fellow eye, no difference, or less comfortable. Three months after surgery, the corneal flap was photographed in retroillumination for objective evaluation of microstriae. Statistical significance was determined using the Kruskal-Wallis 1-way analysis of variance on ranks test. Fifty-four percent of patients felt discomfort in the eye that had the BSCL (contra-BSCL subgroup), whereas 27% enjoyed having a BSCL (pro-BSCL subgroup). The remaining 19% felt no difference. The average Schirmer II value was 16.6 mm (+/-7.7) in the pro-BSCL subgroup, 14.9 mm (+/-6.4) in the no difference subgroup, and 12.3 mm (+/-7.7) in the contra-BSCL subgroup. There was a female preponderance in the contra-BSCL (39:15) and no difference (15:6) subgroups. A preoperative history of poor contact lens tolerance was recorded in 50% of the contra-BSCL subgroup patients; 41%, no difference; and 33%, pro-BSCL. Postoperative parameters such as first-day UCVA, number of eyes with microstriae, folds requiring stretching, or cases of diffuse lamellar keratitis did not differ significantly. Eyes with flap microstriae had a

15. Variable spreading layer in 4U 1608-52 during thermonuclear X-ray bursts in the soft state

Science.gov (United States)

Kajava, J. J. E.; Koljonen, K. I. I.; Nättilä, J.; Suleimanov, V.; Poutanen, J.

2017-11-01

Thermonuclear (type-I) X-ray bursts, observed from neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXB), provide constraints on NS masses and radii and consequently the equation of state of NS cores. In such analyses, various assumptions are made without knowing if they are justified. We have analysed X-ray burst spectra from the LMXB 4U 1608-52, with the aim of studying how the different persistent emission components react to the bursts. During some bursts in the soft spectral state we find that there are two variable components: one corresponding to the burst blackbody component and another optically thick Comptonized component. We interpret the latter as the spreading layer between the NS surface and the accretion disc, which is not present during the hard-state bursts. We propose that the spectral changes during the soft-state bursts are driven by the spreading layer that could cover almost the entire NS in the brightest phases due to the enhanced radiation pressure support provided by the burst, and that the layer subsequently returns to its original state during the burst decay. When deriving the NS mass and radius using the soft-state bursts two assumptions are therefore not met: the NS is not entirely visible and the burst emission is reprocessed in the spreading layer, causing distortions of the emitted spectrum. For these reasons, the NS mass and radius constraints using the soft-state bursts are different compared to the ones derived using the hard-state bursts.

16. Equivalent Conditions of Complete Convergence for Weighted Sums of Sequences of Negatively Dependent Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mingle Guo

2012-01-01

Full Text Available The complete convergence for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables is investigated. By applying moment inequality and truncation methods, the equivalent conditions of complete convergence for weighted sums of sequences of negatively dependent random variables are established. These results not only extend the corresponding results obtained by Li et al. (1995, Gut (1993, and Liang (2000 to sequences of negatively dependent random variables, but also improve them.

17. Fractional calculus approach to the statistical characterization of random variables and vectors

OpenAIRE

Cottone, D. ; Paola, M.D.

2015-01-01

Fractional moments have been investigated by many authors to represent the density of univariate and bivariate random variables in different contexts. Fractional moments are indeed important when the density of the random variable has inverse power-law tails and, consequently, it lacks integer order moments. In this paper, starting from the Mellin transform of the characteristic function and by fractional calculus method we present a new perspective on the statistics of random variables. Intr...

18. A Family of Estimators of a Sensitive Variable Using Auxiliary Information in Stratified Random Sampling

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

2017-01-01

In this article, a combined general family of estimators is proposed for estimating finite population mean of a sensitive variable in stratified random sampling with non-sensitive auxiliary variable...

19. Design of a variable-stiffness robotic hand using pneumatic soft rubber actuators

Science.gov (United States)

Nagase, Jun-ya; Wakimoto, Shuichi; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Saga, Norihiko; Suzumori, Koichi

2011-10-01

In recent years, Japanese society has been ageing, engendering a labor shortage of young workers. Robots are therefore expected to be useful in performing tasks such as day-to-day support for elderly people. In particular, robots that are intended for use in the field of medical care and welfare are expected to be safe when operating in a human environment because they often come into contact with people. Furthermore, robots must perform various tasks such as regrasping, grasping of soft objects, and tasks using frictional force. Given these demands and circumstances, a tendon-driven robot hand with a stiffness changing finger has been developed. The finger surface stiffness can be altered by adjusting the input pressure depending on the task. Additionally, the coefficient of static friction can be altered by changing the surface stiffness merely by adjusting the input air pressure. This report describes the basic structure, driving mechanism, and basic properties of the proposed robot hand.

20. COGNITIVE COMPUTER GRAPHICS AS A MEANS OF "SOFT" MODELING IN PROBLEMS OF RESTORATION OF FUNCTIONS OF TWO VARIABLES

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A.N. Khomchenko

2016-08-01

Full Text Available The paper considers the problem of bi-cubic interpolation on the final element of serendipity family. With cognitive-graphical analysis the rigid model of Ergatoudis, Irons and Zenkevich (1968 compared with alternative models, obtained by the methods: direct geometric design, a weighted averaging of the basis polynomials, systematic generation of bases (advanced Taylor procedure. The emphasis is placed on the phenomenon of "gravitational repulsion" (Zenkevich paradox. The causes of rising of inadequate physical spectra nodal loads on serendipity elements of higher orders are investigated. Soft modeling allows us to build a lot of serendipity elements of bicubic interpolation, and you do not even need to know the exact form of the rigid model. The different interpretations of integral characteristics of the basis polynomials: geometrical, physical, probability are offered. Under the soft model in the theory of interpolation of function of two variables implies the model amenable to change through the choice of basis. Such changes in the family of Lagrangian finite elements of higher orders are excluded (hard simulation. Standard models of serendipity family (Zenkevich were also tough. It was found that the "responsibility" for the rigidity of serendipity model rests on ruled surfaces (zero Gaussian curvature - conoids that predominate in the base set. Cognitive portraits zero lines of standard serendipity surfaces suggested that in order to "mitigate" of serendipity pattern conoid should better be replaced by surfaces of alternating Gaussian curvature. The article shows the alternative (soft bases of serendipity models. The work is devoted to solving scientific and technological problems aimed at the creation, dissemination and use of cognitive computer graphics in teaching and learning. The results are of interest to students of specialties: "Computer Science and Information Technologies", "System Analysis", "Software Engineering", as well as

1. A Novel Method for Increasing the Entropy of a Sequence of Independent, Discrete Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mieczyslaw Jessa

2015-10-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel method for increasing the entropy of a sequence of independent, discrete random variables with arbitrary distributions. The method uses an auxiliary table and a novel theorem that concerns the entropy of a sequence in which the elements are a bitwise exclusive-or sum of independent discrete random variables.

2. Fuzzy random variables — II. Algorithms and examples for the discrete case

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kwakernaak, H.

1979-01-01

The results obtained in part I of the paper are specialized to the case of discrete fuzzy random variables. A more intuitive interpretation is given of the notion of fuzzy random variables. Algorithms are derived for determining expectations, fuzzy probabilities, fuzzy conditional expectations and

3. Complete Moment Convergence and Mean Convergence for Arrays of Rowwise Extended Negatively Dependent Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yongfeng Wu

2014-01-01

Full Text Available The authors first present a Rosenthal inequality for sequence of extended negatively dependent (END random variables. By means of the Rosenthal inequality, the authors obtain some complete moment convergence and mean convergence results for arrays of rowwise END random variables. The results in this paper extend and improve the corresponding theorems by Hu and Taylor (1997.

4. Raw and Central Moments of Binomial Random Variables via Stirling Numbers

Science.gov (United States)

Griffiths, Martin

2013-01-01

We consider here the problem of calculating the moments of binomial random variables. It is shown how formulae for both the raw and the central moments of such random variables may be obtained in a recursive manner utilizing Stirling numbers of the first kind. Suggestions are also provided as to how students might be encouraged to explore this…

5. CONVERGENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL PARTS OF THE RANDOM VARIABLES TO THE TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda. This fact is feasible by means of the Fourier-Stieltjes sequence (FSS of the random variable.

6. Strong Laws of Large Numbers for Arrays of Rowwise NA and LNQD Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jiangfeng Wang

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Some strong laws of large numbers and strong convergence properties for arrays of rowwise negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables are obtained. The results obtained not only generalize the result of Hu and Taylor to negatively associated and linearly negative quadrant dependent random variables, but also improve it.

7. Comparison of oral oxycodone and naproxen in soft tissue injury pain control: a double-blind randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Fathi, Marzieh; Zare, Mohammad Amin; Bahmani, Hamid Reza; Zehtabchi, Shahriar

2015-09-01

8. A Family of Estimators of a Sensitive Variable Using Auxiliary Information in Stratified Random Sampling

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-03-01

Full Text Available In this article, a combined general family of estimators is proposed for estimating finite population mean of a sensitive variable in stratified random sampling with non-sensitive auxiliary variable based on randomized response technique. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expression of bias and mean square error (MSE up to the first-order approximations are derived. Theoretical and empirical results through a simulation study show that the proposed class of estimators is more efficient than the existing estimators, i.e., usual stratified random sample mean estimator, Sousa et al (2014 ratio and regression estimator of the sensitive variable in stratified sampling.

9. Fractional calculus approach to the statistical characterization of random variables and vectors

Science.gov (United States)

Cottone, Giulio; Di Paola, Mario; Metzler, Ralf

2010-03-01

Fractional moments have been investigated by many authors to represent the density of univariate and bivariate random variables in different contexts. Fractional moments are indeed important when the density of the random variable has inverse power-law tails and, consequently, it lacks integer order moments. In this paper, starting from the Mellin transform of the characteristic function and by fractional calculus method we present a new perspective on the statistics of random variables. Introducing the class of complex moments, that include both integer and fractional moments, we show that every random variable can be represented within this approach, even if its integer moments diverge. Applications to the statistical characterization of raw data and in the representation of both random variables and vectors are provided, showing that the good numerical convergence makes the proposed approach a good and reliable tool also for practical data analysis.

10. Soft X-ray variability over the present minimum of solar activity as observed by SphinX

Science.gov (United States)

Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Kordylewski, Z.; Plocieniak, S.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.

2011-04-01

Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument designed to observe the Sun in X-rays in the energy range 0.85-15.00 keV. SphinX is incorporated within the Russian TESIS X and EUV telescope complex aboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite which was launched on January 30, 2009 at 13:30 UT from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, northern Russia. Since February, 2009 SphinX has been measuring solar X-ray radiation nearly continuously. The principle of SphinX operation and the content of the instrument data archives is studied. Issues related to dissemination of SphinX calibration, data, repository mirrors locations, types of data and metadata are discussed. Variability of soft X-ray solar flux is studied using data collected by SphinX over entire mission duration.

11. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

OpenAIRE

Bancroft, Stacie L; Bourret, Jason C

2008-01-01

Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time. Generating schedule values for variable and random reinforcement schedules can be difficult. The present article describes the steps necessary to writ...

12. A New Estimator For Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Stratified random Sampling

OpenAIRE

Singh, Rajesh; Malik, Sachin

2014-01-01

In this paper, we suggest an estimator using two auxiliary variables in stratified random sampling. The propose estimator has an improvement over mean per unit estimator as well as some other considered estimators. Expressions for bias and MSE of the estimator are derived up to first degree of approximation. Moreover, these theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example with original data. Key words: Study variable, auxiliary variable, stratified random sampling, bias and mean squa...

13. Human impacts in Antartic marine soft-sediment assemblages: correlations between multivariate biological patterns and environmental variables at Casey Station

Science.gov (United States)

Stark, Jonathan S.; Riddle, Martin J.; Snape, Ian; Scouller, Rebecca C.

2003-03-01

Correlations between the spatial distribution of soft-sediment assemblages and environmental variables were evaluated at a number of control and potentially impacted locations (waste dumps, a sewage outfall and a wharf) at Casey Station, East Antarctica. Patterns of assemblage composition were compared with patterns of environmental variables using univariate and multivariate techniques. The utility of these methods, however, is uncertain in areas of significant habitat heterogeneity (at scales correlated with concentrations of heavy metals of anthropogenic origin: cadmium, copper, lead, tin and zinc. The relationship, however, is complex and is likely to be further influenced by variables affecting the bioavailability of metals such as grain size, TOC and sediment anoxia. Impacted locations were characterised by fewer taxa, lower diversity and lower species richness. One of the control locations was found to have naturally high levels of cadmium, nickel and zinc and had assemblages very similar to those at the potentially impacted, polluted locations. One of the potentially impacted locations had coarse sediments and low levels of heavy metals but had assemblages very similar to other impacted locations. Problems of sampling design for human impacts detection in real world situations are discussed in relation to this study. This study provides evidence that these multivariate statistical methods are useful in heterogeneous environments and across pollution gradients where pollutants have the potential to act as a primary cause of spatial variation in assemblage structure.

14. A multi-variable box model approach to the soft tissue carbon pump

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A. M. de Boer

2010-12-01

Full Text Available The canonical question of which physical, chemical or biological mechanisms were responsible for oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the last glacial is yet unanswered. Insight from paleo-proxies has led to a multitude of hypotheses but none so far have been convincingly supported in three dimensional numerical modelling experiments. The processes that influence the CO2 uptake and export production are inter-related and too complex to solve conceptually while complex numerical models are time consuming and expensive to run which severely limits the combinations of mechanisms that can be explored. Instead, an intermediate inverse box model approach of the soft tissue pump is used here in which the whole parameter space is explored. The glacial circulation and biological production states are derived from these using proxies of glacial export production and the need to draw down CO2 into the ocean. We find that circulation patterns which explain glacial observations include reduced Antarctic Bottom Water formation and high latitude upwelling and mixing of deep water and to a lesser extent reduced equatorial upwelling. The proposed mechanism of CO2 uptake by an increase of eddies in the Southern Ocean, leading to a reduced residual circulation, is not supported. Regarding biological mechanisms, an increase in the nutrient utilization in either the equatorial regions or the northern polar latitudes can reduce atmospheric CO2 and satisfy proxies of glacial export production. Consistent with previous studies, CO2 is drawn down more easily through increased productivity in the Antarctic region than the sub-Antarctic, but that violates observations of lower export production there. The glacial states are more sensitive to changes in the circulation and less sensitive to changes in nutrient utilization rates than the interglacial states.

15. Concentrated Hitting Times of Randomized Search Heuristics with Variable Drift

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lehre, Per Kristian; Witt, Carsten

2014-01-01

Drift analysis is one of the state-of-the-art techniques for the runtime analysis of randomized search heuristics (RSHs) such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), simulated annealing etc. The vast majority of existing drift theorems yield bounds on the expected value of the hitting time for a target...

16. Some limit theorems for negatively associated random variables

Abstract. Let {Xn,n ≥ 1} be a sequence of negatively associated random vari- ables. The aim of this paper is to establish some limit theorems of negatively associated sequence, which include the Lp-convergence theorem and Marcinkiewicz–Zygmund strong law of large numbers. Furthermore, we consider the strong law of ...

17. Local search methods based on variable focusing for random K -satisfiability

Science.gov (United States)

Lemoy, Rémi; Alava, Mikko; Aurell, Erik

2015-01-01

We introduce variable focused local search algorithms for satisfiabiliity problems. Usual approaches focus uniformly on unsatisfied clauses. The methods described here work by focusing on random variables in unsatisfied clauses. Variants are considered where variables are selected uniformly and randomly or by introducing a bias towards picking variables participating in several unsatistified clauses. These are studied in the case of the random 3-SAT problem, together with an alternative energy definition, the number of variables in unsatisfied constraints. The variable-based focused Metropolis search (V-FMS) is found to be quite close in performance to the standard clause-based FMS at optimal noise. At infinite noise, instead, the threshold for the linearity of solution times with instance size is improved by picking preferably variables in several UNSAT clauses. Consequences for algorithmic design are discussed.

18. PaCAL: A Python Package for Arithmetic Computations with Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Marcin Korze?

2014-05-01

Full Text Available In this paper we present PaCAL, a Python package for arithmetical computations on random variables. The package is capable of performing the four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, as well as computing many standard functions of random variables. Summary statistics, random number generation, plots, and histograms of the resulting distributions can easily be obtained and distribution parameter ?tting is also available. The operations are performed numerically and their results interpolated allowing for arbitrary arithmetic operations on random variables following practically any probability distribution encountered in practice. The package is easy to use, as operations on random variables are performed just as they are on standard Python variables. Independence of random variables is, by default, assumed on each step but some computations on dependent random variables are also possible. We demonstrate on several examples that the results are very accurate, often close to machine precision. Practical applications include statistics, physical measurements or estimation of error distributions in scienti?c computations.

19. Variability of seed quality indices in soft spring wheat depending on weather conditions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

І. В. Правдзіва

2017-09-01

Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of weather conditions on grain quality in soft spring wheat lines that are undergoing competitive variety trial. To identify indices to be least affected by weather conditions. To investigate the correlation dependence between grain quality indices in the years with contrasting weather conditions and conduct the analysis of variance. Methods. Parameters of grain and flour quality of bread spring wheat lines were determined using conventional methods at the laboratory of grain quality of V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, NAAS of Ukraine, protein content in flour was measured with the use of the SPECTRAN 119M device. Results. Contrasting weather conditions were considered including arid ones (2013 – that had negative effect on 1000 kernel weight, but at the same time positively influenced the averaged grain quality indices; with excess humidity (2014 – they resulted in decreasing of all technological indices; optimal ones (2015 – allowed to obtain maximum indices of grain and flour quality. Paired coefficients of correlation between different para­meters of grain and flour quality were calculated. The most number of strong and medium correlations was found in a dry year (33.3%, the smallest one – in a wet year (13.0%. Such indices as flour strength, dough dilution and protein content depended on the conditions of the growing year least of all. Grain-unit response was the most considerable to the humid conditions of the year. The analysis of variance showed that climatic conditions had significant effect on the quality indices of grain and flour. At the same time, an important genotypic component was revealed in indices of dough resilience (63%, bread volume and rating (61 and 53% respectively, the flour strength (42%, crude gluten quality (33%, bread porosity (30%. With climate variations, the genotypic conditionality of the content of protein and especially crude gluten was expressed

20. Robenacoxib versus meloxicam for the management of pain and inflammation associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs: a randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used routinely to control pain and inflammation after surgery in dogs. Robenacoxib is a new NSAID with high selectivity for the cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-2 isoform of COX. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of robenacoxib for the management of peri-operative pain and inflammation associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs. The study was a prospective, randomized, blinded, positive-controlled, non-inferiority, multi-center clinical trial. A total of 174 dogs undergoing major soft tissue surgery were included and randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to receive either robenacoxib (n = 118) or the positive control, meloxicam (n = 56). Each dog received an initial dose subcutaneously prior to surgery (robenacoxib 2 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.2 mg/kg), followed by daily oral doses (robenacoxib 1–2 mg/kg, meloxicam 0.1 mg/kg) for 12 days (range 10–14) after surgery. Pain and inflammation were assessed subjectively using the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale (GCPS) by clinicians as the primary end point and additional evaluations by the clinicians and animal owners as secondary endpoints. Results Both treatments provided similar pain control, with no significant differences between groups for any efficacy variable using non-parametric analyses (Mann–Whitney U test). In no dog was analgesic rescue therapy administered. Non-inferior efficacy of robenacoxib compared to meloxicam was demonstrated statistically for the primary and all secondary endpoints using parametric analysis of variance, although the data were not normally distributed even after log transformation. For the primary endpoint (reciprocal of the modified GCPS score), the relative efficacy of robenacoxib/meloxicam was 1.12 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.97-1.29. Both treatments were well tolerated and did not affect buccal mucosal bleeding time. Conclusion A treatment regimen of robenacoxib by subcutaneous

1. Application of soft computing based hybrid models in hydrological variables modeling: a comprehensive review

Science.gov (United States)

Fahimi, Farzad; Yaseen, Zaher Mundher; El-shafie, Ahmed

2017-05-01

Since the middle of the twentieth century, artificial intelligence (AI) models have been used widely in engineering and science problems. Water resource variable modeling and prediction are the most challenging issues in water engineering. Artificial neural network (ANN) is a common approach used to tackle this problem by using viable and efficient models. Numerous ANN models have been successfully developed to achieve more accurate results. In the current review, different ANN models in water resource applications and hydrological variable predictions are reviewed and outlined. In addition, recent hybrid models and their structures, input preprocessing, and optimization techniques are discussed and the results are compared with similar previous studies. Moreover, to achieve a comprehensive view of the literature, many articles that applied ANN models together with other techniques are included. Consequently, coupling procedure, model evaluation, and performance comparison of hybrid models with conventional ANN models are assessed, as well as, taxonomy and hybrid ANN models structures. Finally, current challenges and recommendations for future researches are indicated and new hybrid approaches are proposed.

2. The Soft State of Cygnus X-1 Observed with NuSTAR: A Variable Corona and a Stable Inner Disk

Science.gov (United States)

Walton, D. J.; Tomsick, J. A.; Madsen, K. K.; Grinberg, V.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Clavel, M.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.;

2016-01-01

We present a multi-epoch hard X-ray analysis of Cygnus X-1 in its soft state based on four observations with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Despite the basic similarity of the observed spectra, there is clear spectral variability between epochs. To investigate this variability, we construct a model incorporating both the standard disk-corona continuum and relativistic reflection from the accretion disk, based on prior work on Cygnus X-1, and apply this model to each epoch independently. We find excellent consistency for the black hole spin and the iron abundance of the accretion disk, which are expected to remain constant on observational timescales. In particular, we confirm that Cygnus X-1 hosts a rapidly rotating black hole, 0.93 < approx. a* < approx. 0.96, in broad agreement with the majority of prior studies of the relativistic disk reflection and constraints on the spin obtained through studies of the thermal accretion disk continuum. Our work also confirms the apparent misalignment between the inner disk and the orbital plane of the binary system reported previously, finding the magnitude of this warp to be approx.10deg-15deg. This level of misalignment does not significantly change (and may even improve) the agreement between our reflection results and the thermal continuum results regarding the black hole spin. The spectral variability observed by NuSTAR is dominated by the primary continuum, implying variability in the temperature of the scattering electron plasma. Finally, we consistently observe absorption from ionized iron at approx. 6.7 keV, which varies in strength as a function of orbital phase in a manner consistent with the absorbing material being an ionized phase of the focused stellar wind from the supergiant companion star.

3. Science.gov (United States)

Libuda, Lars; Alexy, Ute; Remer, Thomas; Stehle, Peter; Schoenau, Eckhard; Kersting, Mathilde

2008-12-01

Soft drinks are thought to displace milk in diets of children and adolescents and therefore might affect variables of bone modeling and remodeling. We assessed the association between long-term consumption of several types of soft drinks and bone variables in children and adolescents. Long-term dietary data from 3-d weighed dietary records collected by 228 healthy children and adolescents enrolled in the DONALD Study in 4 y of study participation were used for data analysis. Variables of bone modeling and remodeling of the radius were assessed by using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake, muscle area, BMI SD scores, and growth velocity, long-term consumption of all soft drinks and uncaffeinated soft drinks was negatively associated with bone mineral content (P drinks was negatively associated with polar strength strain index (P drinks was negatively associated with total protein and milk intake, but was not associated with potential renal acid load. Long-term consumption of caffeinated and uncaffeinated soft drinks appears to have bone catabolic effects in boys and girls. This effect is mainly mediated by the negative association with total protein intake and is not primarily based on milk displacement.

4. New Results on the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables

KAUST Repository

Soury, Hamza

2016-01-06

We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented [1].

5. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

Science.gov (United States)

Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

6. New Results On the Sum of Two Generalized Gaussian Random Variables

KAUST Repository

Soury, Hamza

2015-01-01

We propose in this paper a new method to compute the characteristic function (CF) of generalized Gaussian (GG) random variable in terms of the Fox H function. The CF of the sum of two independent GG random variables is then deduced. Based on this results, the probability density function (PDF) and the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum distribution are obtained. These functions are expressed in terms of the bivariate Fox H function. Next, the statistics of the distribution of the sum, such as the moments, the cumulant, and the kurtosis, are analyzed and computed. Due to the complexity of bivariate Fox H function, a solution to reduce such complexity is to approximate the sum of two independent GG random variables by one GG random variable with suitable shape factor. The approximation method depends on the utility of the system so three methods of estimate the shape factor are studied and presented.

7. CONVERGENCE OF THE FRACTIONAL PARTS OF THE RANDOM VARIABLES TO THE TRUNCATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Bogdan Gheorghe Munteanu

2013-01-01

Using the stochastic approximations, in this paper it was studiedthe convergence in distribution of the fractional parts of the sum of random variables to the truncated exponential distribution with parameter lambda...

8. On bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables.

Science.gov (United States)

Hung, Tran Loc; Giang, Le Truong

2016-01-01

Using the Stein-Chen method some upper bounds in Poisson approximation for distributions of row-wise triangular arrays of independent negative-binomial distributed random variables are established in this note.

9. Pseudo-observations for "soft" bias correction aimed at multi-variable impact studies

Science.gov (United States)

Berg, Peter; Bosshard, Thoams; Yang, Wei

2017-04-01

Correcting biases in climate model simulations is likely to affect climate change signals, which is not necessarily justified. Observations have high uncertainty in themselves, and in the case of gridded observations they should be treated as models rather than an actual truth. One might, e.g., be better off by retaining small scale information from a climate model, rather than imposing that from interpolated gauge observations with some more or less sparse gauge network. For some variables, there are even too few gauges, such that a spatial grid is not supported. Keeping the model solution might then be a better approach than attempting to correct the climate model to spatially incorrect data. Here, we present a method for creating a pseudo-observational data set which retains small scale features from a core regional climate model simulation, while correcting larger scale features according to different gridded or purely gauge based data sets. Then, a set of regional climate projections are bias corrected toward the pseudo-observational data, and applied for an assessment of future fire risk for the forests of Sweden. The applied fire weather model takes daily precipitation and the 1200UTC value of temperature, wind and relative humidity, which makes it a sensitive system to different bias correction approaches.

10. Testing of hypothesis of two-dimensional random variables independence on the basis of algorithm of pattern recognition

Science.gov (United States)

Lapko, A. V.; Lapko, V. A.; Yuronen, E. A.

2016-11-01

The new technique of testing of hypothesis of random variables independence is offered. Its basis is made by nonparametric algorithm of pattern recognition. The considered technique doesn't demand sampling of area of values of random variables.

11. The Sum and Difference of Two Lognormal Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

C. F. Lo

2012-01-01

Full Text Available We have presented a new unified approach to model the dynamics of both the sum and difference of two correlated lognormal stochastic variables. By the Lie-Trotter operator splitting method, both the sum and difference are shown to follow a shifted lognormal stochastic process, and approximate probability distributions are determined in closed form. Illustrative numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the validity and accuracy of these approximate distributions. In terms of the approximate probability distributions, we have also obtained an analytical series expansion of the exact solutions, which can allow us to improve the approximation in a systematic manner. Moreover, we believe that this new approach can be extended to study both (1 the algebraic sum of N lognormals, and (2 the sum and difference of other correlated stochastic processes, for example, two correlated CEV processes, two correlated CIR processes, and two correlated lognormal processes with mean-reversion.

12. Biodegradable polyurethane ureas with variable polyester or polycarbonate soft segments: effects of crystallinity, molecular weight and composition on mechanical properties

Science.gov (United States)

Ma, Zuwei; Hong, Yi; Nelson, Devin M.; Pichamuthu, Joseph E.; Leeson, Cory E.; Wagner, William R.

2011-01-01

Biodegradable polyurethane urea (PUU) elastomers are ideal candidates for fabricating tissue engineering scaffolds with mechanical properties akin to strong and resilient soft tissues. PUU with a crystalline poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) macrodiol soft segment (SS) showed good elasticity and resilience at small strains (design and crystalline behavior. Depending upon the application target of interest, these materials may provide options or guidance for soft tissue scaffold development. PMID:21755999

13. Separating variability in healthcare practice patterns from random error.

Science.gov (United States)

Thomas, Laine E; Schulte, Phillip J

2018-01-01

Improving the quality of care that patients receive is a major focus of clinical research, particularly in the setting of cardiovascular hospitalization. Quality improvement studies seek to estimate and visualize the degree of variability in dichotomous treatment patterns and outcomes across different providers, whereby naive techniques either over-estimate or under-estimate the actual degree of variation. Various statistical methods have been proposed for similar applications including (1) the Gaussian hierarchical model, (2) the semi-parametric Bayesian hierarchical model with a Dirichlet process prior and (3) the non-parametric empirical Bayes approach of smoothing by roughening. Alternatively, we propose that a recently developed method for density estimation in the presence of measurement error, moment-adjusted imputation, can be adapted for this problem. The methods are compared by an extensive simulation study. In the present context, we find that the Bayesian methods are sensitive to the choice of prior and tuning parameters, whereas moment-adjusted imputation performs well with modest sample size requirements. The alternative approaches are applied to identify disparities in the receipt of early physician follow-up after myocardial infarction across 225 hospitals in the CRUSADE registry.

14. Generating Variable and Random Schedules of Reinforcement Using Microsoft Excel Macros

Science.gov (United States)

Bancroft, Stacie L.; Bourret, Jason C.

2008-01-01

Variable reinforcement schedules are used to arrange the availability of reinforcement following varying response ratios or intervals of time. Random reinforcement schedules are subtypes of variable reinforcement schedules that can be used to arrange the availability of reinforcement at a constant probability across number of responses or time.…

15. Soft tissue cell adhesion to titanium abutments after different cleaning procedures: preliminary results of a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Canullo, L; Penarrocha-Oltra, D; Marchionni, S; Bagán, L; Peñarrocha-Diago, M-A; Micarelli, C

2014-03-01

A randomized controlled trial was performed to assess soft tissue cell adhesion to implant titanium abutments subjected to different cleaning procedures and test if plasma cleaning can enhance cell adhesion at an early healing time. Eighteen patients with osseointegrated and submerged implants were included. Before re-opening, 18 abutments were divided in 3 groups corresponding to different clinical conditions with different cleaning processes: no treatment (G1), laboratory customization and cleaning by steam (G2), cleaning by plasma of Argon (G3). Abutments were removed after 1 week and scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze cell adhesion to the abutment surface quantitatively (percentage of area occupied by cells) and qualitatively (aspect of adhered cells and presence of contaminants). Mean percentages of area occupied by cells were 17.6 ± 22.7%, 16.5 ± 12.9% and 46.3 ± 27.9% for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. Differences were statistically significant between G1 and G3 (p=0.030), close to significance between G2 and G3 (p=0.056), and non-significant between G1 and G2 (p=0.530). The proportion of samples presenting adhered cells was homogeneous among the 3 groups (p-valor = 1.000). In all cases cells presented a flattened aspect; in 2 cases cells were less efficiently adhered and in 1 case cells presented filipodia. Three cases showed contamination with cocobacteria. Within the limits of the present study, plasma of Argon may enhance cell adhesion to titanium abutments, even at the early stage of soft tissue healing. Further studies with greater samples are necessary to confirm these findings.

16. Computer simulation of random variables and vectors with arbitrary probability distribution laws

Science.gov (United States)

Bogdan, V. M.

1981-01-01

Assume that there is given an arbitrary n-dimensional probability distribution F. A recursive construction is found for a sequence of functions x sub 1 = f sub 1 (U sub 1, ..., U sub n), ..., x sub n = f sub n (U sub 1, ..., U sub n) such that if U sub 1, ..., U sub n are independent random variables having uniform distribution over the open interval (0,1), then the joint distribution of the variables x sub 1, ..., x sub n coincides with the distribution F. Since uniform independent random variables can be well simulated by means of a computer, this result allows one to simulate arbitrary n-random variables if their joint probability distribution is known.

17. Random sets and random fuzzy sets as ill-perceived random variables an introduction for Ph.D. students and practitioners

CERN Document Server

Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano

2014-01-01

This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...

18. THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUMENT ASSISTED SOFT TISSUE MOBILIZATION ON LOWER EXTREMITY MUSCLE PERFORMANCE: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

Science.gov (United States)

MacDonald, Nicole; Baker, Russell; Cheatham, Scott W

2016-12-01

Instrument-Assisted Soft Tissue Mobilization (IASTM) is a non-invasive therapeutic technique used to theoretically aid in scar tissue breakdown and absorption, fascial mobilization, and improved tissue healing. Researchers have hypothesized that utilizing IASTM will improve muscular efficiency and performance; yet previous Investigations has been focused on treating injury. The purpose of this investigation was to explore the effects of IASTM on muscle performance to assess if typical treatment application affected measures of muscular performance. A pretest-posttest randomized control design. A convenience sample of 48 physically active adults (mean age 24 ± 4 years), randomly assigned to one of three groups: quadriceps treatment group, triceps surae treatment group, or control group. Participants performed a five-minute warm-up on a Monark bicycle ergometer before performing three countermovement vertical jumps (CMJ). Immediately after, the IASTM treatment was applied by one researcher for three minutes on each leg at the specified site (e.g., quadriceps) for those assigned to the treatment groups, while the control group rested for six minutes. Immediately following treatment, participants performed three additional CMJs. Pre- and post-testing included measures of vertical jump height (JH), peak power (PP) and peak velocity (PV). There were no statistically significant differences found between treatment groups in JH, PP, or PV or across pre- and post-test trials. These preliminary findings suggest that standard treatment times of IASTM do not produce an immediate effect in muscular performance in healthy participants. This may help clinicians determine the optimal sequencing of IASTM when it is part of a pre-performance warm-up program. Future research should be conducted to determine the muscle performance effects of IASTM in individuals with known myofascial restriction and to determine optimal treatment parameters, such as instrument type, amount of

19. Possibility/Necessity-Based Probabilistic Expectation Models for Linear Programming Problems with Discrete Fuzzy Random Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hideki Katagiri

2017-10-01

Full Text Available This paper considers linear programming problems (LPPs where the objective functions involve discrete fuzzy random variables (fuzzy set-valued discrete random variables. New decision making models, which are useful in fuzzy stochastic environments, are proposed based on both possibility theory and probability theory. In multi-objective cases, Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are newly defined. Computational algorithms for obtaining the Pareto optimal solutions of the proposed models are provided. It is shown that problems involving discrete fuzzy random variables can be transformed into deterministic nonlinear mathematical programming problems which can be solved through a conventional mathematical programming solver under practically reasonable assumptions. A numerical example of agriculture production problems is given to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed models to real-world problems in fuzzy stochastic environments.

20. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

Science.gov (United States)

Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

2017-04-15

The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1. Physical Activity, Mindfulness Meditation, or Heart Rate Variability Biofeedback for Stress Reduction: A Randomized Controlled Trial

OpenAIRE

van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C.; B?gels, Susan M.; de Bruin, Esther I.

2015-01-01

In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and a...

2. Do soft skills predict surgical performance?: a single-center randomized controlled trial evaluating predictors of skill acquisition in virtual reality laparoscopy.

Science.gov (United States)

Maschuw, K; Schlosser, K; Kupietz, E; Slater, E P; Weyers, P; Hassan, I

2011-03-01

Virtual reality (VR) training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is feasible in surgical residency and beneficial for the performance of MIS by surgical trainees. Research on stress-coping of surgical trainees indicates the additional impact of soft skills on VR performance in the surgical curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of structured VR training and soft skills on VR performance of trainees. The study was designed as a single-center randomized controlled trial. Fifty first-year surgical residents with limited experience in MIS ("camera navigation" in laparoscopic cholecystectomy only) were randomized for either 3 months of VR training or no training. Basic VR performance and defined soft skills (self-efficacy, stress-coping, and motivation) were assessed prior to randomization using basic modules of the VR simulator LapSim(®) and standardized psychological questionnaires. Three months after randomization VR performance was reassessed. Outcome measurement was based on the results derived from the most complex of the basic VR modules ("diathermy cutting") as the primary end point. A correlation analysis of the VR end-point performance and the psychological scores was done in both groups. Structured VR training enhanced VR performance of surgical trainees. An additional correlation to high motivational states (P 0.05). Low self-efficacy and negative stress-coping strategies seem to predict poor VR performance. However, structured training along with high motivational states is likely to balance out this impairment.

3. APPROXIMATION TO OPTIMAL STOPPING RULES FOR GUMBEL RANDOM VARIABLES WITH UNKNOWN LOCATION AND SCALE PARAMETERS

OpenAIRE

Yeh, Tzu-Sheng; Lee, Shen-Ming

2006-01-01

An optimal stopping rule is a rule that stops the sampling process at a sample size n that maximizes the expected reward. In this paper we will study the approximation to optimal stopping rule for Gumbel random variables, because the Gumbel-type distribution is the most commonly referred to in discussions of extreme values. Let $X_1, X_2,\\cdots X_n,\\cdots$ be independent, identically distributed Gumbel random variables with unknown location and scale parameters,$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$. If we def...

4. $\\Phi$-moment inequalities for independent and freely independent random variables

OpenAIRE

Jiao, Yong; Sukochev, Fedor; Xie, Guangheng; Zanin, Dmitriy

2016-01-01

This paper is devoted to the study of $\\Phi$-moments of sums of independent/freely independent random variables. More precisely, let $(f_k)_{k=1}^n$ be a sequence of positive (symmetrically distributed) independent random variables and let $\\Phi$ be an Orlicz function with $\\Delta_2$-condition. We provide an equivalent expression for the quantity $\\mathbb{E}(\\Phi(\\sum_{k=1}^n f_k))$ in term of the sum of disjoint copies of the sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^n.$ We also prove an analogous result in the...

5. Comparison of the soft and hard tissue effects of two different protraction mechanisms in class III patients: a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Celikoglu, Mevlut; Yavuz, Ibrahim; Unal, Tuba; Oktay, Husamettin; Erdem, Abdulvahit

2015-11-01

The objective of the present study is to test the null hypotheses that there were no significant differences for hard and soft tissue changes induced by mini maxillary protractor (MMP) and face mask and rapid maxillary expansion (FM/RME). Thirty-two patients who met the criteria were randomly divided into two groups: 16 patients (males/females 7/9) in the MMP group and 16 patients (males/females 6/10) in the FM/RME group. The patients in both groups were instructed to wear the appliances for at least 20 h per day until a 2-mm positive overjet was achieved. Hard and soft tissue profile changes observed by MMP and FM/RME were compared using paired and Student's t tests. Class III malocclusion and negative overjet were improved by means of skeletal changes in conjunction with upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination in both groups. Maxilla and surrounding soft tissues (SNA, Ls-E, and Ls-PMV) were significantly moved anteriorly with less rotation of the palatal plane in the MMP group. Mandibular incisors were found to be more retrusive in the FM/RME group (p = 0.024). Both groups showed similar effects except more anterior movement of the maxilla and surrounding soft tissues with less rotation of the palatal plane and retrusion of lower incisors in the MMP group. This is the first study to compare the soft and hard tissue changes induced by MMP appliance with a conventional FM /RME.

6. Higher order moments of a sum of random variables: remarks and applications.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Luisa Tibiletti

1996-02-01

Full Text Available The moments of a sum of random variables depend on both the pure moments of each random addendum and on the addendum mixed moments. In this note we introduce a simple measure to evaluate the relative impedance to attach to the latter. Once the pure moments are fixed, the functional relation between the random addenda leading to the extreme values is also provided. Applications to Finance, Decision Theory and Actuarial Sciences are also suggested.

