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Sample records for random testing drivers

  1. Offering self-administered oral HIV testing to truck drivers in Kenya to increase testing: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelvin, Elizabeth A; George, Gavin; Mwai, Eva; Nyaga, Eston; Mantell, Joanne E; Romo, Matthew L; Odhiambo, Jacob O; Starbuck, Lila; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2018-01-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 305 truck drivers from two North Star Alliance roadside wellness clinics in Kenya to see if offering HIV testing choices would increase HIV testing uptake. Participants were randomized to be offered (1) a provider-administered rapid blood (finger-prick) HIV test (i.e., standard of care [SOC]) or (2) a Choice between SOC or a self-administered oral rapid HIV test with provider supervision in the clinic. Participants in the Choice arm who refused HIV testing in the clinic were offered a test kit for home use with phone-based posttest counseling. We compared HIV test uptake using the Mantel Haenszel odds ratio (OR) adjusting for clinic. Those in the Choice arm had higher odds of HIV test uptake than those in the SOC arm (OR = 1.5), but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.189). When adding the option to take an HIV test kit for home use, the Choice arm had significantly greater odds of testing uptake (OR = 2.8, p = 0.002). Of those in the Choice arm who tested, 26.9% selected the SOC test, 64.6% chose supervised self-testing in the clinic, and 8.5% took a test kit for home use. Participants varied in the HIV test they selected when given choices. Importantly, when participants who refused HIV testing in the clinic were offered a test kit for home use, an additional 8.5% tested. Offering truck drivers a variety of HIV testing choices may increase HIV testing uptake in this key population.

  2. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  3. 49 CFR 380.109 - Driver testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Driver testing. 380.109 Section 380.109....109 Driver testing. (a) Testing methods. The driver-student must pass knowledge and skills tests in... LCV driver-instructor. (d) Guidance for testing methods and proficiency determinations. Motor carriers...

  4. 49 CFR 382.305 - Random testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random testing. 382.305 Section 382.305... ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Tests Required § 382.305 Random testing. (a) Every employer shall comply with the requirements of this section. Every driver shall submit to random alcohol and controlled substance testing as...

  5. Field testing driver night vision devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Kolletzki, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes the available methodologies to field test driver night vision devices ranging from vehicle mounted camera’s to head-mounted NVG’s. As in flight trials, a formidable challenge is to collect meaningful performance measures. Night vision systems for land and air systems show many

  6. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  7. Artefacts of questionnaire-based psychological testing of drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Łuczak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this article is to draw attention to a significant role of social approval variable in the qustionnairebased diagnosis of drivers' psychological aptitude. Material and Methods: Three questionnaires were used: Formal Characteristics of Behavior - Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R(S and Impulsiveness Questionnaire (Impulsiveness, Venturesomeness, Empathy - IVE. Three groups of drivers were analyzed: professional "without crashes" (N = 46, nonprofessional "without crashes" (N = 75, and nonprofessional "with crashes" (N = 75. Results: Nonprofessional drivers "without crashes" significantly stood up against other drivers. Their personality profile, indicating a significantly utmost perseveration, emotional reactivity, neuroticism, impulsiveness and the lowest endurance did not fit in to the requirements to be met by drivers. The driver safety profile was characteristic of professional drivers (the lowest level of perseveration, impulsiveness and neuroticism and the highest level of endurance. Similar profile occurred among nonprofessional drivers - the offenders of road crashes. Compared to the nonprofessional "without crashes" group, professional drivers and offenders of road crashes were also characterized by a significantly higher score on the Lie scale, determining the need for social approval. This is likely to result from the study procedure according to which the result of professional drivers testing had an impact on a possible continuity of their job and that of nonprofessional drivers "with crashes" decided about possible recovery of the driving license. Conclusions: The variable of social approval can be a significant artifact in the study of psychological drivers' testing and reduce the reliability of the results of questionnaire methods. Med Pr 2014;65(3:373–385

  8. FAST FLUX TEST FACILITY DRIVER FUEL MEETING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1966-06-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has convened this meeting to enlist the best talents of our laboratories and industry in soliciting factual, technical information pertinent to the Pacific Northwest's Laboratory's evaluation of the potential fuel systems for the Fast Flux Test Facility. The particular factors emphasized for these fuel systems are those associated with safety, ability to meet testing objectives, and economics. The proceedings includes twenty-three presentations, along with a transcript of the discussion following each, as well as a summary discussion.

  9. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Angry drivers: a test of state-trait theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Richards, Tracy L; Filetti, Linda B; Lynch, Rebekah S

    2005-08-01

    Tested hypotheses from state-trait theory applied to anger while driving. College student drivers high in trait driving anger were compared to drivers low in trait driving anger. High anger drivers were more frequently angered in day-to-day driving (frequency hypothesis). They reported more intense anger in their most angering driving situations, when visualizing provocative driving events, and in day-to-day driving (intensity hypothesis). Driving diaries and surveys showed they engaged in more aggressive behavior and expressed their anger through more verbal, physical, and vehicular means (aggression hypothesis). They reported handling of their anger less well when visualizing provocative events and on the Adaptive/Constructive Expression scale (reduced adaptive expression hypothesis). They engaged in risky behavior (risky behavior hypothesis) and experienced more moving violations, close calls, and losses of concentration, but not more major or minor accidents (partial support for crash-related outcomes hypothesis). High anger drivers were more generally angry and impulsive and employed more negative, less controlled forms of general anger expression. Results supported state-trait theory and added to the literature showing that high anger drivers have some other psychological and behavioral characteristics that may interact negatively with anger behind the wheel.

  11. Towards a Framework for Testing Drivers' Interaction with Partially Automated Driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beukel, Arie Paul; van der Voort, Mascha C.; Eger, Arthur O.

    2015-01-01

    Partially automated driving takes away driving control from the driver in situations which allow complete automation, but leaves final responsibility for safe driving at the human operator. Accordingly, the driver's role changes to supervision, and - occasionally - intervention. For testing required

  12. A comparison of alcohol and drug use by random motor vehicle drivers in Brazil and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Sousa, Tanara R; De Boni, Raquel; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Limberger, Renata P; Zancanaro, Ivomar; Oiestad, Elisabeth L; Normann, Per T; Mørland, Jørg; Pechansky, Flavio

    2014-05-01

    A large proportion of road traffic crashes are related to driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol or drugs. The aim of this study was to compare the use of alcohol, illegal drugs and psychoactive medicinal drugs among random drivers in Brazil and Norway, two countries with the same legal limit for drunk driving, but with marked differences in legislation history, enforcement and penalties for DUI, and to discuss any differences found. Roadside surveys were conducted on Fridays and Saturdays between noon and midnight. Samples of oral fluid were collected for analysis of drugs, whereas alcohol was determined by breath testing or by analysis of oral fluid. High participation rates of 94-97% were obtained in both countries. The weighted prevalence of driving with alcohol concentrations in breath or oral fluid equivalent to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) above 0.2g/L was 2.7% (95% CI 2.2-3.3) in Brazil and 0.2% (95% CI 0.0-0.5) in Norway. Stimulants (amphetamines or cocaine) were found in samples from 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) of drivers in Brazil and 0.3% (95% CI 0.1-0.7) in Norway. The prevalence of amphetamines was highest among Brazilian truck drivers (3.6%; 95% CI 2.0-6.4). Tetrahydrocannabinol was found in samples from 0.5% (95% CI 0.3-0.8) of drivers in Brazil and 1.0% (95% CI 0.6-1.5) in Norway, whereas benzodiazepines or zopiclone were found in 1.0% (95% CI 0.7-1.4) and 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) of the samples from Brazil and Norway, respectively. The difference in the prevalence of alcohol may be related to the fact that Norway has implemented steps to reduce drunk driving since 1936, whereas Brazil has attempted to do the same for only a few years. Differences for drugs may be related to different patterns in the use of stimulants, cannabis and medicines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 49 CFR 655.45 - Random testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Random testing. 655.45 Section 655.45... of Testing § 655.45 Random testing. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, the minimum annual percentage rate for random drug testing shall be 50 percent of covered...

  14. RIA simulation tests using driver tube for ATF cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinbiz, Mahmut N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, N. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lowden, R. R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Pellet-cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI) is a potential failure mechanism for accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) cladding candidates during a reactivity-initiated accident (RIA). This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 2017 research activities that were undertaken to evaluate the PCMI-like hoop-strain-driven mechanical response of ATF cladding candidates. To achieve various RIA-like conditions, a modified-burst test (MBT) device was developed to produce different mechanical pulses. The calibration of the MBT instrument was accomplished by performing mechanical tests on unirradiated Generation-I iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy samples. Shakedown tests were also conducted in both FY 2016 and FY 2017 using unirradiated hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples. This milestone report focuses on testing of ATF materials, but the benchmark tests with hydrided ZIRLO™ tube samples are documented in a recent journal article.a For the calibration and benchmark tests, the hoop strain was monitored using strain gauges attached to the sample surface in the hoop direction. A novel digital image correlation (DIC) system composed of a single high-speed camera and an array of six mirrors was developed for the MBT instrument to better resolve the failure behavior of samples and to provide useful data for validation of high-fidelity modeling and simulation tools. The DIC system enable a 360° view of a sample’s outer surface. This feature was added to the instrument to determine the precise failure location on a sample’s surface for strain predictions. The DIC system was tested on several silicon carbide fiber/silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC) composite tube samples at various pressurization rates of the driver tube (which correspond to the strain rates for the samples). The hoop strains for various loading conditions were determined for the SiC/SiC composite tube samples. Future work is planned to enhance understanding of the failure behavior of the ATF cladding candidates of age

  15. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  16. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  17. Leveraging accelerated testing of LED drivers to model the reliability of two-stage and multi-channel drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Perkins, Curtis; Smith, Aaron; Clark, Terry; Mills, Karmann

    2017-05-30

    The next wave of LED lighting technology is likely to be tunable white lighting (TWL) devices which can adjust the colour of the emitted light between warm white (~ 2700 K) and cool white (~ 6500 K). This type of lighting system uses LED assemblies of two or more colours each controlled by separate driver channels that independently adjust the current levels to achieve the desired lighting colour. Drivers used in TWL devices are inherently more complex than those found in simple SSL devices, due to the number of electrical components in the driver required to achieve this level of control. The reliability of such lighting systems can only be studied using accelerated stress tests (AST) that accelerate the aging process to time frames that can be accommodated in laboratory testing. This paper describes AST methods and findings developed from AST data that provide insights into the lifetime of the main components of one-channel and multi-channel LED devices. The use of AST protocols to confirm product reliability is necessary to ensure that the technology can meet the performance and lifetime requirements of the intended application.

  18. QUASI-RANDOM TESTING OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Yarmolik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various modified random testing approaches have been proposed for computer system testing in the black box environment. Their effectiveness has been evaluated on the typical failure patterns by employing three measures, namely, P-measure, E-measure and F-measure. A quasi-random testing, being a modified version of the random testing, has been proposed and analyzed. The quasi-random Sobol sequences and modified Sobol sequences are used as the test patterns. Some new methods for Sobol sequence generation have been proposed and analyzed.

  19. HIV testing preferences among long distance truck drivers in Kenya: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Michael; George, Gavin; Lansdell, Emma; Mantell, Joanne E; Govender, Kaymarlin; Romo, Matthew; Odhiambo, Jacob; Mwai, Eva; Nyaga, Eston N; Kelvin, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    Providing HIV testing services to truck drivers in Africa is crucial but has proven challenging. The introduction of HIV self-testing promises to provide expanded service delivery options for clients, potentially increasing demand for services and expanding coverage - especially important for high-risk and difficult-to-reach populations. This study examines the preferences regarding HIV testing service delivery models, among long distance truck drivers to identify testing services that would appeal to this population. Using a discrete choice experiment, this study examines the drivers of choice regarding HIV counselling and testing among 305 truck drivers recruited from two roadside wellness clinics along major trucking routes in Kenya. Participants made trade-offs between characteristics of HIV testing service delivery models by making hypothetical choices in a series of paired HIV testing scenarios. Conditional logit models were used to identify the HIV testing characteristics driving the selection of preferred scenarios, as well as determine whether preferences interact with individual characteristics - especially HIV testing history. Participants preferred free, provider-administered HIV testing at a roadside clinic, using a finger-prick test, with in-person counselling, undertaken in the shortest possible time. The strongest driver of choice was the cost of the test. Those who had never tested previously preferred oral testing and telephonic counselling, while those who were not regular testers favoured clinic based - over self-testing. The results of this study indicate that for the majority of participants - most of whom had tested before - the existing services offered at roadside clinics were the preferred service delivery model. The introduction of oral self-testing increases the options available to truck drivers and may even improve testing uptake for some, especially among those who have never tested before. However, these findings suggest the impact

  20. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding: a case of test driver recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Næss, Teresa; Juhl, Jens; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers, but it never succeeded in recruiting that number of drivers. After several design changes, the project eventually went forward with 153 test drivers of all ages. This number represents approximately one thousandth of all car owners in the proving ground of North Jutland in Denmark. Furthermore the project was terminated before its scheduled closing date. This article describes the project with an emphasis on recruitment efforts and the project's progress. We include a discussion of possible explanations for the failure to recruit volunteers for the project and reflect upon the general barriers to using ISA with ordinary drivers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Profile of a drunk driver and risk factors for drunk driving. Findings in roadside testing in the province of Uusimaa in Finland 1990-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Rajalin, S; Eriksson, C J P; Gunnar, T; Koskimaa, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2013-09-10

    The aim of the present study was to define the profile of a drunk driver and to determine risk factors for drunk driving by analyzing data on both sober and drunk drivers. Systematic roadside surveys have been carried out in Southern Finland for over 18 years, with 20,000-30,000 drivers breath tested annually. During the study period, 1241 drunk drivers were caught (legal blood alcohol limit 0.50‰). The comparison material consisted of 3407 sober drivers. The surveys were designed to further investigate demographic features and driving habits of drivers. The prevalence of drunk driving has been 0.2% over the time period, with only random variations. According to the data, a typical drunk driver is a man aged 40-49 who has a valid driving license and drives his own car, usually alone, with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 1.0‰. He has a job and is married or cohabiting. The profile remained consistent throughout the study period. The risk of drunk driving was found to be five times higher for men than for women. Divorcees and widow(er)s had a substantially higher risk factor for being caught drunk driving than married drivers. Drunk drivers are most likely to be caught by roadside testing on Saturday mornings. During the study period the blood alcohol limit for aggravated drunk driving was lowered in 1994 from 1.5 to 1.2‰. In 2004 the taxation of alcohol beverages was reduced by 30%. Neither of these measures affected the prevalence of drunk driving or the mean BAC of drunk drivers (p=0.63). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model-based cross-level interaction decomposition for truck driver injury severity investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tian, Zong; Bogus, Susan M; Yang, Yin

    2015-12-01

    Traffic crashes occurring on rural roadways induce more severe injuries and fatalities than those in urban areas, especially when there are trucks involved. Truck drivers are found to suffer higher potential of crash injuries compared with other occupational labors. Besides, unobserved heterogeneity in crash data analysis is a critical issue that needs to be carefully addressed. In this study, a hierarchical Bayesian random intercept model decomposing cross-level interaction effects as unobserved heterogeneity is developed to examine the posterior probabilities of truck driver injuries in rural truck-involved crashes. The interaction effects contributing to truck driver injury outcomes are investigated based on two-year rural truck-involved crashes in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. The analysis results indicate that the cross-level interaction effects play an important role in predicting truck driver injury severities, and the proposed model produces comparable performance with the traditional random intercept model and the mixed logit model even after penalization by high model complexity. It is revealed that factors including road grade, number of vehicles involved in a crash, maximum vehicle damage in a crash, vehicle actions, driver age, seatbelt use, and driver under alcohol or drug influence, as well as a portion of their cross-level interaction effects with other variables are significantly associated with truck driver incapacitating injuries and fatalities. These findings are helpful to understand the respective or joint impacts of these attributes on truck driver injury patterns in rural truck-involved crashes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Java Test Driver Generation from Object-Oriented Interaction Traces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Bonsangue (Marcello); F.S. de Boer (Frank); A. Gruener; M. Steffen

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the context of test-driven development for object-oriented programs, mock objects are increasingly used for unit testing. Several Java mock object frameworks exist, which all have in common that mock objects, realizing the test environment, are directly specied at the Java program

  4. Testing and verification of a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel single-channel IGBT driver circuit together with a procedure for testing and verification. It is based on a specialized integrated circuit with complete range of protective functions. Experiments are performed to test and verify its behaviour. Experimental results are presented in the form of oscilloscope recordings. It is concluded that the new driver circuit is compatible with modern IGBT transistors and power converter demands and that it can be applied in new designs. It is a part of new 20kW industrial-grade boost converter.

