Transverse eV Ion Heating by Random Electric Field Fluctuations in the Plasmasphere
Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.
2017-01-01
Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti approx. 0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.
Transverse eV ion heating by random electric field fluctuations in the plasmasphere
Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Agapitov, O. V.; Blum, L.
2017-02-01
Charged particle acceleration in the Earth inner magnetosphere is believed to be mainly due to the local resonant wave-particle interaction or particle transport processes. However, the Van Allen Probes have recently provided interesting evidence of a relatively slow transverse heating of eV ions at distances about 2-3 Earth radii during quiet times. Waves that are able to resonantly interact with such very cold ions are generally rare in this region of space, called the plasmasphere. Thus, non-resonant wave-particle interactions are expected to play an important role in the observed ion heating. We demonstrate that stochastic heating by random transverse electric field fluctuations of whistler (and possibly electromagnetic ion cyclotron) waves could explain this weak and slow transverse heating of H+ and O+ ions in the inner magnetosphere. The essential element of the proposed model of ion heating is the presence of trains of random whistler (hiss) wave packets, with significant amplitude modulations produced by strong wave damping, rapid wave growth, or a superposition of wave packets of different frequencies, phases, and amplitudes. Such characteristics correspond to measured characteristics of hiss waves in this region. Using test particle simulations with typical wave and plasma parameters, we demonstrate that the corresponding stochastic transverse ion heating reaches 0.07-0.2 eV/h for protons and 0.007-0.015 eV/h for O+ ions. This global temperature increase of the Maxwellian ion population from an initial Ti˜0.3 eV could potentially explain the observations.
Transversals of Complex Polynomial Vector Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dias, Kealey
Vector fields in the complex plane are defined by assigning the vector determined by the value P(z) to each point z in the complex plane, where P is a polynomial of one complex variable. We consider special families of so-called rotated vector fields that are determined by a polynomial multiplied...... by rotational constants. Transversals are a certain class of curves for such a family of vector fields that represent the bifurcation states for this family of vector fields. More specifically, transversals are curves that coincide with a homoclinic separatrix for some rotation of the vector field. Given...... examples of rotated families to argue this. There will be discussed several open questions concerning the number of transversals that can appear for a certain degree d of a polynomial vector field, and furthermore how transversals are analyzed with respect to bifurcations around multiple equilibrium points....
Ferroelectric Cathodes in Transverse Magnetic Fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexander Dunaevsky; Yevgeny Raitses; Nathaniel J. Fisch
2002-07-29
Experimental investigations of a planar ferroelectric cathode in a transverse magnetic field up to 3 kGs are presented. It is shown that the transverse magnetic field affects differently the operation of ferroelectric plasma cathodes in ''bright'' and ''dark'' modes in vacuum. In the ''bright'' mode, when the surface plasma is formed, the application of the transverse magnetic field leads to an increase of the surface plasma density. In the ''dark'' mode, the magnetic field inhibits the development of electron avalanches along the surface, as it does similarly in other kinds of surface discharges in the pre-breakdown mode.
Transverse Field Effect in Fluxgate Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brauer, Peter; Merayo, José M.G.; Nielsen, Otto V
1997-01-01
A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non-linearity......A model of the fluxgate magnetometer based on the field interactions in the fluxgate core has been derived. The non-linearity of the ringcore sensors due to large uncompensated fields transverse to the measuring axis are calculated and compared with measurements. Measurements of the non......-linearity are made with a spectrum analyser, measuring the higher harmonics of an applied sinusoidal field. For a sensor with a permalloy ringcore of 1" in diameter the deviation from linearity is measured to about 15 nTp-p in the earth's field and the measurements are shown to fit well the calculations. Further......, the measurements and the calculations are also compared with a calibration model of the fluxgate sensor onboard the "MAGSAT" satellite. The later has a deviation from linearity of about 50 nTp-p but shows basically the same form of non-linearity as the measurements....
Numerical simulation of transverse jet flow field under supersonic inflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Li
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Transverse jet flow field under supersonic inflow is simulated numerically for studying the characteristic of fuel transverse jet and fuel mixing in scramjet combustion chamber. Comparison is performed between simulated results and the results of references and experiments. Results indicate that the CFD code in this paper is applicable for simulation of transverse jut flow field under supersonic inflow, but in order to providing more effective numerical predictive method, CFD code should be modified through increasing mesh density and adding LES module.
Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Litvin, IA
2007-01-01
Full Text Available at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed. Key words: porro... prism resonator, petal (spot) transverse field distribution, second pulse 1. INTRODUCTION Right angle prisms, often referred to as Porro prisms, have the useful property that all incident rays on the prism are reflected back parallel to the initial...
Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2007-01-01
demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...
Surface amorphization in a transverse Ising nanowire; effects of a transverse field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaneyoshi, T., E-mail: kaneyosi@is.nagoya-u.ac.Jp
2017-05-15
Using the effective-field theory with correlations, the phase diagrams and the thermal variations of total magnetization in an Ising nanowire with surface amorphization are investigated by applying a magnetic field to the direction perpendicular to the spin direction. Some unconventional and novel phenomena have been found in them. Furthermore, phase diagrams in the two transverse Ising nanowires with surface amorphizations are compared and discussed.
Optical Display of Transverse Jet Flow Field Under Supersonic Inflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Qian
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Optical display and measurement of transverse jet flow field under supersonic inflow is performed with continuous xenon lamp color schlieren, strobo light color schlieren and strobo light monochrome schlieren. Characteristic of fuel transverse jet in scramjet combustion chamber is studied. Results indicate that wave structure can be displayed through images obtained from long time exposure of schlieren, exposure time in dozens of nanoseconds is suitable for the display of turbulent structure, and comparing with color schlieren, amounts of information obtained from monochrome schlieren are few, whose sensitivity is much lower, either.
Spin transverse force on spin current in an electric field.
Shen, Shun-Qing
2005-10-28
As a relativistic quantum mechanical effect, it is shown that the electron field exerts a transverse force on an electron spin 1/2 only if the electron is moving. The spin force, analogue to the Lorentz for an electron charge in a magnetic field, is perpendicular to the electric field and the spin current whose spin polarization is projected along the electric field. This spin-dependent force can be used to understand the Zitterbewegung of the electron wave packet with spin-orbit coupling and is relevant to the generation of the charge Hall effect driven by the spin current in semiconductors.
Diamagnetic magnetocaloric effect due to a transversal oscillating magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reis, M.S., E-mail: marior@if.uff.br
2014-05-01
The present Letter describes the magnetocaloric effect of a diamagnetic material with a magnetic field B{sub ∥} along the z axis and a transversal and oscillating field B{sub ⊥}(≪B{sub ∥}) parallel to the x–y plane. We show that the magnetocaloric potentials due to a change in B{sub ∥} are the same as those due to a change in the frequency of B{sub ⊥}. These results raise the possibility of building magnetocaloric devices without moving parts, since changing frequency is a simple electronic issue, while changing the field from permanent magnets depends on mechanical aspects.
Urbański, Mariusz
2016-03-01
Dealing with with countable (finite and infinite alike) alphabet random conformal iterated function systems with overlaps, we formulate appropriate transversality conditions and then prove the relevant, in such a context, the Moran-Bowen formula which determines the Hausdorff dimension of random limit sets in dynamical terms. We also provide large classes of examples of such random systems satisfying the transversality condition.
Transversity results and computations in symplectic field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fabert, Oliver
2008-02-21
Although the definition of symplectic field theory suggests that one has to count holomorphic curves in cylindrical manifolds R x V equipped with a cylindrical almost complex structure J, it is already well-known from Gromov-Witten theory that, due to the presence of multiply-covered curves, we in general cannot achieve transversality for all moduli spaces even for generic choices of J. In this thesis we treat the transversality problem of symplectic field theory in two important cases. In the first part of this thesis we are concerned with the rational symplectic field theory of Hamiltonian mapping tori, which is also called the Floer case. For this observe that in the general geometric setup for symplectic field theory, the contact manifolds can be replaced by mapping tori M{sub {phi}} of symplectic manifolds (M,{omega}{sub M}) with symplectomorphisms {phi}. While the cylindrical contact homology of M{sub {phi}} is given by the Floer homologies of powers of {phi}, the other algebraic invariants of symplectic field theory for M{sub {phi}} provide natural generalizations of symplectic Floer homology. For symplectically aspherical M and Hamiltonian {phi} we study the moduli spaces of rational curves and prove a transversality result, which does not need the polyfold theory by Hofer, Wysocki and Zehnder and allows us to compute the full contact homology of M{sub {phi}} {approx_equal} S{sup 1} x M. The second part of this thesis is devoted to the branched covers of trivial cylinders over closed Reeb orbits, which are the trivial examples of punctured holomorphic curves studied in rational symplectic field theory. Since all moduli spaces of trivial curves with virtual dimension one cannot be regular, we use obstruction bundles in order to find compact perturbations making the Cauchy-Riemann operator transversal to the zero section and show that the algebraic count of elements in the resulting regular moduli spaces is zero. Once the analytical foundations of symplectic
Anisotropy field and transverse susceptibility in nanocrystalline hexaferrites
Soares, J. M.; Machado, F. L. A.; de Araújo, J. H.; Cabral, F. A. O.; Rodrigues, H. A. B.; Ginani, M. F.
2006-10-01
Nanocrystalline strontium and barium hexaferrites were produced by an ionic coordination reaction method. The average particle size obtained using the Rietveld X-ray refinement technique and by scanning electron microscopy was quite uniform and close to 50 nm. Transverse susceptibility measurements yielded both the coercive and the anisotropy magnetic fields. The results were analysed using a theoretical model proposed by Aharoni et al. [Bull. Res. Counc. Isr. A 6 (1957) 215]. This overall procedure seems to be quite useful in determining the distribution of the anisotropy magnetic fields in granular materials.
The transverse field Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics
Wheatley, V.
2014-01-10
The magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability is investigated for the case where the initial magnetic field is unperturbed and aligned with the mean interface location. For this initial condition, the magnetic field lines penetrate the perturbed density interface, forbidding a tangential velocity jump and therefore the presence of a vortex sheet. Through simulation, we find that the vorticity distribution present on the interface immediately after the shock acceleration breaks up into waves traveling parallel and anti-parallel to the magnetic field, which transport the vorticity. The interference of these waves as they propagate causes the perturbation amplitude of the interface to oscillate in time. This interface behavior is accurately predicted over a broad range of parameters by an incompressible linearized model derived presently by solving the corresponding impulse driven, linearized initial value problem. Our use of an equilibrium initial condition results in interface motion produced solely by the impulsive acceleration. Nonlinear compressible simulations are used to investigate the behavior of the transverse field magnetohydrodynamic Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, and the performance of the incompressible model, over a range of shock strengths, magnetic field strengths, perturbation amplitudes and Atwood numbers.
Li, Fangling; Bi, Dingyan
2017-08-12
To explore the effects differences for the third lumbar transverse process syndrome between acupuncture mainly at zygapophyseal joint and transverse process and conventional acupuncture. Eighty cases were randomly assigned into an observation group and a control group, 40 cases in each one. In the observation group, patients were treated with acupuncture at zygapophyseal joint, transverse process, the superior gluteus nerve into the hip point and Weizhong (BL 40), and those in the control group were treated with acupuncture at Qihaishu (BL 24), Jiaji (EX-B 2) of L2-L4, the superior gluteus nerve into the hip point and Weizhong (BL 40). The treatment was given 6 times a week for 2 weeks, once a day. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) low back pain score and simplified Chinese Oswestry disability index (SC-ODI) were observed before and after treatment as well as 6 months after treatment, and the clinical effects were evaluated. The total effective rate in the observation group was 95.0% (38/40), which was significantly higher than 82.5% (33/40) in the control group (Pprocess for the third lumbar transverse process syndrome achieves good effect, which is better than that of conventional acupuncture on relieving pain, improving lumbar function and life quality.
Analysis of reliable sub-ns spin-torque switching under transverse bias magnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Aquino, M., E-mail: daquino@uniparthenope.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Napoli “Parthenope”, I-80143 Napoli (Italy); Perna, S.; Serpico, C. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica e delle Tecnologie dell' Informazione, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, I-80125 Napoli (Italy); Bertotti, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM), I-10135 Torino (Italy); Mayergoyz, I. D. [ECE Department and UMIACS, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)
2015-05-07
The switching process of a magnetic spin-valve nanosystem subject to spin-polarized current pulses is considered. The dependence of the switching probability on the current pulse duration is investigated. The further application of a transverse field along the intermediate anisotropy axis of the particle is used to control the quasi-random relaxation of magnetization to the reversed magnetization state. The critical current amplitudes to realize the switching are determined by studying the phase portrait of the Landau-Lifshtz-Slonczewski dynamics. Macrospin numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction and demonstrate reliable switching even for very short (below 100 ps) current pulses.
Analysis of reliable sub-ns spin-torque switching under transverse bias magnetic fields
d'Aquino, M.; Perna, S.; Serpico, C.; Bertotti, G.; Mayergoyz, I. D.
2015-05-01
The switching process of a magnetic spin-valve nanosystem subject to spin-polarized current pulses is considered. The dependence of the switching probability on the current pulse duration is investigated. The further application of a transverse field along the intermediate anisotropy axis of the particle is used to control the quasi-random relaxation of magnetization to the reversed magnetization state. The critical current amplitudes to realize the switching are determined by studying the phase portrait of the Landau-Lifshtz-Slonczewski dynamics. Macrospin numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction and demonstrate reliable switching even for very short (below 100 ps) current pulses.
Random walks, random fields, and disordered systems
Černý, Jiří; Kotecký, Roman
2015-01-01
Focusing on the mathematics that lies at the intersection of probability theory, statistical physics, combinatorics and computer science, this volume collects together lecture notes on recent developments in the area. The common ground of these subjects is perhaps best described by the three terms in the title: Random Walks, Random Fields and Disordered Systems. The specific topics covered include a study of Branching Brownian Motion from the perspective of disordered (spin-glass) systems, a detailed analysis of weakly self-avoiding random walks in four spatial dimensions via methods of field theory and the renormalization group, a study of phase transitions in disordered discrete structures using a rigorous version of the cavity method, a survey of recent work on interacting polymers in the ballisticity regime and, finally, a treatise on two-dimensional loop-soup models and their connection to conformally invariant systems and the Gaussian Free Field. The notes are aimed at early graduate students with a mod...
A mean field approach to the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field
Osácar, C.; Pacheco, A. F.
2017-07-01
We evaluate a mean field method to describe the properties of the ground state of the Ising chain in a transverse magnetic field. Specifically, a method of the Bethe-Peierls type is used by solving spin blocks with a self-consistency condition at the borders. The computations include the critical point for the phase transition, exponent of magnetisation and energy density. All results are obtained using basic quantum mechanics at an undergraduate level. The advantages and the limitations of the approach are emphasised.
Wang, Boshuo; Aberra, Aman S; Grill, Warren M; Peterchev, Angel V
2018-01-24
We present a theory and computational methods to incorporate transverse polarization of neuronal membranes into the cable equation to account for the secondary electric field generated by the membrane in response to transverse electric fields. The effect of transverse polarization on nonlinear neuronal activation thresholds is quantified and discussed in the context of previous studies using linear membrane models. The response of neuronal membranes to applied electric fields is derived under two time scales and a unified solution of transverse polarization is given for spherical and cylindrical cell geometries. The solution is incorporated into the cable equation re-derived using an asymptotic model that separates the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. Two numerical methods are proposed to implement the modified cable equation. Several common neural stimulation scenarios are tested using two nonlinear membrane models to compare thresholds of the conventional and modified cable equations. The implementations of the modified cable equation incorporating transverse polarization are validated against previous results in the literature. The test cases show that transverse polarization has limited effect on activation thresholds. The transverse field only affects thresholds of unmyelinated axons for short pulses and in low-gradient field distributions, whereas myelinated axons are mostly unaffected. The modified cable equation captures the membrane's behavior on different time scales and models more accurately the coupling between electric fields and neurons. It addresses the limitations of the conventional cable equation and allows sound theoretical interpretations. The implementation provides simple methods that are compatible with current simulation approaches to study the effect of transverse polarization on nonlinear membranes. The minimal influence by transverse polarization on axonal activation thresholds for the nonlinear membrane models indicates that
Random scalar fields and hyperuniformity
Ma, Zheng; Torquato, Salvatore
2017-06-01
Disordered many-particle hyperuniform systems are exotic amorphous states of matter that lie between crystals and liquids. Hyperuniform systems have attracted recent attention because they are endowed with novel transport and optical properties. Recently, the hyperuniformity concept has been generalized to characterize two-phase media, scalar fields, and random vector fields. In this paper, we devise methods to explicitly construct hyperuniform scalar fields. Specifically, we analyze spatial patterns generated from Gaussian random fields, which have been used to model the microwave background radiation and heterogeneous materials, the Cahn-Hilliard equation for spinodal decomposition, and Swift-Hohenberg equations that have been used to model emergent pattern formation, including Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We show that the Gaussian random scalar fields can be constructed to be hyperuniform. We also numerically study the time evolution of spinodal decomposition patterns and demonstrate that they are hyperuniform in the scaling regime. Moreover, we find that labyrinth-like patterns generated by the Swift-Hohenberg equation are effectively hyperuniform. We show that thresholding (level-cutting) a hyperuniform Gaussian random field to produce a two-phase random medium tends to destroy the hyperuniformity of the progenitor scalar field. We then propose guidelines to achieve effectively hyperuniform two-phase media derived from thresholded non-Gaussian fields. Our investigation paves the way for new research directions to characterize the large-structure spatial patterns that arise in physics, chemistry, biology, and ecology. Moreover, our theoretical results are expected to guide experimentalists to synthesize new classes of hyperuniform materials with novel physical properties via coarsening processes and using state-of-the-art techniques, such as stereolithography and 3D printing.
Xuan, Weidong; Liu, Huan; Lan, Jian; Li, Chuanjun; Zhong, Yunbo; Li, Xi; Cao, Guanghui; Ren, Zhongming
2016-12-01
The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation during directional solidification of superalloy was investigated. Experimental results indicated that the transverse magnetic field effectively suppressed the stray grain formation on the side the primary dendrite diverges from the mold wall. Moreover, the quenched experimental results indicated that the solid/liquid interface shape was obviously changed in a transverse magnetic field. The effect of a transverse magnetic field on stray grain formation was discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ma, Hui; Wang, Jianhua; Liu, Zhiyuan, E-mail: liuzy@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Geng, Yingsan; Wang, Zhenxing; Yan, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2016-06-15
The objective of this work is to reveal the effects of an axial magnetic field (AMF) on the vacuum arc characteristics between transverse magnetic field (TMF) contacts. These vacuum arc characteristics include the vacuum arcing behavior and the arc voltage waveform. In the experiments, an external AMF was applied to a pair of TMF contacts. The external AMF flux density B{sub AMF} can be adjusted from 0 to 110 mT. The arc current in the tests varied over a range from 0 to 20 kA rms at 45 Hz. The contact material was CuCr25 (25% Cr). A high-speed charge-coupled device video camera was used to record the vacuum arc evolution. The experimental results show that the application of the AMF effectively reduces the TMF arc voltage noise component and reduces the formation of liquid metal drops between the contacts. The diffuse arc duration increases linearly with increasing AMF flux density, but it also decreases linearly with increasing arc current under application of the external AMF. The results also indicate that the diffuse arc duration before the current zero is usually more than 1 ms under the condition that the value of the AMF per kiloampere is more than 2.0 mT/kA. Finally, under application of the AMF, the arc column of the TMF contacts may constrict and remain in the center region without transverse rotation. Therefore, the combined TMF–AMF contacts should be designed such that they guarantee that the AMF is not so strong as to oppose transverse rotation of the arc column.
Tuning magnetism in zigzag ZnO nanoribbons by transverse electric fields.
Kou, Liangzhi; Li, Chun; Zhang, Zhuhua; Guo, Wanlin
2010-04-27
We show by first-principles calculations that the magnetic moments of zigzag ZnO nanoribbons can be efficiently modulated by transverse electric fields. Depending on the field direction, the total magnetic moment in a zigzag ZnO nanoribbon can be remarkably enhanced or reduced and even completely quenched with increasing field over a threshold strength. However, in weak electric fields below the threshold, the magnetic moment in the zigzag ZnO nanoribbons nearly remains unchanged, which can be explained in terms of intrinsic transverse electric polarization and quantum confinement effects. The threshold electric field required to modulate the magnetic moment decreases significantly with increasing ribbon width, showing practical importance.
Transverse fields to tune an Ising-nematic quantum phase transition
Maharaj, Akash V.; Rosenberg, Elliott W.; Hristov, Alexander T.; Berg, Erez; Fernandes, Rafael M.; Fisher, Ian R.; Kivelson, Steven A.
2017-12-01
The paradigmatic example of a continuous quantum phase transition is the transverse field Ising ferromagnet. In contrast to classical critical systems, whose properties depend only on symmetry and the dimension of space, the nature of a quantum phase transition also depends on the dynamics. In the transverse field Ising model, the order parameter is not conserved, and increasing the transverse field enhances quantum fluctuations until they become strong enough to restore the symmetry of the ground state. Ising pseudospins can represent the order parameter of any system with a twofold degenerate broken-symmetry phase, including electronic nematic order associated with spontaneous point-group symmetry breaking. Here, we show for the representative example of orbital-nematic ordering of a non-Kramers doublet that an orthogonal strain or a perpendicular magnetic field plays the role of the transverse field, thereby providing a practical route for tuning appropriate materials to a quantum critical point. While the transverse fields are conjugate to seemingly unrelated order parameters, their nontrivial commutation relations with the nematic order parameter, which can be represented by a Berry-phase term in an effective field theory, intrinsically intertwine the different order parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, M., E-mail: michaelreynolds@ualberta.net [Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Fallone, B. G. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Departments of Oncology and Physics, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada); Rathee, S. [Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2, Canada and Department of Oncology, Medical Physics Division, University of Alberta, 11560 University Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 1Z2 (Canada)
2014-09-15
Purpose: MR-Linac devices under development worldwide will require standard calibration, commissioning, and quality assurance. Solid state radiation detectors are often used for dose profiles and percent depth dose measurements. The dose response of selected solid state detectors is therefore evaluated in varying transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields for this purpose. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to model irradiation of a PTW 60003 diamond detector and IBA PFD diode detector in the presence of a magnetic field. The field itself was varied in strength, and oriented both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the incident photon beam. The long axis of the detectors was oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the photon beam. The dose to the active volume of each detector in air was scored, and its ratio to dose with zero magnetic field strength was determined as the “dose response” in magnetic field. Measurements at low fields for both detectors in transverse magnetic fields were taken to evaluate the accuracy of the simulations. Additional simulations were performed in a water phantom to obtain few representative points for beam profile and percent depth dose measurements. Results: Simulations show significant dose response as a function of magnetic field in transverse field geometries. This response can be near 20% at 1.5 T, and it is highly dependent on the detectors’ relative orientation to the magnetic field, the energy of the photon beam, and detector composition. Measurements at low transverse magnetic fields verify the simulations for both detectors in their relative orientations to radiation beam. Longitudinal magnetic fields, in contrast, show little dose response, rising slowly with magnetic field, and reaching 0.5%–1% at 1.5 T regardless of detector orientation. Water tank and in air simulation results were the same within simulation uncertainty where lateral electronic equilibrium is present and expectedly
Crossed ratchet effects on magnetic domain walls: geometry and transverse field effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alija, A; Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Perez-Junquera, A; Alameda, J M; Martin, J I; Velez, M, E-mail: mvelez@uniovi.es [Dept. Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo-CINN, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)
2011-08-17
Domain wall propagation across a 2D array of asymmetric holes is strongly dependent on the domain wall configuration: i.e. on whether the wall is flat or kinked. This results in interesting crossed ratchet and asymmetric accommodation effects that have been studied as a function of geometry and transverse field. Micromagnetic simulations have shown that the observation of crossed ratchet effects is easier for arrow than for triangular holes due to a larger field range in which kink propagation is the preferred mode for domain wall motion. Also, it has been found that dc transverse fields can produce a significant enhancement of the easy axis asymmetric accommodation and, also, that ac transverse fields can be rectified by the crossed ratchet potential.
Effects of a Transverse Field in Two Mixed-Spin Ising Bilayer Films.
Kaneyoshi, Takahito
2017-09-04
The magnetic properties (phase diagrams and magnetizations) of two mixed-spin Ising bilayer films with a transverse field are investigated by the use of the effective field theory with correlations. The systems consist of two magnetic atoms where spin-1/2 atoms are directed to the z-direction and only spin-1 atoms are canted from the z-direction by applying a transverse field. We examined how magnetization sign reversal can be realized in the system, due to the effects of the transverse field on the spin-1 atoms. The compensation point phenomena are found in both systems, depending on the selections of physical parameters. However, the reentrant phenomena are found only for one of the two systems.
Li, Xu; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Jiao; Han, Yanfeng; Li, Xi
2015-01-01
A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1) and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm) under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic fie...
Incompressible Steady Flow with Tensor Conductivity Leaving a Transverse Magnetic Field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Witalis, E.A.
1965-12-15
The straight channel flow of an inviscid, incompressible fluid with tensor conductivity is considered when the flow leaves a region of constant transverse magnetic field. The channel walls are taken to be insulating, and an eddy current system arises. This is investigated by the method of magnetic field analysis as given by Witalis. The spatial distribution of magnetic field and ohmic power loss, both parallel and transverse to the flow, are given as functions of the Hall parameter with consideration also to the magnetic Reynolds number of the fluid. MHD power generator aspects of this problem and the results are discussed.
Heat Transfer Affected by Transverse Magnetic Field using 3D Modeling of Arc Plasma
Maeda, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Tatsuro; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru
2016-10-01
Gas shielded metal arc welding is used to join the various metal because this is the high quality joining technology. Thus, this welding is used for a welding of large buildings such as bridges and LNG tanks. However, the welding defect caused by the heat transfer decrement may occur with increasing the wind velocity. This is because that the convection loss increases because the arc deflects to leeward side with increasing the wind velocity. In order to prevent from the arc deflection, it is used that the transverse magnetic field is applied to the arc. However, the arc deflection occurs with increasing the transverse magnetic field excessively. The energy balance of the arc is changed with increasing the convection loss caused by the arc deflection, and the heat transfer to the anode decreases. Therefore, the analysis including the arc and anode is necessary to elucidate the heat transfer to the anode. In this paper, the heat transfer affected by the transverse magnetic field using 3D modeling of the arc plasma is elucidated. The heat transfer to the anode is calculated by using the EMTF(electromagnetic thermal fluid) simulation with increasing the transverse magnetic field. As a result, the heat transfer decreased with increasing the transverse magnetic field.
Magnetic domain-wall velocity enhancement induced by a transverse magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Jusang, E-mail: jsyang@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States); Beach, Geoffrey S.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Knutson, Carl; Erskine, James L. [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1081 (United States)
2016-01-01
Spin dynamics of field-driven domain walls (DWs) guided by permalloy nanowires are studied by high-speed magneto-optic polarimetry and numerical simulations. DW velocities and spin configurations are determined as functions of longitudinal drive field, transverse bias field, and nanowire width. Nanowires having cross-sectional dimensions large enough to support vortex wall structures exhibit regions of drive-field strength (at zero bias field) that have enhanced DW velocity resulting from coupled vortex structures that suppress oscillatory motion. Factor of 10 enhancements of the DW velocity are observed above the critical longitudinal drive-field (that marks the onset of oscillatory DW motion) when a transverse bias field is applied. Nanowires having smaller cross-sectional dimensions that support transverse wall structures also exhibit a region of higher mobility above the critical field, and similar transverse-field induced velocity enhancement but with a smaller enhancement factor. The bias-field enhancement of DW velocity is explained by numerical simulations of the spin distribution and dynamics within the propagating DW that reveal dynamic stabilization of coupled vortex structures and suppression of oscillatory motion in the nanowire conduit resulting in uniform DW motion at high speed. The enhanced velocity and drive field range are achieved at the expense of a less compact DW spin distribution. - Highlights: • The transverse magnetic fields can dramatically enhance the domain wall velocity. • The numerical simulation exhibits the four distinct dynamic modes. • Coupled multiple vortex structures within the domain wall become dynamically stable. • The enhanced domain wall velocity is explained by numerical simulations.
Quantum discord in the transverse field XY chains with three-spin interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei, Shuguo [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); College of Science, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211816 (China); Tong, Peiqing, E-mail: pqtong@njnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Numerical Simulation of Large Scale Complex Systems, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing 210023 (China)
2015-04-15
The ground state quantum discord in the transverse field anisotropic and isotropic XY chains with XZY–YZX type three-spin interaction has been studied. The three-spin interaction induces new gapless quantum phases in the transverse field anisotropic XY chain besides the ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases. It is found that the first-order derivative of the quantum discord at the Ising type transition between the gapped phases has a logarithmic divergence scaling with the system size. However, the first-order derivative of the quantum discord at the quantum phase transitions between the gapped and gapless phases does not increase with the system size. For the transverse field isotropic XY chain, the first-order derivative of the quantum discord at the quantum phase transitions between the gapless phases has a similar behavior with that between the gapped and gapless phases.
A Circuit-Based Quantum Algorithm Driven by Transverse Fields for Grover's Problem
Jiang, Zhang; Rieffel, Eleanor G.; Wang, Zhihui
2017-01-01
We designed a quantum search algorithm, giving the same quadratic speedup achieved by Grover's original algorithm; we replace Grover's diffusion operator (hard to implement) with a product diffusion operator generated by transverse fields (easy to implement). In our algorithm, the problem Hamiltonian (oracle) and the transverse fields are applied to the system alternatively. We construct such a sequence that the corresponding unitary generates a closed transition between the initial state (even superposition of all states) and a modified target state, which has a high degree of overlap with the original target state.
Detailed study of a transverse field Zeeman slower
Ben Ali, D.; Badr, T.; Brézillon, T.; Dubessy, R.; Perrin, H.; Perrin, A.
2017-03-01
We present a thorough analysis of a Zeeman slower for sodium atoms made of permanent magnets in a Halbach configuration. Due to the orientation of the magnetic field, the polarization of the slowing laser beam cannot be purely circular, leading to optical leakages into dark states. To circumvent this effect, we propose an atomic state preparation stage that is able to significantly increase the performance of the Zeeman slower. After a careful theoretical analysis of the problem, we experimentally implement an optical pumping stage leading to an increase in the magneto-optical trap loading rate by 3.5. Such a method is easy to set up and could be extended to other Zeeman slower architectures.
Song, Xiaohong; Lin, Cheng; Sheng, Zhihao; Yu, Xianhuan; Yang, Weifeng; Hu, Shilin; Chen, Jing; Xu, SongPo; Chen, YongJu; Quan, Wei; Liu, XiaoJun
2016-01-01
A novel and universal interference structure is found in the photoelectron momentum distribution of atoms in intense infrared laser field. Theoretical analysis shows that this structure can be attributed to a new form of Coulomb-field-driven backward-scattering of photoelectrons in the direction perpendicular to the laser field, in contrast to the conventional rescattering along the laser polarization direction. This transverse backward-scattering process is closely related to a family of photoelectrons initially ionized within a time interval of less than 200 attosecond around the crest of the laser electric field. Those electrons, acquiring near-zero return energy in the laser field, will be pulled back solely by the ionic Coulomb field and backscattered in the transverse direction. Moreover, this rescattering process mainly occurs at the first or the second return times, giving rise to different phases of the photoelectrons. The interference between these photoelectrons leads to unique curved interference ...
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-01-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of
Experimental whole-field interferometry for transverse vibration of plates
Ma, Chien-Ching; Huang, Chi-Hung
2004-04-01
Most of the work on vibration analysis of plates published in the literature are analytical and numerical and very few experimental results are available. Existing modal analysis techniques such as accelerometers and laser Doppler vibrometers are pointwise measurement techniques and are used in conjunction with spectrum analyzers and modal analysis software to characterize the vibration behaviour. In this study, a whole-field technique called amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry optical system is employed to investigate the vibration behaviour of square isotropic plates with different boundary conditions. This method is very convenient to investigate vibration objects because no contact is required compared to classical modal analysis using accelerometers. High-quality interferometric fringes for mode shapes are produced instantly by a video recording system. Based on the fact that clear fringe patterns will appear only at resonant frequencies, both resonant frequencies and corresponding mode shapes can be obtained experimentally using the present method. Two different types of boundary conditions are investigated in this study, namely free-free-free-free (FFFF, 27 modes) and clamped-clamped-clamped-clamped (CCCC, 12 modes). The numerical calculations by finite element method are also performed and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. Excellent agreements are obtained for both results of resonant frequencies and mode shapes.
Cantillon-Murphy, P.; Wald, L. L.; Adalsteinsson, E.; Zahn, M.
2010-09-01
In the presence of alternating-sinusoidal or rotating magnetic fields, magnetic nanoparticles will act to realign their magnetic moment with the applied magnetic field. The realignment is characterized by the nanoparticle's time constant, τ. As the magnetic field frequency is increased, the nanoparticle's magnetic moment lags the applied magnetic field at a constant angle for a given frequency, Ω, in rad s -1. Associated with this misalignment is a power dissipation that increases the bulk magnetic fluid's temperature which has been utilized as a method of magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia, particularly suited for cancer in low-perfusion tissue (e.g., breast) where temperature increases of between 4 and 7 °C above the ambient in vivo temperature cause tumor hyperthermia. This work examines the rise in the magnetic fluid's temperature in the MRI environment which is characterized by a large DC field, B0. Theoretical analysis and simulation is used to predict the effect of both alternating-sinusoidal and rotating magnetic fields transverse to B0. Results are presented for the expected temperature increase in small tumors ( ˜1 cm radius) over an appropriate range of magnetic fluid concentrations (0.002-0.01 solid volume fraction) and nanoparticle radii (1-10 nm). The results indicate that significant heating can take place, even in low-field MRI systems where magnetic fluid saturation is not significant, with careful the goal of this work is to examine, by means of analysis and simulation, the concept of interactive fluid magnetization using the dynamic behavior of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle suspensions in the MRI environment. In addition to the usual magnetic fields associated with MRI, a rotating magnetic field is applied transverse to the main B0 field of the MRI. Additional or modified magnetic fields have been previously proposed for hyperthermia and targeted drug delivery within MRI. Analytical predictions and numerical simulations of the
The influence of a transverse magnetic field on a subnormal glow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. In subnormal glow discharge under d.c. excitation at different pressure in a varying transverse magnetic field (0 to 30 G) some measurements have been carried out for various initial average tube currents. The voltage across the discharge increases and average tube current and residual current decreases in the ...
Xu, Ganggang
2016-07-15
We propose a new class of trans-Gaussian random fields named Tukey g-and-h (TGH) random fields to model non-Gaussian spatial data. The proposed TGH random fields have extremely flexible marginal distributions, possibly skewed and/or heavy-tailed, and, therefore, have a wide range of applications. The special formulation of the TGH random field enables an automatic search for the most suitable transformation for the dataset of interest while estimating model parameters. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimator and the probabilistic properties of the TGH random fields are investigated. An efficient estimation procedure, based on maximum approximated likelihood, is proposed and an extreme spatial outlier detection algorithm is formulated. Kriging and probabilistic prediction with TGH random fields are developed along with prediction confidence intervals. The predictive performance of TGH random fields is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies and an application to a dataset of total precipitation in the south east of the United States.
Ye, Hui; Cotic, Marija; Fehlings, Michael G; Carlen, Peter L
2011-01-01
During the electrical stimulation of a uniform, long, and straight nerve axon, the electric field oriented parallel to the axon has been widely accepted as the major field component that activates the axon. Recent experimental evidence has shown that the electric field oriented transverse to the axon is also sufficient to activate the axon, by inducing a transmembrane potential within the axon. The transverse field can be generated by a time-varying magnetic field via electromagnetic induction. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that influence the transmembrane potential induced by a transverse field during magnetic stimulation. Using an unmyelinated axon model, we have provided an analytic expression for the transmembrane potential under spatially uniform, time-varying magnetic stimulation. Polarization of the axon was dependent on the properties of the magnetic field (i.e., orientation to the axon, magnitude, and frequency). Polarization of the axon was also dependent on its own geometrical (i.e., radius of the axon and thickness of the membrane) and electrical properties (i.e., conductivities and dielectric permittivities). Therefore, this article provides evidence that aside from optimal coil design, tissue properties may also play an important role in determining the efficacy of axonal activation under magnetic stimulation. The mathematical basis of this conclusion was discussed. The analytic solution can potentially be used to modify the activation function in current cable equations describing magnetic stimulation.
Effect of transverse magnetic fields on a simulated in-line 6 MV linac.
St Aubin, J; Steciw, S; Fallone, B G
2010-08-21
The effects of a transverse magnetic field on an in-line side-coupled 6 MV linear accelerator are given. The results are directly applicable to a linac-MR system used for real-time image guided adaptive radiotherapy. Our previously designed end-to-end linac simulation incorporated the results from the axisymmetric 2D electron gun program EGN2w. However, since the magnetic fields being investigated are non-axisymmetric in nature for the work presented here, the electron gun simulation was performed using OPERA-3d/SCALA. The simulation results from OPERA-3d/SCALA showed excellent agreement with previous results. Upon the addition of external magnetic fields to our fully 3D linac simulation, it was found that a transverse magnetic field of 6 G resulted in a 45 +/- 1% beam loss, and by 14 G, no electrons were incident on the target. Transverse magnetic fields on the linac simulation produced a highly asymmetric focal spot at the target, which translated into a 13% profile asymmetry at 6 G. Upon translating the focal spot with respect to the target coordinates, profile symmetry was regained at the expense of a lateral shift in the dose profiles. It was found that all points in the penumbra failed a 1%/1 mm acceptance criterion for fields between 4 and 6 G. However, it was also found that the lateral profile shifts were corrected by adjusting the jaw positions asymmetrically.
The giant Stark effect in armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons under a transverse electric field
Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Pu; Zhou, Guanghui
2018-01-01
We study the variation of electronic properties for armchair-edge phosphorene nanoribbons (APNRs) modulated by a transverse electric field. Within the tight-binding model Hamiltonian, and by solving the differential Schrödinger equation, we find that a band gap closure appears at the critical field due to the giant Stark effect for an APNR. The gap closure has no field polarity, and the gap varies quadratically for small fields but becomes linear for larger ones. We attribute the giant Stark effect to the broken edge degeneracy, i.e., the charge redistributions of the conduction band minimum and valence band maximum states localized at opposite edges induced by the field. By combined with the Green's function approach, it is shown that in the presence of the critical field a gap of density of states (DOS) disappears and a high value DOS turns up at the energy position of the band gap closure. Finally, as the field increases, we find the band gap decreases more rapidly and the gap closure occurs at smaller fields for wider ribbons. Both the band gap and DOS variations with the field show an insulator-metal transition induced by a transverse electric field for the APNR. Our results show that wider APNRs are more appreciable to design field-effect transistors.
Eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model.
Mondaini, Rubem; Fratus, Keith R; Srednicki, Mark; Rigol, Marcos
2016-03-01
We study the onset of eigenstate thermalization in the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model (2D-TFIM) in the square lattice. We consider two nonequivalent Hamiltonians: the ferromagnetic 2D-TFIM and the antiferromagnetic 2D-TFIM in the presence of a uniform longitudinal field. We use full exact diagonalization to examine the behavior of quantum chaos indicators and of the diagonal matrix elements of operators of interest in the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. An analysis of finite size effects reveals that quantum chaos and eigenstate thermalization occur in those systems whenever the fields are nonvanishing and not too large.
Dynamical decoupling of local transverse random telegraph noise in a two-qubit gate
D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Paladino, E.
2015-10-01
Achieving high-fidelity universal two-qubit gates is a central requisite of any implementation of quantum information processing. The presence of spurious fluctuators of various physical origin represents a limiting factor for superconducting nanodevices. Operating qubits at optimal points, where the qubit-fluctuator interaction is transverse with respect to the single qubit Hamiltonian, considerably improved single qubit gates. Further enhancement has been achieved by dynamical decoupling (DD). In this article we investigate DD of transverse random telegraph noise acting locally on each of the qubits forming an entangling gate. Our analysis is based on the exact numerical solution of the stochastic Schrödinger equation. We evaluate the gate error under local periodic, Carr-Purcell and Uhrig DD sequences. We find that a threshold value of the number, n, of pulses exists above which the gate error decreases with a sequence-specific power-law dependence on n. Below threshold, DD may even increase the error with respect to the unconditioned evolution, a behaviour reminiscent of the anti-Zeno effect.
Quantum sensing of rotation velocity based on transverse field Ising model
Ma, Yu-Han; Sun, Chang-Pu
2017-10-01
We study a transverse-field Ising model (TFIM) in a rotational reference frame. We find that the effective Hamiltonian of the TFIM of this system depends on the system's rotation velocity. Since the rotation contributes an additional transverse field, the dynamics of TFIM sensitively responses to the rotation velocity at the critical point of quantum phase transition. This observation means that the TFIM can be used for quantum sensing of rotation velocity that can sensitively detect rotation velocity of the total system at the critical point. It is found that the resolution of the quantum sensing scheme we proposed is characterized by the half-width of Loschmidt echo of the dynamics of TFIM when it couples to a quantum system S. And the resolution of this quantum sensing scheme is proportional to the coupling strength δ between the quantum system S and the TFIM, and to the square root of the number of spins N belonging the TFIM.
Transient Simulation of a Rotating Conducting Cylinder in a Transverse Magnetic Field
2016-09-01
UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 795 Technical Report ARMET-TR-15078 TRANSIENT SIMULATION OF A ROTATING CONDUCTING CYLINDER IN...TITLE AND SUBTITLE TRANSIENT SIMULATION OF A ROTATING CONDUCTING CYLINDER IN A TRANSVERSE MAGNETIC FIELD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...vector detected within the projectile are affected by the spinning of the projectile. To study this, transient finite element analyses were conducted to
Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing
2017-09-01
In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.
Li, Xi; Lu, Zhenyuan; Fautrelle, Yves; Gagnoud, Annie; Moreau, Rene; Ren, Zhongming
2016-11-01
Effect of a weak transverse magnetic field on the microstructures in directionally solidified Fe-Ni and Pb-Bi peritectic alloys has been investigated experimentally. The results indicate that the magnetic field can induce the formation of banded and island-like structures and refine the primary phase in peritectic alloys. The above results are enhanced with increasing magnetic field. Furthermore, electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) analysis reveals that the magnetic field increases the Ni solute content on one side and enhances the solid solubility in the primary phase in the Fe-Ni alloy. The thermoelectric (TE) power difference at the liquid/solid interface of the Pb-Bi peritectic alloy is measured in situ, and the results show that a TE power difference exists at the liquid/solid interface. 3 D numerical simulations for the TE magnetic convection in the liquid are performed, and the results show that a unidirectional TE magnetic convection forms in the liquid near the liquid/solid interface during directional solidification under a transverse magnetic field and that the amplitude of the TE magnetic convection at different scales is different. The TE magnetic convections on the macroscopic interface and the cell/dendrite scales are responsible for the modification of microstructures during directional solidification under a magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hara, Masanori; Suehiro, Junya; Shigematsu, Hidetaka; Yano, Shinsuke (Kyushu Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Fukuoka, (Japan))
1989-09-20
When a transverse magnetic field is applied to an insulating system in vacuum, its dielectric strength deteriorates considerably and this breaking characteristic is considered to be caused by generation of impact ionization between the atoms of residual gas and electrons due to the cycloid movements of the latter. In this study, taking the above breaking mechanism into consideration, proposed were methods using a spiral spacer and an electric field control electrode as the methods of improving dielectric strength in vacuum of the cryogenic equipment generating such a strong magnetic field as superconducting magnet, etc.. Concerning the former method in case when a spiral pitch is infinitive and the latter method in case when a grounding electrode is installed in the neighborhood of the inside electrode, the respective effectiveness was demonstrated by experiments. In other words, with regard to the coaxial cylindrical electrode system, in case when no method of improving electrical insulation was applied, the breaking voltage decreased from about 20kV to about 1kV as the transverse magnetic field was made stronger, but in case when a spacer was used, the decline of electrical insulation could be suppressed within several kV up to the magnetic field of 4.65T and the magnetic field at which the decline of the breaking voltage started was increased three times by using a control electrode. 7 refs., 14 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xu Li
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A Ni-based superalloy CMSX-6 was directionally solidified at various drawing speeds (5–20 μm·s−1 and diameters (4 mm, 12 mm under a 0.5 T weak transverse magnetic field. The results show that the application of a weak transverse magnetic field significantly modified the solidification microstructure. It was found that if the drawing speed was lower than 10 μm·s−1, the magnetic field caused extensive macro-segregation in the mushy zone, and a change in the mushy zone length. The magnetic field significantly decreases the size of γ’ and the content of γ-γ’ eutectic. The formation of macro-segregation under a weak magnetic field was attributed to the interdendritic solute transport driven by the thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC. The γ’ phase refinement could be attributed to a decrease in nucleation activation energy owing to the magnetic field during solid phase transformation. The change of element segregation is responsible for the content decrease of γ-γ’ eutectic.
Trapped-Ion Quantum Simulation of an Ising Model with Transverse and Longitudinal Fields
2013-03-29
where Ωi is the Rabi frequency of the ith ion, M is the single ion mass, and bi,m is the normal-mode transformation matrix for ion i in mode m [17...transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields By(t) and Bx drive Rabi oscillations between the spin states |↓〉z and |↑〉z. Each effective field is gener...finding the lowest energy arrangement of q charged particles on N lattice sites. The creation of such periodic spin structures realizes a generalized Wigner
Subsonic Round and Plane Macro/Micro-jets in a Transverse Acoustic Field
Kozlov, V. V.; Grek, G. R.; Litvinenko, Yu. A.; Kozlov, G. V.
2011-09-01
Results of experimental studies on the mechanism of plane evolution and round macro-and micro-jet flows at low Reynolds numbers in a transverse acoustic field are discussed. New data on the jet development mechanism are obtained through hot-wire measurements. Smoke visualization of the jet flow with the use of stroboscopic laser illumination of the jet at frequencies of the acoustic influence on the latter. A lot of the new phenomena in development of the macro and micro-jets in a cross acoustic field are found out.
Stimulated Raman forward scattering of a laser in a plasma with transverse magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassoon, Khaleel; Salih, Hyder [School of Applied Sciences, University of Technology, Baghdad (Iraq); Tripathi, V K [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)], E-mail: kihassoun@yahoo.com
2009-12-15
The effect of a transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) of a laser in a plasma is studied. The x-mode excites an upper hybrid wave and two localized Stokes/anti-Stokes sidebands. The laser and the sideband exert a ponderomotive force on electrons driving the upper hybrid wave. The latter couples with the pump to drive the sidebands. The growth rate of SRFS monotonically increases by applying a static magnetic field. It also increases with the pump amplitude; however, the dependence is slower than linear.
Stimulated Raman forward scattering of a laser in a plasma with transverse magnetic field
Hassoon, Khaleel; Salih, Hyder; Tripathi, V. K.