7. An analysis of noise reduction in variable reluctance motors using pulse position randomization

Science.gov (United States)

Smoot, Melissa C.

1994-05-01

The design and implementation of a control system to introduce randomization into the control of a variable reluctance motor (VRM) is presented. The goal is to reduce noise generated by radial vibrations of the stator. Motor phase commutation angles are dithered by 1 or 2 mechanical degrees to investigate the effect of randomization on acoustic noise. VRM commutation points are varied using a uniform probability density function and a 4 state Markov chain among other methods. The theory of VRM and inverter operation and a derivation of the major source of acoustic noise are developed. The experimental results show the effects of randomization. Uniform dithering and Markov chain dithering both tend to spread the noise spectrum, reducing peak noise components. No clear evidence is found to determine which is the optimum randomization scheme. The benefit of commutation angle randomization in reducing VRM loudness as perceived by humans is found to be questionable.

8. Saddlepoint approximations for the sum of independent non-identically distributed binomial random variables

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Pelzer, B.J.

2013-01-01

We discuss saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the sum of independent non-identically distributed binomial random variables. We examine the accuracy of the saddlepoint methods for a sum of 10 binomials with different sets of parameter values. The numerical results indicate that the

9. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van der Zwan, J.E.; de Vente, W.; Huizink, A.C.; Bögels, S.M.; de Bruin, E.I.

2015-01-01

In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing

10. Some Generalized Inequalities Involving Local Fractional Integrals and their Applications for Random Variables and Numerical Integration

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Erden S.

2016-12-01

Full Text Available We establish generalized pre-Grüss inequality for local fractional integrals. Then, we obtain some inequalities involving generalized expectation, p−moment, variance and cumulative distribution function of random variable whose probability density function is bounded. Finally, some applications for generalized Ostrowski-Grüss inequality in numerical integration are given.

11. Bounds for right tails of deterministic and stochastic sums of random variables

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Darkiewicz, G.; Deelstra, G.; Dhaene, J.; Hoedemakers, T.; Vanmaele, M.

2009-01-01

We investigate lower and upper bounds for right tails (stop-loss premiums) of deterministic and stochastic sums of nonindependent random variables. The bounds are derived using the concepts of comonotonicity, convex order, and conditioning. The performance of the presented approximations is

12. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

Science.gov (United States)

Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

2016-11-16

Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

13. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Thandi Kapwata

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

14. Partial summations of stationary sequences of non-Gaussian random variables

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mohr, Gunnar; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

1996-01-01

The distribution of the sum of a finite number of identically distributed random variables is in many cases easily determined given that the variables are independent. The moments of any order of the sum can always be expressed by the moments of the single term without computational problems...... of convergence of the distribution of a sum (or an integral) of mutually dependent random variables to the Gaussian distribution. The paper is closely related to the work in Ditlevsen el al. [Ditlevsen, O., Mohr, G. & Hoffmeyer, P. Integration of non-Gaussian fields. Prob. Engng Mech 11 (1996) 15-23](2)........ However, in the case of dependency between the terms even calculation of a few of the first moments of the sum presents serious computational problems. By use of computerized symbol manipulations it is practicable to obtain exact moments of partial sums of stationary sequences of mutually dependent...

15. [A traditional Chinese medicine therapy warming meridians to nourish blood in treating chronic pain due to soft tissue injury of the neck and shoulder: a randomized controlled trial].

Science.gov (United States)

Zheng, Zhi-xin; Wang, Jun; Hou, Jing-shan; Ma, Ling; Jiang, Cong-bo

2011-02-01

Pain due to chronic soft tissue injury of the neck and shoulder is a commonly encountered and frequently occurring condition. Traditional Chinese medicine is a common course of treatment for soft tissue injury and may have better therapeutic effects than biomedical options. To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of Chinese herbal medicine warming meridians to nourish blood on chronic pain due to soft tissue injury in the neck and shoulder. A random and control method was adopted. Sixty-three patients with pain of the neck and shoulder due to chronic soft tissue injury, presenting with blood deficiency and cold coagulation syndrome, were randomly divided into treatment group (n=32) and control group (n=31). There was a drop-out case in treatment group. All the patients were collected from the clinic service of the Department of Rehabilitation at the General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army. Patients received oral and written information about clinical procedures before signing their written informed consent. Patients in the treatment group were treated with Chinese herbal decoctions for warming meridians to nourish blood and cervical traction. Patients in the control group were treated with cervical traction. The course of treatment was 14 days. A visual analog scale (VAS) was used to record test data in the two groups before and after treatment, and therapeutic effect was compared after treatment between the two groups. After treatment, VAS scores of the treatment group and the control group were decreased as compared with before treatment (t=5.01, Ppain due to soft tissue injury of the neck and shoulder.

16. Formal Analysis of Soft Errors using Theorem Proving

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sofiène Tahar

2013-07-01

Full Text Available Modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits has traditionally been done using computer simulations. Computer simulations cannot guarantee correctness of analysis because they utilize approximate real number representations and pseudo random numbers in the analysis and thus are not well suited for analyzing safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present a higher-order logic theorem proving based method for modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits. Our developed infrastructure includes formalized continuous random variable pairs, their Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF properties and independent standard uniform and Gaussian random variables. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by modeling and analyzing soft errors in commonly used dynamic random access memory sense amplifier circuits.

17. Gradual stiffness versus magnetic imaging-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes: A randomized noninferiority trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Garborg, Kjetil; Wiig, Håvard; Hasund, Audun; Matre, Jon; Holme, Øyvind; Noraberg, Geir; Løberg, Magnus; Kalager, Mette; Adami, Hans-Olov; Bretthauer, Michael

2017-02-01

Colonoscopes with gradual stiffness have recently been developed to enhance cecal intubation. We aimed to determine if the performance of gradual stiffness colonoscopes is noninferior to that of magnetic endoscopic imaging (MEI)-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes. Consecutive patients were randomized to screening colonoscopy with Fujifilm gradual stiffness or Olympus MEI-guided variable stiffness colonoscopes. The primary endpoint was cecal intubation rate (noninferiority limit 5%). Secondary endpoints included cecal intubation time. We estimated absolute risk differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We enrolled 475 patients: 222 randomized to the gradual stiffness instrument, and 253 to the MEI-guided variable stiffness instrument. Cecal intubation rate was 91.7% in the gradual stiffness group versus 95.6% in the variable stiffness group. The adjusted absolute risk for cecal intubation failure was 4.3% higher in the gradual stiffness group than in the variable stiffness group (upper CI border 8.1%). Median cecal intubation time was 13 minutes in the gradual stiffness group and 10 minutes in the variable stiffness group (p < 0.001). The study is inconclusive with regard to noninferiority because the 95% CI for the difference in cecal intubation rate between the groups crosses the noninferiority margin. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01895504).

18. Abundance of the introduced seastar, Asterias amurensis, and spatial variability in soft sediment assemblages in SE Tasmania: Clear correlations but complex interpretation

Science.gov (United States)

Ross, D. Jeff; Johnson, Craig R.; Hewitt, Chad L.

2006-05-01

The northern Pacific seastar, Asterias amurensis, was first collected in southeast Tasmania in 1986. Mistaken for the endemic asteroid Uniophora granifera, its true identity was not realised until 1992. It is now a conspicuous predator in soft sediment habitats in this region, and is considered a major threat to native assemblages and commercial species. We examined the structure of soft sediment assemblages at different spatial scales in southeast Tasmania, and correlated spatial variation in community composition with seastar abundances. We found that the structure of soft sediment assemblages is highly variable at a range of spatial scales from metres to tens of kilometres. Clear differences in the composition of assemblages and abundances of major taxa were detected between areas with and without seastars and between areas with low and high seastar densities. However, the nature of these patterns suggests that they are more likely due to differences in sediment characteristics than due to impacts of the seastar. Thus, spatial differences in soft sediment assemblages might have been erroneously attributed to seastars without detailed information on important physical factors such as sediment characteristics. A second survey, using larger sampling units (1 m 2) but across a more limited spatial extent, targeted bivalves and heart urchins that were identified as important prey of the seastar in observations of feeding and in experimental studies. Large-scale patterns of abundance and size structure were consistent with seastar effects anticipated from small-scale experimental and feeding studies for some, but not all, species. While the field survey ultimately provided evidence about the presence or absence of seastar impacts at large-scales, the identification of key ecological variables in experimental and feeding studies proved crucial to both the design and interpretation of patterns observed in the large-scale surveys. Overall, this work highlighted the

19. Peri-implant soft tissue colour around titanium and zirconia abutments: a prospective randomized controlled clinical study.

Science.gov (United States)

Cosgarea, Raluca; Gasparik, Cristina; Dudea, Diana; Culic, Bogdan; Dannewitz, Bettina; Sculean, Anton

2015-05-01

To objectively determine the difference in colour between the peri-implant soft tissue at titanium and zirconia abutments. Eleven patients, each with two contralaterally inserted osteointegrated dental implants, were included in this study. The implants were restored either with titanium abutments and porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns, or with zirconia abutments and ceramic crowns. Prior and after crown cementation, multi-spectral images of the peri-implant soft tissues and the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth were taken with a colorimeter. The colour parameters L*, a*, b*, c* and the colour differences ΔE were calculated. Descriptive statistics, including non-parametric tests and correlation coefficients, were used for statistical analyses of the data. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, the peri-implant soft tissue around titanium and zirconia (test group), showed distinguishable ΔE both before and after crown cementation. Colour differences around titanium were statistically significant different (P = 0.01) only at 1 mm prior to crown cementation compared to zirconia. Compared to the gingiva of the neighbouring teeth, statistically significant (P zirconia showed colour differences when compared to the soft tissue around natural teeth, and (ii) the peri-implant soft tissue around zirconia demonstrated a better colour match to the soft tissue at natural teeth than titanium. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

20. Comparison Between the Effects of Passive and Active Soft Tissue Therapies on Latent Trigger Points of Upper Trapezius Muscle in Women: Single-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Science.gov (United States)

2016-12-01

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of passive versus active soft tissue therapies on pain and ranges of motion in women with latent myofascial trigger points. Forty-two female patients, aged 18 to 64 years, with a history of neck pain and latent myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle were randomly assigned to 3 groups: group A received passive soft tissue therapy, group B received active soft tissue therapy, and a control group C received a sham procedure. The treatment consisted of 3 sessions in a 1-week period with 1-day break between each session. The local pain intensity, measured with a visual analog scale and pain pressure threshold (PPT) using algometry, and active cervical contralateral flexion (ACLF) measured with goniometry, were obtained at baseline, after the third session, and a week after the third session. The results indicated a significant decrease in local pain intensity on the visual analog scale within each group (A and B) compared with the control group (C) (P .05). Both passive and active soft tissue therapies were determined to reduce pain intensity and increase ACLF range of motion, although passive therapy was more effective in increasing PPT in these patients compared with the control group.

1. A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Folkard, Melvyn; Vojnovic, Borivoj; Schettino, Giuseppe; Atkinson, Kirk; Prise, Kevin, M.; Michael, Barry, D.

2007-01-23

2. Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Mood in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Chu, I-Hua; Lin, Yuh-Jen; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lin, I-Mei

2015-12-01

To examine the effects of an 8-week yoga program on heart rate variability and mood in generally healthy women. Randomized controlled trial. Fifty-two healthy women were randomly assigned to a yoga group or a control group. Participants in the yoga group completed an 8-week yoga program, which comprised a 60-minute session twice a week. Each session consisted of breathing exercises, yoga pose practice, and supine meditation/relaxation. The control group was instructed not to engage in any yoga practice and to maintain their usual level of physical activity during the study. Participants' heart rate variability, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and state and trait anxiety were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the intervention (week 9). No measures of heart rate variability changed significantly in either the yoga or control group after intervention. State anxiety was reduced significantly in the yoga group but not in the control group. No significant changes were noted in perceived stress, depression, or trait anxiety in either group. An 8-week yoga program was not sufficient to improve heart rate variability. However, such a program appears to be effective in reducing state anxiety in generally healthy women. Future research should involve longer periods of yoga training, include heart rate variability measures both at rest and during yoga practice, and enroll women with higher levels of stress and trait anxiety.

3. Robust design with imprecise random variables and its application in hydrokinetic turbine optimization

Science.gov (United States)

Hu, Zhen; Du, Xiaoping; Kolekar, Nitin S.; Banerjee, Arindam

2014-03-01

In robust design, uncertainty is commonly modelled with precise probability distributions. In reality, the distribution types and distribution parameters may not always be available owing to limited data. This research develops a robust design methodology to accommodate the mixture of both precise and imprecise random variables. By incorporating the Taguchi quality loss function and the minimax regret criterion, the methodology mitigates the effects of not only uncertain parameters but also uncertainties in the models of the uncertain parameters. Hydrokinetic turbine systems are a relatively new alternative energy technology, and both precise and imprecise random variables exist in the design of such systems. The developed methodology is applied to the robust design optimization of a hydrokinetic turbine system. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

4. Effects of toothbrushes with tapered and cross angled soft bristle design on dental plaque and gingival inflammation: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Ren, Yan-Fang; Cacciato, Rita; Whelehan, Mary Therese; Ning, Li; Malmstrom, Hans Sigurd

2007-07-01

To investigate the effect of three manual toothbrushes on dental plaque and gingival inflammation. The elmex Sensitive Extra Soft (ESES), elmex Sensitive Soft (ESS) and an ADA standard toothbrush (ADAS) were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Subjects brushed twice daily in their usual manner. Plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and plaque and gingival scores of interproximal spaces (IntPI and IntGI) were evaluated at day 15 and day 30. ANOVA and t-test were used to compare plaque and gingival scores. A total of 84 subjects with mild to moderate gingivitis completed the study. Plaque and gingival scores in ESES and ESS groups decreased from baseline to day 15 and day 30. At day 30, subjects in both ESES and ESS groups had lower plaque and gingival scores than those in the ADAS group (ptoothbrushes are more effective in removing dental plaque and reducing gingival inflammation than the ADA standard toothbrush.

5. Modified Exponential Type Estimator for Population Mean Using Auxiliary Variables in Stratified Random Sampling

OpenAIRE

Özel, Gamze

2015-01-01

In this paper, a new exponential type estimator is developed in the stratified random sampling for the population mean using auxiliary variable information. In order to evaluate efﬁciency of the introduced estimator, we ﬁrst review some estimators and study the optimum property of the suggested strategy. To judge the merits of the suggested class of estimators over others under the optimal condition, simulation study and real data applications are conducted. The results show that the introduc...

6. Equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for extended negatively dependent random variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Qunying Wu

2017-05-01

Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we study the equivalent conditions of complete moment convergence for sequences of identically distributed extended negatively dependent random variables. As a result, we extend and generalize some results of complete moment convergence obtained by Chow (Bull. Inst. Math. Acad. Sin. 16:177-201, 1988 and Li and Spătaru (J. Theor. Probab. 18:933-947, 2005 from the i.i.d. case to extended negatively dependent sequences.

7. An edgeworth expansion for a sum of M-Dependent random variables

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Wan Soo Rhee

1985-01-01

Full Text Available Given a sequence X1,X2,…,Xn of m-dependent random variables with moments of order 3+α (0<α≦1, we give an Edgeworth expansion of the distribution of Sσ−1(S=X1+X2+…+Xn, σ2=ES2 under the assumption that E[exp(it Sσ1] is small away from the origin. The result is of the best possible order.

8. Residual and Past Entropy for Concomitants of Ordered Random Variables of Morgenstern Family

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M. M. Mohie EL-Din

2015-01-01

Full Text Available For a system, which is observed at time t, the residual and past entropies measure the uncertainty about the remaining and the past life of the distribution, respectively. In this paper, we have presented the residual and past entropy of Morgenstern family based on the concomitants of the different types of generalized order statistics (gos and give the linear transformation of such model. Characterization results for these dynamic entropies for concomitants of ordered random variables have been considered.

9. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

Science.gov (United States)

Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

2017-07-01

Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

10. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of fibrin pad as an adjunct to control soft tissue bleeding during abdominal, retroperitoneal, pelvic, and thoracic surgery.

Science.gov (United States)

Fischer, Craig P; Bochicchio, Grant; Shen, Jessica; Patel, Bababhai; Batiller, Jonathan; Hart, James C

2013-09-01

11. The effect of cluster size variability on statistical power in cluster-randomized trials.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Stephen A Lauer

Full Text Available The frequency of cluster-randomized trials (CRTs in peer-reviewed literature has increased exponentially over the past two decades. CRTs are a valuable tool for studying interventions that cannot be effectively implemented or randomized at the individual level. However, some aspects of the design and analysis of data from CRTs are more complex than those for individually randomized controlled trials. One of the key components to designing a successful CRT is calculating the proper sample size (i.e. number of clusters needed to attain an acceptable level of statistical power. In order to do this, a researcher must make assumptions about the value of several variables, including a fixed mean cluster size. In practice, cluster size can often vary dramatically. Few studies account for the effect of cluster size variation when assessing the statistical power for a given trial. We conducted a simulation study to investigate how the statistical power of CRTs changes with variable cluster sizes. In general, we observed that increases in cluster size variability lead to a decrease in power.

12. Network Mendelian randomization: using genetic variants as instrumental variables to investigate mediation in causal pathways.

Science.gov (United States)

Burgess, Stephen; Daniel, Rhian M; Butterworth, Adam S; Thompson, Simon G

2015-04-01

Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants, assumed to be instrumental variables for a particular exposure, to estimate the causal effect of that exposure on an outcome. If the instrumental variable criteria are satisfied, the resulting estimator is consistent even in the presence of unmeasured confounding and reverse causation. We extend the Mendelian randomization paradigm to investigate more complex networks of relationships between variables, in particular where some of the effect of an exposure on the outcome may operate through an intermediate variable (a mediator). If instrumental variables for the exposure and mediator are available, direct and indirect effects of the exposure on the outcome can be estimated, for example using either a regression-based method or structural equation models. The direction of effect between the exposure and a possible mediator can also be assessed. Methods are illustrated in an applied example considering causal relationships between body mass index, C-reactive protein and uric acid. These estimators are consistent in the presence of unmeasured confounding if, in addition to the instrumental variable assumptions, the effects of both the exposure on the mediator and the mediator on the outcome are homogeneous across individuals and linear without interactions. Nevertheless, a simulation study demonstrates that even considerable heterogeneity in these effects does not lead to bias in the estimates. These methods can be used to estimate direct and indirect causal effects in a mediation setting, and have potential for the investigation of more complex networks between multiple interrelated exposures and disease outcomes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

13. Non-targeted detection of chemical contamination in carbonated soft drinks using NMR spectroscopy, variable selection and chemometrics

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Charlton, Adrian J. [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: adrian.charlton@csl.gov.uk; Robb, Paul; Donarski, James A.; Godward, John [Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ (United Kingdom)

2008-06-23

An efficient method for detecting malicious and accidental contamination of foods has been developed using a combined {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chemometrics approach. The method has been demonstrated using a commercially available carbonated soft drink, as being capable of identifying atypical products and to identify contaminant resonances. Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to compare {sup 1}H NMR profiles of genuine products (obtained from the manufacturer) against retail products spiked in the laboratory with impurities. The benefits of using feature selection for extracting contaminant NMR frequencies were also assessed. Using example impurities (paraquat, p-cresol and glyphosate) NMR spectra were analysed using multivariate methods resulting in detection limits of approximately 0.075, 0.2, and 0.06 mM for p-cresol, paraquat and glyphosate, respectively. These detection limits are shown to be approximately 100-fold lower than the minimum lethal dose for paraquat. The methodology presented here is used to assess the composition of complex matrices for the presence of contaminating molecules without a priori knowledge of the nature of potential contaminants. The ability to detect if a sample does not fit into the expected profile without recourse to multiple targeted analyses is a valuable tool for incident detection and forensic applications.

14. Utility-scale variable-speed wind turbines using a doubly-fed generator with a soft-switching power converter

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Weigand, C.H.; Lauw, H.K.; Marckx, D.A. [Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)

1996-12-31

Utility-scale wind turbines operating at variable RPM have been studied for a considerable period of time. Whereas the increase in energy output originally has been considered the principal benefit of variable-speed operation, the ability to tightly control the drive-train torque by electronic means is becoming another very important cost factor, especially for turbine ratings above 500 kilowatts. This cost benefit becomes even more significant as optimum turbine ratings today are approaching (and surpassing) 1 Megawatt. Having identified the benefits for the turbine, the designer is confronted with the task of finding the most cost-effective variable-speed generation system which allows him to make use of the benefits, yet does not introduce well-known electrical problems associated with state-of-the-art variable-speed generator controls, such as drastically reduced generator winding life, excessive harmonics on the utility, and poor utility power factor. This paper will indicate that for high-power (> 500 kW), utility-scale wind turbines a doubly-fed generator system in connection with a soft-switching resonant power converter is the least-cost variable-speed generation system offering all of the desired benefits, yet avoids the introduction of the potential electrical problems stated above. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

15. Estimating Marginal Healthcare Costs Using Genetic Variants as Instrumental Variables: Mendelian Randomization in Economic Evaluation.

Science.gov (United States)

Dixon, Padraig; Davey Smith, George; von Hinke, Stephanie; Davies, Neil M; Hollingworth, William

2016-11-01

Accurate measurement of the marginal healthcare costs associated with different diseases and health conditions is important, especially for increasingly prevalent conditions such as obesity. However, existing observational study designs cannot identify the causal impact of disease on healthcare costs. This paper explores the possibilities for causal inference offered by Mendelian randomization, a form of instrumental variable analysis that uses genetic variation as a proxy for modifiable risk exposures, to estimate the effect of health conditions on cost. Well-conducted genome-wide association studies provide robust evidence of the associations of genetic variants with health conditions or disease risk factors. The subsequent causal effects of these health conditions on cost can be estimated using genetic variants as instruments for the health conditions. This is because the approximately random allocation of genotypes at conception means that many genetic variants are orthogonal to observable and unobservable confounders. Datasets with linked genotypic and resource use information obtained from electronic medical records or from routinely collected administrative data are now becoming available and will facilitate this form of analysis. We describe some of the methodological issues that arise in this type of analysis, which we illustrate by considering how Mendelian randomization could be used to estimate the causal impact of obesity, a complex trait, on healthcare costs. We describe some of the data sources that could be used for this type of analysis. We conclude by considering the challenges and opportunities offered by Mendelian randomization for economic evaluation.

16. Blind estimation of statistical properties of non-stationary random variables

Science.gov (United States)

Mansour, Ali; Mesleh, Raed; Aggoune, el-Hadi M.

2014-12-01

To identify or equalize wireless transmission channels, or alternatively to evaluate the performance of many wireless communication algorithms, coefficients or statistical properties of the used transmission channels are often assumed to be known or can be estimated at the receiver end. For most of the proposed algorithms, the knowledge of transmission channel statistical properties is essential to detect signals and retrieve data. To the best of our knowledge, most proposed approaches assume that transmission channels are static and can be modeled by stationary random variables (uniform, Gaussian, exponential, Weilbul, Rayleigh, etc.). In the majority of sensor networks or cellular systems applications, transmitters and/or receivers are in motion. Therefore, the validity of static transmission channels and the underlying assumptions may not be valid. In this case, coefficients and statistical properties change and therefore the stationary model falls short of making an accurate representation. In order to estimate the statistical properties (represented by the high-order statistics and probability density function, PDF) of dynamic channels, we firstly assume that the dynamic channels can be modeled by short-term stationary but long-term non-stationary random variable (RV), i.e., the RVs are stationary within unknown successive periods but they may suddenly change their statistical properties between two successive periods. Therefore, this manuscript proposes an algorithm to detect the transition phases of non-stationary random variables and introduces an indicator based on high-order statistics for non-stationary transmission which can be used to alter channel properties and initiate the estimation process. Additionally, PDF estimators based on kernel functions are also developed. The first part of the manuscript provides a brief introduction for unbiased estimators of the second and fourth-order cumulants. Then, the non-stationary indicators are formulated

17. Soft hair as a soft wig

Science.gov (United States)

Bousso, Raphael; Porrati, Massimo

2017-10-01

We consider large gauge transformations of gravity and electromagnetism in D=4 asymptotically flat spacetime. Already at the classical level, we identify a canonical transformation that decouples the soft variables from the hard dynamics. We find that only the soft dynamics is constrained by BMS or large U(1) charge conservation. Physically this corresponds to the fact that sufficiently long-wavelength photons or gravitons that are added to the in-state will simply pass through the interaction region; they scatter trivially in their own sector. This implies in particular that the large gauge symmetries bear no relevance to the black hole information paradox. We also present the quantum version of soft decoupling. As a consistency check, we show that the apparent mixing of soft and hard modes in the original variables arises entirely from the long range field of the hard charges, which is fixed by gauge invariance and so contains no additional information.

18. Continuous-time random-walk model of transport in variably saturated heterogeneous porous media.

Science.gov (United States)

Zoia, Andrea; Néel, Marie-Christine; Cortis, Andrea

2010-03-01

We propose a unified physical framework for transport in variably saturated porous media. This approach allows fluid flow and solute migration to be treated as ensemble averages of fluid and solute particles, respectively. We consider the cases of homogeneous and heterogeneous porous materials. Within a fractal mobile-immobile continuous time random-walk framework, the heterogeneity will be characterized by algebraically decaying particle retention times. We derive the corresponding (nonlinear) continuum-limit partial differential equations and we compare their solutions to Monte Carlo simulation results. The proposed methodology is fairly general and can be used to track fluid and solutes particles trajectories for a variety of initial and boundary conditions.

19. Implant associated soft tissue defects in the anterior maxilla: a randomized control trial comparing subepithelial connective tissue graft and acellular dermal matrix allograft.

Science.gov (United States)

Anderson, Lauren E; Inglehart, Marita R; El-Kholy, Karim; Eber, Robert; Wang, Hom-Lay

2014-08-01

This randomized controlled clinical pilot trial compared the efficacy of 2 soft tissue grafting methods for correcting esthetic discrepancies associated with definitively restored implant crowns. Thirteen patients presenting with implants displaying recession, thin biotype, concavity defects, or a combination thereof associated with single crowned dental implants randomly received subepithelial connective tissue grafts (SCTG) in the control group (N = 7) or acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allografts in the test group (N = 6), both under coronally positioned flaps. Data regarding soft tissue, hard tissue, esthetics, and quality of life (QoL) parameters were collected over 6 months. Both groups gained tissue thickness (SCTG: 63% and ADM: 105%), reduced concavity measures (SCTG: 82% and ADM: 96%), and improved recessions (SCTG: 40% and ADM: 28%) from baseline to 6 months. Clinicians determined improvement in esthetics for both groups (P = 0.001), unlike patients who did not change their esthetic ratings. No statistical differences were noted for QoL assessment; however, ADM subjects had more eventful wound healing (P = 0.021). Within the limitations of this study, both SCTG and ADM result in increased mucosal thickness, reduction in concavity dimensions, and have a potential for recession reduction on definitively restored dental implants.

20. Testing concordance of instrumental variable effects in generalized linear models with application to Mendelian randomization

Science.gov (United States)

Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li

2014-01-01

Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158

1. On the Distribution of Indefinite Quadratic Forms in Gaussian Random Variables

KAUST Repository

Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.

2015-10-30

© 2015 IEEE. In this work, we propose a unified approach to evaluating the CDF and PDF of indefinite quadratic forms in Gaussian random variables. Such a quantity appears in many applications in communications, signal processing, information theory, and adaptive filtering. For example, this quantity appears in the mean-square-error (MSE) analysis of the normalized least-meansquare (NLMS) adaptive algorithm, and SINR associated with each beam in beam forming applications. The trick of the proposed approach is to replace inequalities that appear in the CDF calculation with unit step functions and to use complex integral representation of the the unit step function. Complex integration allows us then to evaluate the CDF in closed form for the zero mean case and as a single dimensional integral for the non-zero mean case. Utilizing the saddle point technique allows us to closely approximate such integrals in non zero mean case. We demonstrate how our approach can be extended to other scenarios such as the joint distribution of quadratic forms and ratios of such forms, and to characterize quadratic forms in isotropic distributed random variables.We also evaluate the outage probability in multiuser beamforming using our approach to provide an application of indefinite forms in communications.

2. Physical activity, mindfulness meditation, or heart rate variability biofeedback for stress reduction: a randomized controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Huizink, Anja C; Bögels, Susan M; de Bruin, Esther I

2015-12-01

In contemporary western societies stress is highly prevalent, therefore the need for stress-reducing methods is great. This randomized controlled trial compared the efficacy of self-help physical activity (PA), mindfulness meditation (MM), and heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) in reducing stress and its related symptoms. We randomly allocated 126 participants to PA, MM, or HRV-BF upon enrollment, of whom 76 agreed to participate. The interventions consisted of psycho-education and an introduction to the specific intervention techniques and 5 weeks of daily exercises at home. The PA exercises consisted of a vigorous-intensity activity of free choice. The MM exercises consisted of guided mindfulness meditation. The HRV-BF exercises consisted of slow breathing with a heart rate variability biofeedback device. Participants received daily reminders for their exercises and were contacted weekly to monitor their progress. They completed questionnaires prior to, directly after, and 6 weeks after the intervention. Results indicated an overall beneficial effect consisting of reduced stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improved psychological well-being and sleep quality. No significant between-intervention effect was found, suggesting that PA, MM, and HRV-BF are equally effective in reducing stress and its related symptoms. These self-help interventions provide easily accessible help for people with stress complaints.

3. Events of Borel Sets, Construction of Borel Sets and Random Variables for Stochastic Finance

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Jaeger Peter

2014-09-01

Full Text Available We consider special events of Borel sets with the aim to prove, that the set of the irrational numbers is an event of the Borel sets. The set of the natural numbers, the set of the integer numbers and the set of the rational numbers are countable, so we can use the literature [10] (pp. 78-81 as a basis for the similar construction of the proof. Next we prove, that different sets can construct the Borel sets [16] (pp. 9-10. Literature [16] (pp. 9-10 and [11] (pp. 11-12 gives an overview, that there exists some other sets for this construction. Last we define special functions as random variables for stochastic finance in discrete time. The relevant functions are implemented in the article [15], see [9] (p. 4. The aim is to construct events and random variables, which can easily be used with a probability measure. See as an example theorems (10 and (14 in [20]. Then the formalization is more similar to the presentation used in the book [9]. As a background, further literatures is [3] (pp. 9-12, [13] (pp. 17-20, and [8] (pp.32-35.

4. Marcinkiewicz-type strong law of large numbers for double arrays of pairwise independent random variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dug Hun Hong

1999-01-01

Full Text Available Let {Xij} be a double sequence of pairwise independent random variables. If P{|Xmn|≥t}≤P{|X|≥t} for all nonnegative real numbers t and E|X|p(log+|X|3<∞, for 1random variables under the conditions E|X|p(log+|X|r+1<∞,E|X|p(log+|X|r−1<∞, respectively, thus, extending Choi and Sung's result [1] of the one-dimensional case.

5. Multivariate non-normally distributed random variables in climate research – introduction to the copula approach

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

P. Friederichs

2008-10-01

Full Text Available Probability distributions of multivariate random variables are generally more complex compared to their univariate counterparts which is due to a possible nonlinear dependence between the random variables. One approach to this problem is the use of copulas, which have become popular over recent years, especially in fields like econometrics, finance, risk management, or insurance. Since this newly emerging field includes various practices, a controversial discussion, and vast field of literature, it is difficult to get an overview. The aim of this paper is therefore to provide an brief overview of copulas for application in meteorology and climate research. We examine the advantages and disadvantages compared to alternative approaches like e.g. mixture models, summarize the current problem of goodness-of-fit (GOF tests for copulas, and discuss the connection with multivariate extremes. An application to station data shows the simplicity and the capabilities as well as the limitations of this approach. Observations of daily precipitation and temperature are fitted to a bivariate model and demonstrate, that copulas are valuable complement to the commonly used methods.

6. Interannual variability of soft-bottom macrobenthic communities of the NW Gulf of Mexico in relationship to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

Science.gov (United States)

Salcedo, Diana L; Soto, Luis A; Estradas-Romero, Alejandro; Botello, Alfonso V

2017-01-30

A 3-year research program was undertaken to assess potential environmental disturbance caused by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to the soft-bottom macrobenthic communities within Mexican waters of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Community properties and temporal/spatial variability were analyzed besides toxicant parameters such as hydrocarbons and trace-metals. Overall infaunal density increased, taxa proportion changed, and small-size opportunistic organisms prevailed throughout the study. Annual abundance-biomass comparison (ABC) curves revealed progressive stress scenarios from moderate to severe. Concentrations of vanadium, nickel, cobalt, PAHs and AHs increased gradually over time. However, low correlations between benthic density and biogeochemical variables were determined. Initially, sedimentary properties were the main drivers of benthic community structure; subsequently, nickel, vanadium and PAHs, indicative of anthropogenic effect, were highlighted. Interannual variability in the macroinfauna was attributed to the synergy of several environmental factors. Undoubtedly, compounds derived from fossil fuels had a significant disturbance role, but their source remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

7. Treatment resistant schizophrenia and neurological soft signs may converge on the same pathology: Evidence from explanatory analysis on clinical, psychopathological, and cognitive variables.

Science.gov (United States)

de Bartolomeis, Andrea; Prinzivalli, Emiliano; Callovini, Gemma; D'Ambrosio, Luigi; Altavilla, Benedetta; Avagliano, Camilla; Iasevoli, Felice

2018-02-02

Here, we investigated neurological soft signs (NSSs) in treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) vs treatment responder schizophrenia (SZ) patients. TRS is a severe condition, affecting approximately one-third of schizophrenia patients and representing a relevant clinical challenge. NSSs are neurological abnormalities reportedly described in schizophrenia patients and linked to dysregulated network connections. We explored the possibility that NSSs may be: i) more severe in TRS patients; ii) differentially associated to clinical/cognitive variables in TRS vs SZ; iii) predictive of having TRS. In addition, we evaluated whether diagnosis may mediate NSSs associations with the above-mentioned variables. Consecutive patients with schizophrenia diagnosis underwent stringent assessment for TRS diagnosis. Demographics and clinical variables were recorded. Psychopathology (by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS), cognitive performances, and NSSs (by Neurological Evaluation Scale, NES) were tested. TRS had higher scores than SZ patients in total NES score and in almost all NES subscales, even after correction for duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (ANCOVA, pvariables (above all: duration of disease and negative symptoms) in TRS but not in SZ patients. Two-way ANOVA showed NSS-x-diagnosis interaction in determining outcomes on multiple cognitive performances, but not in other clinical variables. However, simple main effect analysis detected a significant relationship between high severity NSSs and TRS diagnosis on multiple clinical and cognitive outcomes. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that diagnosis was among a discrete number of predictors yielding significant increases in variance explained on NES total, Sensory Integration and Other Signs subscales' scores. NSSs, together with antipsychotic dose and disease severity, were found to be significantly predictive of TRS diagnosis in a binary logistic regression model. These results suggest a stringent

8. Aerobic and combined exercise sessions reduce glucose variability in type 2 diabetes: crossover randomized trial.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Franciele R Figueira

Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of aerobic (AER or aerobic plus resistance exercise (COMB sessions on glucose levels and glucose variability in patients with type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we assessed conventional and non-conventional methods to analyze glucose variability derived from multiple measurements performed with continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS.Fourteen patients with type 2 diabetes (56±2 years wore a CGMS during 3 days. Participants randomly performed AER and COMB sessions, both in the morning (24 h after CGMS placement, and at least 7 days apart. Glucose variability was evaluated by glucose standard deviation, glucose variance, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE, and glucose coefficient of variation (conventional methods as well as by spectral and symbolic analysis (non-conventional methods.Baseline fasting glycemia was 139±05 mg/dL and HbA1c 7.9±0.7%. Glucose levels decreased immediately after AER and COMB protocols by ∼16%, which was sustained for approximately 3 hours. Comparing the two exercise modalities, responses over a 24-h period after the sessions were similar for glucose levels, glucose variance and glucose coefficient of variation. In the symbolic analysis, increases in 0 V pattern (COMB, 67.0±7.1 vs. 76.0±6.3, P = 0.003 and decreases in 1 V pattern (COMB, 29.1±5.3 vs. 21.5±5.1, P = 0.004 were observed only after the COMB session.Both AER and COMB exercise modalities reduce glucose levels similarly for a short period of time. The use of non-conventional analysis indicates reduction of glucose variability after a single session of combined exercises.Aerobic training, aerobic-resistance training and glucose profile (CGMS in type 2 diabetes (CGMS exercise. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00887094.

9. Heuristic methods using variable neighborhood random local search for the clustered traveling salesman problem

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mário Mestria

2014-11-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we propose new heuristic methods for solver the Clustered Traveling Salesman Problem (CTSP. The CTSP is a generalization of the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP in which the set of vertices is partitioned into disjoint clusters and objective is to find a minimum cost Hamiltonian cycle such that the vertices of each cluster are visited contiguously. We develop two Variable Neighborhood Random Descent with Iterated Local for solver the CTSP. The heuristic methods proposed were tested in types of instances with data at different level of granularity for the number of vertices and clusters. The computational results showed that the heuristic methods outperform recent existing methods in the literature and they are competitive with an exact algorithm using the Parallel CPLEX software.

10. Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Depressive Symptoms in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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Chu, I-Hua; Wu, Wen-Lan; Lin, I-Mei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Yuh-Jen; Yang, Pin-Chen

2017-04-01

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week yoga program on heart rate variability (HRV) and depressive symptoms in depressed women. This was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six sedentary women scoring ≥14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II were randomized to either the yoga or the control group. The yoga group completed a 12-week yoga program, which took place twice a week for 60 min per session and consisted of breathing exercises, yoga pose practice, and supine meditation/relaxation. The control group was instructed not to engage in any yoga practice and to maintain their usual level of physical activity during the course of the study. Participants' HRV, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-test. The yoga group had a significant increase in high-frequency HRV and decreases in low-frequency HRV and low frequency/high frequency ratio after the intervention. The yoga group also reported significantly reduced depressive symptoms and perceived stress. No change was found in the control group. A 12-week yoga program was effective in increasing parasympathetic tone and reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Regular yoga practice may be recommended for women to cope with their depressive symptoms and stress and to improve their HRV.

11. Resting heart rate variability after yogic training and swimming: A prospective randomized comparative trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Sawane, Manish Vinayak; Gupta, Shilpa Sharad

2015-01-01

Resting heart rate variability (HRV) is a measure of the modulation of autonomic nervous system (ANS) at rest. Increased HRV achieved by the exercise is good for the cardiovascular health. However, prospective studies with comparison of the effects of yogic exercises and those of other endurance exercises like walking, running, and swimming on resting HRV are conspicuous by their absence. Study was designed to assess and compare the effects of yogic training and swimming on resting HRV in normal healthy young volunteers. Study was conducted in Department of Physiology in a medical college. Study design was prospective randomized comparative trial. One hundred sedentary volunteers were randomly ascribed to either yoga or swimming group. Baseline recordings of digital electrocardiogram were done for all the subjects in cohorts of 10. After yoga training and swimming for 12 weeks, evaluation for resting HRV was done again. Percentage change for each parameter with yoga and swimming was compared using unpaired t-test for data with normal distribution and using Mann-Whitney U test for data without normal distribution. Most of the HRV parameters improved statistically significantly by both modalities of exercise. However, some of the HRV parameters showed statistically better improvement with yoga as compared to swimming. Practicing yoga seems to be the mode of exercise with better improvement in autonomic functions as suggested by resting HRV.