  5. An analysis of changes in mobility and safety of older drivers associated with a specific older driver on-road licensing test: a population study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background From 1999 to the end of 2006, older drivers aged 80 plus in New Zealand were subject to an older driver licence test as a condition of licensing. The impact of this test has not yet been studied in terms of the safety and mobility of older people. Methods Three main data sources were analysed to provide evidence of changes in older driver travel mode choice, licensing rates and injuries: New Zealand Travel Survey data, licensing data and police-reported crash data. Results General trends towards higher levels of motorised mobility were apparent for this group over the 20 years studied, but without an obvious change at the points in time when the test was either introduced or removed as a general requirement of licensure. There were also no apparent changes in the levels of pedestrian activity or road injury involving drivers in this age group. Conclusions Along with other relevant studies comparing older driver licensing policies across different jurisdictions, this study does not support the generalised use of on-road testing as an assessment mechanism for all older drivers. PMID:24524411

  6. Can a video-based hazard perception test used for driver licensing predict crash involvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horswill, Mark S; Hill, Andrew; Wetton, Mark

    2015-09-01

    In 2008, the state of Queensland in Australia introduced a video-based hazard perception test as part of the licensing process for new drivers. A key validity check for such a test is whether scores are associated with crash involvement. We present data demonstrating that drivers who failed the hazard perception test (based on a ROC curve-derived pass mark) were 25% [95% confidence interval (CI) 6%, 48%] more likely to be involved in an active crash (defined as a crash occurring while the driver's vehicle was moving but they were not engaged in parking or reversing) during a one year period following the test (controlling for driving exposure, age, and sex). Failing drivers were also 17% (95% CI 6%, 29%) more likely to have been involved in active crashes prior to the test, in the period since obtaining their provisional license. These data support the proposal that the hazard perception test is a valid measure of crash-related driving performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Test Device Module of the Step Motor Driver for HANARO CAR Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Yun-Taek; Doo, Seung-Gyu; Shin, Jin-Won; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Choi, Young-San; Lee, Jung-Hee; Kim, Hyung-Kyoo; Lee, Choong-Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The brand-new control system is reliable and has advantages compared with the old control system, and the installed system covers all functional operations of old system. Nevertheless, packaged RTP systems do not include a step motor or driver, and it is necessary to develop a proper test device to check the step motor and driver without using the RTP system. In particular, the operation of a CAR (Control Absorber Rod) requires many complicated procedures. Occasionally, it takes significant time to prepare for a field test. In this work, a test device module for a step motor diver is shown to emulate a HANARO CAR operation, and the test device system architecture, operational principle, and experiment results are presented. A commercial 8-bit μ-processor is applied to implement the device. A portable test device for HANARO CAR operation is presented. An 8-bit μ-controller is used to emulate a HANARO CAR operation. The digital interface, as well as the functional operation, of the test device module matches that of the currently used driver. This device can be used to check the functional validity of the step motor and driver.

  8. Progress in Tissue Specimens Alternative for the Driver Genes Testing of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan SUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Target treatment based on driver genes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer is very important currently. Tumor tissues is the gold standard for driver genes testing. However, most of patients could not get the gene information for lack of enough tissues. To explore the tissue specimens alternatives is a hot spot in clinical work. This report reviews the tissue specimen alternatives of driver gene testing in non-small cell lung cancer.

  9. 77 FR 26989 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... right to operate a CMV in a State or who is disqualified to operate a commercial motor vehicle... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 384 and 385 RIN 2126-AB02 Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  10. Virtual testing of driver OOP scenarios: effect of modeling detail on injury response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch-Rekveldt, M.G.C.; Hoof, J.F.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the relevance of certain parameters for virtual testing of the driver's side OOP problem and attempts to answer the following questions: Which level of detail is needed in the airbag models to assess occupants' injury values for OOP scenarios? What is the influence of the

  11. Comparison of a Virtual Older Driver Assessment with an On-Road Driving Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramudugolla, Ranmalee; Price, Jasmine; Chopra, Sidhant; Li, Xiaolan; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2016-12-01

    To design a low-cost simulator-based driving assessment for older adults and to compare its validity with that of an on-road driving assessment and other measures of older driver risk. Cross-sectional observational study. Canberra, Australia. Older adult drivers (N = 47; aged 65-88, mean age 75.2). Error rate on a simulated drive with environment and scoring procedure matched to those of an on-road test. Other measures included participant age, simulator sickness severity, neuropsychological measures, and driver screening measures. Outcome variables included occupational therapist (OT)-rated on-road errors, on-road safety rating, and safety category. Participants' error rate on the simulated drive was significantly correlated with their OT-rated driving safety (correlation coefficient (r) = -0.398, P = .006), even after adjustment for age and simulator sickness (P = .009). The simulator error rate was a significant predictor of categorization as unsafe on the road (P = .02, sensitivity 69.2%, specificity 100%), with 13 (27%) drivers assessed as unsafe. Simulator error was also associated with other older driver safety screening measures such as useful field of view (r = 0.341, P = .02), DriveSafe (r = -0.455, P assessment as during the on-road assessment (P assessment is valid as a screening instrument for identifying at-risk older drivers but not as an alternative to on-road evaluation when accurate data on competence or pattern of impairment is required for licensing decisions and training programs. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Older drivers: On-road and off-road test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Helena; Lee, Hoe C; Johansson, Kurt; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2011-07-01

    Eighty-five volunteer drivers, 65-85 years old, without cognitive impairments impacting on their driving were examined, in order to investigate driving errors characteristic for older drivers. In addition, any relationships between cognitive off-road and on-road tests results, the latter being the gold standard, were identified. Performance measurements included Trail Making Test (TMT), Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment (NorSDSA), Useful Field of View (UFOV), self-rating driving performance and the two on-road protocols P-Drive and ROA. Some of the older drivers displayed questionable driving behaviour. In total, 21% of the participants failed the on-road assessment. Some of the specific errors were more serious than others. The most common driving errors embraced speed; exceeding the speed limit or not controlling the speed. Correlations with the P-Drive protocol were established for NorSDSA total score (weak), UFOV subtest 2 (weak), and UFOV subtest 3 (moderate). Correlations with the ROA protocol were established for UFOV subtest 2 (weak) and UFOV subtest 3 (weak). P-Drive and self ratings correlated weakly, whereas no correlation between self ratings and the ROA protocol was found. The results suggest that specific problems or errors seen in an older person's driving can actually be "normal driving behaviours". Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair testing is superior to urine to disclose cocaine consumption in driver's licence regranting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polla, M; Stramesi, C; Pichini, S; Palmi, I; Vignali, C; Dall'Olio, G

    2009-08-10

    In driver licence regranting, subjects with a history of cocaine use are requested to undergo laboratory testing to verify both current and past abstinence from the drug. Identification of cocaine use based only on urinalysis may miss some cases because of the short elimination half-life of the drug. Moreover, many abusers know how to time their cocaine consumption in such a way that they can "beat" the urinalysis, having a series of negative urine tests. We report on the use of hair testing to disclose sporadic cocaine consumption in seven subjects attending the Local Medical Commission to reobtain driver licence, with constant negative urinalysis. Even with one or two weekly negative urine screens along several months, all the subjects were positive using hair testing for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, above the internationally recommended limit of quantification: 0.5 ng/mg and 0.05 ng/mg for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively (concentration range for cocaine: 0.51-2.23 ng/mg hair; concentration range for benzoylecgonine: 0.08-1.70 ng/mg hair). The obtained results support strongly the use of hair testing for cocaine in drug addicts and occasional abusers applying for regranting of driver licence in order to minimize social risk behaviours.

  14. Application of eye-tracking in the testing of drivers: A review of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronisław Kapitaniak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recording and analyzing eye movements provide important elements for understanding the nature of the task of driving a vehicle. This article reviews the literature on eye movement strategies employed by drivers of vehicles (vehicle control, evaluation of the situation by analyzing essential visual elements, navigation. Special focus was placed on the phenomenon of conspicuity, the probability of perceiving an object in the visual field and the factors that determine it. The article reports the methods of oculographic examination, with special emphasis on the non-invasive technique using corneal reflections, and the criteria for optimal selection of the test apparatus for drivers in experimental conditions (on a driving simulator and in real conditions. Particular attention was also paid to the helmet – or glass-type devices provided with 1 or 2 high definition (HD camcorders recording the field of vision and the direction of gaze, and the non-contact devices comprising 2 or 3 cameras and an infrared source to record eye and head movements, pupil diameter, eye convergence distance, duration and frequency of eyelid blinking. A review of the studies conducted using driver eye-tracking procedure was presented. The results, in addition to their cognitive value, can be used with success to optimize the strategy of drivers training.

  15. Probabilistic validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a methodological approach for validation of advanced driver assistance systems, based on randomized algorithms. The new methodology is more efficient than conventional validation by simulations and field tests, especially with increasing system complexity. The methodology consists of

  16. Do laboratory frontal crash test programs predict driver fatality risk? Evidence from within vehicle line variation in test ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E

    2007-09-01

    A number of studies have examined whether the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) frontal crash test results reliably indicate the risk of fatality or injury in serious crashes. The conclusions of these studies are mixed. Generally, studies that examine crashes in the circumstances as close as possible to those of the laboratory test find that crash test results do predict real-world risk, but studies of crashes outside those specific circumstances find either no support for the predictive validity of crash test results or limited support with important inconsistencies. We provide a new test of the predictive validity of the crash test results using information from multiple crash tests within vehicle lines, thus controlling for systematic differences in driver behavior across vehicle lines. Among drivers of passenger cars, we find large, statistically significant differences in fatality risk for vehicles with one- to four-star NHTSA ratings versus a five-star rating. We also examine the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's frontal offset crash test, though our sample of vehicle lines tested twice or more is considerably smaller than for NHTSA ratings. Our results also support the predictive validity of the frontal offset crash test results for passenger cars, but not for trucks.

  17. Single-Event Latchup Testing of the Micrel MIC4424 Dual Power MOSFET Driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, J. A.; Boutte, A.; Kim, H.; Phan, A.; Topper, A.

    2016-01-01

    We conducted 47 exposures of four different MIC4424 devices and did not observe any SEL or high-current events. This included worst-case conditions with a LET of 81 MeV-sq cm/mg, applied voltage of 18.5 V, a case temperature greater than 120 C, and a final fluence of 1x10(exp 7)/sq cm. We also monitored both the outputs for the presence of SETs. While the period of the 1 MHz square wave was slightly altered in some cases, no pulses were added or deleted. 1. Purpose: The purpose of this testing is to characterize the BiCMOS/DMOS Micrel MIC4424 dual, non-inverting MOSFET driver for single-event latchup (SEL) susceptibility. These data will be used for flight lot evaluation purposes. 2. Devices Tested: The MIC4423/4424/4425 family are highly reliable BiCMOS/DMOS buffer/driver MOSFET drivers. They are higher output current versions of the MIC4426/4427/4428. They can survive up to 5V of noise spiking, of either polarity, on the ground pin. They can accept, without either damage or logic upset, up to half an amp of reverse current (either polarity) forced back into their outputs. Primarily intended for driving power MOSFETs, the MIC4423/4424/4425 drivers are suitable for driving other loads (capacitive, resistive, or inductive) which require low-impedance, high peak currents, and fast switching times. Heavily loaded clock lines, coaxial cables, or piezoelectric transducers are some examples. The only known limitation on loading is that total power dissipated in the driver must be kept within the maximum power dissipation limits of the package. Five (5) parts were provided for SEL testing. We prepared four parts for irradiation and reserved one piece as an un-irradiated control. More information about the devices can be found in Table 1. The parts were prepared for testing by removing the lid from the CDIP package to expose the target die. The parts were then soldered to small copper circuit adapter boards for easy handling. These parts are fabricated in a bulk Bi

  18. Independent Evaluation of the Driver Acceptance of the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System for Violations (CICAS-V) Pilot Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report documents the results of the independent evaluations assessment of the driver acceptance of the Cooperative Intersection Collision Avoidance System limited to Stop Sign and Traffic Signal Violations (CICAS-V) system as tested during a ...

  19. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M G; V. A. Sinebryukhov; B.M. Kovalchuk; V. A. Visir; Volkov, S. N.; F. Bayol; A. N. Bastrikov; V. G. Durakov; FROLOV S.V.; V. M. Alexeenko; D. H. McDaniel; Fowler, W E; LeChien, K; OLSON, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD) stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C) circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ∼1  MA current pulse with a rise time of ∼100  ns into the ∼0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying th...

  20. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Sinebryukhov, V. A.; Kovalchuk, B. M.; Visir, V. A.; Volkov, S. N.; Bayol, F.; Bastrikov, A. N.; Durakov, V. G.; Frolov, S. V.; Alexeenko, V. M.; McDaniel, D. H.; Fowler, W. E.; Lechien, K.; Olson, C.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K. W.; Porter, J.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2009-05-01

    In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD) stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C) circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ˜1MA current pulse with a rise time of ˜100ns into the ˜0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.

  1. Development and tests of fast 1-MA linear transformer driver stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the design and test results of the most powerful, fast linear transformer driver (LTD stage developed to date. This 1-MA LTD stage consists of 40 parallel RLC (resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C circuits called “bricks” that are triggered simultaneously; it is able to deliver ∼1  MA current pulse with a rise time of ∼100  ns into the ∼0.1-Ohm matched load. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted by using a simple RLC circuit, thus simplifying the designing of various LTD-based accelerators. Five 1-MA LTD stages assembled in series into a module have been successfully tested with both resistive and vacuum electron-beam diode loads.

  2. Replacing the NIH test for rabies vaccine potency testing: a synopsis of drivers and barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiffelers, M.J.; Blaauboer, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068359802; Bakker, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/302335919; Hendriksen, C.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075036266

    Approximately 70% of animal use is utilized to demonstrate quality control of vaccines. Especially rabies vaccine potency testing, using the NIH challenge test, involves objections in terms of scientific relevance, animal welfare concern and costs. Several 3R models have been proposed to refine,

  3. Effects of a Safe Transportation Educational Program for Older Drivers on Driving Exposure and Community Participation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Chevalier, Anna; Brown, Julie; Clarke, Elizabeth; Billot, Laurent; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To ascertain whether a safe-transportation program can change driving exposure while maintaining community participation of older drivers. Randomized controlled trial. Northwest Sydney. Drivers aged 75 and older (mean 80 ± 4) (n = 380). Intervention group participated in an individualized, one-on-one safe-transportation program adapted from the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety curriculum. A registered occupational therapist delivered the intervention in two sessions held approximately 1 month apart. An in-vehicle monitoring device hardwired into participants' vehicles measured driving exposure. Community participation was measured using the Keele Assessment of Participation. A staging algorithm based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model measured behavior change toward increased and sustained driving self-regulation. Main outcomes were distance driven per week over 12 months and community participation. Secondary outcomes were behavior change, depressive symptoms, and alternate transportation use. Generalized estimating equations were used to model effect on driving exposure, adjusting for weekly measures, and ordinal regression was used to analyze differences in behavior change profiles between groups using an intention-to-treat approach. Participants were randomized after baseline assessment-190 each to the intervention and control groups. One hundred eighty-three of 190 completed the intervention and 366 of 380 completed the study. On average, participants drove 140 ± 167 km/wk. Although there was no significant difference between the groups in distance driven per week over 12 months (between-group difference -5.5 km, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -24.5-13.5 km, p = .57), intervention group participants showed greater readiness to engage in self-regulatory driving practices, such as reporting avoiding driving at night or at rush hours, than control group participants (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P = .02). At 12 months, use of alternate

  4. A Quickly Tested Pascal Random Number Generator for Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    in any way at equal intervals spaced h units apart, the serial correlation of the series can be obtained for various lags and tested against...pass handily. The unit range between zero and unity was divided into 100 equally spaced frequencies, and the generated random numbers were...NSDTEST; (*MEAN AND SDEV TESTS*) FREQKOLTEST; (*CHISQ FREQ DISTR AND KOLMOGOROFF -SMIRNOV TESTS*) PAIRTEST; (*TEST DISTR OF RANDOM PAIRS*) TRIOTEST; (*TEST

  5. On testing the missing at random assumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption. In this ......Most approaches to learning from incomplete data are based on the assumption that unobserved values are missing at random (mar). While the mar assumption, as such, is not testable, it can become testable in the context of other distributional assumptions, e.g. the naive Bayes assumption...