2009-12-01
The effect of a transverse static magnetic field on stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS) of a laser in a plasma is studied. The x-mode excites an upper hybrid wave and two localized Stokes/anti-Stokes sidebands. The laser and the sideband exert a ponderomotive force on electrons driving the upper hybrid wave. The latter couples with the pump to drive the sidebands. The growth rate of SRFS monotonically increases by applying a static magnetic field. It also increases with the pump amplitude; however, the dependence is slower than linear.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nascimento, Denise A. do, E-mail: denise.a.n@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: minosneto@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J., E-mail: jsousa@edu.ufam.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Pacobahyba, Josefa T., E-mail: jtmpacobahyba@dfis.ufrr.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil)
2012-08-15
In this paper we study the critical behavior of a two-sublattice Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse ({Omega}) fields by using the effective-field theory. The model consists of ferromagnetic interaction J{sub x} in the x direction and antiferromagnetic interaction J{sub y} in the y direction in the presence of the H and {Omega} fields. We obtain the phase diagrams in the H-T and {Omega}-T planes changing values of the {Omega} and H parameters, respectively for fixed value at {lambda}=J{sub x}/J{sub y}=1. At null temperature, the ground state phase diagram in the {Omega}-H plane for several values of {lambda} parameter is analyzed. In the particular case of {lambda}=1 we compare our results with mean-field theory (MFT) and was not observed reentrant behavior around of the critical field H{sub c}/J{sub y}=2.0 for {Omega}=0 by using EFT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the last decade there has been a great interest in physics of the quantum phase transition in system at low dimensional. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the transverse Ising model has been studied by a variety of approximate methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the context of quantum phase transition and critical phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First time, is presented a study of the superantiferromagnetic transverse Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have obtained finite temperature and ground state phase diagrams.
Dynamics of Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Transverse Background Magnetic Field
Zhang, Yue
2017-10-01
A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been utilized to launch both plasma jets (open B-field) and plasma bubbles (closed B-field) into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) linear device at the University of New Mexico. These situations may have bearing on fusion plasmas (e.g. plasma injection for tokamak fueling, ELM pacing, or disruption mitigation) and astrophysical settings (e.g. astrophysical jet stability, coronal mass ejections, etc.). The magnetic Reynolds number of the gun plasma is 100 , so that magnetic advection dominates over magnetic diffusion. The gun plasma ram pressure, ρjetVjet2 >B02 / 2μ0 , the background magnetic pressure, so that the jet or bubble can easily penetrate the background B-field, B0. When the gun axial B-field is weak compared to the gun azimuthal field, a current-driven jet is formed with a global helical magnetic configuration. Applying the transverse background magnetic field, it is observed that the n = 1 kink mode is stabilized, while magnetic probe measurements show contrarily that the safety factor q(a) drops below unity. At the same time, a sheared axial jet velocity is measured. We conclude that the tension force arising from increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces the measured sheared flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold, resulting in the emergent kink stabilization of the injected plasma jet. In the case of injected bubbles, spheromak-like plasma formation is verified. However, when the spheromak plasma propagates into the transverse background magnetic field, the typical self-closed global symmetry magnetic configuration does not hold any more. In the region where the bubble toroidal field opposed the background B-field, the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability has been observed. Details of the experiment setup, diagnostics, experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Supported by the National Science Foundation
Mondaini, Rubem; Rigol, Marcos
2017-07-01
We study the matrix elements of few-body observables, focusing on the off-diagonal ones, in the eigenstates of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model. By resolving all symmetries, we relate the onset of quantum chaos to the structure of the matrix elements. In particular, we show that a general result of the theory of random matrices, namely, the value 2 of the ratio of variances (diagonal to off-diagonal) of the matrix elements of Hermitian operators, occurs in the quantum chaotic regime. Furthermore, we explore the behavior of the off-diagonal matrix elements of observables as a function of the eigenstate energy differences and show that it is in accordance with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis ansatz.
Rezania, Hamed; Azizi, Farshad
2018-02-01
We study the effects of a transverse magnetic field and electron doping on the thermoelectric properties of monolayer graphene in the context of Hubbard model at the antiferromagnetic sector. In particular, the temperature dependence of thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient has been investigated. Mean field approximation has been employed in order to obtain the electronic spectrum of the system in the presence of local electron-electron interaction. Our results show the peak in thermal conductivity moves to higher temperatures with increase of both chemical potential and Hubbard parameter. Moreover the increase of magnetic field leads to shift of peak in temperature dependence of thermal conductivity to higher temperatures. Finally the behavior of Seebeck coefficient in terms of temperature has been studied and the effects of magnetic field and Hubbard parameter on this coefficient have been investigated in details.
Confinement and dynamics of laser-produced plasma expanding across a transverse magnetic field.
Harilal, S S; Tillack, M S; O'Shay, B; Bindhu, C V; Najmabadi, F
2004-02-01
The dynamics and confinement of laser-created plumes expanding across a transverse magnetic field have been investigated. 1.06 microm, 8 ns pulses from a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser were used to create an aluminum plasma which was allowed to expand across a 0.64 T magnetic field. Fast photography, emission spectroscopy, and time of flight spectroscopy were used as diagnostic tools. Changes in plume structure and dynamics, enhanced emission and ionization, and velocity enhancement were observed in the presence of the magnetic field. Photographic studies showed that the plume is not fully stopped and diffuses across the field. The temperature of the plume was found to increase due to Joule heating and adiabatic compression. The time of flight studies showed that all of the species are slowed down significantly. A multiple peak temporal distribution was observed for neutral species.
Field Induced Memory Effects in Random Nematics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amid Ranjkesh
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We studied numerically external field induced memory effects in randomly perturbed nematic liquid crystals. Random anisotropy nematic-type lattice model was used. The impurities imposing orientational disorder were randomly spatially distributed with the concentration p below the percolation threshold. Simulations were carried for finite temperatures, where we varied p, interaction strength between LC molecules, and impurities and external field B. In the {B,T} plane we determined lines separating short range—quasi long range and quasi long range—long range order. Furthermore, crossover regime separating external field and random field dominated regime was estimated. We calculated remanent nematic ordering in samples at B=0 as a function of the previously experienced external field strength B.
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.
Thermal boundary layer on a continuously moving semi-infinite flat plate in the presence of transverse magnetic field with heat flux has been examined. Similarity solutions have been derived and the resulting equations are integrated numerically...
Markov Random Field Surface Reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Larsen, Rasmus
2010-01-01
) and knowledge about data (the observation model) in an orthogonal fashion. Local models that account for both scene-specific knowledge and physical properties of the scanning device are described. Furthermore, how the optimal distance field can be computed is demonstrated using conjugate gradients, sparse...
Tomilin, A. K.; Kurilskaya, N. F.
2017-10-01
A model problem of transversal vibrations of an elastic conducting rod in the magnetic field is studied. Vibrations in the rod are excited due to kinematic and force factors. A partial differential equation of motion containing the integral term for the electromagnetic force was constructed. After applying the Fourier procedure, the problem is reduced to a set of ODEs. The condition for passive stabilization of the main vibrational mode’s amplitude is derived. A method of active electromagnetic suppression of certain vibrational modes is proposed.
A mixed convection wall plume in a constant transverse magnetic field: new correct results
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pantokratoras, Asterios, E-mail: apantokr@civil.duth.g [School of Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)
2010-12-15
This work concerns the wall plume of an electrically conducting fluid situated in a vertical free stream with a constant velocity. The flow is retarded by a uniform transverse magnetic field. The problem has been investigated in the past, but the results obtained previously are wrong because the momentum equation used is not appropriate. The results of the present work were obtained by direct numerical solution of the boundary layer equations taking into account the correct form of the momentum equation. The maximum difference between the results is 40% and increases further as the magnetic parameter increases. Taking into account this fact, these results essentially form the first solution to this classical problem.
Artru, Xavier
2014-01-01
The tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom excited in the presence of a static electric field is investigated for the case where, before being extracted, the electron has an orbital angular momentum L perpendicular to the field E. The escaping electron has a nonzero mean transverse velocity in the direction of E cross . This asymmetry is similar to the Collins effect in the fragmentation into hadrons of a transversely polarized quark. In addition, the linear Stark effect make and oscillate in time. The degree of asymmetry is calculated at leading order in E for an initial state of maximum transverse . The conditions for the observation of this asymmetry are discussed.
A Method to Measure the Transverse Magnetic Field and Orient the Rotational Axis of Stars
Leone, Francesco; Scalia, Cesare; Gangi, Manuele; Giarrusso, Marina; Munari, Matteo; Scuderi, Salvatore; Trigilio, Corrado; Stift, Martin J.
2017-10-01
Direct measurements of stellar magnetic fields are based on the splitting of spectral lines into polarized Zeeman components. With a few exceptions, Zeeman signatures are hidden in data noise, and a number of methods have been developed to measure the average, over the visible stellar disk, of longitudinal components of the magnetic field. At present, faint stars are only observable via low-resolution spectropolarimetry, which is a method based on the regression of the Stokes V signal against the first derivative of Stokes I. Here, we present an extension of this method to obtain a direct measurement of the transverse component of stellar magnetic fields by the regression of high-resolution Stokes Q and U as a function of the second derivative of Stokes I. We also show that it is possible to determine the orientation in the sky of the rotation axis of a star on the basis of the periodic variability of the transverse component due to its rotation. The method is applied to data, obtained with the Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter along the rotational period of the well known magnetic star β CrB.
Concentration inequalities for random fields via coupling
Chazottes, J. R.; Collet, P.; Kuelske, C.; Redig, F.
We present a new and simple approach to concentration inequalities in the context of dependent random processes and random fields. Our method is based on coupling and does not use information inequalities. In case one has a uniform control on the coupling, one obtains exponential concentration
Chen, Jian; Wan, Chenhao; Kong, Lingjiang; Zhan, Qiwen
2017-04-01
Based on the properties of the dove prism and the Fourier optics approach, the coordinate relationships among four spatial light modulator (SLM) sections in a vectorial optical field generator are derived and experimentally verified. Taking the coordinate system of the first SLM section as a reference, the coordinate displacements between the first section and subsequent sections are determined via employing specially designed four-quadrant patterns, which enable the visualization of the degree of freedom controlled by each SLM section. A complex optical field could be accurately generated through combining the derived coordinate relationships and pre-compensation of the measured coordinate displacements. Several typical complex optical fields are experimentally generated to demonstrate the validity of the proposed transverse alignment method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alfaisal A. Hasan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The Magnetohydrodynamic stability of a streaming cylindrical model penetrated by varying transverse magnetic field has been discussed. The problem is formulated, the basic equations are solved, upon appropriate boundary conditions the eigenvalue relation is derived and discussed analytically, and the results are verified numerically. The capillary force is destabilizing in a small axisymmetric domain 0<<1 and stabilizing otherwise. The streaming has a strong destabilizing effect in all kinds of perturbation. The toroidal varying magnetic field interior the fluid has no direct effect at all on the stability of the fluid column. The axial exterior field has strong stabilizing effect on the model. The effect of all acting forces altogether could be identified via the numerical analysis of the stability theory of the present model.
Ohkuwa, Masaki; Nishimori, Hidetoshi
2017-11-01
We study the energy gap between the ground state and the first excited state of a mean-field-type non-stoquastic Hamiltonian by a semi-classical analysis. The fully connected mean-field model with p-body ferromagnetic interactions under a transverse field has a first-order quantum phase transition for p ≥ 3. This first-order transition is known to be reduced to second order for p ≥ 5 by an introduction of antiferromagnetic transverse interactions, which makes the Hamiltonian non-stoquastic. This reduction of the order of transition means an exponential speedup of quantum annealing by adiabatic processes because the first-order transition is shown to have an exponentially small energy gap whereas the second order case does not. We apply a semi-classical method to analytically derive the explicit expression of the rate of the exponential decay of the energy gap at first-order transitions. The result reveals how the property of first-order transition changes as a function of the system parameters. We also derive the exact closed-form expression for the critical point where the first-order transition line disappears within the ferromagnetic phase. These results help us understand how the antiferromagnetic transverse interactions affect the performance of quantum annealing by controlling the effects of non-stoquasticity in the Hamiltonian.
Behavior of cylindrical liquid jets evolving in a transverse acoustic field
Carpentier, Jean-Baptiste; Baillot, Françoise; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Dumouchel, Christophe
2009-02-01
This paper presents a theoretical and an experimental investigation of low-velocity cylindrical liquid jets submitted to transverse planar acoustic waves. For this purpose, the behavior of a liquid jet traversing the section of a Kundt tube was examined. Experiments reported that the liquid jet could be either deviated from its trajectory or deformed as a succession of lobes oriented in space and whose length and width depend on the jet acoustic environment. Furthermore, for a sufficient acoustic velocity, the jet deformation increases in such proportion that a premature and vivid atomization mechanism disintegrates the liquid flow. Theoretical models are proposed to understand these behaviors. The first one calls out for acoustic radiation pressure to explain the jet deviation. The second one consists in a modal analysis of the vibrations of a jet when submitted to a transverse stationary acoustic field. As a first approach, a simplified two-dimensional model is proposed. This model reports that a sudden exposition of the jet to an acoustic field triggers two jet eigenmodes. One of them induces jet deformations that were not experimentally observed. This part of the solution emerges due to theoretical deficiencies. However, the second mode reproduces the lobe formation and leads to atomization criteria in good agreement with the experimental results. The paper ends with an extension of the mathematical development in three dimensions in order to provide a basis to a more consistent model.
Transverse beam dynamics in non-linear Fixed Field Alternating Gradient accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haj, Tahar M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Meot, F. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-03-02
In this paper, we present some aspects of the transverse beam dynamics in Fixed Field Ring Accelerators (FFRA): we start from the basic principles in order to derive the linearized transverse particle equations of motion for FFRA, essentially FFAGs and cyclotrons are considered here. This is a simple extension of a previous work valid for linear lattices that we generalized by including the bending terms to ensure its correctness for FFAG lattice. The space charge term (contribution of the internal coulombian forces of the beam) is contained as well, although it is not discussed here. The emphasis is on the scaling FFAG type: a collaboration work is undertaken in view of better understanding the properties of the 150 MeV scaling FFAG at KURRI in Japan, and progress towards high intensity operation. Some results of the benchmarking work between different codes are presented. Analysis of certain type of field imperfections revealed some interesting features about this machine that explain some of the experimental results and generalize the concept of a scaling FFAG to a non-scaling one for which the tune variations obey a well-defined law.
Coulomb singularity in the transverse momentum distribution for strong-field single ionization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudenko, A; Zrost, K; Ergler, Th; Voitkiv, A B; Najjari, B; Jesus, V L B de; Feuerstein, B; Schroeter, C D; Moshammer, R; Ullrich, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany)
2005-06-14
We present high-resolution momentum distributions of ions and electrons created in single ionization of He, Ne and Ar targets by intense (0.15-2 PW cm{sup -2}) short-pulsed (25 fs) linearly polarized laser fields in the direction perpendicular to the polarization. Instead of a Gaussian shape predicted by standard tunnelling theory, the experimental data exhibit a sharp cusp-like peak at zero transverse momentum. The comparison of experimental data with (i) calculations performed within the strong-field approximation employing a Coulomb-Volkov wavefunction to model the final electron state and (ii) results of recent semiclassical calculations, shows that the 'cusp' appears due to the long-range Coulomb interaction between the emitted electron and the remaining ion. A similar structure was previously observed for ion-atom collisions. (letter to the editor)
Rise of an argon bubble in liquid steel in the presence of a transverse magnetic field
Jin, K.; Kumar, P.; Vanka, S. P.; Thomas, B. G.
2016-09-01
The rise of gaseous bubbles in viscous liquids is a fundamental problem in fluid physics, and it is also a common phenomenon in many industrial applications such as materials processing, food processing, and fusion reactor cooling. In this work, the motion of a single argon gas bubble rising in quiescent liquid steel under an external magnetic field is studied numerically using a Volume-of-Fluid method. To mitigate spurious velocities normally generated during numerical simulation of multiphase flows with large density differences, an improved algorithm for surface tension modeling, originally proposed by Wang and Tong ["Deformation and oscillations of a single gas bubble rising in a narrow vertical tube," Int. J. Therm. Sci. 47, 221-228 (2008)] is implemented, validated and used in the present computations. The governing equations are integrated by a second-order space and time accurate numerical scheme, and implemented on multiple Graphics Processing Units with high parallel efficiency. The motion and terminal velocities of the rising bubble under different magnetic fields are compared and a reduction in rise velocity is seen in cases with the magnetic field applied. The shape deformation and the path of the bubble are discussed. An elongation of the bubble along the field direction is seen, and the physics behind these phenomena is discussed. The wake structures behind the bubble are visualized and effects of the magnetic field on the wake structures are presented. A modified drag coefficient is obtained to include the additional resistance force caused by adding a transverse magnetic field.
Single atom cavity quantum electrodynamics with non-transversally polarized light fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Junge, Christian; O' Shea, Danny; Volz, Juergen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, TU Wien, Atominstitut, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria)
2013-07-01
Whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators are versatile devices for enhancing light-matter interaction. They combine ultra high quality factors and small mode volumes with near lossless in- and out-coupling of light via tapered fiber couplers. Here, we report on a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) experiment in which single {sup 85}Rb atoms interact in the strong coupling regime with a WGM in an ultra high-Q bottle microresonator. We present optical transmission spectra of our system that fundamentally deviate from the predictions of the established theoretical model for CQED in ring resonators. We identify the non-transversal character of the field of WGMs as the origin of this discrepancy. Excellent agreement is found between our data and the predictions of an extended theoretical model that accounts for the full vectorial description of the WGMs. Our studies demonstrate that the non-transversal character of WGMs allows one to realize a paradigmatic quantum system that is ideally suited for basic studies as well as for technological applications.
Alarcón, J. M.; Hiller Blin, A. N.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.; Weiss, C.
2017-08-01
The baryon electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of two-dimensional densities describing the distribution of charge and magnetization in transverse space at fixed light-front time. We calculate the transverse densities of the spin-1/2 flavor-octet baryons at peripheral distances b = O (Mπ-1) using methods of relativistic chiral effective field theory (χEFT) and dispersion analysis. The densities are represented as dispersive integrals over the imaginary parts of the form factors in the timelike region (spectral functions). The isovector spectral functions on the two-pion cut t > 4 Mπ2 are calculated using relativistic χEFT including octet and decuplet baryons. The χEFT calculations are extended into the ρ meson mass region using an N / D method that incorporates the pion electromagnetic form factor data. The isoscalar spectral functions are modeled by vector meson poles. We compute the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in the octet baryon states, estimate the uncertainties, and determine the quark flavor decomposition. The approach can be extended to baryon form factors of other operators and the moments of generalized parton distributions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, M; Fallone, B; Rathee, S [Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB (Canada)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Solid state radiation detectors are often used for dose profiles and percent depth dose measurements. The dose response of selected solid state detectors is evaluated in varying transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields for eventual use in MR-Linac devices. Methods: A PTW 60003 and IBA PFD detector were modeled in the Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, incorporating a magnetic field which was varied in strength and oriented both transversely and longitudinally with respect to the incident photon beam. The detectors' long axis was in turn oriented either parallel or perpendicular to the photon beam. Dose to the active volume of each detector was scored, and its ratio to dose with zero magnetic field strength (dose response) was determined. Accuracy of the simulations was evaluated by measurements using both chambers taken at low field with a small electromagnet. Simulations were also performed in a water phantom to compare to the in air results. Results: Significant dose response was found in transverse field geometries, nearing 20% at 1.5T. The response is highly dependent on relative orientations to the magnetic field and photon beam, and on detector composition. Low field measurements confirm these results. In the presence of longitudinal magnetic fields, the detectors exhibit little dose response, reaching 0.5–1% at 1.5T regardless of detector orientation. Water tank simulations compared well to the in air simulations when not at the beam periphery, where in transverse magnetic fields only, the water tank simulations differed from the in air results. Conclusion: Transverse magnetic fields can cause large deviations in dose response, and are highly position orientation dependent. Comparatively, longitudinal magnetic fields exhibit little to no dose response in each detector as a function of magnetic field strength. Water tank simulations show longitudinal fields are generally easier to work with, but each detector must be evaluated separately.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorin Nedelcu
2014-12-01
Full Text Available By molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the transport of charged polymers in confinement, under externally applied electric fields, in straight cylinders of uniform diameter and in the presence of monovalent or multivalent counterions. The applied electric field has two components; a longitudinal component along the axis of the cylinder and a transversal component perpendicular to the cylinder axis. The direction of electrophoretic velocity depends on the polyelectrolyte length, valency of the counterions present in solution and transversal electric field value. A statistical model is put forward in order to explain these observations.
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01
Kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for degenerate collisional plasmas with integral of collisions of relaxation type BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) is used. Square-law expansion on size of intensity of electric field for kinetic equation, Lorentz's force and integral of collisions is considered. It is shown, that nonlinearity leads to generation of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. Longitudinal current is perpendicular to the known transversal classical current received at the linear analysis. The case of small values of wave number is considered. When frequency of collisions tends to the zero, all received results for collisional pass plasmas in corresponding results for collisionless plasmas. Graphic research of the real and imaginary part current density is carried out.
Influence of a transverse magnetic field on the dose deposited by a 6 MV linear accelerator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richter Sebastian
2017-09-01
Full Text Available An integrated system of a linear accelerator and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI device may provide real-time imaging during radiotherapy treatments. This work investigated changes affecting the dose deposition caused by a magnetic field (B-field transverse to the beam direction by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Two different phantoms were used: A water phantom (Ph1 and a water-air phantom (Ph2 with a 4-2-4 cm water-air-water cross section. Dose depositions were scored for B-field values of 0 T, 0.35 T, 0.5 T, 1.5 T, 3 T and 5 T. Beams were based on a precalculated photon spectrum taken from an earlier simulated Elekta 6 MV FFF accelerator. All lateral profiles in Ph1 showed a Lorentz force driven shift w.r.t. the B-field strength, presenting a steeper penumbra in the shift's direction. Depositions were shifted up to 0.3 cm for 5 T, showing a constant central axis plateau-dose or an increase by 2.3 % for small fields. Depth-dose curves in Ph1 showed a shift of the dose maximum towards the beam entrance direction for increasing B-field of up to 1.1 cm; the maximum dose was increased by 6.9 %. In Ph2, an asymmetric dose increase by up to 36.9 % was observed for 1.5 T at the water-air boundary, resulting from the electron return effect (ERE. In our scenario, B-field dependent dose shifts and local build-ups were observed, which consequently affect the resulting dose distribution and need to be considered in magnetic resonance guided radiotherapy treatment planning.
Gogichaishvili, D.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Horton, W.; Chagelishvili, G.; Bodo, G.
2017-08-01
We investigate magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in Keplerian disks with a nonzero net azimuthal magnetic field using shearing box simulations. As distinct from previous studies, we analyze turbulence dynamics in Fourier ({\\boldsymbol{k}}-) space to understand its sustenance. The linear growth of the MRI with the azimuthal field has a transient character and is anisotropic in Fourier space, leading to anisotropy of nonlinear processes in Fourier space. As a result, the main nonlinear process appears to be a new type of angular redistribution of modes in Fourier space—the nonlinear transverse cascade—rather than the usual direct/inverse cascade. We demonstrate that the turbulence is sustained by the interplay of the linear transient growth of the MRI (which is the only energy supply for the turbulence) and the transverse cascade. These two processes operate at large length scales, comparable to the box size (disk scale height); the corresponding small wavenumber area, called the vital area in Fourier space, is crucial for the sustenance, while outside the vital area, direct cascade dominates. The interplay of the linear and nonlinear processes in Fourier space is generally too intertwined for a vivid schematization. Nevertheless, we reveal the basic subcycle of the sustenance that clearly shows the synergy of these processes in the self-organization of the magnetized flow system. This synergy is quite robust and persists for the considered different aspect ratios of the simulation boxes. The spectral characteristics of the dynamical processes in these boxes are qualitatively similar, indicating the universality of the sustenance mechanism of the MRI turbulence.
Entropy estimates for simple random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Justesen, Jørn
1995-01-01
We consider the problem of determining the maximum entropy of a discrete random field on a lattice subject to certain local constraints on symbol configurations. The results are expected to be of interest in the analysis of digitized images and two dimensional codes. We shall present some examples...... of binary and ternary fields with simple constraints. Exact results on the entropies are known only in a few cases, but we shall present close bounds and estimates that are computationally efficient...
Quantum correlated cluster mean-field theory applied to the transverse Ising model.
Zimmer, F M; Schmidt, M; Maziero, Jonas
2016-06-01
Mean-field theory (MFT) is one of the main available tools for analytical calculations entailed in investigations regarding many-body systems. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in ameliorating this kind of method, mainly with the aim of incorporating geometric and correlation properties of these systems. The correlated cluster MFT (CCMFT) is an improvement that succeeded quite well in doing that for classical spin systems. Nevertheless, even the CCMFT presents some deficiencies when applied to quantum systems. In this article, we address this issue by proposing the quantum CCMFT (QCCMFT), which, in contrast to its former approach, uses general quantum states in its self-consistent mean-field equations. We apply the introduced QCCMFT to the transverse Ising model in honeycomb, square, and simple cubic lattices and obtain fairly good results both for the Curie temperature of thermal phase transition and for the critical field of quantum phase transition. Actually, our results match those obtained via exact solutions, series expansions or Monte Carlo simulations.
Arc Deflection Length Affected by Transverse Rotating Magnetic Field with Lateral Gas
Shiino, Toru; Ishii, Yoko; Yamamoto, Shinji; Iwao, Toru; High Current Energy Laboratory (HiCEL) Team
2016-10-01
Gas metal arc welding using shielding gas is often used in the welding industry. However, the arc deflection affected by lateral gas is problem because of inappropriate heat transfer. Shielding gas is used in order to prevent the instability affected by the arc deflection. However, the shielding gas causes turbulence, then blowhole of weld defect occurs because the arc affected by the instability is contaminated by the air. Thus, the magnetic field is applied to the arc in order to stabilize the arc using low amount of shielding gas. The method of applying the transverse rotating magnetic field (RMF) to the arc is one of the methods to prevent the arc instability. The RMF drives the arc because of electromagnetic force. The driven arc is considered to be prevented to arc deflection of lateral gas because the arc is restrained by the magnetic field because of the driven arc. In addition, it is assume the RMF prevented to the arc deflection of lateral gas from the multiple directions. In this paper, the arc deflection length affected by the RMF with lateral gas was elucidated in order to know the effect of the RMF for arc stabilization. Specifically, the arc deflection length affected by the magnetic frequency and the magnetic flux density is measured by high speed video camera. As a result, the arc deflection length decreases with increasing magnetic frequency, and the arc deflection length increases with increasing the magnetic flux density.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hifdi Ahmed
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The linear stability of plan Poiseuille flow of an electrically conducting viscoelastic fluid in the presence of a transverse magnetic field is investigated numerically. The fourth-order Sommerfeld equation governing the stability analysis is solved by spectral method with expansions in lagrange’s polynomials, based on collocation points of Gauss-Lobatto. The critical values of Reynolds number, wave number and wave speed are computed. The results are shown through the neutral curve. The main purpose of this work is to check the combined effect of magnetic field and fluid’s elasticity on the stability of the plane Poiseuille flow. Based on the results obtained in this work, the magnetic field is predicted to have a stabilizing effect on the Poiseuille flow of viscoelastic fluids. Hence, it will be shown that for second-order fluids (K 0 is that the critical Reynolds numbers Rec increase when the Hartman number M increases for certain value of elasticity number K and decrease for others. The latter result is in contrast to previous studies.
Random field estimation approach to robot dynamics
Rodriguez, Guillermo
1990-01-01
The difference equations of Kalman filtering and smoothing recursively factor and invert the covariance of the output of a linear state-space system driven by a white-noise process. Here it is shown that similar recursive techniques factor and invert the inertia matrix of a multibody robot system. The random field models are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. They are easier to describe than the models based on classical mechanics, which typically require extensive derivation and manipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems. With the spatially random models, more primitive locally specified computations result in a global collective system behavior equivalent to that obtained with deterministic models. The primary goal of applying random field estimation is to provide a concise analytical foundation for solving robot control and motion planning problems.
Markov random fields on triangle meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2010-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF). Our scheme is formulated as two coupled processes. A vertex process is used to smooth the mesh by displacing the vertices according to a MRF smoothness prior, while an independent edge process label...
Markov Random Fields on Triangle Meshes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Vedrana; Aanæs, Henrik; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2010-01-01
In this paper we propose a novel anisotropic smoothing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF). Our scheme is formulated as two coupled processes. A vertex process is used to smooth the mesh by displacing the vertices according to a MRF smoothness prior, while an independent edge process label...
Gaussian Markov random fields theory and applications
Rue, Havard
2005-01-01
Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) models are most widely used in spatial statistics - a very active area of research in which few up-to-date reference works are available. This is the first book on the subject that provides a unified framework of GMRFs with particular emphasis on the computational aspects. This book includes extensive case-studies and, online, a c-library for fast and exact simulation. With chapters contributed by leading researchers in the field, this volume is essential reading for statisticians working in spatial theory and its applications, as well as quantitative researchers in a wide range of science fields where spatial data analysis is important.
Transverse Cascade and Sustenance of Turbulence in Keplerian Disks with an Azimuthal Magnetic Field
Gogichaishvili, D.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Horton, W.; Chagelishvili, G.; Bodo, G.
2017-10-01
The magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the sheared rotational Keplerian explains fundamental problems for both astrophysics and toroidal laboratory plasmas. The turbulence occurs before the threshold for the linear eigen modes. The work shows the turbulence occurs in nonzero toroidal magnetic field with a sheared toroidal flow velocity. We analyze the turbulence in Fourier k-space and x-space each time step to clarify the nonlinear energy-momentum transfers that produce the sustenance in the linearly stable plasma. The nonlinear process is a type 3D angular redistribution of modes in Fourier space - a transverse cascade - rather than the direct/inverse cascades. The turbulence is sustained an interplay of the linear transient growth from the radial gradient of the toroidal velocity (which is the only energy supply for the turbulence) and the transverse cascade. There is a relatively small ``vital area in Fourier space'' is crucial for the sustenance. Outside the vital area the direct cascade dominates. The interplay of the linear and nonlinear processes is generally too intertwined in k-space for a classical turbulence characterization. Subcycles occur from the interactions that maintain self-organization nonlinear turbulence. The spectral characteristics in four simulations are similar showing the universality of the sustenance mechanism of the shear flow driven MHDs-turbulence. Funded by the US Department of Energy under Grant DE-FG02-04ER54742 and the Space and Geophysics Laboratory at the University of Texas at Austin. G. Mamatsashvili is supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, Germany.
Time evolution during and after finite-time quantum quenches in the transverse-field Ising chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatjana Puskarov, Dirk Schuricht
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We study the time evolution in the transverse-field Ising chain subject to quantum quenches of finite duration, ie, a continuous change in the transverse magnetic field over a finite time. Specifically, we consider the dynamics of the total energy, one- and two-point correlation functions and Loschmidt echo during and after the quench as well as their stationary behaviour at late times. We investigate how different quench protocols affect the dynamics and identify universal properties of the relaxation.
Zhang, Yue; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Lynn, Alan G.
2017-01-01
Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys.81, 345810104 (2015)]. Magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink-stabilizati...
Li, Hanxiao; Fautrelle, Yves; Hou, Long; Du, Dafan; Zhang, Yikun; Ren, Zhongming; Lu, Xionggang; Moreau, Rene; Li, Xi
2016-02-01
The influence of a weak transverse magnetic field on the morphology and orientation of Al3Ni dendrites in directionally solidified Al-12 wt% Ni alloys was investigated. The experimental results indicated that the magnetic field caused segregation. It was also found that the application of a magnetic field decreased the primary dendrite spacing. By means of electronic backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis, the orientation of the Al3Ni dendrite was studied. In the case of no magnetic field, the crystal direction of the Al3Ni crystal was oriented along the solidification direction. When a transverse magnetic field was applied, the crystal direction rotated to the magnetic field direction, whereas the crystal direction remained oriented along the solidification direction. The above experimental results are discussed in the context of thermoelectric magnetic convection (TEMC) and crystal anisotropy.
Random Circles and Fields on Circles.
1986-05-01
p is on the true circle C ; X is the corresponding radius of the random circle -5- Examples and comments Let W be a Wiener process on 3+, let a > 0 be...properties on C when M = W, it is expected that X be the analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process on the circle C . Indeed, the representation (2.12) shows this...evolution in time of a random field on the circle C . -35- The message of the following theorem is that the sections of X are all stationary and Markov
Effect of magnetic field on the propagation of quasi-transverse ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
transverse waves in a nonlinear perfectly conducting nonhomogeneous elastic medium in the presence of a uniform magnetic ﬁeld transverse to the direction of wave propagation. Different types of ﬁgures have been drawn to exhibit the distortion of ...
Bogdanov, G; Ludwig, R
2002-03-01
The performance modeling of RF resonators at high magnetic fields of 4.7 T and more requires a physical approach that goes beyond conventional lumped circuit concepts. The treatment of voltages and currents as variables in time and space leads to a coupled transmission line model, whereby the electric and magnetic fields are assumed static in planes orthogonal to the length of the resonator, but wave-like along its longitudinal axis. In this work a multiconductor transmission line (MTL) model is developed and successfully applied to analyze a 12-element unloaded and loaded microstrip line transverse electromagnetic (TEM) resonator coil for animal studies. The loading involves a homogeneous cylindrical dielectric insert of variable radius and length. This model formulation is capable of estimating the resonance spectrum, field distributions, and certain types of losses in the coil, while requiring only modest computational resources. The boundary element method is adopted to compute all relevant transmission line parameters needed to set up the transmission line matrices. Both the theoretical basis and its engineering implementation are discussed and the resulting model predictions are placed in context with measurements. A comparison between a conventional lumped circuit model and this distributed formulation is conducted, showing significant departures in the resonance response at higher frequencies. This MTL model is applied to simulate two small-bore animal systems: one of 7.5-cm inner diameter, tuned to 200 MHz (4.7 T for proton imaging), and one of 13.36-cm inner diameter, tuned to both 200 and 300 MHz (7 T). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Random wave fields and scintillated beams
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2009-01-01
Full Text Available fields . Artificial vortex fields CSIR National Laser Centre – p.2/29 Scintillated optical beams When an optical beam propagates through a turbulent atmosphere, the index variations cause random phase modulations that lead to distortions of the optical... beam. CSIR National Laser Centre – p.3/29 Weak scintillation If the scintillation is weak the resulting phase function of the optical beam is still continuous. Such a weakly scintillated beam can be corrected by an adaptive optical system. CSIR National...
Gradient Boosting for Conditional Random Fields
2014-09-23
evidence boosting. In Proceedings of the 20th International Joint Conference on Artifical Intelligence , IJCAI’07, 2007. [13] O. Meshi, D. Sontag, T...Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics (AISTATS’10), 2010. [3] J. Domke. Structured learning via logistic regression. In Advances in Neural...Artificial Intelligence (UAI’10), pages 302–311, 2010. [12] L. Liao, T. Choudhury, D. Fox, and H. Kautz. Training conditional random fields using virtual
De Luca, R.
2009-01-01
It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…
Kihara Rurimo, G.; Schardt, M.; Quabis, S.; Malzer, S.; Dotzler, C.; Winkler, A.; Leuchs, G.; Döhler, G.H.; Driscoll, D.; Hanson, M.; Gossard, A.C.; Pereira, S.F.
2006-01-01
We report a method to measure the electric energy density of longitudinal and transverse electric field components of strongly focused polarized laser beams. We used a quantum well photodetector and exploited the polarization dependent optical transitions of light holes and heavy holes to probe the
Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin
2015-09-01
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences.
Mandrà, Salvatore; Zhu, Zheng; Katzgraber, Helmut G
2017-02-17
We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated with a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009)NJOPFM1367-263010.1088/1367-2630/11/7/073021]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.
Esmaeeli, Asghar
2016-07-01
Computer simulations are performed to study translational motion and deformation of a liquid column or jet, in a plane perpendicular to its axis, due to a transverse electric field. A front tracking/finite difference scheme is used in conjunction with the Taylor-Melcher leaky dielectric theory to solve the governing equations. The column is confined within a rectangular channel, wall-bounded in the vertical direction and periodic in the horizontal direction. It is shown that perfect dielectric columns move toward electrode wall of shorter initial distance, but the leaky dielectric columns may move toward or away from it, depending on the relative importance of the ratios (drop fluid to suspending fluid) of their electric permittivity and conductivity. Furthermore, the degree of interface deformation might increase or decrease with the initial separation distance from the shorter electrode wall due to the same factor. Scaling arguments are used to discern the correlation between the translational velocity and the initial separation distance from the electrodes.
Magnetic quantum correlations in the one-dimensional transverse-field X X Z model
Mahdavifar, Salimeh; Mahdavifar, Saeed; Jafari, R.
2017-11-01
One-dimensional spin-1/2 systems are well-known candidates to study the quantum correlations between particles. In condensed matter physics, studies often are restricted to first-neighbor particles. In this work, we consider the one-dimensional X X Z model in a transverse magnetic field (TF) which is not integrable except at specific points. Analytical expressions for quantum correlations (entanglement and quantum discord) between spin pairs at any distance are obtained for both zero and finite temperature by using the analytical approach proposed by Caux et al. [Phys. Rev. B 68, 134431 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.134431]. We compare the efficiency of the quantum discord (QD) with respect to the entanglement in the detection of critical points as the neighboring spin pairs go farther than the next-nearest neighbors. In the absence of the TF and at zero temperature, we show that the QD for spin pairs farther than the second neighbors is able to capture the critical points while the pairwise entanglement is absent. In contrast with the pairwise entanglement, two-site QD is effectively long range in the critical regimes where it decays algebraically with the distance between pairs. We also show that the thermal QD between neighbor spins possesses strong distinctive behavior at the critical point that can be seen at finite temperature and, therefore, spotlights the critical point while the entanglement fails in this task.
Random walk study of electron motion in helium in crossed electromagnetic fields
Englert, G. W.
1972-01-01
Random walk theory, previously adapted to electron motion in the presence of an electric field, is extended to include a transverse magnetic field. In principle, the random walk approach avoids mathematical complexity and concomitant simplifying assumptions and permits determination of energy distributions and transport coefficients within the accuracy of available collisional cross section data. Application is made to a weakly ionized helium gas. Time of relaxation of electron energy distribution, determined by the random walk, is described by simple expressions based on energy exchange between the electron and an effective electric field. The restrictive effect of the magnetic field on electron motion, which increases the required number of collisions per walk to reach a terminal steady state condition, as well as the effect of the magnetic field on electron transport coefficients and mean energy can be quite adequately described by expressions involving only the Hall parameter.
Random magnetic field and quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates.
Ye, J
2001-01-08
By a singular gauge transformation, the quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates is mapped into a charge-neutral Dirac moving in short-range correlated random scalar and long-range correlated vector potential. A fully quantum mechanical approach to longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivities is presented. The semiclassical Volovik effect is presented in a quantum mechanical way. The quasiparticle scattering from the random magnetic field which was completely missed in all the previous semiclassical approaches is the dominant scattering mechanism at sufficient high magnetic field. The implications for experiments are discussed.
Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.
2016-12-01
In the framework of a multisource thermal model, we describe experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p -p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, by using the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein), Tsallis, and two- or three-component standard distributions which can be in fact regarded as different types of ‘thermometers’ or ‘thermometric scales’ and ‘speedometers’. A central parameter in the three distributions is the effective temperature which contains information on the kinetic freeze-out temperature of the emitting source and reflects the effects of random thermal motion of particles as well as collective expansion of the source. To disentangle both effects, we extract the kinetic freeze-out temperature from the intercept of the effective temperature (T) curve as a function of particle’s rest mass (m 0) when plotting T versus m 0, and the mean transverse flow velocity from the slope of the mean transverse momentum ( ) curve as a function of mean moving mass (\\overline{m}) when plotting versus \\overline{m}.
Naito, Koki; Asami, Takuya; Miura, Hikaru
2015-07-01
Intense aerial acoustic waves can be produced by an ultrasonic source consisting of a transverse vibrating plate and an external jutting driving point. Previously, we studied the dimensional parameters of vibrating plates to produce stripe-mode patterns and thereby determine the plate dimensions that generate high-quality patterns. In this research, we use four transverse vibrating plates as ultrasonic sources to produce intense standing wave fields in air. As a result, an aerial standing wave field was formed in the field surrounded by four vibrating plates. Furthermore, for a total input power of 30 W for the two ultrasonic sources, a very strong (sound pressure level, 167 dB) wave field is obtained.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Motsch Johann
2003-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background There are two ways to open the abdominal cavity in elective general surgery: vertically or transversely. Various clinical studies and a meta-analysis have postulated that the transverse approach is superior to other approaches as regards complications. However, in a recent survey it was shown that 90 % of all abdominal incisions in visceral surgery are still vertical incisions. This discrepancy between existing recommendations of clinical trials and clinical practice could be explained by the lack of acceptance of these results due to a number of deficits in the study design and analysis, subsequent low internal validity, and therefore limited external generalisability. The objective of this study is to address the issue from the patient's perspective. Methods This is an intraoperatively randomized controlled observer and patient-blinded two-group parallel equivalence trial. The study setting is the Department of General-, Visceral-, Trauma Surgery and Outpatient Clinic of the University of Heidelberg, Medical School. A total of 172 patients of both genders, aged over 18 years who are scheduled for an elective abdominal operation and are eligible for either a transverse or vertical incision. To show equivalence of the two approaches or the superiority of one of them from the perspective of the patient, a primary endpoint is defined: the pain experienced by the patient (VAS 0–100 on day two after surgery and the amount of analgesic required (piritramide [mg/h]. A confidence interval approach will be used for analysis. A global α-Level of 0.05 and a power of 0.8 is guaranteed, resulting in a size of 86 patients for each group. Secondary endpoints are: time interval to open and close the abdomen, early-onset complications (frequency of burst abdomen, postoperative pulmonary complications, and wound infection and late complications (frequency of incisional hernias. Different outcome variables will be ranked by patients and
Noverraz, R.L.M.; Disse, M. A.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Prahl, C.
2015-01-01
Objective A long-term evaluation to assess the transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with or without infant orthopedics (IO). The hypothesis is that IO has no effect on the transverse dental arch relationship. Material and methods A prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial (DUTCHCLEFT) in three academic cleft palate centers (Amsterdam, Nijmegen and Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Fifty-four children with complete unilatera...
Localization of transverse waves in randomly layered media at oblique incidence
Bliokh, K.Yu.; Freilikher, V.D.
2004-01-01
We investigate the oblique incidence of electromagnetic waves on a randomly layered medium in the limit of strong disorder. An approximate method for calculating the inverse localization length based on the assumptions of zero-energy flux and complete phase stochastization is presented. Two effects
Positive random fields for modeling material stiffness and compliance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hasofer, Abraham Michael; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob
1998-01-01
with material properties modeled in terms of the considered random fields.The paper addsthe gamma field, the Fisher field, the beta field, and their reciprocal fields to the catalogue. These fields are all defined on the basis of sums of squares of independent standard Gaussian random variables.All the existing......Positive random fields with known marginal properties and known correlation function are not numerous in the literature. The most prominent example is the log\\-normal field for which the complete distribution is known and for which the reciprocal field is also lognormal. It is of interest...... to supplement the catalogue of positive fields beyond the class of those obtained by simple marginal transformation of a Gaussian field, this class containing the lognormal field.As a minimum for a random field to be included in the catalogue itis required that an algorithm for simulation of realizations can...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Afonso Rodriguez, Veronica
2015-11-25
This thesis describes the development of a novel superconducting transversal gradient undulator (TGU) designed to form a compact, highly brilliant laser-wakefield accelerator (LWFA) driven radiation source. A TGU in combination with a dispersive beam transport line can be employed to produce undulator radiation with natural bandwidth despite the large energy spread of the LWFA. This thesis documents the construction, first tests and characterization of the full-scale TGU.
Yarmohammadi, Mohsen
2017-02-01
Using the Holstein model, the thermodynamic properties of gapped graphene in the presence of electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling and a transverse magnetic field are investigated. In particular, we have obtained density of states (DOS), electronic heat capacity (EHC) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) of graphene, for which carbon atoms are substituted by boron and nitride atoms in the presence of Holstein phonons and a transverse magnetic field within the Green's function approach in order to investigate the dynamic of Dirac fermions. To find the electronic self-energy due to e-ph coupling and the substituted foreign atoms, the self-consistent second order perturbation theory has been implemented. The band gap decreases with magnetic field and e-ph coupling. Also splitting of the quantum states (energy levels) due to the magnetic field is observed as double peaks in DOS (Van Hove singularities). As a remarkable result, EHC and MS are decreased due to the increase of scattering rate between electrons, an applied magnetic field, and e-ph coupling.
Conrad: gene prediction using conditional random fields.
DeCaprio, David; Vinson, Jade P; Pearson, Matthew D; Montgomery, Philip; Doherty, Matthew; Galagan, James E
2007-09-01
We present Conrad, the first comparative gene predictor based on semi-Markov conditional random fields (SMCRFs). Unlike the best standalone gene predictors, which are based on generalized hidden Markov models (GHMMs) and trained by maximum likelihood, Conrad is discriminatively trained to maximize annotation accuracy. In addition, unlike the best annotation pipelines, which rely on heuristic and ad hoc decision rules to combine standalone gene predictors with additional information such as ESTs and protein homology, Conrad encodes all sources of information as features and treats all features equally in the training and inference algorithms. Conrad outperforms the best standalone gene predictors in cross-validation and whole chromosome testing on two fungi with vastly different gene structures. The performance improvement arises from the SMCRF's discriminative training methods and their ability to easily incorporate diverse types of information by encoding them as feature functions. On Cryptococcus neoformans, configuring Conrad to reproduce the predictions of a two-species phylo-GHMM closely matches the performance of Twinscan. Enabling discriminative training increases performance, and adding new feature functions further increases performance, achieving a level of accuracy that is unprecedented for this organism. Similar results are obtained on Aspergillus nidulans comparing Conrad versus Fgenesh. SMCRFs are a promising framework for gene prediction because of their highly modular nature, simplifying the process of designing and testing potential indicators of gene structure. Conrad's implementation of SMCRFs advances the state of the art in gene prediction in fungi and provides a robust platform for both current application and future research.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melnikov, I.A., E-mail: corpuskula@gmail.com; Sviridov, E.V.; Sviridov, V.G.; Razuvanov, N.G.
2016-11-15
Highlights: • Local and averaged heat transfer coefficient are measured. • Free convection influence on MHD-flow is investigated. • The region with the free convection effect of MHD-heat transfer is found. • Temperature low-frequency fluctuations of abnormally high amplitude are detected. • Analysis of the MHD-heat transfer experimental data is performed. - Abstract: The article is devoted to the results of experimental investigation of heat transfer for a downward mercury flow in a vertical round tube in the presence of a transverse magnetic with non-uniform heat flux along the tube circumference.
Turek, M.; Sielanko, J.; Franzen, P.; Speth, E.
2006-01-01
The negative ion beam extraction from the multi-hole ion source is considered. Results of numerical simulations (based on PIC method) of the influence of transversal magnetic field aplied near the extraction grid (filter field), and in the plasma chamber volume (confining field) are presented. The application of confinig field results in significantly increased negative ions yield.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sharma Bishwaram
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Effects of a transverse magnetic field on separation of a binary mixture of incompressible viscous thermally and electrically conducting fluids confined between two stationary parallel plates are examined. Both the plates are maintained at constant temperatures. It is assumed that one of the components, which is rarer and lighter, is present in the mixture in a very small quantity. The equations governing the motion, temperature and concentration in Cartesian coordinate are solved analytically. The solution obtained for concentration distribution is plotted against the width of the channel for various values of non-dimensional parameters. It is found that the effect of transverse magnetic field is to separate the species of rarer and lighter component by contributing its effect directly to the temperature gradient and the pressure gradient. The effects of increase in the values of Hartmann number, magnetic Reynolds number, barodiffusion number, thermal diffusion number, electric field parameter and the product of Prandtl number and Eckert number are to collect the rarer and lighter component near the upper plate and throw away the heavier component towards the lower plate. The problem discussed here derives its application in the basic fluid dynamics separation processes to separate the rare component of the different isotopes of heavier molecules where electromagnetic method of separation does not work.
