International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.
1974-01-01
Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de
Interfacial transport phenomena
Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok
2007-01-01
Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.
Random phenomena; Phenomenes aleatoires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonnet, G. [Commissariat a l' energie atomique et aux energies alternatives - CEA, C.E.N.G., Service d' Electronique, Section d' Electronique, Grenoble (France)
1963-07-01
This document gathers a set of conferences presented in 1962. A first one proposes a mathematical introduction to the analysis of random phenomena. The second one presents an axiomatic of probability calculation. The third one proposes an overview of one-dimensional random variables. The fourth one addresses random pairs, and presents basic theorems regarding the algebra of mathematical expectations. The fifth conference discusses some probability laws: binomial distribution, the Poisson distribution, and the Laplace-Gauss distribution. The last one deals with the issues of stochastic convergence and asymptotic distributions.
Modelling of transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.
1993-09-01
In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs
Transport phenomena II essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration
Transport phenomena I essentials
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfingsten, W.
1996-01-01
Safety assessments for radioactive waste repositories require a detailed knowledge of physical, chemical, hydrological, and geological processes for long time spans. In the past, individual models for hydraulics, transport, or geochemical processes were developed more or less separately to great sophistication for the individual processes. Such processes are especially important in the near field of a waste repository. Attempts have been made to couple at least two individual processes to get a more adequate description of geochemical systems. These models are called coupled codes; they couple predominantly a multicomponent transport model with a chemical reaction model. Here reactive transport is modeled by the sequentially coupled code MCOTAC that couples one-dimensional advective, dispersive, and diffusive transport with chemical equilibrium complexation and precipitation/dissolution reactions in a porous medium. Transport, described by a random walk of multispecies particles, and chemical equilibrium calculations are solved separately, coupled only by an exchange term. The modular-structured code was applied to incongruent dissolution of hydrated silicate gels, to movement of multiple solid front systems, and to an artificial, numerically difficult heterogeneous redox problem. These applications show promising features with respect to applicability to relevant problems and possibilities of extensions
Transport phenomena in environmental engineering
Sander, Aleksandra; Kardum, Jasna Prlić; Matijašić, Gordana; Žižek, Krunoslav
2018-01-01
A term transport phenomena arises as a second paradigm at the end of 1950s with high awareness that there was a strong need to improve the scoping of chemical engineering science. At that point, engineers became highly aware that it is extremely important to take step forward from pure empirical description and the concept of unit operations only to understand the specific process using phenomenological equations that rely on three elementary physical processes: momentum, energy and mass transport. This conceptual evolution of chemical engineering was first presented with a well-known book of R. Byron Bird, Warren E. Stewart and Edwin N. Lightfoot, Transport Phenomena, published in 1960 [1]. What transport phenomena are included in environmental engineering? It is hard to divide those phenomena through different engineering disciplines. The core is the same but the focus changes. Intention of the authors here is to present the transport phenomena that are omnipresent in treatment of various process streams. The focus in this chapter is made on the transport phenomena that permanently occur in mechanical macroprocesses of sedimentation and filtration for separation in solid-liquid particulate systems and on the phenomena of the flow through a fixed and a fluidized bed of particles that are immanent in separation processes in packed columns and in environmental catalysis. The fundamental phenomena for each thermal and equilibrium separation process technology are presented as well. Understanding and mathematical description of underlying transport phenomena result in scoping the separation processes in a way that ChEs should act worldwide.
Micro transport phenomena during boiling
Peng, Xiaofeng
2011-01-01
"Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masayuki Tokita
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.
Lunar magma transport phenomena
Spera, Frank J.
1992-01-01
An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.
Transport phenomena in multiphase flows
Mauri, Roberto
2015-01-01
This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy. It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...
Correlated randomness and switching phenomena
Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.
2010-08-01
One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.
Transport phenomena in particulate systems
Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo
2012-01-01
This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
Transport phenomena in porous media
Ingham, Derek B
1998-01-01
Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...
Transport phenomena an introduction to advanced topics
Glasgow, Larry A
2010-01-01
Enables readers to apply transport phenomena principles to solve advanced problems in all areas of engineering and science This book helps readers elevate their understanding of, and their ability to apply, transport phenomena by introducing a broad range of advanced topics as well as analytical and numerical solution techniques. Readers gain the ability to solve complex problems generally not addressed in undergraduate-level courses, including nonlinear, multidimensional transport, and transient molecular and convective transport scenarios. Avoiding rote memorization, the author em
A Connection between Transport Phenomena and Thermodynamics
Swaney, Ross; Bird, R. Byron
2017-01-01
Although students take courses in transport phenomena and thermodynamics, they probably do not ask whether these two subjects are related. Here we give an answer to that question. Specifically we give relationships between the equations of change for total energy, internal energy, and entropy of transport phenomena and key equations of equilibrium…
Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses
Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen
2009-01-01
Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium
Kinetic theory and transport phenomena
Soto, Rodrigo
2016-01-01
This textbook presents kinetic theory, which is a systematic approach to describing nonequilibrium systems. The text is balanced between the fundamental concepts of kinetic theory (irreversibility, transport processes, separation of time scales, conservations, coarse graining, distribution functions, etc.) and the results and predictions of the theory, where the relevant properties of different systems are computed. The book is organised in thematic chapters where different paradigmatic systems are studied. The specific features of these systems are described, building and analysing the appropriate kinetic equations. Specifically, the book considers the classical transport of charges, the dynamics of classical gases, Brownian motion, plasmas, and self-gravitating systems, quantum gases, the electronic transport in solids and, finally, semiconductors. Besides these systems that are studied in detail, concepts are applied to some modern examples including the quark–gluon plasma, the motion of bacterial suspen...
Advances in transport phenomena 2011
2014-01-01
This new volume of the annual review “Advances in Transport Phenomena” series contains three in-depth review articles on the microfluidic fabrication of vesicles, the dielectrophoresis field-flow fractionation for continuous-flow separation of particles and cells in microfluidic devices, and the thermodynamic analysis and optimization of heat exchangers, respectively.
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontani, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.
Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids
Kontani, Hiroshi
2013-01-01
In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...
Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering
Iguchi, Manabu
2014-01-01
This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material. The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...
Thermal transport phenomena in nanoparticle suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Bozorg Bigdeli, Masoud; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro
2016-01-01
Nanoparticle suspensions in liquids have received great attention, as they may offer an approach to enhance thermophysical properties of base fluids. A good variety of applications in engineering and biomedicine has been investigated with the aim of exploiting the above potential. However, the multiscale nature of nanosuspensions raises several issues in defining a comprehensive modelling framework, incorporating relevant molecular details and much larger scale phenomena, such as particle aggregation and their dynamics. The objectives of the present topical review is to report and discuss the main heat and mass transport phenomena ruling macroscopic behaviour of nanosuspensions, arising from molecular details. Relevant experimental results are included and properly put in the context of recent observations and theoretical studies, which solved long-standing debates about thermophysical properties enhancement. Major transport phenomena are discussed and in-depth analysis is carried out for highlighting the role of geometrical (nanoparticle shape, size, aggregation, concentration), chemical (pH, surfactants, functionalization) and physical parameters (temperature, density). We finally overview several computational techniques available at different scales with the aim of drawing the attention on the need for truly multiscale predictive models. This may help the development of next-generation nanoparticle suspensions and their rational use in thermal applications. (topical review)
Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach
Tosun, Ismail
2007-01-01
Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to
Monte Carlo simulation of neutron transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasan, P.
2009-01-01
Neutron transport is one of the central problems in nuclear reactor related studies and other applied sciences. Some of the major applications of neutron transport include nuclear reactor design and safety, criticality safety of fissile material handling, neutron detector design and development, nuclear medicine, assessment of radiation damage to materials, nuclear well logging, forensic analysis etc. Most reactor and dosimetry studies assume that neutrons diffuse from regions of high to low density just like gaseous molecules diffuse to regions of low concentration or heat flow from high to low temperature regions. However while treatment of gaseous or heat diffusion is quite accurately modeled, treatment of neutron transport as simple diffusion is quite limited. In simple diffusion, the neutron trajectories are irregular, random and zigzag - where as in neutron transport low reaction cross sections (1 barn- 10 -24 cm 2 ) lead to long mean free paths which again depend on the nature and irregularities of the medium. Hence a more accurate representation of the neutron transport evolved based on the Boltzmann equation of kinetic gas theory. In fact the neutron transport equation is a linearized version of the Boltzmann gas equation based on neutron conservation with seven independent variables. The transport equation is difficult to solve except in simple cases amenable to numerical methods. The diffusion (equation) approximation follows from removing the angular dependence of the neutron flux
Individual and collective motions: transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richert, J.
The present lectures deal with the description of deep inelastic heavy ion reaction mechanism by means of transport concepts which were developed in statistical mechanics. The applicability of those concepts is analysed in terms of a hierarchy of characteristic times. The specificity of this time scale in the heavy ion framework is underlined. The derivation of transport coefficients out of the full dynamical formulation of the problem is shown through a random matrix model. The mechanism of mass and charge transfer between the ions as well as the generation of intrinsic angular momenta in the interacting fragments is formulated, quantitatively worked out and compared to some experimental results by using phenomenological approaches. Weak points of the theoretical approaches and disagreement between phenomenological models and experimental data are discussed. Open problems and unsolved questions are sketched in the final conclusions [fr
Random phenomena fundamentals of probability and statistics for engineers
Ogunnaike, Babatunde A
2009-01-01
PreludeApproach PhilosophyFour Basic PrinciplesI FoundationsTwo Motivating ExamplesYield Improvement in a Chemical ProcessQuality Assurance in a Glass Sheet Manufacturing ProcessOutline of a Systematic ApproachRandom Phenomena, Variability, and UncertaintyTwo Extreme Idealizations of Natural PhenomenaRandom Mass PhenomenaIntroducing ProbabilityThe Probabilistic FrameworkII ProbabilityFundamentals of Probability TheoryBuilding BlocksOperationsProbabilityConditional ProbabilityIndependenceRandom Variables and DistributionsDistributionsMathematical ExpectationCharacterizing DistributionsSpecial Derived Probability FunctionsMultidimensional Random VariablesDistributions of Several Random VariablesDistributional Characteristics of Jointly Distributed Random VariablesRandom Variable TransformationsSingle Variable TransformationsBivariate TransformationsGeneral Multivariate TransformationsApplication Case Studies I: ProbabilityMendel and HeredityWorld War II Warship Tactical Response Under AttackIII DistributionsIde...
Transport phenomena in materials processing---1990
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bishop, B.J.; Lior, N.; Lavine, A.; Flik, M.; Karwe, M.V.; Bergman, T.L.; Beckermann, C.; Charmchi, M.
1990-01-01
The papers contained in this volume represent a wide range of current research interests in processes such as food and polymer processing, casting, welding, machining, laser cutting, and superconductor processing. This volume includes papers presented in four sessions: Heat Transfer in Materials Processing; Thermal Phenomena in Superconductor Processing; Heat Transfer in Food and Polymer Processing; Heat Transfer in CAsting and Welding
Transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids a concise primer
Olsson, Per
2013-01-01
This short primer provides a concise and tutorial-style introduction to transport phenomena in Newtonian fluids , in particular the transport of mass, energy and momentum. The reader will find detailed derivations of the transport equations for these phenomena, as well as selected analytical solutions to the transport equations in some simple geometries. After a brief introduction to the basic mathematics used in the text, Chapter 2, which deals with momentum transport, presents a derivation of the Navier-Stokes-Duhem equation describing the basic flow in a Newtonian fluid. Also provided at
Randomly transitional phenomena in the system governed by Duffing's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Yoshisuke.
1978-06-01
This paper deals with turbulent or chaotic phenomena which occur in the system governed by Duffing's equation, a special type of 2-dimensional periodic systems. By using analog and digital computers, experiments are undertaken with special reference to the changes of attractors and of average power spectra of the random processes under the variation of the system parameters. On the basis of the experimental results, an outline of the random process is made clear. The results obtained in this paper will be applied to the phenomena of the same kind which occur in 3-dimensional autonomous systems. (author)
Phenomena in thermal transport in fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernatynskiy, A.; Tulenko, J.S.; Phillpot, S.R.; El-Azab, A.
2015-01-01
Thermal transport in nuclear fuels is a key performance metric that affects not only the power output, but is also an important consideration in potential accident situations. While the fundamental theory of the thermal transport in crystalline solids was extensively developed in the 1950's and 1960's, the pertinent analytic approaches contained significant simplifications of the physical processes. While these approaches enabled estimates of the thermal conductivity in bulk materials with microstructure, they were not comprehensive enough to provide the detailed guidance needed for the in-pile fuel performance. Rather, this guidance has come from data painfully accumulated over 50 years of experiments on irradiated uranium dioxide, the most widely used nuclear fuel. At this point, a fundamental theoretical understanding of the interplay between the microstructure and thermal conductivity of irradiated uranium dioxide fuel is still lacking. In this chapter, recent advances are summarised in the modelling approaches for thermal transport of uranium dioxide fuel. Being computational in nature, these modelling approaches can, at least in principle, describe in detail virtually all mechanisms affecting thermal transport at the atomistic level, while permitting the coupling of the atomistic-level simulations to the mesoscale continuum theory and thus enable the capture of the impact of microstructural evolution in fuel on thermal transport. While the subject of current studies is uranium dioxide, potential applications of the methods described in this chapter extend to the thermal performance of other fuel forms. (authors)
Eikerling, Michael
2011-06-01
Proton transport phenomena are of paramount importance for acid-base chemistry, energy transduction in biological organisms, corrosion processes, and energy conversion in electrochemical systems such as polymer electrolyte fuel cells. The relevance for such a plethora of materials and systems, and the ever-lasting fascination with the highly concerted nature of underlying processes drive research across disciplines in chemistry, biology, physics and chemical engineering. A proton never travels alone. Proton motion is strongly correlated with its environment, usually comprised of an electrolyte and a solid or soft host material. For the transport in nature's most benign proton solvent and shuttle, water that is, insights from ab initio simulations, matured over the last 15 years, have furnished molecular details of the structural diffusion mechanism of protons. Excess proton movement in water consists of sequences of Eigen-Zundel-Eigen transitions, triggered by hydrogen bond breaking and making in the surrounding water network. Nowadays, there is little debate about the validity of this mechanism in water, which bears a stunning resemblance to the basic mechanistic picture put forward by de Grotthuss in 1806. While strong coupling of an excess proton with degrees of freedom of solvent and host materials facilitates proton motion, this coupling also creates negative synergies. In general, proton mobility in biomaterials and electrochemical proton conducting media is highly sensitive to the abundance and structure of the proton solvent. In polymer electrolyte membranes, in which protons are bound to move in nano-sized water-channels, evaporation of water or local membrane dehydration due to electro-osmotic coupling are well-known phenomena that could dramatically diminish proton conductivity. Contributions in this special issue address various vital aspects of the concerted nature of proton motion and they elucidate important structural and dynamic effects of solvent
Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-05
Jan 5, 2014 ... The image data can be jointly analysed with the physical laws governing transport and principles of image formation. Hence, with the experiment suitably carried out, three-dimensional physical domains with unsteady processes can be accommodated. Optical methods promise to breach the holy grail of ...
Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchini, A.; Petricoin, E.F.; Geho, D.H.; Liotta, L.A.; Long, D.P.; Vaisman, I.I.
2008-01-01
Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nano electronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.
Coupled electric and transport phenomena in porous media
Li, Shuai
2014-01-01
The coupled electrical and transport properties of clay-containing porous media are the topics of interest in this study. Both experimental and numerical (pore network modeling) techniques are employed to gain insight into the macro-scale interaction between electrical and solute transport phenomena
Random walks, critical phenomena, and triviality in quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, R.; Froehlich, J.; Sokal, A.D.
1992-01-01
The subject of this book is equilibrium statistical mechanics - in particular the theory of critical phenomena - and quantum field theory. A general review of the theory of critical phenomena in spin systems, field theories, and random-walk and random-surface models is presented. Among the more technical topics treated in this book, the central theme is the use of random-walk representations as a tool to derive correlation inequalities. The consequences of these inequalities for critical-exponent theory and the triviality question in quantum field theory are expounded in detail. The book contains some previously unpublished results. It addresses both the researcher and the graduate student in modern statistical mechanics and quantum field theory. (orig.)
Phenomena of charged particles transport in variable magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savane, Sy Y.; Faza Barry, M.; Vladmir, L.; Diaby, I.
2002-11-01
This present work is dedicated to the study of the dynamical phenomena for the transport of ions in the presence of variable magnetic fields in front of the Jupiter wave shock. We obtain the spectrum of the accelerated ions and we study the conditions of acceleration by solving the transport equation in the planetocentric system. We discuss the theoretical results obtained and make a comparison with the experimental parameters in the region of acceleration behind the Jupiter wave shock. (author)
Anomalous transport phenomena in Fermi liquids with strong magnetic fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontani, Hiroshi
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present recent developments in the theory of transport phenomena based on the Fermi liquid theory. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticles relaxation time, τ, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems. The most famous example would be high-T c superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. This issue has been one of the most significant unresolved problems in HTSCs for a long time. Similar anomalous transport phenomena have been observed in metals near their antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP). The main goal of this study is to demonstrate whether the anomalous transport phenomena in HTSC is evidence of a non-Fermi liquid ground state, or just RTA violation in strongly correlated Fermi liquids. Another goal is to establish a unified theory of anomalous transport phenomena in metals with strong magnetic fluctuations. For these purposes, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. In a Fermi liquid, an excited quasiparticle induces other excited quasiparticles by collision, and current due to these excitations is called a current vertex correction (CVC). Landau noticed the existence of CVC first, which is indispensable for calculating transport coefficients in accord with the conservation laws. Here, we develop a transport theory involving resistivity and the Hall coefficient on the basis of the microscopic Fermi liquid theory, by considering the CVC. In nearly AF Fermi liquids, we find that the strong backward scattering due to AF fluctuations induces the CVC with prominent momentum dependence. This feature of the CVC can account for the significant enhancement in the Hall coefficient, magnetoresistance
Computational transport phenomena of fluid-particle systems
Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasi, Emad
2017-01-01
This book concerns the most up-to-date advances in computational transport phenomena (CTP), an emerging tool for the design of gas-solid processes such as fluidized bed systems. The authors examine recent work in kinetic theory and CTP and illustrate gas-solid processes’ many applications in the energy, chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries. They also discuss the kinetic theory approach in developing constitutive equations for gas-solid flow systems and how it has advanced over the last decade as well as the possibility of obtaining innovative designs for multiphase reactors, such as those needed to capture CO2 from flue gases. Suitable as a concise reference and a textbook supplement for graduate courses, Computational Transport Phenomena of Gas-Solid Systems is ideal for practitioners in industries involved with the design and operation of processes based on fluid/particle mixtures, such as the energy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and food processing. Explains how to couple the population balance e...
8th International symposium on transport phenomena in combustion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-12-31
The 8th International Symposium on Transport Phenomena in Combustion will be held in San Francisco, California, U.S.A., July 16-20, 1995, under the auspices of the Pacific Center of Thermal-Fluids Engineering. The purpose of the Symposium is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners from around the world to present new developments and discuss the state of the art and future directions and priorities in the areas of transport phenomena in combustion. The Symposium is the eighth in a series; previous venues were Honolulu 1985, Tokyo 1987, Taipei 1988, Sydney 1991, Beijing 1992, Seoul 1993 and Acapulco 1994, with emphasis on various aspects of transport phenomena. The current Symposium theme is combustion. The Symposium has assembled a balanced program with topics ranging from fundamental research to contemporary applications of combustion theory. Invited keynote lecturers will provide extensive reviews of topics of great interest in combustion. Colloquia will stress recent advances and innovations in fire spread and suppression, and in low NO{sub x} burners, furnaces, boilers, internal combustion engines, and other practical combustion systems. Finally, numerous papers will contribute to the fundamental understanding of complex processes in combustion. This document contains abstracts of papers to be presented at the Symposium.
New methods for analyzing transport phenomena in supersonic ejectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamberts, Olivier; Chatelain, Philippe; Bartosiewicz, Yann
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Simulation of a supersonic ejector with the open source software for CFD OpenFOAM. • Validation of the numerical tool based on flow structures obtained by schlieren. • Application of the momentum and energy tube analysis tools to a supersonic ejector. • Extension of this framework to exergy to construct exergy transport tubes. • Quantification of local transfers and losses of exergy within the ejector. - Abstract: This work aims at providing novel insights into the quantification and the location of the transfers and the irreversibilities within supersonic ejectors, and their connection with the entrainment. In this study, we propose two different and complementary approaches. First of all, recent analysis tools based on momentum and energy tubes (Meyers and Meneveau (2013)) are extended to the present compressible flow context and applied to the mean-flow structure of turbulent flow within the ejector. Furthermore, the transport equation for the mean-flow total exergy is derived and exergy transport tubes are proposed as a tool for the investigation of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. In addition to this topological approach, an analysis based on classical stream tubes is performed in order to quantitatively investigate transfers between the primary and the secondary streams all along the ejector. Finally, the present work identifies the location of exergy losses and their origins. Throughout this analysis, new local and cumulative parameters related to transfers and irreversibilities are introduced. The proposed methodology sheds light on the complex phenomena at play and may serve as a basis for the analysis of transport phenomena within supersonic ejectors. For the ejector under consideration, although global transfers are more important in on-design conditions, it is shown that the net gain in exergy of the secondary stream is maximum for a value of the back pressure that is close to the critical back pressure, as
Transport phenomena and drying of solids and particulate materials
Lima, AG
2014-01-01
The purpose of this book, Transport Phenomena and Drying of Solids and Particulate Materials, is to provide a collection of recent contributions in the field of heat and mass transfer, transport phenomena, drying and wetting of solids and particulate materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the heat and mass transfer in solids and particulate materials. It includes a set of new developments in the field of basic and applied research work on the physical and chemical aspects of heat and mass transfer phenomena, drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional c...
Macroscopic Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Anders Christian
An increasing need for energy efficiency and high energy density has sparked a growing interest in direct methanol fuel cells for portable power applications. This type of fuel cell directly generates electricity from a fuel mixture consisting of methanol and water. Although this technology...... surpasses batteries in important areas, fundamental research is still required to improve durability and performance. Particularly the transport of methanol and water within the cell structure is difficult to study in-situ. A demand therefore exist for the fundamental development of mathematical models...... for studying their transport. In this PhD dissertation the macroscopic transport phenomena governing direct methanol fuel cell operation are analyzed, discussed and modeled using the two-fluid approach in the computational fluid dynamics framework of CFX 14. The overall objective of this work is to extend...
Transport phenomena of nanoparticles in plants and animals/humans.
Anjum, Naser A; Rodrigo, Miguel Angel Merlos; Moulick, Amitava; Heger, Zbynek; Kopel, Pavel; Zítka, Ondřej; Adam, Vojtech; Lukatkin, Alexander S; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Kizek, Rene
2016-11-01
The interaction of a plethora nanoparticles with major biota such as plants and animals/humans has been the subject of various multidisciplinary studies with special emphasis on toxicity aspects. However, reports are meager on the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in the plant-animal/human system. Since plants and animals/humans are closely linked via food chain, discussion is imperative on the main processes and mechanisms underlying the transport phenomena of nanoparticles in the plant-animal/human system, which is the main objective of this paper. Based on the literature appraised herein, it is recommended to perform an exhaustive exploration of so far least explored aspects such as reproducibility, predictability, and compliance risks of nanoparticles, and insights into underlying mechanisms in context with their transport phenomenon in the plant-animal/human system. The outcomes of the suggested studies can provide important clues for fetching significant benefits of rapidly expanding nanotechnology to the plant-animal/human health-improvements and protection as well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Influence of coupling phenomena on the transport through compacted clays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosanne, M.; Koudina, N.; Adler, P.M. [IPGP, Paris (France); Tevissen, E. [ANDRA, Dept. Etude-Experimentation et Calcul, Chatenay Malabry (France)
2001-07-01
Our principal motivation was to study the influence of the coupling phenomena on transport through compacted clays. Coupled transports may occur when a pressure gradient {nabla}P, and electrical field E and a concentration gradient {nabla}C interact. These three gradients induce three fluxes. A flow is generated characterized by the seepage velocity U; a solute flux J{sub L} and a current density I are generated. Close to equilibrium, when the gradients are not to large, the problem is linear and the fluxes are linear functions of the gradients. A first series of experiments was performed with argillite to determine the diagonal properties, i.e., permeability, conductivity, and diffusion coefficient. In a second series of experiments, the voltage resulting from an imposed concentration gradient between two reservoirs separated by a clay sample was systematically measured; this corresponds to the coefficient L{sub 13}. (orig.)
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marra, Francesco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica e Alimentare - Università degli studi di Salerno Via Ponte Don Melillo - 84084 Fisciano SA (Italy)
2015-01-22
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating.
Modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marra, Francesco
2015-01-01
Innovative heating research on cooking, pasteurization/sterilization, defrosting, thawing and drying, often focuses on areas which include the assessment of processing time, evaluation of heating uniformity, studying the impact on quality attributes of the final product as well as considering the energy efficiency of these heating processes. During the last twenty years, so-called electro-heating-processes (radio-frequency - RF, microwaves - MW and ohmic - OH) gained a wide interest in industrial food processing and many applications using the above mentioned technologies have been developed with the aim of reducing processing time, improving process efficiency and, in many cases, the heating uniformity. In the area of innovative heating, electro-heating accounts for a considerable portion of both the scientific literature and commercial applications, which can be subdivided into either direct electro-heating (as in the case of OH heating) where electrical current is applied directly to the food or indirect electro-heating (e.g. MW and RF heating) where the electrical energy is firstly converted to electromagnetic radiation which subsequently generates heat within a product. New software packages, which make easier solution of PDEs based mathematical models, and new computers, capable of larger RAM and more efficient CPU performances, allowed an increasing interest about modelling transport phenomena in systems and processes - as the ones encountered in food processing - that can be complex in terms of geometry, composition, boundary conditions but also - as in the case of electro-heating assisted applications - in terms of interaction with other physical phenomena such as displacement of electric or magnetic field. This paper deals with the description of approaches used in modelling transport phenomena in a multi-physics context such as RF, MW and OH assisted heating
Numerical investigations for insulation particle transport phenomena in water flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krepper, E.; Grahn, A.; Alt, S.; Kaestner, W.; Kratzsch, A.; Seeliger, A.
2005-01-01
The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation gains importance regarding the reactor safety research for PWR and BWR considering the long term behaviour of emergency core coolant systems during all types of LOCA. The insulation debris released near the break during LOCA consists of a mixture of very different particles concerning size, shape, consistence and other properties. Some fraction of the released insulation debris will be transported into the reactor sump where it may affect emergency core cooling. Open questions of generic interest are e.g. the sedimentation of the insulation debris in a water pool, possible re-suspension, transport in the sump water flow, particle load on strainers and corresponding difference pressure. A joint research project in cooperation with Institute of Process Technology, Process Automation and Measuring Technology (IPM) Zittau deals with the experimental investigation and the development of CFD models for the description of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow. While experiments are performed at the IPM-Zittau, theoretical work is concentrated at Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. In the present paper the basic concepts for CFD modelling are described and first results including feasibility studies are shown. During the ongoing work further results are expected. (author)
Kinetic theory of nonlinear transport phenomena in complex plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, S. K.; Sodha, M. S.
2013-01-01
In contrast to the prevalent use of the phenomenological theory of transport phenomena, a number of transport properties of complex plasmas have been evaluated by using appropriate expressions, available from the kinetic theory, which are based on Boltzmann's transfer equation; in particular, the energy dependence of the electron collision frequency has been taken into account. Following the recent trend, the number and energy balance of all the constituents of the complex plasma and the charge balance on the particles is accounted for; the Ohmic loss has also been included in the energy balance of the electrons. The charging kinetics for the complex plasma comprising of uniformly dispersed dust particles, characterized by (i) uniform size and (ii) the Mathis, Rumpl, and Nordsieck power law of size distribution has been developed. Using appropriate expressions for the transport parameters based on the kinetic theory, the system of equations has been solved to investigate the parametric dependence of the complex plasma transport properties on the applied electric field and other plasma parameters; the results are graphically illustrated.
Transport phenomena in fuel cells : from microscale to macroscale
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Djilali, N. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). Inst. for Integrated Energy Systems
2006-07-01
Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells rely on an array of thermofluid transport processes for the regulated supply of reactant gases and the removal of by-product heat and water. Flows are characterized by a broad range of length and time scales that take place in conjunction with reaction kinetics in a variety of regimes and structures. This paper examined some of the challenges related to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of PEM fuel cell transport phenomena. An overview of the main features, components and operation of PEM fuel cells was followed by a discussion of the various strategies used for component modelling of the electrolyte membrane; the gas diffusion layer; microporous layer; and flow channels. A review of integrated CFD models for PEM fuel cells included the coupling of electrochemical thermal and fluid transport with 3-D unit cell simulations; air-breathing micro-structured fuel cells; and stack level modelling. Physical models for modelling of transport at the micro-scale were also discussed. Results of the review indicated that the treatment of electrochemical reactions in a PEM fuel cell currently combines classical reaction kinetics with solutions procedures to resolve charged species transport, which may lead to thermodynamically inconsistent solutions for more complex systems. Proper representation of the surface coverage of all the chemical species at all reaction sites is needed, and secondary reactions such as platinum (Pt) dissolution and oxidation must be accounted for in order to model and understand degradation mechanisms in fuel cells. While progress has been made in CFD-based modelling of fuel cells, functional and predictive capabilities remain a challenge because of fundamental modelling and material characterization deficiencies in ionic and water transport in polymer membranes; 2-phase transport in porous gas diffusion electrodes and gas flow channels; inadequate macroscopic modelling and resolution of catalyst
Coupled Transport Phenomena in the Opalinus Clay: Implications for Radionuclide Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soler, J.M.
1999-09-01
Coupled phenomena (thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, coupled diffusion, thermal diffusion, thermal filtration, Dufour effect) may play an important role in fluid, solute and heat transport in clay-rich formations, such as the Opalinus Clay (OPA), which are being considered as potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. In this study, the potential effects of coupled phenomena on radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF) hosted by the Opalinus Clay, at times equal to or greater than the expected lifetime of the waste canisters (about 1000 years), have been addressed. Firstly, estimates of the solute fluxes associated with chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, thermal diffusion and thermal osmosis have been calculated. Available experimental data concerning coupled transport phenomena in compacted clays, and the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions to which the Opalinus Clay is subject, have been used for these estimates. These estimates suggest that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong impact on solute and fluid transport in the vicinity of the repository. Secondly, estimates of the heat fluxes associated with thermal filtration and the Dufour effect in the vicinity of the repository have been calculated. The calculated heat fluxes are absolutely negligible compared to the heat flux caused by thermal conduction. As a further step to obtain additional insight into the effects of coupled phenomena on solute transport, the solute fluxes associated with advection, chemical diffusion, thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration and thermal diffusion have been incorporated into a simple one-dimensional transport equation. The analytical solution of this equation, with appropriate parameters, shows again that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong effect on repository
Coupled Transport Phenomena in the Opalinus Clay: Implications for Radionuclide Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soler, J.M.
1999-09-01
Coupled phenomena (thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, coupled diffusion, thermal diffusion, thermal filtration, Dufour effect) may play an important role in fluid, solute and heat transport in clay-rich formations, such as the Opalinus Clay (OPA), which are being considered as potential hosts for radioactive waste repositories. In this study, the potential effects of coupled phenomena on radionuclide transport in the vicinity of a repository for vitrified high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and spent nuclear fuel (SF) hosted by the Opalinus Clay, at times equal to or greater than the expected lifetime of the waste canisters (about 1000 years), have been addressed. Firstly, estimates of the solute fluxes associated with chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration, thermal diffusion and thermal osmosis have been calculated. Available experimental data concerning coupled transport phenomena in compacted clays, and the hydrogeological and geochemical conditions to which the Opalinus Clay is subject, have been used for these estimates. These estimates suggest that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong impact on solute and fluid transport in the vicinity of the repository. Secondly, estimates of the heat fluxes associated with thermal filtration and the Dufour effect in the vicinity of the repository have been calculated. The calculated heat fluxes are absolutely negligible compared to the heat flux caused by thermal conduction. As a further step to obtain additional insight into the effects of coupled phenomena on solute transport, the solute fluxes associated with advection, chemical diffusion, thermal and chemical osmosis, hyperfiltration and thermal diffusion have been incorporated into a simple one-dimensional transport equation. The analytical solution of this equation, with appropriate parameters, shows again that thermal osmosis is the only coupled transport mechanism that could have a strong effect on repository
Modeling of transport phenomena in concrete porous media.
Plecas, Ilija
2014-02-01
Two fundamental concerns must be addressed when attempting to isolate low-level waste in a disposal facility on land. The first concern is isolating the waste from water, or hydrologic isolation. The second is preventing movement of the radionuclides out of the disposal facility, or radionuclide migration. Particularly, we have investigated here the latter modified scenario. To assess the safety for disposal of radioactive waste-concrete composition, the leakage of 60Co from a waste composite into a surrounding fluid has been studied. Leakage tests were carried out by the original method, developed at the Vinča Institute. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement composite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source: an equation for diffusion coupled to a first-order equation, and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-y mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center.
Prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field: interaction solid phase/fluid phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mingarro, E.
1995-01-01
The prediction of transport phenomena in near and far field is presented in the present report. The study begins with the analysis of solid phases stability: solubility of storage waste: UO 2 and solubility of radionuclides the redox and sorption-desorption conditions are the last aspects studied to predict the transport phenomena
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed
2016-07-03
The impact of the spin degree of freedom on the transport properties of electrons traveling through magnetic materials has been known since the pioneer work of Mott [1]. Since then it has been demonstrated that the spin angular momentum plays a key role in the scattering process of electrons in magnetic multilayers. This role has been emphasized by the discovery of the Giant Magnetoresistance in 1988 by Fert and Grunberg [2, 3]. Among the numerous applications and effects that emerged in mesoscopic devices two mechanisms have attracted our attention during the course of this thesis: the spin transfer torque and the spin Hall effects. The former consists in the transfer of the spin angular momentum from itinerant carriers to local magnetic moments [4]. This mechanism results in the current-driven magnetization switching and excitations, which has potential application in terms of magnetic data storage and non-volatile memories. The latter, spin Hall effect, is considered as well to be one of the most fascinating mechanisms in condensed matter physics due to its ability of generating non-equilibrium spin currents without the need for any magnetic materials. In fact the spin Hall effect relies only on the presence of the spin-orbit interaction in order to create an imbalance between the majority and minority spins. The objective of this thesis is to investigate the impact of disorder on spin dependent transport phenomena. To do so, we identified three classes of systems on which such disorder may have a dramatic influence: (i) antiferromagnetic materials, (ii) impurity-driven spin-orbit coupled systems and (iii) two dimensional semiconducting electron gases with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. Antiferromagnetic materials - We showed that in antiferromagnetic spin-valves, spin transfer torque is highly sensitive to disorder, which prevents its experimental observation. To solve this issue, we proposed to use either a tunnel barrier as a spacer or a local spin torque using
Polarization phenomena on coherent particle backscattering by random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorodnichev, E.E.; Dudarev, S.L.; Rogozkin, D.B.
1990-01-01
An exact solution is found for the problem of coherent enhanced backscattering of spin 1/2 particles by random media with small-radius scatterers. The polarization features in the angular spectrum are analyzed for particles reflected by three- and two-dimensional disordered systems and by medium with Anderson disorder (periodic system of random scatterers). The analysis is carried out in the case of magnetic and spin-orbit interaction with the scattering centers. The effects predicted have not any analogues on coherent backscattering of light and scalar waves
Geometrical critical phenomena on a random surface of arbitrary genus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duplantier, B.; Kostov, I.K.
1990-01-01
The statistical mechanics of self-avoiding walks (SAW) or of the O(n)-loop model on a two-dimensional random surface are shown to be exactly solvable. The partition functions of SAW and surface configurations (possibly in the presence of vacuum loops) are calculated by planar diagram enumeration techniques. Two critical regimes are found: a dense phase where the infinite walks and loops fill the infinite surface, the non-filled part staying finite, and a dilute phase where the infinite surface singularity on the one hand, and walk and loop singularities on the other, merge together. The configuration critical exponents of self-avoiding networks of any fixed topology G, on a surface with arbitrary genus H, are calculated as universal functions of G and H. For self-avoiding walks, the exponents are built from an infinite set of basic conformal dimensions associated with central charges c = -2 (dense phase) and c = 0 (dilute phase). The conformal spectrum Δ L , L ≥ 1 associated with L-leg star polymers is calculated exactly, for c = -2 and c = 0. This is generalized to the set of L-line 'watermelon' exponents Δ L of the O(n) model on a random surface. The divergences of the partition functions of self-avoiding networks on the random surface, possibly in the presence of vacuum loops, are shown to satisfy a factorization theorem over the vertices of the network. This provides a proof, in the presence of a fluctuating metric, of a result conjectured earlier in the standard plane. From this, the value of the string susceptibility γ str (H,c) is extracted for a random surface of arbitrary genus H, bearing a field theory of central charge c, or equivalently, embedded in d=c dimensions. Lastly, by enumerating spanning trees on a random lattice, we solve the similar problem of hamiltonian walks on the (fluctuating) Manhattan covering lattice. We also obtain new results for dilute trees on a random surface. (orig./HSI)
Center for low-gravity fluid mechanics and transport phenomena
Kassoy, D. R.; Sani, R. L.
1991-01-01
Research projects in several areas are discussed. Mass transport in vapor phase systems, droplet collisions and coalescence in microgravity, and rapid solidification of undercooled melts are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.
2005-01-01
Two kinds of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by Counter (CNTR) and Co Neutral Beam Injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). One shows transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and has a clear electron Internal Transport Barrier (eITB) in CNTR NBI plasma. Another has no clear transition and no ECH power threshold, but shows a broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient, which indicates the improved core confinement with additional ECH in Co NBI plasma. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated by using the heat pulse propagation excited by Modulated ECH (MECH). The difference of the features could be caused by the existence of the m/n=2/1 rational surface or island determined by the direction of NBI beam-driven current. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimozuma, T.; Kubo, S.; Idei, H.; Inagaki, S.; Tamura, N.; Tokuzawa, T.; Morisaki, T.; Watanabe, K.Y.; Ida, K.; Yamada, I.; Narihara, K.; Muto, S.; Yokoyama, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Notake, T.; Ohkubo, K.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Watari, T.; Komori, A.
2005-01-01
Two types of improved core confinement were observed during centrally focused electron cyclotron heating (ECH) into plasmas sustained by counter (CNTR) and Co neutral beam injections (NBI) in the Large Helical Device. The CNTR NBI plasma displayed transition phenomena to the high-electron-temperature state and had a clear electron internal transport barrier, while the Co NBI plasma did not show a clear transition or an ECH power threshold but showed broad high temperature profiles with moderate temperature gradient. This indicated that the Co NBI plasma with additional ECH also had an improved core confinement. The electron heat transport characteristics of these plasmas were directly investigated using heat pulse propagation excited by modulated ECH. These effects appear to be related to the m/n = 2/1 rational surface or the island induced by NBI beam-driven current
Enhanced transport phenomena in CO2 sequestration and CO2 EOR
Farajzadeh, R.
2009-01-01
The results of this thesis give insight into the (mass)-transfer during flow of gases, especially CO2, in various gas-liquid systems. A number of experiments was performed to investigate the transport phenomena through interfaces with and without surfactant monolayers. The observed phenomena have
Diffusion and transport phenomena in a collisional magnetoplasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Boltzmann-transport equation is analytically solved for two-component magnetoplasma using Chapman-Enskog analysis to include collisional diffusion transport having anisotropies in both streaming velocity and temperature components. The modified collisional integrals are analytically solved with flux integrals and ...
Lab-scale tests on ISV vapor transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farnsworth, R.K.; Gardner, B.M.
1996-01-01
In situ vitrification (ISV) is a promising technology for remediating buried waste sites and contaminated soil sites. However, concerns exist that low soil permeabilities may limit vapor transport away from the advancing melt front and cause a melt expulsion that breaches ISV containment. As a result, two ISV lab tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using INEL soil (permeability: 10 -6 cm/s) and a low permeability (10 -10 cm/s) clay material. The clay test also had a ceramic tube inserted vertically through the center of the area being melted to provide one-dimensional data on vapor transport. Results confirm that low soil permeabilities can limit vapor transport away from the advancing ISV melt front. In addition, peak pressures inside the ceramic tube were significantly greater than those outside the tube, indicating the importance of horizontal vapor transport around the advancing ISV melt front
Transport phenomena in sharply contrasting media with a diffusion barrier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvoretskaya, O A; Kondratenko, P S
2011-01-01
Using the advection–diffusion equation, we analytically study contaminant transport in a sharply contrasting medium with a diffusion barrier due to localization of a contaminant source in a low-permeability medium. Anomalous diffusion behavior and a crossover between different transport regimes are observed. The diffusion barrier results in exponential attenuation of the source power, retardation of the contaminant plume growth and modification of the concentration distribution at large distances. (paper)
Electron heat transport studies using transient phenomena in ASDEX Upgrade
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacchia, A.; Angioni, C.; Manini, A.; Ryter, F.; Apostoliceanu, M.; Conway, G.; Fahrbach, H.-U.; Kirov, K.K.; Leuterer, F.; Reich, M.; Sutttrop, W.; Cirant, S.; Mantica, P.; De Luca, F.; Weiland, J.