  6. Breathalyzer test: results and refusals to take the test of drivers intercepted under the DUI Spot-Check Campaign in Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomar, Rafael Tavares; Ramos, Dandara de Oliveira; Abreu, Ângela Maria Mendes

    2016-12-01

    Abstract This paper involved a cross-sectional study that evaluated the results and refusals to take the breathalyzer test among drivers intercepted by the Driving Under the Influence (DUI) Spot-Check Campaign (Operação Lei Seca) in the capital of Rio de Janeiro and Baixada Fluminense. It was conducted using data provided by the State Government which were collected from drivers intercepted in the months of December 2013 and January 2014. Descriptive analysis was conducted of the sample and of the association between gender, age and location variables with the result of the breathalyzer test and refusal to take the test using a logistic regression model. Of the 4756 (100%) drivers intercepted, 59 (1.2%) failed the breathalyzer test and 229 (4.8%) refused to take it. Only the location of interception variable was statistically significant with greater chances of failing (OR = 4.01) and refusal to take the test (OR = 5.14) among drivers intercepted in the Baixada Fluminense. Systematic monitoring actions taken by the DUI Spot-Check Campaign that have occurred for longer in the capital appear to have a positive impact on the drinking and driving behavior of drivers.

  7. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing responses to different external portable drivers in a patient with a CardioWest Total Artificial Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzia, Vincenzo; Braccioni, Fausto; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Buratto, Edward; Gallo, Michele; Bottio, Tomaso; Vianello, Andrea; Gerosa, Gino

    2016-06-01

    Management of patients treated with CardioWest Total Artificial Heart (CW-TAH) as a bridge to heart transplantation (HTx) is complicated by difficulties in determining the optimal timing of transplantation. We present a case of a 53-year-old man supported as an outpatient with a CW-TAH, whose condition deteriorated following exchange of the portable driver. The patient was followed-up with serial cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) which demonstrated a fall of peak VO2 to below 12 ml/kg/min following driver substitution, and the patient was subsequently treated with urgent orthotopic HTx. This case highlights the potential utility of CPET as a means for monitoring and indicating timing of HTx in patients with CW-TAH, as well as the potential for clinical deterioration following portable driver substitution.

  8. The Use of Randomization Tests in Single-Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haardorfer, Regine; Gagne, Phill

    2010-01-01

    Some researchers have argued for the use of or have attempted to make use of randomization tests in single-subject research. To address this tide of interest, the authors of this article describe randomization tests, discuss the theoretical rationale for applying them to single-subject research, and provide an overview of the methodological…

  9. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Read-Out Driver card

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S-P; The ATLAS collaboration; Falchieri, D; Gabrielli, A; Hauck, S; Hsu, S-C; Kretz, M; Kugel, A; Travaglini, R; Wensing, M

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shutdown. In particular, the Pixel detector is inserting an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Read-Out Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBL ROD firmware development focused on migrating and tailoring HDL code blocks from Pixel ROD to ensure modular compatibility in future ROD upgrades, in which a unified code version will interface with IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBL DAQ testbench using a realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBL ROD data path implementation, tested in testbench and on ROD prototypes, will be ...

  10. Firmware development and testing of the ATLAS IBL Readout Driver card

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Experiment is reworking and upgrading systems during the current LHC shut down. In particular, the Pixel detector is inserting an additional inner layer called Insertable B-Layer (IBL). The Readout-Driver card (ROD), the Back-of-Crate card (BOC), and the S-Link together form the essential frontend data path of the IBL’s off-detector DAQ system. The strategy for IBLROD firmware development focused on migrating and tailoring HDL code blocks from PixelROD to ensure modular compatibility in future ROD upgrades, in which a unified code version will interface with IBL and Pixel layers. Essential features such as data formatting, frontend-specific error handling, and calibration are added to the ROD data path. An IBLDAQ testbench using realistic frontend chip model was created to serve as an initial framework for full offline electronic system simulation. In this document, major firmware achievements concerning the IBLROD data path implementation, tested in testbench and on ROD prototypes, will be report...

  11. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  12. Lifestyle counseling to reduce body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors among truck and bus drivers--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhkala, Jatta; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Aittasalo, Minna; Hublin, Christer; Kärmeniemi, Paula; Olkkonen, Seppo; Partinen, Markku; Sallinen, Mikael; Tokola, Kari; Fogelholm, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a randomized trial among overweight long-distance drivers to study the effects of structured lifestyle counseling on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Men with waist circumference >100 cm were randomized into a lifestyle counseling (LIFE, N=55) and a reference (REF, N=58) group. The LIFE group participated in monthly counseling on nutrition, physical activity, and sleep for 12 months aiming at 10% weight loss. After 12 months, the REF group participated in 3-month counseling. Assessments took place at 0, 12, and 24 months. Between-group differences in changes were analyzed by generalized linear modeling. Metabolic risk (Z score) was calculated from components of metabolic syndrome. The mean body weight change after 12 months was -3.4 kg in LIFE (N=47) and 0.7 kg in REF (N=48) [net difference -4.0 kg, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.9- -6.2]. Six men in LIFE reduced body weight by ≥10%. Changes in waist circumference were -4.7 cm in LIFE and -0.1 cm in REF (net -4.7 cm, 95% CI -6.6- -2.7). Metabolic risk decreased more in the LIFE than REF group (net -1.2 points, 95% CI -0.6- -2.0). After 24 months follow-up, there were no between-group differences in changes in body weight (net -0.5 kg, 95% CI -3.8-2.9) or metabolic risk score (net 0.1 points; 95% CI -0.8-1.0) compared to baseline. Weight reduction and decreases in cardiometabolic risk factors were clinically meaningful after 12 months of counseling.

  13. Examining driver behavior at the onset of yellow in a traffic simulator environment: Comparisons between random parameters and latent class logit models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Peter T

    2016-11-01

    This study involves an examination of driver behavior at the onset of a yellow signal indication. Behavioral data were obtained from a driving simulator study that was conducted through the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS) laboratory at the University of Iowa. These data were drawn from a series of events during which study participants drove through a series of intersections where the traffic signals changed from the green to yellow phase. The resulting dataset provides potential insights into how driver behavior is affected by distracted driving through an experimental design that alternated handheld, headset, and hands-free cell phone use with "normal" baseline driving events. The results of the study show that male drivers ages 18-45 were more likely to stop. Participants were also more likely to stop as they became more familiar with the simulator environment. Cell phone use was found to some influence on driver behavior in this setting, though the effects varied significantly across individuals. The study also demonstrates two methodological approaches for dealing with unobserved heterogeneity across drivers. These include random parameters and latent class logit models, each of which analyze the data as a panel. The results show each method to provide significantly better fit than a pooled, fixed parameter model. Differences in terms of the context of these two approaches are discussed, providing important insights as to the differences between these modeling frameworks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random... rail industry random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol... 25 percent of covered railroad employees. In addition, because the industry-wide random alcohol...

  15. 76 FR 26853 - Commercial Driver's License Testing and Commercial Learner's Permit Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... standards for States to issue the commercial learner's permit (CLP). The rule requires that a CLP holder meet virtually the same requirements as those for a CDL holder, meaning that a driver holding a CLP... Issuing a CLP or CDL 3. Surrender of CLP, CDL and Non-CDL Documents a. Surrender of Documents b. Mailing...

  16. A Methodology for Loading the Advanced Test Reactor Driver Core for Experiment Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowherd, Wilson M.; Nielsen, Joseph W.; Choe, Dong O.

    2016-11-01

    In support of experiments in the ATR, a new methodology was devised for loading the ATR Driver Core. This methodology will replace the existing methodology used by the INL Neutronic Analysis group to analyze experiments. Studied in this paper was the as-run analysis for ATR Cycle 152B, specifically comparing measured lobe powers and eigenvalue calculations.

  17. Testing advanced driver assistance systems with the interactive driving simulator; Erprobung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen mit dem Interactive Driving Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrichs, A.; Grosse-Kappenberg, S.; Happe, J. [Zentrum fuer Lern- und Wissensmanagement und Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau ZLW/IMA der RWTH Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The Centre for Learning and Knowledge Management and Department of Computer Science in Engineering of the Technical University Aachen has developed a truck driving simulator which combines a driving simulation as well as traffic flow calculations to the interactive Driving Simulator (InDriveS). In real-time the effects of the driver's behaviour on the surrounding traffic are considered and vice versa. The integrative part of InDriveS is a software-in-the-loop and hardware-in-the-loop development environment. By means of this tool, all phases of development (Analysis, Design, Modelling, Simulation, Implementation as well as Testing and Evaluation) of new vehicle technologies, e.g. Information and Assistance Systems, can be realised in consideration of the road traffic and the driver's behaviour. (orig.)

  18. Some Difficult-to-pass Tests of Randomness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe three tests of randomness-- tests that many random number generators fail. In particular, all congruential generators-- even those based on a prime modulus-- fail at least one of the tests, as do many simple generators, such as shift register and lagged Fibonacci. On the other hand, generators that pass the three tests seem to pass all the tests in the Diehard Battery of Tests. Note that these tests concern the randomness of a generator's output as a sequence of independent, uniform 32-bit integers. For uses where the output is converted to uniform variates in [0,1, potential flaws of the output as integers will seldom cause problems after the conversion. Most generators seem to be adequate for producing a set of uniform reals in [0,1, but several important applications, notably in cryptography and number theory-- for example, establishing probable primes, complexity of factoring algorithms, random partitions of large integers-- may require satisfactory performance on the kinds of tests we describe here.

  19. Random vibration test of Mars Exploration Rover spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, T.; Lee, D.

    2003-01-01

    The primary objective of the random vibration test was to identify any hardware problems, which might compromise the mission. The test objectives, configuration, and requirements are briefly described in this presentation, and a representative sample of the measured data is presented.

  20. The combined effects of on-road and simulator training with feedback on older drivers' on-road performance: Evidence from a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawula, Erica; Polgar, Jan; Porter, Michel M; Gagnon, Sylvain; Weaver, Bruce; Nakagawa, Satoru; Stinchcombe, Arne; Bédard, Michel

    2017-10-24

    A number of training programs that seek to improve driving performance among older drivers are available accompanied by a growing interest in their effectiveness. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the combined effect of 1) basic in-class training (BT); 2) on-road training with individualized feedback (OR); and 3) training on a driving simulator (S). Using a randomized controlled trial study design, 78 older drivers were randomly assigned to one of three groups (BT, BT+OR, or BT+OR+S). All participants completed a pre- and post-intervention on-road driving evaluation on a standardized route. The driving evaluations were recorded using video and GPS equipment and were scored by a blind assessor. The results indicated a significant reduction of approximately 30% in overall number of driving errors/omissions among participants in the BT+OR and the BT+OR+S groups in comparison to participants in the BT group. This study adds to the mounting evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of individualized driver training in improving safe driving among older adults.

  1. State Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Testing and Reporting for Drivers Involved in Fatal Crashes : Current Practices, Results, and Strategies, 1997-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report documents current State blood alcohol concentration (BAC) testing and reporting practices and results for drivers involved in fatal crashes. It summarizes known BAC results by State for the years 1997 to 2009 for both fatally injured and ...

  2. Testing the effects of safety climate and disruptive children behavior on school bus drivers performance: A multilevel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Lee, Jin

    2016-10-01

    The study was designed to test a multilevel path model whose variables exert opposing effects on school bus drivers' performance. Whereas departmental safety climate was expected to improve driving safety, the opposite was true for in-vehicle disruptive children behavior. The driving safety path in this model consists of increasing risk-taking practices starting with safety shortcuts leading to rule violations and to near-miss events. The study used a sample of 474 school bus drivers in rural areas, driving children to school and school-related activities. Newly developed scales for measuring predictor, mediator and outcome variables were validated with video data taken from inner and outer cameras, which were installed in 29 buses. Results partially supported the model by indicating that group-level safety climate and individual-level children distraction exerted opposite effects on the driving safety path. Furthermore, as hypothesized, children disruption moderated the strength of the safety rule violation-near miss relationship, resulting in greater strength under high disruptiveness. At the same time, the hypothesized interaction between the two predictor variables was not supported. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate in general and distracted driving in particular for professional drivers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A Methodological Framework for Assessing Agents, Proximate Drivers and Underlying Causes of Deforestation: Field Test Results from Southern Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Carodenuto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The international debates on REDD+ and the expectations to receive results-based payments through international climate finance have triggered considerable political efforts to address deforestation and forest degradation in many potential beneficiary countries. Whether a country will receive such REDD+ payments is largely contingent on its ability to effectively address the relevant drivers, and to govern the context-dependent agents and forces responsible for forest loss or degradation. Currently, many REDD+ countries are embarking on the necessary analytical steps for their national REDD+ strategies. In this context, a comprehensive understanding of drivers and their underlying causes is a fundamental prerequisite for developing effective policy responses. We developed a methodological framework for assessing the drivers and underlying causes of deforestation and use the Fako Division in Southern Cameroon as a case study to test this approach. The steps described in this paper can be adapted to other geographical contexts, and the results of such assessments can be used to inform policy makers and other stakeholders.

  4. Test of Random Walk Behavior in Karachi Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mudassar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Study was carried out to check the random behavior of the Karachi Stock Exchange (KSE 100 Index during the period of past three financial years to know whether investors could generate abnormal profits during the period or otherwise. Tests used were Runs Test, ADF Test, PP Test and Autocorrelation Function Test. During the study it was found that the performance of KSE 100 Index remained in weak form of inefficiency and investors have been able to generate excessive returns on their investment most of the times.

  5. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

  6. Speed enforcement in Norway: Testing a game-theoretic model of the interaction between drivers and the police.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-11-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers and the police. This model makes predictions both about how drivers will adapt to changes in the amount of enforcement (the more enforcement, the less violations) as well as how the police will adapt to changes in the rate of violations (the less violations, the less enforcement). The paper attempts to test the game-theoretic model empirically. Testing the model rigorously is difficult, mainly because some of the relevant variables are not reliably measured and are endogenous. Two models were developed: one to identify sources of changes in the rate of violations, one to identify sources of changes in the amount of enforcement. The predictions of the game-theoretic model were supported, although the results were not statistically significant in the model of how the police adapt enforcement to changes in the rate of violations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Random Vibration Testing of Advanced Wet Tantalum Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Advanced wet tantalum capacitors allow for improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the systems that is especially beneficial for space electronics. Due to launch-related stresses, acceptance testing of all space systems includes random vibration test (RVT). However, many types of advanced wet tantalum capacitors cannot pass consistently RVT at conditions specified in MIL-PRF-39006, which impedes their use in space projects. This requires a closer look at the existing requirements, modes and mechanisms of failures, specifics of test conditions, and acceptance criteria. In this work, different lots of advanced wet tantalum capacitors from four manufacturers have been tested at step stress random vibration conditions while their currents were monitored before, during, and after the testing. It has been shown that the robustness of the parts and their reliability are mostly due to effective self-healing processes and limited current spiking or minor scintillations caused by RVT do not increase the risk of failures during operation. A simple model for scintillations events has been used to simulate current spiking during RVT and optimize test conditions. The significance of scintillations and possible effects of gas generation have been discussed and test acceptance criteria for limited current spiking have been suggested.

  8. A comparative study among the three wheeler automobile drivers on pulmonary function tests in adult males of Gulbarga city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshan Afroz, Salgar Veeresh B, Sugoor Manjushree, Swati I Amrutha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of our country has led to rapid urbanization and there is increasing use of automobiles that is aggravating environmental pollution. Occupational exposure to automobile exhaustand industrial smokes has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT in auto rickshaw drivers of Gulbargacity. Methods: Fifty non –smoker male auto drivers in the age group of 20–50 years for more than 5 years of auto driving experience formed the study group. Age and sex matched individuals not exposed to auto rickshaw driving [administrative staff] formed the control group. Pulmonary function parametersFVC, FEV1, FEV1%, PEFR, PIFR, FEF25-75, FEF50 and MVV were assessed using a computerized Spiro meter during their working hours and were statistically analyzed. Results: There was a highly significant decrease in FVC and FEV1 in the study group compared to control group. The decrease in FEV1%, PIFR, FEF25-75 and FEF50 were statistically significant but the decrease in PEFR and MVV were statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: Our findings point towards the adverse effects of vehicle exhaust on lung functions, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.