Random Network Coding over Composite Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Geil, Olav; Lucani Rötter, Daniel Enrique
2017-01-01
Random network coding is a method that achieves multicast capacity asymptotically for general networks [1, 7]. In this approach, vertices in the network randomly and linearly combine incoming information in a distributed manner before forwarding it through their outgoing edges. To ensure success...
Fuzzy conditional random fields for temporal data mining
Nurma Yulita, Intan; Setiawan Abdullah, Atje
2017-10-01
Temporal data mining is one of the interesting problems in computer science and its application has been performed in a wide variety of fields. The difference between the temporal data mining and data mining is the use of variable time. Therefore, the method used must be capable of processing variables of time. Compared with other methods, conditional random field has advantages in the processing variables of time. The method is a directed graph models that has been widely applied for segmenting and labelling sequence data that appears in various domains. In this study, we proposed use of Fuzzy Logic to be applied in Conditional Random Fields to overcome the problems of uncertainty. The experiment is compared Fuzzy Conditional Random Fields, Conditional Random Fields, and Hidden Markov Models. The result showed that accuracy of Fuzzy Conditional Random Fields is the best.
Thermodynamics of the Ising chain compound CoNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} in transverse magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruening, Daniel; Scharffe, Simon; Cho, Victoria; Lorenz, Thomas [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Valldor, Martin [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik komplexer Systeme, Dresden (Germany)
2015-07-01
CoNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} is a model system to investigate a quantum phase transition in magnetic fields. The structure consists of layers of CoO{sub 6} octahedrons separated by non-magnetic NbO{sub 6} layers. The edge-sharing oxygen octahedrons link the Co{sup 2+} spins through Co-O-Co superexchange and form 1D ferromagnetic zigzag chains along the orthorhombic c axis. Crystal field effects lead to an easy-axis anisotropy of the Co{sup 2+} moments in the ac plane and to an effective spin-1/2 chain system described by the Ising model. A purely 1D Ising chain develops long-range order at zero temperature only and a transverse field induces a quantum phase transition into a quantum disordered state. Due to small inter-chain couplings J {sub parallel} ∼ 0.01 . J {sub perpendicular} {sub to}, CoNb{sub 2}O{sub 6} shows 3D long-range antiferromagnetic order below T{sub N} = 2.95 K. Because a magnetic field parallel to the b axis is normal to the easy-axis of the spin chain it is possible to study the complex interplay of 3D ordering and 1D quantum phase transitions. We present specific heat and magnetization measurements from about 0.3 to 10 K and discuss the phase diagram. The theoretical model of the Ising chain in transverse magnetic field is completely solvable and we compare our measurements to the corresponding calculations.
Lu, Lin; Chang, Yunlong; Li, Yingmin; He, Youyou
2013-05-01
A transverse magnetic field was introduced to the arc plasma in the process of welding stainless steel tubes by high-speed Tungsten Inert Gas Arc Welding (TIG for short) without filler wire. The influence of external magnetic field on welding quality was investigated. 9 sets of parameters were designed by the means of orthogonal experiment. The welding joint tensile strength and form factor of weld were regarded as the main standards of welding quality. A binary quadratic nonlinear regression equation was established with the conditions of magnetic induction and flow rate of Ar gas. The residual standard deviation was calculated to adjust the accuracy of regression model. The results showed that, the regression model was correct and effective in calculating the tensile strength and aspect ratio of weld. Two 3D regression models were designed respectively, and then the impact law of magnetic induction on welding quality was researched.
Magnetic properties of a diluted transverse spin-1 Ising nanocube with a longitudinal crystal-field
El Hamri, M.; Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Ahuja, R.
2016-12-01
In the present work, the effective field theory with correlations based on the probability distribution technique has been used to investigate the effect of the surface shell longitudinal cristal field on the magnetic properties of a diluted antiferromagnetic spin-1 Ising nanocube particle. This effect has also been studied on the hysteresis loops of the system. It is found that this parameter has a strong effect on the magnetization profiles, compensation temperature, coercive field and remanent magnetization.
Modelling the impulse diffraction field of shear waves in transverse isotropic viscoelastic medium
Chatelin, Simon; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Bernal, Miguel; Tanter, Mickael; Pernot, Mathieu
2015-05-01
The generation of shear waves from an ultrasound focused beam has been developed as a major concept for remote palpation using shear wave elastography (SWE). For muscular diagnostic applications, characteristics of the shear wave profile will strongly depend on characteristics of the transducer as well as the orientation of muscular fibers and the tissue viscoelastic properties. The numerical simulation of shear waves generated from a specific probe in an anisotropic viscoelastic medium is a key issue for further developments of SWE in fibrous soft tissues. In this study we propose a complete numerical tool allowing 3D simulation of a shear wave front in anisotropic viscoelastic media. From the description of an ultrasonic transducer, the shear wave source is simulated by using Field’s II software and shear wave propagation described by using the Green’s formalism. Finally, the comparison between simulations and experiments are successively performed for both shear wave velocity and dispersion profile in a transverse isotropic hydrogel phantom, in vivo forearm muscle and in vivo biceps brachii.
Effect of magnetic field on the propagation of quasi-transverse ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
neglecting the displacement current) of electromagnetic field are given by div B = 0,. (4) div D = 0,. (5) curl H = J,. (6) curl E = −Bt. (7) where B = magnetic induction vector, D = electric displacement vector, H = magnetic field vector, J = current density ...
Ordering and phase transitions in random-field Ising systems
Maritan, Amos; Swift, Michael R.; Cieplak, Marek; Chan, Moses H. W.; Cole, Milton W.; Banavar, Jayanth R.
1991-01-01
An exact analysis of the Ising model with infinite-range interactions in a random field and a local mean-field theory in three dimensions is carried out leading to a phase diagram with several coexistence surfaces and lines of critical points. The results show that the phase diagram depends crucially on whether the distribution of random fields is symmetric or not. Thus, Ising-like phase transitions in a porous medium (the asymmetric case) are in a different universality class from the conventional random-field model (symmetric case).
Level sets and extrema of random processes and fields
Azais, Jean-Marc
2009-01-01
A timely and comprehensive treatment of random field theory with applications across diverse areas of study Level Sets and Extrema of Random Processes and Fields discusses how to understand the properties of the level sets of paths as well as how to compute the probability distribution of its extremal values, which are two general classes of problems that arise in the study of random processes and fields and in related applications. This book provides a unified and accessible approach to these two topics and their relationship to classical theory and Gaussian processes and fields, and the most modern research findings are also discussed. The authors begin with an introduction to the basic concepts of stochastic processes, including a modern review of Gaussian fields and their classical inequalities. Subsequent chapters are devoted to Rice formulas, regularity properties, and recent results on the tails of the distribution of the maximum. Finally, applications of random fields to various areas of mathematics a...
Static properties of small Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monaco, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2008-01-01
The magnetic field distribution in the barrier of small planar Josephson tunnel junctions is numerically simulated in the case when an external magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the barrier plane. The simulations allow for heuristic analytical solutions for the Josephson static phase...... profile from which the dependence of the maximum Josephson current on the applied field amplitude is derived. The most common geometrical configurations are considered and, when possible, the theoretical findings are compared with the experimental data. ©2008 American Institute of Physics...
Effects of random fields in an antiferromagnetic Ising bilayer film
Kaneyoshi, T.
2017-10-01
The magnetic properties (phase diagrams and magnetizations) of an antiferromagnetic Ising bilayer film with random fields are investigated by the use of the effective field theory with correlations. It is examined how an uncompensated magnetization can be realized in the system, due to the effects of random fields in the two layers. They show the tricritical, compensation point and reentrant phenomena, depending on these parameters.
Development of a Magnetic-Core, Transverse-Field AF Demagnetizer
Schillinger, W. E.; Morris, E. R.; Coe, R. S.; Finn, D. R.
2016-12-01
A standard cleaning technique in the study of a rock's natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is progressive Alternating Field Demagnetization (AFD). However, for a significant fraction of samples, demagnetization is not completed by the maximum field of 200 mT or less available in commercial instruments; a field at least two or three times higher is needed. The data from 0 to 160 mT for a resistant red bed sample from Tibet is shown below. It just starts to reveal the sample's characteristic component, but this interpretation would have been tenuous, since 85% of the NRM remained untouched. Continued demagnetization to 500 mT helps a great deal, reducing the NRM to just 30% of its initial value and proving that the segment from 160 to 500 mT indeed trends toward the origin. We have constructed an alternating field (AF) demagnetizer that can routinely operate at fields of up to 0.6 Tesla. It uses a magnetic core in an air-cooled coil and is compatible with our existing sample handler for automated demagnetization and measurement experiments. Nonlinearities of the magnetic core are not a significant problem; even harmonics of the magnetic field are ≤1 ppm of the fundamental and so generate negligible anhysteretic remanence. A surprising result during the testing was that the coil's inductance changed with magnetic field. This made it necessary to add an auto-tuning feature, to keep the drive's frequency on the coil's resonance. We have recently added the ability to include a DC field of up to 0.5 mT, parallel to the alternating field, to perform Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetization (ARM), partial ARM experiments and anisotropy of ARM. We will report on these ARM results at the AGU meeting. Currently the maximum field we can obtain is 600 mT, but by reshaping the core to minimize flux leakage, significantly higher fields should be attainable, since the saturation flux density of the core material is 1.5T.
Liu, C.; Ong, H. C.
2018-01-01
We have employed a polarization-resolved Fourier-space surface plasmon resonance microscope to determine the electric field component ratio of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating on a flat gold film. By using a metallic nanoparticle as a probe to capture the radiation damping of the SPP scattered waves, we find the angular far-field distribution is related to the transverse and longitudinal fields of SPPs. The experiment is supported by analytical and numerical calculations. Our results present a simple but useful approach to probe the behaviors of SPPs such as the transverse spin density as well as the energy density.
Supplementary Material for: Tukey g-and-h Random Fields
Xu, Ganggang
2016-01-01
We propose a new class of transGaussian random fields named Tukey g-and-h (TGH) random fields to model non-Gaussian spatial data. The proposed TGH random fields have extremely flexible marginal distributions, possibly skewed and/or heavy-tailed, and, therefore, have a wide range of applications. The special formulation of the TGH random field enables an automatic search for the most suitable transformation for the dataset of interest while estimating model parameters. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimator and the probabilistic properties of the TGH random fields are investigated. An efficient estimation procedure, based on maximum approximated likelihood, is proposed and an extreme spatial outlier detection algorithm is formulated. Kriging and probabilistic prediction with TGH random fields are developed along with prediction confidence intervals. The predictive performance of TGH random fields is demonstrated through extensive simulation studies and an application to a dataset of total precipitation in the south east of the United States. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
Mandra, Salvatore
2017-01-01
We study the performance of the D-Wave 2X quantum annealing machine on systems with well-controlled ground-state degeneracy. While obtaining the ground state of a spin-glass benchmark instance represents a difficult task, the gold standard for any optimization algorithm or machine is to sample all solutions that minimize the Hamiltonian with more or less equal probability. Our results show that while naive transverse-field quantum annealing on the D-Wave 2X device can find the ground-state energy of the problems, it is not well suited in identifying all degenerate ground-state configurations associated to a particular instance. Even worse, some states are exponentially suppressed, in agreement with previous studies on toy model problems [New J. Phys. 11, 073021 (2009)]. These results suggest that more complex driving Hamiltonians are needed in future quantum annealing machines to ensure a fair sampling of the ground-state manifold.
Esmaeeli, A D; Mahdavi, S R; Pouladian, M; Monfared, A S; Bagheri, S
2014-01-01
To investigate the improvement in dose distribution in tangential breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field that maintains the same direction of Lorentz force between two fields. The investigation has a potential application in future Linac-MR units. Computed tomography images of four patients and magnetic fields of 0.25-1.5 Tesla (T) were used for Monte Carlo simulation. Two patients had intact breast while the other two had mastectomy. Simulations of planning and chest wall irradiation were similar to the actual clinical process. The direction of superior-inferior magnetic field for the medial treatment beam was reversed for the lateral beam. For the ipsilateral lung and heart mean doses were reduced by a mean (range) of 45.8% (27.6%-58.6%) and 26.0% (20.2%-38.9%), respectively, depending on various treatment plan setups. The mean V20 for ipsilateral lung was reduced by 55.0% (43.6%-77.3%). In addition acceptable results were shown after simulation of 0.25 T magnetic field demonstrated in dose-volume reductions of the heart, ipsilateral lung, and noninvolved skin. Applying a reversible magnetic field during breast radiotherapy, not only reduces the dose to the lung and heart but also produces a sharp drop dose volume histogram for planning target volume, because of bending of the path of secondary charged particles toward the chest wall by the Lorentz force. The simulations have shown that use of the magnetic field at 1.5 T is not feasible for clinical applications due to the increase of ipsilateral chest wall skin dose in comparison to the conventional planning while 0.25 T is suitable for all patients due to dose reduction to the chest wall skin.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Esmaeeli, A. D., E-mail: ali-esmaeeli-d@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, 41476-54919 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdavi, S. R. [Department of Medical Physics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14174 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pouladian, M.; Bagheri, S. [Department of Medical Radiation Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, 14778-93855 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Monfared, A. S. [Department of Medical Physics, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, 47148-71167 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-01-15
Purpose: To investigate the improvement in dose distribution in tangential breast radiotherapy using a reversible transverse magnetic field that maintains the same direction of Lorentz force between two fields. The investigation has a potential application in future Linac-MR units. Methods: Computed tomography images of four patients and magnetic fields of 0.25–1.5 Tesla (T) were used for Monte Carlo simulation. Two patients had intact breast while the other two had mastectomy. Simulations of planning and chest wall irradiation were similar to the actual clinical process. The direction of superior-inferior magnetic field for the medial treatment beam was reversed for the lateral beam. Results: For the ipsilateral lung and heart mean doses were reduced by a mean (range) of 45.8% (27.6%–58.6%) and 26.0% (20.2%–38.9%), respectively, depending on various treatment plan setups. The mean V{sub 20} for ipsilateral lung was reduced by 55.0% (43.6%–77.3%). In addition acceptable results were shown after simulation of 0.25 T magnetic field demonstrated in dose-volume reductions of the heart, ipsilateral lung, and noninvolved skin. Conclusions: Applying a reversible magnetic field during breast radiotherapy, not only reduces the dose to the lung and heart but also produces a sharp drop dose volume histogram for planning target volume, because of bending of the path of secondary charged particles toward the chest wall by the Lorentz force. The simulations have shown that use of the magnetic field at 1.5 T is not feasible for clinical applications due to the increase of ipsilateral chest wall skin dose in comparison to the conventional planning while 0.25 T is suitable for all patients due to dose reduction to the chest wall skin.
Voitcu, Gabriel; Echim, Marius
2014-05-01
The dynamics of collisionless plasma jets/clouds in magnetic field configurations typical for the terrestrial magnetotail and frontside magnetosheath is a topic of interest for understanding the physics of the magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind. The presence of high-speed jets in the frontside magnetosheath has been recently proved experimentally by Cluster and THEMIS spacecrafts. There is increasing evidence that the bursty bulk flows in the magnetotail have jet-like features. In the present paper we use fully electromagnetic 3D explicit particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to investigate the interaction of a localized three-dimensional plasma element/jet/cloud with a transverse magnetic field. We consider a plasma jet/cloud that moves in vacuum and perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field. Ampère and Faraday's laws are used to compute the self-consistent electric and magnetic fields on a three-dimensional spatial grid having a step-size of the order of the Debye length and using a time-step that resolves the plasma frequency. The initial magnetic field inside the simulation domain is uniform and the plasma bulk velocity at the beginning of the simulation is normal to the magnetic field direction. The total time scale of the simulation is of the order of few ion Larmor periods. Space and time variations of the plasma parameters and of the electromagnetic field are analyzed and discussed. We emphasize non-MHD effects like the energy-dispersion signatures at the edges of the plasma element, similar to results previously reported by Voitcu and Echim (2012) using test-kinetic simulations. Acknowledgments: Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no. 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.
Stochastic analysis for gaussian random processes and fields with applications
Mandrekar, Vidyadhar S
2015-01-01
Stochastic Analysis for Gaussian Random Processes and Fields: With Applications presents Hilbert space methods to study deep analytic properties connecting probabilistic notions. In particular, it studies Gaussian random fields using reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces (RKHSs).The book begins with preliminary results on covariance and associated RKHS before introducing the Gaussian process and Gaussian random fields. The authors use chaos expansion to define the Skorokhod integral, which generalizes the Itô integral. They show how the Skorokhod integral is a dual operator of Skorokhod differenti
CLIC spectrometer magnet interference computation of transversal B-field on primary beam
Swoboda, Detlef; Tomas, Rogelio
2009-01-01
A 3-D FE model with the present spectrometer magnet concept has been built to compute the interference of the spectrometer field with the primary beam. Screening of the primary beam and Final Focus magnets (FF) is achieved by an “Anti-solenoid” close to the beam trajectory.
Experiments on a Coaxial Injector Under an Externally-Forced Transverse Acoustic Field (POSTPRINT)
2005-06-20
Camano Schettini, and R. D. Woodward for providing us with their core length data in tabular form. The first author would like to thank his thesis...Marinet, M., and Camano Schettini, E. B., “The Density Field of Coaxial Jets with Large Velocity Ratio and Large Density Differences,” International
Duval, J.F.L.; Minor, M.; Cecilia, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.
2003-01-01
A quantitative theory is presented for the bipolar behavior of conducting planar surfaces in a thin-layer cell of a type commonly used in electrokinetic studies. The lateral current density distribution in the cell, as dictated by the externally applied field in the solution, is formulated for the
Hyperfine Level Interactions of Diamond Nitrogen Vacancy Ensembles Under Transverse Magnetic Fields
2015-10-06
excited and ground state cross- ings, which have been used for nuclear spin polarization to decrease resonance line width and increase resonance ...into ac- count the zero-field splitting, nuclear and electronic zee- man shifts, stark shifts, hyperfine splitting, and nuclear quadrupole effects: Hgs...describing interactions with local nuclear spins, Pgs is the nuclear electric quadrupole parameter, and Sk is the spin projection onto the k axis with
Observations and modeling of magnetized plasma jets and bubbles launched into a transverse B-field
Fisher, Dustin M.; Zhang, Yue; Wallace, Ben; Gilmore, Mark; Manchester, Ward B., IV; van der Holst, Bart; Rogers, Barrett N.; Hsu, Scott C.
2017-10-01
Hot, dense, plasma structures launched from a coaxial plasma gun on the HelCat dual-source plasma device at the University of New Mexico drag frozen-in magnetic flux into the chamber's background magnetic field providing a rich set of dynamics to study magnetic turbulence, force-free magnetic spheromaks, shocks, as well as CME-like dynamics possibly relevant to the solar corona. Vector magnetic field data from an eleven-tipped B-dot rake probe and images from an ultra-fast camera will be presented in comparison with ongoing MHD modeling using the 3-D MHD BATS-R-US code developed at the University of Michigan. BATS-R-US employs an adaptive mesh refinement grid (AMR) that enables the capture and resolution of shock structures and current sheets and is uniquely suited for flux-rope expansion modeling. Recent experiments show a possible magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability that appears asymmetrically at the interface between launched spheromaks (bubbles) and their entraining background magnetic field. Efforts to understand this instability using in situ measurements, new chamber boundary conditions, and ultra-fast camera data will be presented. Work supported by the Army Research Office Award No. W911NF1510480.
The space transformation in the simulation of multidimensional random fields
Christakos, G.
1987-01-01
Space transformations are proposed as a mathematically meaningful and practically comprehensive approach to simulate multidimensional random fields. Within this context the turning bands method of simulation is reconsidered and improved in both the space and frequency domains. ?? 1987.
Random-Field Model of a Cooper Pair Insulator
Proctor, Thomas; Chudnovsky, Eugene; Garanin, Dmitry
2013-03-01
The model of a disordered superconducting film with quantum phase fluctuations is mapped on a random-field XY spin model in 2+1 dimensions. Analytical studies within continuum field theory, supported by our recent numerical calculations on discrete lattices, show the onset of the low-temperature Cooper pair insulator phase. The constant external field in the random-field spin model maps on the Josephson coupling between the disordered film and a bulk superconductor. Such a coupling, if sufficiently strong, restores superconductivity in the film. This provides an experimental test for the quantum fluctuation model of a superinsulator.
Noverraz, R L M; Disse, M A; Ongkosuwito, E M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Prahl, C
2015-12-01
A long-term evaluation to assess the transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with or without infant orthopedics (IO). The hypothesis is that IO has no effect on the transverse dental arch relationship. A prospective two-arm randomized controlled trial (DUTCHCLEFT) in three academic cleft palate centers (Amsterdam, Nijmegen and Rotterdam, the Netherlands). Fifty-four children with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate and no other malformations were enrolled in this evaluation. One group wore passive maxillary plates (IO+) during the first year of life, and the other group did not (IO-). Until the age of 1.5, all other interventions were the same. Hard palate was closed simultaneously with bone grafting according to protocol of all teams. Orthodontic treatment was performed when indicated. The transverse dental arch relationship was assessed on dental casts using the modified Huddart/Bodenham score to measure the maxillary arch constriction at 9 and 12 years of age. No significant differences were found between the IO+ and IO- groups. Differences between the centers increased from 9 to 12 years of age. Transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age do not differ between children with UCLP treated with or without IO. There is no orthodontic need to perform IO as applied in this study in children with UCLP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zikanov, Oleg [University of Michigan - Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States); Listratov, Yaroslav [Moscow Power Engineering Institute, 14 Karsnokazarmennaya St., Moscow 111250 (Russian Federation)
2016-12-15
Numerical simulations of the flow of a liquid metal in a vertical pipe are performed. The configuration reproduces the test section of the recent experiment . The mean flow is directed downward, a half of the pipe's wall is heated, and a strong horizontal magnetic field perpendicular to the temperature gradient is imposed. The simulations produce results in good agreement with the experiment and lead us to an explanation of the observed phenomenon of anomalous high-amplitude temperature fluctuations. The fluctuations are caused by growth and quasi-periodic breakdown of the pairs of ascending and descending jets related to the elevator-mode thermal convection. Implications for operation of liquid metal blankets with poloidal ducts are discussed.
Optimization of Transverse Oscillating Fields for Vector Velocity Estimation with Convex Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
from 90 to 45 degrees in steps of 15 degrees. The optimization routine changes the lateral oscillation period lx to yield the best possible estimates based on the energy ratio between positive and negative spatial frequencies in the ultrasound field. The basic equation for lx gives 1.14 mm at 40 mm......, and 1.51 mm from the simulated point spread function. This results in a bias of 35% as lx directly scales the estimated velocities. Optimizing the focusing yields a lx of 1.61 mm. The energy ratio is reduced from -12.8 dB to -20.1 dB and the spectral bandwidth from 115.1 m1 to 96.5 m...
Properties and simulation of α-permanental random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Rubak, Ege Holger
An α-permanental random field is briefly speaking a model for a collection of random variables with positive associations, where α is a positive number and the probability generating function is given in terms of a covariance or more general function so that density and moment expressions are giv......, and second to study stochastic constructions and simulation techniques, which should provide a useful basis for discussing the statistical aspects in future work. The paper also discusses some examples of α-permanental random fields....
Effective diffusion equation in a random velocity field
Vinals, Jorge; Sekerka, Robert F.
1992-01-01
The effects are studied of assumed random velocity fields on diffusion in a binary fluid. Random velocity fields can result, for example, from the high-frequency components of residual accelerations onboard spacecraft (often called g-jitter). An effective diffusion equation is derived for an average concentration which includes spatial and temporal correlations induced by the fluctuating velocity fields assumed to be Gaussianly distributed. The resulting equation becomes nonlocal, and if correlations between different components of the velocity field exist, it is also anisotropic. The simple limiting case of short correlation times is discussed and an effective diffusivity is obtained which reflects the enhanced mixing caused by the velocity fields. The results obtained in the limit of short correlation times are valid even if the probability distribution of the velocity field is not Gaussian.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Cheng, Ji; Xu, Chris
2013-01-01
An improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is derived, which takes into account the correct dispersion of the transverse field distribution. The new improved version of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is verified to give the same results as the standard...
Efficient Incorporation of Markov Random Fields in Change Detection
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aanæs, Henrik; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Carstensen, Jens Michael
2009-01-01
Many change detection algorithms work by calculating the probability of change on a pixel-wise basis. This is a disadvantage since one is usually looking for regions of change, and such information is not used in pixel-wise classification - per definition. This issue becomes apparent in the face...... of noise, implying that the pixel-wise classifier is also noisy. There is thus a need for incorporating local homogeneity constraints into such a change detection framework. For this modelling task Markov Random Fields are suitable. Markov Random Fields have, however, previously been plagued by lack...... of efficient optimization methods or numerical solvers. We here address the issue of efficient incorporation of local homogeneity constraints into change detection algorithms. We do this by exploiting recent advances in graph based algorithms for Markov Random Fields. This is combined with an IR-MAD change...
Acharyya, Muktish
2013-05-01
The dynamical steady state behaviour of the random field Ising ferromagnet swept by a propagating magnetic field wave is studied at zero temperature by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The distribution of the random field is bimodal type. For a fixed set of values of the frequency, wavelength and amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of the random field, four distinct dynamical steady states or nonequilibrium phases were identified. These four nonequilibrium phases are characterised by different values of structure factors. State or phase of first kind, where all spins are parallel (up). This phase is a frozen or pinned where the propagating field has no effect. The second one is the propagating type, where the sharp strips formed by parallel spins are found to move coherently. The third one is also propagating type, where the boundary of the strips of spins is not very sharp. The fourth kind shows no propagation of strips of magnetic spins, forming a homogeneous distribution of up and down spins. This is disordered phase. The existence of these four dynamical phases or modes depends on the value of the amplitude of propagating magnetic field wave and the strength of random (static) field. A phase diagram has also been drawn, in the plane formed by the amplitude of propagating field and the strength of random field. It is also checked that the existence of these dynamical phases is neither a finite size effect nor a transient phenomenon.
Stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields models and algorithms
2015-01-01
Providing a graduate level introduction to various aspects of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields, this volume places a special emphasis on fundamental classes of models and algorithms as well as on their applications, for example in materials science, biology and genetics. This book has a strong focus on simulations and includes extensive codes in Matlab and R, which are widely used in the mathematical community. It can be regarded as a continuation of the recent volume 2068 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, where other issues of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields were considered, with a focus on asymptotic methods.
Bonfim, O. F. de Alcantara; Boechat, B.; Florencio, J.
2017-10-01
In this work we analyze the ground-state properties of the s =1 /2 one-dimensional axial next-nearest-neighbor Ising model in a transverse field using the quantum fidelity approach. We numerically determined the fidelity susceptibility as a function of the transverse field Bx and the strength of the next-nearest-neighbor interaction J2, for systems of up to 24 spins. We also examine the ground-state vector with respect to the spatial ordering of the spins. The ground-state phase diagram shows ferromagnetic, floating, and 〈" close="〉2 ,2 〉">2 ,2 phases, and we predict an infinite number of modulated phases in the thermodynamic limit (L →∞ ). Paramagnetism only occurs for larger magnetic fields. The transition lines separating the modulated phases seem to be of second order, whereas the line between the floating and the phases is possibly of first order.
Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures
Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.
Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the
Development of a Layered Conditional Random Field Based ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA
2014-12-01
Dec 1, 2014 ... Conditional Estimation in NLP Models,” Proc. ACL Conf. Empirical. Methods in Natural Language Processing (EMNLP '02), Association for. Computational Linguistics, 10, (9-16). [39] Sutton, C. and McCallum, A (2006). “An Introduction to Conditional Random Fields for. Relational Learning,” Introduction to ...
Modeling fiber type grouping by a binary Markov random field
Venema, H. W.
1992-01-01
A new approach to the quantification of fiber type grouping is presented, in which the distribution of histochemical type in a muscle cross section is regarded as a realization of a binary Markov random field (BMRF). Methods for the estimation of the parameters of this model are discussed. The first
Infinite conditional random fields for human behavior analysis
Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja
Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models that have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem (provided an appropriate validation of the number of hidden states). In this brief, we present the infinite HCRF
... Division of Neuroscience Director, NIH BRAIN Initiative® Health Scientist Administrator Channels Synapses Circuits Cluster Scientific Director, Division of Intramural Research Featured Director's Message menu search Enter Search Term Submit Search Transverse Myelitis Information ...
Fuzzy Field Theory as a Random Matrix Model
Tekel, Juraj
This dissertation considers the theory of scalar fields on fuzzy spaces from the point of view of random matrices. First we define random matrix ensembles, which are natural description of such theory. These ensembles are new and the novel feature is a presence of kinetic term in the probability measure, which couples the random matrix to a set of external matrices and thus breaks the original symmetry. Considering the case of a free field ensemble, which is generalization of a Gaussian matrix ensemble, we develop a technique to compute expectation values of the observables of the theory based on explicit Wick contractions and we write down recursion rules for these. We show that the eigenvalue distribution of the random matrix follows the Wigner semicircle distribution with a rescaled radius. We also compute distributions of the matrix Laplacian of the random matrix given by the new term and demonstrate that the eigenvalues of these two matrices are correlated. We demonstrate the robustness of the method by computing expectation values and distributions for more complicated observables. We then consider the ensemble corresponding to an interacting field theory, with a quartic interaction. We use the same method to compute the distribution of the eigenvalues and show that the presence of the kinetic terms rescales the distribution given by the original theory, which is a polynomially deformed Wigner semicircle. We compute the eigenvalue distribution of the matrix Laplacian and the joint distribution up to second order in the correlation and we show that the correlation between the two changes from the free field case. Finally, as an application of these results, we compute the phase diagram of the fuzzy scalar field theory, we find multiscaling which stabilizes this diagram in the limit of large matrices and compare it with the results obtained numerically and by considering the kinetic part as a perturbation.
Random vectorial fields representing the local structure of turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chevillard, Laurent [Laboratoire de Physique de l' ENS Lyon, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Robert, Raoul [Institut Fourier, CNRS, Universite Grenoble 1, 100 rue des Mathematiques, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Vargas, Vincent, E-mail: laurent.chevillard@ens-lyon.fr [Ceremade, CNRS, Universite Paris-Dauphine, F-75016 Paris (France)
2011-12-22
We propose a method to build up a random homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible turbulent velocity field that mimics turbulence in the inertial range. The underlying Gaussian field is given by a modified Biot-Savart law. The long range correlated nature of turbulence is then incorporated heuristically using a non linear transformation inspired by the recent fluid deformation imposed by the Euler equations. The resulting velocity field shows a non vanishing mean energy transfer towards the small scales and realistic alignment properties of vorticity with the eigenframe of the deformation rate.
Driving a Superconductor to Insulator Transition with Random Gauge Fields.
Nguyen, H Q; Hollen, S M; Shainline, J; Xu, J M; Valles, J M
2016-11-30
Typically the disorder that alters the interference of particle waves to produce Anderson localization is potential scattering from randomly placed impurities. Here we show that disorder in the form of random gauge fields that act directly on particle phases can also drive localization. We present evidence of a superfluid bose glass to insulator transition at a critical level of this gauge field disorder in a nano-patterned array of amorphous Bi islands. This transition shows signs of metallic transport near the critical point characterized by a resistance , indicative of a quantum phase transition. The critical disorder depends on interisland coupling in agreement with recent Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. We discuss how this disorder tuned SIT differs from the common frustration tuned SIT that also occurs in magnetic fields. Its discovery enables new high fidelity comparisons between theoretical and experimental studies of disorder effects on quantum critical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. W. Kinross
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The transverse field Ising chain model is ideally suited for testing the fundamental ideas of quantum phase transitions because its well-known T=0 ground state can be extrapolated to finite temperatures. Nonetheless, the lack of appropriate model materials hindered the past effort to test the theoretical predictions. Here, we map the evolution of quantum fluctuations in the transverse field Ising chain based on nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of CoNb_{2}O_{6}, and we demonstrate the finite-temperature effects on quantum criticality for the first time. From the temperature dependence of the ^{93}Nb longitudinal relaxation rate 1/T_{1}, we identify the renormalized classical, quantum critical, and quantum disordered scaling regimes in the temperature (T vs transverse magnetic field (h_{⊥} phase diagram. Precisely at the critical field h_{⊥}^{c}=5.25±0.15 T, we observe a power-law behavior, 1/T_{1}∼T^{−3/4}, as predicted by quantum critical scaling. Our parameter-free comparison between the data and theory reveals that quantum fluctuations persist up to as high as T∼0.4J, where the intrachain exchange interaction J is the only energy scale of the problem.
Shape modelling using Markov random field restoration of point correspondences.
Paulsen, Rasmus R; Hilger, Klaus B
2003-07-01
A method for building statistical point distribution models is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov random field regularization of the correspondence field over the set of shapes. The new approach leads to a generative model that produces highly homogeneous polygonized shapes and improves the capability of reconstruction of the training data. Furthermore, the method leads to an overall reduction in the total variance of the point distribution model. Thus, it finds correspondence between semi-landmarks that are highly correlated in the shape tangent space. The method is demonstrated on a set of human ear canals extracted from 3D-laser scans.
Shape Modelling Using Markov Random Field Restoration of Point Correspondences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Hilger, Klaus Baggesen
2003-01-01
A method for building statistical point distribution models is proposed. The novelty in this paper is the adaption of Markov random field regularization of the correspondence field over the set of shapes. The new approach leads to a generative model that produces highly homogeneous polygonized...... shapes and improves the capability of reconstruction of the training data. Furthermore, the method leads to an overall reduction in the total variance of the point distribution model. Thus, it finds correspondence between semilandmarks that are highly correlated in the shape tangent space. The method...
Giant Transversal Particle Diffusion in a Longitudinal Magnetic Ratchet
Tierno, Pietro; Reimann, Peter; Johansen, Tom H.; Sagués, Francesc
2010-12-01
We study the transversal motion of paramagnetic particles on a uniaxial garnet film, exhibiting a longitudinal ratchet effect in the presence of an oscillating magnetic field. Without the field, the thermal diffusion coefficient obtained by video microscopy is D0≈3×10-4μm2/s. With the field, the transversal diffusion exhibits a giant enhancement by almost four decades and a pronounced maximum as a function of the driving frequency. We explain the experimental findings with a theoretical interpretation in terms of random disorder effects within the magnetic film.
Efficient approximation of random fields for numerical applications
Harbrecht, Helmut
2015-01-07
We consider the rapid computation of separable expansions for the approximation of random fields. We compare approaches based on techniques from the approximation of non-local operators on the one hand and based on the pivoted Cholesky decomposition on the other hand. We provide an a-posteriori error estimate for the pivoted Cholesky decomposition in terms of the trace. Numerical examples validate and quantify the considered methods.
Joint Conditional Random Field Filter for Multi-Object Tracking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luo Ronghua
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Object tracking can improve the performance of mobile robot especially in populated dynamic environments. A novel joint conditional random field Filter (JCRFF based on conditional random field with hierarchical structure is proposed for multi-object tracking by abstracting the data associations between objects and measurements to be a sequence of labels. Since the conditional random field makes no assumptions about the dependency structure between the observations and it allows non-local dependencies between the state and the observations, the proposed method can not only fuse multiple cues including shape information and motion information to improve the stability of tracking, but also integrate moving object detection and object tracking quite well. At the same time, implementation of multi-object tracking based on JCRFF with measurements from the laser range finder on a mobile robot is studied. Experimental results with the mobile robot developed in our lab show that the proposed method has higher precision and better stability than joint probabilities data association filter (JPDAF.
Statistical Downscaling Based on Spartan Spatial Random Fields
Hristopulos, Dionissios
2010-05-01
Stochastic methods of space-time interpolation and conditional simulation have been used in statistical downscaling approaches to increase the resolution of measured fields. One of the popular interpolation methods in geostatistics is kriging, also known as optimal interpolation in data assimilation. Kriging is a stochastic, linear interpolator which incorporates time/space variability by means of the variogram function. However, estimation of the variogram from data involves various assumptions and simplifications. At the same time, the high numerical complexity of kriging makes it difficult to use for very large data sets. We present a different approach based on the so-called Spartan Spatial Random Fields (SSRFs). SSRFs were motivated from classical field theories of statistical physics [1]. The SSRFs provide a different approach of parametrizing spatial dependence based on 'effective interactions,' which can be formulated based on general statistical principles or even incorporate physical constraints. This framework leads to a broad family of covariance functions [2], and it provides new perspectives in covariance parameter estimation and interpolation [3]. A significant advantage offered by SSRFs is reduced numerical complexity, which can lead to much faster codes for spatial interpolation and conditional simulation. In addition, on grids composed of rectangular cells, the SSRF representation leads to an explicit expression for the precision matrix (the inverse covariance). Therefore SSRFs could provide useful models of error covariance for data assimilation methods. We use simulated and real data to demonstrate SSRF properties and downscaled fields. keywords: interpolation, conditional simulation, precision matrix References [1] Hristopulos, D.T., 2003. Spartan Gibbs random field models for geostatistical applications, SIAM Journal in Scientific Computation, 24, 2125-2162. [2] Hristopulos, D.T., Elogne, S. N. 2007. Analytic properties and covariance
Visibility graphs of random scalar fields and spatial data
Lacasa, Lucas; Iacovacci, Jacopo
2017-07-01
We extend the family of visibility algorithms to map scalar fields of arbitrary dimension into graphs, enabling the analysis of spatially extended data structures as networks. We introduce several possible extensions and provide analytical results on the topological properties of the graphs associated to different types of real-valued matrices, which can be understood as the high and low disorder limits of real-valued scalar fields. In particular, we find a closed expression for the degree distribution of these graphs associated to uncorrelated random fields of generic dimension. This result holds independently of the field's marginal distribution and it directly yields a statistical randomness test, applicable in any dimension. We showcase its usefulness by discriminating spatial snapshots of two-dimensional white noise from snapshots of a two-dimensional lattice of diffusively coupled chaotic maps, a system that generates high dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The range of potential applications of this combinatorial framework includes image processing in engineering, the description of surface growth in material science, soft matter or medicine, and the characterization of potential energy surfaces in chemistry, disordered systems, and high energy physics. An illustration on the applicability of this method for the classification of the different stages involved in carcinogenesis is briefly discussed.
Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad; Behtash, Hamid; Amiri, Mohsen; Sarrafzadeh, Javad
2013-12-01
[Purpose] This study compared the effectiveness of stabilization and McKenzie exercises on pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. [Subjects] Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the McKenzie and stabilization exercise groups. [Methods] Before and after intervention, pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles were evaluated by visual analogue scale, functional rating index, and sonography, respectively. The training program was 18 scheduled sessions of individual training for both groups. [Results] After interventions, the pain score decreased in both groups. The disability score decreased only in the stabilization group. The thickness of the left multifidus was significantly increased during resting and contracting states in the stabilization group. The thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in maneuver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during the active straight leg raising maneuver were significantly increased in the stabilization group. The intensity of pain, disability score, thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in manouver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during active straight leg raising in the stabilization group were greater than those on the Mackenzie. [Conclusion] Stabilization exercises are more effective than McKenzie exercises in improving the intensity of pain and function score and in increasing the thickness of the transverse abdominis muscle.
Li, Lang-quan; Huang, Wei; Yan, Li; Li, Shi-bin
2017-10-01
The dual transverse injection system with a front hydrogen porthole and a rear air porthole arranged in tandem is proposed, and this is a realistic approach for mixing enhancement and penetration improvement of transverse injection in a scramjet combustor. The influence of this dual transverse injection system on mixing characteristics has been evaluated numerically based on grid independency analysis and code validation. The numerical approach employed in the current study has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature, and the predicted wall static pressure distributions show reasonable agreement with the experimental data for the cases with different jet-to-crossflow pressure ratios. The obtained results predicted by the three-dimensional Reynolds-average Navier - Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the two equation k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model show that the air pothole has an great impact on penetration depth and mixing efficiency, and the effect of air jet on flow field varies with different values of the aspect ratio. The air porthole with larger aspect ratio can increase the fuel penetration depth. However, when the aspect ratio is relatively small, the fuel penetration depth decreases, and even smaller than that of the single injection system. At the same time, the air pothole has a highly remarkable improvement on mixing efficiency, especially in the near field. The smaller the aspect ratio of the air porthole is, the higher the mixing efficiency in the near field is. This is due to its larger circulation in the near field. The dual injection system owns more losses of stagnation pressure than the single injection system.
Extremes in random fields a theory and its applications
Yakir, Benjamin
2013-01-01
Presents a useful new technique for analyzing the extreme-value behaviour of random fields Modern science typically involves the analysis of increasingly complex data. The extreme values that emerge in the statistical analysis of complex data are often of particular interest. This book focuses on the analytical approximations of the statistical significance of extreme values. Several relatively complex applications of the technique to problems that emerge in practical situations are presented. All the examples are difficult to analyze using classical methods, and as a result, the author pr
Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems
Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.
2014-09-01
We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.
A note on moving average models for Gaussian random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis L.
The class of moving average models offers a flexible modeling framework for Gaussian random fields with many well known models such as the Matérn covariance family and the Gaussian covariance falling under this framework. Moving average models may also be viewed as a kernel smoothing of a Lévy...... basis, a general modeling framework which includes several types of non-Gaussian models. We propose a new one-parameter spatial correlation model which arises from a power kernel and show that the associated Hausdorff dimension of the sample paths can take any value between 2 and 3. As a result...
Deep recurrent conditional random field network for protein secondary prediction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Alexander Rosenberg; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae
2017-01-01
Deep learning has become the state-of-the-art method for predicting protein secondary structure from only its amino acid residues and sequence profile. Building upon these results, we propose to combine a bi-directional recurrent neural network (biRNN) with a conditional random field (CRF), which...... of the labels for all time-steps. We condition the CRF on the output of biRNN, which learns a distributed representation based on the entire sequence. The biRNN-CRF is therefore close to ideally suited for the secondary structure task because a high degree of cross-talk between neighboring elements can...
Random field Ising model and community structure in complex networks
Son, S.-W.; Jeong, H.; Noh, J. D.
2006-04-01
We propose a method to determine the community structure of a complex network. In this method the ground state problem of a ferromagnetic random field Ising model is considered on the network with the magnetic field Bs = +∞, Bt = -∞, and Bi≠s,t=0 for a node pair s and t. The ground state problem is equivalent to the so-called maximum flow problem, which can be solved exactly numerically with the help of a combinatorial optimization algorithm. The community structure is then identified from the ground state Ising spin domains for all pairs of s and t. Our method provides a criterion for the existence of the community structure, and is applicable equally well to unweighted and weighted networks. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to the Barabási-Albert network, Zachary karate club network, the scientific collaboration network, and the stock price correlation network. (Ising, Potts, etc.)
Parsing citations in biomedical articles using conditional random fields.
Zhang, Qing; Cao, Yong-Gang; Yu, Hong
2011-04-01
Citations are used ubiquitously in biomedical full-text articles and play an important role for representing both the rhetorical structure and the semantic content of the articles. As a result, text mining systems will significantly benefit from a tool that automatically extracts the content of a citation. In this study, we applied the supervised machine-learning algorithms Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) to automatically parse a citation into its fields (e.g., Author, Title, Journal, and Year). With a subset of html format open-access PubMed Central articles, we report an overall 97.95% F1-score. The citation parser can be accessed at: http://www.cs.uwm.edu/∼qing/projects/cithit/index.html. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Firsov, D. A.; Vorobjev, L. E.; Vinnichenko, M. Ya., E-mail: mvin@spbstu.ru; Balagula, R. M. [Peter the Great Saint-Petersburg Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Kulagina, M. M.; Vasil’iev, A. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-11-15
The photoluminescence and intersubband absorption spectra are studied in GaAs/AlGaAs tunnel- coupled quantum well structures. The peak positions in the photoluminescence and absorption spectra are consistent with the theoretically calculated energies of optical carrier transitions. The effect of a transverse electric field and temperature on intersubband light absorption is studied. It is caused by electron redistribution between the size-quantization levels and a variation in the energy spectrum of quantum wells. The variation in the refractive index in the energy region of observed intersubband transitions is estimated using Kramers–Kronig relations.
Gao, Zhi-Peng; Zhang, Dan-Wei; Yu, Yang; Zhu, Shi-Liang
2017-06-01
We study the dynamics of a transverse-field XY chain driven across quantum critical points by noisy control fields. We characterize the defect density as a function of the quench time and the noise strength and demonstrate that the defect productions for three quench protocols with different scaling exponents exhibit the anti-Kibble-Zurek behavior, whereby slower driving results in more defects. The protocols are quenching through the boundary line between paramagnetic and ferromagnetic phases, quenching across the isolated multicritical point, and quenching along the gapless line, respectively. We also show that the optimal quench time to minimize defects scales as a universal power law of the noise strength in all three cases. Furthermore, by using quantum simulation of the quench dynamics in the spin system with well-designed Landau-Zener crossings in pseudomomentum space, we propose an experimentally feasible scheme to test the predicted anti-Kibble-Zurek behavior of this noisy transverse-field XY chain with two-level systems under controllable fluctuations.
Relations between Lagrangian models and synthetic random velocity fields.