12. EFFECT OF KINESIO TAPING AND SOFT ORTHOSIS APPLICATION ON THE PAIN AND FUNCTIONAL DISABILITY IN LUMBAR REGION PATHOLOGIES WITHOUT NEUROLOGICAL DEFICITS: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Burcu TALU

2016-12-01

Full Text Available Background: Back pain caused by lumbar region pathologies is a condition that leads to loss of productivity and physical disability, with high costs of diagnosis and treatment. This study was planned to investigate the effect of taping and soft orthosis application on the pain and functional disability in the pathology of lumbar region without neurological deficit. Methods: This study is randomized controlled trial. Sixty-three volunteer patients were randomly divided into three groups of 21 people. Group I, soft orthotics and stabilization exercise program; Group II, Kinesio taping and stabilization exercise program; Group III, stabilization exercise program was applied. After obtaining demographic data of the participants; patients were evaluated in terms of range of motion and muscle strength. We used visual analog scale for pain level assessment, sit and reach test for flexibility assessment, timed up and go test (TUG for functional ambulation and balance, modified Schober test for lumbar spine flexibility, Oswestry Disability Index in the assessment of functional disability. They were assessed at the pretreatment, third (post treatment and six week (home programs and follow-up. Results: The results showed that significant differences (p<0.05 occurred over time in the study parameters such as functional ambulation, flexibility, lumbar flexibility, functional disability, pain, strength, range of motion in all groups. In comparisons between groups, there was a difference mainly in favor of Group II (p<0.05. Conclusions: We have concluded that in lumbar region pathologies without neurological deficits, stabilization exercises combined with orthotics and Kinesio taping applications reduces pain and functional disability.

13. Soft-assignment random-forest with an application to discriminative representation of human actions in videos

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Burghouts, G.J.

2013-01-01

The bag-of-features model is a distinctive and robust approach to detect human actions in videos. The discriminative power of this model relies heavily on the quantization of the video features into visual words. The quantization determines how well the visual words describe the human action. Random

14. A general instrumental variable framework for regression analysis with outcome missing not at random.

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Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Wirth, Kathleen E

2017-02-23

The instrumental variable (IV) design is a well-known approach for unbiased evaluation of causal effects in the presence of unobserved confounding. In this article, we study the IV approach to account for selection bias in regression analysis with outcome missing not at random. In such a setting, a valid IV is a variable which (i) predicts the nonresponse process, and (ii) is independent of the outcome in the underlying population. We show that under the additional assumption (iii) that the IV is independent of the magnitude of selection bias due to nonresponse, the population regression in view is nonparametrically identified. For point estimation under (i)-(iii), we propose a simple complete-case analysis which modifies the regression of primary interest by carefully incorporating the IV to account for selection bias. The approach is developed for the identity, log and logit link functions. For inferences about the marginal mean of a binary outcome assuming (i) and (ii) only, we describe novel and approximately sharp bounds which unlike Robins-Manski bounds, are smooth in model parameters, therefore allowing for a straightforward approach to account for uncertainty due to sampling variability. These bounds provide a more honest account of uncertainty and allows one to assess the extent to which a violation of the key identifying condition (iii) might affect inferences. For illustration, the methods are used to account for selection bias induced by HIV testing nonparticipation in the evaluation of HIV prevalence in the Zambian Demographic and Health Surveys. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

15. A randomized controlled study on the efficiency of soft tissue mobilization in babies with congenital muscular torticollis.

Science.gov (United States)

Keklicek, Hilal; Uygur, Fatma

2017-09-08

Soft tissue mobilization techniques (STM) are used in clinical practice in treatment of congenital muscular torticollis(CMT).However, little is known about its effectiveness. To investigate whether using STM to manage CMT in babies with mild to moderate head tilt was effective or not. Twenty-nine babies with CMT aged between 0-6 months, who had a head tilt from 5 to 20 degrees were allocated to two groups. Both groups received a baseline home program (positioning, handling strategies, stretching and strengthening exercises, environmental adaptations). The study group (SG) also received STM three times a week. Babies were evaluated initially, at six weeks, at 12 weeks and for follow-up at 18 weeks with muscle function scale, head tilt and range of motion for neck lateral flexion and rotation. Both groups showed significant improvements in all measured parameters (p< 0.05). In comparison of groups, there were differences at six weeks in favor of the SG for neck rotation (0.001) and head tilt (= 0.006); but at 12 weeks and follow up, there were no longer any differences between the groups in any of the measured parameters. STM techniques are effective in getting faster positive results in the treatment of CMT.

16. Short-term soft- and hard-tissue changes following Class III treatment using a removable mandibular retractor: a randomized controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Saleh, M; Hajeer, M Y; Al-Jundi, A

2013-05-01

To evaluate the effects of a Class III functional appliance [the removable mandibular retractor (RMR)] in the early treatment of skeletal Class III deformities. SET-UP: Randomized controlled trial. Orthodontic Department, University of Al-Baath Dental School, Hamah, Syria. Sixty-seven skeletal Class III patients were recruited, distributed randomly into two groups: 1) treatment group (T) with the RMR: 33 patients (17 males and 16 females) with a mean age of 7.5 ± 1.33 years, 2) control group (C): 34 patients (15 males and 19 females) with a mean age of 7.3 ± 1.58 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start of treatment (T1-T) or at the start of the observation period (T1-C) and after 14.5 ± 0.1 months (both groups). Soft- and hard-tissue changes in both groups were evaluated. The main significant findings in the treatment group were 1) anterior morphogenetic rotation of the mandible as a result of upward and forward condylar growth; 2) significant increase in maxillary length; 3) significant increase in maxillary dentoalveolar protrusion; 4) significant decrease in mandibular dentoalveolar protrusion; 5) significant protrusion of the upper lip; 6) significant retrusion of the lower lip; and 7) significant reduction in nasolabial angle. The RMR is an effective appliance in the treatment of skeletal Class III patients in the early mixed dentition in the short term. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

17. A yoga & exercise randomized controlled trial for vasomotor symptoms: Effects on heart rate variability.

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Jones, Salene M W; Guthrie, Katherine A; Reed, Susan D; Landis, Carol A; Sternfeld, Barbara; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dunn, Andrea; Burr, Robert L; Newton, Katherine M

2016-06-01

Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects the integration of the parasympathetic nervous system with the rest of the body. Studies on the effects of yoga and exercise on HRV have been mixed but suggest that exercise increases HRV. We conducted a secondary analysis of the effect of yoga and exercise on HRV based on a randomized clinical trial of treatments for vasomotor symptoms in peri/post-menopausal women. Randomized clinical trial of behavioral interventions in women with vasomotor symptoms (n=335), 40-62 years old from three clinical study sites. 12-weeks of a yoga program, designed specifically for mid-life women, or a supervised aerobic exercise-training program with specific intensity and energy expenditure goals, compared to a usual activity group. Time and frequency domain HRV measured at baseline and at 12 weeks for 15min using Holter monitors. Women had a median of 7.6 vasomotor symptoms per 24h. Time and frequency domain HRV measures did not change significantly in either of the intervention groups compared to the change in the usual activity group. HRV results did not differ when the analyses were restricted to post-menopausal women. Although yoga and exercise have been shown to increase parasympathetic-mediated HRV in other populations, neither intervention increased HRV in middle-aged women with vasomotor symptoms. Mixed results in previous research may be due to sample differences. Yoga and exercise likely improve short-term health in middle-aged women through mechanisms other than HRV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Effect of saw palmetto soft gel capsule on lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia: a randomized trial in Shanghai, China.

Science.gov (United States)

Shi, Rong; Xie, Qiungwen; Gang, X; Lun, Jing; Cheng, Life; Pantuck, Allan; Rao, Jianyu

2008-02-01

We determined the effect of Prostataplex in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. A total of 92 Chinese men between 49 and 75 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms were randomly assigned in this double-blind, placebo controlled trial. The 46 patients in the intervention group were given 2 Prostataplex soft gels daily for 12 weeks, while the 46 in the control group were given 2 placebo soft gels for the same time. The treated and control groups appeared to have more than a 95% compliance rate, as judged by counting the remaining pills in the bottle collected at the end of trial months 1 to 3. After 12 weeks of intervention the mean +/- SD maximum urinary flow rate was significantly higher in the treatment group than in the control group (14.07 +/- 2.56 vs 11.74 +/- 1.23 ml per second, p <0.001), while relative urinary resistance was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (2.35 +/- 0.83 vs 3.02 +/- 1.18, p = 0.002). While there was no significant difference in mean prostate volume or International Prostate Symptom Score between the 2 groups, 18 of 46 patients (39.1%) in the treatment group showed an International Prostate Symptom Score improvement (decrease of 3 or greater) after intervention, whereas only 1 of 46 (2.2%) in the control group showed an International Prostate Symptom Score improvement (chi-square test p <0.001). Prostataplex may have short-term effects in improving symptoms and objective measures in Chinese men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

19. How Far Is Quasar UV/Optical Variability from a Damped Random Walk at Low Frequency?

Science.gov (United States)

Guo, Hengxiao; Wang, Junxian; Cai, Zhenyi; Sun, Mouyuan

2017-10-01

Studies have shown that UV/optical light curves of quasars can be described using the prevalent damped random walk (DRW) model, also known as the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. A white noise power spectral density (PSD) is expected at low frequency in this model; however, a direct observational constraint to the low-frequency PSD slope is difficult due to the limited lengths of the light curves available. Meanwhile, quasars show scatter in their DRW parameters that is too large to be attributed to uncertainties in the measurements and dependence on the variation of known physical factors. In this work we present simulations showing that, if the low-frequency PSD deviates from the DRW, the red noise leakage can naturally produce large scatter in the variation parameters measured from simulated light curves. The steeper the low-frequency PSD slope, the larger scatter we expect. Based on observations of SDSS Stripe 82 quasars, we find that the low-frequency PSD slope should be no steeper than -1.3. The actual slope could be flatter, which consequently requires that the quasar variabilities should be influenced by other unknown factors. We speculate that the magnetic field and/or metallicity could be such additional factors.

20. Some Bounds on the Deviation Probability for Sums of Nonnegative Random Variables Using Upper Polynomials, Moment and Probability Generating Functions

OpenAIRE

From, Steven G.

2010-01-01

We present several new bounds for certain sums of deviation probabilities involving sums of nonnegative random variables. These are based upon upper bounds for the moment generating functions of the sums. We compare these new bounds to those of Maurer [2], Bernstein [4], Pinelis [16], and Bentkus [3]. We also briefly discuss the infinitely divisible distributions case.

1. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO HISTAMINE IN A RANDOM-POPULATION SAMPLE OF ADULTS

NARCIS (Netherlands)

RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; WEISS, ST; ROSNER, B; DEVRIES, K; VANDERLENDE, R

1993-01-01

Long-term variability of bronchial responsiveness has been studied in a random population sample of adults. During a follow-up period of 18 yr, 2,216 subjects contributed 5,012 observations to the analyses. Each subject could have as many as seven observations. Bronchial responsiveness was assessed

2. The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization versus therapeutic ultrasound for patients with neck and arm pain with evidence of neural mechanosensitivity: a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Costello, Michael; Puentedura, Emilio 'Louie' J; Cleland, Josh; Ciccone, Charles D

2016-07-01

Randomized clinical trial. To investigate the immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization (STM) versus therapeutic ultrasound (US) in patients with neck and arm pain who demonstrate neural mechanical sensitivity. While experts have suggested that individuals with neck and arm pain associated with neural tissue mechanical sensitivity may benefit from STM, there has been little research to investigate this hypothesis. Twenty-three patients with neck and arm pain and a positive upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT) were randomly assigned to receive STM or therapeutic US during a single session. Outcome measures were collected immediately before and after treatment, and at 2-4 day follow-up. Primary outcomes were the Global Rating of Change (GROC), range of motion (ROM) during the ULNT, and pain rating during the ULNT. Secondary measures included the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and active range of shoulder abduction motion combined with the wrist neutral or wrist extension. A greater proportion of patients in the STM group reported a significant improvement on the GROC immediately after treatment (P = 0·003, STM = 75%, US = 9%), and at 2-4 day follow-up (P = 0·027, STM = 58%, US = 9%). Patients who received STM demonstrated greater improvements in ROM during ULNT (P = 0·026), PSFS (P = 0·007), and shoulder active ROM combined with wrist extension (P = 0·028). Improvements in Numeric Pain Rating Scale and pain during the ULNT were observed only in the STM group. There was no difference between groups for the NDI or shoulder abduction ROM with wrist neutral. Patients with neck and arm pain demonstrated greater improvements in ULNT ROM, GROC, and PSFS, and pain following STM than after receiving therapeutic US. Therapy, level 1b.

3. The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization versus therapeutic ultrasound for patients with neck and arm pain with evidence of neural mechanosensitivity: a randomized clinical trial

Science.gov (United States)

Costello, Michael; Puentedura, Emilio ‘Louie’ J.; Cleland, Josh; Ciccone, Charles D.

2016-01-01

Study design Randomized clinical trial. Objectives To investigate the immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization (STM) versus therapeutic ultrasound (US) in patients with neck and arm pain who demonstrate neural mechanical sensitivity. Background While experts have suggested that individuals with neck and arm pain associated with neural tissue mechanical sensitivity may benefit from STM, there has been little research to investigate this hypothesis. Methods Twenty-three patients with neck and arm pain and a positive upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT) were randomly assigned to receive STM or therapeutic US during a single session. Outcome measures were collected immediately before and after treatment, and at 2–4 day follow-up. Primary outcomes were the Global Rating of Change (GROC), range of motion (ROM) during the ULNT, and pain rating during the ULNT. Secondary measures included the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS), Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS), and active range of shoulder abduction motion combined with the wrist neutral or wrist extension. Results A greater proportion of patients in the STM group reported a significant improvement on the GROC immediately after treatment (P = 0·003, STM = 75%, US = 9%), and at 2–4 day follow-up (P = 0·027, STM = 58%, US = 9%). Patients who received STM demonstrated greater improvements in ROM during ULNT (P = 0·026), PSFS (P = 0·007), and shoulder active ROM combined with wrist extension (P = 0·028). Improvements in Numeric Pain Rating Scale and pain during the ULNT were observed only in the STM group. There was no difference between groups for the NDI or shoulder abduction ROM with wrist neutral. Conclusion Patients with neck and arm pain demonstrated greater improvements in ULNT ROM, GROC, and PSFS, and pain following STM than after receiving therapeutic US. Level of evidence Therapy, level 1b. PMID:27559283

4. Soft-error tolerance and energy consumption evaluation of embedded computer with magnetic random access memory in practical systems using computer simulations

Science.gov (United States)

Nebashi, Ryusuke; Sakimura, Noboru; Sugibayashi, Tadahiko

2017-08-01

We evaluated the soft-error tolerance and energy consumption of an embedded computer with magnetic random access memory (MRAM) using two computer simulators. One is a central processing unit (CPU) simulator of a typical embedded computer system. We simulated the radiation-induced single-event-upset (SEU) probability in a spin-transfer-torque MRAM cell and also the failure rate of a typical embedded computer due to its main memory SEU error. The other is a delay tolerant network (DTN) system simulator. It simulates the power dissipation of wireless sensor network nodes of the system using a revised CPU simulator and a network simulator. We demonstrated that the SEU effect on the embedded computer with 1 Gbit MRAM-based working memory is less than 1 failure in time (FIT). We also demonstrated that the energy consumption of the DTN sensor node with MRAM-based working memory can be reduced to 1/11. These results indicate that MRAM-based working memory enhances the disaster tolerance of embedded computers.

5. Binary pseudo-random patterned structures for modulation transfer function calibration and resolution characterization of a full-field transmission soft x-ray microscope

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Yashchuk, V. V., E-mail: VVYashchuk@lbl.gov; Chan, E. R.; Lacey, I. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fischer, P. J. [Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California 94056 (United States); Conley, R. [Advance Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); McKinney, W. R. [Diablo Valley College, 321 Golf Club Road, Pleasant Hill, California 94523 (United States); Artemiev, N. A. [KLA-Tencor Corp., 1 Technology Drive, Milpitas, California 95035 (United States); Bouet, N. [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Cabrini, S. [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Calafiore, G.; Peroz, C.; Babin, S. [aBeam Technologies, Inc., Hayward, California 94541 (United States)

2015-12-15

We present a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) one-dimensional sequences and two-dimensional arrays as an effective method for spectral characterization in the spatial frequency domain of a broad variety of metrology instrumentation, including interferometric microscopes, scatterometers, phase shifting Fizeau interferometers, scanning and transmission electron microscopes, and at this time, x-ray microscopes. The inherent power spectral density of BPR gratings and arrays, which has a deterministic white-noise-like character, allows a direct determination of the MTF with a uniform sensitivity over the entire spatial frequency range and field of view of an instrument. We demonstrate the MTF calibration and resolution characterization over the full field of a transmission soft x-ray microscope using a BPR multilayer (ML) test sample with 2.8 nm fundamental layer thickness. We show that beyond providing a direct measurement of the microscope’s MTF, tests with the BPRML sample can be used to fine tune the instrument’s focal distance. Our results confirm the universality of the method that makes it applicable to a large variety of metrology instrumentation with spatial wavelength bandwidths from a few nanometers to hundreds of millimeters.

6. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

2014-05-02

General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventilation. The PROtective VARiable ventilation trial ('PROVAR') is a single center, randomized controlled trial enrolling 50 patients who are planning for open abdominal surgery expected to last longer than 3 hours. PROVAR compares conventional (non-variable) lung protective ventilation (CV) with variable lung protective ventilation (VV) regarding pulmonary function and inflammatory response. The primary endpoint of the study is the forced vital capacity on the first postoperative day. Secondary endpoints include further lung function tests, plasma cytokine levels, spatial distribution of ventilation assessed by means of electrical impedance tomography and postoperative pulmonary complications. We hypothesize that VV improves lung function and reduces systemic inflammatory response compared to CV in patients receiving mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia for open abdominal surgery longer than 3 hours. PROVAR is the first randomized controlled trial aiming at intra- and postoperative effects of VV on lung function. This study may help to define the role of VV during general anesthesia requiring mechanical ventilation. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01683578 (registered on September 3 3012).

7. Rationale and study design of ViPS - variable pressure support for weaning from mechanical ventilation: study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled open trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Kiss, Thomas; Güldner, Andreas; Bluth, Thomas; Uhlig, Christopher; Spieth, Peter Markus; Markstaller, Klaus; Ullrich, Roman; Jaber, Samir; Santos, Jose Alberto; Mancebo, Jordi; Camporota, Luigi; Beale, Richard; Schettino, Guilherme; Saddy, Felipe; Vallverdú, Immaculada; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Koch, Thea; Schultz, Marcus Josephus; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

2013-10-31

In pressure support ventilation (PSV), a non-variable level of pressure support is delivered by the ventilator when triggered by the patient. In contrast, variable PSV delivers a level of pressure support that varies in a random fashion, introducing more physiological variability to the respiratory pattern. Experimental studies show that variable PSV improves gas exchange, reduces lung inflammation and the mean pressure support, compared to non-variable PSV. Thus, it can theoretically shorten weaning from the mechanical ventilator. The ViPS (variable pressure support) trial is an international investigator-initiated multicenter randomized controlled open trial comparing variable vs. non-variable PSV. Adult patients on controlled mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours who are ready to be weaned are eligible for the study. The randomization sequence is blocked per center and performed using a web-based platform. Patients are randomly assigned to one of the two groups: variable PSV or non-variable PSV. In non-variable PSV, breath-by-breath pressure support is kept constant and targeted to achieve a tidal volume of 6 to 8 ml/kg. In variable PSV, the mean pressure support level over a specific time period is targeted at the same mean tidal volume as non-variable PSV, but individual levels vary randomly breath-by-breath. The primary endpoint of the trial is the time to successful weaning, defined as the time from randomization to successful extubation. ViPS is the first randomized controlled trial investigating whether variable, compared to non-variable PSV, shortens the duration of weaning from mechanical ventilation in a mixed population of critically ill patients. This trial aims to determine the role of variable PSV in the intensive care unit. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01769053.

8. Perspective: Is Random Monoallelic Expression a Contributor to Phenotypic Variability of Autosomal Dominant Disorders?

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Baoheng Gui; Jesse Slone; Taosheng Huang

2017-01-01

Several factors have been proposed as contributors to interfamilial and intrafamilial phenotypic variability in autosomal dominant disorders, including allelic variation, modifier genes, environmental...

9. Genetic variability of cultivated cowpea in Benin assessed by random amplified polymorphic DNA

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Zannou, A.; Kossou, D.K.; Ahanchédé, A.; Zoundjihékpon, J.; Agbicodo, E.; Struik, P.C.; Sanni, A.

2008-01-01

Characterization of genetic diversity among cultivated cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] varieties is important to optimize the use of available genetic resources by farmers, local communities, researchers and breeders. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to evaluate the

10. Testing in a Random Effects Panel Data Model with Spatially Correlated Error Components and Spatially Lagged Dependent Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ming He

2015-11-01

Full Text Available We propose a random effects panel data model with both spatially correlated error components and spatially lagged dependent variables. We focus on diagnostic testing procedures and derive Lagrange multiplier (LM test statistics for a variety of hypotheses within this model. We first construct the joint LM test for both the individual random effects and the two spatial effects (spatial error correlation and spatial lag dependence. We then provide LM tests for the individual random effects and for the two spatial effects separately. In addition, in order to guard against local model misspecification, we derive locally adjusted (robust LM tests based on the Bera and Yoon principle (Bera and Yoon, 1993. We conduct a small Monte Carlo simulation to show the good finite sample performances of these LM test statistics and revisit the cigarette demand example in Baltagi and Levin (1992 to illustrate our testing procedures.

11. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Penzlin AI

2015-10-01

Full Text Available Ana Isabel Penzlin,1 Timo Siepmann,2 Ben Min-Woo Illigens,3 Kerstin Weidner,4 Martin Siepmann4 1Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, 2Department of Neurology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany; 3Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Department of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Saxony, Germany Background and objective: In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV. Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24 attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale, anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2. Results: Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05, whereas craving was unchanged at

12. Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kock, Anders Bredahl

, we prove that the Marginal Bridge estimator can asymptotically correctly distinguish between relevant and irrelevant explanatory variables. We do this without restricting the dependence between covariates and without assuming sub Gaussianity of the error terms thereby generalizing the results...

13. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Maximiano Pinheiro

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure under marginalization of the latter class.

14. Marginal Distributions of Random Vectors Generated by Affine Transformations of Independent Two-Piece Normal Variables

OpenAIRE

Maximiano Pinheiro

2012-01-01

Marginal probability density and cumulative distribution functions are presented for multidimensional variables defined by nonsingular affine transformations of vectors of independent two-piece normal variables, the most important subclass of Ferreira and Steel's general multivariate skewed distributions. The marginal functions are obtained by first expressing the joint density as a mixture of Arellano-Valle and Azzalini's unified skew-normal densities and then using the property of closure u...

15. Effect of denture soft liner on mandibular ridge resorption in complete denture wearers after 6 and 12 months of denture insertion: A prospective randomized clinical study

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

B Dinesh Babu

2017-01-01

Conclusion: The use of soft denture liner significantly reduces the residual ridge resorption in complete denture wearers as compared to conventional denture wearers (without denture liner over a period of 1 year.

16. Application of Distributed Temperature Sensing for coupled mapping of sedimentation processes and spatio-temporal variability of groundwater discharge in soft-bedded streams

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sebok, Eva; Duque, C; Engesgaard, Peter

2015-01-01

The delineation of groundwater discharge areas based on Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) data of the streambed can be difficult in soft-bedded streams where sedimentation and scouring processes constantly change the position of the fibre optic cable relative to the streambed. Deposition-indu...

17. Impact of soft splints on upper limb spasticity in chronic patients with disorders of consciousness: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Thibaut, Aurore; Deltombe, Thierry; Wannez, Sarah; Gosseries, Olivia; Ziegler, Erik; Dieni, Cyril; Deroy, Maxime; Laureys, Steven

2015-01-01

To assess the effectiveness of soft splints on spasticity and hand opening in chronic patients with upper limb spasticity and disorders of consciousness (vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome-VS/UWS and minimally conscious state-MCS). In this prospective single-blind controlled trial, a blind evaluator assessed spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale and Modified Tardieu Scale), range of motion (ROM) at the metacarpophalangeal, wrist and elbow joints and the patients' hand opening before and after soft splinting, manual stretching and a control condition (i.e. no treatment), as well as 60 minutes later. Seventeen patients with chronic (>3 months) disorders of consciousness were included (five VS/UWS; seven women; mean age = 42 ± 12 years; time since insult = 35 ± 31 months). Patients received either passive splinting, manual stretching treatment or no treatment. Thirty minutes of soft splinting or 30 minutes of manual stretching both improved spasticity of the finger flexors. An increase of hand opening ability was observed after 30 minutes of soft splinting. Thirty minutes of soft splint application reduces spasticity and improves hand opening of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness. Soft splinting is well tolerated and does not require supervision.

18. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

1994-01-01

Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

19. Rationale and study design of ViPS - variable pressure support for weaning from mechanical ventilation: study protocol for an international multicenter randomized controlled open trial

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kiss, Thomas; Güldner, Andreas; Bluth, Thomas; Uhlig, Christopher; Spieth, Peter Markus; Markstaller, Klaus; Ullrich, Roman; Jaber, Samir; Santos, Jose Alberto; Mancebo, Jordi; Camporota, Luigi; Beale, Richard; Schettino, Guilherme; Saddy, Felipe; Vallverdú, Immaculada; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Koch, Thea; Schultz, Marcus Josephus; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

2013-01-01

In pressure support ventilation (PSV), a non-variable level of pressure support is delivered by the ventilator when triggered by the patient. In contrast, variable PSV delivers a level of pressure support that varies in a random fashion, introducing more physiological variability to the respiratory

20. Using instrumental variables to disentangle treatment and placebo effects in blinded and unblinded randomized clinical trials influenced by unmeasured confounders

Science.gov (United States)

Chaibub Neto, Elias

2016-11-01

Clinical trials traditionally employ blinding as a design mechanism to reduce the influence of placebo effects. In practice, however, it can be difficult or impossible to blind study participants and unblinded trials are common in medical research. Here we show how instrumental variables can be used to quantify and disentangle treatment and placebo effects in randomized clinical trials comparing control and active treatments in the presence of confounders. The key idea is to use randomization to separately manipulate treatment assignment and psychological encouragement conversations/interactions that increase the participants’ desire for improved symptoms. The proposed approach is able to improve the estimation of treatment effects in blinded studies and, most importantly, opens the doors to account for placebo effects in unblinded trials.

1. On The Distribution Of Mixed Sum Of Independent Random Variables One Of Them Associated With Srivastava's Polynomials And H -Function

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Singh Jagdev

2014-07-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we obtain the distribution of mixed sum of two independent random variables with different probability density functions. One with probability density function defined in finite range and the other with probability density function defined in infinite range and associated with product of Srivastava's polynomials and H-function. We use the Laplace transform and its inverse to obtain our main result. The result obtained here is quite general in nature and is capable of yielding a large number of corresponding new and known results merely by specializing the parameters involved therein. To illustrate, some special cases of our main result are also given.

2. The mesoscopic conductance of disordered rings, its random matrix theory and the generalized variable range hopping picture

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Stotland, Alexander; Peer, Tal; Cohen, Doron [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva 84005 (Israel); Budoyo, Rangga; Kottos, Tsampikos [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

2008-07-11

The calculation of the conductance of disordered rings requires a theory that goes beyond the Kubo-Drude formulation. Assuming 'mesoscopic' circumstances the analysis of the electro-driven transitions shows similarities with a percolation problem in energy space. We argue that the texture and the sparsity of the perturbation matrix dictate the value of the conductance, and study its dependence on the disorder strength, ranging from the ballistic to the Anderson localization regime. An improved sparse random matrix model is introduced to capture the essential ingredients of the problem, and leads to a generalized variable range hopping picture. (fast track communication)

3. Sum of ratios of products forα-μ random variables in wireless multihop relaying and multiple scattering

KAUST Repository

Wang, Kezhi

2014-09-01

The sum of ratios of products of independent 2642 2642α-μ random variables (RVs) is approximated by using the Generalized Gamma ratio approximation (GGRA) with Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) as a special case. The proposed approximation is used to calculate the outage probability of the equal gain combining (EGC) or maximum ratio combining (MRC) receivers for wireless multihop relaying or multiple scattering systems considering interferences. Numerical results show that the newly derived approximation works very well verified by the simulation, while GRA has a slightly worse performance than GGRA when outage probability is below 0.1 but with a more simplified form.

4. Large-scale mitochondrial COI gene sequence variability reflects the complex colonization history of the invasive soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria (L.) (Bivalvia)

Science.gov (United States)

Lasota, Rafal; Pierscieniak, Karolina; Garcia, Pascale; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Wolowicz, Maciej

2016-11-01

The aim of the study was to determine genetic diversity in the soft-shell clam Mya arenaria on a wide geographical scale using mtDNA COI gene sequences. Low levels of genetic diversity was found, which can most likely be explained by a bottleneck effect during Pleistocene glaciations and/or selection. The geographical genetic structuring of the studied populations was also very low. The star-like phylogeny of the haplotypes indicates a relatively recent, rapid population expansion following the glaciation period and repeated expansion following the founder effect(s) after the initial introduction of the soft-shell clam to Europe. North American populations are characterized by the largest number of haplotypes, including rare ones, as expected for native populations. Because of the founder effect connected with initial and repeated expansion events, European populations have significantly lower numbers of haplotypes in comparison with those of North America. We also observed subtle differentiations among populations from the North and Baltic seas. The recently founded soft-shell clam population in the Black Sea exhibited the highest genetic similarity to Baltic populations, which confirmed the hypothesis that M. arenaria was introduced to the Gulf of Odessa from the Baltic Sea. The most enigmatic results were obtained for populations from the White Sea, which were characterized by high genetic affinity with American populations.

5. An open, parallel, randomized, comparative, multicenter study to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, performance, tolerance, and safety of a silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing (intervention) vs silver sulfadiazine cream.

Science.gov (United States)

Silverstein, Paul; Heimbach, David; Meites, Herbert; Latenser, Barbara; Mozingo, David; Mullins, Fred; Garner, Warren; Turkowski, Joseph; Shupp, Jeffrey; Glat, Paul; Purdue, Gary

2011-01-01

An open, parallel, randomized, comparative, multicenter study was implemented to evaluate the cost-effectiveness, performance, tolerance, and safety of a silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing (Mepilex Ag) vs silver sulfadiazine cream (control) in the treatment of partial-thickness thermal burns. Individuals aged 5 years and older with partial-thickness thermal burns (2.5-20% BSA) were randomized into two groups and treated with the trial products for 21 days or until healed, whichever occurred first. Data were obtained and analyzed on cost (direct and indirect), healing rates, pain, comfort, ease of product use, and adverse events. A total of 101 subjects were recruited. There were no significant differences in burn area profiles within the groups. The cost of dressing-related analgesia was lower in the intervention group (P = .03) as was the cost of background analgesia (P = .07). The mean total cost of treatment was $309 vs$513 in the control (P cost-effectiveness per treatment regime was $381 lower in the intervention product, producing an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of$1688 in favor of the soft silicone foam dressing. Mean healing rates were 71.7 vs 60.8% at final visit, and the number of dressing changes were 2.2 vs 12.4 in the treatment and control groups, respectively. Subjects reported significantly less pain at application (P = .02) and during wear (P = .048) of the Mepilex Ag dressing in the acute stages of wound healing. Clinicians reported the intervention dressing was significantly easier to use (P = .03) and flexible (P = .04). Both treatments were well tolerated; however, the total incidence of adverse events was higher in the control group. The silver-containing soft silicone foam dressing was as effective in the treatment of patients as the standard care (silver sulfadiazine). In addition, the group of patients treated with the soft silicone foam dressing demonstrated decreased pain and lower costs associated with treatment.

6. A large-scale study of the random variability of a coding sequence: a study on the CFTR gene.

Science.gov (United States)

Modiano, Guido; Bombieri, Cristina; Ciminelli, Bianca Maria; Belpinati, Francesca; Giorgi, Silvia; Georges, Marie des; Scotet, Virginie; Pompei, Fiorenza; Ciccacci, Cinzia; Guittard, Caroline; Audrézet, Marie Pierre; Begnini, Angela; Toepfer, Michael; Macek, Milan; Ferec, Claude; Claustres, Mireille; Pignatti, Pier Franco

2005-02-01

Coding single nucleotide substitutions (cSNSs) have been studied on hundreds of genes using small samples (n(g) approximately 100-150 genes). In the present investigation, a large random European population sample (average n(g) approximately 1500) was studied for a single gene, the CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator). The nonsynonymous (NS) substitutions exhibited, in accordance with previous reports, a mean probability of being polymorphic (q > 0.005), much lower than that of the synonymous (S) substitutions, but they showed a similar rate of subpolymorphic (q < 0.005) variability. This indicates that, in autosomal genes that may have harmful recessive alleles (nonduplicated genes with important functions), genetic drift overwhelms selection in the subpolymorphic range of variability, making disadvantageous alleles behave as neutral. These results imply that the majority of the subpolymorphic nonsynonymous alleles of these genes are selectively negative or even pathogenic.

7. Soft Lenses*

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Polyhema. Low water content-30 - 40% therefore less well tolerated. Impermeable to gases. Low elasticity and therefore optics not good. Subject to stress and strain especially when drying. Easily infected. A series of cases fitted with Bionite soft lenses is described. Good results were obtained in bullous kera- topathy, dry.

8. A new mean estimator using auxiliary variables for randomized response models

Science.gov (United States)

Ozgul, Nilgun; Cingi, Hulya

2013-10-01

Randomized response models are commonly used in surveys dealing with sensitive questions such as abortion, alcoholism, sexual orientation, drug taking, annual income, tax evasion to ensure interviewee anonymity and reduce nonrespondents rates and biased responses. Starting from the pioneering work of Warner [7], many versions of RRM have been developed that can deal with quantitative responses. In this study, new mean estimator is suggested for RRM including quantitative responses. The mean square error is derived and a simulation study is performed to show the efficiency of the proposed estimator to other existing estimators in RRM.

9. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2005-01-01

Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

10. Spontaneous temporal changes and variability of peripheral nerve conduction analyzed using a random effects model

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Krøigård, Thomas; Gaist, David; Otto, Marit

2014-01-01

. Peroneal nerve distal motor latency, motor conduction velocity, and compound motor action potential amplitude; sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and sensory conduction velocity; and tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency were examined in 51 healthy subjects, aged 40 to 67 years. They were...... reexamined after 2 and 26 weeks. There was no change in the variables except for a minor decrease in sural nerve sensory action potential amplitude and a minor increase in tibial nerve minimal F-wave latency. Reproducibility was best for peroneal nerve distal motor latency and motor conduction velocity...

11. Variability of Fiber Elastic Moduli in Composite Random Fiber Networks Makes the Network Softer

Science.gov (United States)

Ban, Ehsan; Picu, Catalin

2015-03-01

Athermal fiber networks are assemblies of beams or trusses. They have been used to model mechanics of fibrous materials such as biopolymer gels and synthetic nonwovens. Elasticity of these networks has been studied in terms of various microstructural parameters such as the stiffness of their constituent fibers. In this work we investigate the elasticity of composite fiber networks made from fibers with moduli sampled from a distribution function. We use finite elements simulations to study networks made by 3D Voronoi and Delaunay tessellations. The resulting data collapse to power laws showing that variability in fiber stiffness makes fiber networks softer. We also support the findings by analytical arguments. Finally, we apply these results to a network with curved fibers to explain the dependence of the network's modulus on the variation of its structural parameters.

12. Soft Clouding

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

2012-01-01

Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

13. Soft Clouding

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

2012-01-01

Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound a...... brought together in one transdisciplinary process of curating a semantics of sound: Technological, Humanistic /Curatorial, and Design / Action-based practice....

14. Evaluation of a Class of Simple and Effective Uncertainty Methods for Sparse Samples of Random Variables and Functions

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Romero, Vicente [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonney, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schroeder, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

2017-11-01

When very few samples of a random quantity are available from a source distribution of unknown shape, it is usually not possible to accurately infer the exact distribution from which the data samples come. Under-estimation of important quantities such as response variance and failure probabilities can result. For many engineering purposes, including design and risk analysis, we attempt to avoid under-estimation with a strategy to conservatively estimate (bound) these types of quantities -- without being overly conservative -- when only a few samples of a random quantity are available from model predictions or replicate experiments. This report examines a class of related sparse-data uncertainty representation and inference approaches that are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective. Tradeoffs between the methods' conservatism, reliability, and risk versus number of data samples (cost) are quantified with multi-attribute metrics use d to assess method performance for conservative estimation of two representative quantities: central 95% of response; and 10-4 probability of exceeding a response threshold in a tail of the distribution. Each method's performance is characterized with 10,000 random trials on a large number of diverse and challenging distributions. The best method and number of samples to use in a given circumstance depends on the uncertainty quantity to be estimated, the PDF character, and the desired reliability of bounding the true value. On the basis of this large data base and study, a strategy is proposed for selecting the method and number of samples for attaining reasonable credibility levels in bounding these types of quantities when sparse samples of random variables or functions are available from experiments or simulations.

15. Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Physical Activity Intervention for Breast Cancer Survivors: Effects on Transtheoretical Model Variables.

Science.gov (United States)

Scruggs, Stacie; Mama, Scherezade K; Carmack, Cindy L; Douglas, Tommy; Diamond, Pamela; Basen-Engquist, Karen

2018-01-01

This study examined whether a physical activity intervention affects transtheoretical model (TTM) variables that facilitate exercise adoption in breast cancer survivors. Sixty sedentary breast cancer survivors were randomized to a 6-month lifestyle physical activity intervention or standard care. TTM variables that have been shown to facilitate exercise adoption and progress through the stages of change, including self-efficacy, decisional balance, and processes of change, were measured at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Differences in TTM variables between groups were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance. The intervention group had significantly higher self-efficacy ( F = 9.55, p = .003) and perceived significantly fewer cons of exercise ( F = 5.416, p = .025) at 3 and 6 months compared with the standard care group. Self-liberation, counterconditioning, and reinforcement management processes of change increased significantly from baseline to 6 months in the intervention group, and self-efficacy and reinforcement management were significantly associated with improvement in stage of change. The stage-based physical activity intervention increased use of select processes of change, improved self-efficacy, decreased perceptions of the cons of exercise, and helped participants advance in stage of change. These results point to the importance of using a theory-based approach in interventions to increase physical activity in cancer survivors.