  9. Modelling how drivers respond to a bicyclist crossing their path at an intersection: How do test track and driving simulator compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Christian-Nils; Dozza, Marco; Bohman, Katarina; Thalya, Prateek; Larsson, Annika; Lubbe, Nils

    2018-02-01

    Bicyclist fatalities are a great concern in the European Union. Most of them are due to crashes between motorized vehicles and bicyclists at unsignalised intersections. Different countermeasures are currently being developed and implemented in order to save lives. One type of countermeasure, active safety systems, requires a deep understanding of driver behaviour to be effective without being annoying. The current study provides new knowledge about driver behaviour which can inform assessment programmes for active safety systems such as Euro NCAP. This study investigated how drivers responded to bicyclists crossing their path at an intersection. The influences of car speed and cyclist speed on the driver response process were assessed for three different crossing configurations. The same experimental protocol was tested in a fixed-base driving simulator and on a test track. A virtual model of the test track was used in the driving simulator to keep the protocol as consistent as possible across testing environments. Results show that neither car speed nor bicycle speed directly influenced the response process. The crossing configuration did not directly influence the braking response process either, but it did influence the strategy chosen by the drivers to approach the intersection. The point in time when the bicycle became visible (which depended on the car speed, the bicycle speed, and the crossing configuration) and the crossing configuration alone had the largest effects on the driver response process. Dissimilarities between test-track and driving-simulator studies were found; however, there were also interesting similarities, especially in relation to the driver braking behaviour. Drivers followed the same strategy to initiate braking, independent of the test environment. On the other hand, the test environment affected participants' strategies for releasing the gas pedal and regulating deceleration. Finally, a mathematical model, based on both experiments

  10. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  11. Development of a test battery to identify older drivers at risk for self-reported adverse driving events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marottoli, R A; Richardson, E D; Stowe, M H; Miller, E G; Brass, L M; Cooney, L M; Tinetti, M E

    1998-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to develop a battery of tests that assessed a wide range of functional abilities relevant to driving yet could be performed in a clinician's office and (2) to determine which of these tests were most closely associated with self-reported adverse driving events. A cohort study. An urban community. Participants were drawn from the Project Safety cohort, a probability sample of noninstitutionalized older persons in New Haven, Connecticut, initiated in 1989. The current study included surviving, active drivers in the cohort (N=125). The test battery assessed visual, cognitive, and physical abilities potentially relevant to driving, and was administered in participants' homes by trained interviewers between October 1994 and July 1995. Outcome measures included the self-report of a crash, moving violation, or being stopped by police in any Project Safety interview since the inception of the cohort. Analyses compared performance on the elements of the test battery with participants' histories of adverse driving events. Of the 125 drivers, 50 (40%) had reported an adverse event in a mean period of 5.76 (+/-.25) years before the current interview. The elements of the test battery independently associated with a history of events, adjusting for driving frequency, included near visual acuity worse than 20/40 (adjusted odds ratio 11.90), limited neck rotation (OR 6.10), and poor performance on a test of visual attention, the number cancellation task (OR 3.00). The resulting regression equation yielded a sensitivity of 80%, a specificity of 55%, and an area under the curve of .75 by receiver operating characteristic analysis. These findings suggest it may be possible to identify individuals potentially at risk for self-reported adverse driving events using simple tests of functional ability. If validated, such an approach could be used to identify individuals who need a more detailed assessment of functional abilities to determine the

  12. Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humble, Travis S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.

  13. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale for screening of the drowsy driving: comparison with the maintenance of wakefulness test in an Iranian sample of commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Moller, Henry J; Saraei, Maryam; Aminian, Omid; Khajeh-Mehrizi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Traffic fatalities are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran. Occupational sleep medicine field needs more cost-effective and applicable tests for screening purposes. This study reports on a pilot screening study for drowsy drivers in an urban Iranian sample of commercial drivers. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT) measures the ability to remain awake objectively. Sleep latency in MWT is a reasonable predictor of driving simulator performance in drivers. In this study, we evaluate whether the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and MWT are equally useful in drivers with possible Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS). 46 consecutive road truck drivers in a transportation terminal entered into this study. The ESS score of patients with normal and abnormal MWT was 3.24±2.4 and 4.08±3 respectively which was not significantly differenced (P value = 0.34). No significant correlation was found between the ESS and sleep latency in MWT (r=-0.28, 95%CI= -0.58 to 0.02). By using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was found to be 0.57 (95% confidence interval = 0.37- 0.77) which is not statistically acceptable (P value=0.46). Our finding showed that the MWT and ESS do not measure the same parameter.

  14. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale for screening of the drowsy driving: comparison with the maintenance of wakefulness test in an Iranian sample of commercial drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Traffic fatalities are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran. Occupational sleep medicine field needs more cost-effective and applicable tests for screening purposes. This study reports on a pilot screening study for drowsy drivers in an urban Iranian sample of commercial drivers. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT measures the ability to remain awake objectively. Sleep latency in MWT is a reasonable predictor of driving simulator performance in drivers. In this study, we evaluate whether the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and MWT are equally useful in drivers with possible Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS. 46 consecutive road truck drivers in a transportation terminal entered into this study. The ESS score of patients with normal and abnormal MWT was 3.24±2.4 and 4.08±3 respectively which was not significantly differenced (P value = 0.34. No significant correlation was found between the ESS and sleep latency in MWT (r=-0.28, 95%CI= -0.58 to 0.02. By using the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was found to be 0.57 (95% confidence interval = 0.37- 0.77 which is not statistically acceptable (P value=0.46. Our finding showed that the MWT and ESS do not measure the same parameter.

  15. Force Limited Random Vibration Test of TESS Camera Mass Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlicek, Alexandra; Hwang, James Ho-Jin; Rey, Justin J.

    2015-01-01

    The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) is a spaceborne instrument consisting of four wide field-of-view-CCD cameras dedicated to the discovery of exoplanets around the brightest stars. As part of the environmental testing campaign, force limiting was used to simulate a realistic random vibration launch environment. While the force limit vibration test method is a standard approach used at multiple institutions including Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), it is still difficult to find an actual implementation process in the literature. This paper describes the step-by-step process on how the force limit method was developed and applied on the TESS camera mass model. The process description includes the design of special fixtures to mount the test article for properly installing force transducers, development of the force spectral density using the semi-empirical method, estimation of the fuzzy factor (C2) based on the mass ratio between the supporting structure and the test article, subsequent validating of the C2 factor during the vibration test, and calculation of the C.G. accelerations using the Root Mean Square (RMS) reaction force in the spectral domain and the peak reaction force in the time domain.

  16. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Test Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  17. Exciting New Take on a Classic: Crash Testing Activity Puts the Egg in the Driver's Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Keith

    2011-01-01

    An excellent common activity in technology and engineering classes involves dropping an egg from a significant height in a protective device designed and built by students. This article describes how the author uses the classic "egg drop" as an inspiration to have students modify a small crash test vehicle that speeds down a track and crashes into…

  18. What controls tropical forst architecture? Testing environmental, structural and floristic drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banin, L.; Feldpausch, T.R.; Philips, O.L.; Baker, T.R.; Lloyd, J.; Affum-Baffoe, K.; Arets, E.J.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To test the extent to which the vertical structure of tropical forests is determined by environment, forest structure or biogeographical history. Location Pan-tropical. Methods Using height and diameter data from 20,497 trees in 112 non-contiguous plots, asymptotic maximum height (H AM) and

  19. Relationships Among the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument, Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale, Deamonte Driver Survey, and Defining Issues Test 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Garvan, Cynthia W

    2016-03-01

    Concordance studies indicate the degree to which instruments measure the same or similar constructs or something different. The aims of this study were to identify the factor structure of the Deamonte Driver Survey and determine the relationship between the Deamonte Driver (a measure of social class stereotyping), the Defining Issues Test 2 (DIT2; a measure of ethical sensitivity), the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale (CoBRAS; a measure of racial stereotyping), and the Knowledge, Efficacy, and Practices Instrument (KEPI; a measure of cultural competence). The results showed a three-factor solution for the Deamonte Driver Survey and significant relationships between CoBRAS and DIT2 subscales and between CoBRAS and Deamonte Driver subscales. Significant relationships between the measures and exploratory variables, underrepresented minority status, age, citizenship, marital status, political stance, English as a first language, and gender were found. The lack of a significant relationship between the KEPI and Deamonte Driver, DIT2, or CoBRAS subscales suggests that the KEPI is measuring a unique construct. These findings showed how these scales contributed to the assessment of cultural competence among dental students and faculty.

  20. Long-term clinical and economic analysis of the Endeavor drug-eluting stent versus the Driver bare-metal stent: 4-year results from the ENDEAVOR II trial (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Eric L; Wijns, William; Fajadet, Jean; Mauri, Laura; Edwards, Rex; Cowper, Patricia A; Kong, David F; Anstrom, Kevin J

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate long-term clinical and economic outcomes for subjects receiving Endeavor drug-eluting versus Driver bare-metal stents (both Medtronic CardioVascular, Santa Rosa, California). Early studies found that the drug-eluting stent (DES) was a clinically and economically attractive alternative to the bare-metal stent; however, associations between DES and very late stent thrombosis suggest that longer follow-up is required. We used clinical, resource use and follow-up data from 1,197 subjects randomized to receive Endeavor (n = 598) versus Driver (n = 599) stents in ENDEAVOR II (Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of the Medtronic AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions) study with Medicare cost weights and quality of life adjustments applied from secondary sources. We compared differences through 4-year follow-up (1,440 days). Patients in both treatment groups had similar baseline characteristics. The use of Endeavor versus Driver reduced 4-year target vessel revascularization rates per 100 subjects (10.4 vs. 21.5; difference: -11.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -16.0 to -6.1; p AVE ABT-578 Eluting Driver Coronary Stent in De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions [ENDEAVOR II]; NCT00614848).

  1. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  2. Recommended Minimum Test Requirements and Test Methods for Assessing Durability of Random-Glass-Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiste, R.L.; Corum, J.M.; Ren, W.; Ruggles, M.B.

    1999-06-01

    This report provides recommended minimum test requirements are suggested test methods for establishing the durability properties and characteristics of candidate random-glass-fiber polymeric composites for automotive structural applications. The recommendations and suggestions are based on experience and results developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under a US Department of Energy Advanced Automotive Materials project entitled ''Durability of Lightweight Composite Structures,'' which is closely coordinated with the Automotive Composites Consortium. The report is intended as an aid to suppliers offering new structural composites for automotive applications and to testing organizations that are called on to characterize the composites.

  3. Generalized F test and generalized deviance test in two-way ANOVA models for randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Juan; He, Xuming

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting treatment effects in a randomized trial in the presence of an additional covariate. By reexpressing a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) model in a logistic regression framework, we derive generalized F tests and generalized deviance tests, which provide better power in detecting common location-scale changes of treatment outcomes than the classical F test. The null distributions of the test statistics are independent of the nuisance parameters in the models, so the critical values can be easily determined by Monte Carlo methods. We use simulation studies to demonstrate how the proposed tests perform compared with the classical F test. We also use data from a clinical study to illustrate possible savings in sample sizes.

  4. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan J Temeles

    Full Text Available Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants.

  5. Testing the role of the Red Queen and Court Jester as drivers of the macroevolution of Apollo butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condamine, Fabien L; Rolland, Jonathan; Höhna, Sebastian; Sperling, Felix A H; Sanmartín, Isabel

    2018-02-09

    In macroevolution, the Red Queen (RQ) model posits that biodiversity dynamics depend mainly on species-intrinsic biotic factors such as interactions among species or life-history traits, while the Court Jester (CJ) model states that extrinsic environmental abiotic factors have a stronger role. Until recently, a lack of relevant methodological approaches has prevented the unraveling of contributions from these two types of factors to the evolutionary history of a lineage. Here we take advantage of the rapid development of new macroevolution models that tie diversification rates to changes in paleoenvironmental (extrinsic) and/or biotic (intrinsic) factors. We inferred a robust and fully-sampled species-level phylogeny, as well as divergence times and ancestral geographic ranges, and related these to the radiation of Apollo butterflies (Parnassiinae) using both extant (molecular) and extinct (fossil/morphological) evidence. We tested whether their diversification dynamics are better explained by a RQ or CJ hypothesis, by assessing whether speciation and extinction were mediated by diversity-dependence (niche filling) and clade-dependent host-plant association (RQ) or by large-scale continuous changes in extrinsic factors such as climate or geology (CJ). For the RQ hypothesis, we found significant differences in speciation rates associated with different host-plants but detected no sign of diversity-dependence. For CJ, the role of Himalayan-Tibetan building was substantial for biogeography but not a driver of high speciation, while positive dependence between warm climate and speciation/extinction was supported by continuously varying maximum-likelihood models. We find that rather than a single factor, the joint effect of multiple factors (biogeography, species traits, environmental drivers, and mass extinction) is responsible for current diversity patterns, and that the same factor might act differently across clades, emphasizing the notion of opportunity. This study

  6. Blinded trials taken to the test: an analysis of randomized clinical trials that report tests for the success of blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful.......Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  7. Permutation Test Approach for Ordered Alternatives in Randomized Complete Block Design: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    GOKPINAR, Esra; GUL, Hasan; GOKPINAR, Fikri; BAYRAK, Hülya; OZONUR, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Randomized complete block design is one of the most used experimental designs in statistical analysis. For testing ordered alternatives in randomized complete block design, parametric tests are used if random sample are drawn from Normal distribution. If normality assumption is not provide, nonparametric methods are used. In this study, we are interested nonparametric tests and we introduce briefly the nonparametric tests, such as Page, Modified Page and Hollander tests. We also give Permutat...

  8. Probabilistic approach for validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gietelink, O.J.; Schutter, B. de; Verhaegen, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a methodological approach for validation of advanced driver assistance systems. The methodology relies on the use of randomized algorithms that are more efficient than conventional validation that uses simulations and field tests, especially with increasing complexity of the

  9. Rigorously testing multialternative decision field theory against random utility models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitsch, Nicolas A J; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; Rieskamp, Jörg

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive models of decision making aim to explain the process underlying observed choices. Here, we test a sequential sampling model of decision making, multialternative decision field theory (MDFT; Roe, Busemeyer, & Townsend, 2001), on empirical grounds and compare it against 2 established random utility models of choice: the probit and the logit model. Using a within-subject experimental design, participants in 2 studies repeatedly choose among sets of options (consumer products) described on several attributes. The results of Study 1 showed that all models predicted participants' choices equally well. In Study 2, in which the choice sets were explicitly designed to distinguish the models, MDFT had an advantage in predicting the observed choices. Study 2 further revealed the occurrence of multiple context effects within single participants, indicating an interdependent evaluation of choice options and correlations between different context effects. In sum, the results indicate that sequential sampling models can provide relevant insights into the cognitive process underlying preferential choices and thus can lead to better choice predictions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Driver circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Raymond T. (Inventor); Higashi, Stanley T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A driver circuit which has low power requirements, a relatively small number of components and provides flexibility in output voltage setting. The driver circuit comprises, essentially, two portions which are selectively activated by the application of input signals. The output signal is determined by which of the two circuit portions is activated. While each of the two circuit portions operates in a manner similar to silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR), the circuit portions are on only when an input signal is supplied thereto.

  11. Empirical assessment of loyalty drivers using consumers’ retail format choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindi, A.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Stimulus–Organism–Response (S-O-R framework, this study examines Stimulus– Response relationships of fresh vegetable consumers’ behavior in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In particular, the study focused on how loyalty drivers affect retail formats choice by the fresh vegetable (FV consumers. The Stimuli that pertain to loyalty drivers include promotional activities, perceived price and social interaction and the Response is the retail format choice. Three hypotheses were developed and tested with the data collected from a survey using simple random sampling technique. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in analyzing the data. Results of the study revealed that Stimuli (loyalty drivers influence Response (retail format choice for the different FV markets in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the research, Malaysian retailers have different marketing strategies to be considered with regards to loyalty drivers.

  12. Experimental Design and Validation of an Accelerated Random Vibration Fatigue Testing Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jiang(Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province 321004, China); Gun Jin Yun; Li Zhao; Junyong Tao

    2015-01-01

    Novel accelerated random vibration fatigue test methodology and strategy are proposed, which can generate a design of the experimental test plan significantly reducing the test time and the sample size. Based on theoretical analysis and fatigue damage model, several groups of random vibration fatigue tests were designed and conducted with the aim of investigating effects of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitation on the vibration fatigue. First, stress responses at a weak point of a ...