Olla, Piero; Paradisi, Paolo
2004-10-01
The authors propose an alternative interpretation of Markovian transport models based on the well-mixed condition, in terms of the properties of a random velocity field with second order structure functions scaling linearly in the space-time increments. This interpretation allows direct association of the drift and noise terms entering the model, with the geometry of the turbulent fluctuations. In particular, the well-known nonuniqueness problem in the well-mixed approach is solved in terms of the antisymmetric part of the velocity correlations; its relation with the presence of nonzero mean helicity and other geometrical properties of the flow is elucidated. The well-mixed condition appears to be a special case of the relation between conditional velocity increments of the random field and the one-point Eulerian velocity distribution, allowing generalization of the approach to the transport of nontracer quantities. Application to solid particle transport leads to a model satisfying, in the homogeneous isotropic turbulence case, all the conditions on the behavior of the correlation times for the fluid velocity sampled by the particles. In particular, correlation times in the gravity and in the inertia dominated case, respectively, longer and shorter than in the passive tracer case; in the gravity dominated case, correlation times longer for velocity components along gravity, than for the perpendicular ones. The model produces, in channel flow geometry, particle deposition rates in agreement with experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Y. M.; Geurts, M.; Smilowitz, J. B.; Bednarz, B. P., E-mail: bbednarz2@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, Wisconsin Institutes for Medical Research, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53703 (United States); Sterpin, E. [Molecular Imaging, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Université catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium 1348 (Belgium)
2015-02-15
Purpose: Several groups are exploring the integration of magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance with radiotherapy to reduce tumor position uncertainty during photon radiotherapy. The therapeutic gain from reducing tumor position uncertainty using intrafraction MR imaging during radiotherapy could be partially offset if the negative effects of magnetic field-induced dose perturbations are not appreciated or accounted for. The authors hypothesize that a more rotationally symmetric modality such as helical tomotherapy will permit a systematic mediation of these dose perturbations. This investigation offers a unique look at the dose perturbations due to homogeneous transverse magnetic field during the delivery of Tomotherapy{sup ®} Treatment System plans under varying degrees of rotational beamlet symmetry. Methods: The authors accurately reproduced treatment plan beamlet and patient configurations using the Monte Carlo code GEANT4. This code has a thoroughly benchmarked electromagnetic particle transport physics package well-suited for the radiotherapy energy regime. The three approved clinical treatment plans for this study were for a prostate, head and neck, and lung treatment. The dose heterogeneity index metric was used to quantify the effect of the dose perturbations to the target volumes. Results: The authors demonstrate the ability to reproduce the clinical dose–volume histograms (DVH) to within 4% dose agreement at each DVH point for the target volumes and most planning structures, and therefore, are able to confidently examine the effects of transverse magnetic fields on the plans. The authors investigated field strengths of 0.35, 0.7, 1, 1.5, and 3 T. Changes to the dose heterogeneity index of 0.1% were seen in the prostate and head and neck case, reflecting negligible dose perturbations to the target volumes, a change from 5.5% to 20.1% was observed with the lung case. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the effect of external magnetic fields can
Rai, D. P.; Kaur, Sumandeep; Srivastava, Sunita
2018-02-01
Density functional theory has been employed to study the electronic and mechanical properties of the monolayer and bilayer ZnS. AB stacked ZnS bilayer is found to be energetically more favorable over the AA stacked ZnS bilayer. The electronic bandgap decreases on moving from monolayer to bilayer. Application of positive transverse electric field in AA/AB stacked bilayers leads to a semiconductor to metal transition at 1.10 V/Å. Reversed polarity of electric field, on the other hand, leads to an asymmetric behavior of the bandgap for AB stacking while the behavior of the bandgap in AA stacking is polarity independent. The strong dependency of bandgap on polarity of electric field in AB stacked ZnS bilayer is due to the balancing of external field with the induced internal field which arises due the electronegativity and heterogeneity in the arrangements of atoms. The electronic structure varies with the variation of applied biaxial strain (compression/tensile). We report an increase in band gap in both single and double layers under compression up to -8.0%, which can be attributed to greater superposition of atomic orbitals (Zn-d and S-p hybridization). We expect that our results may stimulate more theoretical and experimental work on hexagonal multi-layers of ZnS employing external field (temperature, pressure, field etc.) for future applications of our present work.
Quantum Coherence and Random Fields at Mesoscopic Scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenbaum, Thomas F. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2016-03-01
We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.
Kumar, Manoj; Banerjee, Varsha; Puri, Sanjay
2017-11-08
In this paper, we study the random field Ising model (RFIM) in an external magnetic field h . A computationally efficient graph-cut method is used to study ground state (GS) morphologies in this system for three different disorder types: Gaussian, uniform and bimodal. We obtain the critical properties of this system and find that they are independent of the disorder type. We also study GS morphologies via pinned-cluster distributions, which are scale-free at criticality. The spin-spin correlation functions (and structure factors) are characterized by a roughness exponent [Formula: see text]. The corresponding scaling function is universal for all disorder types and independent of h.
Randomly evolving idiotypic networks: modular mean field theory.
Schmidtchen, Holger; Behn, Ulrich
2012-07-01
We develop a modular mean field theory for a minimalistic model of the idiotypic network. The model comprises the random influx of new idiotypes and a deterministic selection. It describes the evolution of the idiotypic network towards complex modular architectures, the building principles of which are known. The nodes of the network can be classified into groups of nodes, the modules, which share statistical properties. Each node experiences only the mean influence of the groups to which it is linked. Given the size of the groups and linking between them the statistical properties such as mean occupation, mean lifetime, and mean number of occupied neighbors are calculated for a variety of patterns and compared with simulations. For a pattern which consists of pairs of occupied nodes correlations are taken into account.
Random Field Ising Models: Fractal Interfaces and their Implications
Bupathy, A.; Kumar, M.; Banerjee, V.; Puri, S.
2017-10-01
We use a computationally efficient graph-cut (GC) method to obtain exact ground-states of the d = 3 random field Ising model (RFIM) on simple cubic (SC), bodycentered cubic (BCC) and face-centered cubic (FCC) lattices with Gaussian, Uniform and Bimodal distributions for the disorder Δ. At small-r, the correlation function C(r; Δ) shows a cusp singularity characterised by a non-integer roughness exponent α signifying rough fractal interfaces with dimension d f = d – α. In the paramagnetic phase (Δ > Δ c ), α ≃ 0:5 for all lattice and disorder types. In the ferromagnetic phase (Δ Fractal interfaces have important implications on growth and relaxation.
Classification of hyperspectral images based on conditional random fields
Hu, Yang; Saber, Eli; Monteiro, Sildomar T.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Messinger, David W.
2015-02-01
A significant increase in the availability of high resolution hyperspectral images has led to the need for developing pertinent techniques in image analysis, such as classification. Hyperspectral images that are correlated spatially and spectrally provide ample information across the bands to benefit this purpose. Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) are discriminative models that carry several advantages over conventional techniques: no requirement of the independence assumption for observations, flexibility in defining local and pairwise potentials, and an independence between the modules of feature selection and parameter leaning. In this paper we present a framework for classifying remotely sensed imagery based on CRFs. We apply a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier to raw remotely sensed imagery data in order to generate more meaningful feature potentials to the CRFs model. This approach produces promising results when tested with publicly available AVIRIS Indian Pine imagery.
5th Seminar on Stochastic Processes, Random Fields and Applications
Russo, Francesco; Dozzi, Marco
2008-01-01
This volume contains twenty-eight refereed research or review papers presented at the 5th Seminar on Stochastic Processes, Random Fields and Applications, which took place at the Centro Stefano Franscini (Monte Verità) in Ascona, Switzerland, from May 30 to June 3, 2005. The seminar focused mainly on stochastic partial differential equations, random dynamical systems, infinite-dimensional analysis, approximation problems, and financial engineering. The book will be a valuable resource for researchers in stochastic analysis and professionals interested in stochastic methods in finance. Contributors: Y. Asai, J.-P. Aubin, C. Becker, M. Benaïm, H. Bessaih, S. Biagini, S. Bonaccorsi, N. Bouleau, N. Champagnat, G. Da Prato, R. Ferrière, F. Flandoli, P. Guasoni, V.B. Hallulli, D. Khoshnevisan, T. Komorowski, R. Léandre, P. Lescot, H. Lisei, J.A. López-Mimbela, V. Mandrekar, S. Méléard, A. Millet, H. Nagai, A.D. Neate, V. Orlovius, M. Pratelli, N. Privault, O. Raimond, M. Röckner, B. Rüdiger, W.J. Runggaldi...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Mao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. To assess different doses of nalbuphine with flurbiprofen compared to sufentanil with flurbiprofen in multimodal analgesia efficacy for elderly patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery with a transverse abdominis plane block (TAPB. Methods. 158 elderly patients scheduling for elective open gastrointestinal surgery under general anesthesia and TAPB were randomly assigned to four groups according to different doses of nalbuphine with flurbiprofen in postoperative intravenous analgesia (PCIA. Postoperative pain intensity, effective pressing numbers of PCIA, and adverse effects were recorded at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Results. Postoperative pain intensity, effective pressing numbers, and the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV were similar among the four groups after surgery, while the severity of PONV was decreased in Group L compared with Group S at 6, 12, and 48 h after surgery. No individual experienced pruritus, respiratory depression, or hypotension. Conclusions. Low dose of nalbuphine (15 μg·kg−1·ml−1 combined with flurbiprofen is superior for elderly patients undergoing elective open gastrointestinal surgery with TAPB in terms of the efficient postoperative analgesia and decreased severity of PONV. This trial is registered with NCT02984865.
Clustering, randomness, and regularity in cloud fields. 4: Stratocumulus cloud fields
Lee, J.; Chou, J.; Weger, R. C.; Welch, R. M.
1994-01-01
To complete the analysis of the spatial distribution of boundary layer cloudiness, the present study focuses on nine stratocumulus Landsat scenes. The results indicate many similarities between stratocumulus and cumulus spatial distributions. Most notably, at full spatial resolution all scenes exhibit a decidedly clustered distribution. The strength of the clustering signal decreases with increasing cloud size; the clusters themselves consist of a few clouds (less than 10), occupy a small percentage of the cloud field area (less than 5%), contain between 20% and 60% of the cloud field population, and are randomly located within the scene. In contrast, stratocumulus in almost every respect are more strongly clustered than are cumulus cloud fields. For instance, stratocumulus clusters contain more clouds per cluster, occupy a larger percentage of the total area, and have a larger percentage of clouds participating in clusters than the corresponding cumulus examples. To investigate clustering at intermediate spatial scales, the local dimensionality statistic is introduced. Results obtained from this statistic provide the first direct evidence for regularity among large (more than 900 m in diameter) clouds in stratocumulus and cumulus cloud fields, in support of the inhibition hypothesis of Ramirez and Bras (1990). Also, the size compensated point-to-cloud cumulative distribution function statistic is found to be necessary to obtain a consistent description of stratocumulus cloud distributions. A hypothesis regarding the underlying physical mechanisms responsible for cloud clustering is presented. It is suggested that cloud clusters often arise from 4 to 10 triggering events localized within regions less than 2 km in diameter and randomly distributed within the cloud field. As the size of the cloud surpasses the scale of the triggering region, the clustering signal weakens and the larger cloud locations become more random.
Lacková, Silvia; Jaščur, Michal; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi
2004-08-01
A mixed spin- {1}/{2} and spin-1 transverse Ising model with two- and four-spin interactions and crystal field on the honeycomb lattice is studied using a generalized mapping transformation technique. Exact expressions for the critical temperature, the magnetization, the correlation functions, the internal energy and other thermodynamic quantities are obtained. The phase diagram is obtained as a function of the interaction parameter, crystal field or the transverse field. It is found out that the system belongs to the Onsager universality class in some region of the four-spin interaction parameter space and to the Villain-Stephenson universality class in the other region. The detailed analysis reveals that the system with nonzero transverse field is ordered regardless of the value of the crystal field.
A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence
Chevillard, Laurent; Pereira, Rodrigo; Garban, Christophe
2016-11-01
We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments, including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free parameter and derive analytically the spectrum of exponents of the structure functions in a simplified non dissipative case. A perturbative expansion shows that energy transfers indeed take place, justifying the dissipative nature of this random field.
Noverraz, R.L.; Disse, M.A.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Prahl, C.
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: A long-term evaluation to assess the transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with or without infant orthopedics (IO). The hypothesis is that IO has no effect on the transverse dental arch relationship. MATERIAL AND METHODS:
Noverraz, R.L.M.; Disse, M.A.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Prahl, C.
2015-01-01
Objective A long-term evaluation to assess the transverse dental arch relationships at 9 and 12 years of age in unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with or without infant orthopedics (IO). The hypothesis is that IO has no effect on the transverse dental arch relationship. Material and methods A
Adiabatic hydrodynamic modes in dielectric environment in a random electric field
Stupka, Anton
2016-01-01
Dielectric is considered in the electric field that has equal to zero the first moment and different from zero the second moment of strength in an equilibrium. The equations of ideal hydrodynamics are obtained in such a field for the case of the neglect of dissipative effects. A new variable - the second moment of electric field strength is included in the Euler equation. A temporal equation for this variable is obtained on the basis of Maxwell equations in the hydrodynamic approximation. Adiabatic one-dimensional waves of small amplitude are studied in this system. Proceeding from the theoretical estimation of the intracrystalline field in an ionic crystal the good consent of the obtained numerical values of transversal velocity of this wave with transversal velocity of sound for isotropic crystals of alkali halides is found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kakiuchi, T.; Arakawa, K.; Kawabata, S.; Sumiyoshi, F. [Kagoshima Univ., Kagoshima (Japan)
2000-05-29
The quantitative evaluation of ac loss characteristics of the superconducting wire material is very important, when little-loss design of the superconducting wire rod and application to the superconductive equipment are considered. Though in the case of this loss measurement in the pick-up coil method, the solenoidal coil state does the winding of the material wire rod, the loss characteristic measured by the interaction between winding changes, when coil shape such as roll pitch and number of layers of the sample coil change. Then, the purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of the shape of the sample coil to the loss characteristic in loss measurement under the outside transverse field by the pick-up coil method. (NEDO)
Elperin, T; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Sokoloff, D
2001-08-01
Mean-field theory for turbulent transport of a passive scalar (e.g., particles and gases) is discussed. Equations for the mean number density of particles advected by a random velocity field, with a finite correlation time, are derived. Mean-field equations for a passive scalar comprise spatial derivatives of high orders due to the nonlocal nature of passive scalar transport in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time. A turbulent velocity field with a random renewal time is considered. This model is more realistic than that with a constant renewal time used by Elperin et al. [Phys. Rev. E 61, 2617 (2000)], and employs two characteristic times: the correlation time of a random velocity field tau(c), and a mean renewal time tau. It is demonstrated that the turbulent diffusion coefficient is determined by the minimum of the times tau(c) and tau. The mean-field equation for a passive scalar was derived for different ratios of tau/tau(c). The important role of the statistics of the field of Lagrangian trajectories in turbulent transport of a passive scalar, in a random velocity field with a finite correlation time, is demonstrated. It is shown that in the case tau(c)
2006-01-12
Steven Martin for loaning the authors one of the Phantom Cameras. A special gratitude is expressed to M. Favre-Marinet, E. B. Camano Schettini, and R. D...Fluid Mech.,Vol. 32, 2000, pp. 275-308. 21Favre-Marinet, M., and Camano Schettini, E. B., “The Density Field of Coaxial Jets with Large Velocity Ratio and
The flow of an elastico -viscous Maxwell fluid between two parallel plates, the upper one of which is fixed and the lower one moving in its own plane...was studied. It was assumed that a magnetic field perpendicular to the plates is present and the fluid is electrically conducting, elastico -viscous
In search of random uncorrelated particle motion (RUM) in a simple random flow field
Reeks, Michael W; Soldati, Alfredo
2012-01-01
DNS studies of dispersed particle motion in isotropic homogeneous turbulence [1] have revealed the existence of a component of random uncorrelated motion (RUM)dependent on the particle inertia {\\tau}p(normalised particle response time or Stoke number). This paper reports the presence of RUM in a simple linear random smoothly varying flow field of counter rotating vortices where the two-particle velocity correlation was measured as a function of spatial separation. Values of the correlation less than one for zero separation indicated the presence of RUM. In terms of Stokes number, the motion of the particles in one direction corresponds to either a heavily damped ({\\tau}p 0.25)harmonic oscillator. In the lightly damped case the particles overshoot the stagnation lines of the flow and are projected from one vortex to another (the so-called sling-shot effect). It is shown that RUM occurs only when {\\tau}p > 0.25, increasing monotonically with increasing Stokes number. Calculations of the particle pair separatio...
Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao
2013-04-01
Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.
Conditional random field modelling of interactions between findings in mammography
Kooi, Thijs; Mordang, Jan-Jurre; Karssemeijer, Nico
2017-03-01
Recent breakthroughs in training deep neural network architectures, in particular deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), made a big impact on vision research and are increasingly responsible for advances in Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD). Since many natural scenes and medical images vary in size and are too large to feed to the networks as a whole, two stage systems are typically employed, where in the first stage, small regions of interest in the image are located and presented to the network as training and test data. These systems allow us to harness accurate region based annotations, making the problem easier to learn. However, information is processed purely locally and context is not taken into account. In this paper, we present preliminary work on the employment of a Conditional Random Field (CRF) that is trained on top the CNN to model contextual interactions such as the presence of other suspicious regions, for mammography CAD. The model can easily be extended to incorporate other sources of information, such as symmetry, temporal change and various patient covariates and is general in the sense that it can have application in other CAD problems.
A Markov Random Field Groupwise Registration Framework for Face Recognition.
Liao, Shu; Shen, Dinggang; Chung, Albert C S
2014-04-01
In this paper, we propose a new framework for tackling face recognition problem. The face recognition problem is formulated as groupwise deformable image registration and feature matching problem. The main contributions of the proposed method lie in the following aspects: (1) Each pixel in a facial image is represented by an anatomical signature obtained from its corresponding most salient scale local region determined by the survival exponential entropy (SEE) information theoretic measure. (2) Based on the anatomical signature calculated from each pixel, a novel Markov random field based groupwise registration framework is proposed to formulate the face recognition problem as a feature guided deformable image registration problem. The similarity between different facial images are measured on the nonlinear Riemannian manifold based on the deformable transformations. (3) The proposed method does not suffer from the generalizability problem which exists commonly in learning based algorithms. The proposed method has been extensively evaluated on four publicly available databases: FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, FRGC ver 2.0, and the LFW. It is also compared with several state-of-the-art face recognition approaches, and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method consistently achieves the highest recognition rates among all the methods under comparison.
Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Burr
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.
Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.
Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg
2014-06-01
Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Segmentation and labeling of documents using conditional random fields
Shetty, Shravya; Srinivasan, Harish; Beal, Matthew; Srihari, Sargur
2007-01-01
The paper describes the use of Conditional Random Fields(CRF) utilizing contextual information in automatically labeling extracted segments of scanned documents as Machine-print, Handwriting and Noise. The result of such a labeling can serve as an indexing step for a context-based image retrieval system or a bio-metric signature verification system. A simple region growing algorithm is first used to segment the document into a number of patches. A label for each such segmented patch is inferred using a CRF model. The model is flexible enough to include signatures as a type of handwriting and isolate it from machine-print and noise. The robustness of the model is due to the inherent nature of modeling neighboring spatial dependencies in the labels as well as the observed data using CRF. Maximum pseudo-likelihood estimates for the parameters of the CRF model are learnt using conjugate gradient descent. Inference of labels is done by computing the probability of the labels under the model with Gibbs sampling. Experimental results show that this approach provides for 95.75% of the data being assigned correct labels. The CRF based model is shown to be superior to Neural Networks and Naive Bayes.
Angel Amaya, J.; Fierro Morales, J.; Ordoñez Potes, M.; Blanco, M.
2012-12-01
We present new seismological, morphotectonic and structural data of the Southern Bogota area. The goals of the study were to characterize the NW transverse fault system and to evaluate its effect on seismic wave's generation and propagation. The data set included epicenters of the RSNC (Red Sismologica Nacional de Colombia) catalog over the period 1993-2012, historical description of seismic events (period 1644-1921), structural field data (scale 1:100000) and remote sensors interpretation. The methodology included the structural analysis of over 476 faults having a known sense of offset by using a least squares iterative inversion outlined by Angelier (1984) to determinate the mean deviatoric principal stress tensor. Preliminary conclusions showed that both propagation medium and direction are determined by the structural and mechanic conditions of the Southern Bogota Shear Zone (SBSZ) defined by Fierro & Angel, (2008) as a NW-SE oblique-slip fault zone within sinistral and normal regimes. Based on both data sources (focal mechanism and field structural data) we attempted to reconstruct the stress field starting with a strike slip faulting stress regime (S2 vertical), the solution yielded a ENE-WSW orientation for horizontal principal stress (S1). It is hypothesized that the NW oblique-slip fault zone may generate and/or propagate seismic waves, as a local source, implying local hazard to Bogota the capital city of Colombia with over 8 million habitants.
Heterogeneous Web Data Extraction Algorithm Based On Modified Hidden Conditional Random Fields
Cui Cheng
2014-01-01
As it is of great importance to extract useful information from heterogeneous Web data, in this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous Web data extraction algorithm using a modified hidden conditional random fields model. Considering the traditional linear chain based conditional random fields can not effectively solve the problem of complex and heterogeneous Web data extraction, we modify the standard hidden conditional random fields in three aspects, which are 1) Using the hidden Markov mo...
Error Bounds Due to Random Noise in Cylindrical Near-Field Measurements
Romeu Robert, Jordi; Jofre Roca, Lluís
1991-01-01
The far field errors due to near field random noise are statistically bounded when performing cylindrical near to far field transform. In this communication, the far field noise variance it is expressed as a function of the measurement parameters and the near field noise variance. Peer Reviewed
Bearing Fault Classification Based on Conditional Random Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guofeng Wang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Condition monitoring of rolling element bearing is paramount for predicting the lifetime and performing effective maintenance of the mechanical equipment. To overcome the drawbacks of the hidden Markov model (HMM and improve the diagnosis accuracy, conditional random field (CRF model based classifier is proposed. In this model, the feature vectors sequences and the fault categories are linked by an undirected graphical model in which their relationship is represented by a global conditional probability distribution. In comparison with the HMM, the main advantage of the CRF model is that it can depict the temporal dynamic information between the observation sequences and state sequences without assuming the independence of the input feature vectors. Therefore, the interrelationship between the adjacent observation vectors can also be depicted and integrated into the model, which makes the classifier more robust and accurate than the HMM. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, four kinds of bearing vibration signals which correspond to normal, inner race pit, outer race pit and roller pit respectively are collected from the test rig. And the CRF and HMM models are built respectively to perform fault classification by taking the sub band energy features of wavelet packet decomposition (WPD as the observation sequences. Moreover, K-fold cross validation method is adopted to improve the evaluation accuracy of the classifier. The analysis and comparison under different fold times show that the accuracy rate of classification using the CRF model is higher than the HMM. This method brings some new lights on the accurate classification of the bearing faults.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonzalez, J.W.; Duque, C.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Lopez, S.Y. [Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Rodriguez, A.H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 20-364, San Angel 01000, Mexico DF (Mexico); Porras-Montenegro, N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, AA 25360, Cali (Colombia)
2007-01-15
Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, we have calculated the influence of an applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure on the shallow-impurity-related optical properties in a rectangular-transverse section GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum well wire. The electric field is applied in the plane of the transverse section of the wire and different angular directions have been considered. The results presented are for the impurity binding energy, its corresponding density of impurity states, and impurity-related transition energy and polarizability. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin
2015-01-01
We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....
Sousa, H. S.; de Lima, J. P.; Costa, N. C.; Lyra, M. L.; Gonçalves, L. L.
2017-11-01
We study the anisotropic one-dimensional XY model (s = 1/2 ) with uniform long-range interaction between the transverse components of the spins. The solution of the model was obtained by using the Jordan-Wigner transformation, and by treating the four fermion term within the mean field approximation. The proposed approximation reproduces the known exact results for two limiting cases of the model, namely, the isotropic model with long-range interaction and the anisotropic model without long-range interaction. Explicit expressions are obtained for the Helmholtz free energy, the induced magnetization and the isothermal susceptibility at arbitrary temperatures. Special attention is given to the study of quantum critical behaviour at T = 0 , by determining the phase diagram for the quantum phase transitions, and it is shown that the system presents a critical behaviour analogous to the one presented by isotropic model with long-range interaction. The spontaneous magnetization is also determined, at T = 0 , and we show that our results obtained by mean field approximation are in good agreement with those obtained by exact diagonalization of a finite chain; a comparison is also made with already known results.
Gesture Recognition using Latent-Dynamic based Conditional Random Fields and Scalar Features
Yulita, I. N.; Fanany, M. I.; Arymurthy, A. M.
2017-02-01
The need for segmentation and labeling of sequence data appears in several fields. The use of the conditional models such as Conditional Random Fields is widely used to solve this problem. In the pattern recognition, Conditional Random Fields specify the possibilities of a sequence label. This method constructs its full label sequence to be a probabilistic graphical model based on its observation. However, Conditional Random Fields can not capture the internal structure so that Latent-based Dynamic Conditional Random Fields is developed without leaving external dynamics of inter-label. This study proposes the use of Latent-Dynamic Conditional Random Fields for Gesture Recognition and comparison between both methods. Besides, this study also proposes the use of a scalar features to gesture recognition. The results show that performance of Latent-dynamic based Conditional Random Fields is not better than the Conditional Random Fields, and scalar features are effective for both methods are in gesture recognition. Therefore, it recommends implementing Conditional Random Fields and scalar features in gesture recognition for better performance
Reduction of the Random Variables of the Turbulent Wind Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Nielsen, Søren R.K.
2012-01-01
Applicability of the Probability Density Evolution Method (PDEM) for realizing evolution of the probability density for the wind turbines has rather strict bounds on the basic number of the random variables involved in the model. The efficiency of most of the Advanced Monte Carlo (AMC) methods, i.......e. Importance Sampling (IS) or Subset Simulation (SS), will be deteriorated on problems with many random variables. The problem with PDEM is that a multidimensional integral has to be carried out over the space defined by the random variables of the system. The numerical procedure requires discretization...... of the integral domain; this becomes increasingly difficult as the dimensions of the integral domain increase. On the other hand efficiency of the AMC methods is closely dependent on the design points of the problem. Presence of many random variables may increase the number of the design points, hence affects...
Optimal Exact Simulation of Max-Stable and Related Random Fields
Liu, Zhipeng; Blanchet, Jose H.; Dieker, A. B.; Mikosch, Thomas
2016-01-01
We consider the random field M(t)=\\sup_{n\\geq 1}\\big\\{-\\log A_{n}+X_{n}(t)\\big\\}\\,,\\qquad t\\in T\\, for a set $T\\subset \\mathbb{R}^{m}$, where $(X_{n})$ is an iid sequence of centered Gaussian random fields on $T$ and $0
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitsuru Itoh, Toshirou Yagi, Yoshiaki Uesu, Wolfgang Kleemann and Robert Blinc
2004-01-01
Full Text Available The oxygen isotope exchange of 16O by 18O in SrTiO3 causes a drastic change from paraelectric to ferroelectric, due to the suppression of quantum fluctuation. The phase transition and origin of the huge domain wall response were evaluated by dielectric, magnetic (NMR, and optical measurements (SHG, light scattering. The results obtained corroborate (1 smeared ferroelectric transition at Tc due to quenched random field, (2 a quite large dielectric contribution from domain walls, (3 incomplete softening of the transverse optic mode, and (4 a large contribution from the relaxational mode to the phase transition. Quantitative explanations, given to individual results, may give hints to grasp the mechanism for the evolution of ferroelectricity, in which quantum fluctuation and random fields are dominant perturbations. Finally, some of the news studies on the SrTiO3 were also introduced.
Correlations of electromagnetic fields in chaotic cavities
Eckhardt, B; Kühl, T; Stöckmann, H J
1999-01-01
We consider the fluctuations of electromagnetic fields in chaotic microwave cavities. We calculate the transversal and longitudinal correlation function based on a random wave assumption and compare the predictions with measurements on two- and three-dimensional microwave cavities.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruce R Kava
2010-01-01
Conclusions : Seven-centimeter transverse and longitudinal mini-incisions offer alternatives to the standard ORP incision, and to minimally invasive approaches. Both incisions are safe, associated with little postoperative pain, and a short postoperative LOS. Both incisions provide highly satisfactory cosmesis for the patient.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.R. Levitskii
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Modified four-sublattice model for Rochelle salt by taking into account piezoelectric interactions with shear strain ε4 , ε5 and ε6 is proposed. Components of polarization vector and static dielectric permittivity tensor for both mechanically clamped and free crystals, their piezoelectric characteristics and elastic modules are derived in the mean field approximation. A comprehensive study of transverse field effect on phase transition temperatures, dielectric and elastic properties of Rochelle salt has been performed for the first time.
Transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas due to a spatially random magnetic field
Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Main, P. C.; Neumann, A. C.; Marrows, C. H.; Zoller, I.; Howson, M. A.; Hickey, B. J.; Henini, M.
2000-02-01
We have studied the magnetoresistance of a near-surface two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the presence of a random magnetic field produced by CoPd multilayers deposited onto the surface of the heterostructure. This novel method allows us to switch the random field on and off by applying an external magnetic field and also to control the amplitude and correlation length of the random field by varying the growth parameters of the multilayers. The presence of the random field is confirmed by quenching of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and we see an enhanced magnetoresistance which can be interpreted semi-classically. We also observe other unusual features which may be quantum in origin.
Modulation of electromagnetic fields by a depolarizer of random polarizer array
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ning; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Wang, Wei
2016-01-01
with randomly distributed polarization angles, where the incident fields experience a random polarization modulation after passing through the depolarizer. The propagation of the modulated electric fields through any quadratic optical system is examined within the framework of the complex ABCD matrix to show......The statistical properties of the electric fields with random changes of the polarization state in space generated by a depolarizer are investigated on the basis of the coherence matrix. The depolarizer is a polarizer array composed of a multitude of contiguous square cells of polarizers...
Külske, C
2003-01-01
We derive useful general concentration inequalities for functions of Gibbs fields in the uniqueness regime. We also consider expectations of random Gibbs measures that depend on an additional disorder field, and prove concentration w.r.t the disorder field. Both fields are assumed to be in the uniqueness regime, allowing in particular for non-independent disorder field. The modification of the bounds compared to the case of an independent field can be expressed in terms of constants that resemble the Dobrushin contraction coefficient, and are explicitly computable. On the basis of these inequalities, we obtain bounds on the deviation of a diffraction pattern created by random scatterers located on a general discrete point set in the Euclidean space, restricted to a finite volume. Here we also allow for thermal dislocations of the scatterers around their equilibrium positions. Extending recent results for independent scatterers, we give a universal upper bound on the probability of a deviation of the random sc...
Ilyasov, V V; Meshi, B C; Nguyen, V C; Ershov, I V; Nguyen, D C
2014-07-07
The paper presents the results of ab initio study of the opportunities for tuning the band structure, magnetic and transport properties of zigzag graphene nanoribbon (8-ZGNR) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN(0001)) semiconductor heterostructure by transverse electric field (E(ext)). This study was performed within the framework of the density functional theory (DFT) using Grimme's (DFT-D2) scheme. We established the critical values of E(ext) for the 8-ZGNR/h-BN(0001) heterostructure, thereby providing for semiconductor-halfmetal transition in one of electron spin configurations. This study also showed that the degeneration in energy of the localized edge states is removed when E(ext) is applied. In ZGNR/h-BN (0001) heterostructure, value of the splitting energy was higher than one in ZGNRs without substrate. We determined the effect of low E(ext) applied to the 8-ZGNR/h-BN (0001) semiconductor heterostructure on the preserved local magnetic moment (LMM) (0.3μ(B)) of edge carbon atoms. The transport properties of the 8-ZGNR/h-BN(0001) semiconductor heterostructure can be controlled using E(ext). In particular, at a critical value of the positive potential, the electron mobility can increase to 7× 10(5) cm(2)/V s or remain at zero in the spin-up and spin-down electron subsystems, respectively. We established that magnetic moments (MMs), band gaps, and carrier mobility can be altered using E(ext). These abilities enable the use of 8-ZGNR/h-BN(0001) semiconductor heterostructure in spintronics.
On Closely Coupled Dipoles in a Random Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Vincent, L.
2006-01-01
Reception of partially correlated fields by two closely coupled electrical dipoles is discussed as a function of load impedances and open-circuit correlations. Two local maxima of the power may be achieved for two different load impedances, but in those cases the output correlations are high...
The Continuous Spin Random Field Model : Ferromagnetic Ordering in d ≥ 3
Külske, Christof
1999-01-01
We investigate the Gibbs-measures of ferromagnetically coupled continuous spins in double-well potentials subjected to a random field (our specific example being the φ4 theory), showing ferromagnetic ordering in d ≥ 3 dimensions for weak disorder and large energy barriers. We map the random
Random fields of initial out of straightness leading to column buckling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kala, Zdeněk; Valeš, Jan; Jönsson, Jeppe
2017-01-01
to compression, bending and torsion from the onset of loading. Numerical simulations are performed using the geometrically non-linear model created using the ANSYS software package. Each simulation run has input random realizations of yield strength and the random field generated using the Latin Hypercube...
On the Inference of Spatial Continuity using Spartan Random Field Models
Elogne, Samuel; Hristopulos, Dionisis
2006-01-01
This paper addresses the inference of spatial dependence in the context of a recently proposed framework. More specifically, the paper focuses on the estimation of model parameters for a class of generalized Gibbs random fields, i.e., Spartan Spatial Random Fields (SSRFs). The problem of parameter inference is based on the minimization of a distance metric. The latter involves a specifically designed distance between sample constraints (variance, generalized ``gradient'' and ``curvature'') an...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Miyamoto, Y.
2005-01-01
We present the first direct experimental evidence of the local properties of optical vortices in a random laser speckle field. We have observed the Berry anisotropy ellipse describing the anisotropic squeezing of phase lines close to vortex cores and quantitatively verified the Dennis angular mom...... momentum rule for its phase. Some statistics associated with vortices, such as density, anisotropy ellipse eccentricity, and its relation to zero crossings of real and imaginary parts of the random field, are also investigated by experiments....
Restoration of dimensional reduction in the random-field Ising model at five dimensions.
Fytas, Nikolaos G; Martín-Mayor, Víctor; Picco, Marco; Sourlas, Nicolas
2017-04-01
The random-field Ising model is one of the few disordered systems where the perturbative renormalization group can be carried out to all orders of perturbation theory. This analysis predicts dimensional reduction, i.e., that the critical properties of the random-field Ising model in D dimensions are identical to those of the pure Ising ferromagnet in D-2 dimensions. It is well known that dimensional reduction is not true in three dimensions, thus invalidating the perturbative renormalization group prediction. Here, we report high-precision numerical simulations of the 5D random-field Ising model at zero temperature. We illustrate universality by comparing different probability distributions for the random fields. We compute all the relevant critical exponents (including the critical slowing down exponent for the ground-state finding algorithm), as well as several other renormalization-group invariants. The estimated values of the critical exponents of the 5D random-field Ising model are statistically compatible to those of the pure 3D Ising ferromagnet. These results support the restoration of dimensional reduction at D=5. We thus conclude that the failure of the perturbative renormalization group is a low-dimensional phenomenon. We close our contribution by comparing universal quantities for the random-field problem at dimensions 3≤DIsing model at D-2 dimensions, and we provide a clear verification of the Rushbrooke equality at all studied dimensions.
Revisiting Boltzmann learning: parameter estimation in Markov random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Lars Kai; Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Kjems, Ulrik
1996-01-01
This article presents a generalization of the Boltzmann machine that allows us to use the learning rule for a much wider class of maximum likelihood and maximum a posteriori problems, including both supervised and unsupervised learning. Furthermore, the approach allows us to discuss regularization...... and generalization in the context of Boltzmann machines. We provide an illustrative example concerning parameter estimation in an inhomogeneous Markov field. The regularized adaptation produces a parameter set that closely resembles the “teacher” parameters, hence, will produce segmentations that closely reproduce...
Extremes of random fields over arbitrary domains with application to concrete rupture stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2004-01-01
To find the exact probability distribution of the global maximum or minimum of a random field within a bounded domain is a pending problem even for Gaussian fields. Except for very special examples of fields, recourse must be taken to approximate reasoning or asymptotic considerations to be judged...... functions of a smooth approximately Gaussian field, herein called a broken line Hino field. For completeness this particular field type is defined in Appendices A and B. The paper concludes with a statistical application on data for plain concrete tensile strength. (C) 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....
A dissipative random velocity field for fully developed fluid turbulence
Pereira, Rodrigo M; Chevillard, Laurent
2015-01-01
We investigate the statistical properties, based on numerical simulations and analytical calculations, of a recently proposed stochastic model for the velocity field of an incompressible, homogeneous, isotropic and fully developed turbulent flow. A key step in the construction of this model is the introduction of some aspects of the vorticity stretching mechanism that governs the dynamics of fluid particles along their trajectory. An additional further phenomenological step aimed at including the long range correlated nature of turbulence makes this model depending on a single free parameter $\\gamma$ that can be estimated from experimental measurements. We confirm the realism of the model regarding the geometry of the velocity gradient tensor, the power-law behaviour of the moments of velocity increments (i.e. the structure functions), including the intermittent corrections, and the existence of energy transfers across scales. We quantify the dependence of these basic properties of turbulent flows on the free...
Effect of a dilute random field on a continuous-symmetry order parameter
Proctor, T. C.; Chudnovsky, E. M.
2015-04-01
X Y and Heisenberg spins, subjected to strong random fields acting at a few points in space with a concentration cr≪1 , are studied numerically on three-dimensional lattices containing over 4 ×106 sites. Glassy behavior with a strong dependence on initial conditions is found. Beginning with a random initial orientation of spins, the system evolves into ferromagnetic domains inversely proportional to cr in size. The area of the hysteresis loop m (H ) scales as cr2. These findings are explained by mapping the effect of a strong dilute random field onto the effect of a weak continuous random field. Our theory applies directly to ferromagnets with magnetic impurities, and is conceptually relevant to strongly pinned vortex lattices in superconductors and pinned charge-density waves.
Gartin, Patrick R.
1995-01-01
Asserts that several analytical issues in randomized field experiments conducted by criminal justice scholars must be addressed more systematically. Notes that issues related to statistical power and desired sample size remain unresolved. Reviews related literature from the field of medicine to provide insights regarding the dilemmas created by…
Segmentation of RGB-D indoor scenes by stacking random forests and conditional random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thøgersen, Mikkel; Guerrero, Sergio Escalera; Gonzàlez, Jordi
2016-01-01
on stacked classifiers; the benefits are two fold: on one hand, the system scales well to consider different types of complex features and, on the other hand, the use of stacked classifiers makes the performance of the proposed technique more accurate. The proposed method consists of a random forest using...... better performance than state of the art methods on the same dataset. The results show an improvement of 2.3% over the base model by using MMSSL and displays that the method is effective in this problem domain....
Metal-insulator transition of 2d electron gas in a random magnetic field
Wang, X R; Liu, D Z
1999-01-01
We study the metal-insulator transition of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of a random magnetic field from the localization property. The localization length is directly calculated using a transfer matrix technique and finite size scaling analysis. We argue that there is a metal-insulator transition in such a system and show strong numerical evidence that the system undergoes a disorder driven Kosterlitz-Thouless type metal-insulator transition. We will also discuss a mean field theory which maps the random field system into a two-dimensional XY-model. The vortex and antivortex excitations in the XY-model correspond to two different kinds of magnetic domains in the random field system.
Wu Hua
2003-01-01
The transverse-field Ising model is successfully applied to the Ba sub x Sr sub 1 sub - sub x TiO sub 3 system. An impurity-induced paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition is found for proper parameters. An explanation is offered for the results of the susceptibility chi(x, T), the transition temperature T sub m (x), the spontaneous polarization (P ) versus x and versus T, the field dependence of chi(x, T) and that of the polarization (P ) versus E for x, 0.2 <= x <= 0.95.
rft1d: Smooth One-Dimensional Random Field Upcrossing Probabilities in Python
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd C. Pataky
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Through topological expectations regarding smooth, thresholded n-dimensional Gaussian continua, random field theory (RFT describes probabilities associated with both the field-wide maximum and threshold-surviving upcrossing geometry. A key application of RFT is a correction for multiple comparisons which affords field-level hypothesis testing for both univariate and multivariate fields. For unbroken isotropic fields just one parameter in addition to the mean and variance is required: the ratio of a field's size to its smoothness. Ironically the simplest manifestation of RFT (1D unbroken fields has rarely surfaced in the literature, even during its foundational development in the late 1970s. This Python package implements 1D RFT primarily for exploring and validating RFT expectations, but also describes how it can be applied to yield statistical inferences regarding sets of experimental 1D fields.
Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization
Liang Yu; Tao Chenyuan; Zhou Bingcheng; Huang Shuai; Huang Linchong
2017-01-01
In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enh...
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Oda, Ichiro
2017-05-01
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a "fake" symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions.
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
A test for stationarity of spatio-temporal random fields on planar and spherical domains
Jun, Mikyoung
2012-01-01
A formal test for weak stationarity of spatial and spatio-temporal random fields is proposed. We consider the cases where the spatial domain is planar or spherical, and we do not require distributional assumptions for the random fields. The method can be applied to univariate or to multivariate random fields. Our test is based on the asymptotic normality of certain statistics that are functions of estimators of covariances at certain spatial and temporal lags under weak stationarity. Simulation results for spatial as well as spatio-temporal cases on the two types of spatial domains are reported. We describe the results of testing the stationarity of Pacific wind data, and of testing the axial symmetry of climate model errors for surface temperature using the NOAA GFDL model outputs and the observations from the Climate Research Unit in East Anglia and the Hadley Centre.
Phase-space representation and polarization domains of random electromagnetic fields.
Castaneda, Roman; Betancur, Rafael; Herrera, Jorge; Carrasquilla, Juan
2008-08-01
The phase-space representation of stationary random electromagnetic fields is developed by using electromagnetic spatial coherence wavelets. The propagation of the field's power and states of spatial coherence and polarization results from correlations between the components of the field vectors at pairs of points in space. Polarization domains are theoretically predicted as the structure of the field polarization at the observation plane. In addition, the phase-space representation provides a generalization of the Poynting theorem. Theoretical predictions are examined by numerically simulating the Young experiment with electromagnetic waves. The experimental implementation of these results is a current subject of research.
Excursion sets of infinitely divisible random fields with convolution equivalent Lévy measure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønn-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel
2017-01-01
We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in ℝ d , d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields, we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set ...... at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure....
Excursion sets of infinitely divisible random fields with convolution equivalent Lévy measure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønn-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel
We consider a continuous, infinitely divisible random field in R d , d = 1, 2, 3, given as an integral of a kernel function with respect to a Lévy basis with convolution equivalent Lévy measure. For a large class of such random fields we compute the asymptotic probability that the excursion set a...... at level x contains some rotation of an object with fixed radius as x → ∞. Our main result is that the asymptotic probability is equivalent to the right tail of the underlying Lévy measure...
The limiting behavior of the estimated parameters in a misspecified random field regression model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dahl, Christian Møller; Qin, Yu
This paper examines the limiting properties of the estimated parameters in the random field regression model recently proposed by Hamilton (Econometrica, 2001). Though the model is parametric, it enjoys the flexibility of the nonparametric approach since it can approximate a large collection......, as a consequence the random field model specification introduces non-stationarity and non-ergodicity in the misspecified model and it becomes non-trivial, relative to the existing literature, to establish the limiting behavior of the estimated parameters. The asymptotic results are obtained by applying some...
Carbon nanotube field emitters on KOVAR substrate modified by random pattern
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Seol Ah; Song, Eun-Ho; Kang, Byung Hyun; Ju, Byeong-Kwon, E-mail: bkju@korea.ac.kr [Korea University, Display and Nanosystem Laboratory, College of Engineering (Korea, Republic of)
2015-07-15
We investigated the field emission characteristics of patterned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on KOVAR substrates with different surface morphologies. The substrate with a micro-sized random pattern was fabricated through chemical wet etching, whereas the substrate with a nano-sized random pattern was formed by surface roughening process of polymer and chemical wet etching. The field emission characteristics of these substrates were the compared with those of non-treated substrates. It was clearly revealed that the field emission characteristics of CNTs were influenced by the surface morphology of the cathode substrate. When the surface of cathode was modified by random pattern, the modified substrate provided a large surface area and a wider print area. Also, the modified surface morphology of the cathode provided strong adhesion between the CNT paste and the cathode. Particularly, the substrate with the nano-sized random pattern showed that the turn-on field value decreases and the field enhancement factor value improves as compared with non-treated substrate.
TRANSVERSITY SINGLE SPIN ASYMMETRIES.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BOER,D.
2001-04-27
The theoretical aspects of two leading twist transversity single spin asymmetries, one arising from the Collins effect and one from the interference fragmentation functions, are reviewed. Issues of factorization, evolution and Sudakov factors for the relevant observables are discussed. These theoretical considerations pinpoint the most realistic scenarios towards measurements of transversity.
Growth of transverse coherence in SASE FELs
Kumar, V
2000-01-01
We introduce the correlation function between the electric field at two different points in the transverse plane as a parameter to quantify the degree of transverse coherence. We also propose a more realistic model for the initialization of the radiation in computer codes used to study SASE FELs. We make these modifications in the code TDA and use it to study the growth of transverse coherence as a function of electron beam size, beam current and transverse emittance. Our results show explicitly that the onset of full transverse coherence in SASE takes place much before the power saturates. With the more realistic model the onset of the exponential growth regime is delayed, and to get a given power from the FEL one needs a longer undulator than would be predicted by the original TDA code.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veklenko, B. A., E-mail: veklenkoba@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)
2016-10-15
It is shown theoretically that the electromagnetic background of longitudinal zero oscillations of a temperature-degenerate electron–ion plasma in a thermodynamic equilibrium state resonantly distorts the wave functions of its electrons. This gives rise to a characteristic quantum frequency that nonanalytically depends on Planck’s constant ℏ. Vacuum phenomena in plasma attributed to zero oscillations turn out to be anomalously large. Quantum corrections to the transverse dielectric permittivity of a degenerate electron–ion plasma, which are nonanalytic with respect to ℏ and are attributed to the zero-point oscillations of the plasma, are determined.
Kraft, Matthew A.; Dougherty, Shaun M.
2013-01-01
In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of teacher communication with parents and students as a means of increasing student engagement. We estimate the causal effect of teacher communication by conducting a randomized field experiment in which sixth- and ninth-grade students were assigned to receive a daily phone call home and a text/written…
The Role of Treatment Fidelity on Outcomes during a Randomized Field Trial of an Autism Intervention
Mandell, David S; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Shin, Sujie; Xie, Ming; Reisinger, Erica; Marcus, Steven C
2013-01-01
This randomized field trial comparing Strategies for Teaching based on Autism Research and Structured Teaching enrolled educators in 33 kindergarten-through-second-grade autism support classrooms and 119 students, aged 5-8 years in the School District of Philadelphia. Students were assessed at the beginning and end of the academic year using the…
High Performance Ambipolar Field-Effect Transistor of Random Network Carbon Nanotubes
Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Gao, Jia; Derenskyi, Vladimir; Gomulya, Widianta; Iezhokin, Igor; Gordiichuk, Pavlo; Herrmann, Andreas; Loi, Maria Antonietta
2012-01-01
Ambipolar field-effect transistors of random network carbon nanotubes are fabricated from an enriched dispersion utilizing a conjugated polymer as the selective purifying medium. The devices exhibit high mobility values for both holes and electrons (3 cm(2)/V.s) with a high on/off ratio (10(6)). The
Magnetoresistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a random magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Anders; Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Hansen, Luise Theil
1994-01-01
We report magnetoresistance measurements on a two-dimensional electron gas made from a high-mobility GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs heterostructure, where the externally applied magnetic field was expelled from regions of the semiconductor by means of superconducting lead grains randomly distributed...
The effect of early entrepreneurship education: evidence from a randomized field experiment
Rosendahl Huber, L.; Sloof, R.; van Praag, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of early entrepreneurship education. To this end, we conduct a randomized field experiment to evaluate a leading entrepreneurship education program that is taught worldwide in the final grade of primary school. We focus on pupils' development of
Is Bonferroni correction more sensitive than Random Field Theory for most fMRI studies?
Tierney, Tim M; Carmichael, David W
2016-01-01
Random Field Theory has been used in the fMRI literature to address the multiple comparisons problem. The method provides an analytical solution for the computation of precise p-values when its assumptions are met. When its assumptions are not met the thresholds generated by Random Field Theory can be more conservative than Bonferroni corrections, which are arguably too stringent for use in fMRI. As this has been well documented theoretically it is surprising that a majority of current studies (~80%) would not meet the assumptions of Random Field Theory and therefore would have reduced sensitivity. Specifically most data is not smooth enough to meet the good lattice assumption. Current studies smooth data on average by twice the voxel size which is rarely sufficient to meet the good lattice assumption. The amount of smoothing required for Random Field Theory to produce accurate p-values increases with image resolution and decreases with degrees of freedom. There is no rule of thumb that is valid for all study...