2005-01-01
Experiments in tokamaks suggest that a critical gradient length may cause the resilient behavior of T e profiles, in the absence of ITBs. This agrees in general with ITG/TEM turbulence physics. Experiments in ASDEX Upgrade using modulation techniques with ECH and/or cold pulses demonstrate the existence of a threshold in R/L Te when T e >T i and T e ≤T i . For T e >T i linear stability analyses indicate that electron heat transport is dominated by TEM modes. They agree in the value of the threshold (both T e and n e ) and for the electron heat transport increase above the threshold. The stabilization of TEM modes by collisions yielded by gyro-kinetic calculations, which suggests a transition from TEM to ITG dominated transport at high collisionality, is experimentally demonstrated by comparing heat pulse and steady-state diffusivities. For the T e ∼T i discharges above the threshold the resilience, normalized by T e 3/2 , is similar to that of the TEM dominated cases, despite very different conditions. The heat pinch predicted by fluid modeling of ITG/TEM turbulence is investigated by perturbative transport in off-axis ECH-heated discharges. (author)
Radiation transport phenomena and modeling - part A: Codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorence, L.J.
1997-01-01
The need to understand how particle radiation (high-energy photons and electrons) from a variety of sources affects materials and electronics has motivated the development of sophisticated computer codes that describe how radiation with energies from 1.0 keV to 100.0 GeV propagates through matter. Predicting radiation transport is the necessary first step in predicting radiation effects. The radiation transport codes that are described here are general-purpose codes capable of analyzing a variety of radiation environments including those produced by nuclear weapons (x-rays, gamma rays, and neutrons), by sources in space (electrons and ions) and by accelerators (x-rays, gamma rays, and electrons). Applications of these codes include the study of radiation effects on electronics, nuclear medicine (imaging and cancer treatment), and industrial processes (food disinfestation, waste sterilization, manufacturing.) The primary focus will be on coupled electron-photon transport codes, with some brief discussion of proton transport. These codes model a radiation cascade in which electrons produce photons and vice versa. This coupling between particles of different types is important for radiation effects. For instance, in an x-ray environment, electrons are produced that drive the response in electronics. In an electron environment, dose due to bremsstrahlung photons can be significant once the source electrons have been stopped
Concentration polarization: Electrodeposition and transport phenomena at overlimiting current
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Christoffer Peder
a numerical sharp-interface model describing the electrode growth. This model differs from the established phase-field models, in that it is applicable at overlimiting current and implements electrode reactions in a consistent way. Comparison of the sharp-interface model to the results of the stability...... methods. The initial study concerns a fundamental problem in the study of concentration polarization at overlimiting current, namely the emergence of an extended space-charge region near the ion-selective interface. Based on the so-called quasi-uniform charge density assumption (QCD), we develop...... this coupled chemical and transport effect using two simple models of the reaction kinetics. The principal investigations are performed using numerical simulations, but in addition we derive an analytical model for the transport in the system. The analytical model reveals an important link between the current...
Experimental transport phenomena and optimization strategies for thermoelectrics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ehrlich, A C; Gillespie, D J
1997-07-01
When a new and promising thermoelectric material is discovered, an effort is undertaken to improve its figure of merit. If the effort is to be more efficient than one of trial and error with perhaps some rule of thumb guidance then it is important to be able to make the connection between experimental data and the underlying material characteristics, electronic and phononic, that influence the figure of merit. Transport and fermiology experimental data can be used to evaluate these material characteristics and thus establish trends as a function of some controllable parameter, such as composition. In this paper some of the generic-materials characteristics, generally believed to be required for a high figure of merit, will be discussed in terms of the experimental approach to their evaluation and optimization. Transport and fermiology experiments will be emphasized and both will be outlined in what they can reveal and what can be obscured by the simplifying assumptions generally used in their interpretation.
On nonequilibrium many-body systems V: ultrafast transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freire, V.N.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.
1989-01-01
The monequilibrium statistical operator method and its accompanying nonlinear quantum transport theory, are used to perform an analytical study of the ultrafast mobility transient of central-valley photoinjected carriers in direct-gap polar semiconductors. Expressions for the time-resolved mobility of the hot carriers are derived. A brief discussion of the carriers' diffusion coefficient is done. (A.C.A.S.) [pt
Barodiffusion phenomena at active transport of na+ and K+ ions through the cell membrane
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrapijchuk, G.V.; Chalyi, A.V.; Nurishchenko, N.Je.
2010-01-01
The influence of ultrasound as the significant motive force of barodiffusion phenomena at the processes of active transport of Na + and K + ions through the cell membrane is considered. The dependence of membrane potential is theoretically estimated at active transport of natrium and potassium ions on the ultrasound intensity and pressure overfall between external and internal medium of the cell.
Spin-transport-phenomena in metals, semiconductors, and insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Althammer, Matthias Klaus
2012-07-19
Assuming that one could deterministically inject, transport, manipulate, store and detect spin information in solid state devices, the well-established concepts of charge-based electronics could be transferred to the spin realm. This thesis explores the injection, transport, manipulation and storage of spin information in metallic conductors, semiconductors, as well as electrical insulators. On the one hand, we explore the spin-dependent properties of semiconducting zinc oxide thin films deposited via laser-molecular beam epitaxy (laser-MBE). After demonstrating that the zinc oxide films fabricated during this thesis have excellent structural, electrical, and optical properties, we investigate the spin-related properties by optical pump/probe, electrical injection/optical detection, and all electrical spin valve-based experiments. The two key results from these experiments are: (i) Long-lived spin states with spin dephasing times of 10 ns at 10 K related to donor bound excitons can be optically addressed. (ii) The spin dephasing times relevant for electrical transport-based experiments are {<=} 2 ns at 10 K and are correlated with structural quality. On the other hand we focus on two topics of current scientific interest: the comparison of the magnetoresistance to the magnetothermopower of conducting ferromagnets, and the investigation of pure spin currents generated in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures. We investigate the magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower of gallium manganese arsenide and Heusler thin films as a function of external magnetic field orientation. Using a series expansion of the resistivity and Seebeck tensors and the inherent symmetry of the sample's crystal structure, we show that a full quantitative extraction of the transport tensors from such experiments is possible. Regarding the spin currents in ferromagnetic insulator/normal metal hybrid structures we studied the spin mixing conductance in yttrium iron garnet
Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigrey, P.J.
1998-01-01
The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the building of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be main contributors during waste transport operations. (authors)
Electric Transport Phenomena of Nanocomposite Organic Polymer Thin Films
Jira, Nicholas C.; Sabirianov, Ildar; Ilie, Carolina C.
We discuss herein the nanocomposite organic thin film diodes for the use of plasmonic solar cells. This experimental work follows the theoretical calculations done for plasmonic solar cells using the MNPBEM toolbox for MatLab. These calculations include dispersion curves and amount of light scattering cross sections for different metallic nanoparticles. This study gives us clear ideas on what to expect from different metals, allowing us to make the best choice on what to use to obtain the best results. One specific technique for light trapping in thin films solar cells utilizes metal nanoparticles on the surface of the semiconductor. The characteristics of the metal, semiconductor interface allows for light to be guided in between them causing it to be scattered, allowing for more chances of absorption. The samples were fabricated using organic thin films made from polymers and metallic nanoparticles, more specifically Poly(1-vinylpyrrolidone-co-2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) copolymer and silver or gold nanoparticles. The two fabrication methods applied include spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett technique. The transport properties are obtained by analyzing the I-V curves. We will also discuss the resistance, resistivity, conductance, density of charge carriers. SUNY Oswego SCAC Grant.
Singh, Bhim S.
1999-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments planned for the International Spare Station. NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity Science and Applications has established a world-class research program in fluid physics and transport phenomena. This program combines the vast expertise of the world research community with NASA's unique microgravity facilities with the objectives of gaining new insight into fluid phenomena by removing the confounding effect of gravity. Due to its criticality to many terrestrial and space-based processes and phenomena, fluid physics and transport phenomena play a central role in the NASA's Microgravity Program. Through widely publicized research announcement and well established peer-reviews, the program has been able to attract a number of world-class researchers and acquired a critical mass of investigations that is now adding rapidly to this field. Currently there arc a total of 106 ground-based and 20 candidate flight principal investigators conducting research in four major thrust areas in the program: complex flows, multiphase flow and phase change, interfacial phenomena, and dynamics and instabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) to be launched in 1998, provides the microgravity research community with a unprecedented opportunity to conduct long-duration microgravity experiments which can be controlled and operated from the Principal Investigators' own laboratory. Frequent planned shuttle flights to the Station will provide opportunities to conduct many more experiments than were previously possible. NASA Lewis Research Center is in the process of designing a Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) to be located in the Laboratory Module of the ISS that will not only accommodate multiple users but, allow a broad range of fluid physics and transport phenomena experiments to be conducted in a cost effective manner.
Tokamak fuelling with pellets: Effect of transport phenomena on the injection requirements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengyel, L.L.
1979-01-01
Results of calculations on pellet-plasma interaction that take into account transport phenomena inherent in tokamak plasmas are analyzed. It is shown that the results obtained by different authors on the optimum pellet penetration depth and required pellet injection frequencies, which are partly contradictory, can be explained by means of the different transport processes taken into account or neglected in the calculations concerned. (orig.)
Denker, Manfred
2017-01-01
Introductory Statistics and Random Phenomena integrates traditional statistical data analysis with new computational experimentation capabilities and concepts of algorithmic complexity and chaotic behavior in nonlinear dynamic systems. This was the first advanced text/reference to bring together such a comprehensive variety of tools for the study of random phenomena occurring in engineering and the natural, life, and social sciences. The crucial computer experiments are conducted using the readily available computer program Mathematica® Uncertain Virtual Worlds™ software packages which optimize and facilitate the simulation environment. Brief tutorials are included that explain how to use theMathematica® programs for effective simulation and computer experiments. Large and original real-life data sets are introduced and analyzed as a model for independent study. This is an excellent classroom tool and self-study guide. The material is presented in a clear and accessible style providing numerous...
Development of instrumentation in the transport phenomena research in thermal equipment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Tofani, P. de; Ladeira, L.C.D.
1983-11-01
The results obtained from the effort on the acquisition of know-how in experimental reactor thermal during the last years, through the approach of relevant aspects of basic research on transport phenomena applicable to nuclear reactor analysis and conventional thermal equipment based in the simultaneous development of instrumentation and experimental methods are presented. (E.G.) [pt
Transport phenomena through porous screens and openings : from theory to greenhouse practice
Miguel, A.A.F.
1998-01-01
The study of transport phenomena in multi-zone enclosures with permeable boundaries is fundamental for indoor climate control management. In this study, aspects concerning the air exchange through porous screens and openings, and heat transfer between the enclosure surface and inside air,
Numerical simulation of the transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei, S.Y.; Zheng, G.Y.; Wang, B.X.; Yang, R.G.; Xia, C.M.
1997-07-01
Such process as wet porous media suddenly heated by hot fluids frequently occurs in nature and in industrial applications. The three-variable simulation model was developed to predict violent transport phenomena due to sudden heating in porous media. Two sets of independent variables were applied to different regions in porous media in the simulation. For the wet zone, temperature, wet saturation and air pressure were used as the independent variables. For the dry zone, the independent variables were temperature, vapor pressure and air pressure. The model simulated two complicated transport processes in wet unsaturated porous media which is suddenly heated by melting metal or boiling water. The effect of the gas pressure is also investigated on the overall transport phenomena.
Lattice Boltzmann modeling of transport phenomena in fuel cells and flow batteries
Xu, Ao; Shyy, Wei; Zhao, Tianshou
2017-06-01
Fuel cells and flow batteries are promising technologies to address climate change and air pollution problems. An understanding of the complex multiscale and multiphysics transport phenomena occurring in these electrochemical systems requires powerful numerical tools. Over the past decades, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method has attracted broad interest in the computational fluid dynamics and the numerical heat transfer communities, primarily due to its kinetic nature making it appropriate for modeling complex multiphase transport phenomena. More importantly, the LB method fits well with parallel computing due to its locality feature, which is required for large-scale engineering applications. In this article, we review the LB method for gas-liquid two-phase flows, coupled fluid flow and mass transport in porous media, and particulate flows. Examples of applications are provided in fuel cells and flow batteries. Further developments of the LB method are also outlined.
Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenig, Markus
2007-12-01
Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg 0.3 Cd 0.7 Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)
Spin-related transport phenomena in HgTe-based quantum well structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koenig, Markus
2007-12-15
Within the scope of this thesis, spin related transport phenomena have been investigated in HgTe/Hg{sub 0.3}Cd{sub 0.7}Te quantum well structures. In our experiments, the existence of the quantum spin Hall (QSH) state was successfully demonstrated for the first time and the presented results provide clear evidence for the charge transport properties of the QSH state. Our experiments provide the first direct observation of the Aharonov-Casher (AC) effect in semiconductor structures. In conclusion, HgTe quantum well structures have proven to be an excellent template for studying spin-related transport phenomena: The QSH relies on the peculiar band structure of the material and the existence of both the spin Hall effect and the AC effect is a consequence of the substantial spin-orbit interaction. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soloveichik, Grigorii [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)
2015-11-30
EFRC vision. The direct use of organic hydrides in fuel cells as virtual hydrogen carriers that generate stable organic molecules, protons, and electrons upon electro-oxidation and can be electrochemically charged by re-hydrogenating the oxidized carrier was the major focus of the Center for Electrocatalysis, Transport Phenomena and Materials for Innovative Energy Storage (EFRC-ETM). Compared to a hydrogen-on-demand design that includes thermal decomposition of organic hydrides in a catalytic reactor, the proposed approach is much simpler and does not require additional dehydrogenation catalysts or heat exchangers. Further, this approach utilizes the advantages of a flow battery (i.e., separation of power and energy, ease of transport and storage of liquid fuels) with fuels that have system energy densities similar to current hydrogen PEM fuel cells. EFRC challenges. Two major EFRC challenges were electrocatalysis and transport phenomena. The electrocatalysis challenge addresses fundamental processes which occur at a single molecular catalyst (microscopic level) and involve electron and proton transfer between the hydrogen rich and hydrogen depleted forms of organic liquid fuel and the catalyst. To form stable, non-radical dehydrogenation products from the organic liquid fuel, it is necessary to ensure fast transport of at least two electrons and two protons (per double bond formation). The same is true for the reverse hydrogenation reaction. The transport phenomena challenge addresses transport of electrons to/from the electrocatalyst and the current collector as well as protons across the polymer membrane. Additionally it addresses prevention of organic liquid fuel, water and oxygen transport through the PEM. In this challenge, the transport of protons or molecules involves multiple sites or a continuum (macroscopic level) and water serves as a proton conducting medium for the majority of known sulfonic acid based PEMs. Proton transfer in the presence of
Final report, BWR drywell debris transport Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, G.E.; Boyack, B.E.; Leonard, M.T.; Williams, K.A.; Wolf, L.T.
1997-09-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued a Regulatory Bulletin and accompanying Regulatory Guide (1.82, Rev. 2) which requires licensees of boiling water reactors to develop a specific plan of action (including hardware backfits, if necessary) to preclude the possibility of early emergency core cooling system strainer blockage following a postulated loss-of-coolant-accident. The postulated mechanism for strainer blockage is destruction of piping insulation in the vicinity of the break and subsequent transport of fragmented insulation to the wetwell. In the absence of more definitive information, the Regulatory Guide recommends that licensees assume a drywell debris transport fraction of 1.0. Accordingly, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission initiated research focused toward developing a technical basis to provide insights useful to regulatory oversight of licensee submittals associated with resolution of the postulated strainer blockage issue. Part of this program was directed towards experimental and analytical research leading to a more realistic specification of the debris transport through the drywell to the wetwell. To help focus this development into a cost effective effort, a panel, with broad based knowledge and experience, was formed to address the relative importance of the various phenomena that can be expected in plant response to postulated accidents that may produce strainer blockage. The resulting phenomena identification and ranking tables reported herein were used to help guide research. The phenomena occurring in boiling water reactors drywells was the specific focus of the panel, although supporting experimental data and calculations of debris transport fractions were considered
Percolation, statistical topography, and transport in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isichenko, M.B.
1992-01-01
A review of classical percolation theory is presented, with an emphasis on novel applications to statistical topography, turbulent diffusion, and heterogeneous media. Statistical topography involves the geometrical properties of the isosets (contour lines or surfaces) of a random potential ψ(x). For rapidly decaying correlations of ψ, the isopotentials fall into the same universality class as the perimeters of percolation clusters. The topography of long-range correlated potentials involves many length scales and is associated either with the correlated percolation problem or with Mandelbrot's fractional Brownian reliefs. In all cases, the concept of fractal dimension is particularly fruitful in characterizing the geometry of random fields. The physical applications of statistical topography include diffusion in random velocity fields, heat and particle transport in turbulent plasmas, quantum Hall effect, magnetoresistance in inhomogeneous conductors with the classical Hall effect, and many others where random isopotentials are relevant. A geometrical approach to studying transport in random media, which captures essential qualitative features of the described phenomena, is advocated
Transport phenomena in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells for sustainable energy production
An, L.; Zhao, T. S.
2017-02-01
Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFC), which convert the chemical energy stored in ethanol directly into electricity, are one of the most promising energy-conversion devices for portable, mobile and stationary power applications, primarily because this type of fuel cell runs on a carbon-neutral, sustainable fuel and the electrocatalytic and membrane materials that constitute the cell are relatively inexpensive. As a result, the alkaline DEFC technology has undergone a rapid progress over the last decade. This article provides a comprehensive review of transport phenomena of various species in this fuel cell system. The past investigations into how the design and structural parameters of membrane electrode assemblies and the operating parameters affect the fuel cell performance are discussed. In addition, future perspectives and challenges with regard to transport phenomena in this fuel cell system are also highlighted.
Radiation transport phenomena and modeling. Part A: Codes; Part B: Applications with examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorence, L.J. Jr.; Beutler, D.E.
1997-09-01
This report contains the notes from the second session of the 1997 IEEE Nuclear and Space Radiation Effects Conference Short Course on Applying Computer Simulation Tools to Radiation Effects Problems. Part A discusses the physical phenomena modeled in radiation transport codes and various types of algorithmic implementations. Part B gives examples of how these codes can be used to design experiments whose results can be easily analyzed and describes how to calculate quantities of interest for electronic devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Martin; Yuan, Jinliang; Sunden, Bengt
2010-01-01
A literature study is performed to compile the state-of-the-art, as well as future potential, in SOFC modeling. Principles behind various transport processes such as mass, heat, momentum and charge as well as for electrochemical and internal reforming reactions are described. A deeper investigation is made to find out potentials and challenges using a multiscale approach to model solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and combine the accuracy at microscale with the calculation speed at macroscale to design SOFCs, based on a clear understanding of transport phenomena, chemical reactions and functional requirements. Suitable methods are studied to model SOFCs covering various length scales. Coupling methods between different approaches and length scales by multiscale models are outlined. Multiscale modeling increases the understanding for detailed transport phenomena, and can be used to make a correct decision on the specific design and control of operating conditions. It is expected that the development and production costs will be decreased and the energy efficiency be increased (reducing running cost) as the understanding of complex physical phenomena increases. It is concluded that the connection between numerical modeling and experiments is too rare and also that material parameters in most cases are valid only for standard materials and not for the actual SOFC component microstructures.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian XIAO; Jing LIU
2009-01-01
Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noerenberg, W.
1976-01-01
Relaxation phenomena in deeply inelastic collisions are qualitatively discussed and compared with precompound reactions. Different approaches for describing these processes are reviewed, in particular the microscopic transport theories, which can be understood from a generalized master equation for macroscopic variables. The Markoff approximation and the classical limit for the relative motion lead to two coupled equations, the classical equation of relative motion with friction and a Pauli master equation for the internal degrees of freedom. The master equation approximated by the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation for mass transfer and energy dissipation is discussed in detail. Simple analytic expressions are derived for the transport coefficients as functions of excitation energy, total mass, mass fragmentation and relative angular momentum. Calculated transport coefficients are compared with experimental values. Problems and future developments in microscopic transport theories are outlined. (orig.) [de
Hierarchical modeling of plasma and transport phenomena in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor
Bali, N.; Aggelopoulos, C. A.; Skouras, E. D.; Tsakiroglou, C. D.; Burganos, V. N.
2017-12-01
A novel dual-time hierarchical approach is developed to link the plasma process to macroscopic transport phenomena in the interior of a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor that has been used for soil remediation (Aggelopoulos et al 2016 Chem. Eng. J. 301 353-61). The generation of active species by plasma reactions is simulated at the microseconds (µs) timescale, whereas convection and thermal conduction are simulated at the macroscopic (minutes) timescale. This hierarchical model is implemented in order to investigate the influence of the plasma DBD process on the transport and reaction mechanisms during remediation of polluted soil. In the microscopic model, the variables of interest include the plasma-induced reactive concentrations, while in the macroscopic approach, the temperature distribution, and the velocity field both inside the discharge gap and within the polluted soil material as well. For the latter model, the Navier-Stokes and Darcy Brinkman equations for the transport phenomena in the porous domain are solved numerically using a FEM software. The effective medium theory is employed to provide estimates of the effective time-evolving and three-phase transport properties in the soil sample. Model predictions considering the temporal evolution of the plasma remediation process are presented and compared with corresponding experimental data.
Finite-orbit-width effect and the radial electric field in neoclassical transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satake, S.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Sugama, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Beidler, C.D.
2005-01-01
Modeling and detailed simulation of neoclassical transport phenomena both in 2D and 3D toroidal configurations are shown. The emphasis is put on the effect of finiteness of the drift-orbit width, which brings a non-local nature to neoclassical transport phenomena. Evolution of the self-consistent radial electric field in the framework of neoclassical transport is also investigated. The combination of Monte-Carlo calculation for ion transport and numerical solver of ripple-averaged kinetic equation for electrons makes it possible to calculate neoclassical fluxes and the time evolution of the radial electric field in the whole plasma region, including the finite-orbit-width (FOW) effects and global evolution of geodesic acoustic mode (GAM). The simulation results show that the heat conductivity around the magnetic axis is smaller than that obtained from standard neoclassical theory and that the evolution of GAM oscillation on each flux surface is coupled with other surfaces if the FOW effect is significant. A global simulation of radial electric field evolution in a non-axisymmetric plasma is also shown. (author)
Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)
2013-07-01
Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize the micro fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a micro proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a micro PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Interfacial transport phenomena and stability in liquid-metal/water systems: scaling considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdulla, S.; Liu, X.; Anderson, M.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.; Cho, D.
2001-01-01
One concept being considered for steam generation in innovative nuclear reactor applications, involves water coming into direct contact with a circulating molten metal. The vigorous agitation of the two fluids, the direct liquid-liquid contact and the consequent large interfacial area give rise to very high heat transfer coefficients and rapid steam generation. For an optimum design of such direct contact heat exchange and vaporization systems, detailed knowledge is necessary of the various flow regimes, interfacial transport phenomena, heat transfer and operational stability. In this paper we describe current results from the first year of this research that studies the transport phenomena involved with the injection of water into molten metals (e.g., lead alloys). In particular, this work discusses scaling considerations related to direct contact heat exchange, our experimental plans for investigation and a test plan for the important experimental parameters; i.e., the water and liquid metal mass flow rates, the liquid metal pool temperature and the ambient pressure of the direct contact heat exchanger. Past experimental work and initial scaling results suggest that our experiments can directly represent the proper liquid metal pool temperature and the water subcooling. The experimental variation in water and liquid metal flow rates and system pressure (1-10 bar), although smaller than the current conceptual system designs, is sufficient to verify the expected scale effects to demonstrate the phenomena. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SÁVIO LEANDRO BERTOLI
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In the engineering courses the field of Transport Phenomena is of significant importance and it is in several disciplines relating to Fluid Mechanics, Heat and Mass Transfer. In these disciplines, problems involving these phenomena are mathematically formulated and analytical solutions are obtained whenever possible. The aim of this paper is to emphasize the possibility of extending aspects of the teaching-learning in this area by a method based on time scales and limit solutions. Thus, aspects relative to the phenomenology naturally arise during the definition of the scales and / or by determining the limit solutions. Aspects concerning the phenomenology of the limit problems are easily incorporated into the proposed development, which contributes significantly to the understanding of physics inherent in the mathematical modeling of each limiting case studied. Finally the study aims to disseminate the use of the limit solutions and of the time scales in the general fields of engineering.
Characterization of transport phenomena in porous transport layers using X-ray microtomography
Hasanpour, S.; Hoorfar, M.; Phillion, A. B.
2017-06-01
Among different methods available for estimating the transport properties of porous transport layers (PTLs) of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, X-ray micro computed tomography (X-μCT) imaging in combination with image-based numerical simulation has been recognized as a viable tool. In this study, four commercially-available single-layer and dual-layer PTLs are analyzed using this method in order to compare and contrast transport properties between different PTLs, as well as the variability within a single sheet. Complete transport property datasets are created for each PTL. The simulation predictions indicate that PTLs with high porosity show considerable variability in permeability and effective diffusivity, while PTLs with low porosity do not. Furthermore, it is seen that the Tomadakis-Sotirchos (TS) analytical expressions for porous media match the image-based simulations when porosity is relatively low but predict higher permeability and effective diffusivity for porosity values greater than 80%. Finally, the simulations show that cracks within MPL of dual-layer PTLs have a significant effect on the overall permeability and effective diffusivity of the PTLs. This must be considered when estimating the transport properties of dual-layer PTLs. These findings can be used to improve macro-scale models of product and reactant transport within fuel cells, and ultimately, fuel cell efficiency.
Static and dynamic properties of frictional phenomena in a one-dimensional system with randomness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawaguchi, T.; Matsukawa, H.
1997-01-01
Static and dynamic frictional phenomena at the interface with random impurities are investigated in a two-chain model with incommensurate structure. Static frictional force is caused by the impurity pinning and/or by the pinning due to the regular potential, which is responsible for the breaking of analyticity transition for impurity-free cases. It is confirmed that the static frictional force is always finite in the presence of impurities, in contrast to the impurity-free system. The nature of impurity pinning is discussed in connection with that in density waves. The kinetic frictional force of a steady sliding state is also investigated numerically. The relationship between the sliding velocity dependence of the kinetic frictional force and the strength of impurity potential is discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Proceedings of the Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference
Singh, Bhim S. (Editor)
2000-01-01
The Fifth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference provided the scientific community the opportunity to view the current scope of the Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Program and research opportunities and plans for the near future. Consistent with the conference theme "Microgravity Research an Agency-Wide Asset" the conference focused not only on fundamental research but also on applications of this knowledge towards enabling future space exploration missions. The conference included 14 invited plenary talks, 61 technical paper presentations, 61 poster presentations, exhibits and a forum on emerging research themes focusing on nanotechnology and biofluid mechanics. This web-based proceeding includes the presentation and poster charts provided by the presenters of technical papers and posters that were scanned at the conference site. Abstracts of all the papers and posters are included and linked to the presentations charts. The invited and plenary speakers were not required to provide their charts and are generally not available for scanning and hence not posted. The conference program is also included.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergman, T.L.; Faghri, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3139 (United States); Viskanta, R. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2088 (United States)
2008-09-15
A US National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop entitled ''Frontiers in Transport Phenomena Research and Education: Energy Systems, Biological Systems, Security, Information Technology, and Nanotechnology'' was held in May of 2007 at the University of Connecticut. The workshop provided a venue for researchers, educators and policy-makers to identify frontier challenges and associated opportunities in heat and mass transfer. Approximately 300 invited participants from academia, business and government from the US and abroad attended. Based upon the final recommendations on the topical matter of the workshop, several trends become apparent. A strong interest in sustainable energy is evident. A continued need to understand the coupling between broad length (and time) scales persists, but the emerging need to better understand transport phenomena at the macro/mega scale has evolved. The need to develop new metrology techniques to collect and archive reliable property data persists. Societal sustainability received major attention in two of the reports. Matters involving innovation, entrepreneurship, and globalization of the engineering profession have emerged, and the responsibility to improve the technical literacy of the public-at-large is discussed. Integration of research thrusts and education activities is highlighted throughout. Specific recommendations, made by the panelists with input from the international heat transfer community and directed to the National Science Foundation, are included in several reports. (author)
Photoluminescence and nonlinear optical phenomena in plasmonic random media—A review of recent works
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araújo, Cid B. de; Kassab, Luciana R.P.; Tolentino Dominguez, C.; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.; Gomes, Anderson S.L.; Reyna, Albert S.
2016-01-01
Photoluminescence properties and nonlinear optical response of metal–dielectric nanocomposites (MDNCs)—germanate glasses, bio-cellulose membranes and colloids containing either silver (Ag) or gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs)—are reviewed. The phenomena discussed are: i. the photoluminescence enhancement observed from rare-earth doped PbO–GeO 2 glass containing Ag NPs; ii. optical amplification at 1530 nm in RIB waveguides made with PbO–GeO 2 thin films covered with Au NPs; iii. Random Laser emission from a bio-cellulose membrane infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G and containing Ag NPs; iv. the nonlinearity management of high-order processes in colloids containing Ag NPs suspended in acetone. In all discussed cases the influence of the metallic NPs is clearly demonstrated and a procedure to control the nonlinear propagation of light beams in heterogeneous media is presented. - Highlights: • Large photoluminescence enhancement observed from rare-earth doped PbO–GeO 2 glass containing Ag NPs. • Optical amplification at 1530 nm in RIB waveguides made with PbO–GeO 2 thin films covered with Au NPs. • Random Laser emission from a bio-cellulose membrane infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G and containing Ag NPs. • The nonlinearity management of high-order processes in liquid colloids containing Ag NPs.
Photoluminescence and nonlinear optical phenomena in plasmonic random media—A review of recent works
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Araújo, Cid B. de, E-mail: cid@df.ufpe.br [Departamento de Física , Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife , PE (Brazil); Kassab, Luciana R.P. [Faculdade de Tecnologia de São Paulo (FATEC-SP , CEETEPS), 01124-060 São Paulo , SP (Brazil); Tolentino Dominguez, C. [Laboratório de Óptica Biomédica e Imagem , Universidade Federal de Pernambuco , Recife 50740-530, PE (Brazil); Ribeiro, Sidney J.L. [Institute of Chemistry , São Paulo State University (UNESP), 14801-970 Araraquara , SP (Brazil); Gomes, Anderson S.L.; Reyna, Albert S. [Departamento de Física , Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670-901 Recife , PE (Brazil)
2016-01-15
Photoluminescence properties and nonlinear optical response of metal–dielectric nanocomposites (MDNCs)—germanate glasses, bio-cellulose membranes and colloids containing either silver (Ag) or gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs)—are reviewed. The phenomena discussed are: i. the photoluminescence enhancement observed from rare-earth doped PbO–GeO{sub 2} glass containing Ag NPs; ii. optical amplification at 1530 nm in RIB waveguides made with PbO–GeO{sub 2} thin films covered with Au NPs; iii. Random Laser emission from a bio-cellulose membrane infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G and containing Ag NPs; iv. the nonlinearity management of high-order processes in colloids containing Ag NPs suspended in acetone. In all discussed cases the influence of the metallic NPs is clearly demonstrated and a procedure to control the nonlinear propagation of light beams in heterogeneous media is presented. - Highlights: • Large photoluminescence enhancement observed from rare-earth doped PbO–GeO{sub 2} glass containing Ag NPs. • Optical amplification at 1530 nm in RIB waveguides made with PbO–GeO{sub 2} thin films covered with Au NPs. • Random Laser emission from a bio-cellulose membrane infiltrated with Rhodamine 6G and containing Ag NPs. • The nonlinearity management of high-order processes in liquid colloids containing Ag NPs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa
2005-03-01
The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huh, Byung-Gil; Euh, Dong-Jin; Yun, Byong-Jo; Youn, Young-Jung; Yoon, Han-Yeong; Song, Chul-Hwa
2005-03-01
The number density transport equations for various bubble groups are used to predict the void fraction and the interfacial area concentration. As the closure relations for number density transport equation, the coalescence due to random collisions and the breakup due to the impact of turbulent eddies is modified based on the previous studies and the bubble expansion term due to the pressure reduction is considered. Also, the coalescence due to a wake entrainment is modeled newly to apply to the number density transport equation. In order to predict the local experimental data, the code is developed that the two-fluid model is coupled systematically with the number density transport equation for each bubble group. As for the results of the numerical analysis, the void fraction and interfacial area concentration are predicted well by the developed code and models although some deviations exist in the values between the prediction and experiment, especially, for the high void fraction conditions.
Investigations of grain size dependent sediment transport phenomena on multiple scales
Thaxton, Christopher S.
Sediment transport processes in coastal and fluvial environments resulting from disturbances such as urbanization, mining, agriculture, military operations, and climatic change have significant impact on local, regional, and global environments. Primarily, these impacts include the erosion and deposition of sediment, channel network modification, reduction in downstream water quality, and the delivery of chemical contaminants. The scale and spatial distribution of these effects are largely attributable to the size distribution of the sediment grains that become eligible for transport. An improved understanding of advective and diffusive grain-size dependent sediment transport phenomena will lead to the development of more accurate predictive models and more effective control measures. To this end, three studies were performed that investigated grain-size dependent sediment transport on three different scales. Discrete particle computer simulations of sheet flow bedload transport on the scale of 0.1--100 millimeters were performed on a heterogeneous population of grains of various grain sizes. The relative transport rates and diffusivities of grains under both oscillatory and uniform, steady flow conditions were quantified. These findings suggest that boundary layer formalisms should describe surface roughness through a representative grain size that is functionally dependent on the applied flow parameters. On the scale of 1--10m, experiments were performed to quantify the hydrodynamics and sediment capture efficiency of various baffles installed in a sediment retention pond, a commonly used sedimentation control measure in watershed applications. Analysis indicates that an optimum sediment capture effectiveness may be achieved based on baffle permeability, pond geometry and flow rate. Finally, on the scale of 10--1,000m, a distributed, bivariate watershed terain evolution module was developed within GRASS GIS. Simulation results for variable grain sizes and for
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manuel Offidani
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We present a unified theoretical framework for the study of spin dynamics and relativistic transport phenomena in disordered two-dimensional Dirac systems with pseudospin-spin coupling. The formalism is applied to the paradigmatic case of graphene with uniform Bychkov-Rashba interaction and shown to capture spin relaxation processes and associated charge-to-spin interconversion phenomena in response to generic external perturbations, including spin density fluctuations and electric fields. A controlled diagrammatic evaluation of the generalized spin susceptibility in the diffusive regime of weak spin-orbit interaction allows us to show that the spin and momentum lifetimes satisfy the standard Dyakonov-Perel relation for both weak (Gaussian and resonant (unitary nonmagnetic disorder. Finally, we demonstrate that the spin relaxation rate can be derived in the zero-frequency limit by exploiting the SU(2 covariant conservation laws for the spin observables. Our results set the stage for a fully quantum-mechanical description of spin relaxation in both pristine graphene samples with weak spin-orbit fields and in graphene heterostructures with enhanced spin-orbital effects currently attracting much attention.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. Anderson; M. Corradini; K.Y. Bank; R. Bonazza; D. Cho
2005-04-26
The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.; Bank, K.Y.; Bonazza, R.; Cho, D.
2005-01-01
The interaction and mixing of high-temperature melt and water is the important technical issue in the safety assessment of water-cooled reactors to achieve ultimate core coolability. For specific advanced light water reactor (ALWR) designs, deliberate mixing of the core-melt and water is being considered as a mitigative measure, to assure ex-vessel core coolability. The goal of this work is to provide the fundamental understanding needed for melt-water interfacial transport phenomena, thus enabling the development of innovative safety technologies for advanced LWRs that will assure ex-vessel core coolability. The work considers the ex-vessel coolability phenomena in two stages. The first stage is the melt quenching process and is being addressed by Argonne National Lab and University of Wisconsin in modified test facilities. Given a quenched melt in the form of solidified debris, the second stage is to characterize the long-term debris cooling process and is being addressed by Korean Maritime University in via test and analyses. We then address the appropriate scaling and design methodologies for reactor applications
Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarler, B.
1992-01-01
A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [sl
Gabetta, Ester
2007-01-01
The study of kinetic equations related to gases, semiconductors, photons, traffic flow, and other systems has developed rapidly in recent years because of its role as a mathematical tool in many applications in areas such as engineering, meteorology, biology, chemistry, materials science, nanotechnology, and pharmacy. Written by leading specialists in their respective fields, this book presents an overview of recent developments in the field of mathematical kinetic theory with a focus on modeling complex systems, emphasizing both mathematical properties and their physical meaning. The overall presentation covers not only modeling aspects and qualitative analysis of mathematical problems, but also inverse problems, which lead to a detailed assessment of models in connection with their applications, and to computational problems, which lead to an effective link of models to the analysis of real-world systems. "Transport Phenomena and Kinetic Theory" is an excellent self-study reference for graduate students, re...
Transport phenomena in high Tc superconductors. Resume of Ph.D thesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crisan, I.A.
1994-01-01
This is an extended abstract of the Ph. D. thesis devoted to the transport phenomena in high-Tc superconductors. There are three chapters. The first chapter presents an overview of the essential theoretical aspects concerning the vortex dynamics particularly in ceramic superconductors. The chapter two gives a description of the preparation methods of superconductor samples used by the author as well as the measurement devices for volt-ampere characteristics and the associated electronic circuitry. In the third chapter there are presented the experimental data obtained from different samples prepared in different temperature and magnetic field conditions. The obtained results are finally interpreted in the frame of existent or original models. (M.I.C.). 31 Refs
Numerical simulation of mass and energy transport phenomena in solid oxide fuel cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arpino, F. [Dipartimento di Meccanica, Strutture, Ambiente e Territorio (DiMSAT), University of Cassino, via Di Biasio 43, Cassino (Italy); Massarotti, N. [Dipertimento per le Tecnologie (DiT), University of Naples ' ' Parthenope' ' , Centro Direzionale, isola C4, 80143 Napoli (Italy)
2009-12-15
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) represent a very promising technology for near future energy conversion thanks to a number of advantages, including the possibility of using different fuels. In this paper, a detailed numerical model, based on a general mathematical description and on a finite element Characteristic based Split (CBS) algorithm code is employed to simulate mass and energy transport phenomena in SOFCs. The model predicts the thermodynamic quantity of interest in the fuel cell. Full details of the numerical solution obtained are presented both in terms of heat and mass transfer in the cell and in terms of electro-chemical reactions that occur in the system considered. The results obtained with the present algorithm is compared with the experimental data available in the literature for validation, showing an excellent agreement. (author)
Transport Phenomena in Porous Media Aspects of MicroMacro Behaviour
Ichikawa, Yasuaki
2012-01-01
This monograph presents an integrated perspective of the wide range of phenomena and processes applicable to the study of transport of species in porous materials. In order to formulate the entire range of porous media and their uses, this book gives the basics of continuum mechanics, thermodynamics, seepage and consolidation and diffusion, including multiscale homogenization methods. The particular structure of the book has been chosen because it is essential to be aware of the true properties of porous materials particularly in terms of nano, micro and macro mechanisms. This book is of pedagogical and practical importance to the fields covered by civil, environmental, nuclear and petroleum engineering and also in chemical physics and geophysics as it relates to radioactive waste disposal, geotechnical engineering, mining and petroleum engineering and chemical engineering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, Christopher D.; Scott Lillard, R.
2009-01-01
Density functional theory was applied to the initial steps of uranium hydriding: surface phenomena, absorption, bulk transport and trapping. H adsorbs exothermically to the (0 0 1) surface, yet H absorption into the bulk is endothermic, with off-center octahedral absorption having the lowest absorption energy of 0.39 eV, relative to molecular H 2 . H absorption in interstitial sites causes a local softening of the bulk modulus. Diffusion of H in unstrained α-U has a barrier of 0.6 eV. The energy of H absorption adjacent to the chemical impurities C, S, Si was lowered by an amount proportional to the size of the impurity atom, and the resulting lattice strain Si > S > C. Thus, impurities may promote hydriding by providing surfaces or prestrained zones for H uptake.
Studies of the effect of radioactive waste on the transport phenomena in soil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Reefy, A.I.A.F
1992-01-01
This thesis introduces a new concept in the field of soil mechanics. It is an integrated work between soil and radiation in the form of gamma-rays. Chapter II was introduced to cover the basics in geotechnical engineering so as to draw a clearer picture to radiologists. Similarly, Chapter III was introduced to enable geotechnical engineers to comprehend radioactive behaviour in general. Although these two chapters are for further reading they contain various points that will be referred to regularly in the latter pages. The aim of this work is to investigate: - The effect of γ -radiations on the transport phenomena in soil. This was carried out by studying the effect of the following factors on the transmission of γ -rays with different energies: 1) Soil sample thickness 2) Grain size 3)Water content 4) Degree of compaction. - The effect of γ -radiations on moisture movement through soil. -Using the -ray transmission method to determine the soil physical properties. - Improvement of soil to increase its ability to attenuate -radiations. Experimental work took place under strict conditions at the Hot Lab. Center located at Inchas. Soil sample was sought from a nearby site which eventually will be the actual radioactive disposal site. The physical properties of the soil sample were determined as well as its grain size distribution. Accurate and detailed data on the gamma rays transport phenomena in soils was obtained using an up to date γ -radiation measurement technique. Finally, the extensive data obtained throughout this research was recorded and analyzed to ultimately approach our aim
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liberatore, P.M.; Boillot, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Genie Chimique de Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Bonnet, C.; Didieerjean, S.; Lapicque, F.; Deseure, J.; Lottin, O.; Maillet, D.; Oseen-Senda, J. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, 54 - Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Alexandre, A. [Laboratoire d' Etudes Thermiques, ENSMA, 86 Poitiers (France); Topin, F.; Occelli, R.; Daurelle, J.V. [IUSTI / Polytech' Marseille, Institut universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels Ecole, 13 - Marseille (France); Pauchet, J.; Feidt, M. [CEA Grenoble, Groupement pour la recherche sur les echangeurs thermiques (Greth), 38 (France); Voarino, C. [CEA Centre d' Etudes du Ripault, 37 - Tours (France); Morel, B.; Laurentin, J.; Bultel, Y.; Lefebvre-Joud, F. [CEA Grenoble, LEPMI, 38 (France); Auvity, B.; Lasbet, Y.; Castelain, C.; Peerohossaini, H. [Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Laboratoire de Thermocinetique de Nantes (LTN), 44 - Nantes (France)
2005-07-01
In this work are gathered the transparencies of the lectures presented at the conference 'heat science and transport phenomena in fuel cells'. The different lectures have dealt with 1)the gas distribution in the bipolar plates of a fuel cell: experimental studies and computerized simulations 2)two-phase heat distributors in the PEMFC 3)a numerical study of the flow properties of the backing layers on the transfers in a PEMFC 4)modelling of the heat and mass transfers in a PEMFC 5)two-phase cooling of the PEMFC with pentane 6)stationary thermodynamic model of the SOFC in the GECOPAC system 7)modelling of the internal reforming at the anode of the SOFC 8)towards a new thermal design of the PEMFC bipolar plates. (O.M.)