  13. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Wearing a seat belt has been shown effective in avoiding : or reducing serious injury due to traffic crashes. While : belt use rates in the United States increased from under : 60% in 1994 to 83% in 2008, a substantial number of drivers : still drive...

  14. Review of research to inform the development of a hazard perception test for novice drivers in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, Karien

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available are developed and improved over time. South African research shows that locally novice drivers are also over represented in crash statistics. However little evidence as to why is available. This review provides an overview and synthesis of available...

  15. Roadside opioid testing of drivers using oral fluid: the case of a country with a zero tolerance law, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Inmaculada; Colás, Mónica; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Álvarez, F Javier

    2017-05-10

    Opioids can impair psychomotor performance, and driving under the influence of opioids is associated with an increased risk of accidents. The goals of this study were i) to determine the prevalence of opioids (heroin, morphine, codeine, methadone and tramadol) in Spanish drivers and ii) to explore the presence of opioids, more specifically whether they are used alone or in combination with other drugs. The 2008/9 DRUID database regarding Spain was used, which provided information on 3302 drivers. All drivers included in the study provided a saliva sample and mass-chromatographic analyses were carried out in all cases. To determine the prevalence, the sample was weighted according to traffic intensity. In the case of opioid use combinations, the sample was not weighted. The detection limit for each substance was considered a positive result. The prevalence of opioids in Spanish drivers was 1.8% (95% CI, 1.4-2.3). Polydrug detection was common (56.2%): of these, in two out of three cases, two opioids were detected and cocaine was also detected in 86% of the cases. The concentration (median [Q1-Q3] ng/ml) of the substances was low: methadone 1.71 [0.10-15.30], codeine 40.55 [2.10-120.77], 6-acetylmorphine 5.71 [1.53-84.05], and morphine 37.40 [2.84-200.00]. Morphine was always detected with 6-acetylmorphine (heroin use). Driving under the influence of opioids is relatively infrequent, but polydrug use is common. Our study shows that 6 out of 10 drivers with methadone in their OF (likely in methadone maintenance programs) are using other substances. This should be taken into account by health professionals in order to properly inform patients about the added risks of mixing substances when driving.

  16. Evaluating driver drowsiness countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S

    2017-05-29

    Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and nonfatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This article describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-min simulated nighttime drive at 2 time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. Forty-eight drivers were exposed to one of 6 countermeasures that varied along 2 dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. Twenty-four drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multistage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete alerts, particularly

  17. Assessing trends in rainfall and its remote drivers in climate change projections: the difficult test case of Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, Michael; Corney, Stuart; Bennett, James; White, Chris; Holz, Greg; Bindoff, Nathan

    2010-05-01

    Tasmania is a challenging and rigorous test case for studies attempting to understand and project changes to rainfall. Tasmania is the island to the southeast of Australia, positioned in the roaring 40s of the Southern Ocean with a temperate maritime climate. Tasmania is topographically complex featuring rugged mountain ranges, a high plateau and lowland plains. Tasmanian rainfall distribution and variability is spatially complex, varying from high rainfall (>3000 mm) in a strong seasonal cycle near the west coast, to low rainfall (~600 mm) with no seasonal cycle on the east coast. A complex suite of large-scale climatic features drives rainfall in Tasmania. The effects of these drivers vary with location and season. Global-scale modelling indicates that Tasmania lies on the boundary between zones of increasing and decreasing rainfall into the future. We have produced fine-scale (~10 km) model projections of Tasmanian climate to 2100 that retain global-scale features present in global climate models using a process of dynamical downscaling. We use these model projections to examine changes to rainfall in Tasmania to 2100. Whilst annual rainfall for the whole state shows no marked changes to 2100 in the projections, changes for the regional districts and for the four seasons are much larger. These changes include a steady decrease in rainfall in the highlands, an increase in summer and autumn rain on the east coast and a significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in the west coast region after 2050. The use of fine-scale dynamical downscaling modelling allows us to examine projected changes at individual districts within the state, and examine the relevant mechanisms involved at all spatial scales. This includes processes at the hemispheric scale relevant to the region, such as dominant pressure patterns, Hadley Circulation, and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). It also includes processes at the regional scale such as atmospheric blocking, significant synoptic

  18. Randomized trial testing the effect of peer education at increasing fruit and vegetable intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buller, D B; Morrill, C; Taren, D; Aickin, M; Sennott-Miller, L; Buller, M K; Larkey, L; Alatorre, C; Wentzel, T M

    1999-01-01

    .... In a randomized trial, peer education was tested for effectiveness at increasing fruit and vegetable intake among lower socioeconomic, multicultural labor and trades employees. Employees (n = 2091...

  19. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA tests (RAPDs) cannot be ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The three South African crane species — the Blue Crane (Anthropoides paradisea), the Wattled Crane (Bugeranus carunculatus) and the Grey Crowned Crane (Balearica regulorum regulorum) — are listed as threatened by the IUCN. This study investigated the suitability of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers in ...

  20. Driver decision-making in the dilemma zone - Examining the influences of clearance intervals, enforcement cameras and the provision of advance warning through a panel data random parameters probit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Peter T; Sharma, Anuj; Gates, Timothy J

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, there have been a series of innovations in the field of vehicle detection at intersection approaches. Modern radar-based smart sensors make it possible to track individual vehicles in close proximity to an intersection. These advancements in technology potentially enable the provision of vehicle- and site-specific decision dilemma zone protection at the onset of the yellow indication at signalized intersections. To exploit this opportunity, it is critical to develop an in-depth understanding of those factors influencing a driver's decision to stop or go at the onset of yellow. This study investigates how signal timing strategies such as yellow interval durations, all-red clearance intervals, advance warning flashers, and automated camera enforcement affect driver decision-making. Data from 87 intersection approaches across five regions of the United States are used to develop a series of decision (i.e., probability of stopping) curves using vehicle trajectory and signal phasing data. A panel data random parameters probit model is used to account for heterogeneity across locations, as well as correlation in driver decision-making, due to unobserved factors that are unique to each signalized intersection. The results demonstrate drivers are more likely to stop at locations where enforcement cameras or flashers are present. Stopping was also more prevalent at intersections with lower speed limits, longer crossing distances, and where pedestrian crosswalks were present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. On random field Completely Automated Public Turing Test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouritzin, Michael A; Newton, Fraser; Wu, Biao

    2013-04-01

    Herein, we propose generating CAPTCHAs through random field simulation and give a novel, effective and efficient algorithm to do so. Indeed, we demonstrate that sufficient information about word tests for easy human recognition is contained in the site marginal probabilities and the site-to-nearby-site covariances and that these quantities can be embedded directly into certain conditional probabilities, designed for effective simulation. The CAPTCHAs are then partial random realizations of the random CAPTCHA word. We start with an initial random field (e.g., randomly scattered letter pieces) and use Gibbs resampling to re-simulate portions of the field repeatedly using these conditional probabilities until the word becomes human-readable. The residual randomness from the initial random field together with the random implementation of the CAPTCHA word provide significant resistance to attack. This results in a CAPTCHA, which is unrecognizable to modern optical character recognition but is recognized about 95% of the time in a human readability study.

  2. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant C2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijker, Jacob J; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria; de Boer, Andries

    2015-01-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load),

  3. Cultural values and random breath tests as moderators of the social influence on drunk driving in 15 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestac, Julien; Kraïem, Sami; Assailly, Jean-Pascal

    2016-02-01

    The social influence on drunk driving has been previously observed in several countries. It is noteworthy, however, that the prevalence of alcohol in road fatalities is not the same in all countries. The present study aimed to explore whether cultural values and the number of roadside breath tests moderate the link between the perceived drunk driving of one's peers and self-reported behavior. Based on the European survey SARTRE 4, the responses of 10,023 car drivers from 15 countries were analyzed. Two cultural values, "tradition" and "conformism," were identified as possibly being linked to social influence. Country scores for these values were taken from the European Social Survey. The number of random roadside breath tests per inhabitant was used as an indicator of drunk-driving enforcement in each country. A hierarchical multilevel modeling analysis confirmed the link between friends' drunk driving and one's own drunk driving in all countries, but the strength of the link was much stronger in some countries (e.g., Italy, Cyprus, and Israel) than in others (e.g., Finland, Estonia, and Sweden). Both the measured value of "tradition" and the number of alcohol breath tests were found to moderate the link between friends' and one's own drunk driving. European stakeholders should take into account cultural specificities of target countries when designing campaigns against drunk driving. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. An Ultra-light PRNG Passing Strict Randomness Tests and Suitable for Low Cost Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OZCANHAN, M. H.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo-random number generator for low-cost RFID tags is presented. The scheme is simple, sequential and secure, yet has a high performance. Despite its lowest hardware complexity, our proposal represents a better alternative than previous proposals for low-cost tags. The scheme is based on the well-founded pseudo random number generator, Mersenne Twister. The proposed generator takes low-entropy seeds extracted from a physical characteristic of the tag and produces outputs that pass popular randomness tests. Contrarily, previous proposal tests are based on random number inputs from a popular online source, which are simply unavailable to tags. The high performance and satisfactory randomness of present work are supported by extensive test results and compared with similar previous works. Comparison using proven estimation formulae indicates that our proposal has the best hardware complexity, power consumption, and the least cost.

  5. A randomized trial to evaluate the effectiveness of an individual, education-based safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keay Lisa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are concerns over safety of older drivers due to increased crash involvement and vulnerability to injury. However, loss of driving privileges can dramatically reduce independence and quality of life for older members of the community. The aim of this trial is to examine the effectiveness of a safe transport program for drivers aged 75 years and older at reducing driving exposure but maintaining mobility. Methods and design A randomised trial will be conducted, involving 380 drivers aged 75 years and older, resident in urban and semi-rural areas of North-West Sydney. The intervention is an education program based on the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety (KEYS program, adapted for the Australian context. Driving experience will be measured objectively using an in-vehicle monitoring device which includes a global positioning system (GPS to assess driving exposure and an accelerometer to detect rapid deceleration events. Participation will be assessed using the Keele Assessment of Participation (KAP. Data will be analysed on an intention-to-treat basis; the primary outcomes include driving exposure, rapid deceleration events and scores for KAP. Secondary outcomes include self-reported measures of driving, socialisation, uptake of alternative forms of transport, depressive symptoms and mood. A detailed process evaluation will be conducted, including examination of the delivery of the program and uptake of alternative forms of transport. A subgroup analysis is planned for drivers with reduced function as characterized by established cut-off scores on the Drivesafe assessment tool. Discussion This randomised trial is powered to provide an objective assessment of the efficacy of an individually tailored education and alternative transportation program to promote safety of older drivers but maintain mobility. Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000543886.

  6. Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle production data in South Africa: Creating the framework. EF Dzomba, KA Nephawe, AN Maiwashe, SWP Cloete, M Chimonyo, CB Banga, CJC Muller, K Dzama ...

  7. T3, a Combinator-based Random Testing Tool for Java: Benchmarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prasetya, I.S.W.B.

    2014-01-01

    T3 is the next generation of the light weight automated testing tool T2 for Java. In the heart T3 is still a random testing tool; but it now comes with some new features: pair-wise testing, concurrent generators, and a combinator-based approach ala QuickCheck. This paper presents the result of

  8. A generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in randomized blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cabilio, Paul

    2013-05-10

    Focusing on statistical methods in patient-reported outcomes, we propose and develop a generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in a randomized block design. We derive its asymptotic null distribution properties and describe methods for estimating the null distribution for testing the hypothesis. We present a numerical example to illustrate the test procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Random Testing and Model Checking: Building a Common Framework for Nondeterministic Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Alex; Joshi, Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Two popular forms of dynamic analysis, random testing and explicit-state software model checking, are perhaps best viewed as search strategies for exploring the state spaces introduced by nondeterminism in program inputs. We present an approach that enables this nondeterminism to be expressed in the SPIN model checker's PROMELA language, and then lets users generate either model checkers or random testers from a single harness for a tested C program. Our approach makes it easy to compare model checking and random testing for models with precisely the same input ranges and probabilities and allows us to mix random testing with model checking's exhaustive exploration of non-determinism. The PROMELA language, as intended in its design, serves as a convenient notation for expressing nondeterminism and mixing random choices with nondeterministic choices. We present and discuss a comparison of random testing and model checking. The results derive from using our framework to test a C program with an effectively infinite state space, a module in JPL's next Mars rover mission. More generally, we show how the ability of the SPIN model checker to call C code can be used to extend SPIN's features, and hope to inspire others to use the same methods to implement dynamic analyses that can make use of efficient state storage, matching, and backtracking.

  10. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain......This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  11. Ambient Modal Testing of the Vestvej Bridge using Random Decrement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune; Rytter, A.

    1998-01-01

    concerning application of vibration based inspection of bridges. The data analysis process of ambient vribration testing of bridges has traditionally been based on auto and cross spectral densities estimated using an FFT algorithm. In the pre-analysis state the spectral densities are all averaged to obtain......This paper presents an ambient vibration study of the Vestvej Bridge. The bridge is a typically Danish two-span concrete bridge which crosses a highway. The purpose of the study is to perform a pre-investigation of the dynamic behavior to obtain information for the design of a demonstration project...... the averaged spectral densities(ASD). From the ASD the eigenfrequencies of the structure can be identified. This information can be used in the main analysis, where alle modal parameters are extracted from the spectral densities. Due to long cabling and low response levels (small ambient loads) the response...

  12. Comparing entropy with tests for randomness as a measure of complexity in time series

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Chee Chun

    2015-01-01

    Entropy measures have become increasingly popular as an evaluation metric for complexity in the analysis of time series data, especially in physiology and medicine. Entropy measures the rate of information gain, or degree of regularity in a time series e.g. heartbeat. Ideally, entropy should be able to quantify the complexity of any underlying structure in the series, as well as determine if the variation arises from a random process. Unfortunately current entropy measures mostly are unable to perform the latter differentiation. Thus, a high entropy score indicates a random or chaotic series, whereas a low score indicates a high degree of regularity. This leads to the observation that current entropy measures are equivalent to evaluating how random a series is, or conversely the degree of regularity in a time series. This raises the possibility that existing tests for randomness, such as the runs test or permutation test, may have similar utility in diagnosing certain conditions. This paper compares various t...

  13. A test for stationarity of spatio-temporal random fields on planar and spherical domains

    KAUST Repository

    Jun, Mikyoung

    2012-01-01

    A formal test for weak stationarity of spatial and spatio-temporal random fields is proposed. We consider the cases where the spatial domain is planar or spherical, and we do not require distributional assumptions for the random fields. The method can be applied to univariate or to multivariate random fields. Our test is based on the asymptotic normality of certain statistics that are functions of estimators of covariances at certain spatial and temporal lags under weak stationarity. Simulation results for spatial as well as spatio-temporal cases on the two types of spatial domains are reported. We describe the results of testing the stationarity of Pacific wind data, and of testing the axial symmetry of climate model errors for surface temperature using the NOAA GFDL model outputs and the observations from the Climate Research Unit in East Anglia and the Hadley Centre.

  14. Strain, Attribution, and Traffic Delinquency among Young Drivers: Measuring and Testing General Strain Theory in the Context of Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwanger, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article enhances our knowledge of general strain theory (GST) by applying it to the context of traffic delinquency. It does so by first describing and confirming the development of a social-psychological measure allowing for a test of GST. Structural regression analysis is subsequently employed to test the theory within this context across a…

  15. Monte Carlo randomization tests for large-scale abundance datasets on the GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemert, John L; Dickerson, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    Statistical tests are often performed to discover which experimental variables are reacting to specific treatments. Time-series statistical models usually require the researcher to make assumptions with respect to the distribution of measured responses which may not hold. Randomization tests can be applied to data in order to generate null distributions non-parametrically. However, large numbers of randomizations are required for the precise p-values needed to control false discovery rates. When testing tens of thousands of variables (genes, chemical compounds, or otherwise), significant q-value cutoffs can be extremely small (on the order of 10(-5) to 10(-8)). This requires high-precision p-values, which in turn require large numbers of randomizations. The NVIDIA(®) Compute Unified Device Architecture(®) (CUDA(®)) platform for General Programming on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) was used to implement an application which performs high-precision randomization tests via Monte Carlo sampling for quickly screening custom test statistics for experiments with large numbers of variables, such as microarrays, Next-Generation sequencing read counts, chromatographical signals, or other abundance measurements. The software has been shown to achieve up to more than 12 fold speedup on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) when compared to a powerful Central Processing Unit (CPU). The main limitation is concurrent random access of shared memory on the GPU. The software is available from the authors. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  17. Driver Education Saves Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Automobile Association, Falls Church, VA. Traffic Engineering and Safety Dept.