16. Soft Robotics Week

CERN Document Server

Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

2017-01-01

This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

17. An MGF-based Unified Framework to Determine the Joint Statistics of Partial Sums of Ordered Random Variables

CERN Document Server

Nam, Sung Sik; Yang, Hong-Chuan

2010-01-01

Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks (Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels.

18. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables

KAUST Repository

Nam, Sungsik

2010-11-01

Order statistics find applications in various areas of communications and signal processing. In this paper, we introduce an unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs). With the proposed approach, we can systematically derive the joint statistics of any partial sums of ordered statistics, in terms of the moment generating function (MGF) and the probability density function (PDF). Our MGF-based approach applies not only when all the K ordered RVs are involved but also when only the Ks(Ks < K) best RVs are considered. In addition, we present the closed-form expressions for the exponential RV special case. These results apply to the performance analysis of various wireless communication systems over fading channels. © 2006 IEEE.

19. The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

Science.gov (United States)

Bryan, Stephanie; Pinto Zipp, Genevieve; Parasher, Raju

2012-01-01

Physical inactivity is a serious issue for the American public. Because of conditions that result from inactivity, individuals incur close to $1 trillion USD in health-care costs, and approximately 250 000 premature deaths occur per year. Researchers have linked engaging in yoga to improved overall fitness, including improved muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance. Researchers have not yet investigated the impact of yoga on exercise adherence. The research team assessed the effects of 10 weeks of yoga classes held twice a week on exercise adherence in previously sedentary adults. The research team designed a randomized controlled pilot trial. The team collected data from the intervention (yoga) and control groups at baseline, midpoint, and posttest (posttest 1) and also collected data pertaining to exercise adherence for the yoga group at 5 weeks posttest (posttest 2). The pilot took place in a yoga studio in central New Jersey in the United States. The pretesting occurred at the yoga studio for all participants. Midpoint testing and posttesting occurred at the studio for the yoga group and by mail for the control group. Participants were 27 adults (mean age 51 y) who had been physically inactive for a period of at least 6 months prior to the study. Interventions The intervention group (yoga group) received hour-long hatha yoga classes that met twice a week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in classes during the research study; however, they were offered complimentary post research classes. Outcome Measures The study's primary outcome measure was exercise adherence as measured by the 7-day Physical Activity Recall. The secondary measures included (1) exercise self-efficacy as measured by the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, (2) general well-being as measured by the General Well-Being Schedule, (3) exercise-group cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ), (4) acute feeling response 20. Status inconsistency and mental health: A random effects and instrumental variables analysis using 14 annual waves of cohort data. Science.gov (United States) Milner, Allison; Aitken, Zoe; Kavanagh, Anne; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Petrie, Dennis 2017-09-01 Status inconsistency refers to a discrepancy between the position a person holds in one domain of their social environment comparative to their position in another domain. For example, the experience of being overeducated for a job, or not using your skills in your job. We sought to assess the relationship between status inconsistency and mental health using 14 annual waves of cohort data. We used two approaches to measuring status inconsistency: 1) being overeducated for your job (objective measure); and b) not using your skills in your job (subjective measure). We implemented a number of methodological approaches to assess the robustness of our findings, including instrumental variable, random effects, and fixed effects analysis. Mental health was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory-5. The random effects analysis indicates that only the subjective measure of status inconsistency was associated with a slight decrease in mental health (β-1.57, 95% -1.78 to -1.36, p social determinants (such as work and education) and health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Corneal topography and soft contact lens fit. Science.gov (United States) Young, Graeme; Schnider, Cristina; Hunt, Chris; Efron, Suzanne 2010-05-01 To determine which ocular topography variables affect soft contact lens fit. Fifty subjects each wore three pairs of soft lenses in random succession (Vistakon Acuvue 2, Vistakon Acuvue Advance, Ciba Vision Night & Day), and various aspects of lens fit were evaluated. The steeper base curves of each type were worn in one eye and the flatter base curves in the other eye. Corneal topography data were collected using a Medmont E300 corneal topographer (Camberwell, Australia). Corneal curvature, shape factor (SF), and corneal height were measured over a 10 mm chord and also over the maximum measurable diameter. These were measured in the horizontal, vertical, steepest, and flattest meridians. With each lens type, the steeper base curve provided the best fit on the greatest proportion of eyes and the significant differences in various aspects of fit were noted between base curves. For each lens type, there was no significant difference in mean K-reading between those eyes best fit with the steeper base curve and those eyes best fit with the flatter base curve. Two of the lenses showed a positive correlation between centration and horizontal corneal height (maximum), whereas one lens showed a negative correlation between centration and horizontal SF (SF = e). Several lenses showed a positive correlation between post-blink movement and horizontal or vertical corneal SF. The measurement of corneal topography using current Placido disc instrumentation allows a better prediction of soft lens fit than by keratometry, but it is not reliable enough to enable accurate selection of the best fitting base curve. Some correlations are evident between corneal measurements; however, trial fitting remains the method of choice for selection of soft lens base curve. 2. Consistent variability in beta-diversity patterns contrasts with changes in alpha-diversity along an onshore to offshore environmental gradient: the case of Red Sea soft-bottom macrobenthos KAUST Repository Alsaffar, Zahra Hassan Ali 2017-09-30 Patterns of variability in diversity (alpha and beta), abundance, and community structure of soft-bottom macrobenthic assemblages were investigated across an inshore/offshore environmental gradient in the central Red Sea. A total of three distinct soft-substrate biotopes were identified through multivariate techniques: seagrass meadows, nearshore, and offshore. While the seagrass biotope was associated with higher organic matter content, the two coastal biotopes presented higher redox potential in the sediments and dissolved oxygen in the water. Depth and medium sand increased toward the offshore, while the percentage of fine particles was a determinant of nearshore communities. Regardless of the prevailing environmental conditions, the three biotopes were characterized by high numbers of exclusive taxa, most of which were singletons. Changes in species richness were not related to depth or organic matter, peaking at intermediate depths (nearshore). However, the number of taxa increased exponentially with abundance. On the other hand, density decreased logarithmically with depth and organic matter in sediments, probably linked to a reduced availability of food. One of the most conspicuous features of the macrobenthic assemblages inhabiting soft substrates in the central oligotrophic Red Sea is the low level of dominance resulting from a high species richness: abundance ratio. Despite the differences observed for alpha-diversity across the three biotopes, beta-diversity patterns were rather consistent. These findings suggest that mechanisms driving biodiversity are similar across the depth gradient. The partitioning of beta-diversity also show that assemblages are mainly driven by the substitution of species (turnover or replacement), most likely as a result of environmental filtering. The heterogeneity of the seafloor in shallow waters of the Red Sea promoted by the co-existence of coral reefs inter-spaced by sedimentary habitats may increase the regional pool of 3. Soft sediment deformation in the shallow submarine slope off Nice (France) as a result of a variably charged Pliocene aquifer and mass wasting processes Science.gov (United States) Kopf, Achim J.; Stegmann, Sylvia; Garziglia, Sebastien; Henry, Pierre; Dennielou, Bernard; Haas, Simon; Weber, Kai-Christian 2016-10-01 Along the Ligurian slope near Nice, southeastern France, a combination of natural and man-made factors govern slope stability, and contributed to a devastating tsunamigenic landslide near Nice airport in 1979. Based on a total of 72 gravity and Kullenberg cores we characterise the architecture and facies of the subbottom sediment. A total of six sedimentary facies types were observed, three of which represent the Pliocene-Holocene background sediment in the wider Nice area while another three are associated with the 1979 landslide and tsunami. The three primary facies types are soft silty clay/clayey silt, somewhat indurated silt/sand interbeds, and Pliocene conglomerates underlying the former. The three other facies are poorly sorted mass wasting deposits up to pebble size, silt representing the finer fraction of the mobilised mass, and a tsunami-related bed into which plant debris and artefacts got amalgamated. Accompanying geotechnical results attest that significant strength variations exist when comparing measurements from the narrow shelf, shelf break and shallow slope as well as the 1979 slide scar. Factors such as groundwater charging in the more permeable horizons further lower the effective stress and, in places, approach lithostatic. Above such permeable silt/sand beds, deformation of soft clay is observed, suggesting that leaching of ions from the clay mineral surfaces and frayed edges also facilitates weakening and creep, micro-slumping and folding. Elevated water supply as well as hydraulic fracturing of the clayey sediment is further attested by pipes of cm-diameter and several decimeters length, which entrained very soupy mud. In the shallowmost deposits in and landward of the slide scar, we also observe remnants from the catastrophic deposition associated with the 2-3 m high tsunami wave triggered in 1979, as attested by amalgamated sea grass and artefacts. Based on our observations and measurements on core-scale and earlier models based on in situ 4. Multiaspect Soft Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Nor Hashimah Sulaiman 2013-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce a novel concept of multiaspect soft set which is an extension of the ordinary soft set by Molodtsov. Some basic concepts, operations, and properties of the multiaspect soft sets are studied. We also define a mapping on multiaspect soft classes and investigate several properties related to the images and preimages of multiaspect soft sets. 5. Large Intra-subject Variability in Caffeine Pharmacokinetics: Randomized Cross-over Study of Single Caffeine Product. Science.gov (United States) Hammami, Muhammad M; Alvi, Syed N 2017-09-01 Background Average bioequivalence has been criticized for not adequately addressing individual variations. Importance of subjects' blinding in bioequivalence studies has not been well studied. We explored the extent of intra-subject pharmacokinetic variability and effect of drug-ingestion unawareness in subjects taking single caffeine product. Methods A single-dose randomized cross-over design was used to compare pharmacokinetics of 200 mg caffeine, described as caffeine (overt) or as placebo (covert). Maximum concentration (Cmax), Cmax first time (Tmax), area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or to Tmax of overt caffeine (AUCOverttmax), and Cmax/AUCI were calculated blindly using standard non-compartmental method. Percentages of individual covert/overt ratios that are outside the ±25% range were determined. Covert-vs-overt effect on caffeine pharmacokinetics was evaluated by 90% confidence interval (CI) and 80.00-125.00% bioequivalence range. Results 32 healthy subjects (6% females, mean (SD) age 33.3 (7.2) year) participated in the study (28 analysed). Out of the 28 individual covert/overt ratios, 23% were outside the ±25% range for AUCT, 30% for AUCI, 20% for AUCOverttmax, 30% for Cmax, and 43% for Tmax. There was no significant covert-vs-overt difference in any of the pharmacokinetic parameters studied. Further, the 90% CIs for AUCT, AUCI, Cmax, AUCOverttmax, and Cmax/AUCI were all within the 80.00-125.00% bioequivalence range with mean absolute deviation of covert/overt ratios of 3.31%, 6.29%, 1.43%, 1.87%, and 5.19%, respectively. Conclusions Large intra-subject variability in main caffeine pharmacokinetic parameters was noted when comparing an oral caffeine product to itself. Subjects' blinding may not be important in average bioequivalence studies. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York. 6. Fuzzy Soft Sets and Fuzzy Soft Lattices National Research Council Canada - National Science Library Shao, Yingchao; Qin, Keyun 2012-01-01 .... In this paper, the notion of fuzzy soft lattice is defined and some related properties are derived, which extends the notion of a fuzzy lattice to include the algebraic structures of soft sets... 7. Oral soft tissue wound healing after laser surgery with or without a pool of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate: a randomized clinical study. Science.gov (United States) Romeo, Umberto; Libotte, Fabrizio; Palaia, Gaspare; Galanakis, Alexandros; Gaimari, Gianfranco; Tenore, Gianluca; Del Vecchio, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella 2014-01-01 The purpose of this study was to compare secondary intention healing of oral soft tissues after laser surgery with and without the use of a compound containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate. Sodium hyaluronate has been successfully used in medicine to promote healing. It has not been studied in the healing of laser-produced wounds. Excisional biopsy was performed in oral soft tissues with a potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) laser (532 nm, SmartLite, DEKA, Florence, Italy) in 49 patients divided into two groups. In the study group (SG), 31 patients received a compound gel containing four amino acids and sodium hyaluronate (Aminogam(®), Errekappa, Italy) after laser surgery; in the control group (CG), 18 subjects received no treatment involving a drug or gel. Numeric rating scale (NRS) was used to evaluate pain experienced after surgery [pain index (PI)]. Using a grid as a benchmark and computer software, the lesion area was measured after surgery (T0) and after 7 days (T1). A percentage healing index (PHI) was calculated indicating healing extension in 7 days. SG cases showed an average PHI of 64.38±26.50, whereas the average PHI in the CG was 47.88%±27.84. Mean PI was 2.67±0.96 for SG and 2.75±0.86 for CG. A statistically significant difference was detected between the groups for PHI (p=0.0447), whereas no difference was detectable for PI (p=0.77). The use of a gel containing amino acids and sodium hyaluronate can promote faster healing via secondary intention in laser-induced wounds, although it does not seem to affect pain perception. 8. Statistics of α-μ Random Variables and Their Applications inWireless Multihop Relaying and Multiple Scattering Channels KAUST Repository Wang, Kezhi 2015-06-01 Exact results for the probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the sum of ratios of products (SRP) and the sum of products (SP) of independent α-μ random variables (RVs) are derived. They are in the form of 1-D integral based on the existing works on the products and ratios of α-μ RVs. In the derivation, generalized Gamma (GG) ratio approximation (GGRA) is proposed to approximate SRP. Gamma ratio approximation (GRA) is proposed to approximate SRP and the ratio of sums of products (RSP). GG approximation (GGA) and Gamma approximation (GA) are used to approximate SP. The proposed results of the SRP can be used to calculate the outage probability (OP) for wireless multihop relaying systems or multiple scattering channels with interference. The proposed results of the SP can be used to calculate the OP for these systems without interference. In addition, the proposed approximate result of the RSP can be used to calculate the OP of the signal-To-interference ratio (SIR) in a multiple scattering system with interference. © 1967-2012 IEEE. 9. Experimental Evaluation of Novel Master-Slave Configurations for Position Control under Random Network Delay and Variable Load for Teleoperation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Ahmet Kuzu 2014-01-01 Full Text Available This paper proposes two novel master-slave configurations that provide improvements in both control and communication aspects of teleoperation systems to achieve an overall improved performance in position control. The proposed novel master-slave configurations integrate modular control and communication approaches, consisting of a delay regulator to address problems related to variable network delay common to such systems, and a model tracking control that runs on the slave side for the compensation of uncertainties and model mismatch on the slave side. One of the configurations uses a sliding mode observer and the other one uses a modified Smith predictor scheme on the master side to ensure position transparency between the master and slave, while reference tracking of the slave is ensured by a proportional-differentiator type controller in both configurations. Experiments conducted for the networked position control of a single-link arm under system uncertainties and randomly varying network delays demonstrate significant performance improvements with both configurations over the past literature. 10. Post traumatic stress symptoms and heart rate variability in Bihar flood survivors following yoga: a randomized controlled study Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Joshi Meesha 2010-03-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background An earlier study showed that a week of yoga practice was useful in stress management after a natural calamity. Due to heavy rain and a rift on the banks of the Kosi river, in the state of Bihar in north India, there were floods with loss of life and property. A week of yoga practice was given to the survivors a month after the event and the effect was assessed. Methods Twenty-two volunteers (group average age ± S.D, 31.5 ± 7.5 years; all of them were males were randomly assigned to two groups, yoga and a non-yoga wait-list control group. The yoga group practiced yoga for an hour daily while the control group continued with their routine activities. Both groups' heart rate variability, breath rate, and four symptoms of emotional distress using visual analog scales, were assessed on the first and eighth day of the program. Results There was a significant decrease in sadness in the yoga group (p Conclusions A week of yoga can reduce feelings of sadness and possibly prevent an increase in anxiety in flood survivors a month after the calamity. Trial Registration Clinical Trials Registry of India: CTRI/2009/091/000285 11. Soft Translations and Soft Extensions of BCI/BCK-Algebras Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Nazra Sultana 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The concept of soft translations of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras is introduced and some related properties are studied. Notions of Soft extensions of soft subalgebras and soft ideals over BCI/BCK-algebras are also initiated. Relationships between soft translations and soft extensions are explored. 12. On robust soft-input soft-output demodulators for OFDM systems: when imperfect channel state information is present Science.gov (United States) Chen, Chulong; Zoltowski, Michael D. 2013-05-01 In this paper a soft-input soft-output (SISO) QAM demodulator with robust performance on imperfect channel information are proposed for bit-interleaved OFDM systems. A full Bayesian approach is proposed to the channel estimation and demodulation problem. The frequency-selective fading channel impulse response and AWGN variance encountered in OFDM systems are jointly modeled as complex Gaussian-gamma random variables. The uncertainty of the channels are naturally encoded in the posterior distribution. Robust demodulators for known and unknown AWGN variance are derived basing on Bayesian posterior predictive distribution. It's performance combined with the bit-interleaved coded modulation (BICM) is demonstrated. And schemes with reduced complexity are also discussed. Simulation results show an improved BER (more than 0:5dB in most cases) comparing to that of the conventional demodulators ignorant of the channel estimation errors. 13. Convergence Analysis of Semi-Implicit Euler Methods for Solving Stochastic Age-Dependent Capital System with Variable Delays and Random Jump Magnitudes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Qinghui Du 2014-01-01 Full Text Available We consider semi-implicit Euler methods for stochastic age-dependent capital system with variable delays and random jump magnitudes, and investigate the convergence of the numerical approximation. It is proved that the numerical approximate solutions converge to the analytical solutions in the mean-square sense under given conditions. 14. Effects of Yoga on Stress, Stress Adaption, and Heart Rate Variability Among Mental Health Professionals--A Randomized Controlled Trial. Science.gov (United States) Lin, Shu-Ling; Huang, Ching-Ya; Shiu, Shau-Ping; Yeh, Shu-Hui 2015-08-01 Mental health professionals experiencing work-related stress may experience burn out, leading to a negative impact on their organization and patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of yoga classes on work-related stress, stress adaptation, and autonomic nerve activity among mental health professionals. A randomized controlled trial was used, which compared the outcomes between the experimental (e.g., yoga program) and the control groups (e.g., no yoga exercise) for 12 weeks. Work-related stress and stress adaptation were assessed before and after the program. Heart rate variability (HRV) was measured at baseline, midpoint through the weekly yoga classes (6 weeks), and postintervention (after 12 weeks of yoga classes). The results showed that the mental health professionals in the yoga group experienced a significant reduction in work-related stress (t = -6.225, p yoga and control groups, we found the yoga group significantly decreased work-related stress (t = -3.216, p = .002), but there was no significant change in stress adaptation (p = .084). While controlling for the pretest scores of work-related stress, participants in yoga, but not the control group, revealed a significant increase in autonomic nerve activity at midpoint (6 weeks) test (t = -2.799, p = .007), and at posttest (12 weeks; t = -2.099, p = .040). Because mental health professionals experienced a reduction in work-related stress and an increase in autonomic nerve activity in a weekly yoga program for 12 weeks, clinicians, administrators, and educators should offer yoga classes as a strategy to help health professionals reduce their work-related stress and balance autonomic nerve activities. © 2015 The Authors. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing. 15. Night-to-Night Sleep Variability in Older Adults With Chronic Insomnia: Mediators and Moderators in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Behavioral Therapy (BBT-I). Science.gov (United States) Chan, Wai Sze; Williams, Jacob; Dautovich, Natalie D; McNamara, Joseph P H; Stripling, Ashley; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Berry, Richard B; McCoy, Karin J M; McCrae, Christina S 2017-11-15 Sleep variability is a clinically significant variable in understanding and treating insomnia in older adults. The current study examined changes in sleep variability in the course of brief behavioral therapy for insomnia (BBT-I) in older adults who had chronic insomnia. Additionally, the current study examined the mediating mechanisms underlying reductions of sleep variability and the moderating effects of baseline sleep variability on treatment responsiveness. Sixty-two elderly participants were randomly assigned to either BBT-I or self-monitoring and attention control (SMAC). Sleep was assessed by sleep diaries and actigraphy from baseline to posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up. Mixed models were used to examine changes in sleep variability (within-person standard deviations of weekly sleep parameters) and the hypothesized mediation and moderation effects. Variabilities in sleep diary-assessed sleep onset latency (SOL) and actigraphy-assessed total sleep time (TST) significantly decreased in BBT-I compared to SMAC (Pseudo R(2) = .12, .27; P = .018, .008). These effects were mediated by reductions in bedtime and wake time variability and time in bed. Significant time × group × baseline sleep variability interactions on sleep outcomes indicated that participants who had higher baseline sleep variability were more responsive to BBT-I; their actigraphy-assessed TST, SOL, and sleep efficiency improved to a greater degree (Pseudo R(2) = .15 to .66; P sleep variability in older adults who have chronic insomnia. Increased consistency in bedtime and wake time and decreased time in bed mediate reductions of sleep variability. Baseline sleep variability may serve as a marker of high treatment responsiveness to BBT-I. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02967185. 16. Fuzzy Soft Topological Groups Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) S. Nazmul 2014-03-01 Full Text Available Notions of Lowen type fuzzy soft topological space are introduced and some of their properties are established in the present paper. Besides this, a combined structure of a fuzzy soft topological space and a fuzzy soft group, which is termed here as fuzzy soft topological group is introduced. Homomorphic images and preimages are also examined. Finally, some definitions and results on fuzzy soft set are studied. 17. Random functions and turbulence CERN Document Server Panchev, S 1971-01-01 International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random 18. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial NARCIS (Netherlands) Spieth, Peter M.; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J.; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo 2014-01-01 General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary 19. Nanoscale mixing of soft solids. Science.gov (United States) Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E; Lodge, Timothy P; Bates, Frank S 2011-02-16 Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C(30)H(62)) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ((1)H and (2)H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness. 20. Variable versus conventional lung protective mechanical ventilation during open abdominal surgery: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial OpenAIRE Spieth, Peter M; Güldner, Andreas; Uhlig, Christopher; Bluth, Thomas; Kiss, Thomas; Schultz, Marcus J.; Pelosi, Paolo; Koch, Thea; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo 2014-01-01 Background General anesthesia usually requires mechanical ventilation, which is traditionally accomplished with constant tidal volumes in volume- or pressure-controlled modes. Experimental studies suggest that the use of variable tidal volumes (variable ventilation) recruits lung tissue, improves pulmonary function and reduces systemic inflammatory response. However, it is currently not known whether patients undergoing open abdominal surgery might benefit from intraoperative variable ventila... 1. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: A randomized controlled trial Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Chang Dennis 2011-07-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic work-related stress is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. Heart rate variability (HRV provides an estimate of parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic control, and can serve as a marker of physiological stress. Hatha yoga is a physically demanding practice that can help to reduce stress; however, time constraints incurred by work and family life may limit participation. The purpose of the present study is to determine if a 10-week, worksite-based yoga program delivered during lunch hour can improve resting HRV and related physical and psychological parameters in sedentary office workers. Methods and design This is a parallel-arm RCT that will compare the outcomes of participants assigned to the experimental treatment group (yoga to those assigned to a no-treatment control group. Participants randomized to the experimental condition will engage in a 10-week yoga program delivered at their place of work. The yoga sessions will be group-based, prescribed three times per week during lunch hour, and will be led by an experienced yoga instructor. The program will involve teaching beginner students safely and progressively over 10 weeks a yoga sequence that incorporates asanas (poses and postures, vinyasa (exercises, pranayama (breathing control and meditation. The primary outcome of this study is the high frequency (HF spectral power component of HRV (measured in absolute units; i.e. ms2, a measure of parasympathetic autonomic control. Secondary outcomes include additional frequency and time domains of HRV, and measures of physical functioning and psychological health status. Measures will be collected prior to and following the intervention period, and at 6 months follow-up to determine the effect of intervention withdrawal. Discussion This study will determine the effect of worksite 2. Effect of an office worksite-based yoga program on heart rate variability: outcomes of a randomized controlled trial Science.gov (United States) 2013-01-01 Background Chronic work-related stress is an independent risk factor for cardiometabolic diseases and associated mortality, particularly when compounded by a sedentary work environment. The purpose of this study was to determine if an office worksite-based hatha yoga program could improve physiological stress, evaluated via heart rate variability (HRV), and associated health-related outcomes in a cohort of office workers. Methods Thirty-seven adults employed in university-based office positions were randomized upon the completion of baseline testing to an experimental or control group. The experimental group completed a 10-week yoga program prescribed three sessions per week during lunch hour (50 min per session). An experienced instructor led the sessions, which emphasized asanas (postures) and vinyasa (exercises). The primary outcome was the high frequency (HF) power component of HRV. Secondary outcomes included additional HRV parameters, musculoskeletal fitness (i.e. push-up, side-bridge, and sit & reach tests) and psychological indices (i.e. state and trait anxiety, quality of life and job satisfaction). Results All measures of HRV failed to change in the experimental group versus the control group, except that the experimental group significantly increased LF:HF (p = 0.04) and reduced pNN50 (p = 0.04) versus control, contrary to our hypotheses. Flexibility, evaluated via sit & reach test increased in the experimental group versus the control group (p yoga sessions (n = 11) to control (n = 19) yielded the same findings, except that the high adherers also reduced state anxiety (p = 0.02) and RMSSD (p = 0.05), and tended to improve the push-up test (p = 0.07) versus control. Conclusions A 10-week hatha yoga intervention delivered at the office worksite during lunch hour did not improve HF power or other HRV parameters. However, improvements in flexibility, state anxiety and musculoskeletal fitness were noted with high adherence 3. Soft and Hard Tissue Changes around Tissue-Oriented Tulip-Design Implant Abutments: A 1-Year Randomized Prospective Clinical Trial. Science.gov (United States) Gutmacher, Zvi; Levi, Guy; Blumenfeld, Israel; Machtei, Eli E 2015-10-01 The advantages of platform switching using narrower abutments remain controversial. Many researchers suggest that platform switching can yield enhanced clinical results, while others remain skeptical. We hypothesize that the effectiveness of platform switching might be associated with the degree of reduction in size of the abutment. To radiographically and clinically examine a new abutment design created to move the implant-abutment interface farther medially. This was a prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial that included 27 patients (41 MIS Lance Plus® implants; MIS Implant Technologies, Karmiel, Israel). The patients' age ranged from 39 to 75 years. At the second stage of the surgery, the implants were randomly assigned to either the new platform switch Tulip abutment (TA) design or to the standard platform abutment (SA). Implant probing depth (IPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were recorded at baseline and after 12 months. Standardized periapical radiographs were taken (at baseline and at 12 months) and the marginal bone height measured. All implants were successfully integrated. The mean IPD at 1 year post-op was 2.91 mm for the SA group and 2.69 mm for the TA group (p > .05). Similarly, the BOP at 1 year was almost identical in both groups. The mean values of bone resorption at baseline were 0.98 ± 0.37 mm and 0.69 ± 0.20 for the TA and SA groups, respectively (p > .05). Bone loss (baseline to 12 months) was significantly greater in the SA group compared with the TA group. Use of the new TA, with its significantly downsized diameter, resulted in reduced bone loss at 1 year. Further research will be required to assess the long-term effect of this abutment on peri-implant health. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. 4. Correlation of morphological variants of soft palate and types of malocclusion: A digital lateral cephalometric study Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Deepak Samdani 2015-01-01 Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The morphology of soft palate has variable presentations on lateral cephalometry. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between various shapes of soft palate and types of malocclusion in different gender groups among North Indian individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised randomly selected 250 healthy North Indian individuals (125 males and 125 females seeking orthodontic treatment for malocclusion without any speech abnormality or any other syndromes or diseases and with age ranging from 14 to 28 years. Clinically, in all subjects, the type of malocclusion was examined and categorized according to Angle′s classification of malocclusion. The morphological variants of soft palate were also assessed on digital lateral cephalogram and were allocated to one of the six patterns as described by You et al. The differences in the proportion of each type were studied and variation of malocclusion and soft palate morphology between gender groups was also assessed. The results obtained were subjected to a statistical analysis to find the correlation between variants of the soft palate and types of malocclusion in different gender groups. Results: In our study, the frequency of rat tail (37.2% type of soft palate was seen in highest proportion, whereas the frequency of distorted S-shape (6.80% was least in both the genders. Angle′s class II malocclusion (51.2% was the most common, followed by class I (43.2%, whereas class III (5.6% was found to be the least prominent type in both the genders. Patients with Angle′s class I malocclusion were most frequently found to have rat tail type soft palate, those with Angle′s class II had leaf-shaped soft palate, and those with Angle′s class III had crooked shaped soft palate. Angle′s class II and class III malocclusions were significantly correlated with soft palate shapes, whereas Angle′s class I malocclusion was highly significantly correlated 5. An MGF-based unified framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. random variables KAUST Repository Nam, Sungsik 2014-08-01 The joint statistics of partial sums of ordered random variables (RVs) are often needed for the accurate performance characterization of a wide variety of wireless communication systems. A unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables was recently presented. However, the identical distribution assumption may not be valid in several real-world applications. With this motivation in mind, we consider in this paper the more general case in which the random variables are independent but not necessarily identically distributed (i.n.d.). More specifically, we extend the previous analysis and introduce a new more general unified analytical framework to determine the joint statistics of partial sums of ordered i.n.d. RVs. Our mathematical formalism is illustrated with an application on the exact performance analysis of the capture probability of generalized selection combining (GSC)-based RAKE receivers operating over frequency-selective fading channels with a non-uniform power delay profile. © 1991-2012 IEEE. 6. Soft Neutrosophic Group Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Muhammad Shabir 2013-03-01 Full Text Available In this paper we extend the neutrosophic group and subgroup to soft neutrosophic group and soft neutrosophic subgroup respectively. Properties and theorems related to them are proved and many examples are given. 7. Investigation of the reduction in uncertainty due to soil variability when conditioning a random field using Kriging NARCIS (Netherlands) Lloret Cabot, M.; Hicks, M.A.; Van den Eijnden, A.P. 2012-01-01 Spatial variability of soil properties is inherent in soil deposits, whether as a result of natural geological processes or engineering construction. It is therefore important to account for soil variability in geotechnical design in order to represent more realistically a soil’s in situ state. This 8. Soft Concurrent Constraint Programming OpenAIRE Bistarelli, S.; Montanari, U.; Rossi, F. 2002-01-01 Soft constraints extend classical constraints to represent multiple consistency levels, and thus provide a way to express preferences, fuzziness, and uncertainty. While there are many soft constraint solving formalisms, even distributed ones, by now there seems to be no concurrent programming framework where soft constraints can be handled. In this paper we show how the classical concurrent constraint (cc) programming framework can work with soft constraints, and we also propose an extension ... 9. Randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate a xenogeneic collagen matrix as an alternative to free gingival grafting for oral soft tissue augmentation. Science.gov (United States) McGuire, Michael K; Scheyer, E Todd 2014-10-01 The standard of care for increasing keratinized tissue (KT) and vestibular area is an autogenous free gingival graft (FGG) and vestibuloplasty; however, there is morbidity associated with the harvest of autogenous tissue, and supply is limited. The purpose of this study is to determine if a xenogeneic collagen matrix (CM) might be as effective as FGG. This study is a single-masked, randomized, controlled, split-mouth study of 30 patients with insufficient zones of KT (FGG) therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint was change in KT width (∆KT) from surgery to 6 months post-surgery. Secondary endpoints included traditional periodontal measures, such as clinical attachment level, recession, and bleeding on probing. Patient-reported pain, discomfort, and esthetic satisfaction were also recorded. Biopsies were obtained at 6 months. Surgery and postoperative sequelae were uneventful, with normal healing observed at both test and control sites. The primary outcome, ∆KT width at 6 months, did not establish non-inferiority of CM compared to FGG (P = 0.9992), with the FGG sites averaging 1.5 mm more KT width than CM sites. However, the amount of new KT generated for both therapies averaged ≥2 mm. Secondary outcomes were not significantly different between test and control sites. All site biopsies appeared as normal mucoperiosteum with keratinized epithelium. CM sites achieved better texture and color matches, and more than two-thirds of patients preferred the appearance of their CM sites. With the proviso of sufficient KT (≈2 mm in width) and study goals of lower morbidity, unlimited supply, and patient satisfaction, CM appears to be a suitable substitute for FGG in vestibuloplasty procedures designed to increase KT around teeth. 10. Random Initialisation of the Spectral Variables: an Alternate Approach for Initiating Multivariate Curve Resolution Alternating Least Square (MCR-ALS) Analysis. Science.gov (United States) Kumar, Keshav 2017-06-23 Multivariate curve resolution alternating least square (MCR-ALS) analysis is the most commonly used curve resolution technique. The MCR-ALS model is fitted using the alternate least square (ALS) algorithm that needs initialisation of either contribution profiles or spectral profiles of each of the factor. The contribution profiles can be initialised using the evolve factor analysis; however, in principle, this approach requires that data must belong to the sequential process. The initialisation of the spectral profiles are usually carried out using the pure variable approach such as SIMPLISMA algorithm, this approach demands that each factor must have the pure variables in the data sets. Despite these limitations, the existing approaches have been quite a successful for initiating the MCR-ALS analysis. However, the present work proposes an alternate approach for the initialisation of the spectral variables by generating the random variables in the limits spanned by the maxima and minima of each spectral variable of the data set. The proposed approach does not require that there must be pure variables for each component of the multicomponent system or the concentration direction must follow the sequential process. The proposed approach is successfully validated using the excitation-emission matrix fluorescence data sets acquired for certain fluorophores with significant spectral overlap. The calculated contribution and spectral profiles of these fluorophores are found to correlate well with the experimental results. In summary, the present work proposes an alternate way to initiate the MCR-ALS analysis. 11. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Athar Kharal 2009-01-01 Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples. 12. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Xiaolong Xin 2014-01-01 Full Text Available Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. 13. PEF variability, bronchial responsiveness and their relation to allergy markers in a random population (20-70 yr) NARCIS (Netherlands) Boezen, HM; Postma, DS; Schouten, JP; Kerstjens, HAM; Rijcken, B We investigated the coherence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability in their relation to allergy markers and respiratory symptoms in 399 subjects (20-70 yr). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was defined by both the provocative dose causing a 14. A randomized clinical trial comparing the effect of basal insulin and inhaled mealtime insulin on glucose variability and oxidative stress NARCIS (Netherlands) Siegelaar, S. E.; Kulik, W.; van Lenthe, H.; Mukherjee, R.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; DeVries, J. H. 2009-01-01 To assess the effect of three times daily mealtime inhaled insulin therapy compared with once daily basal insulin glargine therapy on 72-h glucose profiles, glucose variability and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes patients. In an inpatient crossover study, 40 subjects with type 2 diabetes were 15. Concave Soft Sets, Critical Soft Points, and Union-Soft Ideals of Ordered Semigroups Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Young Bae Jun 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The notions of union-soft semigroups, union-soft l-ideals, and union-soft r-ideals are introduced, and related properties are investigated. Characterizations of a union-soft semigroup, a union-soft l-ideal, and a union-soft r-ideal are provided. The concepts of union-soft products and union-soft semiprime soft sets are introduced, and their properties related to union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals are investigated. Using the notions of union-soft l-ideals and union-soft r-ideals, conditions for an ordered semigroup to be regular are considered. The concepts of concave soft sets and critical soft points are introduced, and their properties are discussed. 16. Randomized, open-label, single-dose, crossover, relative bioavailability study in healthy adults, comparing the pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole granules administered using soft food or infant formula as dosing vehicle versus suspension. Science.gov (United States) Thyssen, An; Solanki, Bhavna; Treem, William 2012-07-01 A sprinkle capsule formulation containing enteric-coated, delayed-release rabeprazole granules is being developed for the treatment of children with gastrointestinal reflux disease. The granules are designed to be mixed with vehicles that facilitate delivery to children, who may be unable to swallow solid formulations. The primary objective of this study-conducted on the sponsor's initiative-was to compare the bioavailability of rabeprazole granules when mixed with various dosing vehicles (small amount of soft food or infant formula) with that of a rabeprazole suspension with inactive vehicle granules (reference), to determine which dosing vehicle can be used to deliver rabeprazole in children. Tolerability was also assessed. This single-center, single-dose, randomized, open-label, 5-period crossover study was conducted in 35 healthy adult subjects. In a randomized sequence, fasting subjects received a single dose of 10-mg rabeprazole granules per treatment period, mixed with small amounts of 1 of 5 dosing vehicles (a strawberry-flavored suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle granules reconstituted with water, yogurt [1 tablespoon], applesauce [1 tablespoon], or infant formula [5 mL], or a suspension of rabeprazole granules with inactive vehicle tablet reconstituted with water). Full plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles of rabeprazole and its thioether metabolite were collected; concentrations were estimated via LC-MS/MS. PK properties were estimated using noncompartmental methods; 90% CIs around least squares mean test-to-reference ratios were calculated for C(max) and AUC values. All treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were recorded and assessed for severity (mild, moderate, or severe) and relationship to study drug. A total of 35 subjects were enrolled (mean age, 38 years; 54.3% female; 100% white; mean weight, 71.4 kg). Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Rabeprazole and rabeprazole thioether plasma PK properties were comparable 17. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD CERN Document Server Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko 2016-01-01 We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account. 18. Operations on Soft Graphs Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Muhammad Akram 2015-12-01 Full Text Available Mathematical modelling, analysis and computing of problems with uncertainty is one of the hottest areas in interdisciplinary research involving applied mathematics, computational intelligence and decision sciences. It is worth noting that uncertainty arises from various domains has very different nature and cannot be captured within a single mathematical framework. Molodtsov’s soft sets provide us a new way of coping with uncertainty from the viewpoint of parameterization. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of soft graphs, vertex-induced soft graphs, edge-induced soft graphs and describe some operations on soft graphs by presenting several examples to demonstrate these new concepts. Finally, we investigate some fundamental properties of soft graphs. 19. Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Conventional Therapy for Blood Pressure Variability in Hypertension Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Zhuo Chen 2015-01-01 Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate effect of Chinese medicine combined with conventional therapy on blood pressure variability (BPV in hypertension patients. Methods. All randomized clinical trials (RCTs comparing Chinese medicine with no intervention or placebo on the basis of conventional therapy were included. Data extraction, analyses, and quality assessment were performed according to the Cochrane standards. Results. We included 13 RCTs and assessed risk of bias for all the trials. Chinese medicine has a significant effect in lowering blood pressure (BP, reducing BPV in the form of standard deviation (SD or coefficient of variability (CV, improving nighttime BP decreased rate, and reversing abnormal rhythm of BP. Conclusions. Chinese medicine was safe and showed beneficial effects on BPV in hypertension patients. However, more rigorous trials with high quality are warranted to give high level of evidence before recommending Chinese medicine as an alternative or complementary medicine to improve BPV in hypertension patients. 20. Nonspecificity of Chronic Soft Tissue Pain Syndromes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Eldon Tunks 1997-01-01 Full Text Available Persistent (or chronic pain occurs with a prevalence of about 10% in the adult population, and chronic soft tissue pain is especially problematic. Criteria for diagnosis of these soft tissue pain disorders appear to suffer from specificity problems, even though they appear to be sensitive in distinguishing normal from soft tissue pain sufferers. A few decades ago the term 'neuraesthenia' was used as a diagnosis in individuals who now would probably be diagnosed as suffering from fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and anxiety disorders with fatigue. Soft tissue pain provokes skepticism, especially among third-party payers, and controversy among clinicians. Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated sex differences in the prevalence of widespread pain and multiple tender points, which are distributed variably throughout the adult population and tend to be correlated with subjective symptoms. Although there is a tendency for these syndromes to persist, follow-up studies show that they tend to vary in extent and sometimes show remissions over longer follow-up, casting doubt about the distinctions between chronic diffuse pains and localized chronic soft tissue pains. Because both accidents and soft tissue pains are relatively prevalent problems, the possibility of chance coincidence of accident and chronic soft tissue pain in an individual creates the need to be cautious in attributing these syndromes to specific accidents in medicolegal situations. At the same time, the available evidence does not support a generally dismissive attitude towards these patients. 1. Soft matter physics CERN Document Server Doi, Masao 2013-01-01 Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students 2. Multigait soft robot. Science.gov (United States) Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M 2011-12-20 This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion. 3. On defining soft spaces by weak soft neighborhood systems Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Taha ÖZTÜRK 2016-04-01 Full Text Available In the present paper, we define the concepts of weak soft neighborhood space, soft w^{s}(?,?'-continuous, soft w^{s}-continuous and soft w^{s^{*}}-continuous on weak soft neighborhood spaces. Finally, we introduce their basic properties and some examples. 4. Tai Chi training may reduce dual task gait variability, a potential mediator of fall risk, in healthy older adults: cross-sectional and randomized trial studies Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Peter M Wayne 2015-06-01 Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tai Chi (TC exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC’s impact on dual task (DT gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown.PURPOSE: To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5±12 yrs experience older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (% was assessed during 90 sec trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial-subtractions conditions. RESULTS: During DT, gait speed decreased (p<0.003 and stride time variability increased (p<0.004 in all groups. Cross-sectional comparisons indicated that stride time variability was lower in the TC-expert vs. TC-naïve group, significantly so during DT (2.11% vs. 2.55%; p=0.027; in contrast, gait speed during both undisturbed and DT conditions did not differ between groups. Longitudinal analyses of TC-naïve adults randomized to 6 months of TC training or usual care identified improvement in DT gait speed in both groups. A small improvement in DT stride time variability (effect size = 0.2 was estimated with TC training, but no significant differences between groups were observed. Potentially important improvements after TC training could not be excluded in this small study. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy active older adults, positive effects of short- and long-term TC were observed only under cognitively challenging DT conditions and only for stride time variability. DT stride variability offers a potentially sensitive metric for monitoring TC’s impact on fall risk with healthy older adults. 5. Soft Sensors - Modern Chemical Engineering Tool Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) N. Bolf 2011-04-01 Full Text Available Control systems and optimization procedures require regular and reliable measurements at the appropriate frequency. At the same time, legal regulations dictate strict product quality specifications and refinery emissions. As a result, a greater number of process variables need to be measured and new expensive process analyzers need to be installed to achieve efficient process control. This involves synergy between plant experts, system analysts and process operators. One of the common problems in industrial plants is the inability of the real time and continuous measurement of key process variables.Absence of key value measurement in a timely manner aggravates control, but it does not mean that it is always an impossible step. As an alternative, the use of soft sensors as a substitute for process analyzers and laboratory testing is suggested. With the soft sensors, the objective is to develop an inferential model to estimate infrequently measured variables and laboratory assays using the frequently measured variables. By development of soft sensors based on measurement of continuous variables (such as flow, temperature, pressure it is possible to estimate the difficult- -to-measure variables as well as product quality and emissions usually carried by laboratory assays.Software sensors, as part of virtual instrumentation, are focused on assessing the system state variables and quality products by applying the model, thus replacing the physical measurement and laboratory analysis. Multiple linear/nonlinear regression methods and artificial intelligence methods (such as neural network, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms are usually applied in the design of soft sensor models for identification of nonlinear processes.Review of published research and industrial application in the field of soft sensors is given with the methods of soft sensor development and nonlinear dynamic model identification. Based on soft sensors, it is possible to estimate 6. Comparison of structured and unstructured physical activity training on predicted VO2max and heart rate variability in adolescents - a randomized control trial. Science.gov (United States) Sharma, Vivek Kumar; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Radhakrishnan, Krishnakumar; Rajendran, Rajathi; Ravindran, Balasubramanian Sulur; Arunachalam, Vinayathan 2017-05-01 Physical inactivity contributes to many health issues. The WHO-recommended physical activity for adolescents encompasses aerobic, resistance, and bone strengthening exercises aimed at achieving health-related physical fitness. Heart rate variability (HRV) and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) are considered as noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of structured and unstructured physical training on maximal aerobic capacity and HRV among adolescents. We designed a single blinded, parallel, randomized active-controlled trial (Registration No. CTRI/2013/08/003897) to compare the physiological effects of 6 months of globally recommended structured physical activity (SPA), with that of unstructured physical activity (USPA) in healthy school-going adolescents. We recruited 439 healthy student volunteers (boys: 250, girls: 189) in the age group of 12-17 years. Randomization across the groups was done using age and gender stratified randomization method, and the participants were divided into two groups: SPA (n=219, boys: 117, girls: 102) and USPA (n=220, boys: 119, girls: 101). Depending on their training status and gender the participants in both SPA and USPA groups were further subdivided into the following four sub-groups: SPA athlete boys (n=22) and girls (n=17), SPA nonathlete boys (n=95) and girls (n=85), USPA athlete boys (n=23) and girls (n=17), and USPA nonathlete boys (n=96) and girls (n=84). We recorded HRV, body fat%, and VO2 max using Rockport Walk Fitness test before and after the intervention. Maximum aerobic capacity and heart rate variability increased significantly while heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage decreased significantly after both SPA and USPA intervention. However, the improvement was more in SPA as compared to USPA. SPA is more beneficial for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, HRV, and reducing body fat percentage in terms of 7. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Shawkat Alkhazaleh 2011-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem. 8. learning and soft skills DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard 2000-01-01 Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular... 9. Evaluating six soft approaches DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui 2008-01-01 's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology... 10. Evaluating six soft approaches DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui 2006-01-01 ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology... 11. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor 2008-01-01 's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology... 