Joint modeling of ChIP-seq data via a Markov random field model
Bao, Yanchun; Vinciotti, Veronica; Wit, Ernst; 't Hoen, Peter A C
Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments have now become routine in biology for the detection of protein-binding sites. In this paper, we present a Markov random field model for the joint analysis of multiple ChIP-seq experiments. The proposed model naturally accounts for
Application of operator-scaling anisotropic random fields to binary mixtures
Anders, Denis; Hoffmann, Alexander; Scheffler, Hans-Peter; Weinberg, Kerstin
2011-10-01
In modern technical applications various multiphase mixtures are used to meet demanding mechanical, chemical and electrical requirements. To understand their structural properties as continuous macroscopic materials, it is important to capture the microstructure of these mixtures. Due to their vast range of applications multicomponent systems are subjected to microstructural changes such as phase separation and coarsening. Therefore the ultimate microstructural arrangement depends on the system's configuration and on exterior driving forces. In addition to this, random physical imperfections within the material and random noise in the exterior thermodynamic fields influence in essence the microstructural evolution. Since all physical processes are subjected to a certain degree of random inhomogeneity under realistic conditions, the influence of random phenomena cannot be neglected in modern physical models. An advanced mathematical description and an implementation of these stochastic processes are required to adapt simulation results based on deterministic mathematical models to experimental observations. In our contribution we will present an operator-scaling anisotropic random field embedded in the Cahn-Hilliard phase-field model to describe the phase evolution in a binary mixture. The arising nonlinear diffusion equation will be solved numerically in the innovative framework of the isogeometric finite element method. To illustrate the flexibility and versatility of our approach, numerical and experimental results for a eutectic Sn-Pb alloy are contraposed. This is the first time that the microstructural evolution in a multicomponent system has been associated with operator-scaling anisotropic random fields. Due to its enormous potential as an essential ingredient in stochastic mathematical and physical modeling it is only a matter of time until these processes will become prevalent in engineering applications.
Exact Partition Function for the Random Walk of an Electrostatic Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriel González
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The partition function for the random walk of an electrostatic field produced by several static parallel infinite charged planes in which the charge distribution could be either ±σ is obtained. We find the electrostatic energy of the system and show that it can be analyzed through generalized Dyck paths. The relation between the electrostatic field and generalized Dyck paths allows us to sum overall possible electrostatic field configurations and is used for obtaining the partition function of the system. We illustrate our results with one example.
Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik
2012-01-01
The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....
Maximizing Entropy of Pickard Random Fields for 2x2 Binary Constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren
2014-01-01
This paper considers the problem of maximizing the entropy of two-dimensional (2D) Pickard Random Fields (PRF) subject to constraints. We consider binary Pickard Random Fields, which provides a 2D causal finite context model and use it to define stationary probabilities for 2x2 squares, thus...... allowing us to calculate the entropy of the field. All possible binary 2x2 constraints are considered and all constraints are categorized into groups according to their properties. For constraints which can be modeled by a PRF approach and with positive entropy, we characterize and provide statistics...... of the maximum PRF entropy. As examples, we consider the well known hard square constraint along with a few other constraints....
The van Hemmen model and effect of random crystalline anisotropy field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morais, Denes M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Godoy, Mauricio, E-mail: mgodoy@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Arruda, Alberto S. de, E-mail: aarruda@fisica.ufmt.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, 78060-900 Cuiabá, Mato Grosso (Brazil); Silva, Jonathas N. da [Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14800-901, Araraquara, São Paulo (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J. [Instituto Nacional de Sistemas Complexos, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazona, 69077-000, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)
2016-01-15
In this work, we have presented the generalized phase diagrams of the van Hemmen model for spin S=1 in the presence of an anisotropic term of random crystalline field. In order to study the critical behavior of the phase transitions, we employed a mean-field Curie–Weiss approach, which allows calculation of the free energy and the equations of state of the model. The phase diagrams obtained here displayed tricritical behavior, with second-order phase transition lines separated from the first-order phase transition lines by a tricritical point. - Highlights: • Several phase diagrams are obtained for the model. • The influence of the random crystalline anisotropy field on the model is investigated. • Three ordered (spin-glass, ferromagnetic and mixed) phases are found. • The tricritical behavior is examined.
One-dimensional classical diffusion in a random force field with weakly concentrated absorbers
Texier, C.; Hagendorf, C.
2009-05-01
A one-dimensional model of classical diffusion in a random force field with a weak concentration ρ of absorbers is studied. The force field is taken as a Gaussian white noise with langphi(x)rang=0 and langphi(x)phi(x')rang=g δ(x- x'). Our analysis relies on the relation between the Fokker-Planck operator and a quantum Hamiltonian in which absorption leads to breaking of supersymmetry. Using a Lifshits argument, it is shown that the average return probability is a power law \\langle {P(x,t\\vert x,0)} \\rangle \\sim t^{-\\sqrt{2\\rho/g}} (to be compared with the usual Lifshits exponential decay exp-(ρ2t)1/3 in the absence of the random force field). The localisation properties of the underlying quantum Hamiltonian are discussed as well.
Transverse Schottky spectra and beam transfer functions of coasting ion beams with space charge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paret, Stefan
2010-02-22
A study of the transverse dynamics of coasting ion beams with moderate space charge is presented in this work. From the dispersion relation with linear space charge, an analytic model describing the impact of space charge on transverse beam transfer functions (BTFs) and the stability limits of a beam is derived. The dielectric function obtained in this way is employed to describe the transverse Schottky spectra with linear space charge as well. The difference between the action of space charge and impedances is highlighted. The setup and the results of an experiment performed in the heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18 at GSI to detect space-charge effects at different beam intensities are explicated. The measured transverse Schottky spectra and BTFs are compared with the linear space-charge model. The stability diagrams constructed from the BTFs are presented. The space-charge parameters evaluated from the Schottky and BTF measurements are compared with estimations based on measured beam parameters. The impact of collective effects on the Schottky and BTF diagnostics is also investigated through numerical simulations. For this purpose the self-field of beams with linear and non-linear transverse density-distributions is computed on a twodimensional grid. The noise of the random particle distribution causes fluctuations of the dipole moment of the beam which produce the Schottky spectrum. BTFs are simulated by exciting the beam with transverse kicks. The simulation results are used to verify the space-charge model. (orig.)
John, Roshan; Ranjan, R V; Ramachandran, T R; George, Sagiev Koshy
2017-01-01
The analgesic benefit of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for cesarean delivery remains controversial. In our study, we compared the analgesic efficacy of TAP block using local anesthetic bupivacaine and adjunct fentanyl with bupivacaine alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section. Our study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial where sixty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery under subarachanoid block (2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine) were randomized into two groups, A and B. At the end of the surgical procedure, bilateral TAP block was performed guided by the ultrasound. Group A received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 2 ml of 50 μg of fentanyl, whereas Group B received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine + 2 ml of normal saline. The total volume was divided equally and administered bilaterally. Each patient was assessed for 24 h after TAP block, for time to rescue analgesia, pain using visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest and on movement, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), nausea, vomiting, and sedation. Diclofenac 75 mg was given as rescue analgesia when the patient complained of pain or when VAS score >4. Prolonged postoperative analgesia was noticed with both the groups, with a mean time to rescue analgesia of approximately 6.5 h. There was no significant difference in time to rescue analgesia (6.49 ± 0.477 vs. 6.5 ± 0.480) when both the groups were compared among themselves. The pain scores among the two groups when compared did not show any added benefit. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, and sedation when compared between both the groups showed no difference. The TAP block as a part of a multimodal analgesic regimen definitely has a role in providing superior analgesia in the postoperative period. However, adjunct fentanyl to local anesthetic bupivacaine was found to have no added advantage when quality and duration of analgesia was compared.
Yang, Yongchao; Sun, Peng; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce
2017-07-01
Structural damage is typically a local phenomenon that initiates and propagates within a limited area. As such high spatial resolution measurement and monitoring is often needed for accurate damage detection. This requires either significantly increased costs from denser sensor deployment in the case of global simultaneous/parallel measurements, or increased measurement time and labor in the case of global sequential measurements. This study explores the feasibility of an alternative approach to this problem: a computational solution in which a limited set of randomly positioned, low-resolution global strain measurements are used to reconstruct the full-field, high-spatial-resolution, two-dimensional (2D) strain field and rapidly detect local damage. The proposed approach exploits the implicit low-rank and sparse data structure of the 2D strain field: it is highly correlated without many edges and hence has a low-rank structure, unless damage-manifesting itself as sparse local irregularity-is present and alters such a low-rank structure slightly. Therefore, reconstruction of the full-field, high-spatial-resolution strain field from a limited set of randomly positioned low-resolution global measurements is modeled as a low-rank matrix completion framework and damage detection as a sparse decomposition formulation, enabled by emerging convex optimization techniques. Numerical simulations on a plate structure are conducted for validation. The results are discussed and a practical iterative global/local procedure is recommended. This new computational approach should enable the efficient detection of local damage using limited sets of strain measurements.
Transverse dipole spin modes in quantum dots
Lipparini, E.; Barranco, M.; Emperador, A.; Pi, M.; Serra, Ll.
1999-09-01
We have carried out a systematic analysis of the transverse dipole spin response of a large-size quantum dot within time-dependent current density functional theory. Results for magnetic fields corresponding to integer filling factors are reported, as well as a comparison with the longitudinal dipole spin response. As in the two-dimensional electron gas, the spin response at high-spin magnetization is dominated by a low-energy transverse mode.
Ruffolo, D. J.; Snodin, A. P.; Oughton, S.; Servidio, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2013-12-01
The random walk of magnetic field lines is examined analytically and numerically in the context of reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) turbulence, which provides a useful description of plasmas dominated by a strong mean field, such as in the solar corona. A nonperturbative theory of magnetic field line diffusion [1] is compared with the diffusion coefficients obtained by accurate numerical tracing of magnetic field lines for both synthetic models and direct numerical simulations of RMHD. Statistical analysis of an ensemble of trajectories confirms the applicability of the theory, which very closely matches the numerical field line diffusion coefficient as a function of distance z along the mean magnetic field for a wide range of the Kubo number R. The theory employs Corrsin's independence hypothesis, sometimes thought to be valid only at low R. However, the results demonstrate that it works well up to R=10, both for a synthetic RMHD model and an RMHD simulation. The numerical results from RMHD simulation are compared with and without phase randomization, demonstrating an effect of coherent structures on the field line random walk for low Kubo number. Partially supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from Mahidol University, the Thailand Research Fund, POR Calabria FSE-2007/2013, the US NSF (AGS-1063439 and SHINE AGS-1156094), NASA (Heliophysics Theory NNX08AI47G & NNX11AJ44G), by the Solar Probe Plus Project through the ISIS Theory team, by the MMS Theory and Modeling team, and by EU Marie Curie Project FP7 PIRSES-2010-269297 'Turboplasmas' at Università della Calabria. [1] D. Ruffolo and W. H. Matthaeus, Phys. Plasmas, 20, 012308 (2013).
Random fields generation on the GPU with the spectral turning bands method
Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.
2014-08-01
Random field (RF) generation algorithms are of paramount importance for many scientific domains, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics and many others. Some examples are the generation of initial conditions for cosmological simulations or hydrodynamical turbulence driving. In the latter a new random field is needed every time-step. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) and require the whole generated field to be stored in memory. Moreover, they are limited to regular rectilinear meshes and need an extra processing step to support non-regular meshes. In this paper, we introduce TBARF (Turning BAnd Random Fields), a RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step, and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. We show that TBARF can easily generate RF on non-regular (non uniform) meshes and can afford mesh sizes bigger than the available GPU memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. TBARF is 2 to 5 times faster than the traditional methods when generating RFs with more than 16M cells. It can also generate RF on non-regular meshes, and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda; Jacobsen, Finn
2006-01-01
to the definition of the latter, a number of plane waves coming from random directions and having random phases impinge simultaneously upon the microphone. The random-incidence sensitivity can be estimated using measurements made in an anechoic chamber, while the diffuse-field sensitivity requires a reverberation...
Joint random field model for all-weather moving vehicle detection.
Wang, Yang
2010-09-01
This paper proposes a joint random field (JRF) model for moving vehicle detection in video sequences. The JRF model extends the conditional random field (CRF) by introducing auxiliary latent variables to characterize the structure and evolution of visual scene. Hence, detection labels (e.g., vehicle/roadway) and hidden variables (e.g., pixel intensity under shadow) are jointly estimated to enhance vehicle segmentation in video sequences. Data-dependent contextual constraints among both detection labels and latent variables are integrated during the detection process. The proposed method handles both moving cast shadows/lights and various weather conditions. Computationally efficient algorithm has been developed for real-time vehicle detection in video streams. Experimental results show that the approach effectively deals with various illumination conditions and robustly detects moving vehicles even in grayscale video.
Analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping using random field theory.
Flandin, Guillaume; Friston, Karl J
2017-11-01
This technical report revisits the analysis of family-wise error rates in statistical parametric mapping-using random field theory-reported in (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863). Contrary to the understandable spin that these sorts of analyses attract, a review of their results suggests that they endorse the use of parametric assumptions-and random field theory-in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data. We briefly rehearse the advantages parametric analyses offer over nonparametric alternatives and then unpack the implications of (Eklund et al. []: arXiv 1511.01863) for parametric procedures. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Statistics of highly heterogeneous flow fields confined to three-dimensional random porous media
Jin, C.; Langston, P. A.; Pavlovskaya, G. E.; Hall, M. R.; Rigby, S. P.
2016-01-01
We present a strong relationship between the microstructural characteristics of, and the fluid velocity fields confined to, three-dimensional random porous materials. The relationship is revealed through simultaneously extracting correlation functions Ru u(r ) of the spatial (Eulerian) velocity fields and microstructural two-point correlation functions S2(r ) of the random porous heterogeneous materials. This demonstrates that the effective physical transport properties depend on the characteristics of complex pore structure owing to the relationship between Ru u(r ) and S2(r ) revealed in this study. Further, the mean excess plot was used to investigate the right tail of the streamwise velocity component that was found to obey light-tail distributions. Based on the mean excess plot, a generalized Pareto distribution can be used to approximate the positive streamwise velocity distribution.
A Modified FCM Classifier Constrained by Conditional Random Field Model for Remote Sensing Imagery
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WANG Shaoyu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Remote sensing imagery has abundant spatial correlation information, but traditional pixel-based clustering algorithms don't take the spatial information into account, therefore the results are often not good. To this issue, a modified FCM classifier constrained by conditional random field model is proposed. Adjacent pixels' priori classified information will have a constraint on the classification of the center pixel, thus extracting spatial correlation information. Spectral information and spatial correlation information are considered at the same time when clustering based on second order conditional random field. What's more, the global optimal inference of pixel's classified posterior probability can be get using loopy belief propagation. The experiment shows that the proposed algorithm can effectively maintain the shape feature of the object, and the classification accuracy is higher than traditional algorithms.
Simulation of the pressure field near a jet by randomly distributed vortex rings
Fung, Y. T.; Liu, C. H.; Gunzburger, M. D.
1979-01-01
Fluctuations of the pressure field in the vicinity of a jet are simulated numerically by a flow model consisting of axially symmetric vortex rings with viscous cores submerged in a uniform stream. The time interval between the shedding of successive vortices is taken to be a random variable with a probability distribution chosen to match that from experiments. It is found that up to 5 diameters downstream of the jet exit, statistics of the computed pressure field are in good agreement with experimental results. Statistical comparisons are provided for the overall sound pressure level, the peak amplitude, and the Strouhal number based on the peak frequency of the pressure signals.
Phase transitions of Ising mixed spin 1 and 3/2 with random crystal field distribution
Sabri, S.; EL Falaki, M.; EL Yadari, M.; Benyoussef, A.; EL Kenz, A.
2016-10-01
The thermal and magnetic properties of the mixed spin-1 and spin-3/2 in the presence of the random crystal field are studied within the mean field approach based on the Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The model exhibits first, second order transitions, a tricritical point, triple point and an isolated critical end point. It is found that the system displays simple and double compensation temperatures, five topologies of the phase diagrams. A re-entrant phenomenon is also discussed and the thermal dependences of total magnetization according to extended Neel classification have been also given.
Spatial Random Field Models Inspired from Statistical Physics with Applications in the Geosciences
Hristopulos, D. T.
2005-01-01
The spatial structure of fluctuations in spatially inhomogeneous processes can be modeled in terms of Gibbs random fields. A local low energy estimator (LLEE) is proposed for the interpolation (prediction) of such processes at points where observations are not available. The LLEE approximates the spatial dependence of the data and the unknown values at the estimation points by low-lying excitations of a suitable energy functional. It is shown that the LLEE is a linear, unbiased, non-exact est...
Prediction of the spatial occurrence of fire induced spalling in concrete slabs using random fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Van Coile R.
2013-09-01
Full Text Available As the loss of concrete cover can significantly influence the reliability of concrete elements during fire, spalling should be taken into account when performing reliability calculations. However, the occurrence and spatial variation of spalling are highly uncertain. A first step towards a probabilistic analysis of spalling is made by combining existing deterministic models with a stochastic representation of the concrete tensile strength and by using random fields to model the tensile strength spatial variation.
Spectral turning bands for efficient Gaussian random fields generation on GPUs and accelerators
Hunger, L.; Cosenza, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Fahringer, T.
2015-11-01
A random field (RF) is a set of correlated random variables associated with different spatial locations. RF generation algorithms are of crucial importance for many scientific areas, such as astrophysics, geostatistics, computer graphics, and many others. Current approaches commonly make use of 3D fast Fourier transform (FFT), which does not scale well for RF bigger than the available memory; they are also limited to regular rectilinear meshes. We introduce random field generation with the turning band method (RAFT), an RF generation algorithm based on the turning band method that is optimized for massively parallel hardware such as GPUs and accelerators. Our algorithm replaces the 3D FFT with a lower-order, one-dimensional FFT followed by a projection step and is further optimized with loop unrolling and blocking. RAFT can easily generate RF on non-regular (non-uniform) meshes and efficiently produce fields with mesh sizes bigger than the available device memory by using a streaming, out-of-core approach. Our algorithm generates RF with the correct statistical behavior and is tested on a variety of modern hardware, such as NVIDIA Tesla, AMD FirePro and Intel Phi. RAFT is faster than the traditional methods on regular meshes and has been successfully applied to two real case scenarios: planetary nebulae and cosmological simulations.
Fluorescence microscopy image noise reduction using a stochastically-connected random field model.
Haider, S A; Cameron, A; Siva, P; Lui, D; Shafiee, M J; Boroomand, A; Haider, N; Wong, A
2016-02-17
Fluorescence microscopy is an essential part of a biologist's toolkit, allowing assaying of many parameters like subcellular localization of proteins, changes in cytoskeletal dynamics, protein-protein interactions, and the concentration of specific cellular ions. A fundamental challenge with using fluorescence microscopy is the presence of noise. This study introduces a novel approach to reducing noise in fluorescence microscopy images. The noise reduction problem is posed as a Maximum A Posteriori estimation problem, and solved using a novel random field model called stochastically-connected random field (SRF), which combines random graph and field theory. Experimental results using synthetic and real fluorescence microscopy data show the proposed approach achieving strong noise reduction performance when compared to several other noise reduction algorithms, using quantitative metrics. The proposed SRF approach was able to achieve strong performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the synthetic results, high signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio in the real fluorescence microscopy data results, and was able to maintain cell structure and subtle details while reducing background and intra-cellular noise.
Validity of the mean-field approximation for diffusion on a random comb
Revathi, S.; Balakrishnan, V.; Lakshmibala, S.; Murthy, K. P. N.
1996-09-01
We consider unbiased diffusion on a random comb structure (an infinitely long backbone with loopless branches of arbitrary length emanating from it). If w=T0 is the mean time (averaged over all random walks) for first passage from an arbitrary origin 0 on the backbone to either of the sites +j or -j on it in a given realization of the structure, the exact diffusion constant for the problem is defined as K=limj-->∞j2c, where c stands for the configuration average over the realizations of the random comb. The diffusion constant in the mean-field approximation is given by KMF=limj-->∞j2/c. We compute T0 exactly for an arbitrary realization of the comb and then show rigorously that, owing to the suppression of the relative fluctuations in T0 in the ``thermodynamic limit'' j-->∞, we have KMF=K whenever the moments of certain random variables Γ(L,α,β) are finite; here the site-dependent random variables L, α, and β are, respectively, the branch length, stay probability at the tip of a branch, and the backbone-to-branch jump probability. Finally, we discuss different situations in which K will not be equal to KMF, although the transport remains diffusive, as opposed to those in which anomalous diffusion occurs.
Transverse angular momentum in topological photonic crystals
Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Fu-Li; Dong, Jian-Wen
2018-01-01
Engineering local angular momentum of structured light fields in real space enables applications in many fields, in particular, the realization of unidirectional robust transport in topological photonic crystals with a non-trivial Berry vortex in momentum space. Here, we show transverse angular momentum modes in silicon topological photonic crystals when considering transverse electric polarization. Excited by a chiral external source with either transverse spin angular momentum or transverse phase vortex, robust light flow propagating along opposite directions is observed in several kinds of sharp-turn interfaces between two topologically-distinct silicon photonic crystals. A transverse orbital angular momentum mode with alternating phase vortex exists at the boundary of two such photonic crystals. In addition, unidirectional transport is robust to the working frequency even when the ring size or location of the pseudo-spin source varies in a certain range, leading to the superiority of the broadband photonic device. These findings enable one to make use of transverse angular momentum, a kind of degree of freedom, to achieve unidirectional robust transport in the telecom region and other potential applications in integrated photonic circuits, such as on-chip robust delay lines.
Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2006-01-01
oscillation and an axial oscillation in the pulse echo field. The theory behind the creation of the double oscillation pulse echo field is explained as well as the theory behind the estimation of the vector velocity. A parameter study of the method is performed, using the ultrasound simulation program Field...... II. A virtual linear array transducer with center frequency 7 MHz and 128 active elements is created, and a virtual blood vessel of radius 6.4 mm is simulated. The performance of the TO method is found around an initial point in the parameter space. The parameters varied are: flow angle, transmit...... focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...
Transverse momentum spectra of the produced hadrons at SPS ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-04-30
Apr 30, 2014 ... The successive collisions in the nuclear reaction lead to gain in transverse momentum, as the nucleons propagate in the nucleus following a random walk pattern. The average transverse rapidity shift per collision is determined from the nucleon–nucleus collision data. Using this information, we obtain ...
Markov Random Field Restoration of Point Correspondences for Active Shape Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Paulsen, Rasmus Reinhold; Larsen, Rasmus
2004-01-01
In this paper it is described how to build a statistical shape model using a training set with a sparse of landmarks. A well defined model mesh is selected and fitted to all shapes in the training set using thin plate spline warping. This is followed by a projection of the points of the warped...... model mesh to the target shapes. When this is done by a nearest neighbour projection it can result in folds and inhomogeneities in the correspondence vector field. The novelty in this paper is the use and extension of a Markov random field regularisation of the correspondence field. The correspondence...... model that produces highly homogeneous polygonised shapes with improved reconstruction capabilities of the training data. Furthermore, the method leads to an overall reduction in the total variance of the resulting point distribution model. The method is demonstrated on a set of human ear canals...
Analytical description of field-line random walk in Goldreich-Sridhar turbulence
Shalchi, A.; Kolly, A.
2013-05-01
We describe analytically the random walk of magnetic field lines for two correlation tensors based on the Goldreich-Sridhar model. We show that for this type of tensor, field-line wandering is normal diffusive in contrast to subdiffusive and superdiffusive transport obtained for other turbulence models. Furthermore, we demonstrate that there are two transport regimes. The first one corresponds to quasi-linear theory, whereas the second one is non-linear. We show that for one of the tensors the quasi-linear regime is obtained in the limit of strong turbulence, whereas the non-linear regime is found for weak turbulence. For the other tensor, we obtain a field-line diffusion coefficient which behaves more like diffusion parameters derived previously.
Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization
Liang, Yu; Tao, Chenyuan; Zhou, Bingcheng; Huang, Shuai; Huang, Linchong
2017-06-01
In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enhancement algorithm is effective, the image of microstructure of granular materials becomes clear and the contrast ratio is improved, after using Retinex image enhancement algorithm to enhance the CT image. The fidelity of enhanced image is higher than that dealing with other method, which have explained that the algorithm can preserve the microstructure information of the image well. The result of numerical simulation is similar with the one obtained from conventional three axis consolidation test, which proves that the simulation result is reliable.
Submicron structure random field on granular soil material with retinex algorithm optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liang Yu
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a Retinex scale optimized image enhancement algorithm is proposed, which can enhance the micro vision image and eliminate the influence of the uneven illumination. Based on that, a random geometric model of the microstructure of granular materials is established with Monte-Carlo method, the numerical simulation including consolidation process of granular materials is compared with the experimental data. The results have proved that the random field method with Retinex image enhancement algorithm is effective, the image of microstructure of granular materials becomes clear and the contrast ratio is improved, after using Retinex image enhancement algorithm to enhance the CT image. The fidelity of enhanced image is higher than that dealing with other method, which have explained that the algorithm can preserve the microstructure information of the image well. The result of numerical simulation is similar with the one obtained from conventional three axis consolidation test, which proves that the simulation result is reliable.
A Study of Large Transverse Momentum Phenomena
2002-01-01
This experiment studies the structure of those p-p and @*-p collisions which are characterized by a very high transverse momentum flow in the central region. Some specific items studied are:\\\\ \\\\ \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is shared by charged and neutral hadron (``jets''). Transverse momentum distribution, correlations and momentum balance for such events. \\item -~~Structure of events, where the high transverse momentum is mostly carried by one identified particle. Quantum number dependence and quantum number correlations of the high transverse momentum events. \\item -~~Structure of events containing large transverse momentum leptons or lepton pairs or direct photons. \\end{enumerate}.sk -~~Study of low momentum electrons and photons. -~~Search for gluonium states. -~~Search for new and rare particles. \\\\ \\\\ A conventional C-type magnet with a 0.5 T field in the direction of the beams together with a 42-layer cylindrical drift chamber detector is used for momentum analysi...
Larrasa, J; Garcia, A; Ambrose, N C; Alonso, J M; Parra, A; de Mendoza, M Hermoso; Salazar, J; Rey, J; de Mendoza, J Hermoso
2002-04-01
Dermatophilus congolensis is the pathogenic actinomycete that causes dermatophilosis in cattle, lumpy wool in sheep and rain scald in horses. Phenotypic variation between isolates has previously been described, but its genetic basis, extent and importance have not been investigated. Standard DNA extraction methods are not always successful for D. congolensis due to its complex life cycle, one stage of which is encapsulated. Here we describe the development of rapid and reliable DNA extraction and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) methods that can be used for genotyping D. congolensis field isolates. Our results suggest that genotypic variation between isolates correlates with host species. Several DNA extraction methods and RAPD protocols were compared. An extraction method based on incubation of the bacterium in lysozyme, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and proteinase K treatments and phenolic extraction yielded high-quality DNA, which was used to optimize RAPD-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols for two random primers. An alternative rapid, non-phenolic extraction method based on proteinase K treatment and thermal shock was selected for routine RAPD typing of isolates. DNA extracted from reference strains from cattle, sheep and horse using either method gave reproducible banding patterns with different DNA batches and different thermal cyclers. The rapid DNA extraction method and RAPD-PCR were applied to 38 D. congolensis field isolates. The band patterns of the field and type isolates correlated with host species but not with geographical location.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Géraud Thierry
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We present a fast method for road network extraction in satellite images. It can be seen as a transposition of the segmentation scheme "watershed transform region adjacency graph Markov random fields" to the extraction of curvilinear objects. Many road extractors which are composed of two stages can be found in the literature. The first one acts like a filter that can decide from a local analysis, at every image point, if there is a road or not. The second stage aims at obtaining the road network structure. In the method we propose to rely on a "potential" image, that is, unstructured image data that can be derived from any road extractor filter. In such a potential image, the value assigned to a point is a measure of its likelihood to be located in the middle of a road. A filtering step applied on the potential image relies on the area closing operator followed by the watershed transform to obtain a connected line which encloses the road network. Then a graph describing adjacency relationships between watershed lines is built. Defining Markov random fields upon this graph, associated with an energetic model of road networks, leads to the expression of road network extraction as a global energy minimization problem. This method can easily be adapted to other image processing fields, where the recognition of curvilinear structures is involved.
Random-field Ising model: Insight from zero-temperature simulations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.E. Theodorakis
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We enlighten some critical aspects of the three-dimensional (d=3 random-field Ising model (RFIM from simulations performed at zero temperature. We consider two different, in terms of the field distribution, versions of model, namely a Gaussian RFIM and an equal-weight trimodal RFIM. By implementing a computational approach that maps the ground-state of the system to the maximum-flow optimization problem of a network, we employ the most up-to-date version of the push-relabel algorithm and simulate large ensembles of disorder realizations of both models for a broad range of random-field values and systems sizes V=LxLxL, where L denotes linear lattice size and Lmax=156. Using as finite-size measures the sample-to-sample fluctuations of various quantities of physical and technical origin, and the primitive operations of the push-relabel algorithm, we propose, for both types of distributions, estimates of the critical field hmax and the critical exponent ν of the correlation length, the latter clearly suggesting that both models share the same universality class. Additional simulations of the Gaussian RFIM at the best-known value of the critical field provide the magnetic exponent ratio β/ν with high accuracy and clear out the controversial issue of the critical exponent α of the specific heat. Finally, we discuss the infinite-limit size extrapolation of energy- and order-parameter-based noise to signal ratios related to the self-averaging properties of the model, as well as the critical slowing down aspects of the algorithm.
Chiral dynamics and peripheral transverse densities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Granados, Carlos G. [Uppsala University (Sweden); Weiss, Christian [JLAB, Newport News, VA (United States)
2014-01-01
In the partonic (or light-front) description of relativistic systems the electromagnetic form factors are expressed in terms of frame-independent charge and magnetization densities in transverse space. This formulation allows one to identify the chiral components of nucleon structure as the peripheral densities at transverse distances b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and compute them in a parametrically controlled manner. A dispersion relation connects the large-distance behavior of the transverse charge and magnetization densities to the spectral functions of the Dirac and Pauli form factors near the two--pion threshold at timelike t = 4 M{ sub {pi}}{sup 2}, which can be computed in relativistic chiral effective field theory. Using the leading-order approximation we (a) derive the asymptotic behavior (Yukawa tail) of the isovector transverse densities in the "chiral" region b = O(M{sub {pi}}{sup -1}) and the "molecular" region b = O(M{sub N}{sup 2}/M{sub {pi}}{sup 3}); (b) perform the heavy-baryon expansion of the transverse densities; (c) explain the relative magnitude of the peripheral charge and magnetization densities in a simple mechanical picture; (d) include Delta isobar intermediate states and study the peripheral transverse densities in the large-N{ sub c} limit of QCD; (e) quantify the region of transverse distances where the chiral components of the densities are numerically dominant; (f) calculate the chiral divergences of the b{sup 2}-weighted moments of the isovector transverse densities (charge and anomalous magnetic radii) in the limit M{sub {pi}} -> 0 and determine their spatial support. Our approach provides a concise formulation of the spatial structure of the nucleon's chiral component and offers new insights into basic properties of the chiral expansion. It relates the information extracted from low-t elastic form factors to the generalized parton distributions probed in peripheral high-energy scattering processes.
Directional Transverse Oscillation Vector Flow Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2017-01-01
A method for estimating vector velocities using transverse oscillation (TO) combined with directional beamforming is presented. In Directional Transverse Oscillation (DTO) a normal focused field is emitted and the received signals are beamformed in the lateral direction transverse to the ultrasound...... beam to increase the amount of data for vector velocity estimation. The approach is self-calibrating as the lateral oscillation period is estimated from the directional signal through a Fourier transform to yield quantitative velocity results over a large range of depths. The approach was extensively...... simulated using Field IIpro and implemented on the experimental SARUS scanner in connection with a BK Medical 8820e convex array transducer. Velocity estimates for DTO are found for beam-to-flow angles of 60, 75, and 90, and vessel depths from 24 to 156 mm. Using 16 emissions the Standard Deviation (SD...
Transversal light forces in semiconductors
Lindberg, M
2003-01-01
The transversal light force is a well established effect in atomic and molecular systems that are exposed to spatially inhomogeneous light fields. In this paper it is shown theoretically that in an excited semiconductor, containing an electron-hole plasma or excitons, a similar light force exists, if the semiconductor is exposed to an ultrashort spatially inhomogeneous light field. The analysis is based on the equations of motion for the Wigner distribution functions of charge carrier populations and interband polarizations. The results show that, while the light force on the electron-hole plasma or the excitons does exist, its effects on the kinetic behaviour of the electron-hole plasma or the excitons are different compared to the situation in an atomic or molecular system. A detailed analysis presented here traces this difference back to the principal differences between atoms and molecules on the one hand and electron-hole plasmas or excitons on the other hand.
Chen, Mingsheng; Yan, Qingguang; Qin, Mingxin
2017-12-01
Image segmentation is a preliminary and fundamental step in computer aided magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images analysis. But the performance of most current image segmentation methods is easily depreciated by noise in MRI images. A precise and anti-noise segmentation of MRI images is desired in modern medical image diagnosis. This paper presents a segmentation of MRI images which combines fuzzy clustering and Markov random field (MRF). In order to utilize gray level information sufficiently and alleviate noise disturbance, fuzzy clustering is carried out on the original image and the coarse scale image of multi-scale decomposition. The spatial constraints between neighboring pixels are modeled by a defined potential function in the MRF to reduce the effect of noise and increase the integrity of segmented regions. Spatial constraints and the gray level information refined by Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm are integrated by maximum a posteriori Markov random field (MAP-MRF). In the proposed method, the fuzzy clustering membership obtained from the original image and the coarse scale image is integrated into the single-site clique potential functions by MAP-MRF. The defined potential functions and the distance weight are introduced to model the neighborhood constraint with MRF. The experiments are carried out on noised synthetic images, simulated brain MR images and real MR images. The experimental results show that the proposed method has strong robustness and satisfying performance. Meanwhile the method is compared with FCM, FGFCM and FLICM algorithms visually and statistically in the experiments. In the comparison, the proposed method has achieved the best results. In the statistical comparison, the proposed method has an average similarity index of 36.8%, 33.7%, 2.75% increase against FCM, FGFCM and FLICM. This paper proposes a MRI segmentation method combining fuzzy clustering and Markov random field. The method is tested in the noised image databases and
Traffic Video Image Segmentation Model Based on Bayesian and Spatio-Temporal Markov Random Field
Zhou, Jun; Bao, Xu; Li, Dawei; Yin, Yongwen
2017-10-01
Traffic video image is a kind of dynamic image and its background and foreground is changed at any time, which results in the occlusion. In this case, using the general method is more difficult to get accurate image segmentation. A segmentation algorithm based on Bayesian and Spatio-Temporal Markov Random Field is put forward, which respectively build the energy function model of observation field and label field to motion sequence image with Markov property, then according to Bayesian' rule, use the interaction of label field and observation field, that is the relationship of label field’s prior probability and observation field’s likelihood probability, get the maximum posterior probability of label field’s estimation parameter, use the ICM model to extract the motion object, consequently the process of segmentation is finished. Finally, the segmentation methods of ST - MRF and the Bayesian combined with ST - MRF were analyzed. Experimental results: the segmentation time in Bayesian combined with ST-MRF algorithm is shorter than in ST-MRF, and the computing workload is small, especially in the heavy traffic dynamic scenes the method also can achieve better segmentation effect.
Reduced Wiener Chaos representation of random fields via basis adaptation and projection
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsilifis, Panagiotis, E-mail: tsilifis@usc.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Ghanem, Roger G., E-mail: ghanem@usc.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States)
2017-07-15
A new characterization of random fields appearing in physical models is presented that is based on their well-known Homogeneous Chaos expansions. We take advantage of the adaptation capabilities of these expansions where the core idea is to rotate the basis of the underlying Gaussian Hilbert space, in order to achieve reduced functional representations that concentrate the induced probability measure in a lower dimensional subspace. For a smooth family of rotations along the domain of interest, the uncorrelated Gaussian inputs are transformed into a Gaussian process, thus introducing a mesoscale that captures intermediate characteristics of the quantity of interest.
Spatial random field models inspired from statistical physics with applications in the geosciences
Hristopulos, Dionissios T.
2006-06-01
The spatial structure of fluctuations in spatially inhomogeneous processes can be modeled in terms of Gibbs random fields. A local low energy estimator (LLEE) is proposed for the interpolation (prediction) of such processes at points where observations are not available. The LLEE approximates the spatial dependence of the data and the unknown values at the estimation points by low-lying excitations of a suitable energy functional. It is shown that the LLEE is a linear, unbiased, non-exact estimator. In addition, an expression for the uncertainty (standard deviation) of the estimate is derived.
Transverse Spin and Transverse Momentum Effects at COMPASS
Schill, Christian
2011-01-01
The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. In the year 2007 COMPASS took data scattering 160 GeV muons on a transversely polarized NH3 target. Three different channels to access the transversity distribution function have been analyzed: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of lambda hyperons in the final state. Transverse quark momentum effects in a transversely polarized nucleon have been investigated by measuring the Sivers distribution function. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and can be used to estimate both the quark transverse momentum in an...
Markov random field and Gaussian mixture for segmented MRI-based partial volume correction in PET
Bousse, Alexandre; Pedemonte, Stefano; Thomas, Benjamin A.; Erlandsson, Kjell; Ourselin, Sébastien; Arridge, Simon; Hutton, Brian F.
2012-10-01
In this paper we propose a segmented magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior-based maximum penalized likelihood deconvolution technique for positron emission tomography (PET) images. The model assumes the existence of activity classes that behave like a hidden Markov random field (MRF) driven by the segmented MRI. We utilize a mean field approximation to compute the likelihood of the MRF. We tested our method on both simulated and clinical data (brain PET) and compared our results with PET images corrected with the re-blurred Van Cittert (VC) algorithm, the simplified Guven (SG) algorithm and the region-based voxel-wise (RBV) technique. We demonstrated our algorithm outperforms the VC algorithm and outperforms SG and RBV corrections when the segmented MRI is inconsistent (e.g. mis-segmentation, lesions, etc) with the PET image.
Statistical Shape Modelling and Markov Random Field Restoration (invited tutorial and exercise)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilger, Klaus Baggesen
This tutorial focuses on statistical shape analysis using point distribution models (PDM) which is widely used in modelling biological shape variability over a set of annotated training data. Furthermore, Active Shape Models (ASM) and Active Appearance Models (AAM) are based on PDMs and have proven...... themselves a generic holistic tool in various segmentation and simulation studies. Finding a basis of homologous points is a fundamental issue in PDMs which effects both alignment and decomposition of the training data, and may be aided by Markov Random Field Restoration (MRF) of the correspondence...... deformation field between shapes. The tutorial demonstrates both generative active shape and appearance models, and MRF restoration on 3D polygonized surfaces. ''Exercise: Spectral-Spatial classification of multivariate images'' From annotated training data this exercise applies spatial image restoration...
Sex Education as a Transversal Subject
Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.
2015-01-01
Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…
Transverse spectral velocity estimation.
Jensen, Jørgen
2014-11-01
A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex array probe is used along with two different estimators based on the correlation of the received signal. They can estimate the velocity spectrum as a function of time as for ordinary spectrograms, but they also work at a beam-to-flow angle of 90°. The approach is validated using simulations of pulsatile flow using the Womersly-Evans flow model. The relative bias of the mean estimated frequency is 13.6% and the mean relative standard deviation is 14.3% at 90°, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with an experimental scanner and a convex array transducer. A pump generated artificial femoral and carotid artery flow in the phantom. The estimated spectra degrade when the angle is different from 90°, but are usable down to 60° to 70°. Below this angle the traditional spectrum is best and should be used. The conventional approach can automatically be corrected for angles from 0° to 70° to give fully quantitative velocity spectra without operator intervention.
Lamb's problem on random mass density fields with fractal and Hurst effects.
Nishawala, V V; Ostoja-Starzewski, M; Leamy, M J; Porcu, E
2016-12-01
This paper reports on a generalization of Lamb's problem to a linear elastic, infinite half-space with random fields (RFs) of mass density, subject to a normal line load. Both, uncorrelated and correlated (with fractal and Hurst characteristics) RFs without any weak noise restrictions, are proposed. Cellular automata (CA) is used to simulate the wave propagation. CA is a local computational method which, for rectangular discretization of spatial domain, is equivalent to applying the finite difference method to the governing equations of classical elasticity. We first evaluate the response of CA to an uncorrelated mass density field, more commonly known as white-noise, of varying coarseness as compared to CA's node density. We then evaluate the response of CA to multiscale mass density RFs of Cauchy and Dagum type; these fields are unique in that they are able to model and decouple the field's fractal dimension and Hurst parameter. We focus on stochastic imperfection sensitivity; we determine to what extent the fractal or the Hurst parameter is a significant factor in altering the solution to the planar stochastic Lamb's problem by evaluating the coefficient of variation of the response when compared with the coefficient of variation of the RF.
Adaptive Multi-GPU Exchange Monte Carlo for the 3D Random Field Ising Model
Navarro, C A; Deng, Youjin
2015-01-01
The study of disordered spin systems through Monte Carlo simulations has proven to be a hard task due to the adverse energy landscape present at the low temperature regime, making it difficult for the simulation to escape from a local minimum. Replica based algorithms such as the Exchange Monte Carlo (also known as parallel tempering) are effective at overcoming this problem, reaching equilibrium on disordered spin systems such as the Spin Glass or Random Field models, by exchanging information between replicas of neighbor temperatures. In this work we present a multi-GPU Exchange Monte Carlo method designed for the simulation of the 3D Random Field Model. The implementation is based on a two-level parallelization scheme that allows the method to scale its performance in the presence of faster and GPUs as well as multiple GPUs. In addition, we modified the original algorithm by adapting the set of temperatures according to the exchange rate observed from short trial runs, leading to an increased exchange rate...
Seeking mathematics success for college students: a randomized field trial of an adapted approach
Gula, Taras; Hoessler, Carolyn; Maciejewski, Wes
2015-11-01
Many students enter the Canadian college system with insufficient mathematical ability and leave the system with little improvement. Those students who enter with poor mathematics ability typically take a developmental mathematics course as their first and possibly only mathematics course. The educational experiences that comprise a developmental mathematics course vary widely and are, too often, ineffective at improving students' ability. This trend is concerning, since low mathematics ability is known to be related to lower rates of success in subsequent courses. To date, little attention has been paid to the selection of an instructional approach to consistently apply across developmental mathematics courses. Prior research suggests that an appropriate instructional method would involve explicit instruction and practising mathematical procedures linked to a mathematical concept. This study reports on a randomized field trial of a developmental mathematics approach at a college in Ontario, Canada. The new approach is an adaptation of the JUMP Math program, an explicit instruction method designed for primary and secondary school curriculae, to the college learning environment. In this study, a subset of courses was assigned to JUMP Math and the remainder was taught in the same style as in the previous years. We found consistent, modest improvement in the JUMP Math sections compared to the non-JUMP sections, after accounting for potential covariates. The findings from this randomized field trial, along with prior research on effective education for developmental mathematics students, suggest that JUMP Math is a promising way to improve college student outcomes.
Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Shah, Mohak; Francis, Simon J; Arnold, Douglas L; Collins, D Louis; Arbel, Tal
2012-06-01
Gadolinium-enhancing lesions in brain magnetic resonance imaging of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are of great interest since they are markers of disease activity. Identification of gadolinium-enhancing lesions is particularly challenging because the vast majority of enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures, particularly blood vessels. Furthermore, these lesions are typically small and in close proximity to vessels. In this paper, we present an automatic, probabilistic framework for segmentation of gadolinium-enhancing lesions in MS using conditional random fields. Our approach, through the integration of different components, encodes different information such as correspondence between the intensities and tissue labels, patterns in the labels, or patterns in the intensities. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on 80 multimodal clinical datasets acquired from relapsing-remitting MS patients in the context of multicenter clinical trials. The experimental results exhibit a sensitivity of 98% with a low false positive lesion count. The performance of the proposed algorithm is also compared to a logistic regression classifier, a support vector machine and a Markov random field approach. The results demonstrate superior performance of the proposed algorithm at successfully detecting all of the gadolinium-enhancing lesions while maintaining a low false positive lesion count.
Extreme of random field over rectangle with application to concrete rupture stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager
2000-01-01
Probabilities of excursions of random processes and fields into critical domains are of fundamental interestin many civil engineering decision problems. Examples are reliability evaluations of structures subject torandom load processes, the influence of the size of a structural element on the car......Probabilities of excursions of random processes and fields into critical domains are of fundamental interestin many civil engineering decision problems. Examples are reliability evaluations of structures subject torandom load processes, the influence of the size of a structural element...... results for such probabilities. However, dueto the engineering importance of the problem, several approximate assessment methods have been suggestedin the past. The suitability and accuracy of each of these methods depends on the type of process or fieldunder consideration. Often recourse must be taken...... to the area of the rectangle and the side lengths of therectangle. Published rupture stress data for plain concrete beams illustrate the applicability of the derivedclosed form extreme value distributions as models for distributions of rupture stresses related to weakest linkmechanisms....
Transverse Spin Effects at COMPASS
Schill, C
2010-01-01
The investigation of transverse spin and transverse momentum effects in deep inelastic scattering is one of the key physics programs of the COMPASS collaboration. In the years 2002-2004 COMPASS took data scattering 160 GeV muons on a transversely polarized 6LiD target. In 2007, a transversely polarized NH3 target was used. Three different channels to access the transversity distribution function have been analyzed: The azimuthal distribution of single hadrons, involving the Collins fragmentation function, the azimuthal dependence of the plane containing hadron pairs, involving the two-hadron interference fragmentation function, and the measurement of the transverse polarization of lambda hyperons in the final state. Transverse quark momentum effects in a transversely polarized nucleon have been investigated by measuring the Sivers distribution function. Azimuthal asymmetries in unpolarized semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering give important information on the inner structure of the nucleon as well, and ca...
Experimental investigation of transverse flow estimation using transverse oscillation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2003-01-01
Conventional ultrasound scanners can only display the blood velocity component parallel to the ultrasound beam. Introducing a laterally oscillating field gives signals from which the transverse velocity component can be estimated using 2:1 parallel receive beamformers. To yield the performance...... with a mean relative bias of 6.3% and a mean relative standard deviation of 5.4% over the entire vessel length. With the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS the simulations are reproduced in an experimental flow phantom using a linear array transducer and vessel characteristics as in the simulations....... The flow is generated with the Compuflow 1000 programmable flow pump giving a parabolic velocity profile of the blood mimicking fluid in the flow phantom. The profiles are estimated for 310 trials each containing of 32 data vectors. The relative mean bias over entire blood vessel is found to be 10...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo da Silva Guarilha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar prospectivamente as fixações transversas (Cross-PinTM com as extracorticais (EZLocTM no fêmur nas reconstruções cirúrgicas do ligamento cruzado anterior sob o ponto de vista clínico, biomecânico e funcional. MÉTODOS: Entre abril de 2007 e novembro de 2009, 50 pacientes com lesões do ligamento cruzado anterior, agudas e crônicas, foram submetidos à reconstrução por abordagem artroscópica utilizando os tendões flexores homólogos (grácil e semitendíneo. A randomização do método de fixação femoral ocorreu por meio de sorteio no momento da cirurgia. Excluímos os pacientes portadores de lesões ligamentares múltiplas, fraturas, cirurgias prévias, doenças autoimunes e comprometimento do membro contralateral. Foram utilizadas as escalas de Lysholm, o questionário qualidade de vida SF-36 e o artrômetro KT-1000TM. RESULTADOS: Após 18,1 meses, em média, não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos quanto utilizadas as escalas de Lysholm e as medidas do KT-1000TM. Quanto aos resultados do SF-36, observamos diferença significante com superioridade da fixação transversa considerando a dor e a vitalidade. CONCLUSÃO: As duas técnicas mostraram ser eficientes na fixação transfemoral com tendões flexores, porém quase sem nenhuma diferença estatística significante. Entendemos que novos estudos serão necessários para melhor entendimento dessas diferenças.OBJECTIVE: This study had the objective of prospectively comparing transverse fixation (Cross-PinTM with extracortical fixation (EZLocTM for the femur, in surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament, from a clinical, biomechanical and functional point of view. METHODS: Between April 2007 and November 2009, 50 patients with acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament injuries underwent arthroscopic reconstruction using the homologous flexor tendons (gracilis and semitendinosus. Randomization of the
Turbulence generation by a shock wave interacting with a random density inhomogeneity field
Huete Ruiz de Lira, C.