    The argument that driver education should be dropped because driver education cars use gas is shortsighted. High school driver education is an excellent vehicle for teaching concepts of energy conservation. A small investment in fuel now can result in major savings of gasoline over a student's lifetime. In addition good driver education courses…

  18. A Procedure for Accurately Measuring the Shaker Overturning Moment During Random Vibration Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayeri, Reza D.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: For large system level random vibration tests, there may be some concerns about the shaker's capability for the overturning moment. It is the test conductor's responsibility to predict and monitor the overturning moment during random vibration tests. If the predicted moment is close to the shaker's capability, test conductor must measure the instantaneous moment at low levels and extrapolate to higher levels. That data will be used to decide whether it is safe to proceed to the next test level. Challenge: Kistler analog formulation for computing the real-time moment is only applicable to very limited cases in which we have 3 or 4 load cells installed at shaker interface with hardware. Approach: To overcome that limitation, a simple procedure was developed for computing the overturning moment time histories using the measured time histories of the individual load cells.

  19. A new compound control method for sine-on-random mixed vibration test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Buyun; Wang, Ruochen; Zeng, Falin

    2017-09-01

    Vibration environmental test (VET) is one of the important and effective methods to provide supports for the strength design, reliability and durability test of mechanical products. A new separation control strategy was proposed to apply in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) sine on random (SOR) mixed mode vibration test, which is the advanced and intensive test type of VET. As the key problem of the strategy, correlation integral method was applied to separate the mixed signals which included random and sinusoidal components. The feedback control formula of MIMO linear random vibration system was systematically deduced in frequency domain, and Jacobi control algorithm was proposed in view of the elements, such as self-spectrum, coherence, and phase of power spectral density (PSD) matrix. Based on the excessive correction of excitation in sine vibration test, compression factor was introduced to reduce the excitation correction, avoiding the destruction to vibration table or other devices. The two methods were synthesized to be applied in MIMO SOR vibration test system. In the final, verification test system with the vibration of a cantilever beam as the control object was established to verify the reliability and effectiveness of the methods proposed in the paper. The test results show that the exceeding values can be controlled in the tolerance range of references accurately, and the method can supply theory and application supports for mechanical engineering.

  20. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  1. Testing of hypothesis of two-dimensional random variables independence on the basis of algorithm of pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapko, A. V.; Lapko, V. A.; Yuronen, E. A.

    2016-11-01

    The new technique of testing of hypothesis of random variables independence is offered. Its basis is made by nonparametric algorithm of pattern recognition. The considered technique doesn't demand sampling of area of values of random variables.

  2. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium testing of biological ascertainment for Mendelian randomization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Santiago; Gaunt, Tom R; Day, Ian N M

    2009-02-15

    Mendelian randomization (MR) permits causal inference between exposures and a disease. It can be compared with randomized controlled trials. Whereas in a randomized controlled trial the randomization occurs at entry into the trial, in MR the randomization occurs during gamete formation and conception. Several factors, including time since conception and sampling variation, are relevant to the interpretation of an MR test. Particularly important is consideration of the "missingness" of genotypes that can be originated by chance, genotyping errors, or clinical ascertainment. Testing for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is a genetic approach that permits evaluation of missingness. In this paper, the authors demonstrate evidence of nonconformity with HWE in real data. They also perform simulations to characterize the sensitivity of HWE tests to missingness. Unresolved missingness could lead to a false rejection of causality in an MR investigation of trait-disease association. These results indicate that large-scale studies, very high quality genotyping data, and detailed knowledge of the life-course genetics of the alleles/genotypes studied will largely mitigate this risk. The authors also present a Web program (http://www.oege.org/software/hwe-mr-calc.shtml) for estimating possible missingness and an approach to evaluating missingness under different genetic models.

  3. AN INTELLIGENT CO-DRIVER SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Rothkrantz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years many car manufacturers developed digital co-drivers , which are able to monitor the driving behaviour of a car. Sensors in the car measure if a car passes speed limits, leaves its lane, or violates other traffic rules. A new generation of co-drivers is based on sensors in the car which are able to monitor the driver behaviour. Driving a car is a sequence of actions. In case a driver doesn’t show one of the actions the co-driver generates a warning signal. Experiments in the car simulator TORC were performed to extract the actions of a car driver. These actions were used to develop probabilistic models of the driving behaviour. A prototype of a warning system has been developed and tested in the car simulator. The experiments and test results will be reported in this paper.

  4. Bilastine safety in drivers who need antihistamines: new evidence from high-speed simulator driving test on allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonte, A; Guanti, M B; Liberati, S; Biffi, A; Fernando, F; Fainello, M; Pepe, P

    2018-02-01

    Bilastine is a highly selective, non-sedating antihistamine, indicated for the symptomatic treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria. Available data suggest that bilastine interferes neither with driving ability nor with flying-related performance. However, no data are available on the effect of bilastine on the driving ability in extreme conditions. Here we analyzed the effect of 7 days treatment with 20 mg bilastine in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or chronic urticaria, on psychophysical performance assessed by the Formula One (F1) high-speed simulator-driving test. This study is a phase IV, interventional, prospective, mono-centric, single arm, open-label trial. Eighteen outpatients affected by allergic rhinitis and/or chronic urticaria, able to perform a preliminary driving test on F1 simulator were considered (V-1). First, the patients had a screening visit to assess their eligibility (V0). Visit 1 (V1), at the end of placebo before bilastine treatment and Visit 2 (V2), at the end of bilastine treatment. The primary variable parameter was the ability to maintain the vehicle in a central position at different speeds (50, 150, and 250 km/h). Bilastine had a good safety profile and was well tolerated in terms of adverse events, laboratory parameters and vital signs. Bilastine did not have any negative effect on the ability to maintain the requested path, a constant speed as well as on attention and reactivity levels, even in extreme driving conditions. This study is the first done in patients with allergic rhinitis and/or chronic urticaria using a F1-high speed simulator-driving test evaluating subjects' performance under bilastine treatment.

  5. Genetic susceptibility testing and readiness to control weight: Results from a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meisel, S.F.; Beeken, R.J.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that adding obesity gene feedback (FTO) to simple weight control advice at a life stage with raised risk of weight gain (university) increases readiness to control weight. METHODS: Individually randomized controlled trial comparing the effect of: (i) simple weight

  6. A Mixture Proportional Hazards Model with Random Effects for Response Times in Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranger, Jochen; Kuhn, Jörg-Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a new model for test response times is proposed that combines latent class analysis and the proportional hazards model with random effects in a similar vein as the mixture factor model. The model assumes the existence of different latent classes. In each latent class, the response times are distributed according to a…

  7. Do exchange rates follow random walks? A variance ratio test of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa have received little attention in this regard. This study applies Lo and MacKinlay's (1988) conventional variance ... Both types of variance ratio tests reject the random-walk hypothesis over the data span. The implication is that technical and fundamental analysis can help ...

  8. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  9. A Randomization Test for Controlling Population Stratification in Whole-Genome Association Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmel, Gad; Jordan, Michael I.; Halperin, Eran; Shamir, Ron; Karp, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    Population stratification can be a serious obstacle in the analysis of genomewide association studies. We propose a method for evaluating the significance of association scores in whole-genome cohorts with stratification. Our approach is a randomization test akin to a standard permutation test. It conditions on the genotype matrix and thus takes into account not only the population structure but also the complex linkage disequilibrium structure of the genome. As we show in simulation experime...

  10. Driver Anger Scale (DAS Among Car Drivers: How Serious Are They?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambak Kamarudin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, anger while driving on the road is a crucial issue in Malaysia. The anger of driver may lead to traffic crashes. Road accident issue is an important agenda in every country. Driver behaviour and attitude such as impatience, hasty and hot-tempered on the road has become one of the causes in road accidents. Uncontrolled anger will affect the behavior of oneself during driving and could cause an individual to display aggressive attitude. Therefore, this study is aimed to identify contributing factor in anger of drivers and evaluate the Driver Anger Scale (DAS in Batu Pahat, Johor. In addition, this study also analyzes the relationship between driver anger and the factor of DAS. Cross sectional study method was conducted in this study by distributing 250 questionnaires to car drivers. The data collectied was analyzed by descriptive, chi-square test, correlation and regression analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0. The findings show that the discourtesy was reported as the most dominant factor contributing to driver anger. As a recommendation, to overcome driver anger issue, the authorities should prepare an action plan, promote and nurture public to practice good driving behaviour. Moreover, curriculum and driver training lesson should be improved to create better attitude among drivers. Drivers also should change their driving attitude by becoming safe drivers and exhibiting defensive driving skills on the road.

  11. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of January 1, 2014, Through December 31, 2014 AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  12. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of January 1, 2013, Through December 31, 2013 AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  13. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... testing rate is based on the reported random drug test positive rate for the entire aviation industry. If... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of January 1, 2012, Through December 31, 2012 AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  14. Stratified exact tests for the weak causal null hypothesis in randomized trials with a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Yasutaka

    2017-09-01

    Fisher's exact test is commonly used to compare two groups when the outcome is binary in randomized trials. In the context of causal inference, this test explores the sharp causal null hypothesis (i.e. the causal effect of treatment is the same for all subjects), but not the weak causal null hypothesis (i.e. the causal risks are the same in the two groups). Therefore, in general, rejection of the null hypothesis by Fisher's exact test does not mean that the causal risk difference is not zero. Recently, Chiba (Journal of Biometrics and Biostatistics 2015; 6: 244) developed a new exact test for the weak causal null hypothesis when the outcome is binary in randomized trials; the new test is not based on any large sample theory and does not require any assumption. In this paper, we extend the new test; we create a version of the test applicable to a stratified analysis. The stratified exact test that we propose is general in nature and can be used in several approaches toward the estimation of treatment effects after adjusting for stratification factors. The stratified Fisher's exact test of Jung (Biometrical Journal 2014; 56: 129-140) tests the sharp causal null hypothesis. This test applies a crude estimator of the treatment effect and can be regarded as a special case of our proposed exact test. Our proposed stratified exact test can be straightforwardly extended to analysis of noninferiority trials and to construct the associated confidence interval. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. The effect of a test ordering software intervention on the prescription of unnecessary laboratory tests - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carlos Manuel Silva; da Costa Teixeira, Andreia Sofia; de Azevedo, Luís Filipe Ribeiro; Sá, Luísa Maria Barbosa; Santos, Paulo Alexandre Azevedo Pereira; do Couto, Maria Luciana Gomes Domingues; da Costa Pereira, Altamiro Manuel Rodrigues; Hespanhol, Alberto Augusto Oliveira Pinto; da Costa Santos, Cristina Maria Nogueira

    2017-02-20

    The way software for electronic health records and laboratory tests ordering systems are designed may influence physicians' prescription. A randomised controlled trial was performed to measure the impact of a diagnostic and laboratory tests ordering system software modification. Participants were family physicians working and prescribing diagnostic and laboratory tests. The intervention group had a modified software with a basic shortcut menu changes, where some tests were withdrawn or added, and with the implementation of an evidence-based decision support based on United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendations. This intervention group was compared with usual software (control group). The outcomes were the number of tests prescribed from those: withdrawn from the basic menu; added to the basic menu; marked with green dots (USPSTF's grade A and B); and marked with red dots (USPSTF's grade D). Comparing the monthly average number of tests prescribed before and after the software modification, from those tests that were withdrawn from the basic menu, the control group prescribed 33.8 tests per 100 consultations before and 30.8 after (p = 0075); the intervention group prescribed 31.3 before and 13.9 after (p menu, the intervention group prescribed a monthly average of 14.0 vs. 29.3 tests per 100 consultations in the control group (p menu of the diagnosis and laboratory tests ordering system had a significant impact and reduced unnecessary prescription of tests. The fact that it was not possible to perform the randomization at the family physicians' level, but only of the computer servers is a limitation of our study. Future research should assess the impact of different tests ordering systems during longer periods. ISRCTN45427977 , May 1st 2014 (retrospectively registered).

  16. Statistical auditing and randomness test of lotto k/N-type games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Rapallo, F.; Scalas, E.

    2008-11-01

    One of the most popular lottery games worldwide is the so-called “lotto k/N”. It considers N numbers 1,2,…,N from which k are drawn randomly, without replacement. A player selects k or more numbers and the first prize is shared amongst those players whose selected numbers match all of the k randomly drawn. Exact rules may vary in different countries. In this paper, mean values and covariances for the random variables representing the numbers drawn from this kind of game are presented, with the aim of using them to audit statistically the consistency of a given sample of historical results with theoretical values coming from a hypergeometric statistical model. The method can be adapted to test pseudorandom number generators.

  17. Analisis Teoritis dan Empiris Uji Craps dari Diehard Battery of Randomness Test untuk Pengujian Pembangkit Bilangan Acaksemu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Agustini Hafman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Kerchoffs (1883, the security system should only rely on cryptographic keys which is used in that system. Generally, the key sequences are generated by a Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG or Random Number Generator (RNG. There are three types of randomness sequences that generated by the RNG and PRNG i.e. pseudorandom sequence, cryptographically secure pseudorandom sequences, and real random sequences. Several statistical tests, including diehard battery of tests of randomness, is used to check the type of randomness sequences that generated by PRNG or RNG. Due to its purpose, the principle on taking the testing parameters and the test statistic are associated with the validity of the conclusion produced by a statistical test, then the theoretical analysis is performed by applying a variety of statistical theory to evaluate craps test, one of the test included in the diehard battery of randomness tests. Craps test, inspired by craps game, aims to examine whether a PRNG produces an independent and identically distributed (iid pseudorandom sequences. To demonstrate the process to produce a test statistics equation and to show how craps games applied on that test, will be carried out theoretical analysis by applying a variety of statistical theory. Furthermore, empirical observations will be done by applying craps test on a PRNG in order to check the test effectiveness in detecting the distribution and independency of sequences which produced by PRNG

  18. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  19. Characterization of Electron Microscopes with Binary Pseudo-random Multilayer Test Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Yashchuk; R Conley; E Anderson; S Barber; N Bouet; W McKinney; P Takacs; D Voronov

    2011-12-31

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1] and [2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V., E-mail: VVYashchuk@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Conley, Raymond [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Anderson, Erik H. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barber, Samuel K. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bouet, Nathalie [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McKinney, Wayne R. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Takacs, Peter Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Voronov, Dmitriy L. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi{sub 2}/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  1. A Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization for 2-sided hypothesis test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Han

    2017-11-01

    Bayesian sequential and adaptive randomization designs are gaining popularity in clinical trials thanks to their potentials to reduce the number of required participants and save resources. We propose a Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization rates so as to more efficiently attribute newly recruited patients to different treatment arms. In this paper, we consider 2-arm clinical trials. Patients are allocated to the 2 arms with a randomization rate to achieve minimum variance for the test statistic. Algorithms are presented to calculate the optimal randomization rate, critical values, and power for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the influence on design by changing the prior distributions. Simulation studies are applied to compare the proposed method and traditional methods in terms of power and actual sample sizes. Simulations show that, when total sample size is fixed, the proposed design can obtain greater power and/or cost smaller actual sample size than the traditional Bayesian sequential design. Finally, we apply the proposed method to a real data set and compare the results with the Bayesian sequential design without adaptive randomization in terms of sample sizes. The proposed method can further reduce required sample size. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Crowdsourcing HIV Test Promotion Videos: A Noninferiority Randomized Controlled Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weiming; Han, Larry; Best, John; Zhang, Ye; Mollan, Katie; Kim, Julie; Liu, Fengying; Hudgens, Michael; Bayus, Barry; Terris-Prestholt, Fern; Galler, Sam; Yang, Ligang; Peeling, Rosanna; Volberding, Paul; Ma, Baoli; Xu, Huifang; Yang, Bin; Huang, Shujie; Fenton, Kevin; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2016-06-01