12. Acute Effects of Caffeine on Heart Rate Variability, Blood Pressure and Tidal Volume in Paraplegic and Tetraplegic Compared to Able-Bodied Individuals: A Randomized, Blinded Trial. Science.gov (United States) Flueck, Joelle Leonie; Schaufelberger, Fabienne; Lienert, Martina; Schäfer Olstad, Daniela; Wilhelm, Matthias; Perret, Claudio 2016-01-01 Caffeine increases sympathetic nerve activity in healthy individuals. Such modulation of nervous system activity can be tracked by assessing the heart rate variability. This study aimed to investigate the influence of caffeine on time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability parameters, blood pressure and tidal volume in paraplegic and tetraplegic compared to able-bodied participants. Heart rate variability was measured in supine and sitting position pre and post ingestion of either placebo or 6 mg caffeine in 12 able-bodied, 9 paraplegic and 7 tetraplegic participants in a placebo-controlled, randomized and double-blind study design. Metronomic breathing was applied (0.25 Hz) and tidal volume was recorded during heart rate variability assessment. Blood pressure, plasma caffeine and epinephrine concentrations were analyzed pre and post ingestion. Most parameters of heart rate variability did not significantly change post caffeine ingestion compared to placebo. Tidal volume significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in able-bodied (p = 0.021) and paraplegic (p = 0.036) but not in tetraplegic participants (p = 0.34). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly post caffeine in able-bodied (systolic: p = 0.003; diastolic: p = 0.021) and tetraplegic (systolic: p = 0.043; diastolic: p = 0.042) but not in paraplegic participants (systolic: p = 0.09; diastolic: p = 0.33). Plasma caffeine concentrations were significantly increased post caffeine ingestion in all three groups of participants (pcaffeine on the autonomic nervous system seems to depend on the level of lesion and the extent of the impairment. Therefore, tetraplegic participants may be less influenced by caffeine ingestion. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02083328. 13. Soft Pion Processes Science.gov (United States) Nambu, Y. 1968-01-01 My talk is concerned with a review, not necessarily of the latest theoretical developments, but rather of an old idea which has contributed to recent theoretical activities. By soft pion processes I mean processes in which low energy pions are emitted or absorbed or scattered, just as we use the word soft photon in a similar context. Speaking more quantitatively, we may call a pion soft if its energy is small compared to a natural scale in the reaction. This scale is determined by the particular dynamics of pion interaction, and one may roughly say that a pion is soft if its energy is small compared to the energies of the other individual particles that participate in the reaction. It is important to note at this point that pion is by far the lightest member of all the hadrons, and much of the success of the soft pion formulas depends on this fact. 14. Soft buckling actuators Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M. 2017-12-26 A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described. 15. Evaluating six soft approaches Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Lene Sørensen 2008-09-01 Full Text Available The paper introduces and evaluates six soft approaches used in strategy development and planning. We take a planner’s perspective on discussing the concepts of strategy development and planning. This means that we see strategy development and planning as learning processes based on Ackoff’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using such a conceptual framework for evaluations of soft approaches increases the understanding of them, their transparency, and their usability in practice. 16. Critical points of quadratic renormalizations of random variables and phase transitions of disordered polymer models on diamond lattices. Science.gov (United States) Monthus, Cécile; Garel, Thomas 2008-02-01 We study the wetting transition and the directed polymer delocalization transition on diamond hierarchical lattices. These two phase transitions with frozen disorder correspond to the critical points of quadratic renormalizations of the partition function. (These exact renormalizations on diamond lattices can also be considered as approximate Migdal-Kadanoff renormalizations for hypercubic lattices.) In terms of the rescaled partition function z=Z/Z(typ) , we find that the critical point corresponds to a fixed point distribution with a power-law tail P(c)(z) ~ Phi(ln z)/z(1+mu) as z-->+infinity [up to some subleading logarithmic correction Phi(ln z)], so that all moments z(n) with n>mu diverge. For the wetting transition, the first moment diverges z=+infinity (case 0infinity (case 1fixed point distribution coincides with the transfer matrix describing a directed polymer on the Cayley tree, but the random weights determined by the fixed point distribution P(c)(z) are broadly distributed. This induces some changes in the traveling wave solutions with respect to the usual case of more narrow distributions. 17. Fuzzy soft connected sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces II Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) A. Kandil 2017-04-01 Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce some different types of fuzzy soft connected components related to the different types of fuzzy soft connectedness and based on an equivalence relation defined on the set of fuzzy soft points of X. We have investigated some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components. We show that the fuzzy soft C5-connected component may be not exists and if it exists, it may not be fuzzy soft closed set. Also, we introduced some very interesting properties for fuzzy soft connected components in discrete fuzzy soft topological spaces which is a departure from the general topology. 18. Effect of Attention Training on Attention Bias Variability and PTSD Symptoms: Randomized Controlled Trials in Israeli and U.S. Combat Veterans. Science.gov (United States) Badura-Brack, Amy S; Naim, Reut; Ryan, Tara J; Levy, Ofir; Abend, Rany; Khanna, Maya M; McDermott, Timothy J; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair 2015-12-01 Attention allocation to threat is perturbed in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with some studies indicating excess attention to threat and others indicating fluctuations between threat vigilance and threat avoidance. The authors tested the efficacy of two alternative computerized protocols, attention bias modification and attention control training, for rectifying threat attendance patterns and reducing PTSD symptoms. Two randomized controlled trials compared the efficacy of attention bias modification and attention control training for PTSD: one in Israel Defense Forces veterans and one in U.S. military veterans. Both utilized variants of the dot-probe task, with attention bias modification designed to shift attention away from threat and attention control training balancing attention allocation between threat and neutral stimuli. PTSD symptoms, attention bias, and attention bias variability were measured before and after treatment. Both studies indicated significant symptom improvement after treatment, favoring attention control training. Additionally, both studies found that attention control training, but not attention bias modification, significantly reduced attention bias variability. Finally, a combined analysis of the two samples suggested that reductions in attention bias variability partially mediated improvement in PTSD symptoms. Attention control training may address aberrant fluctuations in attention allocation in PTSD, thereby reducing PTSD symptoms. Further study of treatment efficacy and its underlying neurocognitive mechanisms is warranted. 19. Predictive modeling of groundwater nitrate pollution using Random Forest and multisource variables related to intrinsic and specific vulnerability: a case study in an agricultural setting (Southern Spain). Science.gov (United States) Rodriguez-Galiano, Victor; Mendes, Maria Paula; Garcia-Soldado, Maria Jose; Chica-Olmo, Mario; Ribeiro, Luis 2014-04-01 Watershed management decisions need robust methods, which allow an accurate predictive modeling of pollutant occurrences. Random Forest (RF) is a powerful machine learning data driven method that is rarely used in water resources studies, and thus has not been evaluated thoroughly in this field, when compared to more conventional pattern recognition techniques key advantages of RF include: its non-parametric nature; high predictive accuracy; and capability to determine variable importance. This last characteristic can be used to better understand the individual role and the combined effect of explanatory variables in both protecting and exposing groundwater from and to a pollutant. In this paper, the performance of the RF regression for predictive modeling of nitrate pollution is explored, based on intrinsic and specific vulnerability assessment of the Vega de Granada aquifer. The applicability of this new machine learning technique is demonstrated in an agriculture-dominated area where nitrate concentrations in groundwater can exceed the trigger value of 50 mg/L, at many locations. A comprehensive GIS database of twenty-four parameters related to intrinsic hydrogeologic proprieties, driving forces, remotely sensed variables and physical-chemical variables measured in "situ", were used as inputs to build different predictive models of nitrate pollution. RF measures of importance were also used to define the most significant predictors of nitrate pollution in groundwater, allowing the establishment of the pollution sources (pressures). The potential of RF for generating a vulnerability map to nitrate pollution is assessed considering multiple criteria related to variations in the algorithm parameters and the accuracy of the maps. The performance of the RF is also evaluated in comparison to the logistic regression (LR) method using different efficiency measures to ensure their generalization ability. Prediction results show the ability of RF to build accurate models 20. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Muhammad Shabir 2017-06-01 Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept. 1. Rotting softly and stealthily. Science.gov (United States) Toth, Ian K; Birch, Paul R J 2005-08-01 The soft rot erwiniae, which are plant pathogens on potato and other crops world-wide, synthesize and secrete large quantities of plant cell wall degrading enzymes that are responsible for the soft rot phenotype, earning them the epithet 'brute force' pathogens. They have been distinguished from classic 'stealth' pathogens, such as Pseudomonas syringae, which possesses an extensive battery of Type III secreted effector proteins and phytotoxins to manipulate and suppress host defences. However, recent studies, including whole-genome sequencing, are revealing many components of stealth pathogenesis within the soft rot erwiniae (SRE), suggesting that 'stealth' and 'brute force' should not be regarded as mutually exclusive modes of pathogenesis. 2. Dealing with randomness and vagueness in business and management sciences: the fuzzy-probabilistic approach as a tool for the study of statistical relationships between imprecise variables Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Fabrizio Maturo 2016-06-01 Full Text Available In practical applications relating to business and management sciences, there are many variables that, for their own nature, are better described by a pair of ordered values (i.e. financial data. By summarizing this measurement with a single value, there is a loss of information; thus, in these situations, data are better described by interval values rather than by single values. Interval arithmetic studies and analyzes this type of imprecision; however, if the intervals has no sharp boundaries, fuzzy set theory is the most suitable instrument. Moreover, fuzzy regression models are able to overcome some typical limitation of classical regression because they do not need the same strong assumptions. In this paper, we present a review of the main methods introduced in the literature on this topic and introduce some recent developments regarding the concept of randomness in fuzzy regression. 3. Nonvolatile Static Random Access Memory Using Resistive Switching Devices: Variable-Transconductance Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Approach Science.gov (United States) Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Shuto, Yusuke; Sugahara, Satoshi 2010-04-01 In this paper, we present a variable-transconductance (gm) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (VGm-MOSFET) architecture using a nonpolar resistive switching device (RSD) for nonvolatile bistable circuit applications. The architecture can be achieved by connecting an RSD to the source terminal of an ordinary MOSFET. The current drive capability of the VGm-MOSFET can be modified by resistance states of the connected RSD, which is a very useful function for nonvolatile bistable circuits, such as nonvolatile static random access memory (NV-SRAM) and nonvolatile flip-flop (NV-FF). NV-SRAM can be easily configured by connecting two additional VGm-MOSFETs to the storage nodes of a standard SRAM cell. Using our developed SPICE macromodel for nonpolar RSDs, successful circuit operations of the proposed NV-SRAM cell were confirmed. 4. Impact of Flavonols on Cardiometabolic Biomarkers: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Human Trials to Explore the Role of Inter-Individual Variability Science.gov (United States) Menezes, Regina; Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Kaltsatou, Antonia; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Greyling, Arno; Giannaki, Christoforos; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Milenkovic, Dragan; Gibney, Eileen R.; Dumont, Julie; Schär, Manuel; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Palma-Duran, Susana Alejandra; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Maksimova, Viktorija; Combet, Emilie; Pinto, Paula 2017-01-01 Several epidemiological studies have linked flavonols with decreased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, some heterogeneity in the individual physiological responses to the consumption of these compounds has been identified. This meta-analysis aimed to study the effect of flavonol supplementation on biomarkers of CVD risk such as, blood lipids, blood pressure and plasma glucose, as well as factors affecting their inter-individual variability. Data from 18 human randomized controlled trials were pooled and the effect was estimated using fixed or random effects meta-analysis model and reported as difference in means (DM). Variability in the response of blood lipids to supplementation with flavonols was assessed by stratifying various population subgroups: age, sex, country, and health status. Results showed significant reductions in total cholesterol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.20, −0.01), LDL cholesterol (DM = −0.14 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.21, 0.07), and triacylglycerol (DM = −0.10 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.18, 0.03), and a significant increase in HDL cholesterol (DM = 0.05 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07). A significant reduction was also observed in fasting plasma glucose (DM = −0.18 mmol/L; 95% CI: −0.29, −0.08), and in blood pressure (SBP: DM = −4.84 mmHg; 95% CI: −5.64, −4.04; DBP: DM = −3.32 mmHg; 95% CI: −4.09, −2.55). Subgroup analysis showed a more pronounced effect of flavonol intake in participants from Asian countries and in participants with diagnosed disease or dyslipidemia, compared to healthy and normal baseline values. In conclusion, flavonol consumption improved biomarkers of CVD risk, however, country of origin and health status may influence the effect of flavonol intake on blood lipid levels. PMID:28208791 5. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Nuria eRuffini 2015-08-01 Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group. 6. ATLAS soft QCD results CERN Document Server Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration 2018-01-01 Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions. 7. Influence of Liquid Paraffin, White Soft Paraffin and Initial Hydration ... African Journals Online (AJOL) hydrated white soft paraffin on the viscosity of a cream formulated with a corticosteroid. Methods: The formulations were prepared via homogenization with variable velocity in the range 3300 - 4000 rpm. Individual series of preparations contained the ... 8. Soft Soil Mobility Science.gov (United States) 2016-02-11 any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-619A Soft Soil Mobility 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TOP supersedes TOP 02-2-619, Soft Soil Vehicle Mobility, dated 21 May 1970. Marginal notations are not used in this revision to identify changes 9. Dynamics of Soft Matter CERN Document Server García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin 2012-01-01 Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr 10. Differentials in variables associated with past history of artificial abortion and current contraception by age: Results of a randomized national survey in Japan. Science.gov (United States) Kojo, Takao; Ae, Ryusuke; Tsuboi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Kitamura, Kunio 2017-03-01 This study analyzes differentials in the variables associated with the experience of artificial abortion (abortion) and use of contraception by age among women in Japan. The 2010 National Lifestyle and Attitudes Towards Sexual Behavior Survey was distributed to 2693 men and women aged 16-49 selected from the Japanese population using a two-stage random sampling procedure. From the 1540 respondents, we selected 700 women who reported having had sexual intercourse at least once. We used logistic regression to analyze how social and demographic factors were associated with the experience of abortion and contraceptive use. The abortion rate according to the survey was 19.3%. Of the 700 women in the sample, 6.9% had experienced two or more abortions. Logistic regression revealed that, although significant variables depended on age, a high level of education and discussions about contraceptive use with partners were negatively associated with the experience of abortion. Self-injury, approval of abortion and first sexual intercourse between the age of 10 and 19 were positively associated with the experience of abortion. Marriage, smoking and first sexual intercourse between the age of 10 and 19 were negatively associated with contraceptive use. Higher education and discussion of contraception with partners were positively associated with contraceptive use. To prevent unwanted pregnancy and abortion, social support and sexual education should be age-appropriate. It is vital to educate young people of the importance of discussing contraceptive use with their partners. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 11. Non-inferiority of insulin glargine versus insulin detemir on blood glucose variability in type 1 diabetes patients: a multicenter, randomized, crossover study. Science.gov (United States) Renard, Eric; Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle; Guerci, Bruno 2011-12-01 This study compared the effects of insulin glargine and insulin detemir on blood glucose variability under clinical practice conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) using glulisine as the mealtime insulin. This was a multicenter, crossover trial in 88 randomized T1D patients: 54 men and 34 women, 46.8±13.7 years old, with a duration of diabetes of 18±9 years and hemoglobin A1c level of 7.1±0.7%. The per-protocol population included 78 patients: 44 received glargine/detemir and 34 detemir/glargine in the first/second 16-week period, respectively. The primary end point was the coefficient of variation (CV) of fasting blood glucose (FBG). Secondary end points included variability of pre-dinner blood glucose, mean amplitude of glycemic excursions, mean of daily differences, and doses and number of daily insulin injections. The non-inferiority criterion was an insulin glargine/insulin detemir FBG CV ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI) upper limit ≤1.25. The non-inferiority criterion was satisfied with a mean value of 1.016 (95% CI=0.970-1.065). Intention-to-treat analysis confirmed the non-inferiority with a 95% CI upper limit=1.062. No significant differences were found on secondary objectives, but there was a trend to higher doses and number of daily injections with insulin detemir. A total of eight (four glargine and four detemir) patients reported nine serious adverse events (including one severe episode of hypoglycemia). None of them was considered as related to basal insulins. Serious adverse events led to treatment discontinuation in two patients of the detemir group and none in the glargine group. In T1D patients under clinical practice conditions, insulin glargine was non-inferior to insulin detemir regarding blood glucose variability, as assessed by CV of FBG. 12. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need Science.gov (United States) Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G. 2014-01-01 This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills… 13. On operations of soft sets National Research Council Canada - National Science Library Sezgin, Aslıhan; Atagün, Akın Osman 2011-01-01 ... called soft set theory is free from the difficulties affecting existing methods. In soft set theory, the problem of setting the membership function does not arise, which makes the theory easily applied to many different fields. Works on soft set theory has been progressing rapidly since Maji et al. [8] introduced several operations of soft set... 14. Reslts on fuzzy soft functions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bekir TANAY 2015-10-01 Full Text Available The concept of fuzzy soft function is mentioned by Aygünoğlu et al and Kharal et al in their papers (named Introduction to Fuzzy Soft Groups (2009 and Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes (2009, respectively. In this paper, some results on the fuzzy soft image and preimage of set theoretic operations of fuzzy soft sets under a fuzzy soft function are studied. Also the notion of fuzzy soft equality is introduced and some related results are given. 15. A novel soft sensor model based on artificial neural network in the ... African Journals Online (AJOL) Some crucial process variables in fermentation process could not be measured directly. Soft sensor technology provided an effective way to solve the problem. There has been considerable interest in modeling a soft sensor by using artificial neural network (ANN) in bioprocess. To generate a more efficient soft sensor ... 16. Soft tissue and esthetic considerations around implants Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Joann Pauline George 2015-01-01 Full Text Available The health of the peri – implant tissues play an important in the long term outcome of dental implants. The absence of keratinized gingiva (KG may be a risk factor for developing recession or peri –implantitis. However there is still ambiguity in the need for keratinized gingiva around dental implants. The preservation and reconstruction of soft tissue around dental implants is an integral component of dental Implantology. There is no long-term evidence whether augmented soft tissues can be maintained over time and are able to influence the peri-implant bone levels. Among the various soft tissue augmentation techniques Apically positioned flap with vestibuloplasty , Free gingival grafts and Connective tissue grafts are documented as the most predictable methods to increase the width of KG. Autogenous grafts increase the soft tissue thickness and improve aesthetics compared to non-grafted sites. The aim of this review is to critically discuss the need for KG around implants and the techniques to preserve and augment KG. It is difficult to arrive at a definitive conclusion due to scarcity of well designed studies in literature. Reliable evidence is lacking to suggest the ideal soft tissue augmentation/preservation techniques. Long term randomized controlled clinical trials are needed to provide a clearer image. 17. Fuzzy parametrized fuzzy soft topology Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Serkan Atmaca 2016-01-01 Full Text Available Recently, researches have contributed a lot towards fuzzification of Soft Set Theory. In this paper, we introduce the topological structure of fuzzyfying soft sets called fuzzy parametrized soft sets. We define the notion of quasi-coincidence for fuzzy parametrized soft sets and investigated basic properties of it. We study the closure, interior, base, continuity and compactness in the content of fuzzy parametrized soft topological spaces. 18. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial. Science.gov (United States) Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco 2015-01-01 Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group. 19. The effects of weight loss and salt reduction on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability: results from a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Science.gov (United States) Diaz, Keith M; Muntner, Paul; Levitan, Emily B; Brown, Michael D; Babbitt, Dianne M; Shimbo, Daichi 2014-04-01 As evidence suggests visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure (BP) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality, there is increasing interest in identifying interventions that reduce VVV of BP. We investigated the effects of weight loss and sodium reduction, alone or in combination, on VVV of BP in participants enrolled in phase II of the Trials of Hypertension Prevention. BP readings were taken at 6-month intervals for 36 months in 1820 participants with high-normal DBP who were randomized to weight loss, sodium reduction, combination (weight loss and sodium reduction), or usual care groups. VVV of BP was defined as the SD of BP across six follow-up visits. VVV of SBP was not significantly different between participants randomized to the weight loss (7.2 ± 3.1 mmHg), sodium reduction (7.1 ± 3.0 mmHg), or combined (6.9 ± 2.9 mmHg) intervention groups vs. the usual care group (6.9 ± 2.9 mmHg). In a fully adjusted model, no difference (0.0 ± 0.2 mmHg) in VVV of SBP was present between individuals who successfully maintained their weight loss vs. individuals who did not lose weight during follow-up (P = 0.93). Also, those who maintained a reduced sodium intake throughout follow-up did not have lower VVV of SBP compared to those who did not reduce their sodium intake (0.1 ± 0.3 mmHg; P = 0.77). Results were similar for VVV of DBP. These findings suggest that weight loss and sodium reduction may not be effective interventions for lowering VVV of BP in individuals with high-normal DBP. 20. Effects of Person-Centered Physical Therapy on Fatigue-Related Variables in Persons With Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Science.gov (United States) Feldthusen, Caroline; Dean, Elizabeth; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa 2016-01-01 To examine effects of person-centered physical therapy on fatigue and related variables in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Randomized controlled trial. Hospital outpatient rheumatology clinic. Persons with RA aged 20 to 65 years (N=70): intervention group (n=36) and reference group (n=34). The 12-week intervention, with 6-month follow-up, focused on partnership between participant and physical therapist and tailored health-enhancing physical activity and balancing life activities. The reference group continued with regular activities; both groups received usual health care. Primary outcome was general fatigue (visual analog scale). Secondary outcomes included multidimensional fatigue (Bristol Rheumatoid Arthritis Fatigue Multi-Dimensional Questionnaire) and fatigue-related variables (ie, disease, health, function). At posttest, general fatigue improved more in the intervention group than the reference group (P=.042). Improvement in median general fatigue reached minimal clinically important differences between and within groups at posttest and follow-up. Improvement was also observed for anxiety (P=.0099), and trends toward improvements were observed for most multidimensional aspects of fatigue (P=.023-.048), leg strength/endurance (P=.024), and physical activity (P=.023). Compared with the reference group at follow-up, the intervention group improvement was observed for leg strength/endurance (P=.001), and the trends toward improvements persisted for physical (P=.041) and living-related (P=.031) aspects of fatigue, physical activity (P=.019), anxiety (P=.015), self-rated health (P=.010), and self-efficacy (P=.046). Person-centered physical therapy focused on health-enhancing physical activity and balancing life activities showed significant benefits on fatigue in persons with RA. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Does long term sport rock climbing training affect on echocardiography and heart rate variability in sedentary adults? A randomized, and controlled study. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Aras Dicle 2016-03-01 Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity can cause some long term effects on human body. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of sport rock climbing (SRC training at 70 % HRmax level on echocardiography (ECHO and heart rate variability (HRV for one hour a day and three days a week in an eight-week period. A total of 19 adults participated in this study voluntarily. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups as experimental (EG and control (CG. While the EG went and did climbing training by using the top-rope method for 60 minutes a day, three days a week for 8 weeks and didn’t join any other physical activity programs, CG didn’t train and take part in any physical activity during the course of the study. Same measurements were repeated at the end of eight weeks. According to the findings, no significant change was observed in any of the ECHO and HRV parameters. However, an improvement was seen in some HRV parameters [average heart rate (HRave, standard deviation of all NN intervals (SDNN, standard deviation of the averages of NN intervals in all five-minute segments of the entire recording (SDANN, percent of difference between adjacent NN intervals that are greater than 50 ms (PNN50, square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent NN interval (RMSSD] in EG. An exercise program based on SRC should be made more than eight weeks in order to have statistically significant changes with the purpose of observing an improvement in heart structure and functions. Keywords: Echocardiography, heart rate variability, sport rock climbing 2. On Soft Biometrics DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal 2015-01-01 Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be used...... to discriminate individuals, especially using descriptions that can be perceived using human vision and in surveillance imagery. A further branch of this new field concerns approaches to estimate soft biometrics, either using conventional biometrics approaches or just from images alone. These three strands...... combine to form what is now known as soft biometrics. We survey the achievements that have been made in recognition by and in estimation of these parameters, describing how these approaches can be used and where they might lead to. The approaches lead to a new type of recognition, and one similar... 3. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle 2016-01-01 Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress......; diverse capabilities and meanings of the body; as well as the qualities and capabilities afforded by smart and programmable elements. Textiles behave in particular ways. They are part of culture. No matter a person’s views on fashion, dress, their own or others’ body, they will have an intimate...... relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity... 4. Mechanics of soft materials CERN Document Server Volokh, Konstantin 2016-01-01 This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. . 5. Ultrasonographic findings of benign soft tissue tumors Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Kim, Ki Sung; Oh, Dong Heon; Jung, Tae Gun; Kim, Yong Kil; Kwon, Jung Hyeok [Dongkang Genernal Hospital, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of) 1994-05-15 To clarify the characteristic sonographic features of benign soft tissue tumors and to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic imaging. We retrospectively reviewed ultrasonographic images of 70 cases in 68 patients with histologically proved benign soft tissue tumors. The tumors include 33 lipomas, 11 hemangiomas, 11 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, 2 fibromas, 1 mesenchymoma, and 1 myxoma. The sonographic appearances of the lesions were mainly solid in 53 cases(33 lipomas, 8 hemangiomas, 2 lymphangiomas, 7 neurilemmomas, 2 fibromas and 1 mesenchymoma), mainly cystic in 14 cases(1 hemangioma, 8 lymphangiomas, 4 epidermoid cysts, and 1 myxomal), and mixed in 3 cases(2 hemangiomas and 1 lymphangioma). Although an accurate histologic prediction could not be made in most cases, certain patterns appeared to be characteristic of specific tumor types. 26 cases(78%) of lipoma were seen as lentiform, iso- or hyperechoic, solid mass. Hemangioma had variable appearance and characteristic calcifications were seen in 3 cases. Unicameral or multiseptated cystic mass with variable thickness of echogenic septa and solid portion was the characteristic finding of lymhangioma. Neurilemmoma showed lobulated, oval to round , relatively hypoechoic mass or with without internal cystic portion. Sonographic evaluation of benign soft tissue tumors is useful in demonstrating the location, size, extent, and internal characteristic of the mass. A relatively confident diagnosis can made when the characteristic features of the benign soft tissue tumor are present on sonographic imaging. 6. A randomized trial of high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate diets and exercise on body composition in adults with obesity. Science.gov (United States) Parr, Evelyn B; Coffey, Vernon G; Cato, Louise E; Phillips, Stuart M; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A 2016-05-01 This study determined the effects of 16-week high-dairy-protein, variable-carbohydrate (CHO) diets and exercise training (EXT) on body composition in men and women with overweight/obesity. One hundred and eleven participants (age 47 ± 6 years, body mass 90.9 ± 11.7 kg, BMI 33 ± 4 kg/m(2) , values mean ± SD) were randomly stratified to diets with either: high dairy protein, moderate CHO (40% CHO: 30% protein: 30% fat; ∼4 dairy servings); high dairy protein, high CHO (55%: 30%: 15%; ∼4 dairy servings); or control (55%: 15%: 30%; ∼1 dairy serving). Energy restriction (500 kcal/day) was achieved through diet (∼250 kcal/day) and EXT (∼250 kcal/day). Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry before, midway, and upon completion of the intervention. Eighty-nine (25 M/64 F) of 115 participants completed the 16-week intervention, losing 7.7 ± 3.2 kg fat mass (P composition (fat mass or lean mass) between groups. Compared to a healthy control diet, energy-restricted high-protein diets containing different proportions of fat and CHO confer no advantage to weight loss or change in body composition in the presence of an appropriate exercise stimulus. © 2016 The Obesity Society. 7. New Closed-Form Results on Ordered Statistics of Partial Sums of Gamma Random Variables and its Application to Performance Evaluation in the Presence of Nakagami Fading KAUST Repository Nam, Sung Sik 2017-06-19 Complex wireless transmission systems require multi-dimensional joint statistical techniques for performance evaluation. Here, we first present the exact closed-form results on order statistics of any arbitrary partial sums of Gamma random variables with the closedform results of core functions specialized for independent and identically distributed Nakagami-m fading channels based on a moment generating function-based unified analytical framework. These both exact closed-form results have never been published in the literature. In addition, as a feasible application example in which our new offered derived closed-form results can be applied is presented. In particular, we analyze the outage performance of the finger replacement schemes over Nakagami fading channels as an application of our method. Note that these analysis results are directly applicable to several applications, such as millimeter-wave communication systems in which an antenna diversity scheme operates using an finger replacement schemes-like combining scheme, and other fading scenarios. Note also that the statistical results can provide potential solutions for ordered statistics in any other research topics based on Gamma distributions or other advanced wireless communications research topics in the presence of Nakagami fading. 8. Tai Chi Training may Reduce Dual Task Gait Variability, a Potential Mediator of Fall Risk, in Healthy Older Adults: Cross-Sectional and Randomized Trial Studies. Science.gov (United States) Wayne, Peter M; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M; Lough, Matthew; Gow, Brian J; Lipsitz, Lewis; Novak, Vera; Macklin, Eric A; Peng, Chung-Kang; Manor, Brad 2015-01-01 Tai Chi (TC) exercise improves balance and reduces falls in older, health-impaired adults. TC's impact on dual task (DT) gait parameters predictive of falls, especially in healthy active older adults, however, is unknown. To compare differences in usual and DT gait between long-term TC-expert practitioners and age-/gender-matched TC-naïve adults, and to determine the effects of short-term TC training on gait in healthy, non-sedentary older adults. A cross-sectional study compared gait in healthy TC-naïve and TC-expert (24.5 ± 12 years experience) older adults. TC-naïve adults then completed a 6-month, two-arm, wait-list randomized clinical trial of TC training. Gait speed and stride time variability (Coefficient of Variation %) were assessed during 90 s trials of undisturbed and cognitive DT (serial subtractions) conditions. During DT, gait speed decreased (p sensitive metric for monitoring TC's impact on fall risk with healthy older adults. 9. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Shawkat Alkhazaleh 2014-03-01 Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets. 10. Soft n-Ary Subgroups Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) D.R. Prince Williams 2015-09-01 Full Text Available Soft set theory plays a vital role in solving many complicated problems with inherited uncertainty. An n-ary algebraic systems is a generalization of algebraic structures and it is the most natural way for the further development, deeper understanding of their properties. In this paper, we apply soft set theory to an n-ary algebraic systems and introduce the notions of soft n-ary groups and soft n-ary subgroups. Further, some operations on soft sets are extended to the former. Finally, we provide the characterization of soft n-ary subgroups over an n-ary group (G,f and study their related properties. 11. Topology of soft cone metric spaces Science.gov (United States) Altintas, Ismet; Simsek, Dagistan; Taskopru, Kemal 2017-09-01 In Simsek's paper it was introduced a concept of soft cone metric space via soft elements and some fixed point theorems in soft cone metric space were provided. In this work, we examine topological structures such as open ball, soft neighbourhood and soft open set in soft metric spaces and their some properties, and prove that every soft cone metric space under some condition is a soft topological space according to elementary operations on soft sets. 12. Some Properties of Fuzzy Soft Proximity Spaces Science.gov (United States) Demir, İzzettin; Özbakır, Oya Bedre 2015-01-01 We study the fuzzy soft proximity spaces in Katsaras's sense. First, we show how a fuzzy soft topology is derived from a fuzzy soft proximity. Also, we define the notion of fuzzy soft δ-neighborhood in the fuzzy soft proximity space which offers an alternative approach to the study of fuzzy soft proximity spaces. Later, we obtain the initial fuzzy soft proximity determined by a family of fuzzy soft proximities. Finally, we investigate relationship between fuzzy soft proximities and proximities. PMID:25793224 13. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M. 2017-10-17 A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described. 14. Soft Matter Characterization CERN Document Server Borsali, Redouane 2008-01-01 Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t... 15. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Fernando Ruiz Santiago 2010-01-01 Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy. 16. Optomechanical soft metamaterials Science.gov (United States) Peng, Xiangjun; He, Wei; Liu, Yifan; Xin, Fengxian; Lu, Tian Jian 2017-06-01 We present a new type of optomechanical soft metamaterials, which is different from conventional mechanical metamaterials, in that they are simple isotropic and homogenous materials without resorting to any complex nano/microstructures. This metamaterial is unique in the sense that its responses to uniaxial forcing can be tailored by programmed laser inputs to manifest different nonlinear constitutive behaviors, such as monotonic, S-shape, plateau, and non-monotonic snapping performance. To demonstrate the novel metamaterial, a thin sheet of soft material impinged by two counterpropagating lasers along its thickness direction and stretched by an in-plane tensile mechanical force is considered. A theoretical model is formulated to characterize the resulting optomechanical behavior of the thin sheet by combining the nonlinear elasticity theory of soft materials and the optical radiation stress theory. The optical radiation stresses predicted by the proposed model are validated by simulations based on the method of finite elements. Programmed optomechanical behaviors are subsequently explored using the validated model under different initial sheet thicknesses and different optical inputs, and the first- and second-order tangential stiffness of the metamaterial are used to plot the phase diagram of its nonlinear constitutive behaviors. The proposed optomechanical soft metamaterial shows great potential in biological medicine, microfluidic manipulation, and other fields. 17. Soft matter's charismatic pioneer Science.gov (United States) McLeish, Tom 2012-11-01 This summer I took a break from lecturing at a graduate training school in Boulder, Colorado, to attend a talk by the soft-condensed-matter physicist David Weitz. His lecture was about colloids, and in the middle of it, he began to reminisce about the field's early days. 18. Hard and Soft Governance DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Moos, Lejf 2009-01-01 The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses... 19. Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Expert Sets OpenAIRE Şahin, Mehmet; Deli, İrfan; Uluçay, Vakkas 2016-01-01 In this paper, we introduce concept of bipolar neutrosophic soft expert set and its some operations. Also, we propose score, certainty and accuracy functions to compare the bipolar neutrosophic soft expert sets. We give examples for these concepts. 20. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial Science.gov (United States) Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco 2015-01-01 Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing 1. Soft skills and dental education OpenAIRE Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N.H.; Naimie, Z. 2014-01-01 Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discus... 2. Hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets Science.gov (United States) Nazra, Admi; Syafruddin; Lestari, Riri; Catur Wicaksono, Gandung 2017-09-01 This paper aims to extend the hesitant fuzzy soft sets to hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets by merging the concept of hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets and soft sets. The authors define some operations on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy sets, such as complement, union and intersection, and obtain related properties. The similar operations are defined on hesitant intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, and also some properties such as assosiative and De Morgan’s laws are obtained. 3. Chronic kidney disease in the type 2 diabetic patients: prevalence and associated variables in a random sample of 2642 patients of a Mediterranean area Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Coll-de-Tuero Gabriel 2012-08-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background Kidney disease is associated with an increased total mortality and cardiovascular morbimortality in the general population and in patients with Type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of kidney disease and different types of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Methods Cross-sectional study in a random sample of 2,642 T2DM patients cared for in primary care during 2007. Studied variables: demographic and clinical characteristics, pharmacological treatments and T2DM complications (diabetic foot, retinopathy, coronary heart disease and stroke. Variables of renal function were defined as follows: 1 Microalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 30 mg/g or 3.5 mg/mmol, 2 Macroalbuminuria: albumin excretion rate & 300 mg/g or 35 mg/mmol, 3 Kidney disease (KD: glomerular filtration rate according to Modification of Diet in Renal Disease 2 and/or the presence of albuminuria, 4 Renal impairment (RI: glomerular filtration rate 2, 5 Nonalbuminuric RI: glomerular filtration rate 2 without albuminuria and, 5 Diabetic nephropathy (DN: macroalbuminuria or microalbuminuria plus diabetic retinopathy. Results The prevalence of different types of renal disease in patients was: 34.1% KD, 22.9% RI, 19.5% albuminuria and 16.4% diabetic nephropathy (DN. The prevalence of albuminuria without RI (13.5% and nonalbuminuric RI (14.7% was similar. After adjusting per age, BMI, cholesterol, blood pressure and macrovascular disease, RI was significantly associated with the female gender (OR 2.20; CI 95% 1.86–2.59, microvascular disease (OR 2.14; CI 95% 1.8–2.54 and insulin treatment (OR 1.82; CI 95% 1.39–2.38, and inversely associated with HbA1c (OR 0.85 for every 1% increase; CI 95% 0.80–0.91. Albuminuria without RI was inversely associated with the female gender (OR 0.27; CI 95% 0.21–0.35, duration of diabetes (OR 0.94 per year; CI 95% 0.91–0.97 and directly associated with HbA1c (OR 1.19 for every 4. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jonna C Sandberg Full Text Available Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF. The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal.Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings.With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05. The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, P<0.001, GLP-1 (0-90 min, P<0.05 and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05, compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0-120 min, P = 0.001, serum insulin response (0-120 min, P<0.05 and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05. Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05, and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001, indicating increased colonic fermentation activity.The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could 5. Possibility Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Set Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Maruah Bashir 2012-01-01 Full Text Available Possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft set and its operations are introduced, and a few of their properties are studied. An application of possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets in decision making is investigated. A similarity measure of two possibility intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets has been discussed. An application of this similarity measure in medical diagnosis has been shown. 6. Effects of additional repeated sprint training during preseason on performance, heart rate variability, and stress symptoms in futsal players: a randomized controlled trial. Science.gov (United States) Soares-Caldeira, Lúcio F; de Souza, Eberton A; de Freitas, Victor H; de Moraes, Solange M F; Leicht, Anthony S; Nakamura, Fábio Y 2014-10-01 The aim of this study was to investigate whether supplementing regular preseason futsal training with weekly sessions of repeated sprints (RS) training would have positive effects on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and field test performance. Thirteen players from a professional futsal team (22.6 ± 6.7 years, 72.8 ± 8.7 kg, 173.2 ± 6.2 cm) were divided randomly into 2 groups (AddT: n = 6 and normal training group: n = 7). Both groups performed a RSA test, Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYo IR1), squat (SJ) and countermovement jumps (CMJ), body composition, and heart rate variability (HRV) measures at rest before and after 4 weeks of preseason training. Athletes weekly stress symptoms were recorded by psychometric responses using the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes questionnaire and subjective ratings of well-being scale, respectively. The daily training load (arbitrary units) was assessed using the session of rating perceived exertion method. After the preseason training, there were no significant changes for body composition, SJ, CMJ, and RSAbest. The YoYo IR1, RSAmean, RSAworst, and RSAdecreament were significantly improved for both groups (p ≤ 0.05). The HRV parameters improved significantly within both groups (p ≤ 0.05) except for high frequency (HF, absolute and normalized units, [n.u.]), low frequency (LF) (n.u.), and the LF/HF ratio. A moderate effect size for the AddT group was observed for resting heart rate and several HRV measures. Training load and psychometric responses were similar between both groups. Additional RS training resulted in slightly greater positive changes for vagal-related HRV with similar improvements in performance and training stress during the preseason training in futsal players. 7. Pilot Randomized Study of a Gratitude Journaling Intervention on Heart Rate Variability and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Patients With Stage B Heart Failure. Science.gov (United States) Redwine, Laura S; Henry, Brook L; Pung, Meredith A; Wilson, Kathleen; Chinh, Kelly; Knight, Brian; Jain, Shamini; Rutledge, Thomas; Greenberg, Barry; Maisel, Alan; Mills, Paul J 2016-01-01 Stage B, asymptomatic heart failure (HF) presents a therapeutic window for attenuating disease progression and development of HF symptoms, and improving quality of life. Gratitude, the practice of appreciating positive life features, is highly related to quality of life, leading to development of promising clinical interventions. However, few gratitude studies have investigated objective measures of physical health; most relied on self-report measures. We conducted a pilot study in Stage B HF patients to examine whether gratitude journaling improved biomarkers related to HF prognosis. Patients (n = 70; mean [standard deviation] age = 66.2 [7.6] years) were randomized to an 8-week gratitude journaling intervention or treatment as usual. Baseline (T1) assessments included the six-item Gratitude Questionnaire, resting heart rate variability (HRV), and an inflammatory biomarker index. At T2 (midintervention), the six-item Gratitude Questionnaire was measured. At T3 (postintervention), T1 measures were repeated but also included a gratitude journaling task. The gratitude intervention was associated with improved trait gratitude scores (F = 6.0, p = .017, η = 0.10), reduced inflammatory biomarker index score over time (F = 9.7, p = .004, η = 0.21), and increased parasympathetic HRV responses during the gratitude journaling task (F = 4.2, p = .036, η = 0.15), compared with treatment as usual. However, there were no resting preintervention to postintervention group differences in HRV (p values > .10). Gratitude journaling may improve biomarkers related to HF morbidity, such as reduced inflammation; large-scale studies with active control conditions are needed to confirm these findings. Clinicaltrials.govidentifier:NCT01615094. 8. Biological Soft Robotics. Science.gov (United States) Feinberg, Adam W 2015-01-01 In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed. 9. Fracture in Soft Materials DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Hassager, Ole Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids.... 10. Soft Expert Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Shawkat Alkhazaleh 2011-01-01 Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. Many researchers have studied this theory, and they created some models to solve problems in decision making and medical diagnosis, but most of these models deal only with one expert. This causes a problem with the user, especially with those who use questionnaires in their work and studies. In our model, the user can know the opinion of all experts in one model. So, in this paper, we introduce the concept of a soft expert set, which will more effective and useful. We also define its basic operations, namely, complement, union intersection AND, and OR. Finally, we show an application of this concept in decision-making problem. 11. Holiday fun with soft gluons CERN Multimedia CERN. Geneva 2017-01-01 Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections. 12. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery. Science.gov (United States) Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph 2016-01-01 The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 13. Categorical Properties of Soft Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Min Zhou 2014-01-01 Full Text Available The present study investigates some novel categorical properties of soft sets. By combining categorical theory with soft set theory, a categorical framework of soft set theory is established. It is proved that the category SFun of soft sets and soft functions has equalizers, finite products, pullbacks, and exponential properties. It is worth mentioning that we find that SFun is both a topological construct and Cartesian closed. The category SRel of soft sets and Z-soft set relations is also characterized, which shows the existence of the zero objects, biproducts, additive identities, injective objects, projective objects, injective hulls, and projective covers. Finally, by constructing proper adjoint situations, some intrinsic connections between SFun and SRel are established. 14. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots. Science.gov (United States) Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang 2018-02-05 Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. 15. Pain and functional improvement effects of methylene blue injection on the soft tissue around fusion site after traumatic thoracolumbar fixation: A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. Science.gov (United States) Farrokhi, Majid Reza; Yazdanpanah, Hamed; Gholami, Mehrnaz; Farrokhi, Farnaz; Mesbahi, Amir Reza 2016-11-01 Fractures of the thoracolumbar spine can cause pain, long-term reductions in quality of life (QOL), and neural deficits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of methylene blue (MB) on preventing postoperative pain and improving QOL in patients with throracolumbar fractures undergoing posterior pedicle screw fixation. Fifty patients underwent standard posterior pedicular screw fixation for stabilization of the thoracolumbar fractures: 25 received 1ml of MB solution at a concentration of 0.5% and 25 received normal saline on the soft tissue around fusion site. Primary outcomes were the control of pain, evaluated at 48h, 2 and 6 months after surgery with the use of a visual analog scale (VAS), and the improvement of QOL, assessed 2 and 6 months postoperatively by means of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire. The mean VAS scores for pain were significantly lower in the MB group compared with the control group at 2 months (1.30±0.45 vs. 2.60±1.19, P<0.001) and 6 months (1.17±0.37 vs. 1.60±0.87; P=0.028) after treatment. At 2 months after the surgery, the mean ODI score was significantly lower in the MB-treated patients than the control group (20.4±10.92 vs. 34.8±15.11; P=0.001). The ODI score in the MB-treated patients was better than the control group at 6 months after the surgery (12.2±11.66 vs. 20.8±11.14; P=0.016). A single dose of MB on the soft tissue around fusion site shows promising results in terms of safety, reduction of postoperative pain, and functional results when compared with placebo 6 months after surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 16. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Jørgensen, Jonas 2017-01-01 Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... and the life-like in these works through readings that draw on concepts from technical soft robotics research and the description of life in physics (via entropy). It is argued, that fractions of soft sculpture anticipate central interests and notions present in contemporary technical soft robotics research.... 17. Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults: A randomized controlled trial. Science.gov (United States) Hewett, Zoe L; Pumpa, Kate L; Smith, Caroline A; Fahey, Paul P; Cheema, Birinder S 2017-04-21 Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Eligible adults were randomized to an experimental group (n = 29) or a no treatment control group (n = 34). Experimental group participants were instructed to attend three to five supervised Bikram yoga classes per week for 16 weeks at local studios. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline (week 0) and completion (week 17). Sixty-three adults (37.2 ± 10.8 years, 79% women) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. The experimental group attended 27 ± 18 classes. Analyses of covariance revealed no significant change in the high-frequency component of HRV (p = 0.912, partial η 2 = 0.000) or in any secondary outcome measure between groups over time. However, regression analyses revealed that higher attendance in the experimental group was associated with significant reductions in diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.039; partial η 2 = 0.154), body fat percentage (p = 0.001, partial η 2 = 0.379), fat mass (p = 0.003, partial η 2 = 0.294) and body mass index (p = 0.05, partial η 2 = 0.139). A 16-week Bikram yoga program did not increase the high frequency power component of HRV or any other CVD risk factors investigated. As revealed by post hoc analyses, low adherence likely contributed to the null effects. Future studies are required to address barriers to adherence to better elucidate the dose-response effects of Bikram yoga practice as a medium to lower stress-related CVD risk. Retrospectively registered with Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN 18. Autonomous Object Manipulation Using a Soft Planar Grasping Manipulator. Science.gov (United States) Katzschmann, Robert K; Marchese, Andrew D; Rus, Daniela 2015-12-01 This article presents the development of an autonomous motion planning algorithm for a soft planar grasping manipulator capable of grasp-and-place operations by encapsulation with uncertainty in the position and shape of the object. The end effector of the soft manipulator is fabricated in one piece without weakening seams using lost-wax casting instead of the commonly used multilayer lamination process. The soft manipulation system can grasp randomly positioned objects within its reachable envelope and move them to a desired location without human intervention. The autonomous planning system leverages the compliance and continuum bending of the soft grasping manipulator to achieve repeatable grasps in the presence of uncertainty. A suite of experiments is presented that demonstrates the system's capabilities. 