Kinetic phenomena in charged particle transport in gases, swarm parameters and cross section data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petrovic, Z Lj; Suvakov, M; Nikitovic, Z; Dujko, S; Sasic, O; Jovanovic, J; Malovic, G; Stojanovic, V
2007-01-01
In this review we discuss the current status of the physics of charged particle swarms, mainly electrons. The whole field is analysed mainly through its relationship to plasma modelling and illustrated by some recent examples developed mainly by our group. The measurements of the swarm coefficients and the availability of the data are briefly discussed. More time is devoted to the development of complete electron-molecule cross section sets along with recent examples such as NO, CF 4 and HBr. We extend the discussion to the availability of ion and fast neutral data and how swarm experiments may serve to provide new data. As a point where new insight into the kinetics of charge particle transport is provided, the role of kinetic phenomena is discussed and recent examples are listed. We focus here on giving two examples on how non-conservative processes make dramatic effects in transport, the negative absolute mobility and the negative differential conductivity for positrons in argon. Finally we discuss the applicability of swarm data in plasma modelling and the relationship to other fields where swarm experiments and analysis make significant contributions. (topical review)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guinard, L.
1996-01-01
In an attempt to minimise dosimetry within the primary circuit of PWR units, research is being carried out into understanding the phenomena of transportation and deposition of corrosion products. It is therefore desirable to known the form of these corrosion products and the laws governing this form. It is generally considered that they are in soluble or particulate form. A third starts with a general presentation of colloids and goes on to define points which are useful, both on a theoretical and experimental level, in terms of application to phenomena of transportation within PWRs. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs., 3 appends
Wu, M; Li, J; Ludwig, A; Kharicha, A
2014-09-01
Part 1 of this two-part investigation presented a multiphase solidification model incorporating the finite diffusion kinetics and ternary phase diagram with the macroscopic transport phenomena (Wu et al., 2013). In Part 2, the importance of proper treatment of the finite diffusion kinetics in the calculation of macrosegregation is addressed. Calculations for a two-dimensional (2D) square casting (50 × 50 mm 2 ) of Fe-0.45 wt.%C-1.06 wt.%Mn considering thermo-solutal convection and crystal sedimentation are performed. The modeling result indicates that the infinite liquid mixing kinetics as assumed by classical models (e.g., the Gulliver-Scheil or lever rule), which cannot properly consider the solute enrichment of the interdendritic or inter-granular melt at the early stage of solidification, might lead to an erroneous estimation of the macrosegregation. To confirm this statement, further theoretical and experimental evaluations are desired. The pattern and intensity of the flow and crystal sedimentation are dependent on the crystal morphologies (columnar or equiaxed); hence, the potential error of the calculated macrosegregation caused by the assumed growth kinetics depends on the crystal morphology. Finally, an illustrative simulation of an engineering 2.45-ton steel ingot is performed, and the results are compared with experimental results. This example demonstrates the model applicability for engineering castings regarding both the calculation efficiency and functionality.
Study of phenomena of tracer transport and dispersion in fractured media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ippolito, Irene
1993-01-01
The objective of this research thesis is to present some transport phenomena according to two different approaches: firstly, the study of flows and tracing in a natural crack within a granitic site, and secondly, the study of flows of different geometries in model cracks, mainly by using techniques of tracer dispersion. The author first presents some properties of fractured media and elements of the theory of the phenomenon of dispersion. She notably discusses the reversibility of the Taylor dispersion which is the prevailing mechanism for simply connected geometries such as in the case of a flow between two continuous solid surfaces limiting a fracture. In the next chapters, the author reports the analysis of characteristics of local structures (mouths, roughnesses) of a single fracture by using echo dispersion. She reports experiments as well as Monte Carlo simulations performed on well defined geometries. In a parallel way, some characteristics measurements (rate-pressure, distribution of flows and tracing in transmission) and mechanical measurements of fracture deformation have been performed on a natural fracture in a granitic site [fr
The application of the Chebyshev-spectral method in transport phenomena
Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga
2012-01-01
Transport phenomena problems that occur in engineering and physics are often multi-dimensional and multi-phase in character. When taking recourse to numerical methods the spectral method is particularly useful and efficient. The book is meant principally to train students and non-specialists to use the spectral method for solving problems that model fluid flow in closed geometries with heat or mass transfer. To this aim the reader should bring a working knowledge of fluid mechanics and heat transfer and should be readily conversant with simple concepts of linear algebra including spectral decomposition of matrices as well as solvability conditions for inhomogeneous problems. The book is neither meant to supply a ready-to-use program that is all-purpose nor to go through all manners of mathematical proofs. The focus in this tutorial is on the use of the spectral methods for space discretization, because this is where most of the difficulty lies. While time dependent problems are also of great interes...
Magneto-transport phenomena in metal/SiO2/n(p)-Si hybrid structures
Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Rautskii, M. V.; Lukyanenko, A. V.; Bondarev, I. A.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.
2018-04-01
Present review touches upon a subject of magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures which consist of ferromagnetic or nonmagnetic metal layer, layer of silicon oxide and silicon substrate with n- or p-type conductivity. Main attention will be paid to a number gigantic magnetotransport effects discovered in the devices fabricated on the base of the M/SiO2/n(p)-Si (M is ferromagnetic or paramagnetic metal) hybrid structures. These effects include bias induced dc magnetoresistance, gigantic magnetoimpedance, dc magnetoresistance induced by an optical irradiation and lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect. The magnetoresistance ratio in ac and dc modes for some of our devices can exceed 106% in a magnetic field below 1 T. For lateral magneto-photo-voltaic effect, the relative change of photo-voltage in magnetic field can reach 103% at low temperature. Two types of mechanisms are responsible for sensitivity of the transport properties of the silicon based hybrid structures to magnetic field. One is related to transformation of the energy structure of the (donor) acceptor states including states near SiO2/n(p)-Si interface in magnetic field. Other mechanism is caused by the Lorentz force action. The features in behaviour of magnetotransport effects in concrete device depend on composition of the used structure, device topology and experimental conditions (bias voltage, optical radiation and others). Obtained results can be base for design of some electronic devices driven by a magnetic field. They can also provide an enhancement of the functionality for existing sensors.
Modelling of melting and solidification transport phenomena during hypothetical NPP severe accidents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sarler, B [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
1992-07-01
A physical and mathematical framework to deal with the transport phenomena occuring during melting and solidification of the hypothetical NPP severe accidents is presented. It concentrates on the transient temperature, velocity, and species concentration distributions during such events. The framework is based on the Mixture Continuum Formulation of the components and phases, cast in the boundary-domain integral shape structured by the fundamental solution of the Laplace equation. The formulation could cope with various solid-liquid sub-systems through the inclusion of the specific closure relations. The deduced system of boundary-domain integral equations for conservation of mass, energy, momentum, and species could be solved by the boundary element discrete approximative method. (author) [Slovenian] Predstavljeno je fizikalno in matematicno ogrodje za obravnavo prenosnih pojavov taljenja in strjevanja med hipoteticnimi tezkimi nezgodami v jedrskih elektrarnah. Osredotoceno je na popis neustaljene porazdelitve temperatur, hitrosti in koncentracij sestavin med taksnimi dogodki. Ogrodje temelji na formulaciji kontinuuma mesanice komponent in faz, v obliki robno obmocnih integralskih enacb, ki so sestavljena na podlagi fundamentalne resitve Laplace-ove enacbe. Formulacija lahko popisuje stevilne trdno-tekoce pod-sisteme na podlagi specificnih sklopitvenih relacij. Izpeljan sistem robno-obmocnih integralskih enacb za popis ohranitve mase, energije, gibalne kolicine in sestavin lahko resimo na podlagi diskretne aproksimativne metode robnih elementov. (author)
Predictive modelling of edge transport phenomena in ELMy H-mode tokamak fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loennroth, J.-S.
2009-01-01
This thesis discusses a range of work dealing with edge plasma transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas by means of predictive transport modelling, a technique in which qualitative predictions and explanations are sought by running transport codes equipped with models for plasma transport and other relevant phenomena. The focus is on high confinement mode (H-mode) tokamak plasmas, which feature improved performance thanks to the formation of an edge transport barrier. H-mode plasmas are generally characterized by the occurrence of edge localized modes (ELMs), periodic eruptions of particles and energy, which limit confinement and may turn out to be seriously damaging in future tokamaks. The thesis introduces schemes and models for qualitative study of the ELM phenomenon in predictive transport modelling. It aims to shed new light on the dynamics of ELMs using these models. It tries to explain various experimental observations related to the performance and ELM-behaviour of H-mode plasmas. Finally, it also tries to establish more generally the potential effects of ripple-induced thermal ion losses on H-mode plasma performance and ELMs. It is demonstrated that the proposed ELM modelling schemes can qualitatively reproduce the experimental dynamics of a number of ELM regimes. Using a theory-motivated ELM model based on a linear instability model, the dynamics of combined ballooning-peeling mode ELMs is studied. It is shown that the ELMs are most often triggered by a ballooning mode instability, which renders the plasma peeling mode unstable, causing the ELM to continue in a peeling mode phase. Understanding the dynamics of ELMs will be a key issue when it comes to controlling and mitigating the ELMs in future large tokamaks. By means of integrated modelling, it is shown that an experimentally observed increase in the ELM frequency and deterioration of plasma confinement triggered by external neutral gas puffing might be due to a transition from the second to
Saatadjian, Esteban; Lesage, Francois; Mota, Jose Paulo B.
2013-01-01
A project that involves the numerical simulation of transport phenomena is an excellent method to teach this subject to senior/graduate chemical engineering students. The subject presented here has been used in our senior/graduate course, it concerns the study of natural convection heat transfer between two concentric, horizontal, saturated porous…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavryushenko, D.A.; Sisojev, V.M.; Cherevko, K.V.; Vlasenko, T.S.
2017-01-01
The work is devoted to the up to date problem that is the description of the radioactive particle diffusion processes. One of the aims of the present study is to estimate the effects caused by the irradiation of the liquid systems on the ongoing transport processes. That can allow predicting the behavior of the liquid systems in the presence of the radioactive sources. The main objective of the present work is studying the radioactive particles diffusion phenomena with the possible facilitated diffusion processes being considered. The phenomena are studied based on the fundamental relations of the nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The diffusive flows are evaluated with the special attention given to the accounting of the entropy effects due to the appearance of the new radioactive particles in the system. The developed approach is used to estimate the diffusive flow of the radioactive particles for the case of the plane-parallel pore with the semi-transparent walls. The choice of a model can be justified as it might be used to describe the production of the radioactive contaminated water when the radionuclide face the diffusion process after being washed from the radioactive wastes and the rests of the nuclear fuel. Within the suggested model it is shown that the diffusion coefficient depends on the structural properties of the liquid systems that might be changed under the influence of the irradiation. The obtained equations for calculating the diffusive flows show the definite stabilizing effect in respect to the concentration difference in between the boundaries of the plane-parallel pore. It leads to the decreased changes of the diffusive flow when the concentrations of the radioactive particles at the boundaries are changed in comparison with those observed for the constant diffusion coefficient. The observed behavior for the ideal solution model is explained by the entropy effects. The qualitative analysis of the possible influence of the changes in
TTF/TCNQ-based thin films and microcrystals. Growth and charge transport phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solovyeva, Vita
2011-05-26
The thesis adresses several problems related to growth and charge transport phenomena in thin films of TTF-TCNQ and (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ. The following main new problems are addressed: - The influence of thin-film specific factors, such as the substrate material and growth-induced defects, on the Peierls transition temperature in TTF-TCNQ thin films was studied; - finite-size effects in TTF-TCNQ were investigated by considering transport properties in TTF-TCNQ microcrystals. The influence of the size of the crystal on the Peierls transition temperature was studied. In this context a new method of microcontact fabrication was employed to favor the measurements; - an analysis of radiation-induced defects in TTF-TCNQ thin films and microcrystals was performed. It was demonstrated than an electron beam can induce appreciable damage to the sample such that its electronic properties are strongly modified; - a bilayer growth method was established to fabricate (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ from the gas phase. This newly developed bilayer growth method was showed to be suitable for testing (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer phase formation; - the structure of the formed (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer compounds was analyzed by using a wide range of experimental techniques. An overview and the description of the basic physical principles underlying charge-transfer compounds is given in chapter 2. Experimental techniques used for the growth and characterization of thin films and microcrystals are presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 gives an overview of the physical properties of the studied organic materials. Chapter 5 discussed the experimental study of TTF-TCNQ thin films. he Peierls transition in TTF-TCNQ is a consequence of the quasi-one-dimensional structure of the material and depends on different factors, studied in chapters 5 and 6. In contradistinction to TTF-TTCNQ, the (BEDT-TTF)TCNQ charge-transfer compound crystallizes in several different modifications with different physical properties
Transport Phenomena in Nanowires, Nanotubes, and Other Low-Dimensional Systems
Montes, Enrique
2017-01-01
Nanoscale materials are not new in either nature or physics. However, the recent technological improvements have given scientists new tools to understand and quantify phenomena that occur naturally due to quantum confinement effects. In general, these phenomena induce remarkable optical, magnetic, and electronic properties in nanoscale materials in contrast to their bulk counterpart. In addition, scientists have recently developed the necessary tools to control and exploit these properties in electronic devices, in particular field effect transistors, magnetic memories, and gas sensors. In the present thesis we implement theoretical and computational tools for analyzing the ground state and electronic transport properties of nanoscale materials and their performance in electronic devices. The ground state properties are studied within density functional theory using the SIESTA code, whereas the transport properties are investigated using the non-equilibrium Green\\'s functions formalism implemented in the SMEAGOL code. First we study Si-based systems, as Si nanowires are believed to be important building blocks of the next generation of electronic devices. We derive the electron transport properties of Si nanowires connected to Au electrodes and their dependence on the nanowire growth direction, diameter, and length. At equilibrium Au-nanowire distance we find strong electronic coupling between electrodes and nanowire, resulting in low contact resistance. For the tunneling regime, the decay of the conductance with the nanowire length is rationalized using the complex band structure. The nanowires grown along the (110) direction show the smallest decay and the largest conductance and current. Due to the high spin coherence in Si, Si nanowires represent an interesting platform for spin devices. Therefore, we built a magnetic tunneling junction by connecting a (110) Si nanowire to ferromagnetic Fe electrodes. We have find a substantial low bias magnetoresistance of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rasin, Igal; Brandon, Simon [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Ben Dov, Anne; Grimberg, Ilana; Klin, Olga; Weiss, Eliezer [SCD-Semi-Conductor Devices, P.O. Box 2250/99, Haifa 31021 (Israel)
2010-07-01
Deposition of mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) thin films, on lattice matched cadmium zinc telluride substrates, is often achieved via Liquid Phase Epitaxy (LPE). The yield and quality of these films, required for the production of infrared detector devices, is to a large extent limited by lack of knowledge regarding details of physical phenomena underlying the deposition process. Improving the understanding of these phenomena and their impact on the quality of the resultant films is therefore an important goal which can be achieved through relevant computational and/or experimental studies. We present a combined computational and experimental effort aimed at elucidating physical phenomena underlying the LPE of MCT via a slider growth process. The focus of the presentation will be results generated by a time-dependent three-dimensional model of mass transport, fluid flow, and interfacial attachment kinetics, which we have developed and applied in the analysis of this LPE process. These results, combined with experimental analyses, lead to an improved understanding of the role of different transport and kinetic phenomena underlying this growth process.
Mathematical modelling of transport phenomena in radioactive waste-cement-bentonite matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plecas, Ilija; Dimovic, Slavko
2010-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. The leaching rate of 137 Cs from spent mix bead (anion and cation) exchange resins in a cement-bentonite matrix has been studied. Transport phenomena involved in the leaching of a radioactive material from a cement-bentonite matrix are investigated using three methods based on theoretical equations. These are: the diffusion equation for a plane source an equation for diffusion coupled to a first-order equation and an empirical method employing a polynomial equation. The results presented in this paper are from a 25-year mortar and concrete testing project that will influence the design choices for radioactive waste packaging for a future Serbian radioactive waste disposal center. Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements which does not have a practical purpose. It is often the product of a nuclear process, such as nuclear fission. Waste can also be generated from the processing of fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons. The main objective in managing and disposing of radioactive (or other) waste is to protect people and the environment. This means isolating or diluting the waste so that the rate or concentration of any radionuclides returned to the biosphere is harmless. Storage as the placement of waste in a nuclear facility where isolation, environmental protection and human control are provided with the intent that the waste will be retrieved at a later time. Disposal as the emplacement of waste in an approved, specified facility (e.g. near surface or geological repository) without the intention of retrieval. The processing of radioactive wastes may be done for economic reasons (e.g. to reduce the volume for storage or disposal, or to recover a 'resource' from the waste), or safety reasons (e.g. converting the waste to a more 'stable' form, such as one that will contain the radionuclide inventory for a long time). Typically processing involves reducing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadiq Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. [Fuel Cell Research Center, International Energy and Environment Foundation, Al-Najaf, P.O.Box 39 (Iraq)
2013-07-01
A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal computational fluid dynamics model of a tubular-shaped proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has been developed. This comprehensive model accounts for the major transport phenomena such as convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer, electrode kinetics, transport and phase-change mechanism of water, and potential fields in a tubular-shaped PEM fuel cell. The model explains many interacting, complex electrochemical, and transport phenomena that cannot be studied experimentally. Three-dimensional results of the species profiles, temperature distribution, potential distribution, and local current density distribution are presented and analysed, with the focus on the physical insight and fundamental understanding.
Three-dimensional geometric simulations of random anisotropic growth during transformation phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Godiksen, Rasmus Brauner; Rios, P.R.; Vandermeer, Roy Allen
2008-01-01
In this paper, the effects of anisotropic growth during transformation processes are investigated by geometric simulations of randomly oriented shape preserved ellipsoids in three dimensions and the applicability of idealized models are tested. Surprisingly, the results show that the models can...
Transport phenomena of macro and micro flows behind orifice and flow accelerated corrosion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Hayase, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Taku; Ikohagi, Toshiaki
2008-01-01
This paper describes experiment and numerical simulations for macro and micro flows behind an orifice model in a square pipe, which are carried from the viewpoint of flow accelerated corrosion (FAC). The measurements of velocity field behind the orifice model were carried out using particle image velocimetry, and the variations of velocity field with respect to the accuracy of the orifice position were studied. It is found that the reattachment behavior of the flow is highly influenced by the orifice position, which is a critical problem for predicting the pipe thinning phenomena by FAC. The DNS simulation was also conducted for calculating the macro flow behind the orifice. The result suggests that the DNS simulation is applicable to the prediction of pipe thinning macro flow for highly aged nuclear plant. The micro flow simulation can predict the pipe thinning phenomena near the wall. (author)
Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Mazza, M. G.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.; Stokely, K.; Xu, L.
One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines can suddenly "switch" from one behavior to another, even though they possess no perfect metronome in time. As if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many temporal patterns in physics, economics, and medicine and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enable a system to pass from one state to another. We discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understanding switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water's anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the "tipping point" immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not "outliers" (another Gladwell immortalization).
Intermittent random walks: transport regimes and implications on search strategies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Portillo, Ignacio; Campos, Daniel; Méndez, Vicenç
2011-01-01
We construct a transport model for particles that alternate rests of random duration and flights with random velocities. The model provides a balance equation for the mesoscopic particle density obtained from the continuous-time random walk framework. By assuming power laws for the distributions of waiting times and flight durations (for any velocity distribution with finite moments) we have found that the model can yield all the transport regimes ranging from subdiffusion to ballistic depending on the values of the characteristic exponents of the distributions. In addition, if the exponents satisfy a simple relationship it is shown how the competition between the tails of the distributions gives rise to a diffusive transport. Finally, we explore how the details of this intermittent transport process affect the success probability in an optimal search problem where an individual searcher looks for a target distributed (heterogeneously) in space. All the results are conveniently checked with numerical simulations
Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-08-01
Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)
Engineering a spin-fet: spin-orbit phenomena and spin transport induced by a gate electric field
Cardoso, J. L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.
2012-01-01
In this work, we show that a gate electric field, applied in the base of the field-effect devices, leads to inducing spin-orbit interactions (Rashba and linear Dresselhauss) and confines the transport electrons in a two-dimensional electron gas. On the basis of these phenomena we solve analytically the Pauli equation when the Rashba strength and the linear Dresselhaus one are equal, for a tuning value of the gate electric field $\\mathcal{E}_g^*$. Using the transfer matrix approach, we provide...
Modeling conversion and transport phenomena in solid-state fermentation: a review and perspectives
Rahardjo, Y.S.P.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.
2006-01-01
Solid-state fermentation (SSF) is accompanied inevitably by development of concentration and temperature gradients within the substrate particles and microbial biofilms. These gradients are needed for driving the transport of substrates and products. In addition, concentration gradients have been
Mathematical interpretation of Brownian motor model: Limit cycles and directed transport phenomena
Yang, Jianqiang; Ma, Hong; Zhong, Suchuang
2018-03-01
In this article, we first suggest that the attractor of Brownian motor model is one of the reasons for the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian particle. We take the classical Smoluchowski-Feynman (SF) ratchet model as an example to investigate the relationship between limit cycles and directed transport phenomenon of the Brownian particle. We study the existence and variation rule of limit cycles of SF ratchet model at changing parameters through mathematical methods. The influences of these parameters on the directed transport phenomenon of a Brownian particle are then analyzed through numerical simulations. Reasonable mathematical explanations for the directed transport phenomenon of Brownian particle in SF ratchet model are also formulated on the basis of the existence and variation rule of the limit cycles and numerical simulations. These mathematical explanations provide a theoretical basis for applying these theories in physics, biology, chemistry, and engineering.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Miao
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The transport phenomena in a passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC were numerically simulated by the proposed two-dimensional two-phase nonisothermal mass transport model. The anisotropic transport characteristic and deformation of the gas diffusion layer (GDL were considered in this model. The natural convection boundary conditions were adopted for the transport of methanol, oxygen, and heat at the GDL outer surface. The effect of methanol concentration in the reservoir on cell performance was examined. The distribution of multiphysical fields in the membrane electrode assembly (MEA, especially in the catalyst layers (CLs, was obtained and analyzed. The results indicated that transport resistance for the methanol mainly existed in the MEA while that for oxygen and heat was primarily due to natural convection at the GDL outer surface. Because of the relatively high methanol concentration, the local reaction rate in CLs was mainly determined by the overpotential. Methanol concentration between 3 M and 4 M was recommended for passive liquid feed DMFC in order to achieve a balance between the cell performance and the methanol crossover.
Continuous time random walk analysis of solute transport in fractured porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cortis, Andrea; Cortis, Andrea; Birkholzer, Jens
2008-06-01
The objective of this work is to discuss solute transport phenomena in fractured porous media, where the macroscopic transport of contaminants in the highly permeable interconnected fractures can be strongly affected by solute exchange with the porous rock matrix. We are interested in a wide range of rock types, with matrix hydraulic conductivities varying from almost impermeable (e.g., granites) to somewhat permeable (e.g., porous sandstones). In the first case, molecular diffusion is the only transport process causing the transfer of contaminants between the fractures and the matrix blocks. In the second case, additional solute transfer occurs as a result of a combination of advective and dispersive transport mechanisms, with considerable impact on the macroscopic transport behavior. We start our study by conducting numerical tracer experiments employing a discrete (microscopic) representation of fractures and matrix. Using the discrete simulations as a surrogate for the 'correct' transport behavior, we then evaluate the accuracy of macroscopic (continuum) approaches in comparison with the discrete results. However, instead of using dual-continuum models, which are quite often used to account for this type of heterogeneity, we develop a macroscopic model based on the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) framework, which characterizes the interaction between the fractured and porous rock domains by using a probability distribution function of residence times. A parametric study of how CTRW parameters evolve is presented, describing transport as a function of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between fractured and porous domains.
Influence of anomalous transport phenomena on onset of Neoclassical Tearing Modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konovalov, S.V.; Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Shirokov, M.S.; Ozeki, T.; Takizuka, T.; Hayashi, N.
2005-01-01
Influence of anomalous perpendicular heat transport and anomalous ion perpendicular viscosity on conditions of Neoclassical Tearing Mode (NTM) onset is studied theoretically. Series of various parallel transport mechanisms competitive to anomalous cross-island heat transport in formation of the perturbed electron and ion temperature profiles within the island are considered. Analytical solutions to respective heat balance equations were found and perturbed temperature profiles were calculated rigorously. The partial contributions from the plasma electron and ion temperature perturbations in the bootstrap drive of the mode and magnetic curvature effect were then accounted in construction of a generalized transport threshold model of NTMs. Taking into account the curvature effect weakening in the generalized transport threshold model predicts notable improvement of NTM stability. The anomalous perpendicular ion viscosity was shown to modify collisionality dependence of polarization current effect reducing it to the low collisionality limit. The bootstrap drive of NTM in the presence of anomalous perpendicular ion viscosity was found to be dependent on the island rotation frequency and direction. For island rotating in direction of the electron diamagnetic drift viscosity effect was shown to be stabilizing. The role of viscosity effect grows rapidly with rise of the plasma ion temperature. (author)
Misra, N N; Martynenko, Alex; Chemat, Farid; Paniwnyk, Larysa; Barba, Francisco J; Jambrak, Anet Režek
2018-07-24
Interest in the development and adoption of nonthermal technologies is burgeoning within the food and bioprocess industry, the associated research community, and among the consumers. This is evident from not only the success of some innovative nonthermal technologies at industrial scale, but also from the increasing number of publications dealing with these topics, a growing demand for foods processed by nonthermal technologies and use of natural ingredients. A notable feature of the nonthermal technologies such as cold plasma, electrohydrodynamic processing, pulsed electric fields, and ultrasound is the involvement of external fields, either electric or sound. Therefore, it merits to study the fundamentals of these technologies and the associated phenomenon with a unified approach. In this review, we revisit the fundamental physical and chemical phenomena governing the selected technologies, highlight similarities, and contrasts, describe few successful applications, and finally, identify the gaps in research.
Fission product transport in the primary system, important phenomena, and code status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gieseke, J.A.; Jordan, H.; Kuhlman, M.R.
1990-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to identify important issues concerning the transport and deposition of radionuclides in the reactor coolant system (RCS) under accident conditions and to examine how such issues are being treated or should be treated by the various available computer codes. In general, the RCS is a very important section of the transport pathway along which radionuclides move and by which they are attenuated as they travel after being released from the fuel. The RCS can serve as a sink for radionuclides that may deposit from the gas and react with surfaces, or can serve as a repository for materials deposited from the gas which are then available for later release into the transporting gas stream. The RCS may also have thermal hydraulic conditions that foster aerosol growth by condensation or agglomeration, and may provide an environment in which gas phase or heterogeneous chemical reactions may occur
Various Transport Phenomena and Modeling in a Methane Reformer Duct for PEMFCs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jinliang Yuan; Fuan Ren; Jinliang Yuan; Bengt Sunden
2006-01-01
There are various physical processes (such as mass, heat and momentum transport) integrated with catalytic chemical reactions in a methane steam reforming duct. It is often found that endothermic and exothermic reactions in the ducts are strongly coupled by heat transfer from adjacent catalytic combustion ducts. In this paper, a three-dimensional calculation method is developed to simulate and analyze steam reforming of methane, and the effects on various transport processes in a steam reforming duct. The reformer conditions such as mass balances associated with the reforming reactions and gas permeation to/from the porous catalyst layer are applied in the analysis. The predicted results are presented and discussed for a composite duct consisting of a porous catalyst reaction area, the gas flow duct and solid layers. Parametric studies are conducted and the results show that the variables, such as fuel reformer temperatures and catalyst loadings, have significant effects on the transport processes and reformer performance. (authors)
Transport phenomena in the edge of Alcator C-Mod plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, J.L.; Basse, N.P.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; LaBombard, B.; Edlund, E.M.; Hughes, J.W.; Lin, L.; Lin, Y.; Porkolab, M.; Veto, B.; Wukitch, S.J.; Grulke, O.; Zweben, S.J.; Sampsell, M.
2005-01-01
Two aspects of edge turbulence and transport in Alcator C-Mod are explored. The quasi-coherent mode, an edge fluctuation present in Enhanced Da H-mode plasmas, is examined with regard to its role in the enhanced particle transport found in these plasmas, its in/out asymmetry, its poloidal wave number, and its radial width and location. It is shown to play a dominant role in the perpendicular particle transport. The QCM is not observed at the inboard midplane, indicating that its amplitude there is significantly smaller than on the outboard side. The peak amplitude of the QCM is found just inside the separatrix, with a radial width ≥5 mm, leading to a non-zero amplitude outside the separatrix and qualitatively consistent with its transport enhancement. Also examined are the characteristics of the intermittent convective transport, associated with 'blobs' and typically occurring in the scrape-off-layer. The blobs are qualitatively similar in L- and H-mode. When their sizes, occurrence frequencies, and magnitudes are compared, it is found that the blob size may be somewhat smaller in ELMfree H-Mode, and blob frequency is similar. A clear difference is seen in the blob magnitude in the far SOL, with ELMfree H-mode showing a smaller perturbation there than L-mode. As the Greenwald density limit is approached (n/n GW ≥0.7), blobs are seen inside the separatrix, consistent with the observation that the high cross-field transport region, normally found in the far scrape-off, penetrates the closed flux surfaces at high n/n GW . (author)
Laser field effects on the transport phenomena: Energy loss and stopping power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres Silva, H.; Sakanaka, P.H.
1990-01-01
The energy loss method has been applied to a large variety of transport problems in optics, solid-state and fusion research. In these papers, however, the transport equations were linearized, so there are no multiphoton interaction. On the other hand, Bivona et al. (1982) [2] have shown that, for a one-component plasma, the strong field effects would be only of academic interest. On the basis of the center of mass approach [3], a generalization of the energy loss rate which is in accordance with the recent results of Arista et al. (1989) [4] is obtained. (Author)
Studies of transport phenomena in tokamaks with nonstationary intervention into the discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalmykov, S.G.
1993-01-01
Together with detailed plasma parameter measurements, an experimental basis is provided to deduce radial profiles of local transport coefficients, to obtain their temporal evolution in the transient phase of the discharge. The equations of heat and particle balance were used as proper instrument to perform the coefficients calculation. The majority of the experiments deals with heat transport processes in the electron component of plasma. A problem in getting ohmic heat deposit radial distribution arise with use of the electron population heat balance equation. For its solution, numerical simulation of the plasma column loop voltage based on poloidal magnetic field classical diffusion supposition was used. (L.C.J.A.)
Exactly averaged equations for flow and transport in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi
2001-01-01
It is well known that exact averaging of the equations of flow and transport in random porous media can be realized only for a small number of special, occasionally exotic, fields. On the other hand, the properties of approximate averaging methods are not yet fully understood. For example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series. Furthermore, the calculation of the high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems for a long time have stimulated attempts to find the answer for the question: Are there in existence some exact general and sufficiently universal forms of averaged equations? If the answer is positive, there arises the problem of the construction of these equations and analyzing them. There exist many publications related to these problems and oriented on different applications: hydrodynamics, flow and transport in porous media, theory of elasticity, acoustic and electromagnetic waves in random fields, etc. We present a method of finding the general form of exactly averaged equations for flow and transport in random fields by using (1) an assumption of the existence of Green's functions for appropriate stochastic problems, (2) some general properties of the Green's functions, and (3) the some basic information about the random fields of the conductivity, porosity and flow velocity. We present a general form of the exactly averaged non-local equations for the following cases. 1. Steady-state flow with sources in porous media with random conductivity. 2. Transient flow with sources in compressible media with random conductivity and porosity. 3. Non-reactive solute transport in random porous media. We discuss the problem of uniqueness and the properties of the non-local averaged equations, for the cases with some types of symmetry (isotropic, transversal isotropic, orthotropic) and we analyze the hypothesis of the structure non-local equations in general case of stochastically homogeneous fields. (author)
Coupled transport phenomena in a clay from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paszkuta, M.
2005-06-01
Low permeability materials containing clay play an important role in practical life and natural environment. Indeed, the ability of clay soils to act as semi permeable membranes, that inhibit the passage of electrolytes, is of great interest. The major objective of this thesis is to evaluate the transport properties of natural clays and in particular coupled transports when a pressure gradient, an electrical field, a concentration gradient and a temperature gradient interact. The material is a compact argillite extracted in East France from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation which was supplied to us by ANDRA. NaCl was used as the main solute. Two series of experiments were performed to measure permeability, diffusion, conductivity, the electro-osmotic coefficient and the Soret coefficient. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Urbach, B.; Axelrod, E.; Sa' ar, A. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2007-05-15
Dielectric spectroscopy accompanied by infrared (IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy have been utilized to reveal the correlation between transport, optical and structural properties of oxidized porous silicon (PS). Three relaxation processes at low-, mid- and high-temperatures were observed, including dc-conductivity at high-temperatures. Both the low-T relaxation and the dc conductivity were found to be thermally activated processes that involve tunneling and hopping in between the nanocrystals in oxidized PS. We have found that the dc-conductivity is limited by geometrical constrictions along the transport channels, which are not effected by the oxidation process and are characterized by activation energies of about {proportional_to}0.85 eV. The low-T relaxation process involves thermal activation followed by tunneling in between neighbor nanocrystals, with somewhat lower activation energies. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligen, B.Ph. van; Carreras, B.A.; Sanchez, R.
2005-01-01
The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated
Analysis of transport phenomena and electrochemical reactions in a micro PEM fuel cell
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2014-01-01
Micro-fuel cells are considered as promising electrochemical power sources in portable electronic devices. The presence of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) technology makes it possible to manufacture the miniaturized fuel cell systems. The majority of research on micro-scale fuel cells is aimed at micro-power applications. Performance of micro-fuel cells are closely related to many factors, such as designs and operating conditions. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport i...
COMSOL-PHREEQC: a tool for high performance numerical simulation of reactive transport phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nardi, Albert; Vries, Luis Manuel de; Trinchero, Paolo; Idiart, Andres; Molinero, Jorge
2012-01-01
Document available in extended abstract form only. Comsol Multiphysics (COMSOL, from now on) is a powerful Finite Element software environment for the modelling and simulation of a large number of physics-based systems. The user can apply variables, expressions or numbers directly to solid and fluid domains, boundaries, edges and points, independently of the computational mesh. COMSOL then internally compiles a set of equations representing the entire model. The availability of extremely powerful pre and post processors makes COMSOL a numerical platform well known and extensively used in many branches of sciences and engineering. On the other hand, PHREEQC is a freely available computer program for simulating chemical reactions and transport processes in aqueous systems. It is perhaps the most widely used geochemical code in the scientific community and is openly distributed. The program is based on equilibrium chemistry of aqueous solutions interacting with minerals, gases, solid solutions, exchangers, and sorption surfaces, but also includes the capability to model kinetic reactions with rate equations that are user-specified in a very flexible way by means of Basic statements directly written in the input file. Here we present COMSOL-PHREEQC, a software interface able to communicate and couple these two powerful simulators by means of a Java interface. The methodology is based on Sequential Non Iterative Approach (SNIA), where PHREEQC is compiled as a dynamic subroutine (iPhreeqc) that is called by the interface to solve the geochemical system at every element of the finite element mesh of COMSOL. The numerical tool has been extensively verified by comparison with computed results of 1D, 2D and 3D benchmark examples solved with other reactive transport simulators. COMSOL-PHREEQC is parallelized so that CPU time can be highly optimized in multi-core processors or clusters. Then, fully 3D detailed reactive transport problems can be readily simulated by means of
Flow, transport and diffusion in random geometries II: applications
Asinari, Pietro
2015-01-07
Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) is an efficient and flexible solution for the propagation of uncertainties in complex models, where an explicit parametrization of the input randomness is not available or too expensive. We present several applications of our MLMC algorithm for flow, transport and diffusion in random heterogeneous materials. The absolute permeability and effective diffusivity (or formation factor) of micro-scale porous media samples are computed and the uncertainty related to the sampling procedures is studied. The algorithm is then extended to the transport problems and multiphase flows for the estimation of dispersion and relative permeability curves. The impact of water drops on random stuctured surfaces, with microfluidics applications to self-cleaning materials, is also studied and simulated. Finally the estimation of new drag correlation laws for poly-dispersed dilute and dense suspensions is presented.
Flow, transport and diffusion in random geometries II: applications
Asinari, Pietro; Ceglia, Diego; Icardi, Matteo; Prudhomme, Serge; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) is an efficient and flexible solution for the propagation of uncertainties in complex models, where an explicit parametrization of the input randomness is not available or too expensive. We present several applications of our MLMC algorithm for flow, transport and diffusion in random heterogeneous materials. The absolute permeability and effective diffusivity (or formation factor) of micro-scale porous media samples are computed and the uncertainty related to the sampling procedures is studied. The algorithm is then extended to the transport problems and multiphase flows for the estimation of dispersion and relative permeability curves. The impact of water drops on random stuctured surfaces, with microfluidics applications to self-cleaning materials, is also studied and simulated. Finally the estimation of new drag correlation laws for poly-dispersed dilute and dense suspensions is presented.
Transient transport phenomena induced by cold pulses in W7-AS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walter, H.; Stroth, U.; Bleuel, J.; Burhenn, R.; Geist, T.; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H.; Koponen, J.P.T.; Ledl, L.; Pereverzev, G.
1998-01-01
Cold-pulse experiments were carried out in the W7-AS stellarator for the first time. Carbon was injected by a laser blow-off system into the plasma edge. The electron density increase due to the injected carbon is found to be responsible for the edge electron temperature drop. In all cases, the propagation of the edge temperature perturbation to the plasma centre could be modelled with a local parameter-dependent electron heat diffusivity. Unlike in tokamaks, non-local transport effects were not observed in these experiments. (author)
Transient transport phenomena induced by cold pulses in W7-AS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walter, H; Stroth, U; Bleuel, J; Burhenn, R; Geist, T; Giannone, L.; Hartfuss, H; Koponen, J P.T.; Ledl, L; Pereverzev, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)
1998-09-01
Cold-pulse experiments were carried out in the W7-AS stellarator for the first time. Carbon was injected by a laser blow-off system into the plasma edge. The electron density increase due to the injected carbon is found to be responsible for the edge electron temperature drop. In all cases, the propagation of the edge temperature perturbation to the plasma centre could be modelled with a local parameter-dependent electron heat diffusivity. Unlike in tokamaks, non-local transport effects were not observed in these experiments. (author)
About relaxation phenomena and transport processing in a fully ionized non-ideal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baimbetov, F.B.; Iztleuov, N.T.
1999-01-01
In this report correlation effects for non-ideal plasma are accounted in the so called pseudopotentials. The accounting of high order correlation influences in the pseudopotential lead to the strongly screened potential. Kinetic equation with pseudopotential is cited. The equations which describe the relaxation of the difference of directed velocities of plasma particles, and frequency of particle collision which determines relaxation of temperature for non-ideal plasma are obtained. On basis of mentioned kinetic equation the transport equation is obtained as well
Novel phenomena in one-dimensional non-linear transport in long quantum wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morimoto, T; Hemmi, M; Naito, R; Tsubaki, K; Park, J-S; Aoki, N; Bird, J P; Ochiai, Y
2006-01-01
We have investigated the non-linear transport properties of split-gate quantum wires of various channel lengths. In this report, we present results on a resonant enhancement of the non-linear conductance that is observed near pinch-off under a finite source-drain bias voltage. The resonant phenomenon exhibits a strong dependence on temperature and in-plane magnetic field. We discuss the possible relationship of this phenomenon to the spin-polarized manybody state that has recently been suggested to occur in quasi-one dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiura, M.; Isobe, M.; Yamamoto, S.
2008-10-01
Alfven instabilities induced fast-ion losses have been directly observed for the first time by a newly developed scintillator lost ion probe (SLIP) in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The SLIP can measure the pitch angle and gyro radius of escaped fast ions toward loss region. Neutral beam driven Alfven Eigenmodes (AEs) are excited under the reactor relevant conditions: the ratio of fast ion (beam) speed υ b and Alfven speed υ A is more than 0.3 - 4.0. The beta value for fast ions is considered roughly to be ∼10%. Non-linear phenomena related to Alfven instabilities are observed under such conditions. During repetitive Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode (TAE) bursts, synchronized fast ion losses are observed by SLIP. From the orbit calculation the measured fast ion with pitch angle of 130 degrees and beam energy of 150 keV surely pass through the locations of TAE gaps. The orbit analysis found that the observed fast ions interact strongly with the excited TAEs. This result becomes the first experimental evidence of radial transport of fast ions predicted theoretically during TAE activities. In addition, from the correlation between stored energy degradation and fast-ion loss rate, it is found that fast-ion losses induced by TAE activities with low toroidal mode numbers categorize two phenomena without and with fast- ion loss enhancements, which indicate the fast-ion redistribution and loss. (author)
Sun, Shuyu; Salama, Amgad; El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-01-01
A new technique for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing transport phenomena in porous media is introduced. In this technique, the governing equations as depicted from the physics of the problem are used without extra manipulations. In other words, there is no need to reduce the number of governing equations by some sort of mathematical manipulations. This technique enables the separation of the physics part of the problem and the solver part, which makes coding more robust and could be used in several other applications with little or no modifications (e.g., multi-phase flow in porous media). In this method, one abandons the need to construct the coefficient matrix for the pressure equation. Alternatively, the coefficients are automatically generated within the solver routine. We show examples of using this technique to solving several flow problems in porous media.