    Crowdsourcing, the process of shifting individual tasks to a large group, may enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing interventions. We conducted a noninferiority, randomized controlled trial to compare first-time HIV testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals who received a crowdsourced or a health marketing HIV test promotion video. Seven hundred twenty-one MSM and transgender participants (≥16 years old, never before tested for HIV) were recruited through 3 Chinese MSM Web portals and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 videos. The crowdsourced video was developed using an open contest and formal transparent judging while the evidence-based health marketing video was designed by experts. Study objectives were to measure HIV test uptake within 3 weeks of watching either HIV test promotion video and cost per new HIV test and diagnosis. Overall, 624 of 721 (87%) participants from 31 provinces in 217 Chinese cities completed the study. HIV test uptake was similar between the crowdsourced arm (37% [114/307]) and the health marketing arm (35% [111/317]). The estimated difference between the interventions was 2.1% (95% confidence interval, -5.4% to 9.7%). Among those tested, 31% (69/225) reported a new HIV diagnosis. The crowdsourced intervention cost substantially less than the health marketing intervention per first-time HIV test (US$131 vs US$238 per person) and per new HIV diagnosis (US$415 vs US$799 per person). Our nationwide study demonstrates that crowdsourcing may be an effective tool for improving HIV testing messaging campaigns and could increase community engagement in health campaigns. NCT02248558. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Adaptive testing for association between two random vectors in moderate to high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Gongjun; Pan, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Testing for association between two random vectors is a common and important task in many fields, however, existing tests, such as Escoufier's RV test, are suitable only for low-dimensional data, not for high-dimensional data. In moderate to high dimensions, it is necessary to consider sparse signals, which are often expected with only a few, but not many, variables associated with each other. We generalize the RV test to moderate-to-high dimensions. The key idea is to data adaptively weight each variable pair based on its empirical association. As the consequence, the proposed test is adaptive, alleviating the effects of noise accumulation in high-dimensional data, and thus maintaining the power for both dense and sparse alternative hypotheses. We show the connections between the proposed test with several existing tests, such as a generalized estimating equations-based adaptive test, multivariate kernel machine regression (KMR), and kernel distance methods. Furthermore, we modify the proposed adaptive test so that it can be powerful for nonlinear or nonmonotonic associations. We use both real data and simulated data to demonstrate the advantages and usefulness of the proposed new test. The new test is freely available in R package aSPC on CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/aSPC/index.html and https://github.com/jasonzyx/aSPC. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Comparison of visual status of Iranian military and commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Mohammad; Hoseini Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Rezaee, Maryam

    2015-04-01

    There is no legal requirement for Iranian military truck drivers to undergo regular visual checkups as compared to commercial truck drivers. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of drivers' visual checkups by comparing the visual function of Iranian military and commercial truck drivers. In this comparative cross-sectional study, two hundred military and 200 commercial truck drivers were recruited and their Visual Acuity (VA), Visual Field (VF), color vision and Contrast Sensitivity (CS) were assessed and compared using the Snellen chart, confrontation screening method, D15 test and Pelli-Robson letter chart, respectively. A questionnaire regarding driving exposure and history of motor-vehicle crashes (MVCs) was also filled by drivers. Results were analyzed using an independent samples t-test, one-way ANOVA (assessing difference in number of MVCs across different age groups), chi-square test and Pearson correlation at statistical significance level of P truck drivers and 43.4 ± 10.9 for commercial truck drivers (P > 0.05). No significant difference between military and commercial drivers was found in terms of driving experience, number of MVCs, binocular VA, frequency of color vision defects and CS scores. In contrast, the last ocular examination was significantly earlier in military drivers than commercial drivers (P < 0.001). In addition, 4% of military drivers did not meet the national standards to drive as opposed to 2% of commercial drivers. There was a significant but weak correlation between binocular VA and age (r = 0.175, P < 0.001). However, CS showed a significantly moderate correlation with age (r = -0.488, P < 0.001). The absence of legal requirement for regular eye examination in military drivers caused the incompetent drivers to be missed in contrast to commercial drivers. The need for scientific revision of VA standard for Iranian drivers is also discussed. The CS measurement in visual checkups of older drivers deserves to be investigated more

  5. Outcomes of a prospective trial of student-athlete drug testing: the Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification (SATURN) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Linn; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; Moe, Esther L; Kuehl, Kerry S; Yoon, Myeongsun; Taylor, Aaron; Williams, Jason

    2007-11-01

    To assess the effects of random drug and alcohol testing (DAT) among high school athletes. This was a 2-year prospective randomized controlled study of a single cohort among five intervention high schools with a DAT policy and six schools with a deferred policy, serially assessed by voluntary, confidential questionnaires. DAT school athletes were at risk for random testing during the full academic year. Positive test results were reported to parents or guardians, with mandatory counseling. Indices of illicit drug use, with and without alcohol use, were assessed at the beginning and end of each school year for the past month and prior year. Potential mediating variables were evaluated. Student-athletes from intervention and control schools did not differ in past 1-month use of illicit drug or a combination of drug and alcohol use at any of the four follow-up periods. At the end of the initial school year and after 2 full school years, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less drug use during the past year (p < .01) compared to athletes at the deferred policy schools. Combining past year drug and alcohol use together, student-athletes at DAT schools reported less use at the second and third follow-up assessments (p < .05). Paradoxically, DAT athletes across all assessments reported less athletic competence (p < .001), less belief authorities were opposed to drug use (p < .01), and indicated greater risk-taking (p < .05). At the final assessment, DAT athletes believed less in testing benefits (p < .05) and less that testing was a reason not to use drugs (p < .01). No DAT deterrent effects were evident for past month use during any of four follow-up periods. Prior-year drug use was reduced in two of four follow-up self-reports, and a combination of drug and alcohol use was reduced at two assessments as well. Overall, drug testing was accompanied by an increase in some risk factors for future substance use. More research is needed before DAT is considered an

  6. Randomized Test of an Implementation Intention-Based Tool to Reduce Stress-Induced Eating

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, DB; Armitage, CJ; Ferguson, E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer by producing deleterious changes to diet. Purpose: To test effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Methods: Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instructio...

  7. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... aviation industry. If the reported random drug test positive rate is less than 1.00%, the Administrator may... Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of January 1, 2011, Through December 31, 2011 AGENCY: Federal Aviation...

  8. A randomization test for controlling population stratification in whole-genome association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Gad; Jordan, Michael I; Halperin, Eran; Shamir, Ron; Karp, Richard M

    2007-11-01

    Population stratification can be a serious obstacle in the analysis of genomewide association studies. We propose a method for evaluating the significance of association scores in whole-genome cohorts with stratification. Our approach is a randomization test akin to a standard permutation test. It conditions on the genotype matrix and thus takes into account not only the population structure but also the complex linkage disequilibrium structure of the genome. As we show in simulation experiments, our method achieves higher power and significantly better control over false-positive rates than do existing methods. In addition, it can be easily applied to whole-genome association studies.

  9. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ and ...... problematic groups of the population in the attempt to improve road safety nationwide....... others, as well as heterogeneity across the population was observed. The present findings highlight the need to look into driver’s attitudes towards safety, in order to improve the motivation to drive safely. Information from this study is useful for interventions to be able to target specific...

  10. Efficacy of a Brief Group Parent–Teen Intervention in Driver Education to Reduce Teenage Driver Injury Risk: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S.; Shope, Jean T.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an adapted Checkpoints Program designed to increase parental limits on novice teen independent driving under high-risk conditions. Twenty-seven class sessions with a minimum of 5 dyads each were delivered in driver education to 231 parent–teen dyads. Entire driving school classes were randomized to Checkpoints Program or comparison group sessions, both led by a trained health educator. At licensure, compared with parents in the comparison ...

  11. Approaches of truck drivers and non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova; Eldror, Ehud; Shahar, Amit

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the reported approaches of truck drivers to those of non-truck drivers toward reckless on-road behaviors. One hundred and sixty-seven adult males, including 70 non-truck drivers, completed the questionnaires voluntarily. The truck drivers were employees of a concrete manufacturing company working at various company plants throughout Israel. Seventy were professional mixer truckers and 27 were tip-truckers. The participants completed the Reckless Driving Self-Report Scale based on Taubman Ben-Ari et al. [Taubman Ben-Ari, O., Florian, V., Mikulincer, M., 1999. The impact of mortality salience on reckless driving: a test of terror management mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 76, 35-45], adapted for truck drivers for this study. It was expected that non-professional, as compared to professional (truck) drivers, would be more permissive regarding reckless driving, since driving risks are less prominent in their daily driving experience. An ANOVA performed on mean reckless-driving scores yielded significant results. The post hoc Schéffe test indicated significantly higher reckless-driving scores for automobile drivers as compared to both mixer-truck driver scores and tip-truck driver scores. In addition, the reckless-driving scores for mixer-truck drivers were significantly higher than the tip-truck driver scores. We discuss various explanations for the findings and consider possible implications for training strategies in organizations as well as for media campaigns focused on mutual safe road use of truck drivers and private vehicle drivers.

  12. Age affects drivers' response times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilban, Marjan; Vojvoda, Alenka; Jerman, Janez

    2009-06-01

    In Slovenia the number of drivers over 65 is increasing every year. With age comes a decrease in psychophysical abilities, which include sensory and motoric functions and the ability of processing visual information. These changes increase the response time and decrease the driving capacity. The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between age and response time and to determine the difference in response times between men and women. In the research participated 573 randomly chosen drivers aged 19-80 with a valid driving license. We measured their response times, when stimulated by a red traffic light, on a simulator The results clearly demonstrate that a correlation between age and the response time exists. The results show that a significant increase in response times occurs after the age of 65. In all age groups, except the oldest, women achieved longer response times than men.

  13. Quantitative urine confirmatory testing for synthetic cannabinoids in randomly collected urine specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneto, Marisol S; Scheidweiler, Karl B; Gandhi, Adarsh; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Klette, Kevin L; Martin, Thomas M; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2015-06-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid intake is an ongoing health issue worldwide, with new compounds continually emerging, making drug testing complex. Parent synthetic cannabinoids are rarely detected in urine, the most common matrix employed in workplace drug testing. Optimal identification of synthetic cannabinoid markers in authentic urine specimens and correlation of metabolite concentrations and toxicities would improve synthetic cannabinoid result interpretation. We screened 20 017 randomly collected US military urine specimens between July 2011 and June 2012 with a synthetic cannabinoid immunoassay yielding 1432 presumptive positive specimens. We analyzed all presumptive positive and 1069 negative specimens with our qualitative synthetic cannabinoid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, which confirmed 290 positive specimens. All 290 positive and 487 randomly selected negative specimens were quantified with the most comprehensive urine quantitative LC-MS/MS method published to date; 290 specimens confirmed positive for 22 metabolites from 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids. The five most predominant metabolites were JWH-018 pentanoic acid (93%), JWH-N-hydroxypentyl (84%), AM2201 N-hydroxypentyl (69%), JWH-073 butanoic acid (69%), and JWH-122 N-hydroxypentyl (45%) with 11.1 (0.1-2,434), 5.1 (0.1-1,239), 2.0 (0.1-321), 1.1 (0.1-48.6), and 1.1 (0.1-250) µg/L median (range) concentrations, respectively. Alkyl hydroxy and carboxy metabolites provided suitable biomarkers for 11 parent synthetic cannabinoids; although hydroxyindoles were also observed. This is by far the largest data set of synthetic cannabinoid metabolites urine concentrations from randomly collected workplace drug testing specimens rather than acute intoxications or driving under the influence of drugs. These data improve the interpretation of synthetic cannabinoid urine test results and suggest suitable urine markers of synthetic cannabinoid intake. This article is a U

  14. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, Leah; Crawford, Jessica; Chaluco, Timoteo; Rajagopal, Sharanya; Prosser, Wendy; Watson, Noel

    2014-08-02

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system. Substantially high levels of RDT

  15. Rapid diagnostic test supply chain and consumption study in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: estimating stock shortages and identifying drivers of stock-outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are particularly useful in low-resource settings where follow-through on traditional laboratory diagnosis is challenging or lacking. The availability of these tests depends on supply chain processes within the distribution system. In Mozambique, stock-outs of malaria RDTs are fairly common at health facilities. A longitudinal cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate drivers of stock shortages in the Cabo Delgado province. Methods Data were collected from purposively sampled health facilities, using monthly cross-sectional surveys between October 2011 and May 2012. Estimates of lost consumption (consumption not met due to stock-outs) served as the primary quantitative indicator of stock shortages. This is a better measure of the magnitude of stock-outs than binary indicators that only measure frequency of stock-outs at a given facility. Using a case study based methodology, distribution system characteristics were qualitatively analysed to examine causes of stock-outs at the provincial, district and health centre levels. Results 15 health facilities were surveyed over 120 time points. Stock-out patterns varied by data source; average monthly proportions of 59%, 17% and 17% of health centres reported a stock-out on stock cards, laboratory and pharmacy forms, respectively. Estimates of lost consumption percentage were significantly high; ranging from 0% to 149%; with a weighted average of 78%. Each ten-unit increase in monthly-observed consumption was associated with a nine-unit increase in lost consumption percentage indicating that higher rates of stock-outs occurred at higher levels of observed consumption. Causes of stock-outs included inaccurate tracking of lost consumption, insufficient sophistication in inventory management and replenishment, and poor process compliance by facility workers, all arguably stemming from inadequate attention to the design and implementation of the distribution system

  16. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  17. Level of neurotic disorders among drivers causing traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Đurić Predrag; Filipović Danka

    2007-01-01

    Different aspects of driver personality may affect traffic safety. Extended driver reaction time causes deceleration of the reflexes, which is a major cause of traffic accidents. Cornell index was used in 30 drivers responsible for traffic accidents, with the aim to measure their level of neurotic disorder and compare them with results of controls (drivers not responsible for traffic accidents). Reaction time was measured and compared among subjects with normal results of Cornell test and tho...

  18. Patterns of Cancer Genetic Testing: A Randomized Survey of Oregon Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer L. Cox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Appropriate use of genetic tests for population-based cancer screening, diagnosis of inherited cancers, and guidance of cancer treatment can improve health outcomes. We investigated clinicians’ use and knowledge of eight breast, ovarian, and colorectal cancer genetic tests. Methods. We conducted a randomized survey of 2,191 Oregon providers, asking about their experience with fecal DNA, OncoVue, BRCA, MMR, CYP2D6, tumor gene expression profiling, UGT1A1, and KRAS. Results. Clinicians reported low confidence in their knowledge of medical genetics; most confident were OB-GYNs and specialists. Clinicians were more likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA and MMR than the other tests, and OB-GYNs were twice as likely to have ordered/recommended BRCA testing than primary care providers. Less than 10% of providers ordered/recommended OncoVue, fecal DNA, CYP2D6, or UGT1A1; less than 30% ordered/recommended tumor gene expression profiles or KRAS. The most common reason for not ordering/recommending these tests was lack of familiarity. Conclusions. Use of appropriate, evidence-based testing can help reduce incidence and mortality of certain cancers, but these tests need to be better integrated into clinical practice. Continued evaluation of emerging technologies, dissemination of findings, and an increase in provider confidence and knowledge are necessary to achieve this end.

  19. A global test for gene‐gene interactions based on random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Christopher I.; Moore, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Statistical interactions between markers of genetic variation, or gene‐gene interactions, are believed to play an important role in the etiology of many multifactorial diseases and other complex phenotypes. Unfortunately, detecting gene‐gene interactions is extremely challenging due to the large number of potential interactions and ambiguity regarding marker coding and interaction scale. For many data sets, there is insufficient statistical power to evaluate all candidate gene‐gene interactions. In these cases, a global test for gene‐gene interactions may be the best option. Global tests have much greater power relative to multiple individual interaction tests and can be used on subsets of the markers as an initial filter prior to testing for specific interactions. In this paper, we describe a novel global test for gene‐gene interactions, the global epistasis test (GET), that is based on results from random matrix theory. As we show via simulation studies based on previously proposed models for common diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer, our proposed GET method has superior performance characteristics relative to existing global gene‐gene interaction tests. A glaucoma GWAS data set is used to demonstrate the practical utility of the GET method. PMID:27386793

  20. Embedded Platform for Automatic Testing and Optimizing of FPGA Based Cryptographic True Random Number Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Varchola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an evaluation platform for cryptographic True Random Number Generators (TRNGs based on the hardware implementation of statistical tests for FPGAs. It was developed in order to provide an automatic tool that helps to speed up the TRNG design process and can provide new insights on the TRNG behavior as it will be shown on a particular example in the paper. It enables to test sufficient statistical properties of various TRNG designs under various working conditions on the fly. Moreover, the tests are suitable to be embedded into cryptographic hardware products in order to recognize TRNG output of weak quality and thus increase its robustness and reliability. Tests are fully compatible with the FIPS 140 standard and are implemented by the VHDL language as an IP-Core for vendor independent FPGAs. A recent Flash based Actel Fusion FPGA was chosen for preliminary experiments. The Actel version of the tests possesses an interface to the Actel’s CoreMP7 softcore processor that is fully compatible with the industry standard ARM7TDMI. Moreover, identical tests suite was implemented to the Xilinx Virtex 2 and 5 in order to compare the performance of the proposed solution with the performance of already published one based on the same FPGAs. It was achieved 25% and 65% greater clock frequency respectively while consuming almost equal resources of the Xilinx FPGAs. On the top of it, the proposed FIPS 140 architecture is capable of processing one random bit per one clock cycle which results in 311.5 Mbps throughput for Virtex 5 FPGA.