19. Efficacy of triplet regimen antiemetic therapy for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in bone and soft tissue sarcoma patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and an efficacy comparison of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron for CINV in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. Science.gov (United States) Kimura, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Norio; Shirai, Toshiharu; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Tanzawa, Yoshikazu; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kentaro; Inatani, Hiroyuki; Shimozaki, Shingo; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki 2015-03-01 The first aim of this study was to evaluate combination antiemetic therapy consisting of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists (NK-1RAs), and dexamethasone for multiple high emetogenic risk (HER) anticancer agents in bone and soft tissue sarcoma. The second aim was to compare the effectiveness of single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron in a randomized, single-blinded crossover study. A single randomization method was used to assign eligible patients to the palonosetron or granisetron arm. Patients in the palonosetron arm received a palonosetron regimen during the first and third chemotherapy courses and a granisetron regimen during the second and fourth courses. All patients received NK-1RA and dexamethasone. Patients receiving the palonosetron regimen were administered 0.75 mg palonosetron on day 1, and patients receiving the granisetron regimen were administered 3 mg granisetron twice daily on days 1 through 5. All 24 patients in this study received at least 4 chemotherapy courses. A total of 96 courses of antiemetic therapy were evaluated. Overall, the complete response CR rate (no emetic episodes and no rescue medication use) was 34%, while the total control rate (a CR plus no nausea) was 7%. No significant differences were observed between single-shot palonosetron and consecutive-day granisetron. Antiemetic therapy with a 3-drug combination was not sufficient to control chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during chemotherapy with multiple HER agents for bone and soft tissue sarcoma. This study also demonstrated that consecutive-day granisetron was not inferior to single-shot palonosetron for treating CINV. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 20. Topological Structure of Vague Soft Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Chang Wang 2014-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce vague soft topological spaces which are defined over an initial universe with a fixed set of parameters. The notions of vague soft open sets, vague soft closed sets, vague soft interior, vague soft closure, and vague soft boundary are introduced and their basic properties and relations are investigated. Furthermore, with the help of examples they established that some properties of topological spaces and soft topological spaces do not hold in vague soft topological spaces. Vague soft connectedness and vague soft compactness are also studied. 1. On Soft β-Open Sets and Soft β-Continuous Functions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Metin Akdag 2014-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce the concepts soft β-interior and soft β-closure of a soft set in soft topological spaces. We also study soft β-continuous functions and discuss their relations with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. 2. Soft Condensed Matter Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Jones, Richard A L 2002-11-20 The author states in the preface of the book that the aim is '...to give a unified overview of the various aspects of the physics of soft condensed matter'. The book succeeds in fulfilling this aim in many respects. The style is fluent and concise and gives the necessary explanations to make its content understandable to people with some knowledge of the basic principles of physics. The content of the book is complete enough to give a panoramic view of the landscape of soft condensed matter. The first two chapters give, respectively, a short introduction and a presentation of forces, energies and timescales, giving a general overview and pointing out the particular importance of different aspects such as timescales, which are much more important in soft condensed matter than in traditional or 'hard' condensed matter. The next chapter, devoted to phase transition, recalls that the equilibrium between two phases is controlled by free energy considerations. Spinodal decomposition is presented as a counterpart of nucleation and growth. Again, characteristic length scales are considered and applied to a phase separation mixture of polymers in a common solvent. The following three chapters are devoted respectively to specific topics: colloidal dispersion, polymers and gelation. The stability and phase behaviour of colloids are related to the interaction between colloidal particles. Properties of colloidal crystals as well as colloidal dispersion are depicted in terms of stabilization of crystalline colloids. The flow properties of colloidal dispersion are presented in terms of free energy minimization and the structure of the dispersion. After a brief introduction to polymer chemistry and architecture, the coil-globule transition is discussed. Viscoelasticity of polymers is described and discussed by introducing the notion of entanglement. This leads to the introduction of the tube model and the theory of reptation. The sol-gel transition is presented 3. Embodying Soft Wearables Research DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle 2016-01-01 The value of engaging sensory motor skills in the design and use of smart systems is increasingly recognized. Yet robust and reliable methods for development, reporting and transfer are not fully understood. This workshop investigates the role of embodied design research techniques in the context...... of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method... 4. Olaratumab for soft tissue sarcoma. Science.gov (United States) Teyssonneau, Diego; Italiano, Antoine 2017-08-01 Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are rare malignant tumors. Unfortunately, the first-line doxorubicin-based treatment has not been improved since the 1970s. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha (PDGFR-α) and its ligands are co-expressed in many types of cancer, including sarcomas. They are involved in stimulating growth and regulating stromal-derived fibroblasts and angiogenesis. PDGFR-α and its ligand may play an important role in tumorigenesis and be a potential target in the treatment of sarcomas. Olaratumab is a fully human IgG1-type anti-PDGFR-α monoclonal antibody with a high affinity and a low 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Areas covered: The authors review the role of olaratumab in the treatment of STS by focusing on the recent, randomized Phase II JDGD trial that challenged patients with unresectable or metastatic STS with doxorubicin in the presence or absence of olaratumab. This trial showed a great improvement in overall survival (OS), with an increase in survival from 14.7 months to 26.5 months for patients in the experimental arm and showed acceptable toxicity. Expert opinion: Results seem promising. However, it must be qualified, as the study includes several uncertainties. These uncertainties should be addressed by the ongoing Phase 3 JGDJ confirmatory trial, for which the final efficacy analysis is expected by 2019. 5. Soft skills and dental education. Science.gov (United States) Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z 2013-05-01 Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 6. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion. Science.gov (United States) Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C 2017-05-01 Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s). 7. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion OpenAIRE Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C. 2017-01-01 Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p... 8. Modeling Soft Matter Science.gov (United States) Kremer, Kurt Soft matter science or soft materials science is a relatively new term for the science of a huge class of rather different materials such as colloids, polymers (of synthetic or biological origin), membranes, complex molecular assemblies, complex fluids, etc. and combinations thereof. While many of these systems are contained in or are even the essential part of everyday products ("simple" plastics such as yoghurt cups, plastic bags, CDs, many car parts; gels and networks such as rubber, many low fat foods, "gummi" bears; colloidal systems such as milk, mayonnaise, paints, almost all cosmetics or body care products, the border lines between the different applications and systems are of course not sharp) or as biological molecules or assemblies (DNA, proteins, membranes and cytoskeleton, etc.) are central to our existence, others are basic ingredients of current and future high tech products (polymers with specific optical or electronic properties, conducting macromolecules, functional materials). Though the motivation is different in life science rather than in materials science biomolecular simulations, the basic structure of the problems faced in the two fields is very similar. 9. Soft Robotic Actuators Science.gov (United States) Godfrey, Juleon Taylor In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve. 10. Towards Coordination Preparedness of Soft-Target Organisation Science.gov (United States) Uddin, Mohammed Shahadat; Hossain, Liaquat In this paper, we introduce a network enabled coordination model to examine the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisations such as common public access areas including transit hubs, schools, parks, and sports areas. It is apparent that little attention is given in recent research focusing on the use of network analysis as a way to explore coordination preparedness for this type of organisation. In this study, we emphasise this type of soft-target organisation and propose a model to examine the coordination preparedness to any disasters by testing hypothesis related to network relationship and coordination preparedness. We analyse the dataset entitled Preparedness of Large Retail Malls to Prevent and Respond to Terrorist Attack, 2004, which contains a total of 120 completed surveys of security directors of retail malls. The following questions form the basis of this study: What do soft-target organisations need to be better prepared to respond to disaster? How does network relationship between soft-target organisation and emergency agencies affect the coordination preparedness of soft-target organisation for disaster recovery? Which degree of centrality measure needs to be followed to measure network variables in order to analyse the coordination preparedness? Result shows that soft-target organisation with high level of network relationship with other emergency agencies are better prepared to disaster response. Using this result, the preparedness of a soft-target organisation might be judged for successfully participation in an actual emergency. 11. Soft Computing Optimizer For Intelligent Control Systems Design: The Structure And Applications Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Sergey A. Panfilov 2003-10-01 Full Text Available Soft Computing Optimizer (SCO as a new software tool for design of robust intelligent control systems is described. It is based on the hybrid methodology of soft computing and stochastic simulation. It uses as an input the measured or simulated data about the modeled system. SCO is used to design an optimal fuzzy inference system, which approximates a random behavior of control object with the certain accuracy. The task of the fuzzy inference system construction is reduced to the subtasks such as forming of the linguistic variables for each input and output variable, creation of rule data base, optimization of rule data base and refinement of the parameters of the membership functions. Each task by the corresponding genetic algorithm (with an appropriate fitness function is solved. The result of SCO application is the design of Knowledge Base of a Fuzzy Controller, which contains the value information about developed fuzzy inference system. Such value information can be downloaded into the actual fuzzy controller to perform online fuzzy control. Simulations results of robust fuzzy control of nonlinear dynamic systems and experimental results of application on automotive semi-active suspension control are demonstrated. 12. Computational dynamics of soft machines Science.gov (United States) Hu, Haiyan; Tian, Qiang; Liu, Cheng 2017-06-01 Soft machine refers to a kind of mechanical system made of soft materials to complete sophisticated missions, such as handling a fragile object and crawling along a narrow tunnel corner, under low cost control and actuation. Hence, soft machines have raised great challenges to computational dynamics. In this review article, recent studies of the authors on the dynamic modeling, numerical simulation, and experimental validation of soft machines are summarized in the framework of multibody system dynamics. The dynamic modeling approaches are presented first for the geometric nonlinearities of coupled overall motions and large deformations of a soft component, the physical nonlinearities of a soft component made of hyperelastic or elastoplastic materials, and the frictional contacts/impacts of soft components, respectively. Then the computation approach is outlined for the dynamic simulation of soft machines governed by a set of differential-algebraic equations of very high dimensions, with an emphasis on the efficient computations of the nonlinear elastic force vector of finite elements. The validations of the proposed approaches are given via three case studies, including the locomotion of a soft quadrupedal robot, the spinning deployment of a solar sail of a spacecraft, and the deployment of a mesh reflector of a satellite antenna, as well as the corresponding experimental studies. Finally, some remarks are made for future studies. 13. Rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation in ... African Journals Online (AJOL) Objective: To study the rehabilitation effect of exercise with soft tissue manipulation therapy for patients with lumbar muscle strain. Methods: Patients with lumbar muscle strain who met the inclusion criteria for study were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. Conventional therapy (i.e., triple therapy of ... 14. Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Soft Rough Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Said Broumi 2015-01-01 Full Text Available We first defined interval-valued neutrosophic soft rough sets (IVN-soft rough sets for short which combine interval-valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy soft rough sets (IVIF-soft rough sets. 15. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field DEFF Research Database (Denmark) Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L 2008-01-01 BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefore...... during free living conditions. RESULTS: Calibration reduced inter-instrument variability considerably in the mechanical setup, both in the MTI instruments (raw SDbetween units = 195 counts*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 65 counts*min-1) and in the CSA instruments (raw SDbetween units = 343 counts......*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 67 counts*min-1). However, the effect of applying the derived calibration to children's and adolescents' free living physical activity data did not alter the coefficient of variation (CV) (children: CVraw = 30.2% vs. CVcalibrated = 30.4%, adolescents: CVraw = 36... 16. Soft isostasy in geomorphology Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Mohsen Pourkhosravani 2012-01-01 Full Text Available Earth subsidence has been one of the important issues jeopardizing environment and there are many studies, which blame shortage of underground water resources for having uplift and subsidence. However, many argue such conclusion and believe that earth subsidence has been studied in the past without considering the changes in the hill over a long period. In this study, we use SAR interferometry study to investigate earth subsidence in dessert areas of Esfahan, Yazd and Ardakan, located in central part of Iran. The results indicate that there are more important issues affecting subsidence such as the uplift in the hills located the desert area. The results of the survey based on SAR interferometry reveals that subsidence occurs with the uplift in the adjacent hills, simultaneously. In other words, tectonic movements and soft isostasy play important role on earth subsidence. 17. Soft matter physics CERN Document Server Williams, Claudine 1999-01-01 What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword. 18. Soft Costs Fact Sheet Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) None 2016-05-01 This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions. 19. PENGEMBANGAN SOFT SKILL GURU Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Jaenuri Jaenuri 2017-06-01 Full Text Available Soft skill is a skill of person that build relationships with others and self-organizing skills. Teachers as a determinant of the potential development of students is not enough can only teach (transfer of knowledge. Moreover, the teacher as a model for the student must have a good personality and social. So teachers are required to develop continuously the ability of personality (intra personal skills and social skills (inter personal skills. The development of intra personal skills includes: developing the power of consciousness, goals, beliefs, love, concentration, and decisions. The development of interpersonal skills includes: many smiles, appreciative, active listener, active cooperate, mediator, communication ability, humor, empathy, and not easy to complain. 20. Soft-collinear supersymmetry Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States) 2017-03-03 Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills. 1. Soft tissue sparganosis Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) 1993-11-15 Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis. 2. Soft-collinear supersymmetry Science.gov (United States) Cohen, Timothy; Elor, Gilly; Larkoski, Andrew J. 2017-03-01 Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with super-symmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is cconstructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence be-tween SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in "collinear superspace", a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills. 3. Not-so-Soft Skills Science.gov (United States) Curran, Mary 2010-01-01 Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and… 4. Nonlinear dynamics of soft fermion excitations in hot QCD plasma I: soft-quark - soft-gluon scattering OpenAIRE Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A. 2005-01-01 Within the framework of the hard thermal loop effective theory we derive a system of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations taking into account the simplest processes of nonlinear interaction of soft fermionic and bosonic QCD plasma excitations: elastic scattering of soft-(anti)quark excitations off soft-gluon and soft-quark excitations, pair production of soft quark-antiquark excitations, annihilation into two soft-gluon excitations. The matrix elements of these processes to leading order in the c... 5. Domestic fresh soft cheese from Bjelovar Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Slavko Kirin 2009-06-01 Full Text Available This paper shows results of organoleptic properties, physical-chemical composition and microbiological quality investigation of domestic fresh cheese samples taken from Bjelovar market (Croatia. The results were compared to research results obtained from other markets, published by other authors. The main characteristic is great variability that results in unequal quality. Weights of different samples ranged from 610 g to 830 g, with mean value 757.58 g. Cheese consistency shows even greater difference in variety ranging from soft fragmented (28.57 % to firm fragmented (7.14 %. Odour was mostly pleasant and characteristic (71.43 % and taste pleasant, slightly acidic, pure only in 57.14 % of samples. The most common failure in soft cheese organoleptic properties is noticed yeasty odour and taste. Mean value of dry matter was 23.42 g/100 g, and 25.29 g/100 g of fat in dry matter. Acidity of fresh cheese was in pH range from 4.45 to 3.81. Due to the fat content, fresh cheese from Bjelovar is a semi fat fresh cheese, while soft cheeses from researches of other authors are described as low fat cheeses (Pravilnik, 2007. Correlation factor for different characteristics was high. Microbiological analyses show that E. coli was in higher amounts than allowed in 3 of 14 samples, and S. aureus in 2 samples. Microbiological quality is also doubtful because of higher yeasts and mould quantity, which was also concluded by other authors mentioned in this paper. 6. The NNLO QCD soft function for 1-jettiness Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB) Campbell, John M. [Fermilab; Ellis, R. Keith [Durham U., IPPP; Mondini, Roberto [SUNY, Buffalo; Williams, Ciaran [SUNY, Buffalo 2017-11-27 We calculate the soft function for the global event variable 1-jettiness at next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in QCD. We focus specifically on the non-Abelian contribution, which, unlike the Abelian part, is not determined by the next-to-leading order result. The calculation uses the known general forms for the emission of one and two soft partons and is performed using a sector-decomposition method that is spelled out in detail. Results are presented in the form of numerical fits to the 1-jettiness soft function for LHC kinematics (as a function of the angle between the incoming beams and the final-state jet) and for generic kinematics (as a function of three independent angles). These fits represent one of the needed ingredients for NNLO calculations that use the N-jettiness event variable to handle infrared singularities. 7. Soft α-Open Sets and Soft α-Continuous Functions Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Metin Akdag 2014-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce soft α-sets on soft topological spaces and study some of their properties. We also investigate the concepts of soft α-continuous and soft α-open functions and discuss their relationships with soft continuous and other weaker forms of soft continuous functions. Also counterexamples are given to show the noncoincidence of these functions. 8. Topology on Soft Continuous Function Spaces Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Taha Yasin Öztürk 2017-04-01 Full Text Available The concept of soft sets was initiated by Molodtsov. Then, some operations on soft sets were defined by Maji et al. Later on, the concept of soft topological space was introduced. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the pointwise topology of soft topological spaces. Finally, we investigate the properties of soft mapping spaces and the relationships between some soft mapping spaces. 9. Soft Decision Analyzer Science.gov (United States) Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam 2013-01-01 The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the 10. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics CERN Document Server Li, Shaofan 2012-01-01 "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit... 11. Experimental soft-matter science Science.gov (United States) Nagel, Sidney R. 2017-04-01 Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, far from equilibrium, nonlinear, thermal and entropic, slow, observable, gravity affected, patterned, nonlocal, interfacially elastic, memory forming, and active. This is only a partial list of how matter created from large component particles is distinct from "hard matter" composed of constituents at an atomic scale. Issues inherent in soft matter raise problems that are broadly important in diverse areas of science and require multiple modes of attack. For example, far-from-equilibrium behavior is confronted in biology, chemistry, geophysics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Similarly, issues dealing with disorder appear broadly throughout many branches of inquiry wherever rugged landscapes are invoked. This article reviews the discussions that occurred during a workshop held on 30-31 January 2016 in which opportunities in soft-matter experiment were surveyed. Soft matter has had an exciting history of discovery and continues to be a fertile ground for future research. 12. Growing and evolving soft robots. Science.gov (United States) Rieffel, John; Knox, Davis; Smith, Schuyler; Trimmer, Barry 2014-01-01 Completely soft and flexible robots offer to revolutionize fields ranging from search and rescue to endoscopic surgery. One of the outstanding challenges in this burgeoning field is the chicken-and-egg problem of body-brain design: Development of locomotion requires the preexistence of a locomotion-capable body, and development of a location-capable body requires the preexistence of a locomotive gait. This problem is compounded by the high degree of coupling between the material properties of a soft body (such as stiffness or damping coefficients) and the effectiveness of a gait. This article synthesizes four years of research into soft robotics, in particular describing three approaches to the co-discovery of soft robot morphology and control. In the first, muscle placement and firing patterns are coevolved for a fixed body shape with fixed material properties. In the second, the material properties of a simulated soft body coevolve alongside locomotive gaits, with body shape and muscle placement fixed. In the third, a developmental encoding is used to scalably grow elaborate soft body shapes from a small seed structure. Considerations of the simulation time and the challenges of physically implementing soft robots in the real world are discussed. 13. Soft Hair on Black Holes. Science.gov (United States) Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew 2016-06-10 It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. 14. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Mumtaz Ali 2014-06-01 Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory. 15. Bipolar-value fuzzy soft lie subalgebras Science.gov (United States) Zhang, Xiong-wei 2017-09-01 In this paper, the notions of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras are given, some of their properties are studied. Furthermore, we shall define the definition of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebras and show that the theorem of bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphic pre-image of bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra, we shall give a counterexample which the image of a bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra under bipolar-value fuzzy soft homomorphism needs not be bipolar-value fuzzy soft Lie subalgebra. 16. Effects of hyperthermic baths on depression, sleep and heart rate variability in patients with depressive disorder: a randomized clinical pilot trial. Science.gov (United States) Naumann, Johannes; Grebe, Julian; Kaifel, Sonja; Weinert, Tomas; Sadaghiani, Catharina; Huber, Roman 2017-03-28 Despite advances in the treatment of depression, one-third of depressed patients fail to respond to conventional antidepressant medication. There is a need for more effective treatments with fewer side effects. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether hyperthermic baths reduce depressive symptoms in adults with depressive disorder. Randomized, two-arm placebo-controlled, 8-week pilot trial. Medically stable outpatients with confirmed depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32/F33) who were moderately depressed as determined by the 17-item Hamilton Scale for Depression (HAM-D) score ≥18 were randomly assigned to 2 hyperthermic baths (40 °C) per week for 4 weeks or a sham intervention with green light and follow-up after 4 weeks. Main outcome measure was the change in HAM-D total score from baseline (T0) to the 2-week time point (T1). A total of 36 patients were randomized (hyperthermic baths, n = 17; sham condition, n = 19). The intention-to-treat analysis showed a significant (P = .037) difference in the change in HAM-D total score with 3.14 points after 4 interventions (T1) in favour of the hyperthermic bath group compared to the placebo group. This pilot study suggests that hyperthermic baths do have generalized efficacy in depressed patients. DRKS00004803 at drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de, German Clinical Trials Register (registration date 2016-02-02), retrospectively registered. 17. Hard evidence on soft skills. Science.gov (United States) Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim 2012-08-01 This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills-personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. 18. Demographic variables, design characteristics, and effect sizes of randomized, placebo-controlled, monotherapy trials of major depressive disorder and bipolar depression. Science.gov (United States) Papakostas, George I; Martinson, Max A; Fava, Maurizio; Iovieno, Nadia 2016-05-01 The aim of this work is to compare the efficacy of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar depression. MEDLINE/PubMed databases were searched for studies published in English between January 1980 and September 2014 by cross-referencing the search term placebo with each of the antidepressant agents identified and with bipolar. The search was supplemented by manual bibliography review. We selected double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of antidepressant monotherapies for the treatment of MDD and of oral drug monotherapies for the treatment of bipolar depression. 196 trials in MDD and 19 trials in bipolar depression were found eligible for inclusion in our analysis. Data were extracted by one of the authors and checked for accuracy by a second one. Data extracted included year of publication, number of patients randomized, probability of receiving placebo, duration of the trial, baseline symptom severity, dosing schedule, study completion rates, and clinical response rates. Response rates for drug versus placebo in trials of MDD and bipolar depression were 52.7% versus 37.5% and 54.7% versus 40.5%, respectively. The random-effects meta-analysis indicated that drug therapy was more effective than placebo in both MDD (risk ratio for response = 1.373; P depression (risk ratio = 1.257; P depression trials in favor of MDD (P = .008). Although a statistically significantly greater treatment effect size was noted in MDD relative to bipolar depression studies, the absolute magnitude of the difference was numerically small. Therefore, the present study suggests no clinically significant differences in the overall short-term efficacy of pharmacologic monotherapies for MDD and bipolar depression. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. 19. Engineering applications of soft computing CERN Document Server Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl 2017-01-01 This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others. 20. Effect of a 16-week Bikram yoga program on heart rate variability and associated cardiovascular disease risk factors in stressed and sedentary adults: A randomized controlled trial OpenAIRE Hewett, Zoe L.; Pumpa, Kate L.; Smith, Caroline A.; Fahey, Paul P.; Birinder S. Cheema 2017-01-01 Background Chronic activation of the stress-response can contribute to cardiovascular disease risk, particularly in sedentary individuals. This study investigated the effect of a Bikram yoga intervention on the high frequency power component of heart rate variability (HRV) and associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (i.e. additional domains of HRV, hemodynamic, hematologic, anthropometric and body composition outcome measures) in stressed and sedentary adults. Methods Eligible ad... 1. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial OpenAIRE Nuria eRuffini; Giandomenico eD'alessandro; Nicolò eMariani; Alberto ePollastrelli; Lucia eCardinali; Francesco eCerritelli 2015-01-01 Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-ar... 2. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rosemann Thomas 2011-04-01 Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. 3. Effects of 16 Weeks of Concurrent Training on Resting Heart Rate Variability and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in People Living With HIV/AIDS Using Antiretroviral Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Science.gov (United States) Pedro, Rafael E; Guariglia, Débora A; Okuno, Nilo M; Deminice, Rafael; Peres, Sidney B; Moraes, Solange M F 2016-12-01 Pedro, RE, Guariglia, DA, Okuno, NM, Deminice, R, Peres, SB, and Moraes, SMF. Effects of 16 weeks of concurrent training on resting heart rate variability and cardiorespiratory fitness in people living with HIV/AIDS using antiretroviral therapy: a randomized clinical trial. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3494-3502, 2016-The study evaluated the effects of concurrent training on resting heart rate variability (HRVrest) and cardiorespiratory fitness in people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART). Fifty-eight participants were randomized into 2 groups (control and training group); however, only 33 were analyzed. The variables studied were HRVrest indices, submaximal values of oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2sub) and heart rate (HR5min), peak speed (Vpeak), and peak oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). The training group performed concurrent training (15-20 minutes of aerobic exercise plus 40 minutes of resistance exercise), 3 times per week, for 16 weeks. Posttraining V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and Vpeak increased, and HR5min decreased. Resting heart rate variability indices did not present statistical differences posttraining; however, the magnitude-based inferences demonstrated a "possibly positive effect" for high frequency (HF) and low frequency (LF) plus high frequency (LF + HF) and a "likely positive effect" for R-Rmean posttraining. In conclusion, concurrent training was effective at improving cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance. Moreover, it led to probably a positive effect on HF and a likely positive effect on R-Rmean in people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing ART. 4. [Soft tissue rheumatism in erderly]. Science.gov (United States) Szczepański, Leszek 2008-01-01 Disorders of soft, peri-articular tissues are a common cause of musculoskeletal pain in elderly patients. Nevertheless, most physicians underestimate the role of soft tissue rheumatism in the pathomechanism of the pain. The impairments of soft tissue can not be diagnosed by X-rays examinations, whereas degenerative lesions of joints are easy diagnosed using this method even despite of their uncertain role in producing the symptoms. The incidence of pain syndromes originated from soft tissues differ regarding to the age of patients. In young subjects the incidence of all of them is generally low. Syndromes provoked by overloading during work: repetitive strain syndrome, canal tunnel syndrome, tennis elbow, golfers elbow, shoulder tendon coin disorders and myofascial pain syndrome are common in middle-aged patients. The morbidity of fibromialgia syndrome is also lower in old people probably as the result of diminished numbers and degenerative changes in nociceptive fibers. The syndromes prevailing in elderly patients include trochanteric syndrome and the pain syndromes provoked by muscle spasm depended on posture abnormalities. In the soft tissue pain syndrome prevention adapted to old age kinesitherapy and avoiding muscle overloading are recommended. Soft tissue pain syndromes are usually treated with non steroidal anti inflammatory drugs. In local pain syndromes better results can be obtained by local treatment. Local injections of glikocorticosteroids are usually very effective and safe. 5. Can atorvastatin with metformin change the natural history of prostate cancer as characterized by molecular, metabolomic, imaging and pathological variables? A randomized controlled trial protocol. Science.gov (United States) Roberts, Matthew J; Yaxley, John W; Coughlin, Geoffrey D; Gianduzzo, Troy R J; Esler, Rachel C; Dunglison, Nigel T; Chambers, Suzanne K; Medcraft, Robyn J; Chow, Clement W K; Schirra, Horst Joachim; Richards, Renee S; Kienzle, Nicholas; Lu, Macy; Brereton, Ian; Samaratunga, Hema; Perry-Keene, Joanna; Payton, Diane; Oyama, Chikara; Doi, Suhail A; Lavin, Martin F; Gardiner, Robert A 2016-09-01 Atorvastatin and metformin are known energy restricting mimetic agents that act synergistically to produce molecular and metabolic changes in advanced prostate cancer (PCa). This trial seeks to determine whether these drugs favourably alter selected parameters in men with clinically-localized, aggressive PCa. This prospective phase II randomized, controlled window trial is recruiting men with clinically significant PCa, confirmed by biopsy following multiparametric MRI and intending to undergo radical prostatectomy. Ethical approval was granted by the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital Human and The University of Queensland Medical Research Ethics Committees. Participants are being randomized into four groups: metformin with placebo; atorvastatin with placebo; metformin with atorvastatin; or placebo alone. Capsules are consumed for 8weeks, a duration selected as the most appropriate period in which histological and biochemical changes may be observed while allowing prompt treatment with curative intent of clinically significant PCa. At recruitment and prior to RP, participants provide blood, urine and seminal fluid. A subset of participants will undergo 7Tesla magnetic resonance spectroscopy to compare metabolites in-vivo with those in seminal fluid and biopsied tissue. The primary end point is biochemical evolution, defined using biomarkers (serum prostate specific antigen; PCA3 and citrate in seminal fluid and prostatic tissue). Standard pathological assessment will be undertaken. This study is designed to assess the potential synergistic action of metformin and atorvastatin on PCa tumour biology. The results may determine simple methods of tumour modulation to reduce disease progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 6. Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study. Science.gov (United States) Grecco, Luanda A C; Duarte, Natália A C; Zanon, Nelci; Galli, Manuela; Fregni, Felipe; Oliveira, Claudia S 2014-10-10 Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation), Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation), and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation). The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (pcontrol group among the different evaluations. Conclusion: A single session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex promotes positive changes in static balance and gait velocity in children with cerebral palsy. 7. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Rosa Anna La Rocca 2010-04-01 Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to 8. Generalised Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Set Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Shawkat Alkhazaleh 2012-01-01 Full Text Available We introduce the concept of generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set and its operations and study some of their properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft sets and discuss its application in a medical diagnosis problem: fuzzy set; soft set; fuzzy soft set; generalised fuzzy soft set; generalised interval-valued fuzzy soft set; interval-valued fuzzy set; interval-valued fuzzy soft set. 9. Some Properties of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Rings Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) B. A. Ersoy 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Maji et al. introduced the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets, which is an extension of soft sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. In this paper, we apply the concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets to rings. The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings is introduced and some basic properties of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are given. Intersection, union, AND, and OR operations of intuitionistic fuzzy soft rings are defined. Then, the deffinitions of intuitionistic fuzzy soft ideals are proposed and some related results are considered. 10. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces OpenAIRE Muhammad Shabir; Ayreena Bakhtawar 2017-01-01 Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological s... 11. Effect of a single session of transcranial direct-current stimulation on balance and spatiotemporal gait variables in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized sham-controlled study Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Luanda A. C. Grecco 2014-10-01 Full Text Available Background: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS has been widely studied with the aim of enhancing local synaptic efficacy and modulating the electrical activity of the cortex in patients with neurological disorders. Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of a single session of tDCS regarding immediate changes in spatiotemporal gait and oscillations of the center of pressure (30 seconds in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Method: A randomized controlled trial with a blinded evaluator was conducted involving 20 children with CP between six and ten years of age. Gait and balance were evaluated three times: Evaluation 1 (before the stimulation, Evaluation 2 (immediately after stimulation, and Evaluation 3 (20 minutes after the stimulation. The protocol consisted of a 20-minute session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA. The participants were randomly allocated to two groups: experimental group - anodal stimulation of the primary motor cortex; and control group - placebo transcranial stimulation. Results: Significant reductions were found in the experimental group regarding oscillations during standing in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions with eyes open and eyes closed in comparison with the control group (p<0.05. In the intra-group analysis, the experimental group exhibited significant improvements in gait velocity, cadence, and oscillation in the center of pressure during standing (p<0.05. No significant differences were found in the control group among the different evaluations. Conclusion: A single session of tDCS applied to the primary motor cortex promotes positive changes in static balance and gait velocity in children with cerebral palsy. 12. Analysis of genetic variability in soursop Annona muricata L populations from Central Java and East Java based on random amplified polymorphic DNA RAPD marker Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Suratman Suratman 2014-08-01 Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine genetic variability of the soursop (Annona muricata L. populations from Central Java and East Java based on RAPD markers. Leaves of 40 individuals were collected from 4 soursop populations in Central Java and East Java, include : Sukoharjo, Karanganyar (Central Java, and Ngawi, Pacitan (East Java. Genomic DNA was extracted from the leaves by the CTAB extraction procedure with some modifications. A total of 15 RAPD primers were purchased from commercial source and tested to find specific diagnostic markers for each individuals by RAPD-PCR. The measurement of soursop population genetic distance was based on similarity coefficient using method of Group Average Clustering and Unweight Pair Group Method Arithmetic (UPGMA of NTSYS program version 2.02i. Results showed that each soursop population collected from different localities seemed have variability in RAPD profiles by using different primers. Four RAPD polymorphic primer was selected from 15 RAPD primers, namely A18, A20, P10 and P11. A total of 58 bands produced, varying from 9 to 20 bands per primer. The selected four RAPD primers produced 57 polymorphic bands, whereas polymorphism for each primer ranged from 95 % to 100 %. Dendrogram indicated that four soursop populations tend to segregate form two separated clade. The sample collected from Sukoharjo formed a separate cluster while the sample collected from Ngawi, Pacitan and Karanganyar grouped together in other cluster and diverged from population Sukoharjo. 13. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Irfan Deli 2014-06-01 Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented. 14. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review OpenAIRE Josie Hughes; Utku Culha; Fabio Giardina; Fabian Günther; Andre Rosendo; Fumiya Iida 2016-01-01 Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are no... 15. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review OpenAIRE Hughes, Josie; Culha, Utku; Giardina, Fabio; Guenther, Fabian; Rosendo, Andre; Iida, Fumiya 2016-01-01 Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilizes the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not ... 16. Optimizing Double-Network Hydrogel for Biomedical Soft Robots. Science.gov (United States) Banerjee, Hritwick; Ren, Hongliang 2017-09-01 Double-network hydrogel with standardized chemical parameters demonstrates a reasonable and viable alternative to silicone in soft robotic fabrication due to its biocompatibility, comparable mechanical properties, and customizability through the alterations of key variables. The most viable hydrogel sample in our article shows tensile strain of 851% and maximum tensile strength of 0.273 MPa. The elasticity and strength range of this hydrogel can be customized according to application requirements by simple alterations in the recipe. Furthermore, we incorporated Agar/PAM hydrogel into our highly constrained soft pneumatic actuator (SPA) design and eventually produced SPAs with escalated capabilities, such as larger range of motion, higher force output, and power efficiency. Incorporating SPAs made of Agar/PAM hydrogel resulted in low viscosity, thermos-reversibility, and ultralow elasticity, which we believe can help to combine with the other functions of hydrogel, tailoring a better solution for fabricating biocompatible soft robots. 17. Patient preferences and comparative ocular responses to rigid and soft contact lenses. Science.gov (United States) Fonn, D; Gauthier, C A; Pritchard, N 1995-12-01 Patient preferences and ocular responses were compared between rigid and soft contact lenses by randomly fitting 32 neophyte subjects with a rigid lens in 1 eye and a soft lens in the contralateral eye. Twenty-seven of 32 subjects completed the 3-month study and 16 subjects were willing to continue for an additional 3-month extension. Subjects preferred the comfort and handling of the soft lens but preferred the vision provided by the rigid lens and initially its ease of maintenance. There was also a marked preference for the soft lens when all aspects of lens wear were compared. Objectively, the rigid lenses were responsible for more ocular changes than the soft lenses. Palpebral aperture sizes of the rigid gas permeable (RGP) wearing eyes decreased significantly (0.5 mm; p lens wearing eyes. The incidence of corneal staining was significantly greater in the rigid lens wearing eye (50% RGP vs. 22% soft) but limbal injection was greater in the soft lens wearing eye (18% soft vs. 6% RGP). Refractive sphere, cylinder, and corneal astigmatism decreased in the rigid lens wearing eye after 3 months. This daily wear clinical trial has shown a marked subjective preference for wearing soft lenses with fewer short-term ocular effects. 18. Soft X-ray multilayers and filters CERN Document Server Wang Zhan Shan; Tang Wei Xing; Qin Shuji; Zhou Bing; Chen Ling Ya 2002-01-01 The periodic and non-periodic multilayers were designed by using a random number to change each layer and a suitable merit function. Ion beam sputtering and magnetron sputtering were used to fabricate various multilayers and beam splitters in soft X-ray range. The characterization of multilayers by small angle X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and reflectivity illustrated the multilayers had good structures and smooth interlayers. The reflectivity and transmission of a beam splitter is about 5%. The fabrication and transmission properties of Ag, Zr were studied. The Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy and auger electron spectroscopy were used to investigate the contents and distributions of impurities and influence on qualities of filters. The attenuation coefficients were corrected by the data obtained by measurements 19. Trabectedin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bradley J. Petek 2015-02-01 Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a group of rare tumors derived from mesenchymal tissue, accounting for about 1% of adult cancers. There are over 60 different histological subtypes, each with their own unique biological behavior and response to systemic therapy. The outcome for patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma is poor with few available systemic treatment options. For decades, the mainstay of management has consisted of doxorubicin with or without ifosfamide. Trabectedin is a synthetic agent derived from the Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata. This drug has a number of potential mechanisms of action, including binding the DNA minor groove, interfering with DNA repair pathways and the cell cycle, as well as interacting with transcription factors. Several phase II trials have shown that trabectedin has activity in anthracycline and alkylating agent-resistant soft tissue sarcoma and suggest use in the second- and third-line setting. More recently, trabectedin has shown similar progression-free survival to doxorubicin in the first-line setting and significant activity in liposarcoma and leiomyosarcoma subtypes. Trabectedin has shown a favorable toxicity profile and has been approved in over 70 countries for the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcoma. This manuscript will review the development of trabectedin in soft tissue sarcomas. 20. Soft drinks and 'desire to drink' in preschoolers Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Cooke Lucy 2008-12-01 Full Text Available Abstract Interest in soft drink consumption has increased following a dramatic rise in intake over recent years. Research to date has focused primarily on general trends in consumption or on understanding the mechanism by which soft drink consumption may be linked to weight gain. It is clear however that there is considerable individual variability in the extent to which soft drinks are consumed and factors potentially influencing intake have received little attention. This study examines how the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ construct 'Desire to Drink' (DD relates to drink consumption, preferences and BMI-SDS. Three hundred and forty six same-sex twin children (mean age 11.2 years; s.d. 0.54; 56% female; 53% dizygotic were weighed, measured and reported their liking for milk, water, fruit juice, fruit squash and sweetened soft drinks. Mothers reported on their child's drink consumption and completed the CEBQ. Scores on the CEBQ DD subscale were not significantly related to child BMI-SDS in this sample. Children scoring higher on DD had higher preferences for sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.016, fruit squash (p = 0.042 and milk (p = 0.020 than children scoring lower on the scale. DD was also positively related to more frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks (p = 0.017 and low calorie soft drinks (p = 0.003. No relationship was observed between DD scores and liking for or intake of water or 100% fruit juice. These findings suggest that the construct desire to drink in children is related to a liking for consuming sweetened drinks, and does not appear to simply denote greater thirst or hunger. This may have important implications for the ongoing development of dietary patterns and weight status in the longer term through an increased preference for sweet things in the mouth and a failure to compensate for calories provided by drinks. 1. The Parameter Reduction of Fuzzy Soft Sets Based on Soft Fuzzy Rough Sets Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Zhiming Zhang 2013-01-01 Full Text Available Fuzzy set theory, rough set theory, and soft set theory are three effective mathematical tools for dealing with uncertainties and have many wide applications both in theory and practise. Meng et al. (2011 introduced the notion of soft fuzzy rough sets by combining fuzzy sets, rough sets, and soft sets all together. The aim of this paper is to study the parameter reduction of fuzzy soft sets based on soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. We propose some concepts and conditions for two fuzzy soft sets to generate the same lower soft fuzzy rough approximation operators and the same upper soft fuzzy rough approximation operators. The concept of reduct of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find a reduct for a fuzzy soft set is given. Furthermore, the concept of exclusion of a fuzzy soft set is introduced and the procedure to find an exclusion for a fuzzy soft set is given. 2. Hard evidence on soft skills✩ Science.gov (United States) Heckman, James J.; Kautz, Tim 2012-01-01 This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of “cognitive ability” like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills—personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies. PMID:23559694 3. High performance soft magnetic materials CERN Document Server 2017-01-01 This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli... 4. The role of the immunological background of mice in the genetic variability of Schistosoma mansoni as detected by random amplification of polymorphic DNA. Science.gov (United States) Cossa-Moiane, I L; Mendes, T; Ferreira, T M; Mauricio, I; Calado, M; Afonso, A; Belo, S 2015-11-01 Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by flatworms of the genus Schistosoma. Among the Schistosoma species known to infect humans, S. mansoni is the most frequent cause of intestinal schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa and South America: the World Health Organization estimates that about 200,000 deaths per year result from schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa alone. The Schistosoma life cycle requires two different hosts: a snail as intermediate host and a mammal as definitive host. People become infected when they come into contact with water contaminated with free-living larvae (e.g. when swimming, fishing, washing). Although S. mansoni has mechanisms for escaping the host immune system, only a minority of infecting larvae develop into adults, suggesting that strain selection occurs at the host level. To test this hypothesis, we compared the Belo Horizonte (BH) strain of S. mansoni recovered from definitive hosts with different immunological backgrounds using random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Schistosoma mansoni DNA profiles of worms obtained from wild-type (CD1 and C57BL/6J) and mutant (Jα18- / - and TGFβRIIdn) mice were analysed. Four primers produced polymorphic profiles, which can therefore potentially be used as reference biomarkers. All male worms were genetically distinct from females isolated from the same host, with female worms showing more specific fragments than males. Of the four host-derived schistosome populations, female and male adults recovered from TGFβRIIdn mice showed RAPD-PCR profiles that were most similar to each other. Altogether, these data indicate that host immunological backgrounds can influence the genetic diversity of parasite populations. 5. Standard Neutrosophic Soft Theory: Some First Results Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Bui Cong Cuong 2016-08-01 Full Text Available The traditional soft set is a mapping from a parameter set to family of all crisp subsets of a universe. Molodtsov introduced the soft set as a generalized tool for modelling complex systems involving uncertain or not clearly defined objects. In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic soft set is reanalysed. The novel theory is a combination of neutrosophic set theory and soft set theory. The complement, “and”, “or”, intersection and union operations are defined on the neutrosophic soft sets. The neutrosophic soft relations accompanied with their compositions are also defined. The basic properties of the neutrosophic soft sets, neutrosophic soft relations and neutrosophic soft compositions are also discussed. 6. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden) Guido Belforte 2014-05-01 Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments 7. Entirely soft dielectric elastomer robots Science.gov (United States) Henke, E.-F. Markus; Wilson, Katherine E.; Anderson, Iain A. 2017-04-01 Multifunctional Dielectric Elastomer (DE) devices are well established as actuators, sensors and energy har- vesters. Since the invention of the Dielectric Elastomer Switch (DES), a piezoresistive electrode that can directly switch charge on and off, it has become possible to expand the wide functionality of DE structures even more. We show the application of fully soft DE subcomponents in biomimetic robotic structures. It is now possible to couple arrays of actuator/switch units together so that they switch charge between them- selves on and off. One can then build DE devices that operate as self-controlled oscillators. With an oscillator one can produce a periodic signal that controls a soft DE robot - a DE device with its own DE nervous system. DESs were fabricated using a special electrode mixture, and imprinting technology at an exact pre-strain. We have demonstrated six orders of magnitude change in conductivity within the DES over 50% strain. The control signal can either be a mechanical deformation from another DE or an electrical input to a connected dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA). We have demonstrated a variety of fully soft multifunctional subcomponents that enable the design of autonomous soft robots without conventional electronics. The combination of digital logic structures for basic signal processing, data storage in dielectric elastomer flip-flops and digital and analogue clocks with adjustable frequencies, made of dielectric elastomer oscillators (DEOs), enables fully soft, self-controlled and electronics-free robotic structures. DE robotic structures to date include stiff frames to maintain necessary pre-strains enabling sufficient actuation of DEAs. Here we present a design and production technology for a first robotic structure consisting only of soft silicones and carbon black. 8. Soft QGP probes with ALICE CERN Document Server Graczykowski, Łukasz Kamil 2016-01-01 In heavy-ion collisions at the LHC a hot and dense medium of deconfided partons, the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), is created. Its global properties can be characterized by the measurements of particles in the low transverse momentum (or "soft") regime, which represent the majority of created particles. In this report we outline a selection of measurements of the soft probes by the ALICE experiment in pp, p--Pb, and Pb--Pb collisions. The paper focuses on recent flow measurements via angular correlations and femtoscopic studies. The first ever preliminary analysis of\\mathrm{K}^0_{\\rm S}\\mathrm{K}^{\\pm}\$ femtoscopy is also presented.