Sun, Shuyu
2012-06-02
A new technique for the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing transport phenomena in porous media is introduced. In this technique, the governing equations as depicted from the physics of the problem are used without extra manipulations. In other words, there is no need to reduce the number of governing equations by some sort of mathematical manipulations. This technique enables the separation of the physics part of the problem and the solver part, which makes coding more robust and could be used in several other applications with little or no modifications (e.g., multi-phase flow in porous media). In this method, one abandons the need to construct the coefficient matrix for the pressure equation. Alternatively, the coefficients are automatically generated within the solver routine. We show examples of using this technique to solving several flow problems in porous media.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rabeler, Felix; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu
2018-01-01
A numerical 3D model of coupled transport phenomena and texture changes during the roasting of chicken breast meat in a convection oven was developed. The model is based on heat and mass transfer coupled with the kinetics of temperature induced texture changes of chicken breast meat. The partial...... experimentally values. The developed model enables the prediction of the texture development inside the chicken meat as function of the process parameters. The model predictions and measured values show the clear effect of changing process settings on the texture profiles during the roasting process. Overall......, the developed model provides deep insights into the local and spatial texture changes of chicken breast meat during the roasting process that cannot be gained by experimentation alone....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raj, Kamal Abdul Rasheedj; Chan, Siew Hwa
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Increasing the fuel cell temperature reduces outlet CO concentration. • Increasing the CO inlet (initial) concentration increases outlet CO concentration. • Increasing current density step and dwell time increases outlet CO concentration. • Increasing in the CL and GDL porosities reduces outlet CO concentration. - Abstract: This paper investigates the transport phenomena of carbon monoxide (CO) and adsorption kinetics, in a high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) during step-wise current extraction (step-change in current extraction). Step-wise current extraction is a common process done to accommodate a sudden power surge during an operation. Since HT-PEMFCs are capable of handling high impurity of CO, hydrogen fuel that is contaminated with trace amount of CO is usually considered for commercial benefits. Thus, a transient three-dimensional isothermal anodic electro-kinetic numerical model is developed to determine the effect of operating parameters such as fuel cell temperature, CO inlet (initial) concentration, step-change of current density and dwell time on the transport phenomena of CO and adsorption kinetics. In addition, geometrical factors such as the catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) porosity are also varied as well. The results show that the above-mentioned operating parameters can affect the maximum CO concentration at the CL, especially at the outlet of the channel. Specifically, a reduction of fuel cell temperature can significantly increase the CO concentration near the outlet, while increasing CO inlet (initial) concentration, step-change amplitude of current density and current density dwell time can cause an increase in CO concentration at the outlet, albeit to different extent. In addition, the increase in the porosity of CL and GDL, results in the reduction of the maximum CO concentration at the outlet, albeit to different extent. In addition, the CO and hydrogen surface coverage
Investigation of high-p{sub T} phenomena within a partonic transport model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fochler, Oliver
2011-10-26
In the work presented herein the microscopic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings) is applied to simulate the time evolution of the hot partonic medium that is created in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in Pb+Pb collisions at the recently started Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The study is especially focused on the investigation of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA}, that quantifies the suppression of particle yields at large transverse momentum with respect to a scaled proton+proton reference, and the simultaneous description of the collective properties of the medium in terms of the elliptic flow v{sub 2} within a common framework. (orig.)
Investigation of high-pT phenomena within a partonic transport model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fochler, Oliver
2011-01-01
In the work presented herein the microscopic transport model BAMPS (Boltzmann Approach to Multi-Parton Scatterings) is applied to simulate the time evolution of the hot partonic medium that is created in Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and in Pb+Pb collisions at the recently started Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The study is especially focused on the investigation of the nuclear modification factor R AA , that quantifies the suppression of particle yields at large transverse momentum with respect to a scaled proton+proton reference, and the simultaneous description of the collective properties of the medium in terms of the elliptic flow v 2 within a common framework. (orig.)
Imaging transport phenomena during lysozyme protein crystal growth by the hanging drop technique
Sethia Gupta, Anamika; Gupta, Rajive; Panigrahi, P. K.; Muralidhar, K.
2013-06-01
The present study reports the transport process that occurs during the growth of lysozyme protein crystals by the hanging drop technique. A rainbow schlieren technique has been employed for imaging changes in salt concentration. A one dimensional color filter is used to record the deflection of the light beam. An optical microscope and an X-ray crystallography unit are used to characterize the size, tetragonal shape and Bravais lattice constants of the grown crystals. A parametric study on the effect of drop composition, drop size, reservoir height and number of drops on the crystal size and quality is reported. Changes in refractive index are not large enough to create a meaningful schlieren image in the air gap between the drop and the reservoir. However, condensation of fresh water over the reservoir solution creates large changes in the concentration of NaCl, giving rise to clear color patterns in the schlieren images. These have been analyzed to obtain salt concentration profiles near the free surface of the reservoir solution as a function of time. The diffusion of fresh water into the reservoir solution at the early stages of crystal growth followed by the mass flux of salt from the bulk solution towards the free surface has been recorded. The overall crystal growth process can be classified into two regimes, as demarcated by the changes in slope of salt concentration within the reservoir. The salt concentration in the reservoir equilibrates at long times when the crystallization process is complete. Thus, transport processes in the reservoir emerge as the route to monitor protein crystal growth in the hanging drop configuration. Results show that crystal growth rate is faster for a higher lysozyme concentration, smaller drops, and larger reservoir heights.
Radiation Transport in Random Media With Large Fluctuations
Olson, Aaron; Prinja, Anil; Franke, Brian
2017-09-01
Neutral particle transport in media exhibiting large and complex material property spatial variation is modeled by representing cross sections as lognormal random functions of space and generated through a nonlinear memory-less transformation of a Gaussian process with covariance uniquely determined by the covariance of the cross section. A Karhunen-Loève decomposition of the Gaussian process is implemented to effciently generate realizations of the random cross sections and Woodcock Monte Carlo used to transport particles on each realization and generate benchmark solutions for the mean and variance of the particle flux as well as probability densities of the particle reflectance and transmittance. A computationally effcient stochastic collocation method is implemented to directly compute the statistical moments such as the mean and variance, while a polynomial chaos expansion in conjunction with stochastic collocation provides a convenient surrogate model that also produces probability densities of output quantities of interest. Extensive numerical testing demonstrates that use of stochastic reduced-order modeling provides an accurate and cost-effective alternative to random sampling for particle transport in random media.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strobel, Sebastian; Hernandez, Rocio Murcia; Hansen, Allan G; Tornow, Marc
2008-01-01
We report the fabrication and characterization of vertical nanogap electrode devices using silicon-on-insulator substrates. Using only standard silicon microelectronic process technology, nanogaps down to 26 nm electrode separation were prepared. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional analysis revealed the well defined material architecture of the nanogap, comprising two electrodes of dissimilar geometrical shape. This asymmetry is directly reflected in transport measurements on molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems formed by self-assembling a monolayer of mercaptohexanol on the electrode surface and the subsequent dielectrophoretic trapping of 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. The observed Coulomb staircase I-V characteristic measured at T = 4.2 K is in excellent agreement with theoretical modelling, whereby junction capacitances of the order of a few 10 -18 farad and asymmetric resistances of 30 and 300 MΩ, respectively, are also supported well by our independent estimates for the formed double barrier tunnelling system. We propose our nanoelectrode system for integrating novel functional electronic devices such as molecular junctions or nanoparticle hybrids into existing silicon microelectronic process technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gauglitz, R.; Marx, G.
1991-01-01
The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, chromium, iron, ruthenium was studied in aqueous and aqueous nitric acid solutions. The diffusion of these elements was measured not only under a concentration gradient but also with respect to simultanious nitric and diffusion. Measurements with schlierenoptics and with uv/vis.-optic were carried out at the same time. Besides the diffusion of metal nitrates and potassium dichromate also nitric acid diffusion was investigated. Also in this case apparent diffusion coefficients were determined under concentration gradients and under the influence of superposing element gradients. The diffusion of the elements uranium, neodymium, ruthenium, neptunium and plutonium was also determined in organic systems. At first the transport of the elements was measured under an element gradient, in presence of various amounts of water and nitric acid. These experiments were followed by those on simultanious diffusion of water of nitric acid and elements in TBP/dodecane mixture. Furthermore TBP/dodecane solutions were oxidized with potassium dichromate. This oxidation was measured using a gaschromatograph. From the obtained results the formation rate for the oxidation products could be calculated which proved that higher nitric acid concentrations increased the rate. (orig.) With 16 refs., 100 tabs., 120 figs [de
Transport phenomena in the cathode of a molten carbonate fuel cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, P.; Findlay, J.
2009-01-01
'Full text': A Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) is an electro-chemical energy conversion technology that runs on natural gas and employs a molten salt electrolyte. In order to keep the electrolyte in this state, the cell must be kept at a temperature above 500 C, eliminating the need for noble catalysts. There has been only a limited amount of research on modelling the transport processes inside this device, mainly due to its limited ability for mobile applications. A model for the reaction-diffusion processes within the cathode of a MCFC is developed using Fick's Law for diffusion and incorporating Darcy's Law for convection. A model for Binary Diffusion is also discussed and compared to those for Fickian diffusion. It can be shown that there exists a limiting case for diffusion across the cathode that depends on the conductivity for the liquid potential, for which there exists an analytical solution. Results are also discussed for varying diffusivities and permeabilities. Ultimately, this research focuses on the optimization of the electrode porosity to increase the power output of the fuel cell. The porosity is considered as a function of position, and is optimized using the software package MATLAB. (author)
Phenomena of the ionic transport in the stress corrosion of metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gravano, S.M.
1986-07-01
For the study of electrochemical conditions of propagation, a model which calculates the concentrations and potential profiles inside cracks or localized corrosion cavities, was developed. Considering transport by difussion and migration it was applied to pure metals (Zn, Fe) in solutions where pitting occurs (NaCl or Na2SO4, with borate buffer), and also extended to systems where stress corrosion cracking is present, such as Cu and yellow brass in NaNO2. Physical bases of the 'constant intermediate elongation rate technique' to predict stress corrosion cracking susceptibility was analized, studying by mathematical models: 1) dissolution current, that should be the result of superposition of repassivation transients on the fresh metal, exposed to corrosive medium by strain, with the same rate of that of a static specimen; 2) ohmic drop, that in some systems could be quite important and it must be considered in the overpotential evaluation; and 3) metallic ion concentration that, instead of what happens in a crack, never attains saturation in the analized cases. For repassivation transient according to the crak propagation models proposed by Scully and Ford it was found that, at the tip of the crack, it is unlikely that the same repassivation transients occur as in the constant intermediate elongation rate experiments. (M.E.L.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, J.M.; Piault, E.; Macouillard, D.; Juncos, C.
2006-01-01
In 1960 experiments were carried out on the transfer of 9 Sr between soil, grapes and wine. The experiments were conducted in situ on a piece of land limited by two control strips. The 9 Sr migration over the last 40 years was studied by performing radiological and physico-chemical characterizations of the soil on eight 70 cm deep cores. The vertical migration modeling of 9 Sr required the definition of a triple layer conceptual model integrating the rainwater infiltration at constant flux as the only external factor of influence. Afterwards the importance of a detailed soil characterization for modeling was discussed and satisfactory simulation of the 9 Sr vertical transport was obtained and showed a calculated migration rate of about 1.0 cm year -1 in full agreement with the in situ measured values. The discussion was regarding some of the key parameters such as granulometry, organic matter content (in the Van Genuchten parameter determination), Kd and the efficient rainwater infiltration. Besides the experimental data, simplifying assumptions in modeling such as water-soil redistribution calculation and factual discontinuities in conceptual model were examined
Charge Transport Phenomena in Detectors of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search
Sundqvist, Kyle
2008-03-01
The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to detect putative weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPS), which could explain the dark matter problem in cosmology and particle physics. By simultaneously measuring the number of charge carriers and the energy in athermal phonons created by particle interactions in intrinsic Ge and Si crystals at a temperature of 40 mK, a signature response for each event is produced. This response, combined with phonon pulse-shape information, allows CDMS to actively discriminate candidate WIMP interactions with nuclei apart from electromagnetic radioactive background which interacts with electrons. The challenges associated with these techniques are unique. Carrier drift-fields are maintained at only a few V/cm, else drift-emitted Luke-Neganov phonons would dominate the phonons of the original interaction. Under such conditions, carrier scattering is dominated by zero-point fluctuations of the lattice ions. It has been an open question how well the 8 Kelvin data prominent in the literature depicts this case. We compare the simulated transport properties of electrons and holes in Ge at 40 mK and at 8 K, and apply this understanding to our detectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strobel, Sebastian; Hernandez, Rocio Murcia [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Hansen, Allan G; Tornow, Marc [Institut fuer Halbleitertechnik, Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 66, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: m.tornow@tu-bs.de
2008-09-17
We report the fabrication and characterization of vertical nanogap electrode devices using silicon-on-insulator substrates. Using only standard silicon microelectronic process technology, nanogaps down to 26 nm electrode separation were prepared. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional analysis revealed the well defined material architecture of the nanogap, comprising two electrodes of dissimilar geometrical shape. This asymmetry is directly reflected in transport measurements on molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems formed by self-assembling a monolayer of mercaptohexanol on the electrode surface and the subsequent dielectrophoretic trapping of 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. The observed Coulomb staircase I-V characteristic measured at T = 4.2 K is in excellent agreement with theoretical modelling, whereby junction capacitances of the order of a few 10{sup -18} farad and asymmetric resistances of 30 and 300 M{omega}, respectively, are also supported well by our independent estimates for the formed double barrier tunnelling system. We propose our nanoelectrode system for integrating novel functional electronic devices such as molecular junctions or nanoparticle hybrids into existing silicon microelectronic process technology.
Strobel, Sebastian; Hernández, Rocío Murcia; Hansen, Allan G; Tornow, Marc
2008-09-17
We report the fabrication and characterization of vertical nanogap electrode devices using silicon-on-insulator substrates. Using only standard silicon microelectronic process technology, nanogaps down to 26 nm electrode separation were prepared. Transmission electron microscopy cross-sectional analysis revealed the well defined material architecture of the nanogap, comprising two electrodes of dissimilar geometrical shape. This asymmetry is directly reflected in transport measurements on molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems formed by self-assembling a monolayer of mercaptohexanol on the electrode surface and the subsequent dielectrophoretic trapping of 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. The observed Coulomb staircase I-V characteristic measured at T = 4.2 K is in excellent agreement with theoretical modelling, whereby junction capacitances of the order of a few 10(-18) farad and asymmetric resistances of 30 and 300 MΩ, respectively, are also supported well by our independent estimates for the formed double barrier tunnelling system. We propose our nanoelectrode system for integrating novel functional electronic devices such as molecular junctions or nanoparticle hybrids into existing silicon microelectronic process technology.
Xu, Hao; Nagasaka, Shinobu; Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Ito, Takashi; Higgins, Daniel A
2017-08-02
Synthetic organic nanotubes self-assembled from bolaamphiphile surfactants are now being explored for use as drug delivery vehicles. In this work, several factors important to their implementation in drug delivery are explored. All experiments are performed with the nanotubes immersed in ethanol. First, Nile Red (NR) and a hydroxylated Nile Red derivative (NR-OH) are loaded into the nanotubes and spectroscopic fluorescence imaging methods are used to determine the apparent dielectric constant of their local environment. Both are found in relatively nonpolar environments, with the NR-OH molecules preferring regions of relatively higher dielectric constant compared to NR. Unique two-color imaging fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (imaging FCS) measurements are then used along with the spectroscopic imaging results to deduce the dielectric properties of the environments sensed by mobile and immobile populations of probe molecules. The results reveal that mobile NR molecules pass through less polar regions, likely within the nanotube walls, while immobile NR molecules are found in more polar regions, possibly near the nanotube surfaces. In contrast, mobile and immobile NR-OH molecules are found to locate in environments of similar polarity. The imaging FCS results also provide quantitative data on the apparent diffusion coefficient for each dye. The mean diffusion coefficient for the NR dye was approximately two-fold larger than that of NR-OH. Slower diffusion by the latter could result from its additional hydrogen bonding interactions with polar triglycine, amine, and glucose moieties near the nanotube surfaces. The knowledge gained in these studies will allow for the development of nanotubes that are better engineered for applications in the controlled transport and release of uncharged, dipolar drug molecules.
Mathematical Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Polymer Electrolyte and Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birgersson, Erik
2004-02-01
This thesis deals with modeling of two types of fuel cells: the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) and the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), for which we address four major issues: a) mass transport limitations; b) water management (PEFC); c) gas management (DMFC); d) thermal management. Four models have been derived and studied for the PEFC, focusing on the cathode. The first exploits the slenderness of the cathode for a two-dimensional geometry, leading to a reduced model, where several non dimensional parameters capture the behavior of the cathode. The model was extended to three dimensions, where four different flow distributors were studied for the cathode. A quantitative comparison shows that the interdigitated channels can sustain the highest current densities. These two models, comprising isothermal gas phase flow, limit the studies to (a). Returning to a two-dimensional geometry of the PEFC, the liquid phase was introduced via a separate flow model approach for the cathode. In addition to conservation of mass, momentum and species, the model was extended to consider simultaneous charge and heat transfer for the whole cell. Different thermal, flow fields, and hydrodynamic conditions were studied, addressing (a), (b) and (d). A scale analysis allowed for predictions of the cell performance prior to any computations. Good agreement between experiments with a segmented cell and the model was obtained. A liquid-phase model, comprising conservation of mass, momentum and species, was derived and analyzed for the anode of the DMFC. The impact of hydrodynamic, electrochemical and geometrical features on the fuel cell performance were studied, mainly focusing on (a). The slenderness of the anode allows the use of a narrow-gap approximation, leading to a reduced model, with benefits such as reduced computational cost and understanding of the physical trends prior to any numerical computations. Adding the gas-phase via a multiphase mixture approach, the gas
The Random Ray Method for neutral particle transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tramm, John R., E-mail: jtramm@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Department 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Smith, Kord S., E-mail: kord@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Forget, Benoit, E-mail: bforget@mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science Engineering, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 24-107, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Siegel, Andrew R., E-mail: siegela@mcs.anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, Mathematics and Computer Science Department 9700 S Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)
2017-08-01
A new approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the method of characteristics (MOC) is presented. The Random Ray Method (TRRM) uses a stochastic rather than deterministic discretization of characteristic tracks to integrate the phase space of a problem. TRRM is potentially applicable in a number of transport simulation fields where long characteristic methods are used, such as neutron transport and gamma ray transport in reactor physics as well as radiative transfer in astrophysics. In this study, TRRM is developed and then tested on a series of exemplar reactor physics benchmark problems. The results show extreme improvements in memory efficiency compared to deterministic MOC methods, while also reducing algorithmic complexity, allowing for a sparser computational grid to be used while maintaining accuracy.
The Random Ray Method for neutral particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tramm, John R.; Smith, Kord S.; Forget, Benoit; Siegel, Andrew R.
2017-01-01
A new approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs) based on the method of characteristics (MOC) is presented. The Random Ray Method (TRRM) uses a stochastic rather than deterministic discretization of characteristic tracks to integrate the phase space of a problem. TRRM is potentially applicable in a number of transport simulation fields where long characteristic methods are used, such as neutron transport and gamma ray transport in reactor physics as well as radiative transfer in astrophysics. In this study, TRRM is developed and then tested on a series of exemplar reactor physics benchmark problems. The results show extreme improvements in memory efficiency compared to deterministic MOC methods, while also reducing algorithmic complexity, allowing for a sparser computational grid to be used while maintaining accuracy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dipankar Chatterjee
2017-06-01
Full Text Available A comparative assessment is done on the effectiveness of some developed and reported macroscopic and mesoscopic models deployed for addressing the three-dimensional thermo-fluidic transport during high-power laser surface alloying process. The macroscopic models include the most celebrated k–ε turbulence model and the large eddy simulation (LES model, whereas a kinetic theory-based lattice Boltzmann (LB approach is invoked under the mesoscopic paradigm. The time-dependent Navier–Stokes equations are transformed into the k–ε turbulence model by performing the Reynolds averaging technique, whereas a spatial filtering operation is used to produce the LES model. The models are suitably modified to address the turbulent melt-pool convection by using a modified eddy viscosity expression including a damping factor in the form of square root of the liquid fraction. The LB scheme utilizes three separate distribution functions to monitor the underlying hydrodynamic, thermal and compositional fields. Accordingly, the kinematic viscosity, thermal and mass diffusivities are adjusted independently. A single domain fixed-grid enthalpy-porosity approach is utilized to model the phase change phenomena in conjunction with an appropriate enthalpy updating closure scheme. The performance of these models is recorded by capturing the characteristic nature of the thermo-fluidic transport during the laser material processing. The maximum values of the pertinent parameters in the computational domain obtained from several modeling efforts are compared to assess their capabilities. The comparison shows that the prediction from the k–ε turbulence model is higher than the LES and LB models. In addition, the results from all three models are compared with the available experimental results in the form of dimensionless composition of the alloyed layer along the dimensionless depth of the pool. The comparison reveals that the LB and the LES approaches are better
Huang, Xinyan; Rein, Guillermo
2016-05-01
The thermochemical conversion of biomass in smouldering combustion is investigated here by combining experiments and modeling at two scales: matter (1mg) and bench (100g) scales. Emphasis is put on the effect of oxygen (0-33vol.%) and oxidation reactions because these are poorly studied in the literature in comparison to pyrolysis. The results are obtained for peat as a representative biomass for which there is high-quality experimental data published previously. Three kinetic schemes are explored, including various steps of drying, pyrolysis and oxidation. The kinetic parameters are found using the Kissinger-Genetic Algorithm method, and then implemented in a one-dimensional model of heat and mass transfer. The predictions are validated with thermogravimetric and bench-scale experiments and then analyzed to unravel the role of heterogeneous reaction. This is the first time that the influence of oxygen on biomass smouldering is explained in terms of both chemistry and transport phenomena across scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chen, Yao; Hong, Seongmin; Fu, Chung-Wei; Hoang, Tran; Li, Xiao; Valencia, Veronica; Zhang, Zhenjie; Perman, Jason A; Ma, Shengqian
2017-03-29
Mesoporous materials, Tb-mesoMOF and MCM-41, were used to study the transport phenomena of biomolecules entering the interior pores from solution. Vitamins B 12 and B 2 were successfully encapsulated into these mesoporous materials, whereas Tb-mesoMOF (0.33 g of B 12 /g, 0.01 g of B 2 /g) adsorbed a higher amount of vitamin per mass than MCM-41 (0.21 g of B 12 /g, 0.002 g of B 2 /g). The diffusion mechanism of the biomolecules entering Tb-mesoMOF was evaluated using a mathematical model. The Raman spectroscopy studies showed vitamin B 12 has been encapsulated within Tb-mesoMOF's pores, and evaluation of the peak shifts indicated strong interactions linking vitamin B 12 's pyrroline moiety with Tb-mesoMOF's triazine and benzoate rings. Because of these stronger interactions between the vitamins and Tb-mesoMOF, longer egress times were observed than with MCM-41.
Passive scalar transport in peripheral regions of random flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernykh, A.; Lebedev, V.
2011-01-01
We investigate statistical properties of the passive scalar mixing in random (turbulent) flows assuming its diffusion to be weak. Then at advanced stages of the passive scalar decay, its unmixed residue is primarily concentrated in a narrow diffusive layer near the wall and its transport to the bulk goes through the peripheral region (laminar sublayer of the flow). We conducted Lagrangian numerical simulations of the process for different space dimensions d and revealed structures responsible for the transport, which are passive scalar tongues pulled from the diffusive boundary layer to the bulk. We investigated statistical properties of the passive scalar and of the passive scalar integrated along the wall. Moments of both objects demonstrate scaling behavior outside the diffusive boundary layer. We propose an analytic scheme for the passive scalar statistics, explaining the features observed numerically.
Transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Dong-Sheng; Zhu Chen-Ping; Zhang Yong-Mei
2011-01-01
We investigate the transport properties of a ladder with two random dimer (RD) chains. It is found that there are two extended states in the ladder with identical RD chains and a critical state regarded as an extended state in the ladder with pairing RD chains. Such a critical state is caused by the chiral symmetry. The ladder with identical RD chains can be decoupled into two isolated RD chains and the ladder with pairing RD chains can not. The analytic expressions of the extended states are presented for the ladder with identical RD chains. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)
A random walk approach to stochastic neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mulatier, Clelia de
2015-01-01
One of the key goals of nuclear reactor physics is to determine the distribution of the neutron population within a reactor core. This population indeed fluctuates due to the stochastic nature of the interactions of the neutrons with the nuclei of the surrounding medium: scattering, emission of neutrons from fission events and capture by nuclear absorption. Due to these physical mechanisms, the stochastic process performed by neutrons is a branching random walk. For most applications, the neutron population considered is very large, and all physical observables related to its behaviour, such as the heat production due to fissions, are well characterised by their average values. Generally, these mean quantities are governed by the classical neutron transport equation, called linear Boltzmann equation. During my PhD, using tools from branching random walks and anomalous diffusion, I have tackled two aspects of neutron transport that cannot be approached by the linear Boltzmann equation. First, thanks to the Feynman-Kac backward formalism, I have characterised the phenomenon of 'neutron clustering' that has been highlighted for low-density configuration of neutrons and results from strong fluctuations in space and time of the neutron population. Then, I focused on several properties of anomalous (non-exponential) transport, that can model neutron transport in strongly heterogeneous and disordered media, such as pebble-bed reactors. One of the novel aspects of this work is that problems are treated in the presence of boundaries. Indeed, even though real systems are finite (confined geometries), most of previously existing results were obtained for infinite systems. (author) [fr
Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.
2018-06-01
Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system ( x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient ( ∂p total/ ∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.
Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.
2018-03-01
Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system (x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient (∂p total/∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.
Gaina, Alex
1996-08-01
Critical analysis is given of some paranormal phenomena events (UFO, healers, psychokinesis (telekinesis))reported in Moldova. It is argued that correct analysis of paranormal phenomena should be made in the framework of electromagnetism.
Anomalous transport in turbulent plasmas and continuous time random walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balescu, R.
1995-01-01
The possibility of a model of anomalous transport problems in a turbulent plasma by a purely stochastic process is investigated. The theory of continuous time random walks (CTRW's) is briefly reviewed. It is shown that a particular class, called the standard long tail CTRW's is of special interest for the description of subdiffusive transport. Its evolution is described by a non-Markovian diffusion equation that is constructed in such a way as to yield exact values for all the moments of the density profile. The concept of a CTRW model is compared to an exact solution of a simple test problem: transport of charged particles in a fluctuating magnetic field in the limit of infinite perpendicular correlation length. Although the well-known behavior of the mean square displacement proportional to t 1/2 is easily recovered, the exact density profile cannot be modeled by a CTRW. However, the quasilinear approximation of the kinetic equation has the form of a non-Markovian diffusion equation and can thus be generated by a CTRW
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maher, A.R.; Al-Baghdadi, S. [International Technological Univ., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Haroun, A.K.; Al-Janabi, S. [Babylon Univ., Babylon (Iraq). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2007-07-01
Fuel cell technology is expected to play an important role in meeting the growing demand for distributed generation because it can convert the chemical energy of a clean fuel directly into electrical energy. An operating fuel cell has varying local conditions of temperature, humidity, and power generation across the active area of the fuel cell in 3D. This paper presented a model that was developed to improve the basic understanding of the transport phenomena and thermal stresses in PEM fuel cells, and to investigate the behaviour of polymer membrane under hygro and thermal stresses during the cell operation. This comprehensive 3D, multiphase, non-isothermal model accounts for the major transport phenomena in a PEM fuel cell, notably convective and diffusive heat and mass transfer; electrode kinetics; transport and phase change mechanism of water; and potential fields. The model accounts for the liquid water flux inside the gas diffusion layers by viscous and capillary forces and can therefore predict the amount of liquid water inside the gas diffusion layers. This study also investigated the key parameters affecting fuel cell performance including geometry, materials and operating conditions. The model considers the many interacting, complex electrochemical, transport phenomena, thermal stresses and deformation that cannot be studied experimentally. It was concluded that the model can provide a computer-aided tool for the design and optimization of future fuel cells with much higher power density and lower cost. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 14 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guinard, L.
1996-12-31
In an attempt to minimise dosimetry within the primary circuit of PWR units, research is being carried out into understanding the phenomena of transportation and deposition of corrosion products. It is therefore desirable to known the form of these corrosion products and the laws governing this form. It is generally considered that they are in soluble or particulate form. A third starts with a general presentation of colloids and goes on to define points which are useful, both on a theoretical and experimental level, in terms of application to phenomena of transportation within PWRs. (author). 69 refs., 30 figs., 6 tabs., 3 appends.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.; Betova, I.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)
1999-01-01
. In addition, the films are to a large extent influenced by the kinetic factors determining their growth rate and steady state thickness. Thus a thermodynamic consideration of the film is not sufficient to model and predict its growth and dissolution. Instead, kinetic models based on in situ experimental data are required. The kinetic models presented in the literature for both ambient and high-temperature aqueous oxidation of metals lack a correlation between the structure of the oxide films and their electronic and ionic properties. Also, a quantitative treatment and thus the capability to predict material behaviour in varying conditions is lacking. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between applied water chemistry, the behaviour of oxide films and optimum performance of the plant is thus also lacking. The situation calls for more experimental work combined with comprehensive modelling of the behaviour of both the compact and the porous part of the oxide film formed on a metal surface. This will make it possible to recognise the rate-limiting steps of the processes in the film, and thus to influence the rate of activity incorporation and different corrosion phenomena related to transport of species in the film. (author) 210 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.; Betova, I.; Maekelae, K.; Saario, T.
1999-01-01
. In addition, the films are to a large extent influenced by the kinetic factors determining their growth rate and steady state thickness. Thus a thermodynamic consideration of the film is not sufficient to model and predict its growth and dissolution. Instead, kinetic models based on in situ experimental data are required. The kinetic models presented in the literature for both ambient and high-temperature aqueous oxidation of metals lack a correlation between the structure of the oxide films and their electronic and ionic properties. Also, a quantitative treatment and thus the capability to predict material behaviour in varying conditions is lacking. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between applied water chemistry, the behaviour of oxide films and optimum performance of the plant is thus also lacking. The situation calls for more experimental work combined with comprehensive modelling of the behaviour of both the compact and the porous part of the oxide film formed on a metal surface. This will make it possible to recognise the rate-limiting steps of the processes in the film, and thus to influence the rate of activity incorporation and different corrosion phenomena related to transport of species in the film. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saario, T.; Laitinen, T.; Maekelae, K.; Bojinov, M.; Betova, I.
1998-07-01
. In addition, the films are to a large extent influenced by the kinetic factors determining their growth rate and steady state thickness. Thus a thermodynamic consideration of the film is not sufficient to model and predict its growth and dissolution. Instead, kinetic models based on in situ experimental data are required. The kinetic models presented in the literature for both ambient and high-temperature aqueous oxidation of metals lack a correlation between the structure of the oxide films and their electronic and ionic properties. Also, a quantitative treatment and thus the capability to predict material behaviour in varying conditions is lacking. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between applied water chemistry, the behaviour of oxide films and optimum performance of the plant is thus also lacking. The situation calls for more experimental work combined with comprehensive modelling of the behaviour of both the dense and the porous part of the oxide film formed on a metal surface. This will make it possible to recognise the rate-limiting steps of the processes in the film, and thus to influence the rate of activity incorporation and different corrosion phenomena related to transport of species in the film. (author)
Skouras, Eugene D.; Jaho, Sofia; Pavlakou, Efstathia I.; Sygouni, Varvara; Petsi, Anastasia; Paraskeva, Christakis A.
2015-04-01
The deposition of salts in porous media is a major engineering phenomenon encountered in a plethora of industrial and environmental applications where in some cases is desirable and in other not (oil production, geothermal systems, soil stabilization etc). Systematic approach of these problems requires knowledge of the key mechanisms of precipitating salts within the porous structures, in order to develop new methods to control the process. In this work, the development and the solution of spatiotemporally variable mass balances during salt solution mixing along specific pores were performed. Both analytical models and finite differences CFD models were applied for the study of flow and transport with simultaneous homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation (by crystal growth on the surface of the pores) in simple geometries, while unstructured finite elements and meshless methods were developed and implemented for spatial discretization, reconstruction, and solution of transport equations and homogeneous / heterogeneous reactions in more complex geometries. At initial stages of this work, critical problem parameters were identified, such as the characteristics of the porosity, the number of dissolved components, etc. The parameters were then used for solving problems which correspond to available experimental data. For each combination of ions and materials, specific data and process characteristics were included: (a) crystal kinetics (nucleation, growth rates or reaction surface rates of crystals, critical suspension concentrations), (b) physico-chemical properties (bulk density, dimensions of generated crystals, ion diffusion coefficients in the solution), (c) operating parameters (macroscopic velocity, flow, or pressure gradient of the solution, ion concentration) (d) microfluidic data (geometry, flow area), (e) porosity data in Darcy description (initial porosity, specific surface area, tortuosity). During the modeling of flow and transport in three
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pulkkanen, V.-M.; Nordman, H.
2010-03-01
Traditional radionuclide transport models overestimate significantly some phenomena, or completely ignore them. This motivates the development of new more precise models. As a result, this work is a description of commissioning of a new KBS-3V near-field radionuclide transport model, which has been done with a commercial software called GoldSim. According to earlier models, GoldSim model uses rz coordinates, but the solubilities of radionuclides have been treated more precisely. To begin with, the physical phenomena concerning near-field transport have been introduced according to GoldSim way of thinking. Also, the computational methods of GoldSim have been introduced and compared to methods used earlier. The actual verification of GoldSim model has been carried out by comparing the GoldSim results from simple cases to the corresponding results obtained with REPCOM, a software developed by VTT and used in several safety assessments. The results agree well. Finally, a few complicated cases were studied. In these cases, the REPCOM's limitations in handling of some phenomena become evident. The differences in the results are caused especially by the extension of the solubility limit to the whole computational domain, and the element-wise treatment of the solubilities which was used instead of nuclide-wise treatment. This work has been carried out as a special assignment to the former laboratory of Advanced Energy Systems in Helsinki University of Technology. The work was done at VTT. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
2007-01-01
Description: Prof. M.M..R Williams has now released three of his legacy books for free distribution: 1 - M.M.R. Williams: The Slowing Down and Thermalization of Neutrons, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966. Content: Part I - The Thermal Energy Region: 1. Introduction and Historical Review, 2. The Scattering Kernel, 3. Neutron Thermalization in an Infinite Homogeneous Medium, 4. Neutron Thermalization in Finite Media, 5. The Spatial Dependence of the Energy Spectrum, 6. Reactor Cell Calculations, 7. Synthetic Scattering Kernels. Part II - The Slowing Down Region: 8. Scattering Kernels in the Slowing Down Region, 9. Neutron Slowing Down in an Infinite Homogeneous Medium, 10.Neutron Slowing Down and Diffusion. 2 - M.M.R. Williams: Mathematical Methods in Particle Transport Theory, Butterworths, London, 430 pages, 1971. Content: 1 The General Problem of Particle Transport, 2 The Boltzmann Equation for Gas Atoms and Neutrons, 3 Boundary Conditions, 4 Scattering Kernels, 5 Some Basic Problems in Neutron Transport and Rarefied Gas Dynamics, 6 The Integral Form of the Transport Equation in Plane, Spherical and Cylindrical Geometries, 7 Exact Solutions of Model Problems, 8 Eigenvalue Problems in Transport Theory, 9 Collision Probability Methods, 10 Variational Methods, 11 Polynomial Approximations. 3 - M.M.R. Williams: Random Processes in Nuclear Reactors, Pergamon Press Oxford New York Toronto Sydney, 243 pages, 1974. Content: 1. Historical Survey and General Discussion, 2. Introductory Mathematical Treatment, 3. Applications of the General Theory, 4. Practical Applications of the Probability Distribution, 5. The Langevin Technique, 6. Point Model Power Reactor Noise, 7. The Spatial Variation of Reactor Noise, 8. Random Phenomena in Heterogeneous Reactor Systems, 9. Associated Fluctuation Problems, Appendix: Noise Equivalent Sources. Note to the user: Prof. M.M.R Williams owns the copyright of these books and he authorises the OECD/NEA Data Bank
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilson, J.L.
1994-05-01
Small scale laboratory experiments, equipped with an ability to actually observe behavior on the pore level using microscopy, provide an economical and easily understood scientific tool to help us validate concepts and assumptions about the transport of contaminants, and offers the propensity to discover heretofore unrecognized phenomena or behavior. The main technique employs etched glass micromodels, composed of two etched glass plates, sintered together, to form a two dimensional network of three dimensional pores. Flow and transport behavior is observed on a pore or pore network level, and recorder on film and video tape. This technique is coupled with related column studies. These techniques have been used to study multiphase flow, colloid transport and most recently bacteria transport. The project has recently moved to the Bacteria Transport Subprogram, and efforts have been redirected to support that Subprogram and its collaborative field experiment. We proposed to study bacteria transport factors of relevance to the field experiment, using micromodels and other laboratory techniques. Factors that may be addressed include bacteria characteristics (eg, hydrophobicity), pore size and shape, permeability heterogeneity, surface chemistry (eg, iron oxide coatings), surface chemistry heterogeneity, active versus resting cell bacteria, and mixed bacteria populations. In other work we will continue to examine the effects of fluid-fluid interfaces on bacteria transport, and develop a new assay for bacteria hydrophobicity. Finally we will collaborate on characterization of the field site, and the design, operation, and interpretation of the field experiment.
An application of reactor noise techniques to neutron transport problems in a random medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahni, D.C.
1989-01-01
Neutron transport problems in a random medium are considered by defining a joint Markov process describing the fluctuations of one neutron population and the random changes in the medium. Backward Chapman-Kolmogorov equations are derived which yield an adjoint transport equation for the average neutron density. It is shown that this average density also satisfied the direct transport equation as given by the phenomenological model. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Del-Sorbo, Dario
2015-01-01
Hydrodynamic simulations in high-energy-density physics and inertial confinement fusion require a detailed description of energy fluxes. The leading mechanism is the electron transport, which can be a nonlocal phenomenon that needs to be described with quasistationary and simplified Fokker-Planck models in large scale hydrodynamic codes. My thesis is dedicated to the development of a new nonlocal transport model based on a fast-moving-particles collision operator and on a first moment Fokker-Planck equation, simplified with an entropic closure relation. Such a closure enables a better description of the electron distribution function in the limit of high anisotropies, where small scale electrostatic instabilities could be excited. This new model, so called M1, is successfully compared with the well known nonlocal electron transport model proposed by Schurtz, Nicolai and Busquet, using different collision operators, and with the reduced Fokker-Planck model, based on a small-anisotropies polynomial closure relation (P1). Several typical configurations of heat transport are considered. We show that the M1 entropic model may operate in two and three dimensions and is able to account for electron transport modifications in external magnetic fields. Moreover, our model enables to compute realistic electron distribution functions, which can be used for kinetic studies, as for the plasma stability in the transport zone. It is demonstrated that the electron energy transport may strongly modify damping of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves, while the simplified nonlocal transport models are not able to describe accurately the modifications of the distribution function and plasma wave damping. The structure of the M1 model allows to naturally take into account self-generated magnetic fields, which play a crucial role in multidimensional simulations. Moreover, magnetic fields could also be used for the focusing of energetic particles in alternative ignition schemes. The M1 model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indu S
2016-07-01
Full Text Available CONTEXT Emergence from general anaesthesia is associated with post extubation cough, hoarseness, sore throat, and dysphagia, which may affect the smoothness of extubation. Prophylactic interventions have been studied to reduce these tracheal morbidities with varying results. AIMS To compare the efficacy of air, alkalinised lignocaine and saline in maintaining intracuff pressure and reducing postoperative cough (PEC and sore throat (POST. SETTINGS AND DESIGN A randomised controlled study conducted in a teaching hospital. METHODS AND MATERIALS 105 patients scheduled for elective surgeries were randomly allocated into groups of 35 each. The endotracheal tube (ETT cuffs were inflated with air, alkalinised lignocaine, or saline. The intracuff pressure (ICP was initially set to 25-30 cm of H2O; measured every 30 minutes and before extubation; the minimum volume for occlusion (MOV noted. The incidence PEC and POST were monitored. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS Data analysed using Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test; Bonferroni method allowed multiple comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Pre-lubricated ETT cuff inflation with liquid media maintained an acceptable ICP. Saline and alkalinised lignocaine were effective in reducing PEC and POST. Alkalinised lignocaine provided smoother extubation and fared better in the early postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS Pre-lubricated ETT cuffs with liquid media reduced PEC and POST. Alkalinised lignocaine showed better profile than saline. Optimum ICP reduces tracheal morbidity.
Output variability caused by random seeds in a multi-agent transport simulation model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paulsen, Mads; Rasmussen, Thomas Kjær; Nielsen, Otto Anker
2018-01-01
Dynamic transport simulators are intended to support decision makers in transport-related issues, and as such it is valuable that the random variability of their outputs is as small as possible. In this study we analyse the output variability caused by random seeds of a multi-agent transport...... simulator (MATSim) when applied to a case study of Santiago de Chile. Results based on 100 different random seeds shows that the relative accuracies of estimated link loads tend to increase with link load, but that relative errors of up to 10 % do occur even for links with large volumes. Although...
Study of the transport phenomena in III-V materials by the Monte Carlo method: application to INAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouazza, B.; Amer, L.; Guen-Bouazza, A.; Sayeh, C.; Chabanne-Sari, N.E.; Gontrand, C.