2010-12-01
When a planar shock wave interacts with a random pattern of pre-shock density non-uniformities, it generates an anisotropic turbulent velocity/vorticity field. This turbulence plays an important role in the early stages of the mixing process in a compressed fluid. This situation emerges naturally in a shock interaction with weakly inhomogeneous deuterium-wicked foam targets in inertial confinement fusion and with density clumps/clouds in astrophysics. We present an exact small-amplitude linear theory describing such an interaction. It is based on the exact theory of time and space evolution of the perturbed quantities behind a corrugated shock front for a single-mode pre-shock non-uniformity. Appropriate mode averaging in two dimensions results in closed analytical expressions for the turbulent kinetic energy, degree of anisotropy of velocity and vorticity fields in the shocked fluid, shock amplification of the density non-uniformity and sonic energy flux radiated downstream. These explicit formulae are further simplified in the important asymptotic limits of weak/strong shocks and highly compressible fluids. A comparison with the related problem of a shock interacting with a pre-shock isotropic vorticity field is also presented.
Optical bistabilities of higher harmonics: Inhomogeneous and transverse effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, S.S., E-mail: Shoukryhassan@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Manchester Metropolitan University, Dept. of Computing, Maths. and Digital Technology, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Sharaby, Y.A., E-mail: Yasser_Sharaby@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Suez (Egypt); Ali, M.F.M., E-mail: dr.mona.fathy@hotmail.com [Department of Mathematics: Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Joshi, A., E-mail: ajoshi@eiu.edu [Department of Physics, Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL 61920 (United States)
2012-10-15
The steady state behavior of optical bistable system in a ring cavity with transverse field variations and inhomogeneousely broadened two-level atoms is investigated outside the rotating wave approximation (RWA). Analytical and numerical investigation is presented for different cases of transverse field variations with Lorentzian or Gaussian line widths. When both (transverse and inhomogeneous) features taken into account, the first harmonic output field component outside the RWA exhibits a one-way switching down processes (butterfly OB) or reversed (clockwise) OB behavior, depending on the atomic linewidth shape.
Gushchin, A. A.
1982-12-01
CONTENTSIntroduction § 1. Basic notation and definitions § 2. The Doléans measure and increasing fields § 3. Theorems on predictable projections. Decomposition of weak submartingales § 4. Weakly predictable random fields § 5. Theorems on weakly predictable projections § 6. Decomposition of strong martingales References
A Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field Model for Simultaneous Face Clustering and Tracking in Videos
Wu, Baoyuan
2016-10-25
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.
High energy X-ray phase and dark-field imaging using a random absorption mask.
Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Cai, Biao; Sawhney, Kawal
2016-07-28
High energy X-ray imaging has unique advantage over conventional X-ray imaging, since it enables higher penetration into materials with significantly reduced radiation damage. However, the absorption contrast in high energy region is considerably low due to the reduced X-ray absorption cross section for most materials. Even though the X-ray phase and dark-field imaging techniques can provide substantially increased contrast and complementary information, fabricating dedicated optics for high energies still remain a challenge. To address this issue, we present an alternative X-ray imaging approach to produce transmission, phase and scattering signals at high X-ray energies by using a random absorption mask. Importantly, in addition to the synchrotron radiation source, this approach has been demonstrated for practical imaging application with a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source. This new imaging method could be potentially useful for studying thick samples or heavy materials for advanced research in materials science.
Sign language recognition with the Kinect sensor based on conditional random fields.
Yang, Hee-Deok
2014-12-24
Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D) space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft's Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF) that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.
Adaptive Markov Random Fields for Example-Based Super-resolution of Faces
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Stephenson Todd A
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Image enhancement of low-resolution images can be done through methods such as interpolation, super-resolution using multiple video frames, and example-based super-resolution. Example-based super-resolution, in particular, is suited to images that have a strong prior (for those frameworks that work on only a single image, it is more like image restoration than traditional, multiframe super-resolution. For example, hallucination and Markov random field (MRF methods use examples drawn from the same domain as the image being enhanced to determine what the missing high-frequency information is likely to be. We propose to use even stronger prior information by extending MRF-based super-resolution to use adaptive observation and transition functions, that is, to make these functions region-dependent. We show with face images how we can adapt the modeling for each image patch so as to improve the resolution.
Sign Language Recognition with the Kinect Sensor Based on Conditional Random Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hee-Deok Yang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft’s Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.
Bayesian Clustering Using Hidden Markov Random Fields in Spatial Population Genetics
François, Olivier; Ancelet, Sophie; Guillot, Gilles
2006-01-01
We introduce a new Bayesian clustering algorithm for studying population structure using individually geo-referenced multilocus data sets. The algorithm is based on the concept of hidden Markov random field, which models the spatial dependencies at the cluster membership level. We argue that (i) a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure can implement the algorithm efficiently, (ii) it can detect significant geographical discontinuities in allele frequencies and regulate the number of clusters, (iii) it can check whether the clusters obtained without the use of spatial priors are robust to the hypothesis of discontinuous geographical variation in allele frequencies, and (iv) it can reduce the number of loci required to obtain accurate assignments. We illustrate and discuss the implementation issues with the Scandinavian brown bear and the human CEPH diversity panel data set. PMID:16888334
Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin
2017-03-01
In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.
Broadcast News Story Segmentation Using Conditional Random Fields and Multimodal Features
Wang, Xiaoxuan; Xie, Lei; Lu, Mimi; Ma, Bin; Chng, Eng Siong; Li, Haizhou
In this paper, we propose integration of multimodal features using conditional random fields (CRFs) for the segmentation of broadcast news stories. We study story boundary cues from lexical, audio and video modalities, where lexical features consist of lexical similarity, chain strength and overall cohesiveness; acoustic features involve pause duration, pitch, speaker change and audio event type; and visual features contain shot boundaries, anchor faces and news title captions. These features are extracted in a sequence of boundary candidate positions in the broadcast news. A linear-chain CRF is used to detect each candidate as boundary/non-boundary tags based on the multimodal features. Important interlabel relations and contextual feature information are effectively captured by the sequential learning framework of CRFs. Story segmentation experiments show that the CRF approach outperforms other popular classifiers, including decision trees (DTs), Bayesian networks (BNs), naive Bayesian classifiers (NBs), multilayer perception (MLP), support vector machines (SVMs) and maximum entropy (ME) classifiers.
Superresolution with compound Markov random fields via the variational EM algorithm.
Kanemura, Atsunori; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Shin
2009-09-01
This study deals with a reconstruction-type superresolution problem and the accompanying image registration problem simultaneously. We propose a Bayesian approach in which the prior is modeled as a compound Gaussian Markov random field (MRF) and marginalization is performed over unknown variables to avoid overfitting. Our algorithm not only avoids overfitting, but also preserves discontinuity in the estimated image, unlike existing single-layer Gaussian MRF models for Bayesian superresolution. Maximum-marginal-likelihood estimation of the registration parameters is carried out using a variational EM algorithm where hidden variables are marginalized out, and the posterior distribution is variationally approximated by a factorized trial distribution. High-resolution image estimates are obtained through the process of posterior computation in the EM algorithm. Experiments show that our Bayesian approach with the two-layer compound model exhibits better performance both in quantitative measures and visual quality than the single-layer model.
Hidden State Conditional Random Field for Abnormal Activity Recognition in Smart Homes
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Yu Tong
2015-03-01
Full Text Available As the number of elderly people has increased worldwide, there has been a surge of research into assistive technologies to provide them with better care by recognizing their normal and abnormal activities. However, existing abnormal activity recognition (AAR algorithms rarely consider sub-activity relations when recognizing abnormal activities. This paper presents an application of the Hidden State Conditional Random Field (HCRF method to detect and assess abnormal activities that often occur in elderly persons’ homes. Based on HCRF, this paper designs two AAR algorithms, and validates them by comparing them with a feature vector distance based algorithm in two experiments. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms favorably outperform the competitor, especially when abnormal activities have same sensor type and sensor number as normal activities.
Nakagami Markov random field as texture model for ultrasound RF envelope image.
Bouhlel, N; Sevestre-Ghalila, S
2009-06-01
The aim of this paper is to propose a new Markov random field (MRF) model for the backscattered ultrasonic echo in order to get information about backscatter characteristics, such as the scatterer density, amplitude and spacing. The model combines the Nakagami distribution that describes the envelope of backscattered echo with spatial interaction using MRF. In this paper, the parameters of the model and the estimation parameter method are introduced. Computer simulation using ultrasound radio-frequency (RF) simulator and experiments on choroidal malignant melanoma have been undertaken to test the validity of the model. The relationship between the parameters of MRF model and the backscatter characteristics has been established. Furthermore, the ability of the model to distinguish between normal and abnormal tissue has been proved. All the results can show the success of the model.
PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.
Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E
2016-11-15
The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Cross-covariance functions for multivariate random fields based on latent dimensions
Apanasovich, T. V.
2010-02-16
The problem of constructing valid parametric cross-covariance functions is challenging. We propose a simple methodology, based on latent dimensions and existing covariance models for univariate random fields, to develop flexible, interpretable and computationally feasible classes of cross-covariance functions in closed form. We focus on spatio-temporal cross-covariance functions that can be nonseparable, asymmetric and can have different covariance structures, for instance different smoothness parameters, in each component. We discuss estimation of these models and perform a small simulation study to demonstrate our approach. We illustrate our methodology on a trivariate spatio-temporal pollution dataset from California and demonstrate that our cross-covariance performs better than other competing models. © 2010 Biometrika Trust.
A multiscale Markov random field model in wavelet domain for image segmentation
Dai, Peng; Cheng, Yu; Wang, Shengchun; Du, Xinyu; Wu, Dan
2017-07-01
The human vision system has abilities for feature detection, learning and selective attention with some properties of hierarchy and bidirectional connection in the form of neural population. In this paper, a multiscale Markov random field model in the wavelet domain is proposed by mimicking some image processing functions of vision system. For an input scene, our model provides its sparse representations using wavelet transforms and extracts its topological organization using MRF. In addition, the hierarchy property of vision system is simulated using a pyramid framework in our model. There are two information flows in our model, i.e., a bottom-up procedure to extract input features and a top-down procedure to provide feedback controls. The two procedures are controlled simply by two pyramidal parameters, and some Gestalt laws are also integrated implicitly. Equipped with such biological inspired properties, our model can be used to accomplish different image segmentation tasks, such as edge detection and region segmentation.
Incorporating conditional random fields and active learning to improve sentiment identification.
Zhang, Kunpeng; Xie, Yusheng; Yang, Yi; Sun, Aaron; Liu, Hengchang; Choudhary, Alok
2014-10-01
Many machine learning, statistical, and computational linguistic methods have been developed to identify sentiment of sentences in documents, yielding promising results. However, most of state-of-the-art methods focus on individual sentences and ignore the impact of context on the meaning of a sentence. In this paper, we propose a method based on conditional random fields to incorporate sentence structure and context information in addition to syntactic information for improving sentiment identification. We also investigate how human interaction affects the accuracy of sentiment labeling using limited training data. We propose and evaluate two different active learning strategies for labeling sentiment data. Our experiments with the proposed approach demonstrate a 5%-15% improvement in accuracy on Amazon customer reviews compared to existing supervised learning and rule-based methods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laifa, Oumeima; Le Guillou-Buffello, Delphine; Racoceanu, Daniel
2017-11-01
The fundamental role of vascular supply in tumor growth makes the evaluation of the angiogenesis crucial in assessing effect of anti-angiogenic therapies. Since many years, such therapies are designed to inhibit the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). To contribute to the assessment of anti-angiogenic agent (Pazopanib) effect on vascular and cellular structures, we acquired data from tumors extracted from a murine tumor model using Multi- Fluorescence Scanning. In this paper, we implemented an unsupervised algorithm combining the Watershed segmentation and Markov Random Field model (MRF). This algorithm allowed us to quantify the proportion of apoptotic endothelial cells and to generate maps according to cell density. Stronger association between apoptosis and endothelial cells was revealed in the tumors receiving anti-angiogenic therapy (n = 4) as compared to those receiving placebo (n = 4). A high percentage of apoptotic cells in the tumor area are endothelial. Lower density cells were detected in tumor slices presenting higher apoptotic endothelial areas.
A novel approach to assess the treatment response using Gaussian random field in PET
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Wang, Mengdie [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China and Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Guo, Ning [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Hu, Guangshu; Zhang, Hui, E-mail: hzhang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: li.quanzheng@mgh.harvard.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); El Fakhri, Georges; Li, Quanzheng, E-mail: hzhang@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: li.quanzheng@mgh.harvard.edu [Center for Advanced Medical Imaging Science, Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 and Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)
2016-02-15
Purpose: The assessment of early therapeutic response to anticancer therapy is vital for treatment planning and patient management in clinic. With the development of personal treatment plan, the early treatment response, especially before any anatomically apparent changes after treatment, becomes urgent need in clinic. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging serves an important role in clinical oncology for tumor detection, staging, and therapy response assessment. Many studies on therapy response involve interpretation of differences between two PET images, usually in terms of standardized uptake values (SUVs). However, the quantitative accuracy of this measurement is limited. This work proposes a statistically robust approach for therapy response assessment based on Gaussian random field (GRF) to provide a statistically more meaningful scale to evaluate therapy effects. Methods: The authors propose a new criterion for therapeutic assessment by incorporating image noise into traditional SUV method. An analytical method based on the approximate expressions of the Fisher information matrix was applied to model the variance of individual pixels in reconstructed images. A zero mean unit variance GRF under the null hypothesis (no response to therapy) was obtained by normalizing each pixel of the post-therapy image with the mean and standard deviation of the pretherapy image. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation, where XCAT phantoms (128{sup 2} pixels) with lesions of various diameters (2–6 mm), multiple tumor-to-background contrasts (3–10), and different changes in intensity (6.25%–30%) were used. The receiver operating characteristic curves and the corresponding areas under the curve were computed for both the proposed method and the traditional methods whose figure of merit is the percentage change of SUVs. The formula for the false positive rate (FPR) estimation was developed for the proposed therapy response
Adaptation of the projection-slice theorem for stock valuation estimation using random Markov fields
Riasati, Vahid R.
2009-04-01
The Projection-Slice Synthetic Discriminant function filter is utilized with Random Markov Fields, RMF to estimate trends that may be used as prediction for stock valuation through the representation of the market behavior as a hidden Markov Model, HMM. In this work, we utilize a set of progressive and contiguous time segments of a given stock, and treat the set as a two dimensional object that has been represented by its one-d projections. The abstract two-D object is thus an incarnation of N-temporal projections. The HMM is then utilized to generate N+1 projections that maximizes the two-dimensional correlation peak between the data and the HMM-generated stochastic processes. This application of the PSDF provides a method of stock valuation prediction via the market stochastic behavior utilized in the filter.
Roy, Pallab Kanti; Bhuiyan, Alauddin; Janke, Andrew; Desmond, Patricia M; Wong, Tien Yin; Abhayaratna, Walter P; Storey, Elsdon; Ramamohanarao, Kotagiri
2015-10-01
White matter lesions (WMLs) are small groups of dead cells that clump together in the white matter of brain. In this paper, we propose a reliable method to automatically segment WMLs. Our method uses a novel filter to enhance the intensity of WMLs. Then a feature set containing enhanced intensity, anatomical and spatial information is used to train a random forest classifier for the initial segmentation of WMLs. Following that a reliable and robust edge potential function based Markov Random Field (MRF) is proposed to obtain the final segmentation by removing false positive WMLs. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed method is performed on 24 subjects of ENVISion study. The segmentation results are validated against the manual segmentation, performed under the supervision of an expert neuroradiologist. The results show a dice similarity index of 0.76 for severe lesion load, 0.73 for moderate lesion load and 0.61 for mild lesion load. In addition to that we have compared our method with three state of the art methods on 20 subjects of Medical Image Computing and Computer Aided Intervention Society's (MICCAI's) MS lesion challenge dataset, where our method shows better segmentation accuracy compare to the state of the art methods. These results indicate that the proposed method can assist the neuroradiologists in assessing the WMLs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Distribution of the Height of Local Maxima of Gaussian Random Fields*
Cheng, Dan; Schwartzman, Armin
2015-01-01
Let {f(t) : t ∈ T} be a smooth Gaussian random field over a parameter space T, where T may be a subset of Euclidean space or, more generally, a Riemannian manifold. We provide a general formula for the distribution of the height of a local maximum P{f(t0)>u∣t0 is a local maximum of f(t)} when f is non-stationary. Moreover, we establish asymptotic approximations for the overshoot distribution of a local maximum P{f(t0)>u+v∣t0 is a local maximum of f(t) and f(t0) > v} as v → ∞. Assuming further that f is isotropic, we apply techniques from random matrix theory related to the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble to compute such conditional probabilities explicitly when T is Euclidean or a sphere of arbitrary dimension. Such calculations are motivated by the statistical problem of detecting peaks in the presence of smooth Gaussian noise. PMID:26478714
A Tutorial of the Poisson Random Field Model in Population Genetics
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Praveen Sethupathy
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Population genetics is the study of allele frequency changes driven by various evolutionary forces such as mutation, natural selection, and random genetic drift. Although natural selection is widely recognized as a bona-fide phenomenon, the extent to which it drives evolution continues to remain unclear and controversial. Various qualitative techniques, or so-called “tests of neutrality”, have been introduced to detect signatures of natural selection. A decade and a half ago, Stanley Sawyer and Daniel Hartl provided a mathematical framework, referred to as the Poisson random field (PRF, with which to determine quantitatively the intensity of selection on a particular gene or genomic region. The recent availability of large-scale genetic polymorphism data has sparked widespread interest in genome-wide investigations of natural selection. To that end, the original PRF model is of particular interest for geneticists and evolutionary genomicists. In this article, we will provide a tutorial of the mathematical derivation of the original Sawyer and Hartl PRF model.
Ensemble of Neural Network Conditional Random Fields for Self-Paced Brain Computer Interfaces
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Hossein Bashashati
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Classification of EEG signals in self-paced Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI is an extremely challenging task. The main diﬃculty stems from the fact that start time of a control task is not defined. Therefore it is imperative to exploit the characteristics of the EEG data to the extent possible. In sensory motor self-paced BCIs, while performing the mental task, the user’s brain goes through several well-defined internal state changes. Applying appropriate classifiers that can capture these state changes and exploit the temporal correlation in EEG data can enhance the performance of the BCI. In this paper, we propose an ensemble learning approach for self-paced BCIs. We use Bayesian optimization to train several different classifiers on different parts of the BCI hyper- parameter space. We call each of these classifiers Neural Network Conditional Random Field (NNCRF. NNCRF is a combination of a neural network and conditional random field (CRF. As in the standard CRF, NNCRF is able to model the correlation between adjacent EEG samples. However, NNCRF can also model the nonlinear dependencies between the input and the output, which makes it more powerful than the standard CRF. We compare the performance of our algorithm to those of three popular sequence labeling algorithms (Hidden Markov Models, Hidden Markov Support Vector Machines and CRF, and to two classical classifiers (Logistic Regression and Support Vector Machines. The classifiers are compared for the two cases: when the ensemble learning approach is not used and when it is. The data used in our studies are those from the BCI competition IV and the SM2 dataset. We show that our algorithm is considerably superior to the other approaches in terms of the Area Under the Curve (AUC of the BCI system.
Boulware, David R
2006-01-01
Jellyfish stings are a common occurrence among ocean goers worldwide with an estimated 150 million envenomations annually. Fatalities and hospitalizations occur annually, particularly in the Indo-Pacific regions. A new topical jellyfish sting inhibitor based on the mucous coating of the clown fish prevents 85% of jellyfish stings in laboratory settings. The field effectiveness is unknown. The objective is to evaluate the field efficacy of the jellyfish sting inhibitor, Safe Sea. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial occurred at the Dry Tortugas National Park, FL, USA and Sapodilla Cayes, Belize. Participants were healthy volunteers planning to snorkel for 30 to 45 minutes. Ten minutes prior to swimming, each participant was directly observed applying a blinded sample of Safe Sea (Nidaria Technology Ltd, Jordan Valley, Israel) to one side of their body and a blinded sample of Coppertone (Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, NJ, USA) to the contralateral side as placebo control. Masked 26 g samples of both Safe Sea SPF15 and Coppertone SPF15 were provided in identical containers to achieve 2 mg/cm(2) coverage. Sides were randomly chosen by participants. The incidence of jellyfish stings was the main outcome measure. This was assessed by participant interview and examination as subjects exited the water. A total of 82 observed water exposures occurred. Thirteen jellyfish stings occurred during the study period for a 16% incidence. Eleven jellyfish stings occurred with placebo, two with the sting inhibitor, resulting in a relative risk reduction of 82% (95% confidence interval: 21%-96%; p= 0.02). No seabather's eruption or side effects occurred. Safe Sea is a topical barrier cream effective at preventing >80% jellyfish stings under real-world conditions.
Bayesian Markov Random Field analysis for protein function prediction based on network data.
Kourmpetis, Yiannis A I; van Dijk, Aalt D J; Bink, Marco C A M; van Ham, Roeland C H J; ter Braak, Cajo J F
2010-02-24
Inference of protein functions is one of the most important aims of modern biology. To fully exploit the large volumes of genomic data typically produced in modern-day genomic experiments, automated computational methods for protein function prediction are urgently needed. Established methods use sequence or structure similarity to infer functions but those types of data do not suffice to determine the biological context in which proteins act. Current high-throughput biological experiments produce large amounts of data on the interactions between proteins. Such data can be used to infer interaction networks and to predict the biological process that the protein is involved in. Here, we develop a probabilistic approach for protein function prediction using network data, such as protein-protein interaction measurements. We take a Bayesian approach to an existing Markov Random Field method by performing simultaneous estimation of the model parameters and prediction of protein functions. We use an adaptive Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm that leads to more accurate parameter estimates and consequently to improved prediction performance compared to the standard Markov Random Fields method. We tested our method using a high quality S. cereviciae validation network with 1622 proteins against 90 Gene Ontology terms of different levels of abstraction. Compared to three other protein function prediction methods, our approach shows very good prediction performance. Our method can be directly applied to protein-protein interaction or coexpression networks, but also can be extended to use multiple data sources. We apply our method to physical protein interaction data from S. cerevisiae and provide novel predictions, using 340 Gene Ontology terms, for 1170 unannotated proteins and we evaluate the predictions using the available literature.
Mixed spin (1/2,1) transverse Ising nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mouhib, M.; Benayad, N., E-mail: n.benayad@fsac.ac.ma; Azhari, M.
2016-12-01
Mixed spin 2D-nanoparticles (circle and square) described by the transverse Ising model are investigated by the use of the finite cluster approximation. The effects of the exchange interactions and the transverse field parameters on the phase diagrams are systematically discussed, in particular, it was shown that the transition temperature is not so sensitive to shell exchange interaction, when the spins S are strongly correlated. A number of interesting phenomena have been found such as reentrant behavior. This latter, which is due to the competition between the exchange interaction and core-transverse field, disappears completely for any no-zero shell transverse field. - Highlights: • We derive the state equations for mixed spin transverse Ising nanoparticles. • The effects of the exchange interactions and the transverse field on the phase diagrams are discussed. • The shell and the core undergo an order–disorder transition at the same temperature. • The nanoparticles exhibit a reentrant behavior due to the competition between the exchange interaction and the core transverse field.
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MARKOV RANDOM FIELD FOR URBAN LAND COVER CLASSIFICATION OF UAV VHIR DATA
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Jati Pratomo
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The usage of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV has grown rapidly in various fields, such as urban planning, search and rescue, and surveillance. Capturing images from UAV has many advantages compared with satellite imagery. For instance, higher spatial resolution and less impact from atmospheric variations can be obtained. However, there are difficulties in classifying urban features, due to the complexity of the urban land covers. The usage of Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC has limitations since it is based on the assumption of the normal distribution of pixel values, where, in fact, urban features are not normally distributed. There are advantages in using the Markov Random Field (MRF for urban land cover classification as it assumes that neighboring pixels have a higher probability to be classified in the same class rather than a different class. This research aimed to determine the impact of the smoothness (λ and the updating temperature (Tupd on the accuracy result (κ in MRF. We used a UAV VHIR sized 587 square meters, with six-centimetre resolution, taken in Bogor Regency, Indonesia. The result showed that the kappa value (κ increases proportionally with the smoothness (λ until it reaches the maximum (κ, then the value drops. The usage of higher (Tupd has resulted in better (κ although it also led to a higher Standard Deviations (SD. Using the most optimal parameter, MRF resulted in slightly higher (κ compared with MLC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ibrahim Ben Daya
Full Text Available 3-D ultrasound imaging offers unique opportunities in the field of non destructive testing that cannot be easily found in A-mode and B-mode images. To acquire a 3-D ultrasound image without a mechanically moving transducer, a 2-D array can be used. The row column technique is preferred over a fully addressed 2-D array as it requires a significantly lower number of interconnections. Recent advances in 3-D row-column ultrasound imaging systems were largely focused on sensor design. However, these imaging systems face three intrinsic challenges that cannot be addressed by improving sensor design alone: speckle noise, sparsity of data in the imaged volume, and the spatially dependent point spread function of the imaging system. In this paper, we propose a compensated row-column ultrasound image reconstruction system using Fisher-Tippett multilayered conditional random field model. Tests carried out on both simulated and real row-column ultrasound images show the effectiveness of our proposed system as opposed to other published systems. Visual assessment of the results show our proposed system's potential at preserving detail and reducing speckle. Quantitative analysis shows that our proposed system outperforms previously published systems when evaluated with metrics such as Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Coefficient of Correlation, and Effective Number of Looks. These results show the potential of our proposed system as an effective tool for enhancing 3-D row-column imaging.
Multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression for prediction of random fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parussini, L. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); Venturi, D., E-mail: venturi@ucsc.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California Santa Cruz (United States); Perdikaris, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States); Karniadakis, G.E. [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University (United States)
2017-05-01
We propose a new multi-fidelity Gaussian process regression (GPR) approach for prediction of random fields based on observations of surrogate models or hierarchies of surrogate models. Our method builds upon recent work on recursive Bayesian techniques, in particular recursive co-kriging, and extends it to vector-valued fields and various types of covariances, including separable and non-separable ones. The framework we propose is general and can be used to perform uncertainty propagation and quantification in model-based simulations, multi-fidelity data fusion, and surrogate-based optimization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed recursive GPR techniques through various examples. Specifically, we study the stochastic Burgers equation and the stochastic Oberbeck–Boussinesq equations describing natural convection within a square enclosure. In both cases we find that the standard deviation of the Gaussian predictors as well as the absolute errors relative to benchmark stochastic solutions are very small, suggesting that the proposed multi-fidelity GPR approaches can yield highly accurate results.
A Poisson random field model of pathogen transport in surface water
Yeghiazarian, L.; Samorodnitsky, G.; Montemagno, C. D.
2009-11-01
To address the uncertainty associated with microbial transport and surface water contamination events, we developed a new comprehensive stochastic framework that combines processes on the microscopic (single microorganism) and macroscopic (ensembles of microorganisms) scales. The spatial and temporal population behavior is modeled as a nonhomogeneous Poisson random field with Markovian field dynamics. The model parameters are based on the actual physical and biological characteristics of the Cryptosporidium parvum transport process and can be extended to cover a variety of other pathogens. Since soil particles have been shown to be a major vehicle in microbial transport, a U.S. Department of Agriculture approved erosion model (Water Erosion Prediction Project) is incorporated into the model. Risk assessment is an integral part of the stochastic model and is conducted using a set of simple calculations. Poisson intensity functions and correlations are computed. The results consistently indicate that surface water contamination events are transient, with traveling high peaks of microorganism concentrations. Correlations between microorganism populations at different points in time and space reach relatively significant levels even at large distances from one another. This information is aimed to assist water resources management teams in the decision-making process to identify the likely timing and locations of high-risk areas and thus to avoid collection of contaminated water.
Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A
1997-06-01
A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.
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Zentner, I. [IMSIA, UMR EDF-ENSTA-CNRS-CEA 9219, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 Boulevard des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Ferré, G., E-mail: gregoire.ferre@ponts.org [CERMICS – Ecole des Ponts ParisTech, 6 et 8 avenue Blaise Pascal, Cité Descartes, Champs sur Marne, 77455 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 (France); Poirion, F. [Department of Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity, ONERA, BP 72, 29 avenue de la Division Leclerc, 92322 Chatillon Cedex (France); Benoit, M. [Institut de Recherche sur les Phénomènes Hors Equilibre (IRPHE), UMR 7342 (CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Ecole Centrale Marseille), 49 rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, BP 146, 13384 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
2016-06-01
In this paper, a new method for the identification and simulation of non-Gaussian and non-stationary stochastic fields given a database is proposed. It is based on two successive biorthogonal decompositions aiming at representing spatio–temporal stochastic fields. The proposed double expansion allows to build the model even in the case of large-size problems by separating the time, space and random parts of the field. A Gaussian kernel estimator is used to simulate the high dimensional set of random variables appearing in the decomposition. The capability of the method to reproduce the non-stationary and non-Gaussian features of random phenomena is illustrated by applications to earthquakes (seismic ground motion) and sea states (wave heights).
ANALYSIS AND VALIDATION OF GRID DEM GENERATION BASED ON GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELD
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F. J. Aguilar
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Digital Elevation Models (DEMs are considered as one of the most relevant geospatial data to carry out land-cover and land-use classification. This work deals with the application of a mathematical framework based on a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF to interpolate grid DEMs from scattered elevation data. The performance of the GMRF interpolation model was tested on a set of LiDAR data (0.87 points/m2 provided by the Spanish Government (PNOA Programme over a complex working area mainly covered by greenhouses in Almería, Spain. The original LiDAR data was decimated by randomly removing different fractions of the original points (from 10% to up to 99% of points removed. In every case, the remaining points (scattered observed points were used to obtain a 1 m grid spacing GMRF-interpolated Digital Surface Model (DSM whose accuracy was assessed by means of the set of previously extracted checkpoints. The GMRF accuracy results were compared with those provided by the widely known Triangulation with Linear Interpolation (TLI. Finally, the GMRF method was applied to a real-world case consisting of filling the LiDAR-derived DSM gaps after manually filtering out non-ground points to obtain a Digital Terrain Model (DTM. Regarding accuracy, both GMRF and TLI produced visually pleasing and similar results in terms of vertical accuracy. As an added bonus, the GMRF mathematical framework makes possible to both retrieve the estimated uncertainty for every interpolated elevation point (the DEM uncertainty and include break lines or terrain discontinuities between adjacent cells to produce higher quality DTMs.
Mahdian, M.; Motagh, M.; Akbari, V.
2013-09-01
In recent years, the use of Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) data in different applications dramatically has been increased. In SAR imagery an interference phenomenon with random behavior exists which is called speckle noise. The interpretation of data encounters some troubles due to the presence of speckle which can be considered as a multiplicative noise affecting all coherent imaging systems. Indeed, speckle degrade radiometric resolution of PolSAR images, therefore it is needful to perform speckle filtering on the SAR data type. Markov Random Field (MRF) has proven to be a powerful method for drawing out eliciting contextual information from remotely sensed images. In the present paper, a probability density function (PDF), which is fitted well with the PolSAR data based on the goodness-of-fit test, is first obtained for the pixel-wise analysis. Then the contextual smoothing is achieved with the MRF method. This novel speckle reduction method combines an advanced statistical distribution with spatial contextual information for PolSAR data. These two parts of information are combined based on weighted summation of pixel-wise and contextual models. This approach not only preserves edge information in the images, but also improves signal-to-noise ratio of the results. The method maintains the mean value of original signal in the homogenous areas and preserves the edges of features in the heterogeneous regions. Experiments on real medium resolution ALOS data from Tehran, and also high resolution full polarimetric SAR data over the Oberpfaffenhofen test-site in Germany, demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm compared with well-known despeckling methods.
Heinemann, Colleen
Research in material science is increasingly reliant on image-based data from experiments, demanding construction of new analysis tools that help scientists discover information from digital images. Because there is such a wide variety of materials and image modalities, detecting different compounds from imaged materials continues to be a challenging task. A vast collection of algorithms for filtering, image segmentation, and texture description have facilitated and improved accuracy for sample measurements (see Chapter 1 Introduction and Literature Review). Despite this, the community still lacks scalable, general purpose, easily configurable image analysis frameworks that allow pattern detection on different imaging modalities across multiple scales. The need for such a framework was the motivation behind the development of a distributed-memory parallel Markov Random Field based framework. Markov Random Field (MRF) algorithms provide the ability to explore contextual information about a given dataset. Given the complexity of such algorithms, however, they are limited by performance when running serial. Thus, running in some sort of parallel fashion is necessary. The effects are twofold. Not only does running the MRF algorithm in parallel provide the ability to run current datasets faster and more efficiently, it also provides the ability for datasets to continue to grow in size and still be able to be run with such frameworks. The variation of the Markov Random Field algorithm utilized in this study first oversegments the given input image and constructs a graph model based on photometric and geometric distances. Next, the resulting graph model is refactored specifically into the MRF model to target image segmentation. Finally, a distributed approach is used for the optimization process to obtain the best labeling for the graph, which is essentially the goal of using a MRF algorithm. Given the concept of using a distributed memory parallel framework, specifically
M-strings and transverse orbifold
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Iqbal, Amer [Government College University, Abdus Salam School of Mathematical Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2016-11-15
We discuss the partition function of a single M5-brane on a circle with transverse orbifold of ADE type and show that the modes captured by the partition function are those of the tensor multiplet and the three form field. We show that the bound states of M-strings corresponding to pair of simple roots appear, for all ADE, only when the momentum on the circle is turned on. (orig.)
Segmentation of cone-beam CT using a hidden Markov random field with informative priors
Moores, M.; Hargrave, C.; Harden, F.; Mengersen, K.
2014-03-01
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) has enormous potential to improve the accuracy of treatment delivery in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). To assist radiotherapists in interpreting these images, we use a Bayesian statistical model to label each voxel according to its tissue type. The rich sources of prior information in IGRT are incorporated into a hidden Markov random field model of the 3D image lattice. Tissue densities in the reference CT scan are estimated using inverse regression and then rescaled to approximate the corresponding CBCT intensity values. The treatment planning contours are combined with published studies of physiological variability to produce a spatial prior distribution for changes in the size, shape and position of the tumour volume and organs at risk. The voxel labels are estimated using iterated conditional modes. The accuracy of the method has been evaluated using 27 CBCT scans of an electron density phantom. The mean voxel-wise misclassification rate was 6.2%, with Dice similarity coefficient of 0.73 for liver, muscle, breast and adipose tissue. By incorporating prior information, we are able to successfully segment CBCT images. This could be a viable approach for automated, online image analysis in radiotherapy.
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Min Chen
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS examine a large number of markers across the genome to identify associations between genetic variants and disease. Most published studies examine only single markers, which may be less informative than considering multiple markers and multiple genes jointly because genes may interact with each other to affect disease risk. Much knowledge has been accumulated in the literature on biological pathways and interactions. It is conceivable that appropriate incorporation of such prior knowledge may improve the likelihood of making genuine discoveries. Although a number of methods have been developed recently to prioritize genes using prior biological knowledge, such as pathways, most methods treat genes in a specific pathway as an exchangeable set without considering the topological structure of a pathway. However, how genes are related with each other in a pathway may be very informative to identify association signals. To make use of the connectivity information among genes in a pathway in GWAS analysis, we propose a Markov Random Field (MRF model to incorporate pathway topology for association analysis. We show that the conditional distribution of our MRF model takes on a simple logistic regression form, and we propose an iterated conditional modes algorithm as well as a decision theoretic approach for statistical inference of each gene's association with disease. Simulation studies show that our proposed framework is more effective to identify genes associated with disease than a single gene-based method. We also illustrate the usefulness of our approach through its applications to a real data example.
A Joint Land Cover Mapping and Image Registration Algorithm Based on a Markov Random Field Model
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Apisit Eiumnoh
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, image registration of multi-modal and multi-temporal images is performed satisfactorily before land cover mapping. However, since multi-modal and multi-temporal images are likely to be obtained from different satellite platforms and/or acquired at different times, perfect alignment is very difficult to achieve. As a result, a proper land cover mapping algorithm must be able to correct registration errors as well as perform an accurate classification. In this paper, we propose a joint classification and registration technique based on a Markov random field (MRF model to simultaneously align two or more images and obtain a land cover map (LCM of the scene. The expectation maximization (EM algorithm is employed to solve the joint image classification and registration problem by iteratively estimating the map parameters and approximate posterior probabilities. Then, the maximum a posteriori (MAP criterion is used to produce an optimum land cover map. We conducted experiments on a set of four simulated images and one pair of remotely sensed images to investigate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm. Our results show that, with proper selection of a critical MRF parameter, the resulting LCMs derived from an unregistered image pair can achieve an accuracy that is as high as when images are perfectly aligned. Furthermore, the registration error can be greatly reduced.
Language Recognition Using Latent Dynamic Conditional Random Field Model with Phonological Features
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Sirinoot Boonsuk
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Spoken language recognition (SLR has been of increasing interest in multilingual speech recognition for identifying the languages of speech utterances. Most existing SLR approaches apply statistical modeling techniques with acoustic and phonotactic features. Among the popular approaches, the acoustic approach has become of greater interest than others because it does not require any prior language-specific knowledge. Previous research on the acoustic approach has shown less interest in applying linguistic knowledge; it was only used as supplementary features, while the current state-of-the-art system assumes independency among features. This paper proposes an SLR system based on the latent-dynamic conditional random field (LDCRF model using phonological features (PFs. We use PFs to represent acoustic characteristics and linguistic knowledge. The LDCRF model was employed to capture the dynamics of the PFs sequences for language classification. Baseline systems were conducted to evaluate the features and methods including Gaussian mixture model (GMM based systems using PFs, GMM using cepstral features, and the CRF model using PFs. Evaluated on the NIST LRE 2007 corpus, the proposed method showed an improvement over the baseline systems. Additionally, it showed comparable result with the acoustic system based on i-vector. This research demonstrates that utilizing PFs can enhance the performance.
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M. Bassier
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Point cloud segmentation is a crucial step in scene understanding and interpretation. The goal is to decompose the initial data into sets of workable clusters with similar properties. Additionally, it is a key aspect in the automated procedure from point cloud data to BIM. Current approaches typically only segment a single type of primitive such as planes or cylinders. Also, current algorithms suffer from oversegmenting the data and are often sensor or scene dependent. In this work, a method is presented to automatically segment large unstructured point clouds of buildings. More specifically, the segmentation is formulated as a graph optimisation problem. First, the data is oversegmented with a greedy octree-based region growing method. The growing is conditioned on the segmentation of planes as well as smooth surfaces. Next, the candidate clusters are represented by a Conditional Random Field after which the most likely configuration of candidate clusters is computed given a set of local and contextual features. The experiments prove that the used method is a fast and reliable framework for unstructured point cloud segmentation. Processing speeds up to 40,000 points per second are recorded for the region growing. Additionally, the recall and precision of the graph clustering is approximately 80%. Overall, nearly 22% of oversegmentation is reduced by clustering the data. These clusters will be classified and used as a basis for the reconstruction of BIM models.
Scene Segmentation with Low-Dimensional Semantic Representations and Conditional Random Fields
Yang, Wen; Triggs, Bill; Dai, Dengxin; Xia, Gui-Song
2010-12-01
This paper presents a fast, precise, and highly scalable semantic segmentation algorithm that incorporates several kinds of local appearance features, example-based spatial layout priors, and neighborhood-level and global contextual information. The method works at the level of image patches. In the first stage, codebook-based local appearance features are regularized and reduced in dimension using latent topic models, combined with spatial pyramid matching based spatial layout features, and fed into logistic regression classifiers to produce an initial patch level labeling. In the second stage, these labels are combined with patch-neighborhood and global aggregate features using either a second layer of Logistic Regression or a Conditional Random Field. Finally, the patch-level results are refined to pixel level using MRF or over-segmentation based methods. The CRF is trained using a fast Maximum Margin approach. Comparative experiments on four multi-class segmentation datasets show that each of the above elements improves the results, leading to a scalable algorithm that is both faster and more accurate than existing patch-level approaches.
A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.
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Mohammad Javad Shafiee
Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.
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P. M. A. Diaz
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a method to estimate the temporal interaction in a Conditional Random Field (CRF based approach for crop recognition from multitemporal remote sensing image sequences. This approach models the phenology of different crop types as a CRF. Interaction potentials are assumed to depend only on the class labels of an image site at two consecutive epochs. In the proposed method, the estimation of temporal interaction parameters is considered as an optimization problem, whose goal is to find the transition matrix that maximizes the CRF performance, upon a set of labelled data. The objective functions underlying the optimization procedure can be formulated in terms of different accuracy metrics, such as overall and average class accuracy per crop or phenological stages. To validate the proposed approach, experiments were carried out upon a dataset consisting of 12 co-registered LANDSAT images of a region in southeast of Brazil. Pattern Search was used as the optimization algorithm. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method was able to substantially outperform estimates related to joint or conditional class transition probabilities, which rely on training samples.
Tao, R.; Tang, H.
Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.
Zhang, Yifan
2016-08-18
For face naming in TV series or movies, a typical way is using subtitles/script alignment to get the time stamps of the names, and tagging them to the faces. We study the problem of face naming in videos when subtitles are not available. To this end, we divide the problem into two tasks: face clustering which groups the faces depicting a certain person into a cluster, and name assignment which associates a name to each face. Each task is formulated as a structured prediction problem and modeled by a hidden conditional random field (HCRF) model. We argue that the two tasks are correlated problems whose outputs can provide prior knowledge of the target prediction for each other. The two HCRFs are coupled in a unified graphical model called coupled HCRF where the joint dependence of the cluster labels and face name association is naturally embedded in the correlation between the two HCRFs. We provide an effective algorithm to optimize the two HCRFs iteratively and the performance of the two tasks on real-world data set can be both improved.
Financial versus health motivation to quit smoking: a randomized field study.
Sindelar, Jody L; O'Malley, Stephanie S
2014-02-01
Smoking is the most preventable cause of death, thus justifying efforts to effectively motivate quitting. We compared the effectiveness of financial versus health messages to motivate smoking cessation. Low-income individuals disproportionately smoke and, given their greater income constraints, we hypothesized that making financial costs of smoking more salient would encourage more smokers to try quitting. Further, we predicted that financial messages would be stronger in financial settings where pecuniary constraints are most salient. We conducted a field study in low-income areas of New Haven, Connecticut using brochures with separate health vs. financial messages to motivate smoking cessation. Displays were rotated among community settings-check-cashing, health clinics, and grocery stores. We randomized brochure displays with gain-framed cessation messages across locations. Our predictions were confirmed. Financial messages attracted significantly more attention than health messages, especially in financial settings. These findings suggest that greater emphasis on the financial gains to quitting and use of financial settings to provide cessation messages may be more effective in motivating quitting. Importantly, use of financial settings could open new, non-medical venues for encouraging cessation. Encouraging quitting could improve health, enhance spending power of low-income smokers, and reduce health disparities in both health and purchasing power. © 2013.
Detection of microcalcification with top-hat transform and the Gibbs random fields.
Bharadwaj, Akshay S; Celenk, Mehmet
2015-01-01
Breast cancer is one of the most common causes of death in women aged 40 and above. Early detection of breast cancer has been one of the prime topics of research in biomedical engineering area. Micro-calcifications (MCs) are the indicators of early stages of breast cancer, and the detection of these MCs will, in turn, lead to diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer at its earliest stages. This paper proposes a new method to detect MCs in a digital mammogram. The approach starts with the segmentation of the digital mammogram to isolate the breast region, using fuzzy C means clustering algorithm. The segmented image is then further segmented using top-hat transform to localize the region of interest. A watershed transform is used to isolate the region of interest from rest of the image. The Gibbs random fields are employed to analyze the pixels in conjunction with the devised clique patterns and detect MCs in the image. A thresholding is performed on the processed image where the MCs are detected. The proposed algorithm is highly effective in reducing the region of interest to the region which has a high probability of finding a calcification or MC. It has an overall detection rate of 94.4% and accuracy of 88.2% with a false negative detection rate of 5.6%, respectively.
Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.
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Amei Amei
Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.
Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-Qiang
2008-05-01
This paper proposes a statistical-structural character modeling method based on Markov random fields (MRFs) for handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR). The stroke relationships of a Chinese character reflect its structure, which can be statistically represented by the neighborhood system and clique potentials within the MRF framework. Based on the prior knowledge of character structures, we design the neighborhood system that accounts for the most important stroke relationships. We penalize the structurally mismatched stroke relationships with MRFs using the prior clique potentials, and derive the likelihood clique potentials from Gaussian mixture models, which encode the large variations of stroke relationships statistically. In the proposed HCCR system, we use the single-site likelihood clique potentials to extract many candidate strokes from character images, and use the pairsite clique potentials to determine the best structural match between the input candidate strokes and the MRF-based character models by relaxation labeling. The experiments on the KAIST character database demonstrate that MRFs can statistically model character structures, and work well in the HCCR system.
Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Shafiee, Mohammad J.; Wong, Alexander; Clausi, David A.
2014-09-01
The prevalence of compressive sensing is continually growing in all facets of imaging science. Com- pressive sensing allows for the capture and reconstruction of an entire signal from a sparse (under- sampled), yet sufficient, set of measurements that is representative of the target being observed. This compressive sensing strategy reduces the duration of the data capture, the size of the acquired data, and the cost of the imaging hardware as well as complexity while preserving the necessary underlying information. Compressive sensing systems require the accompaniment of advanced re- construction algorithms to reconstruct complete signals from the sparse measurements made. Here, a new reconstruction algorithm is introduced specifically for the reconstruction of compressive multispectral (MS) sensing data that allows for high-quality reconstruction from acquisitions at sub-Nyquist rates. We propose a multilayered conditional random field (MCRF) model, which extends upon the CRF model by incorporating two joint layers of certainty and estimated states. The proposed algorithm treats the reconstruction of each spectral channel as a MCRF given the sparse MS measurements. Since the observations are incomplete, the MCRF incorporates an extra layer determining the certainty of the measurements. The proposed MCRF approach was evaluated using simulated compressive MS data acquisitions, and is shown to enable fast acquisition of MS sensing data with reduced imaging hardware cost and complexity.
Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods
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O. P. Sekretenko
2015-06-01
Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.