9. Biomechanical properties of soft tissues

Science.gov (United States)

Zeng, Yanjun; Xu, Chuanqing; Yang, Jian; Xu, Xiaohu

2003-06-01

Viscoelasticity is the primary mechanical property of bio-soft tissues. It has been widely applied in basic research of biological tissues including cornea, lung, heart and blood vessels. Along with the development of tissue engineering research, the evaluation of soft tissue viscoelasticity is becoming more and more important. In this paper, using the Whittaker function, we give an approximate power series of the exponential integral E 1( X) and the parameters C, ⦦1 and ⦦2 of the generalized relaxation function G(t) and generalized creep function J(t). With expanded skin as an example, the relationship between stress relaxation, creep and stress-strain finite deformation are studied.

10. Soft X-ray transient'' outbursts which are not soft

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Brocksopp, C.; Bandyopadhyay, R.M.; Fender, R.P.

2004-01-01

We have accumulated multiwavelength (X-ray, optical, radio) lightcurves for the eight black hole X-ray binaries which have been observed to enter a supposed soft X-ray transient' outburst, but remained in the low/hard state throughout the outburst. Comparison of the lightcurve morphologies,

11. Long-term outcomes of soft tissue augmentation around dental implants on soft and hard tissue stability: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

Rotundo, Roberto; Pagliaro, Umberto; Bendinelli, Elena; Esposito, Marco; Buti, Jacopo

2015-09-01

To investigate whether the height and volume of the soft tissues and peri-implant bone levels around dental implants are stable, when soft tissue augmentation has been performed. Three operators conducted a search on electronic databases (MEDLINE, COCHRANE, EMBASE) and a hand searching on the main journals dealing with periodontology and implantology until 30 October 2014. Only articles that considered peri-implant soft tissue augmentation performed in a group of at least 10 patients and with a follow-up of at least 1 year were selected. The outcome variables were peri-implant attached/keratinized tissue width (KTW) changes, peri-implant marginal soft tissue level (PSL) changes, and peri-implant marginal bone level (PBL) changes. The review was performed according to the PRISMA statements. Ten articles were selected for the qualitative synthesis, but only one meta-analysis was accomplished, indicating that 1 year after implant recession coverage procedures, a mean gain of 1.65 ± 0.01 mm (90% CrI [1.44; 1.85]) was observed. There is no long-term evidence whether augmented soft tissues can be maintained over time and able to influence the peri-implant bone levels. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

12. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mumtaz Ali

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

13. Post-exercise recovery of biological, clinical and metabolic variables after different temperatures and durations of cold water immersion: a randomized clinical trial.

Science.gov (United States)

Vanderlei, Franciele M; de Albuquerque, Maíra C; de Almeida, Aline C; Machado, Aryane F; Netto, Jayme; Pastre, Carlos M

2017-10-01

Cold water immersion (CWI) is a commonly used recuperative strategy. However there is a lack of standardization of protocols considering the duration and temperature of application of the technique and the stress model. Therefore it is important to study the issue of dose response in a specific stress model. Thus the objective was to analyze and compare the effects of CWI during intense post-exercise recovery using different durations and temperatures of immersion. One hundred and five male individuals were divided into five groups: one control group (CG) and four recovery groups (G1: 5' at 9±1 °C; G2: 5' at 14±1 °C; G3: 15' at 9±1 °C; G4: 15' at 14±1 °C). The volunteers were submitted to an exhaustion protocol that consisted of a jump program and the Wingate Test. Immediately after the exhaustion protocol, the volunteers were directed to a tank with water and ice, where they were immersed for the recovery procedure, during which blood samples were collected for later lactate and creatine kinase (CK) analysis. Variables were collected prior to the exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after its completion. For the CK concentration, 15 minutes at 14 °C was the best intervention option, considering the values at 72 hours after exercise, while for the moment of peak lactate an advantage was observed for immersion for 5 minutes at 14 °C. Regarding the perception of recovery, CWI for 5 minutes at 14 °C performed better long-term, from the time of the intervention to 96 hours post-exercise. For pain, no form of immersion responded better than the CG at the immediately post-intervention moment. There were no differences in behavior between the CWI intervention groups for the outcomes studied.

14. Heart Rate Variability and Hemodynamic Change in the Superior Mesenteric Artery by Acupuncture Stimulation of Lower Limb Points: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Soichiro Kaneko

2013-01-01

Full Text Available Objective. We investigated the relationship between superior mesenteric artery blood flow volume (SMA BFV and autonomic nerve activity in acupuncture stimulation of lower limb points through heart rate variability (HRV evaluations. Methods. Twenty-six healthy volunteers underwent crossover applications of bilateral manual acupuncture stimulation at ST36 or LR3 or no stimulation. Heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance index, SMA BFV, and HRV at rest and 30 min after the intervention were analyzed. Results. SMA BFV showed a significant increase after ST36 stimulation (0% to 14.1% ± 23.4%, P=0.007; very low frequency (VLF, high frequency (HF, low frequency (LF, and LF/HF were significantly greater than those at rest (0% to 479.4% ± 1185.6%, P=0.045; 0% to 78.9% ± 197.6%, P=0.048; 0% to 123.9% ± 217.1%, P=0.006; 0% to 71.5% ± 171.1%, P=0.039. Changes in HF and LF also differed significantly from those resulting from LR3 stimulation (HF: 78.9% ± 197.6% versus −18.2% ± 35.8%, P=0.015; LF: 123.9% ± 217.1% versus 10.6% ± 70.6%, P=0.013. Conclusion. Increased vagus nerve activity after ST36 stimulation resulted in increased SMA BFV. This partly explains the mechanism of acupuncture-induced BFV changes.

15. Soft Neutrosophic Groupoids and Their Generalization

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mumtaz Ali

2014-12-01

Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic groupoid and their generalization with the discuissionf of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic groupoid, the so called soft strong neutrosophic goupoid which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

16. A Systematic Approach for Soft Sensor Development

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Lin, Bao; Recke, Bodil; Renaudat, Philippe

2007-01-01

to provide smoother estimation than using a static regression model. The proposed methodology is illustrated through applications to a cement kiln system for estimation of variables related to product quality, i.e., free lime, and to emission quality, i.e., nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission. The case studies......This paper presents a systematic approach based on robust statistical techniques for development of a data-driven soft sensor, which is an important component of the process analytical technology (PAT) and is essential for effective quality control. The data quality is obviously of essential...... by a multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) approach, is used to detect outlying observations. Then, robust regression techniques are employed to derive an inferential model. A dynamic partial least squares (DPLS) model is implemented to address the issue of auto-correlation in process data and thus...

17. Soft Tissue Mobilization and PNF Improve Range of Motion and Minimize Pain Level in Shoulder Impingement

OpenAIRE

Al Dajah, Salameh Bweir

2014-01-01

[Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of soft tissue mobilization and PNF on pain level, and shoulder ROM in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with painful and limited glenohumeral ROM activities were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n=15), which received treatment consisting of soft tissues mobilization and the PNF technique. The control group received an ultrasound treatment. Pain ...

18. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

CERN Document Server

Pan, Dipanjan

2014-01-01

This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

19. Rotational alignment in soft nuclei

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1983-12-08

It is shown that in transitional odd-A nuclei, where the rotation-aligned coupling scheme usually takes place, the low collective angular momentum states of the decoupled band are not completely aligned due to core softness. This is illustrated on the example of La-nuclei.

20. Electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Duval, J.F.L.; Ohshima, H.

2006-01-01

A theory is presented for the electrophoresis of diffuse soft particles in a steady dc electric field. The particles investigated consist of an uncharged impenetrable core and a charged diffuse polyelectrolytic shell, which is to some extent permeable to ions and solvent molecules. The diffuse

1. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

1996-01-01

To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

2. Imaging of soft tissue tumors

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Schepper, A. M. A. de; Vanhoenacker, F; Parizel, P. M; Gielen, Jacques

2006-01-01

... studies. The scientific value of the BSTNR increased with the installation of a peer-review group of pathologists, all of whom shared a large amount of experience in soft tissue tumor pathology. They reviewed the pathological findings of all malignant tumors, all exceptional tumors, and all tumors in which there was a discordance between...

3. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

CERN Multimedia

CERN. Geneva

2017-01-01

I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

4. Soft QCD measurements at LHC

CERN Document Server

Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

2018-01-01

Results from recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and hadronic chains. Results from particle correlations in all three collision systems, namely pp, pPb and PbPb, exhibit unexpected similarities.

5. Soft QCD Measurements at LHC

CERN Document Server

Tasevsky, Marek; The ATLAS collaboration

2017-01-01

Results of recent soft QCD measurements by LHC experiments ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, LHCf and TOTEM are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive and identified particle spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in all three collision systems: pp, pPb and PbPb.

6. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

Science.gov (United States)

Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

2016-01-01

People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

7. THE EFFECT OF HORMONE THERAPY ON MEAN BLOOD PRESSURE AND VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN: RESULTS FROM THE WOMEN’S HEALTH INITIATIVE RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS

Science.gov (United States)

Shimbo, Daichi; Wang, Lu; Lamonte, Michael J.; Allison, Matthew; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Bavry, Anthony A.; Martin, Lisa W.; Aragaki, Aaron; Newman, Jonathan D.; Swica, Yael; Rossouw, Jacques E.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia

2014-01-01

Objectives Mean and visit-to-visit variability (VVV) of blood pressure are associated with an increased cardiovascular disease risk. We examined the effect of hormone therapy on mean and VVV of blood pressure in postmenopausal women from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trials. Methods Blood pressure was measured at baseline and annually in the two WHI hormone therapy trials in which 10,739 and 16,608 postmenopausal women were randomized to conjugated equine estrogens (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) or placebo, and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) or placebo, respectively. Results At the first annual visit (Year 1), mean systolic blood pressure was 1.04 mmHg (95% CI 0.58, 1.50) and 1.35 mmHg (95% CI 0.99, 1.72) higher in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms respectively compared to corresponding placebos. These effects remained stable after Year 1. CEE also increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.03, Pblood pressure increased at Year 1, and the differences in the CEE and CEE+MPA arms vs. placebos also continued to increase after Year 1. Further, both CEE and CEE+MPA significantly increased VVV of systolic blood pressure (ratio of VVV in CEE vs. placebo, 1.04, Pblood pressure. PMID:24991872

8. Ensemble of randomized soft decision trees for robust classification

For classification, decision trees have become very popular because of its simplicity, interpret-ability and good performance. To induce a decision tree classifier for data having continuous valued attributes, the most common approach is, split the continuous attribute range into a hard (crisp) partition having two or more ...

9. Stages of Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Science.gov (United States)

... Tissue Sarcoma Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma Go to Health Professional Version ...

10. Subleading soft graviton theorem for loop amplitudes

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Sen, Ashoke

2017-01-01

... or more. We prove the subleading soft graviton theorem in these theories to all orders in perturbation theory for S-matrix elements of arbitrary number of finite energy external states but only one external soft graviton...

11. Interval Valued Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Structure Spaces

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

I. Arockiarani

2014-09-01

Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the topological structure of interval valued fuzzy neutrosophic soft sets and obtain some of its properties. We also investigate some operators of interval valued fuzzy neutrosophic soft topological space.

12. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

2009-01-01

A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

13. [Evaluation of optical performance of soft contact lenses in myopic correction].

Science.gov (United States)

Dalcoll, Marcelo Weslley; Alves, Mílton Ruiz; Barreto, Jackson; Yamane, Iris de Souza; Bechara, Samir; Mukai, Adriana

2008-01-01

To evaluate the optical performance of eyes fitted with two different soft contact lenses: Acuvue 2 (Vistacon J&J Vision Care Inc., USA) and World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front (World Vision Ophthalmic, Brazil). An interventional prospective clinical trial studied a sample of 40 myopic patients (-0.75D to -4.50D, with or without astigmatism up to -0.75D). Each patient had one eye randomized to visual performance evaluation including high and low contrast visual acuities, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity. The Nidek OPD Scan detected a residual refraction (hypercorrection) for both contact lenses. High contrast visual acuity was significantly higher for World Vision soft contact lenses. Low contrast visual acuity was similar for both soft contact lenses. Contrast sensitivity improved significantly at 1.5; 3; 6 e 18 spatial frequencies for both soft contact lenses, but no difference was found between them. Regarding wavefront analysis, no difference was found between both soft contact lenses. There were not significantly differences in the Strehl indices and MTF for both soft contact lenses. World Vision Disposable Asférica Wave Front soft contact lenses had a better performance regarding high contrast visual acuity. However, low contrast visual acuity, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity were similar for both soft contact lenses.

14. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

Science.gov (United States)

2008-12-01

World Politics , 1st ed. (New York: Public Affairs, 2004), x. 2. CSIS Commission on Smart Power: A Smarter, More Secure America (Washington, D.C...4. Ibid. 5. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics , xi and 1. 6. Ernest J. Wilson III, "Hard Power, Soft Power, Smart Power," The...548. 25. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics , 5. 26. Nye, Public Diplomacy and Soft Power, 95. 27. Nye, Limits of American Power

15. Applications of Soft Sets in -Algebras

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. O. Alshehri

2013-01-01

Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper, we apply the concept of soft sets to K-algebras and investigate some properties of Abelian soft K-algebras. We also introduce the concept of soft intersection K-algebras and investigate some of their properties.

16. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

17. How Soft are “Soft Skills” in Engineering Educations?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bruun-Pedersen, Jon Ram; Kofoed, Lise

2015-01-01

Engineering education communities have long recognized that graduates not only need to poses technical knowledge in their chosen disciplines, but also need to be better educated in areas of communication skills, teamwork and leadership. Several studies mention these so-called “soft” skills...... as increasingly important for future engineers. Such skills include communication, cooperation, creativity, leadership and organization. For many years, the engineering educations at Aalborg University have been working with the Problem Based and Project Organized Learning pedagogical approach. An important part...... transfer theory into practice. In addition to their project, students have to make a “Process Analysis”, which is an evaluation of their experience of the soft skills or process competences. Results show that “Soft Skills” are hard to learn....

18. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults.

Science.gov (United States)

Crews, W David; Harrison, David W; Wright, James W

2008-04-01

In recent years, there has been increased interest in the potential health-related benefits of antioxidant- and phytochemical-rich dark chocolate and cocoa. The objective of the study was to examine the short-term (6 wk) effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health in healthy older adults. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, parallel-group clinical trial was used. Participants (n = 101) were randomly assigned to receive a 37-g dark chocolate bar and 8 ounces (237 mL) of an artificially sweetened cocoa beverage or similar placebo products each day for 6 wk. No significant group (dark chocolate and cocoa or placebo)-by-trial (baseline, midpoint, and end-of-treatment assessments) interactions were found for the neuropsychological, hematological, or blood pressure variables examined. In contrast, the midpoint and end-of-treatment mean pulse rate assessments in the dark chocolate and cocoa group were significantly higher than those at baseline and significantly higher than the midpoint and end-of-treatment rates in the control group. Results of a follow-up questionnaire item on the treatment products that participants believed they had consumed during the trial showed that more than half of the participants in both groups correctly identified the products that they had ingested during the experiment. This investigation failed to support the predicted beneficial effects of short-term dark chocolate and cocoa consumption on any of the neuropsychological or cardiovascular health-related variables included in this research. Consumption of dark chocolate and cocoa was, however, associated with significantly higher pulse rates at 3- and 6-wk treatment assessments.

19. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

Science.gov (United States)

Hirsch, Barton J.

2017-01-01

Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

20. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

Science.gov (United States)

Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

2013-01-01

This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

1. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yongwei Yang

2013-01-01

through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

2. Analysis of optimal strategies for soft landing on the Moon from lunar ...

Optimal trajectory design of a probe for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit by minimizing the fuel required is obtained. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem with the thrust direction being the control variable. Using the maximum principle of Pontryagin, the control variable is expressed as a ...

3. Analysis of optimal strategies for soft landing on the Moon from lunar ...

Optimal trajectory design of a probe for soft landing on the Moon from a lunar parking orbit by minimizing the fuel required is obtained.The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem with the thrust direction being the control variable.Using the maximum principle of Pontryagin, the control variable is expressed as a ...

4. A Soft X-Ray Reverberation Lag in the AGN ESO 113-G010

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Cackett, E.M.; Fabian, A.C.; Zoghbi, A.; Kara, E.; Reynolds, C.; Uttley, P.

2013-01-01

Reverberation lags have recently been discovered in a handful of nearby, variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Here, we analyze a ~100 ks archival XMM-Newton observation of the highly variable AGN, ESO 113-G010, in order to search for lags between hard, 1.5-4.5 keV, and soft, 0.3-0.9 keV, energy

5. Soft computing for business intelligence

CERN Document Server

Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

2014-01-01

The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

6. In Defense of Soft Universalism

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Schaumburg-Müller, Sten

2011-01-01

The present paper is work in progress, a preliminary attempt to present a position of soft universalism as regards human rights. The position is not seen as a compromise between contradicting perceptions, universalism and relativism, but rather as a better and more correct position. It takes...... human rights is the emerging global society, and human rights law is therefore best understood as (part of) the law of this emerging society. Seen in this way, human rights are an attempt to cope with a (partly) new situation, based on knowledge of human beings and society, a knowledge which has...... improved considerably since the time of the natural rights theories and the enlightenment. As a consequence prevailing international human rights are not the only possible human rights, and soft universalism is therefore partially open as regards the content of human rights, even though non discrimination...

7. Special relativity from soft gravitons

Science.gov (United States)

Hertzberg, Mark P.; Sandora, McCullen

2017-10-01

We study all translationally and rotationally invariant local theories involving massless spin 2 and spin 1 particles that mediate long range forces, allowing for general energy relations and violation of boost invariance. Although gauge invariance is not a priori required to describe non-Lorentz invariant theories, we first establish that locality requires soft gauge invariance. Then by taking the soft graviton limit in scattering amplitudes, we prove that in addition to the usual requirement of universal graviton couplings, the special relativistic energy-momentum relation is also required and must be exact. We contrast this to the case of theories with only spin ≤1 particles, where, although we can still derive charge conservation from locality, special relativity can be easily violated. We provide indications that the entire structure of relativity can be built up from spin 2 in this fashion.

8. Microwave applications of soft ferrites

CERN Document Server

Pardavi-Horvath, M P

2000-01-01

Signal processing requires broadband, low-loss, low-cost microwave devices (circulators, isolators, phase shifters, absorbers). Soft ferrites (garnets, spinels, hexaferrites), applied in planar microwave devices, are reviewed from the point of view of device requirements. Magnetic properties, specific to operation in high-frequency electromagnetic fields, are discussed. Recent developments in thick film ferrite technology and device design are reviewed. Magnetic losses related to planar shape and inhomogeneous internal fields are analyzed.

9. Soft Lithography using Nectar Droplets

OpenAIRE

Biswas, Saheli; Chakrabarti, Aditi; Chateauminois, Antoine; Wandersman, Elie; Prevost, Alexis M.; Chaudhury, Manoj K.

2016-01-01

In spite of significant advances in replication technologies, methods to produce well-defined three dimensional structures are still at its infancy. Such a limitation would be evident if we were to produce a large array of simple and, especially, compound convex lenses, also guaranteeing that their surfaces would be molecularly smooth. Here, we report a novel method to produce such structures by cloning the 3D shape of nectar drops, found widely in nature, using conventional soft lithography....

10. Exercise and soft tissue injury.

Science.gov (United States)

Hart, L E

1994-02-01

Once the almost exclusive domain of the orthopaedic surgeon, sports injuries are now being seen with increasing frequency by other specialists, including rheumatologists. It is therefore important for rheumatologists to be able to diagnose and manage the various musculoskeletal conditions that are associated with physical activity. Soft tissue injuries are a very common cause of morbidity in both competitive and recreational athletes. Most of these conditions are provoked by muscle-tendon overload (or overuse) that is usually the result of excessive training or improper training techniques. However, despite an emerging literature on the natural history of soft tissue overuse syndromes, relatively little is known about the causes, incidence and outcome of many of these injuries. Of the methodologically robust epidemiological studies that have been done, most have focused on habitual distance runners. In this population, it has been reported that the incidence of injury can be as high as 50% or more, and that overtraining and the presence of previous injury are the most significant predictors of future injury. In other popular forms of exercise, such as walking, swimming, cycling, aerobics and racquet sports, injuries are also reported with high frequency but, to date, no prospective studies have examined actual incidences in these populations, and risk factors for injury in these activities remain speculative. Several of the more commonly occurring soft tissue injuries (such as rotator cuff tendinitis, lateral and medial epicondylitis, patellar tendinitis, the iliotibial band friction syndrome, Achilles tendinitis and plantar fasciitis) exemplify the overuse concept and are therefore highlighted in this review. The management of these, and most other, exercise-related soft tissue injuries is directed towards promptly restoring normal function and preventing re-injury.

11. Soft X-ray spectral variations in Scorpius X-1

Science.gov (United States)

Kahn, S. M.; Charles, P. A.; Bowyer, S.; Blissett, R. J.

1981-01-01

Soft X-ray spectra of Scorpius X-1 obtained with the low-energy detectors of the A-2 experiment on HEAO 1 are presented. The raw count spectra are deconvolved using the Kahn and Blissett technique to reveal the presence of oxygen absorption in the range 0.5-0.7 keV. The strength of this feature is shown to vary on a time scale of order hours. These results are interpreted as evidence for variable X-ray photoionization of circumsource material in the system. An alternative model, involving variable Compton broadening of an oxygen edge, is also discussed.