2004-01-01
Full text.The microelectronic comprehension of the phenomena which describes the behavior of the carriers in semiconductor materials requires the knowledge of energy distribution function. This distribution function is obtained by the resolution of Boltzmann equation which is very hard to solve analytically. Other methods based on modeling are actually successfully used to solve this equation. This Monte Carlo method is among of the most methods used for studying electronics components operations. It consists to follow the evolution of electron packets in real space, where each electron subjected to the electric field present in material goes interact with the crystal lattice. It is therefore an iterative process made up from a whole coasting flights stopped by acoustics interactions, polar and non polar optics, piezoelectric, inter-valley, impurity, ionization and surface. By applying this method to the III-V material: InAs. We can describe the behavior of the carriers from dynamic and energetic point of view (variation speed according to the field). The simulation is applied, taking into account variation of the carriers according to time in the non stationary mode, and the effect of temperature, and measurements doping. Results obtained are shown to be comparable to those of the theory
Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi
2013-01-01
A fuel cell is most interesting new power source because it solves not only the environment problem but also natural resource exhaustion problem. CFD modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in PEM fuel cells are being used extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of the fundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype for engineering application. In this research, full three-dimensional, non-isothermal co...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sedano, L. A.
2007-01-01
COMPU task is devoted to develop a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) modelling tool for DEMO tritium cycle for HCLL and HCPB blanket lines for DEMO. At the actual stage of definition of HCLL blanket design line this global objective requires to progress specifically on the physical reliability of tritium transport assessments at blanket design level. A rough reliability assessment with the identify cation of physical phenomena determining permeation rates into the coolant was tentatively advanced in COMPU Task Deliverable 1. In HCLL design, the tritium diffusion in the alloy under the flow conditions and radiation effects in Pb15.7Li can be theoretically justifies ed as the rate limiting processes for tritium transfer into the coolant. This Deliverable 2 focuses on the analysis of a specific radiation effect: the potential role of helium bubbles in Pb15.7Li, the discussion of its implications on tritium assessment for HCLL design and consequently the analysis of its quantitative impact (as cycle input) on HCLL PFD tritium cycle design. Thus, the contents of this report investigate: (1) the rationality of the consideration on HCLL design of helium bubble cavitation phenomena in irradiated Pb15.7Li channels on the base of fundamental analysis (He solution states in Pb15.7Li) from empirical clues provided by Pb15.7Li irradiation tests, (2) a preliminary rough He-bubble cavitation design assessment and bases for a more precise FEM calculation for helium bubble cavitation phenomena in HCLL blanket channels, (3) the analysis of direct experimental data and numerical developments needed for a precise cavitation assessment and (4) a proposal of the lay-out and general specifications of an integral proof-of-principle Cavitation Experiment (Cevitex) of Helium in Pb15.7Li. (Author) 40 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sedano, L. A.
2007-09-27
COMPU task is devoted to develop a Process Flow Diagram (PFD) modelling tool for DEMO tritium cycle for HCLL and HCPB blanket lines for DEMO. At the actual stage of definition of HCLL blanket design line this global objective requires to progress specifically on the physical reliability of tritium transport assessments at blanket design level. A rough reliability assessment with the identify cation of physical phenomena determining permeation rates into the coolant was tentatively advanced in COMPU Task Deliverable 1. In HCLL design, the tritium diffusion in the alloy under the flow conditions and radiation effects in Pb15.7Li can be theoretically justifies ed as the rate limiting processes for tritium transfer into the coolant. This Deliverable 2 focuses on the analysis of a specific radiation effect: the potential role of helium bubbles in Pb15.7Li, the discussion of its implications on tritium assessment for HCLL design and consequently the analysis of its quantitative impact (as cycle input) on HCLL PFD tritium cycle design. Thus, the contents of this report investigate: (1) the rationality of the consideration on HCLL design of helium bubble cavitation phenomena in irradiated Pb15.7Li channels on the base of fundamental analysis (He solution states in Pb15.7Li) from empirical clues provided by Pb15.7Li irradiation tests, (2) a preliminary rough He-bubble cavitation design assessment and bases for a more precise FEM calculation for helium bubble cavitation phenomena in HCLL blanket channels, (3) the analysis of direct experimental data and numerical developments needed for a precise cavitation assessment and (4) a proposal of the lay-out and general specifications of an integral proof-of-principle Cavitation Experiment (Cevitex) of Helium in Pb15.7Li. (Author) 40 refs.
Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.
2018-02-01
Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.
2010-01-01
A model to predict the transport of ionic species within the pore solution of porous materials, under the effect of an external electric field has been developed. A Finite Elements method was implemented and used for the integration of the Nernst-Plank equations for each ionic species considered....... Electrical neutrality was continuously assured in the model by the inclusion of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation to the system of governing equations. Voltage differences were applied across the sample as boundary conditions in order to evaluate the competition between diffusion and electromigration terms...
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Smith, GG
2002-07-30
Full Text Available suspension was further found to be related to the onset of lower water-levels associated with infragravity wave action, which corresponded with a predominance of breaking/broken waves. These breaking/broken waves (which are induced by the low water... is transported down- wards. Nadaoka et al. (1989) have furthermore identi?ed an eddy structure whereby the surface roller is dominated by a nearly two-dimensional ?ow structure, bounded below by strongly three- dimensional obliquely descending eddies bringing...
García-Salaberri, Pablo A.; Vera, Marcos; Iglesias, Immaculada
2014-01-01
An isothermal two-phase 2D/1D across-the-channel model for the anode of a liquid-feed Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) is presented. The model takes into account the effects of the inhomogeneous assembly compression of the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), including the spatial variations of porosity, diffusivity, permeability, capillary pressure, and electrical conductivity. The effective anisotropic properties of the GDL are evaluated from empirical data reported in the literature corresponding to Toray carbon paper TGP-H series. Multiphase transport is modeled according to the classical theory of porous media (two-fluid model), considering the effect of non-equilibrium evaporation and condensation of methanol and water. The numerical results evidence that the hydrophobic Leverett J-function approach is physically inconsistent to describe capillary transport in the anode of a DMFC when assembly compression effects are considered. In contrast, more realistic results are obtained when GDL-specific capillary pressure curves reflecting the mixed-wettability characteristics of GDLs are taken into account. The gas coverage factor at the GDL/channel interface also exhibits a strong influence on the gas-void fraction distribution in the GDL, which in turn depends on the relative importance between the capillary resistance induced by the inhomogeneous compression, Rc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ ε) , and the capillary diffusivity, Dbarc(∝ ∂pc / ∂ s) .
Li, Zhaorui; Livescu, Daniel
2017-11-01
The two-fluid plasma equations with full transport terms, including temperature and magnetic field dependent ion and electron viscous stresses and heat fluxes, frictional drag force, and ohmic heating term have been solved by using the sixth-order non-dissipative compact scheme for plasma flows in several different regimes. In order to be able to fully resolve all the dynamically relevant time and length scales while maintaining computational feasibility, the assumptions of infinite speed of light and negligible electron inertia have been made. The accuracy and robustness of this two-fluid plasma solver in handling plasma flows have been tested against a series of canonical problems, such as Alfven-Whistler dispersion relation, electromagnetic plasma shock, magnetic reconnection, etc. For all test cases, grid convergence tests have been conducted to achieve fully resolved results. The roles of heat flux, viscosity, resistivity, Hall and Biermann battery effects, are investigated for the canonical flows studied.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pusch, R.; Karnland, O.; Muurinen, A.
1989-12-01
MX-80 Na smectite clay, essentially consisting of montmorillonite, was investigated with respect to major transport properties and rheological behavior. Duffison and percolation tests using sodium, copper, and uranium solutions were conducted both at room temperature and at 90deg C. The diffusion tests showed that Na migrates very rapidly by pore and surface diffusion. Cu appears to migrate at the same rate as many other cations, the major diffusion mechanism being surface diffusion. Cu tends to replace initially sorbed Na and exchangeable protons and charges the clay to yield 'Cu-bentonite' even on contacting the clay with rather dilute solutions (100 ppm Cu). Uranium was found to migrate approximately as Cu but precipitation of Na- or Ca U compounds forming a front zone appeared to be a rate-controlling mechanism. Thus, the diffusion profile had a very steep front, identified also by a SEM/EDX investigation. This indicates that the rate of advancement of the front is determined by the reaction rate. Although not being a true diffusion process, it can approximately be regarded as one, the coefficient of diffusion being 10-100 times lower than that of Cu. Behind the high concentration front, the clay becomes fully charged with U to form a 'U-bentonite' even at low concentration of the uranium solution (100 ppm U). The percolation and rheological investigations showed only moderate influence on the hydraulic conductivity and creep properties by an increased Na content (10000 ppm) or partial uptake by Cu or U. Considerable differences were found between samples investigated at room temperature and at 90deg C (effect of cementation). The microstructure was concluded to control a number of practically important physical properties. It determines the hydraulic conductivity and the rheological behaviour, and it has a very substantial influence on diffusive transport of ions in the porewater. (orig.)
Kinetic Theory of Electronic Transport in Random Magnetic Fields
Lucas, Andrew
2018-03-01
We present the theory of quasiparticle transport in perturbatively small inhomogeneous magnetic fields across the ballistic-to-hydrodynamic crossover. In the hydrodynamic limit, the resistivity ρ generically grows proportionally to the rate of momentum-conserving electron-electron collisions at large enough temperatures T . In particular, the resulting flow of electrons provides a simple scenario where viscous effects suppress conductance below the ballistic value. This new mechanism for ρ ∝T2 resistivity in a Fermi liquid may describe low T transport in single-band SrTiO3 .
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paszkuta, M
2005-06-15
Low permeability materials containing clay play an important role in practical life and natural environment. Indeed, the ability of clay soils to act as semi permeable membranes, that inhibit the passage of electrolytes, is of great interest. The major objective of this thesis is to evaluate the transport properties of natural clays and in particular coupled transports when a pressure gradient, an electrical field, a concentration gradient and a temperature gradient interact. The material is a compact argillite extracted in East France from a Callovo-Oxfordian formation which was supplied to us by ANDRA. NaCl was used as the main solute. Two series of experiments were performed to measure permeability, diffusion, conductivity, the electro-osmotic coefficient and the Soret coefficient. (author)
Most, S.; Jia, N.; Bijeljic, B.; Nowak, W.
2016-12-01
Pre-asymptotic characteristics are almost ubiquitous when analyzing solute transport processes in porous media. These pre-asymptotic aspects are caused by spatial coherence in the velocity field and by its heterogeneity. For the Lagrangian perspective of particle displacements, the causes of pre-asymptotic, non-Fickian transport are skewed velocity distribution, statistical dependencies between subsequent increments of particle positions (memory) and dependence between the x, y and z-components of particle increments. Valid simulation frameworks should account for these factors. We propose a particle tracking random walk (PTRW) simulation technique that can use empirical pore-space velocity distributions as input, enforces memory between subsequent random walk steps, and considers cross dependence. Thus, it is able to simulate pre-asymptotic non-Fickian transport phenomena. Our PTRW framework contains an advection/dispersion term plus a diffusion term. The advection/dispersion term produces time-series of particle increments from the velocity CDFs. These time series are equipped with memory by enforcing that the CDF values of subsequent velocities change only slightly. The latter is achieved through a random walk on the axis of CDF values between 0 and 1. The virtual diffusion coefficient for that random walk is our only fitting parameter. Cross-dependence can be enforced by constraining the random walk to certain combinations of CDF values between the three velocity components in x, y and z. We will show that this modelling framework is capable of simulating non-Fickian transport by comparison with a pore-scale transport simulation and we analyze the approach to asymptotic behavior.
Gao, Jianbo; Hu, Jing; Mao, Xiang; Perc, Matjaž
2012-01-01
Culturomics was recently introduced as the application of high-throughput data collection and analysis to the study of human culture. Here, we make use of these data by investigating fluctuations in yearly usage frequencies of specific words that describe social and natural phenomena, as derived from books that were published over the course of the past two centuries. We show that the determination of the Hurst parameter by means of fractal analysis provides fundamental insights into the nature of long-range correlations contained in the culturomic trajectories, and by doing so offers new interpretations as to what might be the main driving forces behind the examined phenomena. Quite remarkably, we find that social and natural phenomena are governed by fundamentally different processes. While natural phenomena have properties that are typical for processes with persistent long-range correlations, social phenomena are better described as non-stationary, on–off intermittent or Lévy walk processes. PMID:22337632
Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro
2017-08-01
This third part extends the theory of Generalized Poisson-Kac (GPK) processes to nonlinear stochastic models and to a continuum of states. Nonlinearity is treated in two ways: (i) as a dependence of the parameters (intensity of the stochastic velocity, transition rates) of the stochastic perturbation on the state variable, similarly to the case of nonlinear Langevin equations, and (ii) as the dependence of the stochastic microdynamic equations of motion on the statistical description of the process itself (nonlinear Fokker-Planck-Kac models). Several numerical and physical examples illustrate the theory. Gathering nonlinearity and a continuum of states, GPK theory provides a stochastic derivation of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation, furnishing a positive answer to the Kac’s program in kinetic theory. The transition from stochastic microdynamics to transport theory within the framework of the GPK paradigm is also addressed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giona, Massimiliano; Brasiello, Antonio; Crescitelli, Silvestro
2017-01-01
This third part extends the theory of Generalized Poisson–Kac (GPK) processes to nonlinear stochastic models and to a continuum of states. Nonlinearity is treated in two ways: (i) as a dependence of the parameters (intensity of the stochastic velocity, transition rates) of the stochastic perturbation on the state variable, similarly to the case of nonlinear Langevin equations, and (ii) as the dependence of the stochastic microdynamic equations of motion on the statistical description of the process itself (nonlinear Fokker–Planck–Kac models). Several numerical and physical examples illustrate the theory. Gathering nonlinearity and a continuum of states, GPK theory provides a stochastic derivation of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation, furnishing a positive answer to the Kac’s program in kinetic theory. The transition from stochastic microdynamics to transport theory within the framework of the GPK paradigm is also addressed. (paper)
Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.
2012-01-01
The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the d ouble Monte Carlo m odeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix
Enhanced quantum interference transport in gold films with random antidot arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhaoguo Li
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We report on the quantum interference transport of randomly distributed antidot arrays, which were prepared on gold films via the focused ion beam direct writing method. The temperature dependence of the gold films’ resistances with and without random antidot arrays were described via electron–phonon interaction theory. Compared with the pristine gold films, we observed an unexpected enhancement of the weak localization signature in the random antidot array films. The physical mechanism behind this enhancement may originate from the enhancement of electron–electron interactions or the suppression of electron–phonon interactions; further evidence is required to determine the exact mechanism.
Fermi sea term in the relativistic linear muffin-tin-orbital transport theory for random alloys
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav
2014-01-01
Roč. 89, č. 6 (2014), 064405 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : electron transport * anomalous Hall effect * random alloys Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.736, year: 2014
Static transport properties of random alloys: Vertex corrections in conserving approximations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja
2016-01-01
Roč. 93, č. 24 (2016), 245114-1-245114-6 ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : transport properties * random alloys * coherent-potential approximation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Zhijie; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.
2017-09-01
This work presents a hierarchical model for solute transport in bounded layered porous media with random permeability. The model generalizes the Taylor-Aris dispersion theory to stochastic transport in random layered porous media with a known velocity covariance function. In the hierarchical model, we represent (random) concentration in terms of its cross-sectional average and a variation function. We derive a one-dimensional stochastic advection-dispersion-type equation for the average concentration and a stochastic Poisson equation for the variation function, as well as expressions for the effective velocity and dispersion coefficient. We observe that velocity fluctuations enhance dispersion in a non-monotonic fashion: the dispersion initially increases with correlation length λ, reaches a maximum, and decreases to zero at infinity. Maximum enhancement can be obtained at the correlation length about 0.25 the size of the porous media perpendicular to flow.
Random walk, diffusion and mixing in simulations of scalar transport in fluid flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimenko, A Y
2008-01-01
Physical similarity and mathematical equivalence of continuous diffusion and particle random walk form one of the cornerstones of modern physics and the theory of stochastic processes. In many applied models used in simulation of turbulent transport and turbulent combustion, mixing between particles is used to reflect the influence of the continuous diffusion terms in the transport equations. We show that the continuous scalar transport and diffusion can be accurately specified by means of mixing between randomly walking Lagrangian particles with scalar properties and assess errors associated with this scheme. This gives an alternative formulation for the stochastic process which is selected to represent the continuous diffusion. This paper focuses on statistical errors and deals with relatively simple cases, where one-particle distributions are sufficient for a complete description of the problem.
Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena
Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina
2014-01-01
This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the
Magnetohydrodynamic flow phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Eckert, S.
1995-01-01
The MHD group of the Institute of Safety Research performs basic studies on fluid dynamics and heat/mass transfer in fluids, particularly for electrically conducting fluids (liquid metals) exposed to external magnetic fields (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD). Such a contactless influence on transport phenomena is of principal importance for a variety of applied problems including safety and design aspects in liquid metal cooled fusion reactors, fast reactors, and chemical systems. Any electrically conducting flow can be influenced without any contact by means of an external electromagnetic field. This, of course, can change the known hydromechanically flow patterns considerably. In the following two examples of such magnetic field influence are presented. (orig.)
Neutron Transport in Finite Random Media with Pure-Triplet Scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sallaha, M.; Hendi, A.A.
2008-01-01
The solution of the one-speed neutron transport equation in a finite slab random medium with pure-triplet anisotropic scattering is studied. The stochastic medium is assumed to consist of two randomly mixed immiscible fluids. The cross section and the scattering kernel are treated as discrete random variables, which obey the same statistics as Markovian processes and exponential chord length statistics. The medium boundaries are considered to have specular reflectivities with angular-dependent externally incident flux. The deterministic solution is obtained by using Pomraning-Eddington approximation. Numerical results are calculated for the average reflectivity and average transmissivity for different values of the single scattering albedo and varying the parameters which characterize the random medium. Compared to the results obtained by Adams et al. in case of isotropic scattering that based on the Monte Carlo technique, it can be seen that we have good comparable data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berkolaiko, G., E-mail: berko@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Kuipers, J., E-mail: Jack.Kuipers@physik.uni-regensburg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2013-11-15
To study electronic transport through chaotic quantum dots, there are two main theoretical approaches. One involves substituting the quantum system with a random scattering matrix and performing appropriate ensemble averaging. The other treats the transport in the semiclassical approximation and studies correlations among sets of classical trajectories. There are established evaluation procedures within the semiclassical evaluation that, for several linear and nonlinear transport moments to which they were applied, have always resulted in the agreement with random matrix predictions. We prove that this agreement is universal: any semiclassical evaluation within the accepted procedures is equivalent to the evaluation within random matrix theory. The equivalence is shown by developing a combinatorial interpretation of the trajectory sets as ribbon graphs (maps) with certain properties and exhibiting systematic cancellations among their contributions. Remaining trajectory sets can be identified with primitive (palindromic) factorisations whose number gives the coefficients in the corresponding expansion of the moments of random matrices. The equivalence is proved for systems with and without time reversal symmetry.
Comolli, Alessandro; Hakoun, Vivien; Dentz, Marco
2017-04-01
Achieving the understanding of the process of solute transport in heterogeneous porous media is of crucial importance for several environmental and social purposes, ranging from aquifers contamination and remediation, to risk assessment in nuclear waste repositories. The complexity of this aim is mainly ascribable to the heterogeneity of natural media, which can be observed at all the scales of interest, from pore scale to catchment scale. In fact, the intrinsic heterogeneity of porous media is responsible for the arising of the well-known non-Fickian footprints of transport, including heavy-tailed breakthrough curves, non-Gaussian spatial density profiles and the non-linear growth of the mean squared displacement. Several studies investigated the processes through which heterogeneity impacts the transport properties, which include local modifications to the advective-dispersive motion of solutes, mass exchanges between some mobile and immobile phases (e.g. sorption/desorption reactions or diffusion into solid matrix) and spatial correlation of the flow field. In the last decades, the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model has often been used to describe solute transport in heterogenous conditions and to quantify the impact of point heterogeneity, spatial correlation and mass transfer on the average transport properties [1]. Open issues regarding this approach are the possibility to relate measurable properties of the medium to the parameters of the model, as well as its capability to provide predictive information. In a recent work [2] the authors have shed new light on understanding the relationship between Lagrangian and Eulerian dynamics as well as on their evolution from arbitrary initial conditions. On the basis of these results, we derive a CTRW model for the description of Darcy-scale transport in d-dimensional media characterized by spatially random permeability fields. The CTRW approach models particle velocities as a spatial Markov process, which is
GLOBAL RANDOM WALK SIMULATIONS FOR SENSITIVITY AND UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS OF PASSIVE TRANSPORT MODELS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolae Suciu
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The Global Random Walk algorithm (GRW performs a simultaneoustracking on a fixed grid of huge numbers of particles at costscomparable to those of a single-trajectory simulation by the traditional Particle Tracking (PT approach. Statistical ensembles of GRW simulations of a typical advection-dispersion process in groundwater systems with randomly distributed spatial parameters are used to obtain reliable estimations of the input parameters for the upscaled transport model and of their correlations, input-output correlations, as well as full probability distributions of the input and output parameters.
Magneto-transport properties of a random distribution of few-layer graphene patches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacovella, Fabrice; Mitioglu, Anatolie; Pierre, Mathieu; Raquet, Bertrand; Goiran, Michel; Plochocka, Paulina; Escoffier, Walter; Trinsoutrot, Pierre; Vergnes, Hugues; Caussat, Brigitte; Conédéra, Véronique
2014-01-01
In this study, we address the electronic properties of conducting films constituted of an array of randomly distributed few layer graphene patches and investigate on their most salient galvanometric features in the moderate and extreme disordered limit. We demonstrate that, in annealed devices, the ambipolar behaviour and the onset of Landau level quantization in high magnetic field constitute robust hallmarks of few-layer graphene films. In the strong disorder limit, however, the magneto-transport properties are best described by a variable-range hopping behaviour. A large negative magneto-conductance is observed at the charge neutrality point, in consistency with localized transport regime
Elliptic random-walk equation for suspension and tracer transport in porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander; Bedrikovetsky, P. G.
2008-01-01
. The new theory predicts delay of the maximum of the tracer, compared to the velocity of the flow, while its forward "tail" contains much more particles than in the solution of the classical parabolic (advection-dispersion) equation. This is in agreement with the experimental observations and predictions......We propose a new approach to transport of the suspensions and tracers in porous media. The approach is based on a modified version of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) theory. In the framework of this theory we derive an elliptic transport equation. The new equation contains the time...... of the CTRW theory. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
From medium heterogeneity to flow and transport: A time-domain random walk approach
Hakoun, V.; Comolli, A.; Dentz, M.
2017-12-01
The prediction of flow and transport processes in heterogeneous porous media is based on the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the interplay between 1) spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, 2) groundwater flow and 3) solute transport. Using a stochastic modeling approach, we study this interplay through direct numerical simulations of Darcy flow and advective transport in heterogeneous media. First, we study flow in correlated hydraulic permeability fields and shed light on the relationship between the statistics of log-hydraulic conductivity, a medium attribute, and the flow statistics. Second, we determine relationships between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocity statistics, this means, between flow and transport attributes. We show how Lagrangian statistics and thus transport behaviors such as late particle arrival times are influenced by the medium heterogeneity on one hand and the initial particle velocities on the other. We find that equidistantly sampled Lagrangian velocities can be described by a Markov process that evolves on the characteristic heterogeneity length scale. We employ a stochastic relaxation model for the equidistantly sampled particle velocities, which is parametrized by the velocity correlation length. This description results in a time-domain random walk model for the particle motion, whose spatial transitions are characterized by the velocity correlation length and temporal transitions by the particle velocities. This approach relates the statistical medium and flow properties to large scale transport, and allows for conditioning on the initial particle velocities and thus to the medium properties in the injection region. The approach is tested against direct numerical simulations.
Guex, Guillaume
2016-05-01
In recent articles about graphs, different models proposed a formalism to find a type of path between two nodes, the source and the target, at crossroads between the shortest-path and the random-walk path. These models include a freely adjustable parameter, allowing to tune the behavior of the path toward randomized movements or direct routes. This article presents a natural generalization of these models, namely a model with multiple sources and targets. In this context, source nodes can be viewed as locations with a supply of a certain good (e.g. people, money, information) and target nodes as locations with a demand of the same good. An algorithm is constructed to display the flow of goods in the network between sources and targets. With again a freely adjustable parameter, this flow can be tuned to follow routes of minimum cost, thus displaying the flow in the context of the optimal transportation problem or, by contrast, a random flow, known to be similar to the electrical current flow if the random-walk is reversible. Moreover, a source-targetcoupling can be retrieved from this flow, offering an optimal assignment to the transportation problem. This algorithm is described in the first part of this article and then illustrated with case studies.
Akula, Vishnu Priya; Joe, Priscilla; Thusu, Kajori; Davis, Alexis S; Tamaresis, John S; Kim, Sunhwa; Shimotake, Thomas K; Butler, Stephen; Honold, Jose; Kuzniewicz, Michael; DeSandre, Glenn; Bennett, Mihoko; Gould, Jeffrey; Wallenstein, Matthew B; Van Meurs, Krisa
2015-04-01
To determine if temperature regulation is improved during neonatal transport using a servo-regulated cooling device when compared with standard practice. We performed a multicenter, randomized, nonmasked clinical trial in newborns with neonatal encephalopathy cooled during transport to 9 neonatal intensive care units in California. Newborns who met institutional criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were randomly assigned to receive cooling according to usual center practices vs device servo-regulated cooling. The primary outcome was the percentage of temperatures in target range (33°-34°C) during transport. Secondary outcomes included percentage of newborns reaching target temperature any time during transport, time to target temperature, and percentage of newborns in target range 1 hour after cooling initiation. One hundred newborns were enrolled: 49 to control arm and 51 to device arm. Baseline demographics did not differ with the exception of cord pH. For each subject, the percentage of temperatures in the target range was calculated. Infants cooled using the device had a higher percentage of temperatures in target range compared with control infants (median 73% [IQR 17-88] vs 0% [IQR 0-52], P newborns with neonatal encephalopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strings, fields and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.
1987-07-01
The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)
Probabilistic finite-size transport models for fusion: Anomalous transport and scaling laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milligen, B.Ph. van; Sanchez, R.; Carreras, B.A.
2004-01-01
Transport in fusion plasmas in the low confinement mode is characterized by several remarkable properties: the anomalous scaling of transport with system size, stiff (or 'canonical') profiles, power degradation, and rapid transport phenomena. The present article explores the possibilities of constructing a unified transport model, based on the continuous-time random walk, in which all these phenomena are handled adequately. The resulting formalism appears to be sufficiently general to provide a sound starting point for the development of a full-blown plasma transport code, capable of incorporating the relevant microscopic transport mechanisms, and allowing predictions of confinement properties
Mean-field Theory for Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xuhua; Sun Bao; Wang Bo; Sun Youxian
2010-01-01
Transport networks, such as railway networks and airport networks, are a kind of random network with complex topology. Recently, more and more scholars paid attention to various kinds of transport networks and try to explore their inherent characteristics. Here we study the exponential properties of a recently introduced Bus Transport Networks (BTNs) evolution model with random overlapping clique structure, which gives a possible explanation for the observed exponential distribution of the connectivities of some BTNs of three major cities in China. Applying mean-field theory, we analyze the BTNs model and prove that this model has the character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and develop a method to predict the growth dynamics of the individual vertices, and use this to calculate analytically the connectivity distribution and the exponents. By comparing mean-field based theoretic results with the statistical data of real BTNs, we observe that, as a whole, both of their data show similar character of exponential distribution of the connectivities, and their exponents have same order of magnitude, which show the availability of the analytical result of this paper. (general)
Anomalous transport in fluid field with random waiting time depending on the preceding jump length
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Hong; Li Guo-Hua
2016-01-01
Anomalous (or non-Fickian) transport behaviors of particles have been widely observed in complex porous media. To capture the energy-dependent characteristics of non-Fickian transport of a particle in flow fields, in the present paper a generalized continuous time random walk model whose waiting time probability distribution depends on the preceding jump length is introduced, and the corresponding master equation in Fourier–Laplace space for the distribution of particles is derived. As examples, two generalized advection-dispersion equations for Gaussian distribution and lévy flight with the probability density function of waiting time being quadratic dependent on the preceding jump length are obtained by applying the derived master equation. (paper)
Anomalous transport in fluid field with random waiting time depending on the preceding jump length
Zhang, Hong; Li, Guo-Hua
2016-11-01
Anomalous (or non-Fickian) transport behaviors of particles have been widely observed in complex porous media. To capture the energy-dependent characteristics of non-Fickian transport of a particle in flow fields, in the present paper a generalized continuous time random walk model whose waiting time probability distribution depends on the preceding jump length is introduced, and the corresponding master equation in Fourier-Laplace space for the distribution of particles is derived. As examples, two generalized advection-dispersion equations for Gaussian distribution and lévy flight with the probability density function of waiting time being quadratic dependent on the preceding jump length are obtained by applying the derived master equation. Project supported by the Foundation for Young Key Teachers of Chengdu University of Technology, China (Grant No. KYGG201414) and the Opening Foundation of Geomathematics Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, China (Grant No. scsxdz2013009).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capilla, J. E.; Rodrigo, J.; Gomez Hernandez, J. J.
2003-01-01
Characterizing the uncertainty of flow and mass transport models requires the definition of stochastic models to describe hydrodynamic parameters. Porosity and hydraulic conductivity (K) are two of these parameters that exhibit a high degree of spatial variability. K is usually the parameter whose variability influence to a more extended degree solutes movement. In fracture media, it is critical to properly characterize K in the most altered zones where flow and solutes migration tends to be concentrated. However, K measurements use to be scarce and sparse. This fact calls to consider stochastic models that allow quantifying the uncertainty of flow and mass transport predictions. This paper presents a convective transport problem solved in a 3D block of fractured crystalline rock. the case study is defined based on data from a real geological formation. As the scarcity of K data in fractures does not allow supporting classical multi Gaussian assumptions for K in fractures, the non multi Gaussian hypothesis has been explored, comparing mass transport results for alternative Gaussian and non-Gaussian assumptions. The latter hypothesis allows reproducing high spatial connectivity for extreme values of K. This feature is present in nature, might lead to reproduce faster solute pathways, and therefore should be modeled in order to obtain reasonably safe prediction of contaminants migration in a geological formation. The results obtained for the two alternative hypotheses show a remarkable impact of the K random function model in solutes movement. (Author) 9 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerezo A, E [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Munoz C, J L [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2004-07-01
This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerezo A, E. [University of Caribe, Department of Basics Sciences and Engineering, Lote 1, Manzana 1, Region 78, esq. Fracc. Tabachines, 77500 Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico)]. E-mail: ecerezo@unicaribe.edu.mx; Munoz C, J.L. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)
2004-07-01
This paper presents a non-equilibrium model to describe flashing phenomena in tanks and cooling pools. The present model is based on Watanabe's work that we have extended by developing a realistic model for the growth of bubbles. We have made the corresponding venting model, continuity equation, gas and liquid phase energy conservation equations for the model. This model takes into account both drag and virtual mass force. The dynamics of bubble growth plays an important role in two-phase phenomena such as flashing. In our model the growth rate is assumed to be limited by the heat conduction in the liquid. The results of the analytic model were compared with the experimental data of Watanabe [1]. The results have shown that the present model evaluates fairly accurately the pressure evolution, the void fraction and the swelling level of a tank.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.A. Kostin
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The paper proposes the non-canonical spectral decomposition of random functions of the traction voltages and currents. This decomposition is adapted for the electric transportation systems. The numerical representation is carried out for the random function of voltage on the pantograph of electric locomotives VL8 and DE1.
Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie
2006-06-01
Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range
Research on Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xuhua; Sun Youxian; Wang Bo; Wang Wanliang
2008-01-01
On the basis of investigating the statistical data of bus transport networks of three big cities in China, we propose that each bus route is a clique (maximal complete subgraph) and a bus transport network (BTN) consists of a lot of cliques, which intensively connect and overlap with each other. We study the network properties, which include the degree distribution, multiple edges' overlapping time distribution, distribution of the overlap size between any two overlapping cliques, distribution of the number of cliques that a node belongs to. Naturally, the cliques also constitute a network, with the overlapping nodes being their multiple links. We also research its network properties such as degree distribution, clustering, average path length, and so on. We propose that a BTN has the properties of random clique increment and random overlapping clique, at the same time, a BTN is a small-world network with highly clique-clustered and highly clique-overlapped. Finally, we introduce a BTN evolution model, whose simulation results agree well with the statistical laws that emerge in real BTNs
Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.
2005-01-01
The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)
Bodin, Jacques
2015-03-01
In this study, new multi-dimensional time-domain random walk (TDRW) algorithms are derived from approximate one-dimensional (1-D), two-dimensional (2-D), and three-dimensional (3-D) analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and from exact 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D analytical solutions of the pure-diffusion equation. These algorithms enable the calculation of both the time required for a particle to travel a specified distance in a homogeneous medium and the mass recovery at the observation point, which may be incomplete due to 2-D or 3-D transverse dispersion or diffusion. The method is extended to heterogeneous media, represented as a piecewise collection of homogeneous media. The particle motion is then decomposed along a series of intermediate checkpoints located on the medium interface boundaries. The accuracy of the multi-dimensional TDRW method is verified against (i) exact analytical solutions of solute transport in homogeneous media and (ii) finite-difference simulations in a synthetic 2-D heterogeneous medium of simple geometry. The results demonstrate that the method is ideally suited to purely diffusive transport and to advection-dispersion transport problems dominated by advection. Conversely, the method is not recommended for highly dispersive transport problems because the accuracy of the advection-dispersion TDRW algorithms degrades rapidly for a low Péclet number, consistent with the accuracy limit of the approximate analytical solutions. The proposed approach provides a unified methodology for deriving multi-dimensional time-domain particle equations and may be applicable to other mathematical transport models, provided that appropriate analytical solutions are available.
Bose, Sourav K; Bream, Kent D W; Barg, Frances K; Band, Roger A
2012-07-01
The objective was to identify the correlates of willingness to pay for ambulance transports from a rural city to a regional hospital in Guatemala. An innovative methodology that utilizes a novel randomization technique and satellite imagery was used to select a sample of homes in Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala. The respondents were surveyed at these homes about their willingness to pay for ambulance transport to a regional hospital. A price ladder was used to elicit respondents' willingness to pay for ambulance transport, depending on the level of severity of three types of emergencies: life-threatening emergencies, disability-causing emergencies, and simple emergencies. Simple and multiple linear regression modeling was used to identify the social and economic correlates of respondents' willingness to pay for ambulance transport and to predict demand for ambulance transport at a variety of price levels. Beta coefficients (β) expressed as percentages with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. The authors surveyed 134 respondents (response rate=3.3%). In the multivariable regression models, three variables correlated with willingness to pay: household income, location of residence (rural district vs. urban district), and respondents' education levels. Correlates for ambulance transport in life-threatening emergencies included greater household daily income (β=1.32%, 95% CI=0.63% to 2.56%), rural location of residence (β=-37.3%, 95% CI=-51.1% to -137.5%), and higher educational levels (β=4.41%, 95% CI=1.00% to 6.36%). Correlates of willingness to pay in disability-causing emergencies included greater household daily income (β=1.59%, 95% CI=0.81% to 3.19%) and rural location of residence (β=-19.4%, 95% CI=-35.7% to -89.4%). Correlates of willingness to pay in simple emergencies included rural location of residence (β=59.4%, 95% CI=37.9% to 133.7%) and higher educational levels (β=7.96%, 95% CI=1.96% to 11.8%). At all price levels, more individuals were
Dropout Phenomena at Universities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune
Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geiger, S.; Cortis, A.; Birkholzer, J.T.
2010-04-01
Solute transport in fractured porous media is typically 'non-Fickian'; that is, it is characterized by early breakthrough and long tailing and by nonlinear growth of the Green function-centered second moment. This behavior is due to the effects of (1) multirate diffusion occurring between the highly permeable fracture network and the low-permeability rock matrix, (2) a wide range of advection rates in the fractures and, possibly, the matrix as well, and (3) a range of path lengths. As a consequence, prediction of solute transport processes at the macroscale represents a formidable challenge. Classical dual-porosity (or mobile-immobile) approaches in conjunction with an advection-dispersion equation and macroscopic dispersivity commonly fail to predict breakthrough of fractured porous media accurately. It was recently demonstrated that the continuous time random walk (CTRW) method can be used as a generalized upscaling approach. Here we extend this work and use results from high-resolution finite element-finite volume-based simulations of solute transport in an outcrop analogue of a naturally fractured reservoir to calibrate the CTRW method by extracting a distribution of retention times. This procedure allows us to predict breakthrough at other model locations accurately and to gain significant insight into the nature of the fracture-matrix interaction in naturally fractured porous reservoirs with geologically realistic fracture geometries.
Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C
2010-01-01
We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman–Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model)
Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport
Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C.
2010-04-01
We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model).
Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport
Newby, Jay
2010-04-16
We formulate the \\'tug-of-war\\' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron\\'s dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Random intermittent search and the tug-of-war model of motor-driven transport
Newby, Jay; Bressloff, Paul C
2010-01-01
We formulate the 'tug-of-war' model of microtubule cargo transport by multiple molecular motors as an intermittent random search for a hidden target. A motor complex consisting of multiple molecular motors with opposing directional preference is modeled using a discrete Markov process. The motors randomly pull each other off of the microtubule so that the state of the motor complex is determined by the number of bound motors. The tug-of-war model prescribes the state transition rates and corresponding cargo velocities in terms of experimentally measured physical parameters. We add space to the resulting Chapman-Kolmogorov (CK) equation so that we can consider delivery of the cargo to a hidden target at an unknown location along the microtubule track. The target represents some subcellular compartment such as a synapse in a neuron's dendrites, and target delivery is modeled as a simple absorption process. Using a quasi-steady-state (QSS) reduction technique we calculate analytical approximations of the mean first passage time (MFPT) to find the target. We show that there exists an optimal adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration that minimizes the MFPT for two different cases: (i) the motor complex is composed of equal numbers of kinesin motors bound to two different microtubules (symmetric tug-of-war model) and (ii) the motor complex is composed of different numbers of kinesin and dynein motors bound to a single microtubule (asymmetric tug-of-war model). © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahlstrom, S.W.; Foote, H.P.; Arnett, R.C.; Cole, C.R.; Serne, R.J.
1977-05-01
The Multicomponent Mass Transfer (MMT) Model is a generic computer code, currently in its third generation, that was developed to predict the movement of radiocontaminants in the saturated and unsaturated sediments of the Hanford Site. This model was designed to use the water movement patterns produced by the unsaturated and saturated flow models coupled with dispersion and soil-waste reaction submodels to predict contaminant transport. This report documents the theorical foundation and the numerical solution procedure of the current (third) generation of the MMT Model. The present model simulates mass transport processes using an analog referred to as the Discrete-Parcel-Random-Walk (DPRW) algorithm. The basic concepts of this solution technique are described and the advantages and disadvantages of the DPRW scheme are discussed in relation to more conventional numerical techniques such as the finite-difference and finite-element methods. Verification of the numerical algorithm is demonstrated by comparing model results with known closed-form solutions. A brief error and sensitivity analysis of the algorithm with respect to numerical parameters is also presented. A simulation of the tritium plume beneath the Hanford Site is included to illustrate the use of the model in a typical application. 32 figs
Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan
2017-07-01
We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.D.
1994-01-01
This report is divided into two parts. The second part is divided into the following sections: experimental protocol; modeling the hollow fiber extractor using film theory; Graetz model of the hollow fiber membrane process; fundamental diffusive-kinetic model; and diffusive liquid membrane device-a rigorous model. The first part is divided into: membrane and membrane process-a concept; metal extraction; kinetics of metal extraction; modeling the membrane contactor; and interfacial phenomenon-boundary conditions-applied to membrane transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauck, St.
2000-10-01
The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)
Bijeljic, B.; Andrew, M. G.; Menke, H. P.; Blunt, M. J.
2013-12-01
Advances in X ray imaging techniques made it possible not only to accurately describe solid and fluid(s) distributions in the pore space but also to study dynamics of multi-phase flow and reactive transport in-situ. This has opened up a range of new opportunities to better understand fundamental physics at the pore scale by experiment, and test and validate theoretical models in order to develop predictive tools at the pore scale and use it for upscaling. Firstly, we illustrate this concept by describing a new methodology for predicting non-Fickian transport in millimeter-sized three-dimensional micro-CT images of a beadpack, a sandstone, and a carbonate, representing porous media with an increasing degree of pore-scale complexity. The key strategy is to retain the full information on flow and transport signature of a porous medium by using probability distribution functions (PDFs) of voxel velocities for flow, and both PDFs of particle displacements and PDFs of particle transit times between voxels for transport. For this purpose, direct-simulation flow and transport model is used to analyse the relationship between pore structure, velocity, and the dynamics of the evolving plume. The model predictions for PDFs of particle displacements obtained by the model are in excellent agreement with those measured on similar cores in nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. A key determinant for non-Fickian transport is the spread in velocity distribution in the pore space. Further, we present micro-CT imaging of capillary trapping of scCO2 at reservoir conditions in a range of carbonates and sandstones having different pore structure and demonstrate that substantial quantities of scCO2 can be trapped in the pore space. Higher residual scCO2 saturations are found in sandstones compared to carbonates. The trapped ganglia exhibit different distribution of size, related to the inherent structure of pore space. Pore structures with large, open pores that are well connected lead
Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quintiere, James
analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Procassini, R J; Beck, B R
2004-01-01
It might be assumed that use of a ''high-quality'' random number generator (RNG), producing a sequence of ''pseudo random'' numbers with a ''long'' repetition period, is crucial for producing unbiased results in Monte Carlo particle transport simulations. While several theoretical and empirical tests have been devised to check the quality (randomness and period) of an RNG, for many applications it is not clear what level of RNG quality is required to produce unbiased results. This paper explores the issue of RNG quality in the context of parallel, Monte Carlo transport simulations in order to determine how ''good'' is ''good enough''. This study employs the MERCURY Monte Carlo code, which incorporates the CNPRNG library for the generation of pseudo-random numbers via linear congruential generator (LCG) algorithms. The paper outlines the usage of random numbers during parallel MERCURY simulations, and then describes the source and criticality transport simulations which comprise the empirical basis of this study. A series of calculations for each test problem in which the quality of the RNG (period of the LCG) is varied provides the empirical basis for determining the minimum repetition period which may be employed without producing a bias in the mean integrated results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koehler, W.E.; Schaefer, J.