Automatic Lung Tumor Segmentation on PET/CT Images Using Fuzzy Markov Random Field Model
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Yu Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The combination of positron emission tomography (PET and CT images provides complementary functional and anatomical information of human tissues and it has been used for better tumor volume definition of lung cancer. This paper proposed a robust method for automatic lung tumor segmentation on PET/CT images. The new method is based on fuzzy Markov random field (MRF model. The combination of PET and CT image information is achieved by using a proper joint posterior probability distribution of observed features in the fuzzy MRF model which performs better than the commonly used Gaussian joint distribution. In this study, the PET and CT simulation images of 7 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients were used to evaluate the proposed method. Tumor segmentations with the proposed method and manual method by an experienced radiation oncologist on the fused images were performed, respectively. Segmentation results obtained with the two methods were similar and Dice’s similarity coefficient (DSC was 0.85 ± 0.013. It has been shown that effective and automatic segmentations can be achieved with this method for lung tumors which locate near other organs with similar intensities in PET and CT images, such as when the tumors extend into chest wall or mediastinum.
spam: A Sparse Matrix R Package with Emphasis on MCMC Methods for Gaussian Markov Random Fields
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Reinhard Furrer
2010-10-01
Full Text Available spam is an R package for sparse matrix algebra with emphasis on a Cholesky factorization of sparse positive definite matrices. The implemantation of spam is based on the competing philosophical maxims to be competitively fast compared to existing tools and to be easy to use, modify and extend. The first is addressed by using fast Fortran routines and the second by assuring S3 and S4 compatibility. One of the features of spam is to exploit the algorithmic steps of the Cholesky factorization and hence to perform only a fraction of the workload when factorizing matrices with the same sparsity structure. Simulations show that exploiting this break-down of the factorization results in a speed-up of about a factor 5 and memory savings of about a factor 10 for large matrices and slightly smaller factors for huge matrices. The article is motivated with Markov chain Monte Carlo methods for Gaussian Markov random fields, but many other statistical applications are mentioned that profit from an efficient Cholesky factorization as well.
Wei, Qikang; Chen, Tao; Xu, Ruifeng; He, Yulan; Gui, Lin
2016-01-01
The recognition of disease and chemical named entities in scientific articles is a very important subtask in information extraction in the biomedical domain. Due to the diversity and complexity of disease names, the recognition of named entities of diseases is rather tougher than those of chemical names. Although there are some remarkable chemical named entity recognition systems available online such as ChemSpot and tmChem, the publicly available recognition systems of disease named entities are rare. This article presents a system for disease named entity recognition (DNER) and normalization. First, two separate DNER models are developed. One is based on conditional random fields model with a rule-based post-processing module. The other one is based on the bidirectional recurrent neural networks. Then the named entities recognized by each of the DNER model are fed into a support vector machine classifier for combining results. Finally, each recognized disease named entity is normalized to a medical subject heading disease name by using a vector space model based method. Experimental results show that using 1000 PubMed abstracts for training, our proposed system achieves an F1-measure of 0.8428 at the mention level and 0.7804 at the concept level, respectively, on the testing data of the chemical-disease relation task in BioCreative V. Database URL: http://219.223.252.210:8080/SS/cdr.html PMID:27777244
The effects of random field at surface on the magnetic properties in the Ising nanotube and nanowire
Kaneyoshi, T.
2016-12-01
The phase diagrams and temperature dependences of total magnetization mT in two nanosystems (nanotube and nanowire) with a random magnetic field at the surface shell are studied by the uses of the effective-field theory with correlations. Some characteristic phenomena (reentrant phenomena and unconventional thermal variation of total magnetization) are found in the two systems. They are rather different between the two systems, which mainly come from the structural differences of the cores
Dynamics in quantum Ising chain driven by inhomogeneous transverse magnetization
Bhattacharyya, Sirshendu; Dasgupta, Subinay
2017-07-01
We study the dynamics caused by transport of transverse magnetization in one dimensional transverse Ising chain at zero temperature. We observe that a class of initial states having product structure in fermionic momentum-space and satisfying certain criteria, produce spatial variation in transverse magnetization. Starting from such a state, we obtain the transverse magnetization analytically and then observe its dynamics in presence of a homogeneous constant field Γ. In contradiction with general expectation, whatever be the strength of the field, the magnetization of the system does not become homogeneous even after infinite time. At each site, the dynamics is associated with oscillations having two different timescales. The envelope of the larger timescale oscillation decays algebraically with an exponent which is invariant for all such special initial states. The frequency of this oscillation varies differently with external field in ordered and disordered phases. The local magnetization after infinite time also characterizes the quantum phase transition.
Dispersion of Own Frequency of Ion-Dipole by Supersonic Transverse Wave in Solid
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Minasyan V.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available First, we predict an existence of transverse electromagnetic field formed by supersonic transverse wave in solid. This electromagnetic wave acquires frequency and speed of sound, and it propagates along of direction propagation of supersonic wave. We also show that own frequency of ion-dipole depends on frequency of supersonic transverse wave.
Yan, Yuan
2017-07-13
Gaussian likelihood inference has been studied and used extensively in both statistical theory and applications due to its simplicity. However, in practice, the assumption of Gaussianity is rarely met in the analysis of spatial data. In this paper, we study the effect of non-Gaussianity on Gaussian likelihood inference for the parameters of the Matérn covariance model. By using Monte Carlo simulations, we generate spatial data from a Tukey g-and-h random field, a flexible trans-Gaussian random field, with the Matérn covariance function, where g controls skewness and h controls tail heaviness. We use maximum likelihood based on the multivariate Gaussian distribution to estimate the parameters of the Matérn covariance function. We illustrate the effects of non-Gaussianity of the data on the estimated covariance function by means of functional boxplots. Thanks to our tailored simulation design, a comparison of the maximum likelihood estimator under both the increasing and fixed domain asymptotics for spatial data is performed. We find that the maximum likelihood estimator based on Gaussian likelihood is overall satisfying and preferable than the non-distribution-based weighted least squares estimator for data from the Tukey g-and-h random field. We also present the result for Gaussian kriging based on Matérn covariance estimates with data from the Tukey g-and-h random field and observe an overall satisfactory performance.
Roeser, Robert W.; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Jha, Amishi; Cullen, Margaret; Wallace, Linda; Wilensky, Rona; Oberle, Eva; Thomson, Kimberly; Taylor, Cynthia; Harrison, Jessica
2013-01-01
The effects of randomization to mindfulness training (MT) or to a waitlist-control condition on psychological and physiological indicators of teachers' occupational stress and burnout were examined in 2 field trials. The sample included 113 elementary and secondary school teachers (89% female) from Canada and the United States. Measures were…
A Lagrangian description of nearshore hydrodynamics and rip currents forced by a random wave field
Leandro, S.; Cienfuegos, R.; Escauriaza, C. R.
2011-12-01
Nonlinear processes become important for waves propagating in the shoaling and surf zones. Wave shape changes when approaching the coast under the influence of bathymetry, becoming increasingly asymmetric until reaching the breaking limit. In the shoaling zone, non-linearities induce a net velocity in the direction of wave propagation, a phenomenon called Stokes drift, while in the surf zone, currents are mainly driven by spatio-temporal variations in energy dissipation gradients. In this work we aim at investigating and characterizing the nearshore circulation forced by a random wave field propagating over a variable bathymetry. We carry out numerical simulations over a laboratory experiment conducted in a wave basin over a realistic bathymetry [Michallet et al. 2010]. For the hydrodynamics, we use a 2D shock-capturing finite-volume model that solves the non-linear shallow water equations, taking into account energy dissipation by breaking, friction, bed-slope variations, and an accurate description for the moving shoreline in the swash zone [Marche et al. 2007;Guerra et al. 2010]. Model predictions are compared and validated against experimental data giving confidence for its use in the description of wave propagation in the surf/swash zone, together with mean eulerian velocities. The resulting wave propagation and circulation provided by the 2D model will then be used to describe drifter's patterns in the surf zone and construct Lagrangian particle tracking. The chosen experimental configuration is of great interest due to the random wave forcing (slowly modulated), the beach non-uniformities, and the existence of several bar-rip channels that enhance quasi-periodic rip instabilities. During the experiment, balloons filled with water, with a diameter between 5 and 10 cm, were placed in the surf zone in order to characterize circulation in a Lagrangian framework [Castelle et al. 2010]. The time-location of the balloons was continuously tracked by a shore
SAR-based change detection using hypothesis testing and Markov random field modelling
Cao, W.; Martinis, S.
2015-04-01
The objective of this study is to automatically detect changed areas caused by natural disasters from bi-temporal co-registered and calibrated TerraSAR-X data. The technique in this paper consists of two steps: Firstly, an automatic coarse detection step is applied based on a statistical hypothesis test for initializing the classification. The original analytical formula as proposed in the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) edge detector is reviewed and rewritten in a compact form of the incomplete beta function, which is a builtin routine in commercial scientific software such as MATLAB and IDL. Secondly, a post-classification step is introduced to optimize the noisy classification result in the previous step. Generally, an optimization problem can be formulated as a Markov random field (MRF) on which the quality of a classification is measured by an energy function. The optimal classification based on the MRF is related to the lowest energy value. Previous studies provide methods for the optimization problem using MRFs, such as the iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Recently, a novel algorithm was presented based on graph-cut theory. This method transforms a MRF to an equivalent graph and solves the optimization problem by a max-flow/min-cut algorithm on the graph. In this study this graph-cut algorithm is applied iteratively to improve the coarse classification. At each iteration the parameters of the energy function for the current classification are set by the logarithmic probability density function (PDF). The relevant parameters are estimated by the method of logarithmic cumulants (MoLC). Experiments are performed using two flood events in Germany and Australia in 2011 and a forest fire on La Palma in 2009 using pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X data. The results show convincing coarse classifications and considerable improvement by the graph-cut post-classification step.
Randomized Soil Survey of the Distribution of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Rice Fields in Laos ▿ †
Rattanavong, Sayaphet; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Langla, Sayan; Amornchai, Premjit; Sirisouk, Joy; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Moore, Catrin E.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Buisson, Yves; Newton, Paul N.
2011-01-01
Melioidosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, where the causative organism (Burkholderia pseudomallei) is present in the soil. In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), B. pseudomallei is a significant cause of sepsis around the capital, Vientiane, and has been isolated in soil near the city, adjacent to the Mekong River. We explored whether B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soil distant from the Mekong River, drawing three axes across northwest, northeast, and southern Laos to create nine sampling areas in six provinces. Within each sampling area, a random rice field site containing a grid of 100 sampling points each 5 m apart was selected. Soil was obtained from a depth of 30 cm and cultured for B. pseudomallei. Four of nine sites (44%) were positive for B. pseudomallei, including all three sites in Saravane Province, southern Laos. The highest isolation frequency was in east Saravane, where 94% of soil samples were B. pseudomallei positive with a geometric mean concentration of 464 CFU/g soil (95% confidence interval, 372 to 579 CFU/g soil; range, 25 to 10,850 CFU/g soil). At one site in northwest Laos (Luangnamtha), only one sample (1%) was positive for B. pseudomallei, at a concentration of 80 CFU/g soil. Therefore, B. pseudomallei occurs in Lao soils beyond the immediate vicinity of the Mekong River, alerting physicians to the likelihood of melioidosis in these areas. Further studies are needed to investigate potential climatic, soil, and biological determinants of this heterogeneity. PMID:21075883
Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2016-01-01
Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries.
Quantum interference between transverse spatial waveguide modes.
Mohanty, Aseema; Zhang, Mian; Dutt, Avik; Ramelow, Sven; Nussenzveig, Paulo; Lipson, Michal
2017-01-20
Integrated quantum optics has the potential to markedly reduce the footprint and resource requirements of quantum information processing systems, but its practical implementation demands broader utilization of the available degrees of freedom within the optical field. To date, integrated photonic quantum systems have primarily relied on path encoding. However, in the classical regime, the transverse spatial modes of a multi-mode waveguide have been easily manipulated using the waveguide geometry to densely encode information. Here, we demonstrate quantum interference between the transverse spatial modes within a single multi-mode waveguide using quantum circuit-building blocks. This work shows that spatial modes can be controlled to an unprecedented level and have the potential to enable practical and robust quantum information processing.
Pradhan, M.; Suryadarma, D.; Beatty, A.; Wong, M.; Alishjabana, A.; Gaduh, A.
2011-01-01
This study evaluates the effect of four randomized interventions aimed at strengthening school committees, and subsequently improving learning outcomes, in public primary schools in Indonesia. All study schools were randomly allocated to either a control group receiving no intervention, or to
Khrennikov, Andrei
2017-02-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schrödinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be unaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity-the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT ↦ QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and the superposition principle-by using the formalism of classical field correlations. In classical mechanics the phase space description can be considered as the ontic description, here states are given by points λ =(x , p) of phase space. The dynamics of the ontic state is given by the system of Hamiltonian equations.We can also consider probability distributions on the phase space (or equivalently random variables valued in it). We call them probabilistic ontic states. Dynamics of probabilistic ontic states is given by the Liouville equation.In classical physics we can (at least in principle) measure both the coordinate and momentum and hence ontic states can be treated as epistemic states as well (or it is better to say that here epistemic states can be treated as ontic states). Probabilistic ontic states represent probabilities for outcomes of joint measurement of position and momentum.However, this was a very special, although very important, example of
Normal planar undulators doubling as transverse gradient undulators
Jia, Qika; Li, Heting
2017-02-01
The transverse gradient undulator (TGU) has important application in the short-wavelength high-gain free electron lasers (FELs) driven by laser-plasma accelerators. However, the usual transversely tapered TGUs need special design and manufacture, and the transverse gradient cannot be tuned arbitrarily. In this paper we explore a new and simple method of using the natural transverse gradient of a normal planar undulator to compensate the beam energy spread effect. In this method, a vertical dispersion on the electron beam is introduced, then the dispersed beam passes through a normal undulator with a vertical off-axis orbit where the vertical field gradient is selected properly related to the dispersion strength and the beam energy spread. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations for self-amplified spontaneous emission FELs based on laser plasma accelerators are presented, and indicate that this method can greatly reduce the effect of the beam energy spread, leading to a similar enhancement on FEL performance as the usual transversely tapered TGU, but with the advantages of economy, tunable transverse gradient and no demand of extra field for correcting the orbit deflection induced by the field gradient.
Albert, Lena; Rottensteiner, Franz; Heipke, Christian
2017-08-01
We propose a new approach for the simultaneous classification of land cover and land use considering spatial as well as semantic context. We apply a Conditional Random Fields (CRF) consisting of a land cover and a land use layer. In the land cover layer of the CRF, the nodes represent super-pixels; in the land use layer, the nodes correspond to objects from a geospatial database. Intra-layer edges of the CRF model spatial dependencies between neighbouring image sites. All spatially overlapping sites in both layers are connected by inter-layer edges, which leads to higher order cliques modelling the semantic relation between all land cover and land use sites in the clique. A generic formulation of the higher order potential is proposed. In order to enable efficient inference in the two-layer higher order CRF, we propose an iterative inference procedure in which the two classification tasks mutually influence each other. We integrate contextual relations between land cover and land use in the classification process by using contextual features describing the complex dependencies of all nodes in a higher order clique. These features are incorporated in a discriminative classifier, which approximates the higher order potentials during the inference procedure. The approach is designed for input data based on aerial images. Experiments are carried out on two test sites to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experiments show that the classification results are improved compared to the results of a non-contextual classifier. For land cover classification, the result is much more homogeneous and the delineation of land cover segments is improved. For the land use classification, an improvement is mainly achieved for land use objects showing non-typical characteristics or similarities to other land use classes. Furthermore, we have shown that the size of the super-pixels has an influence on the level of detail of the classification result, but also on the
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Salmon, BP
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a 2-tier higher order Conditional Random Field which is used for land cover classification. The Conditional Random Field is based on probabilistic messages being passed along a graph to compute efficiently...
Arnaut, Luk R
2010-04-01
We derive an integral expression for the plane-wave expansion of the time-varying (nonstationary) random field inside a mode-stirred reverberation chamber. It is shown that this expansion is a so-called oscillatory process, whose kernel can be expressed explicitly in closed form. The effect of nonstationarity is a modulation of the spectral density of the field on a time scale that is a function of the cavity relaxation time. It is also shown how the contribution by a nonzero initial value of the field can be incorporated into the expansion. The results are extended to a special class of second-order processes, relevant to the reception of a mode-stirred reverberation field by a device under test with a first-order (relaxation-type) frequency response.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
XU Miaozhong
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In consideration of the visual system's tremendous ability to perceive and identify the information, a new image segmentation method is presented which simulates the mechanism of visual system for the high resolution remote sensing image segmentation with Markov random field model. Firstly, the characteristics of the visual system have been summarized as: hierarchy, learning ability, feature detection capability and sparse coding property. Secondly, the working mechanism of visual system is simulated by wavelet transform, unsupervised clustering algorithm, feature analysis and Laplace distribution. Then, the segmentation is achieved by the visual mechanism and the Markov random field. Different satellites remote sensing images are adopted as the experimental data, and the segmentation results demonstrate the proposed method have good performance in high resolution remote sensing images.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phil Diamond
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Sensitivity of output of a linear operator to its input can be quantified in various ways. In Control Theory, the input is usually interpreted as disturbance and the output is to be minimized in some sense. In stochastic worst-case design settings, the disturbance is considered random with imprecisely known probability distribution. The prior set of probability measures can be chosen so as to quantify how far the disturbance deviates from the white-noise hypothesis of Linear Quadratic Gaussian control. Such deviation can be measured by the minimal Kullback-Leibler informational divergence from the Gaussian distributions with zero mean and scalar covariance matrices. The resulting anisotropy functional is defined for finite power random vectors. Originally, anisotropy was introduced for directionally generic random vectors as the relative entropy of the normalized vector with respect to the uniform distribution on the unit sphere. The associated a-anisotropic norm of a matrix is then its maximum root mean square or average energy gain with respect to finite power or directionally generic inputs whose anisotropy is bounded above by a≥0. We give a systematic comparison of the anisotropy functionals and the associated norms. These are considered for unboundedly growing fragments of homogeneous Gaussian random fields on multidimensional integer lattice to yield mean anisotropy. Correspondingly, the anisotropic norms of finite matrices are extended to bounded linear translation invariant operators over such fields.
Study of self-compensation of random field errors in low-/β insertion triplets of hadron colliders
Shi, Jicong
1999-06-01
The presence of unavoidable field errors in superconducting low-β insertion triplets is one of the major causes for limiting the dynamic aperture of colliders during collisions. Sorting of quadrupoles of the triplets, in which the quadrupoles are installed in the ring according to a certain sequence based on the measured multipole errors, is a way to reduce the adverse effects of random field errors without an increase in the cost. Because of a very small phase advance within each triplet, significant self-compensation of random field errors of the triplet can be achieved even with sorting of a small number of quadrupoles. A study on low-β insertion triplets of the LHC interaction regions show that sorting of the quadrupoles with the vector sorting scheme is quite effective in enlargement of the dynamic aperture and improvement of the linearity of the phase-space region occupied by beams. Since the sorting scheme is based entirely on the local compensation of random errors, the effectiveness of the sorting is independent of the operational condition of the collider.
Longitudinal and transverse modes dispersion in two-dimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... two-dimensional Yukawa fluids in the domain of weak and intermediate coupling parameters were analyzed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The dispersion relation for both the longitudinal and transverse modes were obtained and compared with random phase approximation (RPA) and harmonic phonons ...
The rate of separation of magnetic lines of force in a random magnetic field.
Jokipii, J. R.
1973-01-01
The mixing of magnetic lines of force, as represented by their rate of separation, as a function of distance along the magnetic field, is considered with emphasis on neighboring lines of force. This effect is particularly important in understanding the transport of charged particles perpendicular to the average magnetic field. The calculation is carried out in the approximation that the separation changes by an amount small compared with the correlation scale normal to the field, in a distance along the field of a few correlation scales. It is found that the rate of separation is very sensitive to the precise form of the power spectrum. Application to the interplanetary and interstellar magnetic fields is discussed, and it is shown that in some cases field lines, much closer together than the correlation scale, separate at a rate which is effectively as rapid as if they were many correlation lengths apart.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diefenthaler, Markus
2010-08-15
Intention of the present thesis was the study of transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions. In the focus stood the Fourier analysis of azimutal single-spin asymmetries of pions and charged kaons performed within the HERMES experiment. These asymmetries were reconstructed from deep-inelastic scattering events on a transversely polarized proton target and decomposed in Fourier components. In the framework of quantum chromodynamics such components can be interpreted as folding of quark distribution and fragmentation functions. By the analysis of the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions the study of spin-orbit correlations in the internal of the nucleon was made possible. By this conclusions on the orbital angular momentum of the quarks can be drawn. The extracted Fourier components extend the hitherto available informations on the transverse-momentum dependent quark distribution functions remarkably. The presented Fourier analysis made not only a detection of the Collins and Sivers effects possible, but beyond the extraction of the signals of the pretzelosity and worm-gear distributions. The so obtained results will conclusively contribute to the understanding of future measurements in this field and furthermore make possible a test of fundamental predictions of quantum chromodynamics.
Adiabatic hydrodynamic modes in dielectric environment in a random electric field
Stupka, Anton
2016-01-01
Dielectric is considered in the electric field that has equal to zero the first moment and different from zero the second moment of strength in an equilibrium. The equations of ideal hydrodynamics are obtained in such a field for the case of the neglect of dissipative effects. A new variable - the second moment of electric field strength is included in the Euler equation. A temporal equation for this variable is obtained on the basis of Maxwell equations in the hydrodynamic approximation. Adi...
Schießl, Stefan P.; Rother, Marcel; Lüttgens, Jan; Zaumseil, Jana
2017-11-01
The field-effect mobility is an important figure of merit for semiconductors such as random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, owing to their network properties and quantum capacitance, the standard models for field-effect transistors cannot be applied without modifications. Several different methods are used to determine the mobility with often very different results. We fabricated and characterized field-effect transistors with different polymer-sorted, semiconducting SWNT network densities ranging from low (≈6 μm-1) to densely packed quasi-monolayers (≈26 μm-1) with a maximum on-conductance of 0.24 μS μm-1 and compared four different techniques to evaluate the field-effect mobility. We demonstrate the limits and requirements for each method with regard to device layout and carrier accumulation. We find that techniques that take into account the measured capacitance on the active device give the most reliable mobility values. Finally, we compare our experimental results to a random-resistor-network model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malihe Asadollahi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Hospitalization in neonatal intensive care unit may leads to many stresses for premature infants. Since premature infants cannot properly process stressors, identifying interventions that reduce the stress level for them is seems necessary. The aim of present study was to compare the effects of Field massage and Gentle Human Touch (GHT techniques on the urine level of cortisol, as an indicator of stress in preterm infants. Methods: This randomized, controlled clinical trial was carried out in Al-Zahra hospital, Tabriz. A total of 84 premature infants were randomly assigned into three groups. First groups were touched by their mothers three times a day (15 minutes in each session for 5 days by GHT technique. The second group was received 15 minutes Field massage with sunflower oil three times a day by their mothers for 5 days. The third group received routine care. In all groups, 24-hours urine samples were collected in the first and sixth day after the intervention and analyzed for cortisol level. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: There were significant differences between mean of changes in cortisol level between GHT and control groups and Field massage and control groups (0.026. Conclusion: Although the massage with Field technique resulted in a significant reduction in blood cortisol level, but the GHT technique have also a similar effect. So, both methods are recommended for decreasing of stress in preterm infants.
Waldorp, Lourens J
2016-01-01
It was recently shown how graphs can be used to provide descriptions of psychopathologies, where symptoms of, say, depression, affect each other and certain configurations determine whether someone could fall into a sudden depression. To analyse changes over time and characterise possible future behaviour is rather difficult for large graphs. We describe the dynamics of networks using one-dimensional discrete time dynamical systems theory obtained from a mean field approach to (elementary) probabilistic cellular automata (PCA). Often the mean field approach is used on a regular graph (a grid or torus) where each node has the same number of edges and the same probability of becoming active. We show that we can use variations of the mean field of the grid to describe the dynamics of the PCA on a random and small-world graph. Bifurcation diagrams for the mean field of the grid, random, and small-world graphs indicate possible phase transitions for certain parameter settings. Extensive simulations indicate for di...
Explaining Feast or Famine in Randomized Field Trials: Medical Science and Criminology Compared.
Shepherd, Jonathan P.
2003-01-01
Discusses the contrast between the frequency of randomized clinical trials in the health sciences and the relative famine of such studies in criminology. Attributes this difference to the contexts in which research is done and the difference in the status of situational research in the two disciplines. (SLD)
Transverse correlation: An efficient transverse flow estimator - initial results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Henze, Lasse; Kortbek, Jacob
2008-01-01
of vascular hemodynamics, the flow angle cannot easily be found as the angle is temporally and spatially variant. Additionally the precision of traditional methods is severely lowered for high flow angles, and they breakdown for a purely transverse flow. To overcome these problems we propose a new method...
Beardslee, Joseph A; Sadtler, Bryce; Lewis, Nathan S
2012-11-27
External magnetic fields have been used to vertically align ensembles of silicon microwires coated with ferromagnetic nickel films. X-ray diffraction and image analysis techniques were used to quantify the degree of vertical orientation of the microwires. The degree of vertical alignment and the minimum field strength required for alignment were evaluated as a function of the wire length, coating thickness, magnetic history, and substrate surface properties. Nearly 100% of 100 μm long, 2 μm diameter, Si microwires that had been coated with 300 nm of Ni could be vertically aligned by a 300 G magnetic field. For wires ranging from 40 to 60 μm in length, as the length of the wire increased, a higher degree of alignment was observed at lower field strengths, consistent with an increase in the available magnetic torque. Microwires that had been exposed to a magnetic sweep up to 300 G remained magnetized and, therefore, aligned more readily during subsequent magnetic field alignment sweeps. Alignment of the Ni-coated Si microwires occurred at lower field strengths on hydrophilic Si substrates than on hydrophobic Si substrates. The magnetic field alignment approach provides a pathway for the directed assembly of solution-grown semiconductor wires into vertical arrays, with potential applications in solar cells as well as in other electronic devices that utilize nano- and microscale components as active elements.
Mixed spin Ising model with four-spin interaction and random crystal field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benayad, N., E-mail: n.benayad@fsac.ac.ma [Groupe de Mecanique Statistique, Laboratoire de physique theorique et appliquee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Laboratoire de physique des hautes energies et de la matiere condensee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Ghliyem, M. [Groupe de Mecanique Statistique, Laboratoire de physique theorique et appliquee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco); Laboratoire de physique des hautes energies et de la matiere condensee, Faculte des sciences-Aien Chock, Universite Hassan II-Casablanca, B.P 5366 Maarif, Casablanca 20100 (Morocco)
2012-01-01
The effects of fluctuations of the crystal field on the phase diagram of the mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Ising model with four-spin interactions are investigated within the finite cluster approximation based on a single-site cluster theory. The state equations are derived for the two-dimensional square lattice. It has been found that the system exhibits a variety of interesting features resulting from the fluctuation of the crystal field interactions. In particular, for low mean value D of the crystal field, the critical temperature is not very sensitive to fluctuations and all transitions are of second order for any value of the four-spin interactions. But for relatively high D, the transition temperature depends on the fluctuation of the crystal field, and the system undergoes tricritical behaviour for any strength of the four-spin interactions. We have also found that the model may exhibit reentrance for appropriate values of the system parameters.
Support Vector Driven Markov Random Fields towards DTI Segmentation of the Human Skeletal Muscle
Neji, Radhouène; Fleury, Gilles; Deux, J.-F.; Rahmouni, A.; Bassez, G.; Vignaud, A.; Paragios, Nikolaos
2008-01-01
International audience; In this paper we propose a classification-based method towards the segmentation of diffusion tensor images. We use Support Vector Machines to classify diffusion tensors and we extend linear classification to the non linear case. To this end, we discuss and evaluate three different classes of kernels on the space of symmetric definite positive matrices that are well suited for the classification of tensor data. We impose spatial constraints by means of a Markov random f...
Transverse Anderson Localization in Disordered Glass Optical Fibers: A Review.
Mafi, Arash; Karbasi, Salman; Koch, Karl W; Hawkins, Thomas; Ballato, John
2014-07-28
Disordered optical fibers show novel waveguiding properties that can be used for various device applications, such as beam-multiplexed optical communications and endoscopic image transport. The strong transverse scattering from the transversely disordered optical fibers results in transversely confined beams that can freely propagate in the longitudinal direction, similar to conventional optical fibers, with the advantage that any point in the cross section of the fiber can be used for beam transport. For beam multiplexing and imaging applications, it is highly desirable to make the localized beam radius as small as possible. This requires large refractive index differences between the materials that define the random features in the disordered fiber. Here, disordered glass-air fibers are briefly reviewed, where randomly placed airholes in a glass matrix provide the sufficiently large refractive index difference of 0.5 for strong random transverse scattering. The main future challenge for the fabrication of an optimally disordered glass-air fibers is to increase the fill-fraction of airholes to nearly 50% for maximum beam confinement.
Falagas, Matthew E; Grigori, Tatiana; Ioannidou, Eleni
2009-03-01
We sought to evaluate the trends in the methodological quality of randomized controlled trials in various medical fields. Relevant studies were retrieved by the PubMed and the ISI Web of science databases. Thirty-five out of 457 retrieved studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-one out of 35 selected studies reported significant improvement in at least one methodological quality factor. Overall quality scores were increased in 13 out of 26 studies providing relevant data. The most commonly separately examined key quality factors were allocation concealment and blinding in 13 out of 21 studies that reported relevant data. Allocation concealment was the quality characteristic most commonly reported as significantly improving during the reviewed period (in five out of eight studies reporting relevant comparative data). Certain aspects of methodological quality have improved significantly over time, but others remain stagnant. Further efforts to improve study design, conduct, and reporting of randomized controlled trials are warranted.
Brémaud, Pierre
2017-01-01
The emphasis in this book is placed on general models (Markov chains, random fields, random graphs), universal methods (the probabilistic method, the coupling method, the Stein-Chen method, martingale methods, the method of types) and versatile tools (Chernoff's bound, Hoeffding's inequality, Holley's inequality) whose domain of application extends far beyond the present text. Although the examples treated in the book relate to the possible applications, in the communication and computing sciences, in operations research and in physics, this book is in the first instance concerned with theory. The level of the book is that of a beginning graduate course. It is self-contained, the prerequisites consisting merely of basic calculus (series) and basic linear algebra (matrices). The reader is not assumed to be trained in probability since the first chapters give in considerable detail the background necessary to understand the rest of the book. .
Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun
2017-06-01
In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (Drug Administration (FDA). Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.
Transverse Leukonychia: A case report
African Journals Online (AJOL)
authors emphasize that white transverse nail banding —. Leukonychia striata or Muehrcke lines - constitute an aesthetical unpleasant side-effect of medication, but may represent an easily observed sign indicative of previous use of cytotoxic therapy for malignancy. Key-words: Chemotherapy-induced nail changes,.
Transverse permeability of woven fabrics
Grouve, Wouter Johannes Bernardus; Akkerman, Remko; Loendersloot, Richard; van den Berg, S.
2008-01-01
The transverse permeability is an essential input in describing the consolidation process of CETEX® laminates. A two-dimensional, finite difference based, Stokes flow solver has been developed to determine the mesoscopic permeability of arbitrary fabric structures. The use of a multigrid solver
Transverse Spin Results From PHENIX
Wei, Feng
2011-01-01
The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider explores the spin structure of the proton in polarized p+p collisions at center-of-mass energies up to 500 GeV. Tremendous experimental and theoretical progress has been made toward understanding the physics involved with transversely polarized beams or targets in recent years. Not only nucleon structure and parton distribution functions but also QCD dynamics have been studied in various physics processes in high-energy polarized DIS and p+p collisions. In the 2006 and 2008 RHIC runs, the PHENIX experiment took a significant amount of transversely polarized p+p collision data at 200 GeV center-of-mass energy, with an integrated luminosity of 8 $pb^{-1}$ and beam polarizations up to 50%. Single spin asymmetries of different probes have been measured in mid- and forward-rapidities. In this report, we present the latest transverse spin results from the PHENIX experiment and discuss briefly the prospects of future transverse spin physics with the PHENIX...
2009-10-16
In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with concrete pavements which were finished with a random transverse grooved surface texture (ODOT specification...
Effectiveness of noise barriers installed adjacent to transverse grooved concrete pavement.
2009-10-16
In recent years the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has reconstructed a number of roadways where asphalt pavements were replaced with random transverse grooved concrete pavements. Upon completion, residents living adjacent to the reconstruct...
Near field heat transfer between random composite materials. Applications and limitations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santiago, Eva Yazmin; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica
2017-05-01
We present a theoretical study of the limits and bounds of using effective medium approximations in the calculation of the near field radiative heat transfer between a composite system made of Au nanoparticles in a SiC host and an homogeneous SiC slab. The effective dielectric function of the composite slab is calculated using three different approximations: Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga's. In addition, we considered an empirical fit to the effective dielectric function by Grundquist and Hunderi. We show that the calculated value of the heat flux in the near field is dependent on the model, and the difference in the effective dielectric function is larger around the plasmonic response of the Au nanoparticles. This, in turn, accounts for the difference in the near field radiative heat flux. For all values of filling fractions, the Looyenga approximation gives a lower bound for the heat flux.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yigit, Ali, E-mail: ayigit80@karatekin.edu.tr [Cank Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I Karatekin University, Department of Physics, 18100 Cank Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I r Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I (Turkey); Albayrak, Erhan [Erciyes University, Department of Physics, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)
2013-03-15
The effects of bimodal random crystal field on the phase diagrams and magnetization curves of ferrimagnetic mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 Blume-Capel model are examined by using the effective field theory with correlations for honeycomb lattice. The phase diagrams are obtained on the ({Delta},kT/|J|), ({Delta},T{sub comp}) and (p,kT/|J|) planes for given values of p and {Delta}, respectively. The model exhibits only the second-order phase transitions as in the Blume-Capel model with constant crystal fields. In addition, it was found that the model presents one or two compensation temperatures for appropriate values of random crystal field for given probability in contrast to constant crystal field case. Therefore, it is shown that the random crystal field considerably affects the thermal variations of net and sublattice magnetizations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 BC model with random crystal field was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effective-field theory with correlations was used in obtaining the critical temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase diagrams of the model were shown for various planes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Randomness of the crystal field leads to emergence the compensation temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that the model exhibits only second-order phase transitions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, C.G.; Chen, C.H. [Univ. of Massachusetts, North Dartmouth, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
In this paper a novel multiresolution wavelet analysis (MWA) and non-stationary Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) technique is introduced for the identification of microcalcifications with high accuracy. The hierarchical multiresolution wavelet information in conjunction with the contextual information of the images extracted from GMRF provides a highly efficient technique for microcalcification detection. A Bayesian teaming paradigm realized via the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm was also introduced for edge detection or segmentation of larger lesions recorded on the mammograms. The effectiveness of the approach has been extensively tested with a number of mammographic images provided by a local hospital.
Monte Carlo study of transverse susceptibility in ordered arrays of magnetic nanoparticles
Kechrakos, Dimitris; Trohidou, Kalliopi
2006-03-01
We present Monte Carlo simulations of the field-dependent reversible transverse susceptibility (RTS) for a hexagonal array of dipolar interacting magnetic nanoparticles with random anisotropy. The thermal evolution of the RTS curves exhibits three distinct temperatures that indicate the merge of the coercive to the anisotropy peak (Tsw), the crossover from double-peak to single-peak behavior (Tcross) and the transition to the superparamagnetic state (Tb), successively. Above Tcross the array exhibits positive spin correlations attributed solely to dipolar interactions. With decreasing interparticle spacing, the anisotropy peak shifts to lower (or higher) values for in-plane (or off-plane) bias-field and the coercive peak merges to the anisotropy peak indicating a transition to collective reversal of the moments. Our results are in agreement with recent RTS measurements in self-assembled Fe nanoparticles.
Estimating adhesive seed-dispersal distances : field experiments and correlated random walks
Mouissie, AM; Lengkeek, W; van Diggelen, R
1. In this study we aimed to estimate distance distributions of adhesively dispersed seeds and the factors that determine them. 2. Seed attachment and detachment were studied using field experiments with a real sheep, a sheep dummy and a cattle dummy. Seed-retention data were used in correlated
Near-field short correlation in optical waves transmitted through random media
Emiliani, V.; Intonti, F.; caza, M.; Wiersma, D.S.; Colocci, M.; Aliev, F.; Lagendijk, Aart
2003-01-01
Two-dimensional near-field images of light transmitted through a disordered dielectric structure have been measured for two probe wavelengths. From these data, the 2D spatial dependence of the intensity correlation function, C(¿R¿), has been extracted. We observe that the spatial dependence of C is
On the Gibbsian Nature of the Random Field Kac Model under Block-Averaging
Külske, Christof
2001-01-01
We consider the Kac–Ising model in an arbitrary configuration of local magnetic fields η=(ηi)i ∈ Zd, in any dimension d, at any inverse temperature. We investigate the Gibbs properties of the ‘renormalized’ infinite volume measures obtained by block averaging any of the Gibbs-measures corresponding
N. Renders (Nicole); Y. Romling; A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)
1996-01-01
textabstractEighty-seven strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were typed by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of macrorestriction fragments. Stains were clustered on the basis of interpretative criteria as presented
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, J.L.
1993-01-01
Previous results on Edgeworth expansions for sums over a random field are extended to the case where the strong mixing coefficient depends not only on the distance between two sets of random variables, but also on the size of the two sets. The results are applied to the Poisson and the Strauss...
The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges
Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui
2016-04-01
A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.
Wang, Yonggang; Hui, Cong; Liu, Chong; Xu, Chao
2016-04-01
The contribution of this paper is proposing a new entropy extraction mechanism based on sampling phase jitter in ring oscillators to make a high throughput true random number generator in a field programmable gate array (FPGA) practical. Starting from experimental observation and analysis of the entropy source in FPGA, a multi-phase sampling method is exploited to harvest the clock jitter with a maximum entropy and fast sampling speed. This parametrized design is implemented in a Xilinx Artix-7 FPGA, where the carry chains in the FPGA are explored to realize the precise phase shifting. The generator circuit is simple and resource-saving, so that multiple generation channels can run in parallel to scale the output throughput for specific applications. The prototype integrates 64 circuit units in the FPGA to provide a total output throughput of 7.68 Gbps, which meets the requirement of current high-speed quantum key distribution systems. The randomness evaluation, as well as its robustness to ambient temperature, confirms that the new method in a purely digital fashion can provide high-speed high-quality random bit sequences for a variety of embedded applications.
Quark-photon-quark correlation and transverse target single spin asymmetry in inclusive DIS
Burkardt, Matthias; Alhalholy, Tareq
2017-07-01
We calculate the q γ q correlation function associated to transverse target lepton-nucleon inclusive deep-inelastic scattering by direct evaluation of the corresponding matrix element utilizing the electromagnetic impact parameter fields for a transversely polarized nucleon. The results are compared with the two existing models for the q γ q correlator. Using the calculated q γ q correlation function, we estimate the transverse target single-spin asymmetry in an inclusive DIS process.
Asymmetry of the Hall Conductance Fluctuations in a Random Magnetic Field
1998-06-01
and CNRS-LCMI, F-38042, Grenoble, France § Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI, Switzerland ¶ Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, 13560-970...samples (2 × 2 /•m×/zm) with a dimpled 2 DEG. This type of structures provides an experimental alternative for studying a spatially varying magnetic field...height of the dimples 0.1 Itm, which agrees well the experimental observations. The Hall resistance together with B-linear background reveals
Space-time models based on random fields with local interactions
Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Tsantili, Ivi C.
2016-08-01
The analysis of space-time data from complex, real-life phenomena requires the use of flexible and physically motivated covariance functions. In most cases, it is not possible to explicitly solve the equations of motion for the fields or the respective covariance functions. In the statistical literature, covariance functions are often based on mathematical constructions. In this paper, we propose deriving space-time covariance functions by solving “effective equations of motion”, which can be used as statistical representations of systems with diffusive behavior. In particular, we propose to formulate space-time covariance functions based on an equilibrium effective Hamiltonian using the linear response theory. The effective space-time dynamics is then generated by a stochastic perturbation around the equilibrium point of the classical field Hamiltonian leading to an associated Langevin equation. We employ a Hamiltonian which extends the classical Gaussian field theory by including a curvature term and leads to a diffusive Langevin equation. Finally, we derive new forms of space-time covariance functions.
Dyrba, Martin; Grothe, Michel J; Mohammadi, Abdolreza; Binder, Harald; Kirste, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan J
2017-07-01
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a cascade of pathological processes that can be assessed in vivo using different neuroimaging methods. Recent research suggests a systematic sequence of pathogenic events on a global biomarker level, but little is known about the associations and dependencies of distinct lesion patterns on a regional level. Markov random fields are a probabilistic graphical modeling approach that represent the interaction between individual random variables by an undirected graph. We propose the novel application of this approach to study the interregional associations and dependencies between multimodal imaging markers of AD pathology and to compare different hypotheses regarding the spread of the disease. We retrieved multimodal imaging data from 577 subjects enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Mean amyloid load (AV45-PET), glucose metabolism (FDG-PET), and gray matter volume (MRI) were calculated for the six principle nodes of the default mode network- a functional network of brain regions that appears to be preferentially targeted by AD. Multimodal Markov random field models were developed for three different hypotheses regarding the spread of the disease: the "intraregional evolution model", the "trans-neuronal spread" hypothesis, and the "wear-and-tear" hypothesis. The model likelihood to reflect the given data was evaluated using tenfold cross-validation with 1,000 repetitions. The most likely graph structure contained the posterior cingulate cortex as main hub region with edges to various other regions, in accordance with the "wear-and-tear" hypothesis of disease vulnerability. Probabilistic graphical models facilitate the analysis of interactions between several variables in a network model and therefore afford great potential to complement traditional multiple regression analyses in multimodal neuroimaging research.
Transversal Lines of the Debates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yolanda Onghena
1998-12-01
Full Text Available The Transversal Lines of the Debates gathers for publication the presentations of the scholars invited to the seminar. In the papers, Yolanda Onghena observes that the evolution from the cultural to the inter-cultural travels along four axes: the relations between cultureand society; the processes of change within identity-based dynamics; the representations of the Other; and, interculturality. Throughout the presentations and subsequent debates, whenever the different participants referred to aspects of the cultural identity problematic--”angst”, “obsession”, “deficit”, manipulation”, and others, these same participants in the Transversal Lines of the Debates also showed that, in certain areas, an optimistic viewpoint is not out of the question.
Hypergraphs with large transversal number
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2013-01-01
For κ ≥ 2, let H be a k-uniform hypergraph on n vertices and m edges. The transversal number τ (H) of H is the minimum number of vertices that intersect every edge. We consider the following question: Is τ (H) ≤ n/k + m/6? For κ ≥ 4, we show that the inequality in the question does not always hol...
Transverse spin effects at COMPASS
Pesaro, G
2009-01-01
The COMPASS experiment at the CERN SPS has a broad physics program focused on the nucleon spin structure and on hadron spectroscopy, using both muon and hadron beams. One of the main objectives for the spin program with the muon beam is the measurement of transverse spin effects in semi inclusive deep inelastic scattering. A longitudinally polarized 160 GeV/c muon beam is impinging on a transversely polarized target: from 2002 to 2004 a $^{6}$LiD (deuteron) target has been used, while during 2007 data taking a NH$_{3}$ (proton) target was put in place. All measured transverse asymmetries on deuteron have been found to be small, and compatible with zero, within the few percent statistical errors. These results, which are currently used as input for global fits, can be interpreted as cancellation between u and d quark contribution in the deuteron. The first results for the Collins and Sivers asymmetries for charged hadrons from the 2007 proton COMPASS data are also presented and discussed.
Explaining feast or famine in randomized field trials. Medical science and criminology compared.
Shepherd, Jonathan P
2003-06-01
A feast of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in medical science and comparative famine in criminology can be explained in terms of cultural and structural factors. Of central importance is the context in which the evaluation of interventions is done and the difference in status of situational research in the two disciplines. Evaluation of medical interventions has traditionally been led by practitioner (clinical) academics. This is not the case in criminal justice, where theory has had higher status than intervention research. Medical science has advanced in, or closely associated with, university teaching hospitals, but links between criminology and criminal justice services are far more tenuous. The late development of situational crime prevention seems extraordinary from a medical perspective, as does the absence of university police schools in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. These structural and cultural factors explain concentration of expectation, resource, and RCT productivity in medical science. The Campbell Collaboration and the Academy of Experimental Criminology are forces which are reducing this polarization of feast and famine in RCTs. But unless scientific criminology is embedded in university schools which are responsible for the education and training of law, probation, and police practitioners, convergence in terms of RCTs and implementation of findings in practice seems unlikely.
Transverse spin and momentum correlations in quantum ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tic scattering (SIDIS) for a transversely polarized proton target by the HERMES. Collaboration [2] describes correlations of the intrinsic quark transverse momen- tum and the transverse nucleon spin. The corresponding SSA on a deuteron target measured by COMPASS [3] vanishes, indicating a flavour dependence of the ...
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The concept of `topological right transversal' is introduced to study right transversals in topological groups. Given any right quasigroup with a Tychonoff topology , it is proved that there exists a Hausdorff topological group in which can be embedded algebraically and topologically as a right transversal of a subgroup ...
Transversity of quarks in a nucleon
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The transversity distribution of quarks in a nucleon is one of the three fundamental distributions, that characterize nucleon's properties in hard scattering processes at leading twist (twist 2). It measures the distribution of quark transverse spin in a nucleon polarized transverse to its (inﬁnite) momentum. It is a chiral-odd ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ningzhi Li
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In vivo13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10–65 ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH = 125–145 Hz. Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ; the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields [<=4 Tesla (T] to keep the local and averaged specific absorption rate (SAR under the safety guidelines established by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T, where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal
Critical behavior of mean-field spin glasses on a dilute random graph
DeSanctis, Luca; Barra, Adriano; Folli, Viola
2008-05-01
We provide a rigorous strategy to find the critical exponents of the overlaps for dilute spin glasses, in the absence of an external field. Such a strategy is based on the expansion of a suitably perturbed average of the overlaps, which is used in the formulation of the free energy as the difference between a cavity part and the derivative of the free energy itself, considered as a function of the connectivity of the model. We assume the validity of certain reasonable approximations, equivalent to assuming a second-order transition, e.g. that higher powers of overlap monomials are of smaller magnitude near the critical point, of which we do not provide a rigorous proof.
Critical behavior of mean-field spin glasses on a dilute random graph
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Sanctis, Luca [Dipartimento di Matematica e di Psicologia, Universita di Bologna, P.zza di Porta San Donato 5, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Barra, Adriano; Folli, Viola [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail: desanctis@dm.unibo.it, E-mail: adriano.barra@roma1.infn.it, E-mail: viola.folli@roma1.infn.it
2008-05-30
We provide a rigorous strategy to find the critical exponents of the overlaps for dilute spin glasses, in the absence of an external field. Such a strategy is based on the expansion of a suitably perturbed average of the overlaps, which is used in the formulation of the free energy as the difference between a cavity part and the derivative of the free energy itself, considered as a function of the connectivity of the model. We assume the validity of certain reasonable approximations, equivalent to assuming a second-order transition, e.g. that higher powers of overlap monomials are of smaller magnitude near the critical point, of which we do not provide a rigorous proof.
Random-field induced memory effects in inhomogeneously diluted antiferromagnets K2NixZn1−xF4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dikken, B. J.; Arts, A. F. M.; de Wijn, H. W.