12. The soft-tissue manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hillier, J.C. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: julia.hillier@chelwest.nhs.uk; Moskovic, E. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Royal Mardsen Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

2005-09-01

The radiological appearances of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) are numerous and variable, because of the widespread presence of peripheral nerves. Knowledge of this variability can prevent unnecessary intervention. For example, occasionally lesions can be misinterpreted and biopsies performed unnecessarily. Thus, familiarity with the manifestations of this disease and the spectrum of associated abnormalities is an important part of the radiologist's armamentarium. This paper explores the manifold radiological appearances of extracranial NF-1 as experienced by the Sarcoma and Soft Tissue Tumour Unit at the Royal Marsden Hospital.

13. Advance Trends in Soft Computing

CERN Document Server

Kreinovich, Vladik; Kacprzyk, Janusz; WCSC 2013

2014-01-01

This book is the proceedings of the 3rd World Conference on Soft Computing (WCSC), which was held in San Antonio, TX, USA, on December 16-18, 2013. It presents start-of-the-art theory and applications of soft computing together with an in-depth discussion of current and future challenges in the field, providing readers with a 360 degree view on soft computing. Topics range from fuzzy sets, to fuzzy logic, fuzzy mathematics, neuro-fuzzy systems, fuzzy control, decision making in fuzzy environments, image processing and many more. The book is dedicated to Lotfi A. Zadeh, a renowned specialist in signal analysis and control systems research who proposed the idea of fuzzy sets, in which an element may have a partial membership, in the early 1960s, followed by the idea of fuzzy logic, in which a statement can be true only to a certain degree, with degrees described by numbers in the interval [0,1]. The performance of fuzzy systems can often be improved with the help of optimization techniques, e.g. evolutionary co...

14. Triplet-repeat microsatellites shared among hard and soft pines.

Science.gov (United States)

Kutil, B L; Williams, C G

2001-01-01

Vascular plant species have shown a low level of microsatellite conservation compared to many animal species. Finding trans-specific microsatellites for plants may be improved by using a priori knowledge of genome organization. Fifteen triplet-repeat microsatellites from hard pine (Pinus taeda L.) were tested for trans-specific amplification across seven hard pines (P. palustris Mill., P. echinata Mill., P. radiata D. Don., P. patula Schiede et Deppe, P. halepensis Mill., P. kesiya Royle), a soft pine (P. strobus L.), and Picea rubens Sargent. Seven of 15 microsatellites had trans-specific amplification in both hard and soft pine subgenera. Two P. taeda microsatellites had conserved flanking regions and repeat motifs in all seven hard pines, soft pine P. strobus, and P. rubens. Perfect triplet-repeat P. taeda microsatellites appear to be better candidates for trans-specific polymorphism than compound microsatellites. Not all perfect triplet-repeat microsatellites were conserved, but all conserved microsatellites had perfect repeat motifs. Persistent microsatellites PtTX2123 and PtTX3020 had highly conserved flanking regions and a conserved repeat motif composition with variable repeat unit numbers. Using trinucleotide microsatellites improved trans-specific microsatellite recovery among hard and soft pine species.

15. Fat-containing soft-tissue masses in children

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sheybani, Elizabeth F. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Eutsler, Eric P. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Navarro, Oscar M. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto, ON (Canada)

2016-12-15

The diagnosis of soft-tissue masses in children can be difficult because of the frequently nonspecific clinical and imaging characteristics of these lesions. However key findings on imaging can aid in diagnosis. The identification of macroscopic fat within a soft-tissue mass narrows the differential diagnosis considerably and suggests a high likelihood of a benign etiology in children. Fat can be difficult to detect with sonography because of the variable appearance of fat using this modality. Fat is easier to recognize using MRI, particularly with the aid of fat-suppression techniques. Although a large portion of fat-containing masses in children are adipocytic tumors, a variety of other tumors and mass-like conditions that contain fat should be considered by the radiologist confronted with a fat-containing mass in a child. In this article we review the sonographic and MRI findings in the most relevant fat-containing soft-tissue masses in the pediatric age group, including adipocytic tumors (lipoma, angiolipoma, lipomatosis, lipoblastoma, lipomatosis of nerve, and liposarcoma); fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumors (fibrous hamartoma of infancy and lipofibromatosis); vascular anomalies (involuting hemangioma, intramuscular capillary hemangioma, phosphate and tensin homologue (PTEN) hamartoma of soft tissue, fibro-adipose vascular anomaly), and other miscellaneous entities, such as fat necrosis and epigastric hernia. (orig.)

16. Correction for soft tissue in cortical bone assessment by ultrasound

Science.gov (United States)

Bossy, E.; Talmant, M.; Laugier, P.; Roux, C.; Kolta, S.; Haguenauer, D.

2004-10-01

One of the key points in ultrasound measurements on cortical bone is the correction for soft tissue. We designed a new probe based on bi-directional axial transmission which automatically compensates velocity measurements for the soft tissue effect without preliminary evaluation of soft tissue properties. The probe consists in a linear arrangement of transducers with two sources placed on both sides of a unique group of receivers. The velocity of waves propagating parallel to the bone axis is deduced from a combination of the time delays derived from waves propagating in opposite directions at successive receivers separated by a known distance. This technique efficiently corrects for the major source of error on velocity encountered in clinical measurements which is caused by the variation of soft tissue thickness along the probe. The bi-directional technique was validated on test samples for which the residual precision error on velocity measurements was reduced to 0.2%. In vivo measurements yielded a value of 0.5% for the interoperator reproducibility. The clinical range of variation of the velocity measured by bi-directional technique is evaluated using clinical measurements on more than 200 subjects. Bi-directional transmission is a promising technique to minimize the variability of in vivo velocity measurements.

17. Soft robotics: a bioinspired evolution in robotics.

Science.gov (United States)

Kim, Sangbae; Laschi, Cecilia; Trimmer, Barry

2013-05-01

Animals exploit soft structures to move effectively in complex natural environments. These capabilities have inspired robotic engineers to incorporate soft technologies into their designs. The goal is to endow robots with new, bioinspired capabilities that permit adaptive, flexible interactions with unpredictable environments. Here, we review emerging soft-bodied robotic systems, and in particular recent developments inspired by soft-bodied animals. Incorporating soft technologies can potentially reduce the mechanical and algorithmic complexity involved in robot design. Incorporating soft technologies will also expedite the evolution of robots that can safely interact with humans and natural environments. Finally, soft robotics technology can be combined with tissue engineering to create hybrid systems for medical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

18. Soft Cone Metric Spaces and Some Fixed Point Theorems

OpenAIRE

Altıntaş, İsmet; Taşköprü, Kemal

2016-01-01

This paper is an introduction to soft cone metric spaces. We define the concept of soft cone metric via soft element, investigate soft converges in soft cone metric spaces and prove some fixed point theorems for contractive mappings on soft cone metric spaces.

19. Multiple Soft Fault Diagnosis of Bjt Circuits

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2014-12-01

Full Text Available This paper deals with multiple soft fault diagnosis of nonlinear analog circuits comprising bipolar transistors characterized by the Ebers-Moll model. Resistances of the circuit and beta forward factor of a transistor are considered as potentially faulty parameters. The proposed diagnostic method exploits a strongly nonlinear set of algebraic type equations, which may possess multiple solutions, and is capable of finding different sets of the parameters values which meet the diagnostic test. The equations are written on the basis of node analysis and include DC voltages measured at accessible nodes, as well as some measured currents. The unknown variables are node voltages and the parameters which are considered as potentially faulty. The number of these parameters is larger than the number of the accessible nodes. To solve the set of equations the block relaxation method is used with different assignments of the variables to the blocks. Next, the solutions are corrected using the Newton-Raphson algorithm. As a result, one or more sets of the parameters values which satisfy the diagnostic test are obtained. The proposed approach is illustrated with a numerical example.

20. Thermal sensation prediction by soft computing methodology.

Science.gov (United States)

Jović, Srđan; Arsić, Nebojša; Vilimonović, Jovana; Petković, Dalibor

2016-12-01

Thermal comfort in open urban areas is very factor based on environmental point of view. Therefore it is need to fulfill demands for suitable thermal comfort during urban planning and design. Thermal comfort can be modeled based on climatic parameters and other factors. The factors are variables and they are changed throughout the year and days. Therefore there is need to establish an algorithm for thermal comfort prediction according to the input variables. The prediction results could be used for planning of time of usage of urban areas. Since it is very nonlinear task, in this investigation was applied soft computing methodology in order to predict the thermal comfort. The main goal was to apply extreme leaning machine (ELM) for forecasting of physiological equivalent temperature (PET) values. Temperature, pressure, wind speed and irradiance were used as inputs. The prediction results are compared with some benchmark models. Based on the results ELM can be used effectively in forecasting of PET. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Geometric max stability of Pareto random variables

OpenAIRE

Juozulynaitė, Gintarė

2010-01-01

Šiame darbe nagrinėjau vienmačių ir dvimačių Pareto atsitiktinių dydžių geometrinį maks stabilumą. Įrodžiau, kad vienmatis Pareto skirstinys yra geometriškai maks stabilus, kai alfa=1. Tačiau nėra geometriškai maks stabilus, kai alfa nelygu 1. Naudodamasi geometrinio maks stabilumo kriterijumi dvimačiams Pareto atsitiktiniams dydžiams, įrodžiau, kad dvimatė Pareto skirstinio funkcija nėra geometriškai maks stabili, kai vektoriaus komponentės nepriklausomos (kai alfa=1, beta=1 ir alfa nelygu 1...

2. Randomization tests

CERN Document Server

Edgington, Eugene

2007-01-01

Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

3. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

Science.gov (United States)

Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

2015-11-01

We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object.

4. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

Science.gov (United States)

Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

2014-11-01

In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush.

5. Passive microrheology of soft materials with atomic force microscopy: A wavelet-based spectral analysis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Martinez-Torres, C.; Streppa, L. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); Arneodo, A.; Argoul, F. [CNRS, UMR5672, Laboratoire de Physique, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, Université de Lyon, 69007 Lyon (France); CNRS, UMR5798, Laboratoire Ondes et Matière d' Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux, 351 Cours de la Libération, 33405 Talence (France); Argoul, P. [Université Paris-Est, Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, SDOA, MAST, IFSTTAR, 14-20 Bd Newton, Cité Descartes, 77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

2016-01-18

Compared to active microrheology where a known force or modulation is periodically imposed to a soft material, passive microrheology relies on the spectral analysis of the spontaneous motion of tracers inherent or external to the material. Passive microrheology studies of soft or living materials with atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever tips are rather rare because, in the spectral densities, the rheological response of the materials is hardly distinguishable from other sources of random or periodic perturbations. To circumvent this difficulty, we propose here a wavelet-based decomposition of AFM cantilever tip fluctuations and we show that when applying this multi-scale method to soft polymer layers and to living myoblasts, the structural damping exponents of these soft materials can be retrieved.

6. On Weak and Strong Forms of Fuzzy Soft Open Sets

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sabir Hussain

2016-12-01

Full Text Available We introduce and examined some basic properties of fuzzy soft α-open (closed sets in fuzzy soft topological spaces. Fuzzy soft pre-open (closed sets are also defined and discussed. We also initiate and explore fuzzy soft neighborhood at fuzzy soft point. Some properties of fuzzy soft neighborhood system, fuzzy soft basic neighborhood and fuzzy soft neighborhood (nbd base at fuzzy soft point are studied. Moreover, we define and study fuzzy soft regular open (closed sets. We analyze the relationship between these notions by providing examples and counter examples.

7. The efficacy of instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization: a systematic review.

Science.gov (United States)

Cheatham, Scott W; Lee, Matt; Cain, Matt; Baker, Russell

2016-09-01

Instrument assisted soft tissue mobilization (IASTM) is a popular treatment for myofascial restriction. IASTM uses specially designed instruments to provide a mobilizing effect to scar tissue and myofascial adhesions. Several IASTM tools and techniques are available such as the Graston® technique. Currently, there are no systematic reviews that have specifically appraised the effects of IASTM as a treatment or to enhance joint range of motion (ROM). The purpose of this study was to systematically appraise the current evidence assessing the effects of IASTM as an intervention to treat a musculoskeletal pathology or to enhance joint ROM. A search of the literature was conducted during the month of December 2015 which included the following databases: PubMed, PEDro, Science Direct, and the EBSCOhost collection. A direct search of known journals was also conducted to identify potential publications. The search terms included individual or a combination of the following: instrument; assisted; augmented; soft-tissue; mobilization; Graston®; and technique. A total of 7 randomized controlled trials were appraised. Five of the studies measured an IASTM intervention versus a control or alternate intervention group for a musculoskeletal pathology. The results of the studies were insignificant (p>.05) with both groups displaying equal outcomes. Two studies measured an IASTM intervention versus a control or alternate intervention group on the effects of joint ROM. The IASTM intervention produced significant (P<.05) short term gains up to 24 hours. The literature measuring the effects of IASTM is still emerging. The current research has indicated insignificant results which challenges the efficacy of IASTM as a treatment for common musculoskeletal pathology, which may be due to the methodological variability among studies. There appears to be some evidence supporting its ability to increase short term joint ROM.

8. Soft Skills for Hard Impact

Science.gov (United States)

Grigorov, Ivo; Davidson, Joy; Knoth, Petr; Kuchma, Iryna; Schmidt, Birgit; Rettberg, Najla; Rogrigues, Eloy

2015-04-01

Marine and Earth Science graduates will be under increasing pressure in future to delve into research questions of relevance to societal challenges. Even fundamental research focused on basic processes of the environment and universe will in the coming decade need to justify their societal impact. As the Research Excellence Frameworks (REF) for research evaluation shift more and more away from the classical Impact Factor and number of peer-reviewed publications to "societal impact", the question remains whether the current graduates, and future researchers, are sufficiently prepared to deal with this reality. The essential compliment of skills beyond research excellence, rigor and method are traditionally described as "soft skills". This includes how to formulate an argument, how to construct a scientific publication, how to communicate such publications to non-experts, place them in context of societal challenges and relevant policies, how to write a competitive proposal and "market" one's research idea to build a research group around an interesting research topic. Such "soft skills" can produce very measurable and concrete impact for career development, but are rarely provided systematically and coherently by graduate schools in general. The presentation will focus on Open Science as a set of "soft skills", and demonstrate why graduate schools should train Open Science competencies alongside research excellence by default. Open Science is about removing all barriers to research process and outputs, both published and unpublished, and directly supports transparency and reproducibility of the research process. Open Science as a set of news competencies can also foster unexpected collaborations, engage citizen scientists into co-creation of solutions to societal challenges, as well as use concepts of Open Science to transfer new knowledge to the knowledge-based private sector, and help them with formulating more competitive research proposals in future.

9. Hard Identity and Soft Identity

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hassan Rachik

2006-04-01

Full Text Available Often collective identities are classified depending on their contents and rarely depending on their forms. Differentiation between soft identity and hard identity is applied to diverse collective identities: religious, political, national, tribal ones, etc. This classification is made following the principal dimensions of collective identities: type of classification (univocal and exclusive or relative and contextual, the absence or presence of conflictsof loyalty, selective or totalitarian, objective or subjective conception, among others. The different characteristics analysed contribute to outlining an increasingly frequent type of identity: the authoritarian identity.

10. Estimation of Soft Tissue Mechanical Parameters from Robotic Manipulation Data.

Science.gov (United States)

Boonvisut, Pasu; Jackson, Russell; Cavuşoğlu, M Cenk

2012-12-31

Robotic motion planning algorithms used for task automation in robotic surgical systems rely on availability of accurate models of target soft tissue's deformation. Relying on generic tissue parameters in constructing the tissue deformation models is problematic; because, biological tissues are known to have very large (inter- and intra-subject) variability. A priori mechanical characterization (e.g., uniaxial bench test) of the target tissues before a surgical procedure is also not usually practical. In this paper, a method for estimating mechanical parameters of soft tissue from sensory data collected during robotic surgical manipulation is presented. The method uses force data collected from a multiaxial force sensor mounted on the robotic manipulator, and tissue deformation data collected from a stereo camera system. The tissue parameters are then estimated using an inverse finite element method. The effects of measurement and modeling uncertainties on the proposed method are analyzed in simulation. The results of experimental evaluation of the method are also presented.

11. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

Science.gov (United States)

Avdeev, L. V.; Kazakov, D. I.; Kondrashuk, I. N.

1998-01-01

The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a "soft" way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model up to the three-loop level are calculated.

12. Renormalizations in softly broken SUSY gauge theories

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Avdeev, L.V.; Kazakov, D.I.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Lab. of Theoretical Physics

1998-01-19

The supergraph technique for calculations in supersymmetric gauge theories where supersymmetry is broken in a soft way (without introducing quadratic divergencies) is reviewed. By introducing an external spurion field the set of Feynman rules is formulated and explicit connections between the UV counterterms of a softly broken and rigid SUSY theories are found. It is shown that the renormalization constants of softly broken SUSY gauge theory also become external superfields depending on the spurion field. Their explicit form repeats that of the constants of a rigid theory with the redefinition of the couplings. The method allows us to reproduce all known results on the renormalization of soft couplings and masses in a softly broken theory. As an example the renormalization group functions for soft couplings and masses in the minimal supersymmetric standard model up to the three-loop level are calculated. (orig.). 16 refs.

13. Imaging of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Turecki, Marcin B.; Taljanovic, Mihra S.; Holden, Dean A.; Hunter, Tim B.; Rogers, Lee F. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Stubbs, Alana Y. [Southern Arizona VA Health Care System, Department of Radiology, Tucson, AZ (United States); Graham, Anna R. [University of Arizona HSC, Department of Pathology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

2010-10-15

Prompt and appropriate imaging work-up of the various musculoskeletal soft tissue infections aids early diagnosis and treatment and decreases the risk of complications resulting from misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis. The signs and symptoms of musculoskeletal soft tissue infections can be nonspecific, making it clinically difficult to distinguish between disease processes and the extent of disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging modality of choice in the evaluation of soft tissue infections. Computed tomography (CT), ultrasound, radiography and nuclear medicine studies are considered ancillary. This manuscript illustrates representative images of superficial and deep soft tissue infections such as infectious cellulitis, superficial and deep fasciitis, including the necrotizing fasciitis, pyomyositis/soft tissue abscess, septic bursitis and tenosynovitis on different imaging modalities, with emphasis on MRI. Typical histopathologic findings of soft tissue infections are also presented. The imaging approach described in the manuscript is based on relevant literature and authors' personal experience and everyday practice. (orig.)

14. Nasal Soft-Tissue Triangle Deformities.

Science.gov (United States)

Foda, Hossam M T

2016-08-01

The soft-tissue triangle is one of the least areas attended to in rhinoplasty. Any postoperative retraction, notching, or asymmetries of soft triangles can seriously affect the rhinoplasty outcome. A good understanding of the risk factors predisposing to soft triangle deformities is necessary to prevent such problems. The commonest risk factors in our study were the wide vertical domal angle between the lateral and intermediate crura, and the increased length of intermediate crus. Two types of soft triangle grafts were described to prevent and treat soft triangle deformities. The used soft triangle grafts resulted in an excellent long-term aesthetic and functional improvement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

15. Soft Classes and Soft Rough Classes with Applications in Decision Making

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Faruk Karaaslan

2016-01-01

Full Text Available Rough set was defined by Pawlak in 1982. Concept of soft set was proposed as a mathematical tool to cope with uncertainty and vagueness by Molodtsov in 1999. Soft sets were combined with rough sets by Feng et al. in 2011. Feng et al. investigated relationships between a subset of initial universe of soft set and a soft set. Feng et al. defined the upper and lower approximations of a subset of initial universe over a soft set. In this study, we firstly define concept of soft class and soft class operations such as union, intersection, and complement. Then we give some properties of soft class operations. Based on definition and operations of soft classes, we define lower and upper approximations of a soft set. Subsequently, we introduce concept of soft rough class and investigate some properties of soft rough classes. Moreover, we give a novel decision making method based on soft class and present an example related to novel method.

16. Epirubicin is not Superior to Doxorubicin in the Treatment of Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcomas.The Experience of the EORTC Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nielsen, Ole Steen; Dombernowsky, Per; Mouridsen, Henning T

2000-01-01

studies the EORTC STBSG tested whether epirubicin (epi) is an alternative to standard dose dox in the treatment of chemonaive patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. The present report gives the final results of these studies.Patients/Methods. In the first study 210 patients were randomized to receive......, epi is not superior to dox in the treatment of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas. In addition, the results illustrate that the data from small studies of single institutions should always be confirmed by large multi-institutional studies before being taken for granted....

17. Soft Thermal Sensor with Mechanical Adaptability.

Science.gov (United States)

Yang, Hui; Qi, Dianpeng; Liu, Zhiyuan; Chandran, Bevita K; Wang, Ting; Yu, Jiancan; Chen, Xiaodong

2016-11-01

A soft thermal sensor with mechanical adaptability is fabricated by the combination of single-wall carbon nanotubes with carboxyl groups and self-healing polymers. This study demonstrates that this soft sensor has excellent thermal response and mechanical adaptability. It shows tremendous promise for improving the service life of soft artificial-intelligence robots and protecting thermally sensitive electronics from the risk of damage by high temperature. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

18. Soft Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Rough Sets

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Said Broumi

2015-01-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we first defined soft interval-valued neutrosophic rough sets(SIVN- rough sets for short which combines interval valued neutrosophic soft set and rough sets and studied some of its basic properties. This concept is an extension of soft interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy rough sets( SIVIF- rough sets. Finally an illustrative example is given to verify the developped algorithm and to demonstrate its practicality and effectiveness.

19. Soft errors in modern electronic systems

CERN Document Server

Nicolaidis, Michael

2010-01-01

This book provides a comprehensive presentation of the most advanced research results and technological developments enabling understanding, qualifying and mitigating the soft errors effect in advanced electronics, including the fundamental physical mechanisms of radiation induced soft errors, the various steps that lead to a system failure, the modelling and simulation of soft error at various levels (including physical, electrical, netlist, event driven, RTL, and system level modelling and simulation), hardware fault injection, accelerated radiation testing and natural environment testing, s

20. [Diagnosis of calcified deposits in soft tissues].

Science.gov (United States)

Wybier, M; Laredo, J D; Parlier, C; Champsaur, P

1997-01-01

Calcific deposit within soft tissues is frequently a clue for diagnosis. The radiological analysis of a calcific deposit within soft tissues includes the following aspects: the basic structure of the calcification, the grade of differentiation of the calcification, the site of the calcification, the number of calcific deposits, the shape of the calcification, the changes in the adjacent non-calcified soft tissues and in the adjacent bone, the course of the clinical signs, the course of the radiological abnormalities.

1. Soldering sheets using soft solders

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Milan Brožek

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The paper contains strength tests results of joints soldered using lead and leadless soft solders. For tests lead solders types Pb60Sn40 and Sn60Pb40 and leadless soft solders types Sn95.5Ag3.8Cu0.7 and Sn96Ag4 were used. As basic materials steel sheet, zinc-coated steel sheet, copper sheet and brass sheet 100 x 20 x 1 mm was the test samples size. Always two sheets were cleaned and jointed together. For heating the propane-butane + air flame was used. Then the tested assemblies were loaded using the universal tensile-strength testing machine till to failure. At the tests the force needed for assemblies failure and failure type (in soldered joint, in basic material were recorded. From measured data the solder strength was calculated. From the experiment results it follows that from the point of view of the soldered joints strength as well of the solder strength relatively small differences were found. At the same time it is evident that the joint strength and solder strength depend on soldered material type and on soldered joint lapping length. On the basis of carried out experiments it can be stated that the substitution of lead solders by leadless solders is possible without risk of soldered joints strength decrease.

2. Deformed soft matter under constraints

Science.gov (United States)

Bertrand, Martin

In the last few decades, an increasing number of physicists specialized in soft matter, including polymers, have turned their attention to biologically relevant materials. The properties of various molecules and fibres, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and filaments of all sorts, are studied to better understand their behaviours and functions. Self-assembled biological membranes, or lipid bilayers, are also the focus of much attention as many life processes depend on these. Small lipid bilayers vesicles dubbed liposomes are also frequently used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. In this thesis, work is presented on both the elastic properties of polymers and the response of lipid bilayer vesicles to extrusion in narrow-channels. These two areas of research may seem disconnected but they both concern deformed soft materials. The thesis contains four articles: the first presenting a fundamental study of the entropic elasticity of circular chains; the second, a simple universal description of the effect of sequence on the elasticity of linear polymers such as DNA; the third, a model of the symmetric thermophoretic stretch of a nano-confined polymer; the fourth, a model that predicts the final sizes of vesicles obtained by pressure extrusion. These articles are preceded by an extensive introduction that covers all of the essential concepts and theories necessary to understand the work that has been done.

3. Morphometric correlation between facial soft-tissue profile shape and skeletal pattern in children and adolescents.

Science.gov (United States)

Halazonetis, Demetrios J

2007-10-01

Prediction of soft-tissue outline shape from skeletal remains is useful in forensics and archaeology. The inverse problem, the assessment of underlying skeletal relationships from the external appearance, is pertinent in orthodontics. The purposes of this study were to assess the correlation between craniofacial shape and shape of the soft-tissue profile outline and to determine the extent to which it might be possible to predict the latter from the former. Lateral cephalograms from 170 consecutive orthodontic patients were used, and 17 skeletal, 2 dental, and 22 soft-tissue landmarks were digitized and processed by using Procrustes superimposition and principal component analysis. The principal components of the skeletal and soft-tissue shapes were entered into the correlation analysis. Significant correlations were found between the skeletal and the soft-tissue components. The use of 7 anterior skeletal landmarks (not including the nasal bone) resulted in a predictive power (coefficient of determination) of 38% of the variability of soft-tissue shape. This increased to almost 50% by adding nasal and incisor points but showed only a slight further improvement by incorporating posterior skeletal landmarks. Anterior skeletal and dental landmarks can be used to predict soft-tissue profile shape with a 50% power in children and adolescents.

4. Distributed Wind Soft Costs: A Beginning

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jimenez, Tony; Forsyth,Trudy; Preus, Robert; Christol, Corrie; Orrell, Alice; Tegen, Suzanne

2016-06-14

Tony Jimenez presented this overview of distributed wind soft costs at the 2016 Small Wind Conference in Stevens Point, Wisconsin, on June 14, 2016. Soft costs are any non-hardware project costs, such as costs related to permitting fees, installer/developer profit, taxes, transaction costs, permitting, installation, indirect corporate costs, installation labor, and supply chain costs. This presentation provides an overview of soft costs, a distributed wind project taxonomy (of which soft costs are a subset), an alpha data set project demographics, data summary, and future work in this area.

5. Soft Manipulators and Grippers: A Review

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Josie Hughes

2016-11-01

Full Text Available Soft robotics is a growing area of research which utilises the compliance and adaptability of soft structures to develop highly adaptive robotics for soft interactions. One area in which soft robotics has the ability to make significant impact is in the development of soft grippers and manipulators. With an increased requirement for automation, robotics systems are required to perform task in unstructured and not well defined environments; conditions which conventional rigid robotics are not best suited. This requires a paradigm shift in the methods and materials used to develop robots such that they can adapt to and work safely in human environments. One solution to this is soft robotics, which enables soft interactions with the surroundings whilst maintaining the ability to apply significant force. This review paper assess the current materials and methods, actuation methods and sensors which are used in the development of soft manipulators. The achievements and shortcomings of recent technology in these key areas are evaluated, and this paper concludes with a discussion on the potential impacts of soft manipulators on industry and society.

6. SOFT COMPUTING SINGLE HIDDEN LAYER MODELS FOR SHELF LIFE PREDICTION OF BURFI

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sumit Goyal

2012-05-01

Full Text Available Burfi is an extremely popular sweetmeat, which is prepared by desiccating the standardized water buffalo milk. Soft computing feedforward single layer models were developed for predicting the shelf life of burfi stored at 30g.C. The data of the product relating to moisture, titratable acidity, free fatty acids, tyrosine, and peroxide value were used as input variables, and the overall acceptability score as output variable. The results showed excellent agreement between the experimental and the predicted data, suggesting that the developed soft computing model can alternatively be used for predicting the shelf life of burfi.

7. A Model for Positively Correlated Count Variables

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Møller, Jesper; Rubak, Ege Holger

2010-01-01

An α-permanental random field is briefly speaking a model for a collection of non-negative integer valued random variables with positive associations. Though such models possess many appealing probabilistic properties, many statisticians seem unaware of α-permanental random fields and their poten......An α-permanental random field is briefly speaking a model for a collection of non-negative integer valued random variables with positive associations. Though such models possess many appealing probabilistic properties, many statisticians seem unaware of α-permanental random fields...

8. [Epidemiological characteristics and mortality risk factors in patients admitted in hospitals with soft tissue infections. A multicentric STIMG (Soft Tissue Infections Malacitan Group) study results].

Science.gov (United States)

Salgado Ordóñez, F; Villar Jiménez, J; Hidalgo Conde, A; Villalobos Sánchez, A; de la Torre Lima, J; Aguilar García, J; da Rocha Costa, I; García Ordóñez, M A; Nuño Alvarez, E; Ramos Cantes, C; Martín Pérez, M

2006-07-01

To describe the characteristics of patients admitted in hospitals with soft tissue infections, and analyse the variables whose died, in order to define risk groups. retrospective analysis of medical reports of all patient admitted during 2002 year for soft tissue infections in public malacitans hospitals. We excluded the patient with soft tissue infections associated with burns, surgery, pressure ulcers, and orbit cellulitis. We analysed clinical, biochemical variables and indications for yields and imaging tests, so the empiric antibiotic treatment established and its correlations with practice guidelines. We analysed 391 admissions of 374 patients. Cellulitis was the most frequent diagnosis (69.3%). We did imaging tests in 51.6%. In 94.3% of cases were treated with empirics antibiotics. The most prescribed drug was amoxiciline plus clavulanate (39%). 27 patients died, 40.7% of them for septic cause. All deceased patients had chronic diseases. The only biochemical parameters associated with mortality were serum proteins and albumina (55 +/- 9 g/L vs. 63 +/- 8 g/L; p = 0.0231) and (22 +/- 7 g/L vs. 29 +/- 7 g/L; p = 0.0125) respectively. Cellullitis are the most frequent soft tissue infections that requires admissions in hospitals. We overuse imaging test and don t follow the practice guidelines recommendations in antibiotic therapy. Primary soft issue infection s mortality is low and it s restricted to people with chronic illness, deep infections and bad nutritional status.

9. Effect of soft and moderately hard water intake on meat quality ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

A Fifty-six (56) days experiment was conducted to evaluate the “Effect of soft and moderately hard water intake on meat quality characteristics of broiler chickens”. Three hundred (300) day old broiler chickens of Hubbard breed were used. The chickens were randomly allotted to two (2) treatment groups. Group one are ...

10. Soft tissue response to zirconia and titanium implant abutments : an in vivo within-subject comparison

NARCIS (Netherlands)

van Brakel, Ralph; Meijer, Gert J.; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Jansen, John; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco S.

2012-01-01

Aim To compare the health of the soft tissues towards zirconia and titanium abutments in man, as observed using histological data. Material and Methods Twenty patients received two mandibular implants with either a zirconia or titanium abutment (split mouth study design, left-right randomization).

11. Intake of Sweets, Snacks and Soft Drinks Predicts Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Renault, Kristina M; Carlsen, Emma M; Nørgaard, Kirsten

2015-01-01

significantly lowered their intakes of added sugars and saturated fat and increased their protein intake by ~1% of total energy compared to controls. Of these dietary variables only intakes of added sugar appeared to be related to GWG, while no association was observed for saturated fat or protein. Further...... analyses revealed that foods that contributed to intake of added sugars, including sweets, snacks, cakes, and soft drinks were strongly associated with weight gain, with women consuming sweets ≥2/day having 5.4 kg (95% CI 2.1-8.7) greater weight gain than those with a low (... for soft drinks were more conflicting, as women with high weight gain tended to favour artificially sweetened soft drinks. CONCLUSION: In our sample of obese pregnant women, craving for sweets, snacks, and soft drinks strongly predicts GWG. Emphasis on reducing intakes of these foods may be more relevant...

12. Thermodynamic interpretation of soft glassy rheology models.

Science.gov (United States)

Sollich, Peter; Cates, Michael E

2012-03-01

Mesoscopic models play an important role in our understanding of the deformation and flow of amorphous materials. One such description, based on the shear transformation zone theory, has recently been reformulated within a nonequilibrium thermodynamics framework and found to be consistent with it. We show here that a similar interpretation can be made for the soft glassy rheology (SGR) model. Conceptually this means that the "noise temperature" x, proposed phenomenologically in the SGR model to control the dynamics of a set of slow mesoscopic degrees of freedom, can consistently be interpreted as their actual thermodynamic temperature. (Because such modes are slow to equilibrate, this generally does not coincide with the temperature of the fast degrees of freedom and/or heat bath.) If one chooses to make this interpretation, the thermodynamic framework significantly constrains extensions of the SGR approach to models in which x is a dynamical variable. We assess in this light some such extensions recently proposed in the context of shear banding.

13. Soft sensor development and optimization of the commercial petrochemical plant integrating support vector regression and genetic algorithm

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S.K. Lahiri

2009-09-01

Full Text Available Soft sensors have been widely used in the industrial process control to improve the quality of the product and assure safety in the production. The core of a soft sensor is to construct a soft sensing model. This paper introduces support vector regression (SVR, a new powerful machine learning methodbased on a statistical learning theory (SLT into soft sensor modeling and proposes a new soft sensing modeling method based on SVR. This paper presents an artificial intelligence based hybrid soft sensormodeling and optimization strategies, namely support vector regression – genetic algorithm (SVR-GA for modeling and optimization of mono ethylene glycol (MEG quality variable in a commercial glycol plant. In the SVR-GA approach, a support vector regression model is constructed for correlating the process data comprising values of operating and performance variables. Next, model inputs describing the process operating variables are optimized using genetic algorithm with a view to maximize the process performance. The SVR-GA is a new strategy for soft sensor modeling and optimization. The major advantage of the strategies is that modeling and optimization can be conducted exclusively from the historic process data wherein the detailed knowledge of process phenomenology (reaction mechanism, kinetics etc. is not required. Using SVR-GA strategy, a number of sets of optimized operating conditions were found. The optimized solutions, when verified in an actual plant, resulted in a significant improvement in the quality.

14. Cyclic Soft Groups and Their Applications on Groups

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Hacı Aktaş

2014-01-01

Full Text Available In crisp environment the notions of order of group and cyclic group are well known due to many applications. In this paper, we introduce order of the soft groups, power of the soft sets, power of the soft groups, and cyclic soft group on a group. We also investigate the relationship between cyclic soft groups and classical groups.

15. Rehabilitative Soft Exoskeleton for Rodents.

Science.gov (United States)

Florez, Juan Manuel; Shah, Manan; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Wurth, Sophie; Baud, Laetitia; Von Zitzewitz, Joachim; van den Brand, Rubia; Micera, Silvestro; Courtine, Gregoire; Paik, Jamie

2017-02-01

Robotic exoskeletons provide programmable, consistent and controllable active therapeutic assistance to patients with neurological disorders. Here we introduce a prototype and preliminary experimental evaluation of a rehabilitative gait exoskeleton that enables compliant yet effective manipulation of the fragile limbs of rats. To assist the displacements of the lower limbs without impeding natural gait movements, we designed and fabricated soft pneumatic actuators (SPAs). The exoskeleton integrates two customizable SPAs that are attached to a limb. This configuration enables a 1 N force load, a range of motion exceeding 80 mm in the major axis, and speed of actuation reaching two gait cycles/s. Preliminary experiments in rats with spinal cord injury validated the basic features of the exoskeleton. We propose strategies to improve the performance of the robot and discuss the potential of SPAs for the design of other wearable interfaces.

16. Soft x-ray excitonics

Science.gov (United States)

Moulet, A.; Bertrand, J. B.; Klostermann, T.; Guggenmos, A.; Karpowicz, N.; Goulielmakis, E.

2017-09-01

The dynamic response of excitons in solids is central to modern condensed-phase physics, material sciences, and photonic technologies. However, study and control have hitherto been limited to photon energies lower than the fundamental band gap. Here we report application of attosecond soft x-ray and attosecond optical pulses to study the dynamics of core-excitons at the L2,3 edge of Si in silicon dioxide (SiO2). This attosecond x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (AXANES) technique enables direct probing of the excitons’ quasiparticle character, tracking of their subfemtosecond relaxation, the measurement of excitonic polarizability, and observation of dark core-excitonic states. Direct measurement and control of core-excitons in solids lay the foundation of x-ray excitonics.

17. Thin films of soft matter

CERN Document Server

2007-01-01

A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

18. Soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.L.; Delrue, F.; De Schepper, A.M.A. [Department of Radiology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium); Salgado, R. [Department of Pathology, Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen (University of Antwerp), Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650, Edegem (Belgium)

2004-08-01

A soft tissue aneurysmal bone cyst located in the right gluteus medius of a 21-year-old man is reported. On conventional radiography, the lesion demonstrated a spherically trabeculated mass with a calcific rim. On CT scan, it showed a well-organized peripheral calcification resembling a myositis ossificans. On MRI, it presented as a multilocular, cystic lesion with fluid-fluid levels. The lesion had no solid components except for intralesional septa. Although findings on imaging and histology were identical to those described in classical aneurysmal bone cyst, diagnosis was delayed because of lack of knowledge of this entity and its resemblance to the more familiar post-traumatic heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans). (orig.)

19. Why mercury prefers soft ligands

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Riccardi, Demian M [ORNL; Guo, Hao-Bo [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Parks, Jerry M [ORNL; Summers, Anne [University of Georgia, Athens, GA; Miller, S [University of California, San Francisco; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL

2013-01-01

Mercury (Hg) is a major global pollutant arising from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Defining the factors that determine the relative affinities of different ligands for the mercuric ion, Hg2+, is critical to understanding its speciation, transformation, and bioaccumulation in the environment. Here, we use quantum chemistry to dissect the relative binding free energies for a series of inorganic anion complexes of Hg2+. Comparison of Hg2+ ligand interactions in the gaseous and aqueous phases shows that differences in interactions with a few, local water molecules led to a clear periodic trend within the chalcogenide and halide groups and resulted in the well-known experimentally observed preference of Hg2+ for soft ligands such as thiols. Our approach establishes a basis for understanding Hg speciation in the biosphere.

20. Tuning sound with soft dielectrics

Science.gov (United States)

Bortot, Eliana; Shmuel, Gal

2017-04-01

Soft dielectric tubes undergo large deformations when subjected to radial voltage. Using the theory of nonlinear electroelasticity, we investigate how voltage-controlled deformations of these tubes in an array alter acoustic wave propagation through it. We show that the propagation is annihilated across a certain audible frequency range, referred to as a sonic band gap. We carry out a numerical study, to find that the band gap depends nonlinearly on the voltage, owing to geometrical and material nonlinearities. By analyzing different mechanical constraints, we demonstrate that snap-through instabilities resulting from these nonlinearities can be harnessed to achieve sharp transitions in the gap width. Our conclusions hint at a new strategy to adaptively filter sound using a simple control parameter—an applied voltage.