1983-01-01
The temperature dependence of the effective Waldmann--Snider cross sections determining the Senftleben--Beenakker effects of viscosity and heat conductivity has been studied for pH 2 gas between 10 and 200 K. From ab initio nonspherical potentials of H 2 --H 2 , scattering matrices have been determined in close-coupling calculations. From these, the elements of the scattering amplitude matrix have been obtained and used as input quantities for the evaluation of the various Waldmann--Snider collision integrals. The results of these first ab initio numerical calculations of anisotropic transport coefficients show excellent agreement of calculated and measured effective cross sections, especially for the most recent improved version of the interaction potential. In addition, it has been shown that the polarization production cross sections are quite sensitive to the potential anisotropy
Hattori, Nobutaka; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Shinichi; Nishimura, Akira; Kato, Masafumi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Nagai, Masahiro; Takahashi, Ryosuke
2018-04-27
Rasagiline, a selective, irreversible monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, is in development in Japan as adjunctive therapy to levodopa. This Phase 2/3 trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of adjunctive rasagiline in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and wearing-off phenomena. Patients aged 30-79 years with diagnosed PD and stable levodopa use were randomized 1:1:1 to rasagiline (0.5/1 mg/day) or placebo for 26 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in mean daily OFF-time during the treatment period. In total, 141, 134, and 129 patients were randomized to placebo, rasagiline 0.5 mg, or rasagiline 1 mg, respectively. Baseline characteristics were well balanced. Least squares (LS) mean differences vs. placebo for change from baseline in mean daily OFF-time were -0.84 h (rasagiline 1 mg/day) and -0.60 h (rasagiline 0.5 mg/day); both differences were statistically significant. LS mean differences vs. placebo for change from baseline in Movement Disorder Society-Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) Part II and Part III total scores (in ON-state) and Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 Summary Index Score were: -1.27, -1.74, and -2.51 (0.5 mg/day) and -1.27, -2.14, and -3.84 (1 mg/day); all statistically significant. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred in 50.4/69.9/73.6% of the placebo, 0.5 mg/day, and 1 mg/day groups, respectively (most common TEAEs were nasopharyngitis [9.2/18.0/14.7%] and dyskinesia [7.1/8.3/16.3%]). As an adjunct to levodopa, rasagiline reduced OFF-time and improved PD symptoms/signs (MDS-UPDRS scores) and quality of life in Japanese patients with PD and wearing-off phenomena. No important safety concerns were raised. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena
Diels, Jean-Claude
2006-01-01
Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena, 2e serves as an introduction to the phenomena of ultra short laser pulses and describes how this technology can be used to examine problems in areas such as electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. Ultrashort Laser Pulse Phenomena combines theoretical backgrounds and experimental techniques and will serve as a manual on designing and constructing femtosecond (""faster than electronics"") systems or experiments from scratch. Beyond the simple optical system, the various sources of ultrashort pulses are presented, again with emphasis on the basic
Science and Paranormal Phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noyes, H. Pierre
1999-06-03
In order to ground my approach to the study of paranormal phenomena, I first explain my operational approach to physics, and to the ''historical'' sciences of cosmic, biological, human, social and political evolution. I then indicate why I believe that ''paranormal phenomena'' might-but need not- fit into this framework. I endorse the need for a new theoretical framework for the investigation of this field presented by Etter and Shoup at this meeting. I close with a short discussion of Ted Bastin's contention that paranormal phenomena should be defined as contradicting physics.
Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Plasmas
Sharma, A Surjalal
2005-01-01
The complexity of plasmas arises mainly from their inherent nonlinearity and far from equilibrium nature. The nonequilibrium behavior of plasmas is evident in the natural settings, for example, in the Earth's magnetosphere. Similarly, laboratory plasmas such as fusion bottles also have their fair share of complex behavior. Nonequilibrium phenomena are intimately connected with statistical dynamics and form one of the growing research areas in modern nonlinear physics. These studies encompass the ideas of self-organization, phase transition, critical phenomena, self-organized criticality and turbulence. This book presents studies of complexity in the context of nonequilibrium phenomena using theory, modeling, simulations, and experiments, both in the laboratory and in nature.
Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena
Ponath, H-E
1991-01-01
In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are
Bounds and Estimates for Transport Coefficients of Random and Porous Media with High Contrasts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J G
2004-01-01
Bounds on transport coefficients of random polycrystals of laminates are presented, including the well-known Hashin-Shtrikman bounds and some newly formulated bounds involving two formation factors for a two-component porous medium. Some new types of self-consistent estimates are then formulated based on the observed analytical structure both of these bounds and also of earlier self-consistent estimates (of the CPA or coherent potential approximation type). A numerical study is made, assuming first that the internal structure (i.e., the laminated grain structure) is not known, and then that it is known. The purpose of this aspect of the study is to attempt to quantify the differences in the predictions of properties of a system being modeled when such organized internal structure is present in the medium but detailed spatial correlation information may or (more commonly) may not be available. Some methods of estimating formation factors from data are also presented and then applied to a high-contrast fluid-permeability data set. Hashin-Shtrikman bounds are found to be very accurate estimates for low contrast heterogeneous media. But formation factor lower bounds are superior estimates for high contrast situations. The new self-consistent estimators also tend to agree better with data than either the bounds or the CPA estimates, which themselves tend to overestimate values for high contrast conducting composites
Kobayashi, Keisuke; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Saito, Yuta; Shindo, Satoshi; Kobata, Masaaki; Fons, Paul; Kolobov, Alexander V.; Elliott, Stephen; Ando, Daisuke; Sutou, Yuji
2018-05-01
Cu2GeTe3 (CGT) phase-change material, a promising candidate for advanced fast nonvolatile random-access-memory devices, has a chalcopyritelike structure with s p3 bonding in the crystalline phase; thus, the phase-change (PC) mechanism is considered to be essentially different from that of the standard PC materials (e.g., Ge-Sb-Te) with threefold to sixfold p -like bonding. In order to reveal the PC mechanism of CGT, the electronic structure change due to PC has been investigated by laboratory hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and combined first-principles density-functional theory molecular-dynamics simulations. The valence-band spectra, in both crystalline and amorphous phases, are well simulated by the calculations. An inherent tendency of Te 5 s lone-pair formation and an enhanced participation of Cu 3 d orbitals in the bonding are found to play dominant roles in the PC mechanism. The electrical conductivity of as-deposited films and its change during the PC process is investigated in connection with valence-band spectral changes near the Fermi level. The results are successfully analyzed, based on a model proposed by Davis and Mott for chalcogenide amorphous semiconductors. The results suggest that robustness of the defect-band states against thermal stress is a key to the practical application of this material for memory devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2007-01-16
The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uddin, M.J., E-mail: jashim_74@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, American International University-Bangladesh, Banani Dhaka 1213 (Bangladesh); Bég, O. Anwar [Gort Engovation Research (Propulsion/Biomechanics), Gabriel' s Wing House, 15 Southmere Ave., Bradford, BD7 3NU England (United Kingdom); Amin, N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor (Malaysia)
2014-11-15
Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices. - Highlights: • This paper analyses MHD slip flow of nofluid with convective boundary conditions. • Group method is used to transform governing equations into similarity equations. • The Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method is used for numerical computations. • The study is relevant to synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, S.; Cheung, S.C.H.
1983-06-01
The effects of the geometry of the borehole and the characteristics of the damaged borehole rock wall on the movement of the radionuclides from an underground nuclear waste vault have been studied. The results show that radionuclide transport will occur mainly through the buffer into the damaged zone of the borehole wall. As the degree of facturing of the damaged zone increases, the total radionuclide flux will increase up to a limit which can be approximated by a one-dimensional radial diffusion model. For large degrees of fracturing of the damaged zone, an increase in the radial buffer material thickness will decrease the total flux, whereas, for small degrees of fracturing, an increase in the radial buffer thickness may slightly increase the total flux. Increasing the vertical buffer thickness will significantly decrease the total flux when the degree of fracturing of the damaged zone is small. An increase in the vertical extent of the damaged zone will cause an increase in total flux
Antagonistic Phenomena in Network Dynamics
Motter, Adilson E.; Timme, Marc
2018-03-01
Recent research on the network modeling of complex systems has led to a convenient representation of numerous natural, social, and engineered systems that are now recognized as networks of interacting parts. Such systems can exhibit a wealth of phenomena that not only cannot be anticipated from merely examining their parts, as per the textbook definition of complexity, but also challenge intuition even when considered in the context of what is now known in network science. Here, we review the recent literature on two major classes of such phenomena that have far-reaching implications: (a) antagonistic responses to changes of states or parameters and (b) coexistence of seemingly incongruous behaviors or properties - both deriving from the collective and inherently decentralized nature of the dynamics. They include effects as diverse as negative compressibility in engineered materials, rescue interactions in biological networks, negative resistance in fluid networks, and the Braess paradox occurring across transport and supply networks. They also include remote synchronization, chimera states, and the converse of symmetry breaking in brain, power-grid, and oscillator networks as well as remote control in biological and bioinspired systems. By offering a unified view of these various scenarios, we suggest that they are representative of a yet broader class of unprecedented network phenomena that ought to be revealed and explained by future research.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jokiniemi, J.; Kilpi, K.; Lindholm, I.; Maekynen, J.; Pekkarinen, E.; Sairanen, R.; Silde, A.
1995-02-01
Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)
Introduction to wetting phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Indekeu, J.O.
1995-01-01
In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)
Klatt, Michael A.; Torquato, Salvatore
2018-01-01
In the first two papers of this series, we characterized the structure of maximally random jammed (MRJ) sphere packings across length scales by computing a variety of different correlation functions, spectral functions, hole probabilities, and local density fluctuations. From the remarkable structural features of the MRJ packings, especially its disordered hyperuniformity, exceptional physical properties can be expected. Here we employ these structural descriptors to estimate effective transport and electromagnetic properties via rigorous bounds, exact expansions, and accurate analytical approximation formulas. These property formulas include interfacial bounds as well as universal scaling laws for the mean survival time and the fluid permeability. We also estimate the principal relaxation time associated with Brownian motion among perfectly absorbing traps. For the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the long-wavelength limit, we show that a dispersion of dielectric MRJ spheres within a matrix of another dielectric material forms, to a very good approximation, a dissipationless disordered and isotropic two-phase medium for any phase dielectric contrast ratio. We compare the effective properties of the MRJ sphere packings to those of overlapping spheres, equilibrium hard-sphere packings, and lattices of hard spheres. Moreover, we generalize results to micro- and macroscopically anisotropic packings of spheroids with tensorial effective properties. The analytic bounds predict the qualitative trend in the physical properties associated with these structures, which provides guidance to more time-consuming simulations and experiments. They especially provide impetus for experiments to design materials with unique bulk properties resulting from hyperuniformity, including structural-color and color-sensing applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Un Jeong; Park, Wanjun
2009-01-01
The transport properties of randomly networked single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) transistors with different channel lengths of L c = 2-10 μm were investigated. Randomly networked SWNTs were directly grown for the two different densities of ρ ∼ 25 μm -2 and ρ ∼ 50 μm -2 by water plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The field effect transport is governed mainly by formation of the current paths that is related to the nanotube density. On the other hand, the off-state conductivity deviates from linear dependence for both nanotube density and channel length. The field effect mobility of holes is estimated as 4-13 cm 2 V -1 s -1 for the nanotube transistors based on the simple MOS theory. The mobility is increased for the higher density without meaningful dependence on the channel lengths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.
2011-05-01
Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).
SEPARATION PHENOMENA LOGISTIC REGRESSION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an application of concepts about the maximum likelihood estimation of the binomial logistic regression model to the separation phenomena. It generates bias in the estimation and provides different interpretations of the estimates on the different statistical tests (Wald, Likelihood Ratio and Score and provides different estimates on the different iterative methods (Newton-Raphson and Fisher Score. It also presents an example that demonstrates the direct implications for the validation of the model and validation of variables, the implications for estimates of odds ratios and confidence intervals, generated from the Wald statistics. Furthermore, we present, briefly, the Firth correction to circumvent the phenomena of separation.
Rheological phenomena in focus
Boger, DV
1993-01-01
More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be
Liu, Baoshun; Li, Ziqiang; Zhao, Xiujian
2015-02-21
In this research, Monte-Carlo Continuity Random Walking (MC-RW) model was used to study the relation between electron transport and photocatalysis of nano-crystalline (nc) clusters. The effects of defect energy disorder, spatial disorder of material structure, electron density, and interfacial transfer/recombination on the electron transport and the photocatalysis were studied. Photocatalytic activity is defined as 1/τ from a statistical viewpoint with τ being the electron average lifetime. Based on the MC-RW simulation, a clear physical and chemical "picture" was given for the photocatalytic kinetic analysis of nc-clusters. It is shown that the increase of defect energy disorder and material spatial structural disorder, such as the decrease of defect trap number, the increase of crystallinity, the increase of particle size, and the increase of inter-particle connection, can enhance photocatalytic activity through increasing electron transport ability. The increase of electron density increases the electron Fermi level, which decreases the activation energy for electron de-trapping from traps to extending states, and correspondingly increases electron transport ability and photocatalytic activity. Reducing recombination of electrons and holes can increase electron transport through the increase of electron density and then increases the photocatalytic activity. In addition to the electron transport, the increase of probability for electrons to undergo photocatalysis can increase photocatalytic activity through the increase of the electron interfacial transfer speed.
Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena
Blank, M
1987-01-01
This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...
Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuvshinov, B.N.; Savrukhin, P.V.
1989-01-01
A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs
Fundamentals of wave phenomena
Hirose, Akira
2010-01-01
This textbook provides a unified treatment of waves that either occur naturally or can be excited and propagated in various media. This includes both longitudinal and transverse waves. The book covers both mechanical and electrical waves, which are normally covered separately due to their differences in physical phenomena.
Burnell, Daniel K.; Hansen, Scott K.; Xu, Jie
2017-09-01
Contaminants in groundwater may experience a broad spectrum of velocities and multiple rates of mass transfer between mobile and immobile zones during transport. These conditions may lead to non-Fickian plume evolution which is not well described by the advection-dispersion equation (ADE). Simultaneously, many groundwater contaminants are degraded by processes that may be modeled as first-order decay. It is now known that non-Fickian transport and reaction are intimately coupled, with reaction affecting the transport operator. However, closed-form solutions for these important scenarios have not been published for use in applications. In this paper, we present four new Green's function analytic solutions in the uncoupled, uncorrelated continuous time random walk (CTRW) framework for reactive non-Fickian transport, corresponding to the quartet of conservative tracer solutions presented by Kreft and Zuber (1978) for Fickian transport. These consider pulse injection for both resident and flux concentration combined with detection in both resident and flux concentration. A pair of solutions for resident concentration temporal pulses with detection in both flux and resident concentration is also presented. We also derive the relationship between flux and resident concentration for non-Fickian transport with first-order reaction for this CTRW formulation. An explicit discussion of employment of the new solutions to model transport with arbitrary upgradient boundary conditions as well as mobile-immobile mass transfer is then presented. Using the new solutions, we show that first-order reaction has no effect on the anomalous spatial spreading rate of concentration profiles, but produces breakthrough curves at fixed locations that appear to have been generated by Fickian transport. Under the assumption of a Pareto CTRW transition distribution, we present a variety of numerical simulations including results showing coherence of our analytic solutions and CTRW particle
Imaging unsteady three-dimensional transport phenomena
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2014-01-05
Jan 5, 2014 ... coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) are examples that ... The camera may be interfaced with a personal computer (HCL, 1 GB ..... convolution back-projection (CBP) and algebraic reconstruction (ART) have ...
Selective transport phenomena in coastal sands
Tánczos, Ilka Christine
1996-01-01
De Nederlandse kust bestaat voor een groot gedeelte uit zand. Zij wordt continu belaagd door water en wind en op een aantal plaatsen verliest het land terrein op het water: de kust erodeert. Vanwege met name sociale en economische belangen wil men de kust graag in de huidige vorm behouden. Om het strand en de duinen, maar ook de havens en waterwegen op een goede en efficiënte manier te beheren, is het belangrijk om te weten hoe zand wordt getransporteerd door water en wind. Dat is het onderwe...
Selective transport phenomena in coastal sands
Tánczos, Ilka Christine
1996-01-01
De Nederlandse kust bestaat voor een groot gedeelte uit zand. Zij wordt continu belaagd door water en wind en op een aantal plaatsen verliest het land terrein op het water: de kust erodeert. Vanwege met name sociale en economische belangen wil men de kust graag in de huidige vorm behouden. Om het
Transport phenomena for chemical reactor design
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Belfiore, Laurence A
2003-01-01
...-Averaged Speciﬁc Heats, 48 3-2 Conversion Dependence of Mass Fraction and Heat Capacity of the Mixture, 50 3-3 Plug-Flow Mass Balance in Terms of CO Conversion, 51 3-4 Thermal Energy Balance for ...
Flow, transport and diffusion in random geometries I: a MLMC algorithm
Canuto, Claudio; Hoel, Haakon; Icardi, Matteo; Quadrio, Nathan; Tempone, Raul
2015-01-01
-purpose algorithm and computational code for the solution of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) on random geoemtry and with random parameters. We make use of the key idea of MLMC, based on different discretization levels, extending it in a more general context
Roubinet, D.; Russian, A.; Dentz, M.; Gouze, P.
2017-12-01
Characterizing and modeling hydrodynamic reactive transport in fractured rock are critical challenges for various research fields and applications including environmental remediation, geological storage, and energy production. To this end, we consider a recently developed time domain random walk (TDRW) approach, which is adapted to reproduce anomalous transport behaviors and capture heterogeneous structural and physical properties. This method is also very well suited to optimize numerical simulations by memory-shared massive parallelization and provide numerical results at various scales. So far, the TDRW approach has been applied for modeling advective-diffusive transport with mass transfer between mobile and immobile regions and simple (theoretical) reactions in heterogeneous porous media represented as single continuum domains. We extend this approach to dual-continuum representations considering a highly permeable fracture network embedded into a poorly permeable rock matrix with heterogeneous geochemical reactions occurring in both geological structures. The resulting numerical model enables us to extend the range of the modeled heterogeneity scales with an accurate representation of solute transport processes and no assumption on the Fickianity of these processes. The proposed model is compared to existing particle-based methods that are usually used to model reactive transport in fractured rocks assuming a homogeneous surrounding matrix, and is used to evaluate the impact of the matrix heterogeneity on the apparent reaction rates for different 2D and 3D simple-to-complex fracture network configurations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawai, Y.
1991-08-01
It has recently been recognized that the research on various aspects of chaotic dynamics grows rapidly as one of some areas in nonlinear science. On the other hands, the plasma has long been called a treasure-house of nonlinear phenomena, so it is easy to imagine that the plasma is abundant in chaotic phenomena. In fact, the research on plasma chaos is going on, such as the research on the stochastic magnetic field and the chaotic orbit in the toroidal helical system, as well as the research in other experiments. To review the present status of the research on plasma chaos and to make clear the basic common physics, a working group was organized in 1990 as a collaboration research of National Institute for Fusion Science. This is the report on its activity in 1990, with a stress on experimental data obtained in basic plasma experiments and RFP, and on the relaxed theories and computer simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hategan, Cornel
2002-01-01
Theory of Threshold Phenomena in Quantum Scattering is developed in terms of Reduced Scattering Matrix. Relationships of different types of threshold anomalies both to nuclear reaction mechanisms and to nuclear reaction models are established. Magnitude of threshold effect is related to spectroscopic factor of zero-energy neutron state. The Theory of Threshold Phenomena, based on Reduced Scattering Matrix, does establish relationships between different types of threshold effects and nuclear reaction mechanisms: the cusp and non-resonant potential scattering, s-wave threshold anomaly and compound nucleus resonant scattering, p-wave anomaly and quasi-resonant scattering. A threshold anomaly related to resonant or quasi resonant scattering is enhanced provided the neutron threshold state has large spectroscopic amplitude. The Theory contains, as limit cases, Cusp Theories and also results of different nuclear reactions models as Charge Exchange, Weak Coupling, Bohr and Hauser-Feshbach models. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conti, P.S.
1982-01-01
The author reviews in broad terms the concept of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) phenomena, outlines what we currently know about the properties of stars showing such phenomena and indicates the directions in which future work is leading. He begins by listing the characteristics of W-R spectra and then considers the following specific problems: the absolute visual magnitudes; the heterogeneity of WN spectra; the existence of transition type spectra and compositions; the mass loss rates; the existence of very luminous and possibly very massive W-R stars. He discusses briefly our current understanding of the theoretical aspects of stellar evolution and stellar winds and the various scenarios that have been proposed to understand W-R stars. (Auth.)
Large momentum transfer phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imachi, Masahiro; Otsuki, Shoichiro; Matsuoka, Takeo; Sawada, Shoji.
1978-01-01
The large momentum transfer phenomena in hadron reaction drastically differ from small momentum transfer phenomena, and are described in this paper. Brief review on the features of the large transverse momentum transfer reactions is described in relation with two-body reactions, single particle productions, particle ratios, two jet structure, two particle correlations, jet production cross section, and the component of momentum perpendicular to the plane defined by the incident protons and the triggered pions and transverse momentum relative to jet axis. In case of two-body process, the exponent N of the power law of the differential cross section is a value between 10 to 11.5 in the large momentum transfer region. The breaks of the exponential behaviors into the power ones are observed at the large momentum transfer region. The break would enable to estimate the order of a critical length. The large momentum transfer phenomena strongly suggest an important role of constituents of hadrons in the hard region. Hard rearrangement of constituents from different initial hadrons induces large momentum transfer reactions. Several rules to count constituents in the hard region have been proposed so far to explain the power behavior. Scale invariant quark interaction and hard reactions are explained, and a summary of the possible types of hard subprocess is presented. (Kato, T.)
Incorporating interfacial phenomena in solidification models
Beckermann, Christoph; Wang, Chao Yang
1994-01-01
A general methodology is available for the incorporation of microscopic interfacial phenomena in macroscopic solidification models that include diffusion and convection. The method is derived from a formal averaging procedure and a multiphase approach, and relies on the presence of interfacial integrals in the macroscopic transport equations. In a wider engineering context, these techniques are not new, but their application in the analysis and modeling of solidification processes has largely been overlooked. This article describes the techniques and demonstrates their utility in two examples in which microscopic interfacial phenomena are of great importance.
Randomly dispersed particle fuel model in the PSG Monte Carlo neutron transport code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leppaenen, J.
2007-01-01
High-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels are composed of thousands of microscopic fuel particles, randomly dispersed in a graphite matrix. The modelling of such geometry is complicated, especially using continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes, which are unable to apply any deterministic corrections in the calculation. This paper presents the geometry routine developed for modelling randomly dispersed particle fuels using the PSG Monte Carlo reactor physics code. The model is based on the delta-tracking method, and it takes into account the spatial self-shielding effects and the random dispersion of the fuel particles. The calculation routine is validated by comparing the results to reference MCNP4C calculations using uranium and plutonium based fuels. (authors)
Quantification of natural phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botero Alvarez, Javier
1997-01-01
The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories
Acoustic phenomena during boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorofeev, B.M.
1985-01-01
Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer
Elliptic equation for random walks. Application to transport in microporous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shapiro, Alexander
2007-01-01
We consider a process of random walks with arbitrary residence time distribution. We show that in many cases this process may not be described by the classical (Fick) parabolic diffusion equation, but an elliptic equation. An additional term proportional to the second time derivative takes into a...
Flow, transport and diffusion in random geometries I: a MLMC algorithm
Canuto, Claudio
2015-01-07
Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) is an efficient and flexible solution for the propagation of uncertainties in complex models, where an explicit parametrization of the input randomness is not available or too expensive. We propose a general-purpose algorithm and computational code for the solution of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) on random geoemtry and with random parameters. We make use of the key idea of MLMC, based on different discretization levels, extending it in a more general context, making use of a hierarchy of physical resolution scales, solvers, models and other numerical/geometrical discretization parameters. Modifications of the classical MLMC estimators are proposed to further reduce variance in cases where analytical convergence rates and asymptotic regimes are not available. Spheres, ellipsoids and general convex-shaped grains are placed randomly in the domain with different placing/packing algorithms and the effective properties of the heterogeneous medium are computed. These are, for example, effective diffusivities, conductivities, and reaction rates. The implementation of the Monte-Carlo estimators, the statistical samples and each single solver is done efficiently in parallel.
Direct channel problems and phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cutkosky, R.E.
1975-01-01
Direct channel problems and phenomena are considered covering the need for precision hadron spectroscopy, the data base for precision hadron spectroscopy, some relations between direct-channel and cross-channel effects, and spin rotation phenomena
Cooper, M A
2000-01-01
We present various approximations for the angular distribution of particles emerging from an optically thick, purely isotropically scattering region into a vacuum. Our motivation is to use such a distribution for the Fleck-Canfield random walk method [1] for implicit Monte Carlo (IMC) [2] radiation transport problems. We demonstrate that the cosine distribution recommended in the original random walk paper [1] is a poor approximation to the angular distribution predicted by transport theory. Then we examine other approximations that more closely match the transport angular distribution.
Geochemical modelling: what phenomena are missing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquier, P.
1989-12-01
In the framework of safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal, retention phenomena are usually taken into account by the Kd concept. It is well recognized that this concept is not enough for safety assessment models, because of the several and strong assumptions which are involved in this kind of representation. One way to have a better representation of the retention phenomena, is to substitute for this Kd concept an explicit description of geochemical phenomena and then couple transport codes with geochemical codes in a fully or a two-step procedure. We use currently such codes, but the scope of this paper is to display the limits today of the geochemical modelling in connection with sites analysis for deep disposal. In this paper, we intend to give an overview of phenomena which are missing in the geochemical models, or which are not completely introduced in the models. We can distinguish, on one hand phenomena for which modelling concepts exist such as adsorption/desorption and, on the other hand, phenomena for which modelling concepts do not exist for the moment such as colloids, and complexation by polyelectrolyte solutions (organics). Moreover we have to take care of very low concentrations of radionuclides, which can be expected from the leaching processes in the repository. Under those conditions, some reactions may not occur. After a critical review of the involved phenomena, we intend to stress the main directions of the wishful evolution of the geochemical modelling. This evolution should improve substantially the quality of the above-mentioned site assessments
Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves
Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.
2003-01-01
We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.
Neutron Transport in Spatially Random Media: An Assessment of the Accuracy of First Order Smoothing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
2000-01-01
A formalism has been developed for studying the transmission of neutrons through a spatially stochastic medium. The stochastic components are represented by absorbing plates of randomly varying strength and random position. This type of geometry enables the Feinberg-Galanin-Horning method to be employed and leads to the solution of a coupled set of linear equations for the flux at the plate positions. The matrix of the coefficients contains members that are random and these are solved by simulation. That is, the strength and plate positions are sampled from uniform distributions and the equations solved many times (in this case 10 5 simulations are carried out). Probability distributions for the plate transmission and reflection factors are constructed from which the mean and variance can be computed.These essentially exact solutions enable closure approximations to be assessed for accuracy. To this end, we have compared the mean and variance obtained from the first order smoothing approximation of Keller with the exact results and have found excellent agreement for the mean values but note deviations of up to 40% for the variance. Nevertheless, for the problems considered here, first order smoothing appears to be of practical value and is very efficient numerically in comparison with simulation
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter
2006-01-01
...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, H.C.
1976-01-01
A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation
Agić, Ante
2007-06-01
Knowledge of the foot morphometry is important for proper foot structure and function. Foot structure as a vital part of human body is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric and morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical descriptors in order to fully characterize foot functionality. For Croatian student population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot morphometric descriptors are influenced by many factors, such as life style, climate, and things of great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors related to fit and comfort are determined by the use 3D foot shape and advanced foot biomechanics. Some practical recommendations and conclusions for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.
Workshop on Interface Phenomena
Kreuzer, Hans
1987-01-01
This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregoire, Christian.
1982-03-01
Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1998-01-01
Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)
Simulation of Magnetic Phenomena at Realistic Interfaces
Grytsyuk, Sergiy
2016-02-04
In modern technology exciting developments are related to the ability to understand and control interfaces. Particularly, magnetic interfaces revealing spindependent electron transport are of great interest for modern spintronic devices, such as random access memories and logic devices. From the technological point of view, spintronic devices based on magnetic interfaces enable manipulation of the magnetism via an electric field. Such ability is a result of the different quantum effects arising from the magnetic interfaces (for example, spin transfer torque or spin-orbit torque) and it can reduce the energy consumption as compared to the traditional semiconductor electronic devices. Despite many appealing characteristics of these materials, fundamental understanding of their microscopic properties and related phenomena needs to be established by thorough investigation. In this work we implement first principles calculations in order to study the structural, electric, and magnetic properties as well as related phenomena of two types of interfaces with large potential in spintronic applications: 1) interfaces between antiferromagnetic 3d-metal-oxides and ferromagnetic 3d-metals and 2) interfaces between non-magnetic 5d(4d)- and ferromagnetic 3d-metals. A major difficulty in studying such interfaces theoretically is the typically large lattice mismatch. By employing supercells with Moir e patterns, we eliminate the artificial strain that leads to doubtful results and are able to describe the dependence of the atomic density at the interfaces on the component materials and their thicknesses. After establishing understanding about the interface structures, we investigate the electronic and magnetic properties. A Moir e supercell with transition layer is found to reproduce the main experimental findings and thus turns out to be the appropriate model for simulating magnetic misfit interfaces. In addition, we systematically study the magnetic anisotropy and Rashba band
Membrane Transfer Phenomena (MTP)
Mason, Larry
1996-01-01
Progress has been made in several areas of the definition, design, and development of the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA) instrument and associated sensors and systems. Progress is also reported in the development of software modules for instrument control, experimental image and data acquisition, and data analysis.
Resistor-network anomalies in the heat transport of random harmonic chains.
Weinberg, Isaac; de Leeuw, Yaron; Kottos, Tsampikos; Cohen, Doron
2016-06-01
We consider thermal transport in low-dimensional disordered harmonic networks of coupled masses. Utilizing known results regarding Anderson localization, we derive the actual dependence of the thermal conductance G on the length L of the sample. This is required by nanotechnology implementations because for such networks Fourier's law G∝1/L^{α} with α=1 is violated. In particular we consider "glassy" disorder in the coupling constants and find an anomaly which is related by duality to the Lifshitz-tail regime in the standard Anderson model.
Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, H.Y.
2012-01-01
Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r → -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t → -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function Ψ is given by the phase factor e -iEt/h b ar with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the spin operator changes sign
Self field electromagnetism and quantum phenomena
Schatten, Kenneth H.
1994-07-01
Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) has been extremely successful inits predictive capability for atomic phenomena. Thus the greatest hope for any alternative view is solely to mimic the predictive capability of quantum mechanics (QM), and perhaps its usefulness will lie in gaining a better understanding of microscopic phenomena. Many ?paradoxes? and problematic situations emerge in QED. To combat the QED problems, the field of Stochastics Electrodynamics (SE) emerged, wherein a random ?zero point radiation? is assumed to fill all of space in an attmept to explain quantum phenomena, without some of the paradoxical concerns. SE, however, has greater failings. One is that the electromagnetic field energy must be infinit eto work. We have examined a deterministic side branch of SE, ?self field? electrodynamics, which may overcome the probelms of SE. Self field electrodynamics (SFE) utilizes the chaotic nature of electromagnetic emissions, as charges lose energy near atomic dimensions, to try to understand and mimic quantum phenomena. These fields and charges can ?interact with themselves? in a non-linear fashion, and may thereby explain many quantum phenomena from a semi-classical viewpoint. Referred to as self fields, they have gone by other names in the literature: ?evanesccent radiation?, ?virtual photons?, and ?vacuum fluctuations?. Using self fields, we discuss the uncertainty principles, the Casimir effects, and the black-body radiation spectrum, diffraction and interference effects, Schrodinger's equation, Planck's constant, and the nature of the electron and how they might be understood in the present framework. No new theory could ever replace QED. The self field view (if correct) would, at best, only serve to provide some understanding of the processes by which strange quantum phenomena occur at the atomic level. We discuss possible areas where experiments might be employed to test SFE, and areas where future work may lie.
Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Brutzel, L.; Dingreville, R.; Bartel, T.J.
2015-01-01
Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)
Curran, Francis M.; Haag, Thomas W.; Raquet, John F.
1989-01-01
Cathode tips made from a number of different materials were tested in a modular arcjet thruster in order to examine cathode phenomena. Periodic disassembly and examination, along with the data collected during testing, indicated that all of the tungsten-based materials behaved similarly despite the fact that in one of these samples the percentage of thorium oxide was doubled and another was 25 percent rhenium. The mass loss rate from a 2 percent thoriated rhenium cathode was found to be an order of magnitude greater than that observed using 2 percent thoriated tungsten. Detailed analysis of one of these cathode tips showed that the molten crater contained pure tungsten to a depth of about 150 microns. Problems with thermal stress cracking were encountered in the testing of a hafnium carbide tip. Post test analysis showed that the active area of the tip had chemically reacted with the propellant. A 100 hour continuous test was run at about 1 kW. Post test analysis revealed no dendrite formation, such as observed in a 30 kW arcjet lifetest, near the cathode crater. The cathodes from both this test and a previously run 1000 hour cycled test displayed nearly identical arc craters. Data and calculations indicate that the mass losses observed in testing can be explained by evaporation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramadan, A.E.K.
2004-01-01
Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert
2007-01-01
.... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...
Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y
2012-01-01
Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.
Haters Phenomena in Social Media
Pradipta, Angga; Lailiyah, S.Sos, M.I.Kom, Nuriyatul
2016-01-01
Social media is internet-basic media, functioned as interaction media room based on multimedia technology. And social media created some effects. One of the negative effects of social media is haters phenomena. Haters are a person who easily said dirty words, harass, and humiliate to others. This phenomena causes anxiety—especially in Indonesia, even the Government issued public policy and letter of regulation about this phenomena, through Paragraph 27 verse (3) IT Constitution, Paragraph 45 ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Wei
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Logistic regression models have been widely used in previous studies to analyze public transport utilization. These studies have shown travel time to be an indispensable variable for such analysis and usually consider it to be a deterministic variable. This formulation does not allow us to capture travelers’ perception error regarding travel time, and recent studies have indicated that this error can have a significant effect on modal choice behavior. In this study, we propose a logistic regression model with a hierarchical random error term. The proposed model adds a new random error term for the travel time variable. This term structure enables us to investigate travelers’ perception error regarding travel time from a given choice behavior dataset. We also propose an extended model that allows constraining the sign of this error in the model. We develop two Gibbs samplers to estimate the basic hierarchical model and the extended model. The performance of the proposed models is examined using a well-known dataset.
Hoerning, Sebastian; Bardossy, Andras; du Plessis, Jaco
2017-04-01
Most geostatistical inverse groundwater flow and transport modelling approaches utilize a numerical solver to minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated hydraulic heads and/or hydraulic concentration values. The optimization procedure often requires many model runs, which for complex models lead to long run times. Random Mixing is a promising new geostatistical technique for inverse modelling. The method is an extension of the gradual deformation approach. It works by finding a field which preserves the covariance structure and maintains observed hydraulic conductivities. This field is perturbed by mixing it with new fields that fulfill the homogeneous conditions. This mixing is expressed as an optimization problem which aims to minimize the difference between the observed and simulated hydraulic heads and/or concentration values. To preserve the spatial structure, the mixing weights must lie on the unit hyper-sphere. We present a modification to the Random Mixing algorithm which significantly reduces the number of model runs required. The approach involves taking n equally spaced points on the unit circle as weights for mixing conditional random fields. Each of these mixtures provides a solution to the forward model at the conditioning locations. For each of the locations the solutions are then interpolated around the circle to provide solutions for additional mixing weights at very low computational cost. The interpolated solutions are used to search for a mixture which maximally reduces the objective function. This is in contrast to other approaches which evaluate the objective function for the n mixtures and then interpolate the obtained values. Keeping the mixture on the unit circle makes it easy to generate equidistant sampling points in the space; however, this means that only two fields are mixed at a time. Once the optimal mixture for two fields has been found, they are combined to form the input to the next iteration of the algorithm. This
Trophallaxis-inspired model for distributed transport between randomly interacting agents
Gräwer, Johannes; Ronellenfitsch, Henrik; Mazza, Marco G.; Katifori, Eleni
2017-08-01
Trophallaxis, the regurgitation and mouth to mouth transfer of liquid food between members of eusocial insect societies, is an important process that allows the fast and efficient dissemination of food in the colony. Trophallactic systems are typically treated as a network of agent interactions. This approach, though valuable, does not easily lend itself to analytic predictions. In this work we consider a simple trophallactic system of randomly interacting agents with finite carrying capacity, and calculate analytically and via a series of simulations the global food intake rate for the whole colony as well as observables describing how uniformly the food is distributed within the nest. Our model and predictions provide a useful benchmark to assess to what level the observed food uptake rates and efficiency in food distribution is due to stochastic effects or specific trophallactic strategies by the ant colony. Our work also serves as a stepping stone to describing the collective properties of more complex trophallactic systems, such as those including division of labor between foragers and workers.
Mesoscopic phenomena in solids
Altshuler, BL; Webb, RA
1991-01-01
The physics of disordered systems has enjoyed a resurgence of interest in the last decade. New concepts such as weak localization, interaction effects and Coulomb gap, have been developed for the transport properties of metals and insulators. With the fabrication of smaller and smaller samples and the routine availability of low temperatures, new physics has emerged from the studies of small devices. The new field goes under the name ""mesoscopic physics"" and has rapidly developed, both experimentally and theoretically. This book is designed to review the current status of the field.
Simulations of Biomechanical Phenomena
Gonzalez, Jose Cruz
Recent studies have published breakthroughs in the application of finite element (FEA) studies in the design and analysis of advanced orthodontics. However, FEA has not captured bone remodeling responses to advanced orthodontics. The results of these simulations report unrealistic displacement around the nasal bridge, which impeded correlation with clinical data. Bone remodeling has been previously documented in FEA and has shown bone response to mechanical stimulus in femur bone models. However, the relationship between mechanical stimulus and bone remodeling has not been reported in orthodontic studies due to the complexity of the skull. In the current study, strain energy is used as the mechanical stimulus to control remodeling, from which density and modulus evolve. Due to the localization of forces in orthodontics, current remodeling algorithms have limited application. In turn, we developed an algorithm that dynamically collects, sorts, and bins stresses in all elements for regional remodeling based on the proximity of the element to the load. The results demonstrate that bone response to orthodontic appliances is different than that of an FEA without bone remodeling, due to load path changes based upon evolution of the bone properties. It was also found that density and moduli proximal to the load application site exhibit faster remodeling than those located remotely. Modeling another biomechanical phenomena, a 3D simulation was created to simulate recent experimental results that discovered a difference in impact mitigation properties of dense-polymer/foam bilayer structure based on the orientation of the dense-polymer with respect to the impact site. The impact energy transmitted varied in time of arrival and amplitude depending on the orientation of the structure (thin layer up or down). By creating a 3D explicit dynamic FEA simulation, it is expected to reduce costly experiments and time consumed in set up, and offer opportunities for optimization for
Introductory lectures on critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khajehpour, M.R.H.
1988-09-01
After a presentation of classical models for phase transitions and critical phenomena (Van der Waals theory, Weiss theory of ferromagnetism) and theoretical models (Ising model, XY model, Heisenberg model, spherical model) the Landau theory of critical and multicritical points and some single applications of renormalization group method in static critical phenomena are presented. 115 refs, figs and tabs
2007-01-01
Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being
Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena
Kolobov, Alexander V
2012-01-01
A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.
Kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naito, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Taro
2001-01-01
Resistive and ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theories are insufficient to adequately explain MHD phenomena in the high-temperature plasma. Recent progress in numerical simulations concerning kinetic effects on magnetohydrodynamic phenomena is summarized. The following three topics are studied using various models treating extended-MHD phenomena. (1) Kinetic modifications of internal kink modes in tokamaks with normal and reversed magnetic shear configurations. (2) Temporal evolution of the toroidal Alfven eigenmode and fishbone mode in tokamaks with energetic ions. (3) Kinetic stabilization of a title mode in field-reversed configurations by means of anchoring ions and beam ions. (author)
Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, C.V.; Dehart, M.D.; Wagner, J.C.
2001-01-01
Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)
Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications
Khandekar, Sameer
2015-01-01
The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.
Hu, Jun; Gao, Huijun
2014-01-01
This monograph introduces methods for handling filtering and control problems in nonlinear stochastic systems arising from network-induced phenomena consequent on limited communication capacity. Such phenomena include communication delay, packet dropout, signal quantization or saturation, randomly occurring nonlinearities and randomly occurring uncertainties.The text is self-contained, beginning with an introduction to nonlinear stochastic systems, network-induced phenomena and filtering and control, moving through a collection of the latest research results which focuses on the three aspects
An efficient method of randomly sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williamson, J.F.; Morin, R.L.
1983-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport phenomena require random selection of an interaction process at each collision site along the photon track. Possible choices are usually limited to photoelectric absorption and incoherent scatter as approximated by the Klein-Nishina distribution. A technique is described for sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution, for the benefit of workers in medical physics. (U.K.)