1986-01-01
Using neutron diffraction a random-field generated memory is observed in K2NixZn1−xF4 with x = 0.96, 0.85, and 0.75. The intensities and profiles of magnetic Bragg reflections are found to follow unique trajectories determined by switching the external magnetic field on and off while cooling...
Magnetic and mechanical AC loss of the ITER CSI model coil conductor under transverse cyclic loading
Nijhuis, Arend; Noordman, Niels H.W.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mitchell, Neil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi
1998-01-01
The magnetic field in a coil results in a transverse force on the strands pushing the cable towards one side of the jacket. A special cryogenic press has been built to study in a unique way the mechanical and electrical properties of full-size ITER Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) samples under a transverse,
Irrational use of antimalarial drugs in rural areas of eastern Pakistan: a random field study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khan Shafaat Yar
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial disease is a common practice in countries where malaria is endemic. However, unwarranted use of such drugs can cause side effects in some people and is a financial drain on local economies. In this study, we surveyed the prevalence of malaria parasites in humans, and the prevalence of the malaria transmitting mosquito vectors in the study area. We also investigated the use of antimalarial drugs in the local people. We focused on randomly selected rural areas of eastern Pakistan where no malaria cases had been reported since May 2004. Methods Mass blood surveys, active case detection, passive case detection, and vector density surveys were carried out in selected areas of Sargodha district from September 2008 to August 2009. Data pertaining to the quantities and types of antimalarial drugs used in these areas were collected from health centers, pharmacies, and the district CDC program of the Health Department of the Government of the Punjab. Results Seven hundred and forty four blood samples were examined, resulting in a Blood Examination Rate (BER of 3.18; microscopic analysis of blood smears showed that none of the samples were positive for malaria parasites. Investigation of the mosquito vector density in 43 living rooms (bedrooms or rooms used for sleeping, 23 stores, and 32 animal sheds, revealed no vectors capable of transmitting malaria in these locations. In contrast, the density of Culex mosquitoes was high. Substantial consumption of a variety of antimalarial tablets, syrups, capsules and injections costing around 1000 US$, was documented for the region. Conclusion Use of antimalarial drugs in the absence of malarial infection or the vectors that transmit the disease was common in the study area. Continuous use of such drugs, not only in Pakistan, but in other parts of the world, may lead to drug-induced side effects amongst users. Better training of
One-Step Recurrences for Stationary Random Fields on the Sphere
Beatson, R. K.; zu Castell, W.
2016-04-01
Recurrences for positive definite functions in terms of the space dimension have been used in several fields of applications. Such recurrences typically relate to properties of the system of special functions characterizing the geometry of the underlying space. In the case of the sphere S^{d-1} subset R^d the (strict) positive definiteness of the zonal function f(cos θ) is determined by the signs of the coefficients in the expansion of f in terms of the Gegenbauer polynomials {C^λ_n}, with λ=(d-2)/2. Recent results show that classical differentiation and integration applied to f have positive definiteness preserving properties in this context. However, in these results the space dimension changes in steps of two. This paper develops operators for zonal functions on the sphere which preserve (strict) positive definiteness while moving up and down in the ladder of dimensions by steps of one. These fractional operators are constructed to act appropriately on the Gegenbauer polynomials {C^λ_n}.
PEP-II Transverse Feedback Electronics Upgrade
Weber, Jonah; Chin, Michael; Doolittle, Lawrence
2005-01-01
The PEP-II B Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) requires an upgrade of the transverse feedback system electronics. The new electronics require 12-bit resolution and a minimum sampling rate of 238 Msps. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used to implement the feedback algorithm. The FPGA also contains an embedded PowerPC 405 (PPC-405) processor to run control system interface software for data retrieval, diagnostics, and system monitoring. The design of this system is based on the Xilinx® ML300 Development Platform, a circuit board set containing an FPGA with an embedded processor, a large memory bank, and other peripherals. This paper discusses the design of a digital feedback system based on an FPGA with an embedded processor. Discussion will include specifications, component selection, and integration with the ML300 design.
Liao, Liang; Lin, Tusheng; Li, Bi; Zhang, Weidong
2008-12-01
A modified algorithm using fuzzy Gibbs random field model and fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering is proposed for segmentation of Magnetic resonance(MR) brain images. Spatial constraints using the definitions of homogeneity of cliques and fuzzy Gibbs clique potential are introduced in this algorithm. A new modified objective function , which is established by introducing the spatial constraints into the traditional intensity based FCM algorithm, leads to the establishment of new iterative formulas for membership matrix and centroids. This algorithm can improve the performance of corresponding traditional one by modifying the original intensity based segmentation model. Experiments on synthetic images and MR phantoms show the validation of the proposed algorithm, which is usually a better alternative for segmenting medical MR images corrupted by noise.
Complete Many-Body Localization in the t-J Model Caused by a Random Magnetic Field.
Lemut, Gal; Mierzejewski, Marcin; Bonča, Janez
2017-12-15
The many body localization (MBL) of spin-1/2 fermions poses a challenging problem. It is known that the disorder in the charge sector may be insufficient to cause full MBL. Here, we study dynamics of a single hole in one dimensional t-J model subject to a random magnetic field. We show that strong disorder that couples only to the spin sector localizes both spin and charge degrees of freedom. Charge localization is confirmed also for a finite concentration of holes. While we cannot precisely pinpoint the threshold disorder, we conjecture that there are two distinct transitions. Weaker disorder first causes localization in the spin sector. Carriers become localized for somewhat stronger disorder, when the spin localization length is of the order of a single lattice spacing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. E. Schulz
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Mass transfer across a gas-liquid interface was studied theoretically and experimentally, using transfer of oxygen into water as the gas-liquid system. The experimental results support the conclusions of a theoretical description of the concentration field that uses random square waves approximations. The effect of diffusion over the concentration records was quantified. It is shown that the peak of the normalized rms concentration fluctuation profiles must be lower than 0.5, and that the position of the peak of the rms value is an adequate measure of the thickness of the diffusive layer. The position of the peak is the boundary between the regions more subject to molecular diffusion or to turbulent transport of dissolved mass.
Dong, Zhen; Wang, Jianjun; Zhou, Xin
2017-05-01
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the key biomolecules that protect many species from suffering the extreme conditions. Their unique properties of antifreezing provide the potential of a wide range of applications. Inspired by the present experimental approaches of creating an antifreeze surface by coating AFPs, here we present a two-dimensional random-field lattice Ising model to study the effect of AFPs on heterogeneous ice nucleation. The model shows that both the size and the free-energy effect of individual AFPs and their surface coverage dominate the antifreeze capacity of an AFP-coated surface. The simulation results are consistent with the recent experiments qualitatively, revealing the origin of the surprisingly low antifreeze capacity of an AFP-coated surface when the coverage is not particularly high as shown in experiment. These results will hopefully deepen our understanding of the antifreeze effects and thus be potentially useful for designing novel antifreeze coating materials based on biomolecules.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Feature fusion of remote sensing images and LiDAR points cloud data, which have strong complementarity, can effectively play the advantages of multi-class features to provide more reliable information support for the remote sensing applications, such as object classification and recognition. In this paper, we introduce a novel multi-source hierarchical conditional random field (MSHCRF model to fuse features extracted from remote sensing images and LiDAR data for image classification. Firstly, typical features are selected to obtain the interest regions from multi-source data, then MSHCRF model is constructed to exploit up the features, category compatibility of images and the category consistency of multi-source data based on the regions, and the outputs of the model represents the optimal results of the image classification. Competitive results demonstrate the precision and robustness of the proposed method.
Dong, Zhen; Wang, Jianjun; Zhou, Xin
2017-05-01
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are the key biomolecules that protect many species from suffering the extreme conditions. Their unique properties of antifreezing provide the potential of a wide range of applications. Inspired by the present experimental approaches of creating an antifreeze surface by coating AFPs, here we present a two-dimensional random-field lattice Ising model to study the effect of AFPs on heterogeneous ice nucleation. The model shows that both the size and the free-energy effect of individual AFPs and their surface coverage dominate the antifreeze capacity of an AFP-coated surface. The simulation results are consistent with the recent experiments qualitatively, revealing the origin of the surprisingly low antifreeze capacity of an AFP-coated surface when the coverage is not particularly high as shown in experiment. These results will hopefully deepen our understanding of the antifreeze effects and thus be potentially useful for designing novel antifreeze coating materials based on biomolecules.
Shenje, Justin; Millard, Peter S
2016-01-01
The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio. 75 adult male volunteers. Outpatient primary care clinic. Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive. Intraoperative duration. Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result. The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups. VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thamsborg, G; Florescu, A; Oturai, P
2005-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The investigation aimed at determining the effectiveness of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee by conducting a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. DESIGN: The trial consisted of 2h daily treatment 5 days per...... (WOMAC) questionnaire. RESULTS: Within group analysis revealed a significant improvement in ADL, stiffness and pain in the PEMF-treated group at all evaluations. In the control group there was no effect on ADL after 2 weeks and a weak significance was seen after 6 and 12 weeks. Significant effects were...... years using between group analysis revealed a significant improvement for stiffness on treated knee after 2 weeks, but this effect was not observed for ADL and pain. CONCLUSIONS: Applying between group analysis we were unable to demonstrate a beneficial symptomatic effect of PEMF in the treatment...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elena Tutubalina
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are an essential part of the analysis of drug use, measuring drug use benefits, and making policy decisions. Traditional channels for identifying ADRs are reliable but very slow and only produce a small amount of data. Text reviews, either on specialized web sites or in general-purpose social networks, may lead to a data source of unprecedented size, but identifying ADRs in free-form text is a challenging natural language processing problem. In this work, we propose a novel model for this problem, uniting recurrent neural architectures and conditional random fields. We evaluate our model with a comprehensive experimental study, showing improvements over state-of-the-art methods of ADR extraction.
Order–disorder phase transitions in thin films described by transverse Ising model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nguyen Tu Niem
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The order–disorder phase transition in thin films at finite temperature and zero temperature (quantum phase transition is discussed within the transverse Ising model using molecular field approximation. Experimentally, it is shown that the Curie temperature TC of perovskite PbTiO3 ultra-thin film decreases with decreasing film thickness. We obtain an equation for TC of thin film in external magnetic and transverse fields. Our equation explains well for the case of strong transverse strain field this behaviour.
PKU-RBRC Workshop on Transverse Spin
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Avakian,H.; Bunce, G.; Yuan, F.
2008-06-30
Understanding the structure of the nucleon is a fundamental question in subatomic physics, and it has been under intensive investigation for the last several years. Modern research focuses in particular on the spin structure of the nucleon. Experimental and theoretical investigations worldwide over the last few decades have established that, contrary to nave quark model expectations, quarks carry only about 30% of the totd spin of the proton. The origin of the remaining spin is the key question in current hadronic physics and also the major driving forces for the current and future experiments, such as RHIC and CEBAF in US, JPARC in Japan, COMPASS at CERN in Europe, FAIR at GSI in Germany. Among these studies, the transverse-spin physics develops actively and rapidly in the last few years. Recent studies reveal that transverse-spin physics is closely related to many fundamental properties of the QCD dynamics such as the factorization, the non-trivial universality of the parton distribution and fragmentation functions. It was very timely to bring together the theorists and experimentalists in this field at this workshop to review and discuss the latest developments and future perspective in hadronic spin physics. This workshop was very success iu many aspects. First of all, it attracted almost every expert working in this field. We had more than eighty participants in total, among them 27 came from the US institutes, 13 from Europe, 3 from Korea, and 2 from Japan. The rest participants came from local institutes in China. Second, we arranged plenty physics presentations, and the program covers all recent progresses made in the last few years. In total, we had 47 physics presentations, and two round table discussions. The discussion sessions were especially very useful and very much appreciated by all participants. In addition, we also scheduled plenty time for discussion in each presentation, and the living discussions impressed and benefited all participants.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Poeze Martijn
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The scaphoid bone is the most commonly fractured of the carpal bones. In the Netherlands 90% of all carpal fractures is a fracture of the scaphoid bone. The scaphoid has an essential role in functionality of the wrist, acting as a pivot. Complications in healing can result in poor functional outcome. The scaphoid fracture is a troublesome fracture and failure of treatment can result in avascular necrosis (up to 40%, non-union (5-21% and early osteo-arthritis (up to 32% which may seriously impair wrist function. Impaired consolidation of scaphoid fractures results in longer immobilization and more days lost at work with significant psychosocial and financial consequences. Initially Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields was used in the treatment of tibial pseudoarthrosis and non-union. More recently there is evidence that physical forces can also be used in the treatment of fresh fractures, showing accelerated healing by 30% and 71% reduction in nonunion within 12 weeks after initiation of therapy. Until now no double blind randomized, placebo controlled trial has been conducted to investigate the effect of this treatment on the healing of fresh fractures of the scaphoid. Methods/Design This is a multi center, prospective, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial. Study population consists of all patients with unilateral acute scaphoid fracture. Pregnant women, patients having a life supporting implanted electronic device, patients with additional fractures of wrist, carpal or metacarpal bones and pre-existing impairment in wrist function are excluded. The scaphoid fracture is diagnosed by a combination of physical and radiographic examination (CT-scanning. Proven scaphoid fractures are treated with cast immobilization and a small Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields bone growth stimulating device placed on the cast. Half of the devices will be disabled at random in the factory. Study parameters are clinical consolidation
Infinite-randomness fixed points for chains of non-Abelian quasiparticles.
Bonesteel, N E; Yang, Kun
2007-10-05
One-dimensional chains of non-Abelian quasiparticles described by SU(2)k Chern-Simons-Witten theory can enter random singlet phases analogous to that of a random chain of ordinary spin-1/2 particles (corresponding to k-->infinity). For k=2 this phase provides a random singlet description of the infinite-randomness fixed point of the critical transverse field Ising model. The entanglement entropy of a region of size L in these phases scales as S(L) approximately lnd/3 log(2)L for large L, where d is the quantum dimension of the particles.
Tile-Level Annotation of Satellite Images Using Multi-Level Max-Margin Discriminative Random Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong Sun
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a multi-level max-margin discriminative analysis (M3DA framework, which takes both coarse and fine semantics into consideration, for the annotation of high-resolution satellite images. In order to generate more discriminative topic-level features, the M3DA uses the maximum entropy discrimination latent Dirichlet Allocation (MedLDA model. Moreover, for improving the spatial coherence of visual words neglected by M3DA, conditional random field (CRF is employed to optimize the soft label field composed of multiple label posteriors. The framework of M3DA enables one to combine word-level features (generated by support vector machines and topic-level features (generated by MedLDA via the bag-of-words representation. The experimental results on high-resolution satellite images have demonstrated that, using the proposed method can not only obtain suitable semantic interpretation, but also improve the annotation performance by taking into account the multi-level semantics and the contextual information.
Le Maitre, Olivier
2015-01-07
We address model dimensionality reduction in the Bayesian inference of Gaussian fields, considering prior covariance function with unknown hyper-parameters. The Karhunen-Loeve (KL) expansion of a prior Gaussian process is traditionally derived assuming fixed covariance function with pre-assigned hyperparameter values. Thus, the modes strengths of the Karhunen-Loeve expansion inferred using available observations, as well as the resulting inferred process, dependent on the pre-assigned values for the covariance hyper-parameters. Here, we seek to infer the process and its the covariance hyper-parameters in a single Bayesian inference. To this end, the uncertainty in the hyper-parameters is treated by means of a coordinate transformation, leading to a KL-type expansion on a fixed reference basis of spatial modes, but with random coordinates conditioned on the hyper-parameters. A Polynomial Chaos (PC) expansion of the model prediction is also introduced to accelerate the Bayesian inference and the sampling of the posterior distribution with MCMC method. The PC expansion of the model prediction also rely on a coordinates transformation, enabling us to avoid expanding the dependence of the prediction with respect to the covariance hyper-parameters. We demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method on a transient diffusion equation by inferring spatially-varying log-diffusivity fields from noisy data.
Quantum Ising phases and transitions in transverse Ising models
Suzuki, Sei; Chakrabarti, Bikas K
2013-01-01
Quantum phase transitions, driven by quantum fluctuations, exhibit intriguing features offering the possibility of potentially new applications, e.g. in quantum information sciences. Major advances have been made in both theoretical and experimental investigations of the nature and behavior of quantum phases and transitions in cooperatively interacting many-body quantum systems. For modeling purposes, most of the current innovative and successful research in this field has been obtained by either directly or indirectly using the insights provided by quantum (or transverse field) Ising models because of the separability of the cooperative interaction from the tunable transverse field or tunneling term in the relevant Hamiltonian. Also, a number of condensed matter systems can be modeled accurately in this approach, hence granting the possibility to compare advanced models with actual experimental results. This work introduces these quantum Ising models and analyses them both theoretically and numerically in gr...
[Urinary diversion and colon: transverse conduit and transverse pouch].
Ahyai, S A; Sayedahmed, K; Engel, O; Chun, F; Dahlem, R; Fisch, M
2012-07-01
In the vast majority of cases the terminal ileum is used for incontinent or continent bladder substitution. However, in irradiated patients the use of ileum segments or the ileocecal reservoir is associated with an increased risk of early and late complications. For this reason these patients should be treated with a transverse conduit or pouch as the method of choice if urinary diversion is indicated. The superior outcome of this high urinary diversion is due to the use of non-irradiated segments of the colon and ureter. The lack of experience in large bowel surgery by today's urologists should be compensated by training or referral of these high risk patients to a specialized center.
Transverse Spin and Momentum in Two-Wave Interference
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr Y. Bekshaev
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We analyze the interference field formed by two electromagnetic plane waves (with the same frequency but different wave vectors, and find that such a field reveals a rich and highly nontrivial structure of the local momentum and spin densities. Despite the seemingly planar and extensively studied character of the two-wave system, we find that it possesses a transverse (out-of-plane helicity-independent spin density and also a transverse polarization-dependent momentum density with unusual physical properties. The polarization-dependent transverse momentum represents the so-called Belinfante spin momentum, which does not exert the usual optical pressure and is considered as “virtual” in field theory. We perform analytical estimations and exact numerical simulations of the interaction of the two-wave field with probe Mie particles. The results of these calculations clearly indicate the straightforward detectability of the unusual spin and momentum properties in the two-wave field and strongly motivate their future experimental verifications.
Using transverse isotropy to model arbitrary deformation-induced anisotropy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brannon, R.M.
1996-07-01
A unifying framework is developed for the analysis of brittle materials. Heretofore diverse classes of models result from different choices for unspecified coefficient and distribution functions in the unified theory. Material response is described in terms of expectation integrals of transverse symmetry tensors. First, a canonical body containing cracks of all the same orientation is argued to possess macroscopic transverse isotropy. An orthogonal basis for the linear subspace consisting of all double-symmetric transversely-isotropic fourth-order tensors associated with a given material vector is introduced and applied to deduce the explicit functional dependence of the compliance of such contrived materials on the shared crack orientation. A principle of superposition of strain rates is used to write the compliance for a more realistic material consisting of cracks of random size and orientation as an expectation integral of the transverse compliance for each orientation times the joint distribution function for the size and orientation. Utilizing an evolving (initially exponential) size- dependence in the joint distribution, the general theory gives unprecedented agreement with measurements of the dynamic response of alumina to impact loading, especially upon release where the calculations predict the development of considerable deformation- induced anisotropy, challenging the conventional notion of shocks as isotropic phenomena.
Geddes, J. B.; Moloney, J. V.; Indik, R.
1992-06-01
Counterpropagating laser beams can couple to acoustic phonons and cause efficient simultaneous generation of both Stokes and anti-Stokes fields. This results in a combination of dynamic oscillation and spontaneous transverse spatial symmetry breaking.
NNLO QCD corrections to Higgs boson production at large transverse momentum
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chen, X; Cruz-Martinez, J; Gehrmann, T; Glover, E W. N; Jaquier, M
2016-01-01
We derive the second-order QCD corrections to the production of a Higgs boson recoiling against a parton with finite transverse momentum, working in the effective field theory in which the top quark...
Aboud, Frances E; Moore, Anna C; Akhter, Sadika
2008-10-01
Responsive complementary feeding, whereby the mother feeds her child in response to child cues of hunger state and psychomotor abilities, is a problem in some countries, and likely contributes to malnutrition. Interventions are needed to evaluate whether promoting responsive feeding would add any benefit. Using a cluster randomized field trial, we evaluated a six-session educational programme that emphasized practice of two key behaviours, namely child self-feeding and maternal responsiveness. One hundred mothers and their 12- to 24-month-olds attended the sessions as part of village clusters randomly assigned to the intervention group. A similar number of controls received sessions on foods to feed and nutritional disorders. Outcomes assessed at pre-test, 2-week post-intervention and again 5-months post-intervention included weight, mouthfuls of food taken, self-feeding and maternal responsiveness. Research assistants, blind to group assignment, observed and coded mother and child behaviours during the midday meal. Secondary measures included foods fed and feeding messages recalled. Analysis was based on intention to treat and accounted for clustering. Only 10% of each group was lost to follow-up. Weight (d = 0.28), weight gain (d = 0.48) and child self-feeding (d = 0.30) were significantly higher in the responsive feeding group. Mouthfuls of food eaten and maternal responsiveness were not significantly increased by the intervention. Mothers in the intervention gave their children more vegetables, and spontaneously recalled more feeding messages at the 5-month follow-up. These results provide evidence that self-feeding and weight gain can improve by targeting specific behaviours, while maternal responsiveness may require more intensive strategies.
Transversals in 4-uniform hypergraphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A; Yeo, Anders
2016-01-01
Let H be a 4-uniform hypergraph on n vertices. The transversal number τ (H) of H is the minimum number of vertices that intersect every edge. The result in [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 50 (1990), 129-133] by Lai and Chang implies that τ (H) ≤ 7n/18 when H is 3-regular. The main result in [Combinator......Let H be a 4-uniform hypergraph on n vertices. The transversal number τ (H) of H is the minimum number of vertices that intersect every edge. The result in [J. Combin. Theory Ser. B 50 (1990), 129-133] by Lai and Chang implies that τ (H) ≤ 7n/18 when H is 3-regular. The main result...... in [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473-487] by Thomassé and Yeo implies an improved bound of τ (H) ≤ 8n/21. We provide a further improvement and prove that τ (H) ≤ 3n/8, which is best possible due to a hypergraph of order eight. More generally, we show that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph on n vertices and m edges...... with maximum degree ∆(H) ≤ 3, then τ (H) ≤ n/4 + m/6, which proves a known conjecture. We show that an easy corollary of our main result is that if H is a 4-uniform hypergraph with n vertices and n edges, then τ (H) ≤3/7 n, which was the main result of the Thomassé-Yeo paper [Combinatorica 27 (2007), 473...
Jin, Y. Q.; Kong, J. A.
1984-01-01
The strong fluctuation theory is applied to the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers. The singularity of the dyadic Green's function is taken into account in the calculation of the effective permittivity functions. The correlation functions for the random medium with different scatterer constituents and size distributions are derived. Applying the dyadic Green's function for a two-layer medium and using the bilocal and distorted Born approximations, the first and the second moments of the fields are then calculated. Both the backscattering and bistatic scattering coefficients are obtained, and the former is shown to match favorably with experimental data obtained from snow fields.
Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers
Gordon, R.; Heberle, A. P.; Cleaver, J. R. A.
2002-12-01
We experimentally demonstrate mode-locking between the transverse modes of a laser. A vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with evenly-spaced transverse modes is shown to emit a train of 2.1±0.1 ps pulses with an 11 ps repetition rate and a timing jitter of 235±30 fs. Transverse mode-locking in microcavity lasers has potential to improve the compactness, stability, integrability, repetition rate tunability, and efficiency of ultrafast optical communication sources.
Sankarasubramanian, V.; Buitenweg, J. R.; Holsheimer, J.; Veltink, P.
2011-02-01
The aim of this modeling study is to determine the influence of electrode alignment of transverse tripoles on the paresthesia coverage of the pain area in spinal cord stimulation, using a percutaneous triple-lead approach. Transverse tripoles, comprising a central cathode and two lateral anodes, were modeled on the low-thoracic vertebral region (T10-T12) using percutaneous triple-lead configurations, with the center lead on the spinal cord midline. The triple leads were oriented both aligned and staggered. In the staggered configuration, the anodes were offset either caudally (caudally staggered) or rostrally (rostrally staggered) with respect to the midline cathode. The transverse tripolar field steering with the aligned and staggered configurations enabled the estimation of dorsal column fiber thresholds (IDC) and dorsal root fiber thresholds (IDR) at various anodal current ratios. IDC and IDR were considerably higher for the aligned transverse tripoles as compared to the staggered transverse tripoles. The aligned transverse tripoles facilitated deeper penetration into the medial dorsal columns (DCs). The staggered transverse tripoles always enabled broad and bilateral DC activation, at the expense of mediolateral steerability. The largest DC recruited area was obtained with the rostrally staggered transverse tripole. Transverse tripolar geometries, using percutaneous leads, allow for selective targeting of either medial or lateral DC fibers, if and only if the transverse tripole is aligned. Steering of anodal currents between the lateral leads of the staggered transverse tripoles cannot target medially confined populations of DC fibers in the spinal cord. An aligned transverse tripolar configuration is strongly recommended, because of its ability to provide more post-operative flexibility than other configurations.
Diagnosis and treatment of transverse maxillary deficiency.
Betts, N J; Vanarsdall, R L; Barber, H D; Higgins-Barber, K; Fonseca, R J
1995-01-01
Treatment of skeletally mature patients is often complicated by inadequately treated or undiagnosed transverse skeletal discrepancy. This report emphasizes diagnosis of transverse maxillo-mandibular discrepancy and describes recommendations for treatment. Proper treatment strategy must consider the type and magnitude of transverse deficiency, patient's growth status, dentofacial esthetics, stability factors, and periodontal tissue health. Indications for surgically assisted maxillary expansion are listed, and the recommended surgical technique to improve frontal dentofacial esthetics, provide better stability, and enhance long-term periodontal health is described. Specific modifications in surgical technique to help prevent postoperative complications are included. New recommendations for sequencing, timing, and correction of transverse deficiency are presented.
TRANSVERSE POLARIZATION DISTRIBUTION AND FRAGMENTATION FUNCTIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BOER,D.
2000-04-11
The authors discuss transverse polarization distribution and fragmentation functions, in particular, T-odd functions with transverse momentum dependence, which might be relevant for the description of single transverse spin asymmetries. The role of intrinsic transverse momentum in the expansion in inverse powers of the hard scale is elaborated upon. The sin {phi} single spin asymmetry in the process e {rvec p} {r_arrow} e{prime} {pi}{sup +} X as recently reported by the HERMES Collaboration is investigated, in particular, by using the bag model.
Voitcu, Gabriel
2016-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the formation of ring-shaped and gyro-phase restricted velocity distribution functions (VDFs) at the edges of a cloud of protons injected into non-uniform distributions of the electromagnetic field. The velocity distribution function is reconstructed using the forward test-kinetic method. We consider two profiles of the electric field: (1) a non-uniform E-field obtained by solving the Laplace equation consistent with the conservation of the electric drift and (2) a constant and uniform E-field. In both cases, the magnetic field is similar to the solutions obtained for tangential discontinuities. The initial velocity distribution function is Liouville mapped along numerically integrated trajectories. The numerical results show the formation of an energy-dispersed structure due to the energy-dependent displacement of protons towards the edges of the cloud by the gradient-B drift. Another direct effect of the gradient-B drift is the formation of ring-shaped velocity distribution functio...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kajikawa, K.; Takenaka, A.; Kawasaki, K.; Iwakuma, M.; Funaki, K. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)
2000-05-29
We propose the summary measuring method as a method for conveniently evaluating ac loss under various electromagnetic environment of superconducting wire rod high precise. It has evaluated the ac loss as simultaneously; it has applied current and magnetic field until now to Bi-2223 silver sheath wire rod using this technique experimentally. And, got measurement result agreed with the numerical calculation result well, and it was able to verify the usefulness of this technique. However, the condition of the simultaneous sweep examined until now is only the case in which current and magnetic field are in-phases, and it is necessary to examine whether it is also estimable on the ac loss in both in case of phase difference by summary measuring method. This time, the ac loss as simultaneously, it applied precedence, current with phase difference in oxide superconducting wire rod and magnetic field to the experimental examination was estimated by numerical calculation. (NEDO)
Zulkifley, Mohd Asyraf; Moran, Bill; Rawlinson, David
2012-01-01
Foreground detection has been used extensively in many applications such as people counting, traffic monitoring and face recognition. However, most of the existing detectors can only work under limited conditions. This happens because of the inability of the detector to distinguish foreground and background pixels, especially in complex situations. Our aim is to improve the robustness of foreground detection under sudden and gradual illumination change, colour similarity issue, moving background and shadow noise. Since it is hard to achieve robustness using a single model, we have combined several methods into an integrated system. The masked grey world algorithm is introduced to handle sudden illumination change. Colour co-occurrence modelling is then fused with the probabilistic edge-based background modelling. Colour co-occurrence modelling is good in filtering moving background and robust to gradual illumination change, while an edge-based modelling is used for solving a colour similarity problem. Finally, an extended conditional random field approach is used to filter out shadow and afterimage noise. Simulation results show that our algorithm performs better compared to the existing methods, which makes it suitable for higher-level applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Rawlinson
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Foreground detection has been used extensively in many applications such as people counting, traffic monitoring and face recognition. However, most of the existing detectors can only work under limited conditions. This happens because of the inability of the detector to distinguish foreground and background pixels, especially in complex situations. Our aim is to improve the robustness of foreground detection under sudden and gradual illumination change, colour similarity issue, moving background and shadow noise. Since it is hard to achieve robustness using a single model, we have combined several methods into an integrated system. The masked grey world algorithm is introduced to handle sudden illumination change. Colour co-occurrence modelling is then fused with the probabilistic edge-based background modelling. Colour co-occurrence modelling is good infiltering moving background and robust to gradual illumination change, while an edge-based modelling is used for solving a colour similarity problem. Finally, an extended conditional random field approach is used to filter out shadow and afterimage noise. Simulation results show that our algorithm performs better compared to the existing methods, which makes it suitable for higher-level applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maihemuti Maimaiti
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Uyghur is an agglutinative and a morphologically rich language; natural language processing tasks in Uyghur can be a challenge. Word morphology is important in Uyghur part-of-speech (POS tagging. However, POS tagging performance suffers from error propagation of morphological analyzers. To address this problem, we propose a few models for POS tagging: conditional random fields (CRF, long short-term memory (LSTM, bidirectional LSTM networks (BI-LSTM, LSTM networks with a CRF layer, and BI-LSTM networks with a CRF layer. These models do not depend on stemming and word disambiguation for Uyghur and combine hand-crafted features with neural network models. State-of-the-art performance on Uyghur POS tagging is achieved on test data sets using the proposed approach: 98.41% accuracy on 15 labels and 95.74% accuracy on 64 labels, which are 2.71% and 4% improvements, respectively, over the CRF model results. Using engineered features, our model achieves further improvements of 0.2% (15 labels and 0.48% (64 labels. The results indicate that the proposed method could be an effective approach for POS tagging in other morphologically rich languages.
Larrasa, José; García-Sánchez, Alfredo; Ambrose, Nicholas C; Parra, Alberto; Alonso, Juan M; Rey, Joaquín M; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Miguel; Hermoso-de-Mendoza, Javier
2004-11-01
This study aimed to evaluate molecular typing methods useful for standardization of strains in experimental work on dermatophilosis. Fifty Dermatophilus congolensis isolates, collected from sheep, cattle, horse and a deer, were analyzed by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method using twenty-one different primers, and the results were compared with those obtained by typing with a pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method using the restriction digest enzyme Sse8387I. The typeability, reproducibility and discriminatory power of RAPD and Sse8387I-PFGE typing were calculated. Both typing methods were highly reproducible. Of the two techniques, Sse8387I-PFGE was the least discriminating (Dice Index (DI), 0.663) and could not distinguish between epidemiologically related isolates, whereas RAPD showed an excellent discriminatory power (DI, 0.7694-0.9722). Overall, the degree of correlation between RAPD and PFGE typing was significantly high (r, 0.8822). We conclude that the DNA profiles generated by either RAPD or PFGE can be used to differentiate epidemiologically unrelated isolates. The results of this study strongly suggest that at least two independent primers are used for RAPD typing in order to improve its discriminatory power, and that PFGE is used for confirmation of RAPD results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yisu Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fermín Segovia
2017-10-01
Full Text Available 18F-DMFP-PET is an emerging neuroimaging modality used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD that allows us to examine postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Like other neuroimaging modalities used for PD diagnosis, most of the total intensity of 18F-DMFP-PET images is concentrated in the striatum. However, other regions can also be useful for diagnostic purposes. An appropriate delimitation of the regions of interest contained in 18F-DMFP-PET data is crucial to improve the automatic diagnosis of PD. In this manuscript we propose a novel methodology to preprocess 18F-DMFP-PET data that improves the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis systems for PD. First, the data were segmented using an algorithm based on Hidden Markov Random Field. As a result, each neuroimage was divided into 4 maps according to the intensity and the neighborhood of the voxels. The maps were then individually normalized so that the shape of their histograms could be modeled by a Gaussian distribution with equal parameters for all the neuroimages. This approach was evaluated using a dataset with neuroimaging data from 87 parkinsonian patients. After these preprocessing steps, a Support Vector Machine classifier was used to separate idiopathic and non-idiopathic PD. Data preprocessed by the proposed method provided higher accuracy results than the ones preprocessed with previous approaches.
Lu, Yisu; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Wufan
2014-01-01
Brain-tumor segmentation is an important clinical requirement for brain-tumor diagnosis and radiotherapy planning. It is well-known that the number of clusters is one of the most important parameters for automatic segmentation. However, it is difficult to define owing to the high diversity in appearance of tumor tissue among different patients and the ambiguous boundaries of lesions. In this study, a nonparametric mixture of Dirichlet process (MDP) model is applied to segment the tumor images, and the MDP segmentation can be performed without the initialization of the number of clusters. Because the classical MDP segmentation cannot be applied for real-time diagnosis, a new nonparametric segmentation algorithm combined with anisotropic diffusion and a Markov random field (MRF) smooth constraint is proposed in this study. Besides the segmentation of single modal brain-tumor images, we developed the algorithm to segment multimodal brain-tumor images by the magnetic resonance (MR) multimodal features and obtain the active tumor and edema in the same time. The proposed algorithm is evaluated using 32 multimodal MR glioma image sequences, and the segmentation results are compared with other approaches. The accuracy and computation time of our algorithm demonstrates very impressive performance and has a great potential for practical real-time clinical use. PMID:25254064
Crystalline Electric-Field Randomness in the Triangular Lattice Spin-Liquid YbMgGaO_{4}.
Li, Yuesheng; Adroja, Devashibhai; Bewley, Robert I; Voneshen, David; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Gegenwart, Philipp; Zhang, Qingming
2017-03-10
We apply moderate-high-energy inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements to investigate Yb^{3+} crystalline electric field (CEF) levels in the triangular spin-liquid candidate YbMgGaO_{4}. Three CEF excitations from the ground-state Kramers doublet are centered at the energies ℏω=39, 61, and 97 meV in agreement with the effective spin-1/2 g factors and experimental heat capacity, but reveal sizable broadening. We argue that this broadening originates from the site mixing between Mg^{2+} and Ga^{3+} giving rise to a distribution of Yb-O distances and orientations and, thus, of CEF parameters that account for the peculiar energy profile of the CEF excitations. The CEF randomness gives rise to a distribution of the effective spin-1/2 g factors and explains the unprecedented broadening of low-energy magnetic excitations in the fully polarized ferromagnetic phase of YbMgGaO_{4}, although a distribution of magnetic couplings due to the Mg/Ga disorder may be important as well.
Large deviations of the finite-time magnetization of the Curie-Weiss random-field Ising model.
Paga, Pierre; Kühn, Reimer
2017-08-01
We study the large deviations of the magnetization at some finite time in the Curie-Weiss random field Ising model with parallel updating. While relaxation dynamics in an infinite-time horizon gives rise to unique dynamical trajectories [specified by initial conditions and governed by first-order dynamics of the form m_{t+1}=f(m_{t})], we observe that the introduction of a finite-time horizon and the specification of terminal conditions can generate a host of metastable solutions obeying second-order dynamics. We show that these solutions are governed by a Newtonian-like dynamics in discrete time which permits solutions in terms of both the first-order relaxation ("forward") dynamics and the backward dynamics m_{t+1}=f^{-1}(m_{t}). Our approach allows us to classify trajectories for a given final magnetization as stable or metastable according to the value of the rate function associated with them. We find that in analogy to the Freidlin-Wentzell description of the stochastic dynamics of escape from metastable states, the dominant trajectories may switch between the two types (forward and backward) of first-order dynamics. Additionally, we show how to compute rate functions when uncertainty in the quenched disorder is introduced.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ehwa Yang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Due to the reasonably acceptable performance of state-of-the-art object detectors, tracking-by-detection is a standard strategy for visual multi-object tracking (MOT. In particular, online MOT is more demanding due to its diverse applications in time-critical situations. A main issue of realizing online MOT is how to associate noisy object detection results on a new frame with previously being tracked objects. In this work, we propose a multi-object tracker method called CRF-boosting which utilizes a hybrid data association method based on online hybrid boosting facilitated by a conditional random field (CRF for establishing online MOT. For data association, learned CRF is used to generate reliable low-level tracklets and then these are used as the input of the hybrid boosting. To do so, while existing data association methods based on boosting algorithms have the necessity of training data having ground truth information to improve robustness, CRF-boosting ensures sufficient robustness without such information due to the synergetic cascaded learning procedure. Further, a hierarchical feature association framework is adopted to further improve MOT accuracy. From experimental results on public datasets, we could conclude that the benefit of proposed hybrid approach compared to the other competitive MOT systems is noticeable.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teerapong Panboonyuen
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Object segmentation of remotely-sensed aerial (or very-high resolution, VHS images and satellite (or high-resolution, HR images, has been applied to many application domains, especially in road extraction in which the segmented objects are served as a mandatory layer in geospatial databases. Several attempts at applying the deep convolutional neural network (DCNN to extract roads from remote sensing images have been made; however, the accuracy is still limited. In this paper, we present an enhanced DCNN framework specifically tailored for road extraction of remote sensing images by applying landscape metrics (LMs and conditional random fields (CRFs. To improve the DCNN, a modern activation function called the exponential linear unit (ELU, is employed in our network, resulting in a higher number of, and yet more accurate, extracted roads. To further reduce falsely classified road objects, a solution based on an adoption of LMs is proposed. Finally, to sharpen the extracted roads, a CRF method is added to our framework. The experiments were conducted on Massachusetts road aerial imagery as well as the Thailand Earth Observation System (THEOS satellite imagery data sets. The results showed that our proposed framework outperformed Segnet, a state-of-the-art object segmentation technique, on any kinds of remote sensing imagery, in most of the cases in terms of precision, recall, and F 1 .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Jie Dai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electronic health record (EHR is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Justin Shenje
Full Text Available The World Health Organization has solicited rapid and minimally invasive techniques to facilitate scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC.Non-blinded randomized controlled field trial with 2:1 allocation ratio.75 adult male volunteers.Outpatient primary care clinic.Open surgical circumcision under local anesthetic with suturing vs. Unicirc disposable instrument under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive.Intraoperative duration.Intraoperative and postoperative pain; adverse events; time to healing; patient satisfaction; cosmetic result.The intraoperative time was less with the Unicirc technique (median 12 vs. 25 min, p < 0.001. Wound healing and cosmetic results were superior in the Unicirc group. Adverse events were similar in both groups.VMMC with Unicirc under topical anesthetic and wound sealing with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive is rapid, heals by primary intention with superior cosmetic results, and is potentially safer and more cost-effective than open surgical VMMC.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02443792.
Transverse deflection and dissipation of small plasma beams and clouds in magnetized media
Cheng, Andrew F.
1987-01-01
Propagation of a quasi-neutral plasma beam or cloud across a magnetic field is considered for the case where the transverse dimension of the beam or cloud is sufficiently small compared to ion gyroradii. This situation commonly arises for active experiments in near-earth space. Two mechanisms are presented for transverse deflection of a beam or cloud in the -v0 x B0 direction where v0 is the velocity relative to the ambient medium. In the first, asymmetric escape of ions from an electrically polarized beam or cloud causes transverse deflection by means of a rocket effect. The transverse deflection distance is estimated to be a few times the initial transverse dimension of the beam or cloud. Dissipation occurs within a few times the thermal ion transverse crossing time. In the second mechanism, asymmetric charging results from localized accumulation of incident ions from the ambient medium. This excess positive charge distorts electric equipotentials and drives electron Hall currents that maintain an asymmetric compressed magnetic field region. The asymmetry of the magnetic stress contributes to transverse deflection with the same sign as the rocket effect. The asymmetric magnetic field also focuses incident ions to yield the localized charge accumulation. These ideas are qualitatively consistent with observations of the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers artificial comet releases.
Evolution of the helicity and transversity Transverse-Momentum-Dependent parton distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prokudin, Alexei [JLAB; Bacchetta, Alessandro [INFN-PAVIA
2013-07-01
We examine the QCD evolution of the helicity and transversity parton distribution functions when including also their dependence on transverse momentum. Using an appropriate definition of these polarized transverse momentum distributions (TMDs), we describe their dependence on the factorization scale and rapidity cutoff, which is essential for phenomenological applications.
Random functions and turbulence
Panchev, S
1971-01-01
International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random
Transversals in non-discrete groups
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-mail: ramjilal@mri.ernet.in; rps@mri.ernet.in. MS received 2 August 2004; revised 4 August 2005. Abstract. The concept of 'topological right transversal' is introduced to study right transversals in topological groups. Given any right quasigroup ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Márcia Regina Vitolo
2014-12-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.
Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda
2014-12-01
To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.
Karimaghaloo, Zahra; Arnold, Douglas L; Arbel, Tal
2016-01-01
Detection and segmentation of large structures in an image or within a region of interest have received great attention in the medical image processing domains. However, the problem of small pathology detection and segmentation still remains an unresolved challenge due to the small size of these pathologies, their low contrast and variable position, shape and texture. In many contexts, early detection of these pathologies is critical in diagnosis and assessing the outcome of treatment. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic Adaptive Multi-level Conditional Random Fields (AMCRF) with the incorporation of higher order cliques for detecting and segmenting such pathologies. In the first level of our graphical model, a voxel-based CRF is used to identify candidate lesions. In the second level, in order to further remove falsely detected regions, a new CRF is developed that incorporates higher order textural features, which are invariant to rotation and local intensity distortions. At this level, higher order textures are considered together with the voxel-wise cliques to refine boundaries and is therefore adaptive. The proposed algorithm is tested in the context of detecting enhancing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in brain MRI, where the problem is further complicated as many of the enhancing voxels are associated with normal structures (i.e. blood vessels) or noise in the MRI. The algorithm is trained and tested on large multi-center clinical trials from Relapsing-Remitting MS patients. The effect of several different parameter learning and inference techniques is further investigated. When tested on 120 cases, the proposed method reaches a lesion detection rate of 90%, with very few false positive lesion counts on average, ranging from 0.17 for very small (3-5 voxels) to 0 for very large (50+ voxels) regions. The proposed model is further tested on a very large clinical trial containing 2770 scans where a high sensitivity of 91% with an average false positive
Mamoplastia transversal en mamas tuberosas Transversal mammoplasty in tuberous breast
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.M. Palacín Casal
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Con el nombre de mama tuberosa o constricción mamaria se define una malformación congénita de la glándula mamaria femenina, unilateral o bilateral, descrita en 1976 por Rees y Aston y que puede presentarse con diferentes grados de severidad. Durante estos 40 años se han publicado y utilizado diversas técnica quirúrgicas de remodelación mamaria destinadas a recrear el polo inferior de la mama mediante colgajos glandulares o incisiones radiales. Este artículo describe la técnica quirúrgica diseñada por el autor mediante la realización de tres incisiones transversales que abarcan todo el espesor y anchura de la mama y consiguen aportar, al ser utilizadas conjuntamente con la colocación de prótesis anatómicas de gel cohesivo, suficiente volumen al polo inferior mamario para darle una forma correcta que permite corregir adecuadamente un gran porcentaje de mamas tuberosas hipoplásicas.Tuberous breast or constricted breast is a female mammary gland congenital malformation which can be unilateral or bilateral. It was first described by Rees and Aston in 1976. It can be present in different grades of severity. Numerous surgical techniques have been described during the last 40 years, and the main objective is the recreation of the lower pole by using glandular flaps or radial incisions. This article describes a personal surgical technique based on three transverse incisions that include the whole glandular thickness and together with anatomic cohesive gel mammary implants, provide enough volume to the lower pole, achieving a be tter shape and thus helping to improve a greater percentage of hypoplastic tuberous breast.
Generation of a sub-half-wavelength focal spot with purely transverse spin angular momentum
Hang, Li; Fu, Jian; Yu, Xiaochang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Peifeng
2017-11-01
We theoretically demonstrate that optical focus fields with purely transverse spin angular momentum (SAM) can be obtained when a kind of special incident fields is focused by a high numerical aperture (NA) aplanatic lens (AL). When the incident pupil fields are refracted by an AL, two transverse Cartesian components of the electric fields at the exit pupil plane do not have the same order of sinusoidal or cosinoidal components, resulting in zero longitudinal SAMs of the focal fields. An incident field satisfying above conditions is then proposed. Using the Richard-Wolf vectorial diffraction theory, the energy density and SAM density distributions of the tightly focused beam are calculated and the results clearly validate the proposed theory. In addition, a sub-half-wavelength focal spot with purely transverse SAM can be achieved and a flattop energy density distribution parallel to z-axis can be observed around the maximum energy density point.
Total transversals in hypergraphs and their applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders
2015-01-01
a nonempty intersection with every edge of H. A total transversal in H is a transversal T in H with the additional property that every vertex in T is adjacent to some other vertex of T. The total transversal number τt (H) of H is the minimum cardinality of a total transversal in H. For k ≥ 2, let bk = sup....../9. These results on total transversals have applications in total domination in hypergraphs. A total dominating set in H is a subset of vertices D ⊆ V such that every vertex in H is adjacent to some vertex in D. The total domination number γt (H) is the minimum cardinality of a total dominating set in H...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dalia M. Kamel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field versus pulsed ultrasound in treating patients with postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome. The study was a randomized, double-blinded trial. Forty postnatal female patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome were divided randomly into two equal groups. One group received pulsed electromagnetic field, with nerve and tendon gliding exercises for the wrist, three times per week for four weeks. The other group received pulsed ultrasound and the same wrist exercises. Pain level, sensory and motor distal latencies and conduction velocities of the median nerve, functional status scale and hand grip strength were assessed pre- and post-treatment. There was a significant decrease (P 0.05. In conclusion, while the symptoms were alleviated in both groups, pulsed electromagnetic field was more effective than pulsed ultrasound in treating postnatal carpal tunnel syndrome.
Latyshev, A V
2015-01-01
From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional plasmas distribution function in square-law approximation on sizes of intensivities of electric fields is received. The known integral of collisions of relaxation type, so-called BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross, Krook) integral of collisions is considered. The formula for calculation electric current at any temperature (any degree of degeneration of electronic gas) is deduced. This formula contains an one-dimensional quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is orthogonal to a known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. When frequency of collisions tends to the zero, all received results for collisional plasmas pass in corresponding formulas for collisionless plasmas. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that the received quantity of longitudinal current at aspiration of frequency of collisions to ...