Transport at basin scales: 2. Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Rinaldo
2006-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the second of a series, we apply the models discussed in Part 1 to a significant case study. The nature of the catchment under study, the transport phenomena investigated (i.e. nitrates moving as solutes within runoff waters and the scales involved in space and time, provide an elaborate test for theory and applications. Comparison of modeling predictions with field data (i.e. fluxes of carrier flow and solute nitrates suggests that the framework proposed for geomorphic transport models is capable to describe well large-scale transport phenomena driven and/or controlled by spatially distributed hydrologic fields (e.g. rainfall patterns in space and time, drainage pathways, soil coverage and type, matter stored in immobile phases. A sample MonteCarlo mode of application of the model is also discussed where hydrologic forcings and external nitrate applications (through fertilization are treated as random processes.
Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena
Santamarina, Carlos; Sun, Zhonghao
2017-01-01
Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration
Renormalization group and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji Qing
2004-01-01
The basic clue and the main steps of renormalization group method used for the description of critical phenomena is introduced. It is pointed out that this method really reflects the most important physical features of critical phenomena, i.e. self-similarity, and set up a practical solving method from it. This way of setting up a theory according to the features of the physical system is really a good lesson for today's physicists. (author)
Preface: Nonclassical Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.
2008-01-01
low-permeable rock matrix and dead-ends of fracture percolation clusters. Physical concepts to describe transport phenomena in fractured rocks are discussed. The second paper (Dykhne et al., 2008) is devoted to the analysis of diffusion in heterogeneous media with sharply contrasting properties. The authors show that as time progresses, three different transport regimes can be realized in the model. Here, an intermediate regime corresponds to subdiffusion. The change of regimes results in a complex structure of concentration tails, with the shapes of the more-distant tail segments determined by earlier-time transport behavior. In the third paper (Bolshov et al., 2008a), new elements are developed to generalize the dual-porosity model for moisture infiltration and solute transport in unsaturated rocks, taking into account fractal aspects of the percolation process. It is shown that the solute transport regime is determined by a competition of two mechanisms: random advection through a fracture network and trapping caused by sharply contrasting properties of the medium. As a result, superdiffusive, subdiffusive, or classical diffusive regimes may occur. The complex structure of concentration tails and effects due to medium characteristic fluctuations is also discussed. In the fourth paper, Goloviznin et al. (2008) develop a stochastic random walk numerical model of anomalous diffusion to simulate solute transport in highly heterogeneous media. Solutions of the one- and symmetric two-dimensional stochastic problem are compared with computations performed on the basis of fractional advection--diffusion equation models. The new model is in reasonable agreement with experimental data on solute transport in highly heterogeneous media.
A KDE-Based Random Walk Method for Modeling Reactive Transport With Complex Kinetics in Porous Media
Sole-Mari, Guillem; FernÃ ndez-Garcia, Daniel; Rodríguez-Escales, Paula; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier
2017-11-01
In recent years, a large body of the literature has been devoted to study reactive transport of solutes in porous media based on pure Lagrangian formulations. Such approaches have also been extended to accommodate second-order bimolecular reactions, in which the reaction rate is proportional to the concentrations of the reactants. Rather, in some cases, chemical reactions involving two reactants follow more complicated rate laws. Some examples are (1) reaction rate laws written in terms of powers of concentrations, (2) redox reactions incorporating a limiting term (e.g., Michaelis-Menten), or (3) any reaction where the activity coefficients vary with the concentration of the reactants, just to name a few. We provide a methodology to account for complex kinetic bimolecular reactions in a fully Lagrangian framework where each particle represents a fraction of the total mass of a specific solute. The method, built as an extension to the second-order case, is based on the concept of optimal Kernel Density Estimator, which allows the concentrations to be written in terms of particle locations, hence transferring the concept of reaction rate to that of particle location distribution. By doing so, we can update the probability of particles reacting without the need to fully reconstruct the concentration maps. The performance and convergence of the method is tested for several illustrative examples that simulate the Advection-Dispersion-Reaction Equation in a 1-D homogeneous column. Finally, a 2-D application example is presented evaluating the need of fully describing non-bilinear chemical kinetics in a randomly heterogeneous porous medium.
Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frid, W.
1991-08-01
This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)
Teaching optical phenomena with Tracker
Rodrigues, M.; Simeão Carvalho, P.
2014-11-01
Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a relatively complex setup. Fortunately, nowadays it is possible to analyse optical phenomena in a simple and quantitative way using the freeware video analysis software ‘Tracker’. In this paper, we show the advantages of video-based experimental activities for teaching concepts in optics. We intend to show: (a) how easy the study of such phenomena can be, even at home, because only simple materials are needed, and Tracker provides the necessary measuring instruments; and (b) how we can use Tracker to improve students’ understanding of some optical concepts. We give examples using video modelling to study the laws of reflection, Snell’s laws, focal distances in lenses and mirrors, and diffraction phenomena, which we hope will motivate teachers to implement it in their own classes and schools.
Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gundlach Carsten
1999-01-01
Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.
Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena
Neuzil, C.E.
1995-01-01
So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author
Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena
Helliwell, Robert A
2006-01-01
The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of
Diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules in microfluidic devices.
Yildiz-Ozturk, Ece; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem
2015-09-01
Biomicrofluidics is an emerging field at the cross roads of microfluidics and life sciences which requires intensive research efforts in terms of introducing appropriate designs, production techniques, and analysis. The ultimate goal is to deliver innovative and cost-effective microfluidic devices to biotech, biomedical, and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, creating an in-depth understanding of the transport phenomena of cells and biomolecules becomes vital and concurrently poses significant challenges. The present article outlines the recent advancements in diffusion phenomena of cells and biomolecules by highlighting transport principles from an engineering perspective, cell responses in microfluidic devices with emphases on diffusion- and flow-based microfluidic gradient platforms, macroscopic and microscopic approaches for investigating the diffusion phenomena of biomolecules, microfluidic platforms for the delivery of these molecules, as well as the state of the art in biological applications of mammalian cell responses and diffusion of biomolecules.
Discovery potential for new phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, S.; Price, L.E.
1997-03-01
The authors examine the ability of future facilities to discover and interpret non-supersymmetric new phenomena. The authors first explore explicit manifestations of new physics, including extended gauge sectors, leptoquarks, exotic fermions, and technicolor models. They then take a more general approach where new physics only reveals itself through the existence of effective interactions at lower energy scales
Multiscale Modeling of Mesoscale and Interfacial Phenomena
Petsev, Nikolai Dimitrov
With rapidly emerging technologies that feature interfaces modified at the nanoscale, traditional macroscopic models are pushed to their limits to explain phenomena where molecular processes can play a key role. Often, such problems appear to defy explanation when treated with coarse-grained continuum models alone, yet remain prohibitively expensive from a molecular simulation perspective. A prominent example is surface nanobubbles: nanoscopic gaseous domains typically found on hydrophobic surfaces that have puzzled researchers for over two decades due to their unusually long lifetimes. We show how an entirely macroscopic, non-equilibrium model explains many of their anomalous properties, including their stability and abnormally small gas-side contact angles. From this purely transport perspective, we investigate how factors such as temperature and saturation affect nanobubbles, providing numerous experimentally testable predictions. However, recent work also emphasizes the relevance of molecular-scale phenomena that cannot be described in terms of bulk phases or pristine interfaces. This is true for nanobubbles as well, whose nanoscale heights may require molecular detail to capture the relevant physics, in particular near the bubble three-phase contact line. Therefore, there is a clear need for general ways to link molecular granularity and behavior with large-scale continuum models in the treatment of many interfacial problems. In light of this, we have developed a general set of simulation strategies that couple mesoscale particle-based continuum models to molecular regions simulated through conventional molecular dynamics (MD). In addition, we derived a transport model for binary mixtures that opens the possibility for a wide range of applications in biological and drug delivery problems, and is readily reconciled with our hybrid MD-continuum techniques. Approaches that couple multiple length scales for fluid mixtures are largely absent in the literature, and
Peridynamic Formulation for Coupled Thermoelectric Phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Migbar Assefa
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Modeling of heat and electrical current flow simultaneously in thermoelectric convertor using classical theories do not consider the influence of defects in the material. This is because traditional methods are developed based on partial differential equations (PDEs and lead to infinite fluxes at the discontinuities. The usual way of solving such PDEs is by using numerical technique, like Finite Element Method (FEM. Although FEM is robust and versatile, it is not suitable to model evolving discontinuities. To avoid such shortcomings, we propose the concept of peridynamic theory to derive the balance of energy and charge equations in the coupled thermoelectric phenomena. Therefore, this paper presents the transport of heat and charge in thermoelectric material in the framework of peridynamic (PD theory. To illustrate the reliability of the PD formulation, numerical examples are presented and results are compared with those from literature, analytical solutions, or finite element solutions.
Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena Report
Dryer, Murray
1987-09-01
Scientific progress on the topic of energy, mass, and momentum transport from the Sun into the heliosphere is contingent upon interdisciplinary and international cooperative efforts on the part of many workers. Summarized here is a report of some highlights of research carried out during the SMY/SMA by the STIP (Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena) Project that included solar and interplanetary scientists around the world. These highlights are concerned with coronal mass ejections from solar flares or erupting prominences (sometimes together); their large-scale consequences in interplanetary space (such as shocks and magnetic 'bubbles'); and energetic particles and their relationship to these large-scale structures. It is concluded that future progress is contingent upon similar international programs assisted by real-time (or near-real-time) warnings of solar activity by cooperating agencies along the lines experienced during the SMY/SMA.
Spin-transfer phenomena in layered magnetic structures: Physical phenomena and materials aspects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gruenberg, P.; Buergler, D.E.; Dassow, H.; Rata, A.D.; Schneider, C.M.
2007-01-01
During the past 20 years, layered structures consisting of ferromagnetic layers and spacers of various material classes with a thickness of only a few nanometers have revealed a variety of exciting and potentially very useful phenomena not present in bulk material. Representing distinct manifestations of spin-transfer processes, these phenomena may be categorized into interlayer exchange coupling (IEC), giant magnetoresistance (GMR), tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR), and the more recently discovered spin-transfer torque effect leading to current-induced magnetization switching (CIMS) and current-driven magnetization dynamics. These phenomena clearly confer novel material properties on magnetic layered structures with respect to the (magneto-)transport and the magnetostatic as well as magnetodynamic behavior. Here, we will first concentrate on the less well understood aspects of IEC across insulating and semiconducting interlayers and relate the observations to TMR in the corresponding structures. In this context, we will also discuss more recent advances in TMR due to the use of electrodes made from Heusler alloys and the realization of coherent tunneling in epitaxial magnetic tunneling junctions. Finally, we will review our results on CIMS in epitaxial magnetic nanostructures showing that normal and inverse CIMS can occur simultaneously in a single nanopillar device. In all cases discussed, material issues play a major role in the detailed understanding of the spin-transfer effects, in particular in those systems that yield the largest effects and are thus of utmost interest for applications
Mathematical Modeling of Diverse Phenomena
Howard, J. C.
1979-01-01
Tensor calculus is applied to the formulation of mathematical models of diverse phenomena. Aeronautics, fluid dynamics, and cosmology are among the areas of application. The feasibility of combining tensor methods and computer capability to formulate problems is demonstrated. The techniques described are an attempt to simplify the formulation of mathematical models by reducing the modeling process to a series of routine operations, which can be performed either manually or by computer.
Multiparticle phenomena and Landau damping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Talman, R.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to survey various methods of studying multiparticle phenomena in accelerators. Both experimental and theoretical methods are described. An effort has been made to emphasize the intuitive and qualitative aspects rather than the detailed mathematics. Some of the terms or concepts to be explained are coherent and incoherent tunes, normal modes, Landau damping, beam-transfer functions, and feedback. These are all of daily importance in the interpretation of colliding-beam observations and the control of performance
Luminous Phenomena - A Scientific Investigation of Anomalous Luminous Atmospheric Phenomena
Teodorani, M.
2003-12-01
Anomalous atmospheric luminous phenomena reoccur in several locations of Earth, in the form of multi-color light balls characterized by large dimensions, erratic motion, long duration and a correlated electromagnetic field. The author (an astrophysicist) of this book, which is organized as a selection of some of his technical and popularizing papers and seminars, describes and discusses all the efforts that have been done in 10 years, through several missions and a massive data analysis, in order to obtain some scientific explanation of this kind of anomalies, in particular the Hessdalen anomaly in Norway. The following topics are treated in the book: a) geographic archive of the areas of Earth where such phenomena are known to reoccur most often; b) observational techniques of astrophysical kind that have been used to acquire the data; c) main scientific results obtained so far; d) physical interpretation and natural hypothesis vs. ETV hypothesis; e) historical and chronological issues; f) the importance to brindle new energy sources; g) the importance to keep distance from any kind of "ufology". An unpublished chapter is entirely devoted to a detailed scientific investigation project of light phenomena reoccurring on the Ontario lake; the chosen new-generation multi-wavelength sensing instrumentation that is planned to be used in future missions in that specific area, is described together with scientific rationale and planned procedures. The main results, which were obtained in other areas of the world, such as the Arizona desert, USA and the Sibillini Mountains, Italy, are also briefly mentioned. One chapter is entirely dedicated to the presentation of extensive abstracts of technical papers by the author concerning this specific subject. The book is accompanied with a rich source of bibliographic references.
PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena
Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo
2010-10-01
Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed
Stochastic phenomena in a fiber Raman amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalashnikov, Vladimir [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Institute of Photonics, Vienna University of Technology (Austria); Sergeyev, Sergey V. [Aston Institute of Photonic Technologies, Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Ania-Castanon, Juan Diego [Instituto de Optica CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Jacobsen, Gunnar [Acreo, Kista (Sweden); Popov, Sergei [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)
2017-01-15
The interplay of such cornerstones of modern nonlinear fiber optics as a nonlinearity, stochasticity and polarization leads to variety of the noise induced instabilities including polarization attraction and escape phenomena harnessing of which is a key to unlocking the fiber optic systems specifications required in high resolution spectroscopy, metrology, biomedicine and telecommunications. Here, by using direct stochastic modeling, the mapping of interplay of the Raman scattering-based nonlinearity, the random birefringence of a fiber, and the pump-to-signal intensity noise transfer has been done in terms of the fiber Raman amplifier parameters, namely polarization mode dispersion, the relative intensity noise of the pump laser, fiber length, and the signal power. The obtained results reveal conditions for emergence of the random birefringence-induced resonance-like enhancement of the gain fluctuations (stochastic anti-resonance) accompanied by pulse broadening and rare events in the form of low power output signals having probability heavily deviated from the Gaussian distribution. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Phenomena and Diosignes of Aratous
Avgoloupis, S. I.
2013-01-01
Aratous (305-240B.C.) was a singular intellectual, writer and poet which engage himself to compose a very interesting astronomical poet, using the "Dactylous sixstage' style, the formal style of the ancient Greek Epic poetry. This astronomic poem of Aratous "Phenomena and Diosignes" became very favorite reading during the Alexandrine, the Romman and the Byzandin eras as well and had received many praises from significant poets and particularly from Hipparchous and from Theonas from Alexandria, an astronomer of 4rth century A.C.(in Greeks)
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Nonlinear phenomena in general relativity
Allahyari, Alireza; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Mansouri, Reza
2018-04-01
The perturbation theory plays an important role in studying structure formation in cosmology and post-Newtonian physics, but not all phenomena can be described by the linear perturbation theory. Thus, it is necessary to study exact solutions or higher-order perturbations. Specifically, we study black hole (apparent) horizons and the cosmological event horizon formation in the perturbation theory. We emphasize that in the perturbative regime of the gravitational potential these horizons cannot form in the lower order. Studying the infinite plane metric, we show that, to capture the cosmological constant effect, we need at least a second-order expansion.
Nonlinear phenomena at cyclotron resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Subbarao, D.; Uma, R.
1986-01-01
Finite amplitude electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma which typically occur in situations as in present day wave heating, current drives and other schemes in magnetically confined fusion systems, can show qualitatively different absorption and emission characteristics around resonant frequencies of the plasma because of anharmonicity. Linear wave plasma coupling as well as weak nonlinear effects such as parametric instabilities generally overlook this important effect even though the thresholds for the two phenomena as shown here are comparable. Though the effects described here are relevant to a host of nonlinear resonance effects in fusion plasmas, the authors mainly limit themselves to ECRH
Violent phenomena in the Universe
Narlikar, Jayant V
2007-01-01
The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova
Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics
Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P
2012-01-01
Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear
Quantum theory of collective phenomena
Sewell, G L
2014-01-01
""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s
Foot anthropometry and morphology phenomena.
Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Vasilije; Mijović, Budimir
2006-12-01
Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in human society. Dominant descriptors are determined by principal component analysis. Some practical recommendation and conclusion for medical, sportswear and footwear practice are highlighted.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.
2011-10-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.
2010-01-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)
Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanduloviciu, M.; Popescu, S.
2001-01-01
The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunzl, K.
2002-01-01
It is well known that bioturbation can contribute significantly to the vertical transport of fallout radionuclides in grassland soils. To examine this effect also for a forest soil, activity-depth profiles of Chernobyl-derived 134Cs from a limed plot (soil, hapludalf under spruce) with a high abundance of earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus) in the Olu horizon (thickness=3.5 cm) were evaluated and compared with the corresponding depth profiles from an adjacent control plot. For this purpose, a random-walk based transport model was developed, which considers (1) the presence of an initial activity-depth distribution, (2) the deposition history of radiocesium at the soil surface, (3) individual diffusion/dispersion coefficients and convection rates for the different soil horizons, and (4) mixing by bioturbation within one soil horizon. With this model, the observed 134Cs-depth distribution at the control site (no bioturbation) and at the limed site could be simulated quite satisfactorily. It is shown that the observed, substantial long-term enrichment of 134Cs in the bioturbation horizon can be modeled by an exceptionally effective diffusion process, combined with a partial reflection of the randomly moving particles at the two borders of the bioturbation zone. The present model predicts significantly longer residence times of radiocesium in the organic soil layer of the forest soil than obtained from a first-order compartment model, which does not consider bioturbation explicitly
Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conrads, T.J.
1998-01-01
This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehua Pan; G.S. Bodvarsson
2001-01-01
Multiscale features of transport processes in fractured porous media make numerical modeling a difficult task, both in conceptualization and computation. Modeling the mass transfer through the fracture-matrix interface is one of the critical issues in the simulation of transport in a fractured porous medium. Because conventional dual-continuum-based numerical methods are unable to capture the transient features of the diffusion depth into the matrix (unless they assume a passive matrix medium), such methods will overestimate the transport of tracers through the fractures, especially for the cases with large fracture spacing, resulting in artificial early breakthroughs. We have developed a new method for calculating the particle-transfer probability that can capture the transient features of diffusion depth into the matrix within the framework of the dual-continuum random-walk particle method (RWPM) by introducing a new concept of activity range of a particle within the matrix. Unlike the multiple-continuum approach, the new dual-continuum RWPM does not require using additional grid blocks to represent the matrix. It does not assume a passive matrix medium and can be applied to the cases where global water flow exists in both continua. The new method has been verified against analytical solutions for transport in the fracture-matrix systems with various fracture spacing. The calculations of the breakthrough curves of radionuclides from a potential repository to the water table in Yucca Mountain demonstrate the effectiveness of the new method for simulating 3-D, mountain-scale transport in a heterogeneous, fractured porous medium under variably saturated conditions
Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J
2014-10-01
Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.
2013-01-01
Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217
Liu, Gaisheng; Lu, Zhiming; Zhang, Dongxiao
2007-01-01
A new approach has been developed for solving solute transport problems in randomly heterogeneous media using the Karhunen‐Loève‐based moment equation (KLME) technique proposed by Zhang and Lu (2004). The KLME approach combines the Karhunen‐Loève decomposition of the underlying random conductivity field and the perturbative and polynomial expansions of dependent variables including the hydraulic head, flow velocity, dispersion coefficient, and solute concentration. The equations obtained in this approach are sequential, and their structure is formulated in the same form as the original governing equations such that any existing simulator, such as Modular Three‐Dimensional Multispecies Transport Model for Simulation of Advection, Dispersion, and Chemical Reactions of Contaminants in Groundwater Systems (MT3DMS), can be directly applied as the solver. Through a series of two‐dimensional examples, the validity of the KLME approach is evaluated against the classical Monte Carlo simulations. Results indicate that under the flow and transport conditions examined in this work, the KLME approach provides an accurate representation of the mean concentration. For the concentration variance, the accuracy of the KLME approach is good when the conductivity variance is 0.5. As the conductivity variance increases up to 1.0, the mismatch on the concentration variance becomes large, although the mean concentration can still be accurately reproduced by the KLME approach. Our results also indicate that when the conductivity variance is relatively large, neglecting the effects of the cross terms between velocity fluctuations and local dispersivities, as done in some previous studies, can produce noticeable errors, and a rigorous treatment of the dispersion terms becomes more appropriate.
Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-02-01
Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.
Research in magnetospheric wave phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barfield, J.N.
1975-01-01
During the last 4 years a number of developments have occurred which have led to an increased understanding of the role of wave phenomena in the physical processes of the magnetosphere. While the studies span the frequency regime from millihertz to the electron gyrofrequency, the developments to be discussed in this paper have in common that they have added substantially to the understanding of the controlling processes, regions, and boundaries in the magnetosphere. The topics discussed are the increased awareness and documentation of the role of the plasmapause in micropulsation generation and propagation; the establishment of the role of ion cyclotron waves in the wave-particle interactions at the plasmapause; the discovery of magnetospheric electrostatic waves with ω = (3/2)Ω/sub -/; the discovery and preliminary identification of the source of plasmaspheric hiss; and the analysis of storm time Pc 5 waves as observed on the satellites ATS 1 and Explorer 45. (auth)
Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces
Calle, Carlos I.
2017-02-01
The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinchliffe, I.
1996-12-01
The Standard Model of particle physics has been very successful in describing experimental data with great precision. With the exception of some neutrino anomalies, there is no data that is in disagreement with it. Nevertheless, the model is regarded as incomplete and unsatisfactory. There is no explanation of the pattern of quark and lepton masses and, possibly more important, no understanding of the scale of electroweak interactions. Electroweak symmetry breaking is implemented in the Standard Model from the presence of a scalar electroweak doublet, the Higgs field, that acquires a vacuum expectation value of order 250 GeV and leaves as a remnant one physical state, the electrically neutral Higgs boson whose mass is not predicted. In this talk, the author compares the techniques used at, and capabilities of, various facilities in searching for new phenomena. The author emphasizes the cases where information from more than one facility may be needed to fully explore the physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ott, L.J.; Rij, W.I. van.
1991-01-01
Experiment-specific models have been employed since 1986 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) severe accident analysis programs for the purpose of boiling water reactor experimental planning and optimum interpretation of experimental results. The large integral tests performed to date, which start from an initial undamaged core state, have involved significantly different-from-prototypic boundary and experimental conditions because of either normal facility limitations or specific experimental constraints. These experiments (ACRR: DF-4, NRU: FLHT-6, and CORA) were designed to obtain specific phenomenological information such as the degradation and interaction of prototypic components and the effects on melt progression of control-blade materials and channel boxes. Applications of ORNL models specific to the KfK CORA-16 and CORA-17 experiments are discussed and significant findings from the experimental analyses such as the following are presented: applicability of available Zircaloy oxidation kinetics correlations; influence of cladding strain on Zircaloy oxidation; influence of spacer grids on the structural heatup; and the impact of treating the gaseous coolant as a gray interacting medium. The experiment-specific models supplement and support the systems-level accident analysis codes. They allow the analyst to accurately quantify the observed experimental phenomena and to compensate for the effect of known uncertainties. They provide a basis for the efficient development of new models for phenomena that are currently not modeled (such as material interactions). They can provide validated phenomenological models (from the results of the experiments) as candidates for incorporation in the systems-level ''whole-core'' codes
Remote sensing of natural phenomena
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miodrag D. Regodić
2014-06-01
Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stasyuk, Z.V.
1992-01-01
Size effects in electrical conductivity, thermoelectric power and Hall coefficient of thin scandium films have been investigated. An analysis of experimental data was made within the framework of Mayadas-Shatzkes and Tellier-Tosser-Pichard models. The transport parameters of scandium have been found. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naredi Peter
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention and treatment of hypothermia by active warming in prehospital trauma care is recommended but scientifical evidence of its effectiveness in a clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional active warming during road or air ambulance transportation of trauma patients. Methods Patients were assigned to either passive warming with blankets or passive warming with blankets with the addition of an active warming intervention using a large chemical heat pad applied to the upper torso. Ear canal temperature, subjective sensation of cold discomfort and vital signs were monitored. Results Mean core temperatures increased from 35.1°C (95% CI; 34.7-35.5°C to 36.0°C (95% CI; 35.7-36.3°C (p Conclusions In mildly hypothermic trauma patients, with preserved shivering capacity, adequate passive warming is an effective treatment to establish a slow rewarming rate and to reduce cold discomfort during prehospital transportation. However, the addition of active warming using a chemical heat pad applied to the torso will significantly improve thermal comfort even further and might also reduce the cold induced stress response. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01400152
Lundgren, Peter; Henriksson, Otto; Naredi, Peter; Björnstig, Ulf
2011-10-21
Prevention and treatment of hypothermia by active warming in prehospital trauma care is recommended but scientific evidence of its effectiveness in a clinical setting is scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of additional active warming during road or air ambulance transportation of trauma patients. Patients were assigned to either passive warming with blankets or passive warming with blankets with the addition of an active warming intervention using a large chemical heat pad applied to the upper torso. Ear canal temperature, subjective sensation of cold discomfort and vital signs were monitored. Mean core temperatures increased from 35.1°C (95% CI; 34.7-35.5°C) to 36.0°C (95% CI; 35.7-36.3°C) (p transportation. However, the addition of active warming using a chemical heat pad applied to the torso will significantly improve thermal comfort even further and might also reduce the cold induced stress response. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01400152.
EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology
Loss, Daniel
2009-10-01
Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation
Interface-Induced Phenomena in Magnetism.
Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, Axel; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S D; Fullerton, Eric E; Leighton, Chris; MacDonald, Allan H; Ralph, Daniel C; Arena, Dario A; Dürr, Hermann A; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V; Koopmans, Bert; Krivorotov, Ilya N; May, Steven J; Petford-Long, Amanda K; Rondinelli, James M; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K; Slavin, Andrei N; Stiles, Mark D; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L
2017-01-01
This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties are affected by interfaces, then turns to a discussion of charge and spin transport through and near interfaces and how these can be used to control the properties of the magnetic layer. Important concepts include spin accumulation, spin currents, spin transfer torque, and spin pumping. An overview is provided to the current state of knowledge and existing review literature on interfacial effects such as exchange bias, exchange spring magnets, spin Hall effect, oxide heterostructures, and topological insulators. The article highlights recent discoveries of interface-induced magnetism and non-collinear spin textures, non-linear dynamics including spin torque transfer and magnetization reversal induced by interfaces, and interfacial effects in ultrafast magnetization processes.
Poorly studied phenomena in geoelectrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
В. С. Могилатов
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Undoubtedly, modern geoelectric technologies emerge in the result of the development of traditional approaches and techniques. However of more interest is the appearance of completely new technologies based on new effects and new models of interaction of geological medium and electromagnetic field. The author does not commit to indicate principally new directions, but only wants to discuss some poorly known facts from the theory and practice of geoelectrics. The outcome of this study could be considered attracting the attention of experts to non-traditional signals in geoelectrics. The reviewed phenomena of interest, not fully implemented in practice in the author’s opinion, are field split into two polarizations: transverse electric (the ТЕ-field and transverse magnetic (the ТМ-field, then some poorly known properties of ТМ-field, the role of bias currents, the anisotropy of horizontal resistances, the role of geomagnetic field in geoelectric sounding, the unique resolution of CSEM (Controlled Source Electro-Magnetic techniques at sea.
Transient phenomena in multiphase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afgan, N.H.
1988-01-01
This book is devoted to formulation of the two-phase system. Emphasis is given to classical instantaneous equations of mass momentum and energy for local conditions and respective averaging procedures and their relevance to the structure of transfer laws. In formulating an equation for a two-velocity continuum, two-phase dispersed flow, two-velocity and local inertial effects associated with contraction and expansion of the mixture have been considered. Particular attention is paid to the effects of interface topology and area concentration as well as the latter's dependence on interfacial transfer laws. Also covered are low bubble concentrations in basic nonuniform unsteady flow where interactions between bubbles are negligible but where the effects of bubbles must still be considered. Special emphasis has been given to the pairwise interaction of the bubble and respective hydrodynamic equations describing the motion of a pair of spherical bubbles through a liquid This book introduces turbulence phenomena in two-phase flow and related problems of phase distribution in two-phase flow. This includes an extensive survey of turbulence and phase distribution models in transient two-phase flow. It is shown that if the turbulent structure of the continuous phase of bubbly two-phase is either measured or can be predicted, then the observed lateral phase distribution can be determined by using an multidimensional two-fluid model in which all lateral forces are properly modeled
Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lane, S J; James, M R; Gilbert, J S, E-mail: s.lane@lancaster.ac.uk [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)
2011-06-23
Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 {mu}m. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.
Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena
Santamarina, Carlos
2017-07-06
Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.
Transport properties of the continuous-time random walk with a long-tailed waiting-time density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weissman, H.; Havlin, S.; Weiss, G.H.
1989-01-01
The authors derive asymptotic properties of the propagator p(r, t) of a continuous-time random walk (CTRW) in which the waiting time density has the asymptotic form ψ(t) ∼ T α /t α+1 when t >> T and 0 = ∫ 0 ∞ τψ(τ)dτ is finite. One is that the asymptotic behavior of p(0, t) is demonstrated by the waiting time at the origin rather than by the dimension. The second difference is that in the presence of a field p(r, t) no longer remains symmetric around a moving peak. Rather, it is shown that the peak of this probability always occurs at r = 0, and the effect of the field is to break the symmetry that occurs when < ∞. Finally, they calculate similar properties, although in not such great detail, for the case in which the single-step jump probabilities themselves have an infinite mean
Interfacial Healing and Transport Phenomena Modeling ff Biopolymers
Lebron, Karla
This research focuses on the characterization of bioplastics joined using ultrasonic welding and modeling of temperature distributions and interfacial healing. Polylactic acid (PLA), which is typically derived from starch-rich crops such as corn, was studied. While the measurement of activation energy for interfacial healing at weld interfaces of PLA films has been reported, here, this information is used to predict the weld strength of rigid PLA samples welded by ultrasonics. A characterization of the mechanical properties was completed with a tensile test to determine the effects of amplitude, melt velocity and collapse distance on weld strength. From previous interfacial healing activation energy measurements based on an impulse welding method, it was also possible to predict weld strength. It was found that the most influential parameters were weld time, collapse distance and weld velocity. In general, the model predicted weld strength reasonably well with r2 values between 0.77 and 0.78.
Modelling of Transport Phenomena at Cement Matrix—Aggregate Interfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van Breugel, Klaas; Koenders, Eddie; Ye, Guang
2004-01-01
The performance of a heterogeneous material like concrete is largely determined by the many interfaces in this material. This contribution focuses on the potential of numerical simulation models to investigate the character of the matrix-aggregate interfacial zone and to simulate hydration-induce...
Observations of mass transport phenomena in multicomponent liquid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mruzek, M.T.; Musinski, D.L.; Jacobs, R.B.
1985-01-01
Examples of surface tension effects on liquid behavior are common, such as liquid rising in a capillary tube or the beading of rain drops on a freshly waxed car. Usually through, the surface tension forces are small compared to other forces such as gravity. Situations exist, however, where the simple statement attributed to Marangoni can explain striking and unexpected observations. ''If for any reason difference of surface tension exist along a free liquid surface, liquid will flow toward the region of higher surface tension''. Such flows are called Marangoni flows. Observations of isotopic hydrogen fuel mixtures in cryogenic Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) targets can be explained on the basis of Marangoni flows. Additional experiments at KMS with common room temperature mixtures have produced similar results
Analysis of coupled transport phenomena in concrete at elevated temperatures
Beneš, Michal; Štefan, Radek; Zeman, Jan
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study a non-linear numerical scheme arising from the implicit time discretization of the Ba\\v{z}ant-Thonguthai model for hygro-thermal behavior of concrete at high temperatures. Existence and uniqueness of the time-discrete solution in two dimensions is established using the theory of pseudomonotone operators in Banach spaces. Next, the spatial discretization is accomplished by the conforming finite element method. An illustrative numerical example shows that the numerical m...
Diffusion and transport phenomena in a collisional magnetoplasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
As is well-known in natural plasmas, the jets, solar wind etc. [8,9] the external beam injection along the magnetic field lines contribute to the source of anisotropy. (T ) and operates in a sink ..... The profiles show slow fall and straight saturation.
Thermo-hydrodynamic transport phenomena in partially wetting ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Vyas Srinivasan
ers and reactors, nuclear rod bundles, DNA separation and analysis, digital .... liquid film surrounding the gas/vapour bubble may not get formed in a regular fashion, ...... on-chips, two-phase catalytic reactors, pulsating heat pipes, etc. Further, liquid ... which can be used to develop a global model, for designing devices for ...
Impact of Disorder on Spin Dependent Transport Phenomena
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2016-01-01
the very large number of modes present in the system. We showed that spin-independent disorder can actually wash out these interferences and promote the conservation of the spin signal. In the course of this PhD, we showed that while disorder-induced
Transport phenomena in gas-selective silica membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boffa, Vittorio
Upcoming technology platforms for green fuel production require the development of advanced molecular separation processes for recovering dry liquid biofuels [1,2], biomethane [2] and hydrogen [3]. Replacement of extractive distillation, cryodistillation and adsorption processes by membrane units...
Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena
2016-10-26
the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low-temperature plasma were studied. Hysteresis is found to be due to secondary electron...continued research into plasma sheath physics. Hysteresis effects observed in the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low... Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 119, March 2016, pp. 113305 1-5. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 8 Figure 2
Maxwell Prize Talk: Scaling Laws for the Dynamical Plasma Phenomena
Ryutov, Livermore, Ca 94550, Usa, D. D.
2017-10-01
The scaling and similarity technique is a powerful tool for developing and testing reduced models of complex phenomena, including plasma phenomena. The technique has been successfully used in identifying appropriate simplified models of transport in quasistationary plasmas. In this talk, the similarity and scaling arguments will be applied to highly dynamical systems, in which temporal evolution of the plasma leads to a significant change of plasma dimensions, shapes, densities, and other parameters with respect to initial state. The scaling and similarity techniques for dynamical plasma systems will be presented as a set of case studies of problems from various domains of the plasma physics, beginning with collisonless plasmas, through intermediate collisionalities, to highly collisional plasmas describable by the single-fluid MHD. Basic concepts of the similarity theory will be introduced along the way. Among the results discussed are: self-similarity of Langmuir turbulence driven by a hot electron cloud expanding into a cold background plasma; generation of particle beams in disrupting pinches; interference between collisionless and collisional phenomena in the shock physics; similarity for liner-imploded plasmas; MHD similarities with an emphasis on the effect of small-scale (turbulent) structures on global dynamics. Relations between astrophysical phenomena and scaled laboratory experiments will be discussed.
Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China
Sun, Xiaochun
Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trastoy, J; Rouco, V; Bernard, R; Briatico, J; Villegas, J E; Ulysse, C; Faini, G; Palau, A; Puig, T; Lesueur, J
2013-01-01
We study the general problem of a manifold of interacting elastic lines whose spatial correlations are strongly affected by the competition between random and ordered pinning. This is done through magneto-transport experiments with YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−δ thin films that contain a periodic vortex pinning array created via masked ion irradiation, in addition to the native random pinning. The strong field-matching effects we observe suggest the prevalence of periodic pinning, and indicate that at the matching field each vortex line is bound to an artificial pinning site. However, the vortex-glass transition dimensionality—quasi-two dimensional instead of the usual three dimensional—evidences reduced vortex-glass correlations along the vortex line. This is also supported by an unusual angular dependence of the magneto-resistance, which greatly differs from that of Bose-glass systems. A quantitative analysis of the angular magneto-resistance allows us to link this behaviour to the enhancement of the system anisotropy, a collateral effect of the ion irradiation. (paper)
Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, X.Y.; Sun, Z.M.
1988-09-01
Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs
Polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugimoto, K.; Ishihara, M.; Takahashi, N.
1984-01-01
This chapter presents a few key experiments which provide direct evidence of the polarization phenomena in heavy-ion reactions. The theory of polarization observables and measurements is given with the necessary formulae. The polarization phenomena is described and studies of product nuclear polarization in heavy-ion reactions are discussed. Studies of heavy-ion reactions induced by polarized beams are examined
Precedent Phenomena in Quebecois Linguistic World View
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ксения Эдуардовна Болотина
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the linguocultural analysis of precedent phenomena as parts of Quebecois’ cognitive base. Precedent phenomena being cultural facts are one of the key issues in modern linguistic and cognitive studies. By precedent phenomena we mean, according to Y.E. Prohorov, such entities when verbalized in discourse that refer to a certain cultural fact behind them. In the article the precedent phenomena such as precedent text, precedent situation, precedent utterance, and precedent name are analyzed. The main theses of the precedence theory given in the article (Y.N. Karaulov, Y.E. Prohorov, V.V. Krasnyh, D.B. Gudkov are at the heart of precedence studies on the basis of different languages. However, a complex analysis of precedent phenomena in the Quebec national variant of French is new to Russian linguistics. The study of precedent phenomena enables us to elicit features of their functioning in ethnospecific discourse and determine cultural dominants existing in Quebecois’ linguistic world view. Given the fact that the size of the article is limited, we undertooke the analysis of eight phenomena precedent of the bearers of Quebec linguoculture. The choice of phenomena is determined by the frequency of their use in discourse. The facts analyzed are of national character, i.e. known to all members of the linguocultural community. A certain cultural fact is at the very core of each precedent phenomenon given in the article. To get the whole picture we analysed historic, political, and cultural context connected to the precedent phenomena in question. The study enables us to elicit distinctive features that are at the core of each phenomenon. The results are backed with the supportive material drawn from analysis of different types of discourse. The analysis of precedent phenomena undertaken in this article allows us to reconstruct, to a certain extent, Quebec cultural space and is a stepping stone to the reconstruction of the
Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U.; Poern, K.
1997-04-01
We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods
Statistical trend analysis methods for temporal phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lehtinen, E.; Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, (Finland); Poern, K. [Poern Consulting, Nykoeping (Sweden)
1997-04-01
We consider point events occurring in a random way in time. In many applications the pattern of occurrence is of intrinsic interest as indicating a trend or some other systematic feature in the rate of occurrence. The purpose of this report is to survey briefly different statistical trend analysis methods and illustrate their applicability to temporal phenomena in particular. The trend testing of point events is usually seen as the testing of the hypotheses concerning the intensity of the occurrence of events. When the intensity function is parametrized, the testing of trend is a typical parametric testing problem. In industrial applications the operational experience generally does not suggest any specified model and method in advance. Therefore, and particularly, if the Poisson process assumption is very questionable, it is desirable to apply tests that are valid for a wide variety of possible processes. The alternative approach for trend testing is to use some non-parametric procedure. In this report we have presented four non-parametric tests: The Cox-Stuart test, the Wilcoxon signed ranks test, the Mann test, and the exponential ordered scores test. In addition to the classical parametric and non-parametric approaches we have also considered the Bayesian trend analysis. First we discuss a Bayesian model, which is based on a power law intensity model. The Bayesian statistical inferences are based on the analysis of the posterior distribution of the trend parameters, and the probability of trend is immediately seen from these distributions. We applied some of the methods discussed in an example case. It should be noted, that this report is a feasibility study rather than a scientific evaluation of statistical methods, and the examples can only be seen as demonstrations of the methods. 14 refs, 10 figs.
Kulasiri, Don
2002-01-01
Most of the natural and biological phenomena such as solute transport in porous media exhibit variability which can not be modeled by using deterministic approaches. There is evidence in natural phenomena to suggest that some of the observations can not be explained by using the models which give deterministic solutions. Stochastic processes have a rich repository of objects which can be used to express the randomness inherent in the system and the evolution of the system over time. The attractiveness of the stochastic differential equations (SDE) and stochastic partial differential equations (SPDE) come from the fact that we can integrate the variability of the system along with the scientific knowledge pertaining to the system. One of the aims of this book is to explaim some useufl concepts in stochastic dynamics so that the scientists and engineers with a background in undergraduate differential calculus could appreciate the applicability and appropriateness of these developments in mathematics. The ideas ...
Debris Flows and Related Phenomena
Ancey, C.
Torrential floods are a major natural hazard, claiming thousands of lives and millions of dollars in lost property each year in almost all mountain areas on the Earth. After a catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helen in the USA in May 1980, water from melting snow, torrential rains from the eruption cloud, and water displaced from Spirit Lake mixed with deposited ash and debris to produce very large debris flows and cause extensive damage and loss of life [1]. During the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia, more than 20,000 people perished when a large debris flow triggered by the rapid melting of snow and ice at the volcano summit, swept through the town of Armero [2]. In 1991, the eruption of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines disperses more than 5 cubic kilometres of volcanic ash into surrounding valleys. Much of that sediment has subsequently been mobilised as debris flows by typhoon rains and has devastated more than 300 square kilometres of agricultural land. Even, in Eur opean countries, recent events that torrential floods may have very destructive effects (Sarno and Quindici in southern Italy in May 1998, where approximately 200 people were killed). The catastrophic character of these floods in mountainous watersheds is a consequence of significant transport of materials associated with water flows. Two limiting flow regimes can be distinguished. Bed load and suspension refer to dilute transport of sediments within water. This means that water is the main agent in the flow dynamics and that the particle concentration does not exceed a few percent. Such flows are typically two-phase flows. In contrast, debris flows are mas s movements of concentrated slurries of water, fine solids, rocks and boulders. As a first approximation, debris flows can be treated as one-phase flows and their flow properties can be studied using classical rheological methods. The study of debris flows is a very exciting albeit immature science, made up of disparate elements
Nations, Kari R; Smits, Jasper A J; Tolin, David F; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Hofmann, Stefan G; Tart, Candyce D; Lee, Allen; Schipper, Jacques; Sjogren, Magnus; Xue, Dixi; Szegedi, Armin; Otto, Michael W
2012-05-01
A growing body of evidence supports the efficacy of D-cycloserine (DCS), a partial agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, as augmentation to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders. Org 25935 is a glycine transporter 1 inhibitor that acts to increase synaptic glycine levels and enhance NMDA-mediated glutamatergic activity. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a glutamatergic compound other than DCS in a CBT augmentation paradigm. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial for which participants were recruited from November 2008 through February 2010. Eligible adult patients diagnosed (DSM-IV) with panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (N = 40) were scheduled to receive 5 manualized CBT treatment sessions. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either a dose of Org 25935 (4 mg or 12 mg) or placebo 2 hours prior to the start of CBT sessions 3, 4, and 5. The primary endpoint was symptomatic change as measured by the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) 1 week following the last CBT session. Although mean PDSS total scores decreased significantly from baseline to end of treatment in every group, no statistically significant benefit was observed for Org 25935 (4 or 12 mg) over placebo on the primary endpoint or on any secondary efficacy endpoint. Org 25935 showed no safety issues at either dose but was much better tolerated at the 4-mg dose level than at the 12-mg dose level. Org 25935 demonstrated no benefit over placebo in augmenting CBT for panic disorder. Study limitations and implications are discussed. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00725725. © Copyright 2012 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Interfacial polarization phenomena in organic molecular films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iwamoto, Mitsumasa; Manaka, Takaaki
2006-01-01
Electrostatic phenomena occurring at the interface between metal/organic and organic/organic materials are discussed from the viewpoint of dielectrics physics. Focusing on two important origins of surface polarization phenomena, orientational ordering of polar molecules and displacement of excess charges at the interface, surface polarization phenomena of organic thin films are discussed. To define the orientational order of polar molecules, orientational order parameters are introduced, and surface polarization due to the alignment of dipoles is expressed. The generation of Maxwell displacement current (MDC) and optical second harmonic generation (SHG) that are specific for surface organic monomolecular films are discussed, and some experimental evidence are shown. As an extension of the concept of surface Fermi level introduced to discuss the electrostatic phenomena due to electron transfer at the interface between metal-organic insulators, the surface Fermi level is extended to the discussion on the electrostatic phenomena of organic semiconductor materials on metals. In this paper, some experimental evidence of surface polarization originating from polar molecules and displacement of excess charges are shown. After that, with consideration of these surface phenomena, single electron tunneling of organic films are briefly discussed in association with surface polarization phenomena
Disorder phenomena in covalent semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popescu, M.A.
1975-01-01
The structure of the amorphous semiconductors has been investigated by means of X-ray diffraction and by computer simulation of random network models. Amorphous germanium contains mainly five and six-membered rings of atoms. In glassy state, the ternary compounds A 2 B 4 C 2 5 , such as CdGeAs 2 contain only even rings of atoms (six-membered and eight-membered rings). In the memory glasses of the type A 2 B 4 C 2 5 , such as GeAs 2 Te 7 , the valency state of every element is that from the crystal and important van der Waals forces are effective in the network. No Ge-Ge, Ge-As and As-As bonds are formed. The high pressure forms of the germanium have been simulated by computer. The force constants of the covalent bonds in Ge III and Ge IV differ from those in Ge I. The bond bending force constant decreases rapidly when the density of the crystal increases, a fact which has been imparted to a reduction of the sp 3 hybridization. The compressibility curve of the Ge I has been explained. The effect of the radial and uniaxial deformation on the non-crystalline networks has been studied. The compressibility of the amorphous germanium is by 1.5 per cent greater than that of crystalline germanium. The Poisson coefficient for a-Ge network is 0.233. The structure of the As 2 S 3 glass doped with different amounts of germanium (up to 40 at. per cent) and silver (up to 12 at. per cent) has been investigated. The As 2 S 3 Gesub(x) compositions are constituted from a disordered packing of structural units whose chemical composition and relative proportion in the glass essentially depends on the germanium content. (author)
Fourteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena
Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A; Silvestri, Sandro; Ultrafast Phenomena XIV
2005-01-01
Ultrafast Phenomena XIV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including ultrafast laser and measurement technology as well as studies of ultrafast phenomena. Pico-, femto-, and atosecond processes relevant in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering are presented. Ultrafast technology is now having a profound impact within a wide range of applications, among them imaging, material diagnostics, and transformation and high-speed optoelectronics. This book summarizes results presented at the 14th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and reviews the state of the art in this important and rapidly advancing field.
Transient phenomena in electrical power systems
Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W
1964-01-01
Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot
Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena
Morandotti, Roberto
2012-01-01
Nonlinear Photonics and Novel Optical Phenomena contains contributed chapters from leading experts in nonlinear optics and photonics, and provides a comprehensive survey of fundamental concepts as well as hot topics in current research on nonlinear optical waves and related novel phenomena. The book covers self-accelerating airy beams, integrated photonics based on high index doped-silica glass, linear and nonlinear spatial beam dynamics in photonic lattices and waveguide arrays, polariton solitons and localized structures in semiconductor microcavities, terahertz waves, and other novel phenomena in different nanophotonic and optical systems.
Sixteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena
Corkum, Paul; Nelson, Keith A; Riedle, Eberhard; Schoenlein, Robert W; Ultrafast Phenomena XVI
2009-01-01
Ultrafast Phenomena XVI presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 16th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.
Heat transfer phenomena revelant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Niels Rode; Madsen, Henrik; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2003-01-01
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Developing Phenomena Models from Experimental Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
A systematic approach for developing phenomena models from experimental data is presented. The approach is based on integrated application of stochastic differential equation (SDE) modelling and multivariate nonparametric regression, and it is shown how these techniques can be used to uncover...... unknown functionality behind various phenomena in first engineering principles models using experimental data. The proposed modelling approach has significant application potential, e.g. for determining unknown reaction kinetics in both chemical and biological processes. To illustrate the performance...... of the approach, a case study is presented, which shows how an appropriate phenomena model for the growth rate of biomass in a fed-batch bioreactor can be inferred from data....
Heat transfer phenomena relevant to severe accidents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dallman, R.J.; Duffey, R.B.
1990-01-01
A number of aspects of severe accidents have been reviewed, particularly in relation to the heat transfer characteristics and the important phenomena. It is shown that natural circulation, forced convection, and entrainment phenomena are important for both the reactor system and ex-vessel events. It is also shown that the phenomena related to two component enhanced heat transfer is important in the pool of molten core debris, in relation to the potential for attack of the liner structure and the concrete. These mechanisms are discussed within the general context of severe accident progression. 26 refs
A model for hot electron phenomena: Theory and general results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carrillo, J.L.; Rodriquez, M.A.
1988-10-01
We propose a model for the description of the hot electron phenomena in semiconductors. Based on this model we are able to reproduce accurately the main characteristics observed in experiments of electric field transport, optical absorption, steady state photoluminescence and relaxation process. Our theory does not contain free nor adjustable parameters, it is very fast computerwise, and incorporates the main collision mechanisms including screening and phonon heating effects. Our description on a set of nonlinear rate equations in which the interactions are represented by coupling coefficients or effective frequencies. We calculate three coefficients from the characteristic constants and the band structure of the material. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rauck, St
2000-10-01
The aim of this work is to develop a scheme for experimental reactors, based on transport equations. This type of reactors is characterized by a small core, a complex, very heterogeneous geometry and a large leakage. The possible insertion of neutron beams in the reflector and the presence of absorbers in the core increase the difficulty of the 3D-geometrical description and the physical modeling of the component parameters of the reactor. The Orphee reactor has been chosen for our study. Physical models (homogenization, collapsing cross section in few groups, albedo multigroup condition) have been developed in the APOLLO2 and CRONOS2 codes to calculate flux and power maps in a 3D-geometry, with different burnup and through transport equations. Comparisons with experimental measurements have shown the interest of taking into account anisotropy, steep flux gradients by using Sn methods, and on the other hand using a 12-group cross section library. The modeling of neutron beams has been done outside the core modeling through Monte Carlo calculations and with the total geometry, including a large thickness of heavy water. Thanks to this calculations, one can evaluate the neutron beams anti-reactivity and determinate the core cycle. We assure these methods more accurate than usual transport-diffusion calculations will be used for the conception of new research reactors. (author)
Martin-Belda, D.; Cameron, R. H.
2016-02-01
Aims: We aim to determine the effect of converging flows on the evolution of a bipolar magnetic region (BMR), and to investigate the role of these inflows in the generation of poloidal flux. We also discuss whether the flux dispersal due to turbulent flows can be described as a diffusion process. Methods: We developed a simple surface flux transport model based on point-like magnetic concentrations. We tracked the tilt angle, the magnetic flux and the axial dipole moment of a BMR in simulations with and without inflows and compared the results. To test the diffusion approximation, simulations of random walk dispersal of magnetic features were compared against the predictions of the diffusion treatment. Results: We confirm the validity of the diffusion approximation to describe flux dispersal on large scales. We find that the inflows enhance flux cancellation, but at the same time affect the latitudinal separation of the polarities of the bipolar region. In most cases the latitudinal separation is limited by the inflows, resulting in a reduction of the axial dipole moment of the BMR. However, when the initial tilt angle of the BMR is small, the inflows produce an increase in latitudinal separation that leads to an increase in the axial dipole moment in spite of the enhanced flux destruction. This can give rise to a tilt of the BMR even when the BMR was originally aligned parallel to the equator.
The Beasts' model of percolative transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubois, M.A.; Beaufume, P.; Fromont, B.
1991-12-01
A class of nonlinear dynamical systems is introduced: it is aimed to be a tool in order to study anomalous transport and percolation phenomena. We study a simple example of this system, and explore different regimes of transport exhibited
Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.
Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M
2014-01-01
The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.
Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skorka, S.J.
1979-01-01
Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown
Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tallman, A.M.
1996-02-01
This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site
Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aniola-Jedrzejak, L.; Lewicki, A.; Pilipowicz, A.; Tarnawski, Z.; Bialek, H.
1980-01-01
In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)
High Temperature Phenomena in Shock Waves
2012-01-01
The high temperatures generated in gases by shock waves give rise to physical and chemical phenomena such as molecular vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization, chemical reactions and inherently related radiation. In continuum regime, these processes start from the wave front, so that generally the gaseous media behind shock waves may be in a thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium state. This book presents the state of knowledge of these phenomena. Thus, the thermodynamic properties of high temperature gases, including the plasma state are described, as well as the kinetics of the various chemical phenomena cited above. Numerous results of measurement and computation of vibrational relaxation times, dissociation and reaction rate constants are given, and various ionization and radiative mechanisms and processes are presented. The coupling between these different phenomena is taken into account as well as their interaction with the flow-field. Particular points such as the case of rarefied flows an...
Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paladino, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.paladino@psi.ch [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Joerg [Laboratory for Thermal-Hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)
2012-12-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.
Flow reduction due to degassing and redissolution phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doughty, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1995-03-01
At the Stripa mine in Sweden, flow and transport experiments in a water-saturated fractured granite were conducted to investigate techniques for site characterization for a geologic nuclear waste repository. In the Simulated Drift Experiment, measured water inflow to an excavated drift with pressure held at 1 bar was only 1/9th the value expected based on inflow to boreholes with pressure held at 2.7 bars. Several physical and chemical mechanisms were hypothesized to be responsible for this reduction in flow. One possibility is that significant degassing of dissolved nitrogen takes place between 2.7 and 1 bars, credating a two-phase regime with an accompanying decrease in fluid mobility, resulting in a decrease in flow to the drift. To investigate this process, theoretical studies on degassing and redissolution phenomena have been carried out, beginning with an idealized model which yields a simple analytical solution, then relaxing some of the simplifying assumptions and using TOUGH2 to study the phenomena numerically. In conjunction with these theoretical studies, laboratory experiments on flow and degassing in transparent fracture replicas are being carried out, and are being used to check the modeling approach. We need to develop a fundamental understanding of degassing and redissolution in particular and two-phase flow phenomena in general for flow in fractures and fracture networks, in order to successfully model conditions around a nuclear waste repository, where long time and large space scales may preclude conclusive field experiments.
Toward a CFD-grade database addressing LWR containment phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paladino, Domenico; Andreani, Michele; Zboray, Robert; Dreier, Jörg
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► The SETH-2 PANDA tests have supplied data with CFD-grade on plumes and jets at large-scale. ► The PANDA tests have contributed to the understanding of phenomena with high safety relevance for LWRs. ► The analytical activities related increased confidence in the use of various computational tools for safety analysis. - Abstract: The large-scale, multi-compartment PANDA facility (located at PSI in Switzerland) is one of the state-of-the-art facilities which is continuously upgraded to progressively match the requirements of CFD-grade experiments. Within the OECD/SETH projects, the PANDA facility has been used for the creation of an experimental database on basic containment phenomena e.g. gas mixing, transport, stratification, condensation. In the PANDA tests, these phenomena are driven by large scale plumes or jets. In the paper is presented a selection of the SETH PANDA experimental results. Examples of analytical activities performed at PSI using the GOTHIC, CFX-4 and CFX-5 codes will be used to illustrate how the spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurement grid in PANDA tests are adequate for CFD code (and advanced containment codes) assessment and validation purposes.
Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard
This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....
Polarization phenomena in two body systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomas, G.H.
1978-01-01
A review is given of strong interactions at very low, low, intermediate, and high energies over the range 6.14 MeV to 150 GeV/c with regard to polarization phenomena in two-body systems. From the one-pion-exchange model to the theory that can possibly relate to all the phenomena, namely, quantum electrodynamics the review pointed to a unified explanation for the interactions under study. 46 references
Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks
Hall effects and related phenomena in disordered Rashba 2DEG
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inoue, Jun-ichiro; Kato, Takashi; Bauer, Gerrit E W; Molenkamp, Laurens W
2009-01-01
We review our recent work on the spin and anomalous Hall effects and other related phenomena caused by the intrinsic spin–orbit interaction. We focus our attention on disorder effects on these transport properties by adopting a model of a two-dimensional electron gas with a Rashba-type spin–orbit interaction. A spin-polarized model is adopted to calculate the anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetoresistance. It is shown that the spin Hall conductivity in the ballistic transport regime is cancelled by the so-called vertex corrections for the disorder scattering, and that the anomalous Hall conductivity and anisotropic magnetoresistance vanish unless the lifetime is spin dependent. We further present results on spin accumulation under an electric field
Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, Allen M.
2016-01-01
The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO_3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.
Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldman, Allen M. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)
2016-08-16
The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO_{3}. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.
State estimation of spatio-temporal phenomena
Yu, Dan
This dissertation addresses the state estimation problem of spatio-temporal phenomena which can be modeled by partial differential equations (PDEs), such as pollutant dispersion in the atmosphere. After discretizing the PDE, the dynamical system has a large number of degrees of freedom (DOF). State estimation using Kalman Filter (KF) is computationally intractable, and hence, a reduced order model (ROM) needs to be constructed first. Moreover, the nonlinear terms, external disturbances or unknown boundary conditions can be modeled as unknown inputs, which leads to an unknown input filtering problem. Furthermore, the performance of KF could be improved by placing sensors at feasible locations. Therefore, the sensor scheduling problem to place multiple mobile sensors is of interest. The first part of the dissertation focuses on model reduction for large scale systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. A commonly used model reduction algorithm, the balanced proper orthogonal decomposition (BPOD) algorithm, is not computationally tractable for large systems with a large number of inputs/outputs. Inspired by the BPOD and randomized algorithms, we propose a randomized proper orthogonal decomposition (RPOD) algorithm and a computationally optimal RPOD (RPOD*) algorithm, which construct an ROM to capture the input-output behaviour of the full order model, while reducing the computational cost of BPOD by orders of magnitude. It is demonstrated that the proposed RPOD* algorithm could construct the ROM in real-time, and the performance of the proposed algorithms on different advection-diffusion equations. Next, we consider the state estimation problem of linear discrete-time systems with unknown inputs which can be treated as a wide-sense stationary process with rational power spectral density, while no other prior information needs to be known. We propose an autoregressive (AR) model based unknown input realization technique which allows us to recover the input
[Spiritual phenomena occurring in everybody and health].
Krsiak, M
2008-01-01
The past several years have seen an explosion of research in the area of spirituality and health. However, confusion and incomprehension of the conception of spirituality (e.g. confounding spirituality with various conventional views on religiousness) hampers better understanding in this area. The present paper proposes definition of spiritual phenomena in man based on natural epistemological and instrumental criteria (whether a certain phenomenon can be objectively known and evoked): spiritual phenomena in man are those, which cannot be objectively known nor evoked, but which act (e.g., love, idea). Spiritual phenomena can be really known only in the self ("in spirit"). Objectively known can be only manifestations of spiritual phenomena. Some attributes of love (e.g. its personal uniqueness) or ideas (e.g., sense of own life) whose satisfaction appears to be important for health are briefly outlined. A review of some frequently cited recent papers investigating the role of spirituality in health and discussion of frequent pitfalls in this area is given. Spirituality is a universal human phenomenon. All human beings, secular or religious, encounter with spiritual phenomena. Although the present conception of spirituality distances from some conventional views on religiousness, it is not atheistic. On the contrary, it accommodates the basic religious concept "God is love". Conceptual clarification is essential for further progress in the study of impact of spirituality on health.
Solenhill, Madeleine; Grotta, Alessandra; Pasquali, Elena; Bakkman, Linda; Bellocco, Rino; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva
2016-08-11
Lifestyle-related health problems are an important health concern in the transport service industry. Web- and telephone-based interventions could be suitable for this target group requiring tailored approaches. To evaluate the effect of tailored Web-based health feedback and optional telephone coaching to improve lifestyle factors (body mass index-BMI, dietary intake, physical activity, stress, sleep, tobacco and alcohol consumption, disease history, self-perceived health, and motivation to change health habits), in comparison to no health feedback or telephone coaching. Overall, 3,876 employees in the Swedish transport services were emailed a Web-based questionnaire. They were randomized into: control group (group A, 498 of 1238 answered, 40.23%), or intervention Web (group B, 482 of 1305 answered, 36.93%), or intervention Web + telephone (group C, 493 of 1333 answered, 36.98%). All groups received an identical questionnaire, only the interventions differed. Group B received tailored Web-based health feedback, and group C received tailored Web-based health feedback + optional telephone coaching if the participants' reported health habits did not meet the national guidelines, or if they expressed motivation to change health habits. The Web-based feedback was fully automated. Telephone coaching was performed by trained health counselors. Nine months later, all participants received a follow-up questionnaire and intervention Web + telephone. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, analysis of variance, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Overall, 981 of 1473 (66.60%) employees participated at baseline (men: 66.7%, mean age: 44 years, mean BMI: 26.4 kg/m(2)) and follow-up. No significant differences were found in reported health habits between the 3 groups over time. However, significant changes were found in motivation to change. The intervention groups reported higher motivation to improve dietary habits (144 of 301 participants, 47
The making of extraordinary psychological phenomena.
Lamont, Peter
2012-01-01
This article considers the extraordinary phenomena that have been central to unorthodox areas of psychological knowledge. It shows how even the agreed facts relating to mesmerism, spiritualism, psychical research, and parapsychology have been framed as evidence both for and against the reality of the phenomena. It argues that these disputes can be seen as a means through which beliefs have been formulated and maintained in the face of potentially challenging evidence. It also shows how these disputes appealed to different forms of expertise, and that both sides appealed to belief in various ways as part of the ongoing dispute about both the facts and expertise. Finally, it shows how, when a formal Psychology of paranormal belief emerged in the twentieth century, it took two different forms, each reflecting one side of the ongoing dispute about the reality of the phenomena. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Enokizono, Masato
2002-01-01
In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)
Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clausing, R.E.
1979-01-01
The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included
Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2017-01-01
Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....
Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications
Dattagupta, Sushanta
2004-01-01
From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.
Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.
1997-01-01
Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The lat......Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network...
Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-01-01
This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases
Influence of short range ordering and clustering on transport properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vigier, G.; Pelletier, J.M.
1982-01-01
The influence of short range ordering and clustering phenomena on the electrical resistivity p and the thermopower S is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. According to the considered alloys either increases or decreases of transport properties may be observed when deviations from a random distribution of solute atoms occur. These observations are explained with a model based on free electrons and Born approximations the importance of the potential choice is underlined; two kinds of description of the structure factor are investigated. A good semiquantitative agreement is obtained between computed results and experimental observations
Randomness at the root of things 1: Random walks
Ogborn, Jon; Collins, Simon; Brown, Mick
2003-09-01
This is the first of a pair of articles about randomness in physics. In this article, we use some variations on the idea of a `random walk' to consider first the path of a particle in Brownian motion, and then the random variation to be expected in radioactive decay. The arguments are set in the context of the general importance of randomness both in physics and in everyday life. We think that the ideas could usefully form part of students' A-level work on random decay and quantum phenomena, as well as being good for their general education. In the second article we offer a novel and simple approach to Poisson sequences.
Fluid mechanics phenomena in microgravity; ASME Winter Annual Meeting, Anaheim, CA, Nov. 8-13, 1992
Siginer, Dennis A. (Editor); Weislogel, Mark M. (Editor)
1992-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of symposia presenting research activity in microgravity fluid mechanics. General topics addressed include two-phase flow and transport phenomena, thermo-capillary flow, and interfacial stability. Papers present mathmatical models of fluid dynamics in the microgravity environment. Applications suggested include space manufacturing and storage of liquids in low gravity.
Ab initio theory of galvanomagnetic phenomena in ferromagnetic metals and disordered alloys
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav
2012-01-01
Roč. 86, č. 1 (2012), 014405/1/-014405/8/ ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP204/11/1228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : electronic transport * galvanomagnetic phenomena Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012
CP violating phenomena and theoretical results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1987-01-01
An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)
Collision and interaction phenomena - a historical outline
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radmaneche, R.
1977-09-01
Collisions and interactions have become important for the description of matter. The author presents an outline which deals with elastic and inelastic collisions, with strong interactions, electromagnetic interactions, weak interactions and gravitational interactions. It is shown that the description of such processes has developed parallel with the understanding of matter and with the mechanism of the phenomena. Current and unsolved problems are mentioned
Homoclinic phenomena in the gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koiller, J.; Mello Neto, J.R.T. de; Soares, I.D.
1984-01-01
A class of Bianchi IX cosmological models is shown to have chaotic gravitational collapse, due to Poincare's homoclinic phenomena. Such models can be programmed so that for any given positive integer N (N=infinity included) the universe undergoes N non-periodic oscillations (each oscillation requiring a long time) before collapsing. For N=infinity the universe undergoes periodic oscillations. (Author) [pt
Novel experimentally observed phenomena in soft matter
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The resulting flow is non-Newtonian and is characterized by features such as shear rate-dependent viscosities and nonzero normal stresses. This article begins with an introduction to some unusual flow properties displayed by soft matter. Experiments that report a spectrum of novel phenomena exhibited by these materials, ...
Some Phenomena on Negative Inversion Constructions
Sung, Tae-Soo
2013-01-01
We examine the characteristics of NDI (negative degree inversion) and its relation with other inversion phenomena such as SVI (subject-verb inversion) and SAI (subject-auxiliary inversion). The negative element in the NDI construction may be" not," a negative adverbial, or a negative verb. In this respect, NDI has similar licensing…
Hyperchaotic phenomena in dynamic decision making
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David
1992-01-01
of this article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form...
Reduplication phenomena: body, mind and archetype.
Garner, J
2000-09-01
The many biological and few psychodynamic explanations of reduplicative syndromes tend to have paralleled the dualism of the phenomenon with organic theories concentrating on form and dynamic theories emphasising content. This paper extends the contribution of psychoanalytic thinking to an elucidation of the form of the delusion. Literature on clinical and aetiological aspects of reduplicative phenomena is reviewed alongside a brief examination of psychoanalytic models not overtly related to these phenomena. The human experience of doubles as universal archetype is considered. There is an obvious aetiological role for brain lesions in delusional misidentifications, but psychological symptoms in an individual can rarely be reduced to an organic disorder. The splitting and doubling which occurs in the phenomena have resonances in cultural mythology and in theories from different schools of psychodynamic thought. For the individual patient and doctor, it is a diverting but potentially empty debate to endeavour to draw strict divisions between what is physical and what is psychological although both need to be investigated. Nevertheless, in patients in whom there is clear evidence of an organic contribution to aetiology a psychodynamic understanding may serve to illuminate the patient's experience. Organic brain disease or serious functional illness predispose to regression to earlier modes of archetypical and primitive thinking with concretization of the metaphorical and mythological world. Psychoanalytic models have a contribution in describing the form as well as the content of reduplicative phenomena.
DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference: proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1985-10-01
The conference includes sessions which present an overview of DOE programs, available codes, standards and criteria, examples of designs and upgrades from the DOE complex, lessons learned from past natural phenomena, ground motion, seismic evaluation of equipment, and applications of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to DOE facilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers
Interface-induced phenomena in magnetism
Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, A.; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey S.D.; Fullerton, Eric E.; Leighton, Chris; Macdonald, Allan H.; Ralph, Daniel C.; Arena, Dario A.; Dürr, Hermann A.; Fischer, Peter; Grollier, Julie; Heremans, Joseph P.; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimel, Alexey V.; Koopmans, B.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.; May, Steven J.; Petford-Long, Amanda K.; Rondinelli, James M.; Samarth, Nitin; Schuller, Ivan K.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Stiles, Mark D.; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Thiaville, André; Zink, Barry L.
2017-01-01
This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on
Analysis of induction phenomena in thermonuclear experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deeds, W.E.; Dodd, C.V.
1976-01-01
Many of the problems involving transients induced by changing currents in the large coils of thermonuclear machines are identical to those arising in nondestructive testing by eddy currents. There are three chief methods used for calculating such induction phenomena: analytical boundary-value solutions, relaxation or iteration techniques, and model experiments. Some of the results obtained by each of these methods are described below
Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting
Zuidema, J.
2005-01-01
Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an
Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard
2017-01-01
years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...
Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordon, R A
1977-01-01
A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...
Understanding the physics of changing mass phenomena
Ellermeijer, A.L.
2008-01-01
Changing mass phenomena, like a falling chain or a bungee jumper, might give surprising results, even for experienced physicists. They have resulted in hot discussions in journals, in which for instance Physics professors claim the impossibility of an acceleration larger then g in case of a bungee
Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"
Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.
2002-01-01
In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.
Pollak, M
1991-01-01
The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the
Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort
Fojtlín, Miloš; Pokorný, Jan; Fišer, Jan; Toma, Róbert; Tuhovčák, Ján
Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning) systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.
Impact of measurable physical phenomena on contact thermal comfort
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fojtlín Miloš
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Cabin HVAC (Heating Ventilation and Air-conditioning systems have become an essential part of personal vehicles as demands for comfortable transport are still rising. In fact, 85 % of the car trips in Europe are shorter than 18 km and last only up to 30 minutes. Under such conditions, the HVAC unit cannot often ensure desired cabin environment and passengers are prone to experience thermal stress. For this reason, additional comfort systems, such as heated or ventilated seats, are available on the market. However, there is no straightforward method to evaluate thermal comfort at the contact surfaces nowadays. The aim of this work is to summarise information about heated and ventilated seats. These technologies use electrical heating and fan driven air to contact area in order to achieve enhanced comfort. It is also expected, that such measures may contribute to lower energy consumption. Yet, in real conditions it is almost impossible to measure the airflow through the ventilated seat directly. Therefore, there is a need for an approach that would correlate measurable physical phenomena with thermal comfort. For this reason, a method that exploits a measurement of temperatures and humidity at the contact area is proposed. Preliminary results that correlate comfort with measurable physical phenomena are demonstrated.
Relaxation-phenomena in LiAl/FeS-cells
Borger, W.; Kappus, W.; Panesar, H. S.
A theoretical model of the capacity of strongly relaxing electrochemical systems is applied to the LiAl/FeS system. Relaxation phenomena in LiAl and FeS electrodes can be described by this model. Experimental relaxation data indicate that lithium transport through the alpha-LiAl layer to the particle surface is the capacity limiting process at high discharge current density in the LiAl electrode in LiCl-KCl and LiF-LiCl-LiBr mixtures. Strong relaxation is observed in the FeS electrode with LiCl-KCl electrolyte caused by lithium concentration gradients and precipitation of KCl in the pores.
Critical Phenomena of the Disorder Driven Localization-Delocalization Transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marc Ruehlaender
2001-01-01
Metal-to-insulator transitions are generally linked to two phenomena: electron-electron correlations and disorder. Although real systems are usually responding to a mixture of both, they can be classified as undergoing a Mott-transition, if the former process dominates, or an Anderson-transition, if the latter dominates. High-T c superconductors, e.g., are a candidate for the first class. Materials in which disorder drives the metal-to-insulator transition include doped semiconductors and amorphous materials. After briefly reviewing the previous research on transport in disordered materials and the disorder-induced metal-to-insulator transition, a summary of the model and the methods used in subsequent chapters is given
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.
2001-01-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2000-03-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)
Monitoring corrosion and chemistry phenomena in supercritical aqueous systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macdonald, D.D.; Pang, J.; Liu, C.; Kriksunov, L.; Medina, E.; Villa, J.; Bueno, J.
1994-01-01
The in situ monitoring of the chemistry and electrochemistry of aqueous heat transport fluids in thermal (nuclear and fossil) power plants is now considered essential if adequate assessment and close control of corrosion and mass transfer phenomena are to be achieved. Because of the elevated temperatures and pressures involved. new sensor technologies are required that are able to measure key parameters under plant operating conditions for extended periods of time. In this paper, the authors outline a research and development program that is designed to develop practical sensors for use in thermal power plants. The current emphasis is on sensors for measuring corrosion potential, pH, the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen, and the electrochemical noise generated by corrosion processes at temperatures ranging from ∼250 C to 500 C. The program is currently at the laboratory stage, but testing of prototype sensors in a coal-fired supercritical power plant in Spain will begin shortly
Exotic Phenomena Searches at Hadron Colliders
INSPIRE-00305407
2013-01-01
This review presents a selection of the final results of searches for various exotic physics phenomena in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8~TeV delivered by the LHC and collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors in 2011 (5 $fb^{-1}$) and in the first part of 2012 (4 $fb^{-1}$). Searches for large extra dimensions, gravitons, microscopic black holes, long-lived particles, dark matter, and leptoquarks are presented in this report. No sign of new physics beyond the standard model has been observed so far. In the majority of the cases these searches set the most stringent limits to date on the aforementioned new physics phenomena.
Renormalization group theory of critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menon, S.V.G.
1995-01-01
Renormalization group theory is a framework for describing those phenomena that involve a multitude of scales of variations of microscopic quantities. Systems in the vicinity of continuous phase transitions have spatial correlations at all length scales. The renormalization group theory and the pertinent background material are introduced and applied to some important problems in this monograph. The monograph begins with a historical survey of thermal phase transitions. The background material leading to the renormalization group theory is covered in the first three chapters. Then, the basic techniques of the theory are introduced and applied to magnetic critical phenomena in the next four chapters. The momentum space approach as well as the real space techniques are, thus, discussed in detail. Finally, brief outlines of applications of the theory to some of the related areas are presented in the last chapter. (author)
Coherence Phenomena in Coupled Optical Resonators
Smith, D. D.; Chang, H.
2004-01-01
We predict a variety of photonic coherence phenomena in passive and active coupled ring resonators. Specifically, the effective dispersive and absorptive steady-state response of coupled resonators is derived, and used to determine the conditions for coupled-resonator-induced transparency and absorption, lasing without gain, and cooperative cavity emission. These effects rely on coherent photon trapping, in direct analogy with coherent population trapping phenomena in atomic systems. We also demonstrate that the coupled-mode equations are formally identical to the two-level atom Schrodinger equation in the rotating-wave approximation, and use this result for the analysis of coupled-resonator photon dynamics. Notably, because these effects are predicted directly from coupled-mode theory, they are not unique to atoms, but rather are fundamental to systems of coherently coupled resonators.
Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tavabi, Amir Hossein, E-mail: a.tavabi@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)
2015-10-15
Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. - Highlights: • Electron-optical caustics are observed in defocused images of biased metallic tips. • The caustics depend on defocus, on the bias between the tips and on their separation. • The setup offers the flexibility to study a wide variety of caustic phenomena.
Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE
Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6
Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob
1997-01-01
A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....
Workshop on Nonlinear Phenomena in Complex Systems
1989-01-01
This book contains a thorough treatment of neural networks, cellular-automata and synergetics, in an attempt to provide three different approaches to nonlinear phenomena in complex systems. These topics are of major interest to physicists active in the fields of statistical mechanics and dynamical systems. They have been developed with a high degree of sophistication and include the refinements necessary to work with the complexity of real systems as well as the more recent research developments in these areas.
Role of spinning electrons in paramagnetic phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, D.M.
1986-06-01
An attempt is made to explain paramagnetic phenomena without assuming the orientation of a molecule or ion in a magnetic field. Only the spin angular momentum is assumed to be responsible. A derivative of the Gurie-Langevin law and the magnetic moments of ions are given as a function of the number of electrons in an inner, incomplete shell. An explanation of Gerlach's experiments with iron and nickel vapors is attempted. An explanation of magnetomechanical experiments with ferromagnetic elements is given
From critical phenomena to gauge gields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Bellac, M.
1988-01-01
In this book the author gives an introduction to the following questions: critical phenomena (Landau theory, renormalization group, two dimensional models); Perturbation theory and renormalization, scalar euclidian field (Feynman diagrams, Callan-Symanzik equations); Quantum theory of scalar fields (path integrals in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, green functions and S matrix, quantization of Klein-Gordon field); Gauge theories (quantization of Dirac field and electromagnetic field, quantum electrodynamics, non-abelian gauge theories) [fr
Pseudogap phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases
Chen, Qijin; Wang, Jibiao
2014-01-01
The pairing and superfluid phenomena in a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas is an analogue of Cooper pairing and superconductivity in an electron system, in particular, the high $T_c$ superconductors. Owing to the various tunable parameters that have been made accessible experimentally in recent years, atomic Fermi gases can be explored as a prototype or quantum simulator of superconductors. It is hoped that, utilizing such an analogy, the study of atomic Fermi gases may shed light to ...
Occult Phenomena in Sherlock Holmes the Movie
NAMAZCARRA, CHRIESHER
2014-01-01
Keywords: Occult phenomena, Sherlock Holmes, movie. Lately, it is not difficult for people to find occult practices. There are many television programs and movie which air mystical programme aggressively to raise the rating and attract the viewers. A movie that raise occultism theme is Sherlock Holmes, the Movie. This movie tells about the struggle of detective Sherlock Holmes to fight the black magic power of Lord Blackwood.To carry out the study, the theories of Occultism such as the secrec...
Investigation of oscillating airfoil shock phenomena
Giordano , Daniel; Fleeter , Sanford
1992-01-01
Fundamental experiments were performed in an unsteady flow water table facility to investigate and quantify the unsteady aerodynamics of a biconvex airfoil executing torsion mode oscillations at realistic reduced frequencies. A computer-based image enhancement system was used to measure the oscillating supersonic and transonic shock flow phenomena. By utilizing the hydraulic analogy to compare experimental results with a linear theoretical prediction, magnitude and phase relationships for the...
Conformal field theories and critical phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Bowei
1993-01-01
In this article we present a brief review of the conformal symmetry and the two dimensional conformal quantum field theories. As concrete applications of the conformal theories to the critical phenomena in statistical systems, we calculate the value of central charge and the anomalous scale dimensions of the Z 2 symmetric quantum chain with boundary condition. The results are compatible with the prediction of the conformal field theories
An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)
1995-09-01
A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.
Quantum Chess: Making Quantum Phenomena Accessible
Cantwell, Christopher
Quantum phenomena have remained largely inaccessible to the general public. There tends to be a scare factor associated with the word ``Quantum''. This is in large part due to the alien nature of phenomena such as superposition and entanglement. However, Quantum Computing is a very active area of research and one day we will have games that run on those quantum computers. Quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement will seem as normal as gravity. Is it possible to create such games today? Can we make games that are built on top of a realistic quantum simulation and introduce players of any background to quantum concepts in a fun and mentally stimulating way? One of the difficulties with any quantum simulation run on a classical computer is that the Hilbert space grows exponentially, making simulations of an appreciable size physically impossible due largely to memory restrictions. Here we will discuss the conception and development of Quantum Chess, and how to overcome some of the difficulties faced. We can then ask the question, ``What's next?'' What are some of the difficulties Quantum Chess still faces, and what is the future of quantum games?
Physical phenomena as sense determinate occurrences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sommer, H.J.
2005-01-01
In the view of El Naschie's E Infinity theory [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 22 (2004) 495], our physical laws emerge from a chaotic underground, a 'Dirac-sea'. But we have no direct access from our observations to this chaotic world and this implies that the meaning of the correspondence between the phenomena we obtain by our cognition and their causal structures remains hidden to us. The fundamental process which produces our cognition is the 'constitution of sense'. A formal description of this process will be presented. We use Dempster Shafer's belief calculus to define 'belief' and motivate an Anticipation Principle: 'Put the measurements obtained from the world in such an order that the credibility of your forecasts will be maximized.' From this specification of the basic idea of what physical science ideally strives for, we are able to deduce a frame of reference for the formation of phenomena out of arbitrary sets of measurements. Reality is formed by these 'observable phenomena'. In this emerging reality, we recognize characteristic effects and principles of modern physics: Einstein's Postulate of Relativity, Entanglement, and the Quantum Zeno Effect. The presented view of reality is closely related to the ideas that had been presented hundred years ago by Ernst Mach and which recently J. Anandan generalized in his concept of a 'Relational Reality'
Some aspects of geomagnetically conjugate phenomena
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rycroft, M.J.
1987-12-01
Both charged particles and waves convey information about the thermosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere from the Northern to the Southern Hemisphere and vice versa, along geomagnetic flux tubes.The interhemispheric travel time of electrons or ions, being dependent upon L-value , pitch angle and energy (which may lie between less than or equal to 1 eV and greater than or equal to 1 MeV) may be many hours, ranging down to less than or equal to 1 s. However, the one-hop propagation time for magnetohydrodynamic or whistler mode waves generally lies between 10/sup 2/s and 1 s. Such times, therefore, give the time scales of transient phenomena that are geomagnetically conjugate and of changes in steady-state plasma processes occurring in geomagnetically conjugate regions. Contrasting examples are presented of conjugate physical phenomena, obtained using satellite, rocket, aircraft and ground-based observations; the latter capitalise upon the rather rare disposition of land - rather than ocean - at each end of a geophysically interesting flux tube. Particular attention is paid to the interactions between whistler mode waves and energetic electrons. Geomagnetic, radio, optical and plasma observations, taken together with model computations, provide a wealth of knowledge on conjugate phenomena and their dependence on conditions in the solar wind, substorms, L-value, etc... Finally, some suggestions are made for future lines of research.
Fractional diffusion models of transport in magnetically confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castillo-Negrete, D. del; Carreras, B. A.; Lynch, V. E.
2005-01-01
Experimental and theoretical evidence suggests that transport in magnetically confined fusion plasmas deviates from the standard diffusion paradigm. Some examples include the confinement time scaling in L-mode plasmas, rapid pulse propagation phenomena, and inward transport in off-axis fueling experiments. The limitations of the diffusion paradigm can be traced back to the restrictive assumptions in which it is based. In particular, Fick's law, one of the cornerstones of diffusive transport, assumes that the fluxes only depend on local quantities, i. e. the spatial gradient of the field (s). another key issue is the Markovian assumption that neglects memory effects. Also, at a microscopic level, standard diffusion assumes and underlying Gaussian, uncorrelated stochastic process (i. e. a Brownian random walk) with well defined characteristic spatio-temporal scales. Motivated by the need to develop models of non-diffusive transport, we discuss here a class of transport models base on the use of fractional derivative operators. The models incorporates in a unified way non-Fickian transport, non-Markovian processes or memory effects, and non-diffusive scaling. At a microscopic level, the models describe an underlying stochastic process without characteristic spatio-temporal scales that generalizes the Brownian random walk. As a concrete case study to motivate and test the model, we consider transport of tracers in three-dimensional, pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We show that in this system transport is non-diffusive and cannot be described in the context of the standard diffusion parading. In particular, the probability density function (pdf) of the radial displacements of tracers is strongly non-Gaussian with algebraic decaying tails, and the moments of the tracer displacements exhibit super-diffusive scaling. there is quantitative agreement between the turbulence transport calculations and the proposed fractional diffusion model. In particular, the model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Minghua; Shi, Yong; Yan, Jiashu; Yan, Yuying
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A numerical capability combining the lattice Boltzmann method with simulated annealing algorithm is developed. • Digitized representations of random porous media are constructed using limited but meaningful statistical descriptors. • Pore-scale flow and heat transfer information in random porous media is obtained by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. • The effective properties at the representative elementary volume scale are well specified using appropriate upscale averaging. - Abstract: In this article, the lattice Boltzmann (LB) method for transport phenomena is combined with the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm for digitized porous-medium construction to study flow and heat transfer in random porous media. Importantly, in contrast to previous studies which simplify porous media as arrays of regularly shaped objects or effective pore networks, the LB + SA method in this article can model statistically meaningful random porous structures in irregular morphology, and simulate pore-scale transport processes inside them. Pore-scale isothermal flow and heat conduction in a set of constructed random porous media characterized by statistical descriptors were then simulated through use of the LB + SA method. The corresponding averages over the computational volumes and the related effective transport properties were also computed based on these pore scale numerical results. Good agreement between the numerical results and theoretical predictions or experimental data on the representative elementary volume scale was found. The numerical simulations in this article demonstrate combination of the LB method with the SA algorithm is a viable and powerful numerical strategy for simulating transport phenomena in random porous media in complex geometries.