  1. The effect of financial incentives on chlamydia testing rates: Evidence from a randomized experiment☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Financial incentives have been used in a variety of settings to motivate behaviors that might not otherwise be undertaken. They have been highlighted as particularly useful in settings that require a single behavior, such as appointment attendance or vaccination. They also have differential effects based on socioeconomic status in some applications (e.g. smoking). To further investigate these claims, we tested the effect of providing different types of non-cash financial incentives on the return rates of chlamydia specimen samples amongst 16–24 year-olds in England. In 2011 and 2012, we ran a two-stage randomized experiment involving 2988 young people (1489 in Round 1 and 1499 in Round 2) who requested a chlamydia screening kit from Freetest.me, an online and text screening service run by Preventx Limited. Participants were randomized to control, or one of five types of financial incentives in Round 1 or one of four financial incentives in Round 2. We tested the effect of five types of incentives on specimen sample return; reward vouchers of differing values, charity donation, participation in a lottery, choices between a lottery and a voucher and including vouchers of differing values in the test kit prior to specimen return. Financial incentives of any type, did not make a significant difference in the likelihood of specimen return. The more deprived individuals were, as calculated using Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the less likely they were to return a sample. The extent to which incentive structures influenced sample return was not moderated by IMD score. Non-cash financial incentives for chlamydia testing do not seem to affect the specimen return rate in a chlamydia screening program where test kits are requested online, mailed to requestors and returned by mail. They also do not appear more or less effective in influencing test return depending on deprivation level. PMID:24373390

  2. A randomized trial of urodynamic testing before stress-incontinence surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Charles W; Brubaker, Linda; Litman, Heather J; Zyczynski, Halina M; Varner, R Edward; Amundsen, Cindy; Sirls, Larry T; Norton, Peggy A; Arisco, Amy M; Chai, Toby C; Zimmern, Philippe; Barber, Matthew D; Dandreo, Kimberly J; Menefee, Shawn A; Kenton, Kimberly; Lowder, Jerry; Richter, Holly E; Khandwala, Salil; Nygaard, Ingrid; Kraus, Stephen R; Johnson, Harry W; Lemack, Gary E; Mihova, Marina; Albo, Michael E; Mueller, Elizabeth; Sutkin, Gary; Wilson, Tracey S; Hsu, Yvonne; Rozanski, Thomas A; Rickey, Leslie M; Rahn, David; Tennstedt, Sharon; Kusek, John W; Gormley, E Ann

    2012-05-24

    Urodynamic studies are commonly performed in women before surgery for stress urinary incontinence, but there is no good evidence that they improve outcomes. We performed a multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial involving women with uncomplicated, demonstrable stress urinary incontinence to compare outcomes after preoperative office evaluation and urodynamic tests or evaluation only. The primary outcome was treatment success at 12 months, defined as a reduction in the score on the Urogenital Distress Inventory of 70% or more and a response of "much better" or "very much better" on the Patient Global Impression of Improvement. The predetermined noninferiority margin was 11 percentage points. A total of 630 women were randomly assigned to undergo office evaluation with urodynamic tests or evaluation only (315 per group); the proportion in whom treatment was successful was 76.9% in the urodynamic-testing group versus 77.2% in the evaluation-only group (difference, -0.3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -7.5 to 6.9), which was consistent with noninferiority. There were no significant between-group differences in secondary measures of incontinence severity, quality of life, patient satisfaction, rates of positive provocative stress tests, voiding dysfunction, or adverse events. Women who underwent urodynamic tests were significantly less likely to receive a diagnosis of overactive bladder and more likely to receive a diagnosis of voiding-phase dysfunction, but these changes did not lead to significant between-group differences in treatment selection or outcomes. For women with uncomplicated, demonstrable stress urinary incontinence, preoperative office evaluation alone was not inferior to evaluation with urodynamic testing for outcomes at 1 year. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00803959.).

  3. The effect of financial incentives on chlamydia testing rates: evidence from a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Paul; Rudisill, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    Financial incentives have been used in a variety of settings to motivate behaviors that might not otherwise be undertaken. They have been highlighted as particularly useful in settings that require a single behavior, such as appointment attendance or vaccination. They also have differential effects based on socioeconomic status in some applications (e.g. smoking). To further investigate these claims, we tested the effect of providing different types of non-cash financial incentives on the return rates of chlamydia specimen samples amongst 16-24 year-olds in England. In 2011 and 2012, we ran a two-stage randomized experiment involving 2988 young people (1489 in Round 1 and 1499 in Round 2) who requested a chlamydia screening kit from Freetest.me, an online and text screening service run by Preventx Limited. Participants were randomized to control, or one of five types of financial incentives in Round 1 or one of four financial incentives in Round 2. We tested the effect of five types of incentives on specimen sample return; reward vouchers of differing values, charity donation, participation in a lottery, choices between a lottery and a voucher and including vouchers of differing values in the test kit prior to specimen return. Financial incentives of any type, did not make a significant difference in the likelihood of specimen return. The more deprived individuals were, as calculated using Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD), the less likely they were to return a sample. The extent to which incentive structures influenced sample return was not moderated by IMD score. Non-cash financial incentives for chlamydia testing do not seem to affect the specimen return rate in a chlamydia screening program where test kits are requested online, mailed to requestors and returned by mail. They also do not appear more or less effective in influencing test return depending on deprivation level. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Does evidence support the use of mobile phone apps as a driver for promoting healthy lifestyles from a public health perspective? A systematic review of Randomized Control Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covolo, L; Ceretti, E; Moneda, M; Castaldi, S; Gelatti, U

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to find a scientific evidence on the efficacy of apps in promoting healthy lifestyles. The research was carried out according to PRISMA Statement. Pubmed, Embase and Google Scholar searches were carried out up to September 2016 focusing on randomized control trials (RCTs). Forty RCTs were selected. Most of the studies targeted weight management, PA and healthy eating (N=35). A few RCTs focused on apps designed to sun protection, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption (N=5). Only 10 RCTs (25%) found statistical difference between intervention and control groups for all the outcomes measured. Most of the studies had a short follow-up (65%, less than 6 months) and half of them a very small sample size (fewer than 100 subjects). Overall, the evidence so far showed a modest efficacy of apps in health promotion. There is a need to improve the overall quality of intervention studies focused on mobile apps in order to understand if they could became a valuable tool in support of health professionals and their efforts to promote education and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Permutation-Randomization Approach to Test the Spatial Distribution of Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, G; Gonthier, P

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial distribution of plant diseases requires the availability of trustworthy geostatistical methods. The mean distance tests (MDT) are here proposed as a series of permutation and randomization tests to assess the spatial distribution of plant diseases when the variable of phytopathological interest is categorical. A user-friendly software to perform the tests is provided. Estimates of power and type I error, obtained with Monte Carlo simulations, showed the reliability of the MDT (power > 0.80; type I error pathogens causing root rot on conifers was successfully performed by verifying the consistency between the MDT responses and previously published data. An application of the MDT was carried out to analyze the relation between the plantation density and the distribution of the infection of Gnomoniopsis castanea, an emerging fungal pathogen causing nut rot on sweet chestnut. Trees carrying nuts infected by the pathogen were randomly distributed in areas with different plantation densities, suggesting that the distribution of G. castanea was not related to the plantation density. The MDT could be used to analyze the spatial distribution of plant diseases both in agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  6. Shaker Random Testing with Low Kurtosis: Review of the Methods and Application for Sigma Limiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Steinwolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-Gaussian random shaker testing with kurtosis control has been known as a way of increasing the excitation crest factor in order to realistically simulate ground vehicle vibrations and other situations when the time history includes extreme peaks higher than those appearing in Gaussian random signals. However, an opposite action is also useful in other applications, particularly in modal testing. If the PSD is the only test specification, more power can be extracted from the same shaker if the crest factor is decreased and an extra space is created between the peaks of reduced height and the system abort limit. To achieve this, a technique of sigma clipping is commonly used but it generates harmonic distortions reducing dynamic range of shaker system. It is shown in the paper that the non-Gaussian phase selection in the IFFT generation can reduce kurtosis to 1.7 and bring the crest factor of drive signals from 4.5 to 2. The phase selection method does this without any loss of the controller's dynamic range that inevitably occurs after sigma clipping or polynomial transformation of time histories.

  7. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  8. Test-Enhanced E-Learning Strategies in Postgraduate Medical Education: A Randomized Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelSignore, Lisa A; Wolbrink, Traci A; Zurakowski, David; Burns, Jeffrey P

    2016-11-21

    The optimal design of pedagogical strategies for e-learning in graduate and postgraduate medical education remains to be determined. Video-based e-learning use is increasing, with initial research suggesting that taking short breaks while watching videos (independent of answering test questions) may improve learning by focusing attention on the content presented. Interspersed test questions may also improve knowledge acquisition and retention. To examine the effect of interspersed test questions and periodic breaks on immediate knowledge acquisition and retention at 6 months by pediatric residents engaged in video-based e-learning. First- and second-year pediatric residents were randomized to 1 of the following 3 groups: viewing the complete video uninterrupted (full video), viewing the video interrupted with unrelated logic puzzles (logic puzzles), or viewing the video interrupted with brief comprehension test questions (short answer questions). Residents answered pre- and post-tests before and after video viewing, followed by a retention test at 6 months. Primary outcome included comparison of the change in test scores between groups. A total of 49 residents completed the initial testing session. All 3 learning groups had comparable mean increases in immediate knowledge gain, but with no significant differences between groups (F2,46=0.35, P=.71). Thirty-five residents completed retention testing with comparable degrees of knowledge retention in the full video and short answer test questions groups (P<.001), but no significant change in the logic puzzles group (F1,32=2.44, P=.13). Improved knowledge gain was not demonstrated among residents answering interspersed questions or completing logic puzzles during interrupted online video viewing when compared with residents viewing uninterrupted video content. However, residents who either participated in uninterrupted video viewing or answered interspersed questions during interrupted video viewing demonstrated

  9. TESTING BRAND VALUE MEASUREMENT METHODS IN A RANDOM COEFFICIENT MODELING FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szõcs Attila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Our objective is to provide a framework for measuring brand equity, that is, the added value to the product endowed by the brand. Based on a demand and supply model, we propose a structural model that enables testing the structural effect of brand equity (demand side effect on brand value (supply side effect, using Monte Carlo simulation. Our main research question is which of the three brand value measurement methods (price premium, revenue premium and profit premium is more suitable from the perspective of the structural link between brand equity and brand value. Our model is based on recent developments in random coefficients model applications.

  10. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  11. Comparing cost effects of two quality strategies to improve test ordering in primary care: a randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, W.H.; Merode, F. van; Grimshaw, J.; Dubois, W.; Grol, R.P.T.M.; Weijden, T. van der

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the costs and cost reductions of an innovative strategy aimed at improving test ordering routines of primary care physicians, compared with a traditional strategy. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized controlled trial with randomization at the local primary care physicians group

  12. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Effectiveness of Houvast: A Strengths-Based Intervention for Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Manon A. M.; Boersma, Sandra N.; van der Veld, William M.; van Hulst, Bente; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed when entering the facility and when care ended.…

  13. Testing in a Random Effects Panel Data Model with Spatially Correlated Error Components and Spatially Lagged Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a random effects panel data model with both spatially correlated error components and spatially lagged dependent variables. We focus on diagnostic testing procedures and derive Lagrange multiplier (LM test statistics for a variety of hypotheses within this model. We first construct the joint LM test for both the individual random effects and the two spatial effects (spatial error correlation and spatial lag dependence. We then provide LM tests for the individual random effects and for the two spatial effects separately. In addition, in order to guard against local model misspecification, we derive locally adjusted (robust LM tests based on the Bera and Yoon principle (Bera and Yoon, 1993. We conduct a small Monte Carlo simulation to show the good finite sample performances of these LM test statistics and revisit the cigarette demand example in Baltagi and Levin (1992 to illustrate our testing procedures.

  14. A randomized trial to test the effectiveness of art therapy for children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Anya; Gelfand, Erwin W; Bender, Bruce

    2010-08-01

    Art therapy has been used to help children cope with chronic illness but has not been specifically tested with children who have asthma. To test an art therapy intervention in a randomized controlled trial in children with asthma. Twenty-two children with asthma were randomized to an active art therapy or wait-list control group. Those in the active art therapy group participated in 60-minute art therapy sessions once a week for 7 weeks. Sessions included specific art therapy tasks designed to encourage expression, discussion, and problem-solving in response to the emotional burden of chronic illness. Measures taken at baseline, immediately after, and 6 months after the final art therapy session included the Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale applied to the Person Picking an Apple from a Tree assessment, the parent and child versions of the Pediatric Quality of Life Asthma Module, and the Beck Youth Inventories. Those children assigned to the wait-list control group completed all evaluations at the same intervals as the children receiving art therapy but did not receive the art therapy interventions. Score changes from baseline to completion of art therapy indicated (1) improved problem-solving and affect drawing scores; (2) improved worry, communication, and total quality of life scores; and (3) improved Beck anxiety and self concept scores in the active group relative to the control group. At 6 months, the active group maintained some positive changes relative to the control group including (1) drawing affect scores, (2) the worry and quality of life scores, and (3) the Beck anxiety score. Frequency of asthma exacerbations before and after the 6-month study interval did not differ between the 2 groups. This was the first randomized trial demonstrating that children with asthma receive benefit from art therapy that includes decreased anxiety and increased quality of life. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  15. Comparative analysis of computerized random-dot stereogram in stereopsis and TNO test on postcataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the inspection result of computerized random-dot stereotest(CRDSwith TNO test and to study the clinical value of CRDS.METHODS: Seventy-eight patients who received bilateral phacoemulsification from Januray, 2011 to June, 2011 were involved. The operations were performed by the same surgeon. Three months after the operation, CRDS and TNO test were used to evaluate the patients' stereopsis respectively. The inspection results of the two methods were compared.RESULTS:All patients presented stereoscopic vision. There were 26 patients with foveal stereoacuity, 14 with macular stereoscopic vision and 38 with peripheral stereovision measured with CRDS, while it was 24, 11, 43 measured with TNO test. There were 32 patients with normal stereopsis, 46 patients with abnormal stereopsis and 35 patients with normal stereopsis, 43 patients with abnormal stereopsis respectively measured with CRDS and TNO test. No significant differences were found between the two methods.CONCLUSION: The inspection result of CRDS has a high coherence with that of TNO test. It suggests that the CRDS is a reliable method for stereoaeuity evaluation in post-operative patients.

  16. Skin sensitivity to rocuronium and vecuronium: a randomized controlled prick-testing study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhonneur, Gilles; Combes, Xavier; Chassard, Didier; Merle, Jean Claude

    2004-04-01

    Prick tests are frequently used for the authentication of neuromuscular blocking drugs (NMBDs) as causative drugs for anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. Unfortunately, the actual threshold concentration for skin testing remains debatable for most NMBDs. We studied the flare and wheal responses to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium. Thirty healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers (14 men and 16 women) from 18 to 40 yr of age were assigned randomly to receive a total of 10 prick tests-4 ascending dilutions (1:1000, 1:100, 1:10, and 1) of rocuronium and vecuronium and 2 controls-on both forearms. An assessor blinded to the assignment monitored systemic and skin responses to NMBDs and measured wheal and flare surfaces immediately after and 15 min after prick tests. None of the volunteers experienced any immediate systemic or cutaneous responses to rocuronium or vecuronium. Although a dilution of 1:1000 of both NMBDs failed to promote any skin response at 15 min, 50% and 40% of the subjects had a positive skin reaction to undiluted rocuronium and vecuronium, respectively. We demonstrated a sex effect related to smaller threshold concentration-induced cutaneous reactions in female volunteers to both muscle relaxants. Our observation questions the reliability of prick testing with undiluted solutions of rocuronium and vecuronium for the diagnosis of allergy. Building concentration-skin response curves to prick tests with rocuronium and vecuronium in healthy, nonatopic, anesthesia-naive male and female volunteers demonstrated that the nonreactive concentration for both muscle relaxants is the 1:1000 dilution of the stock solutions. Our observation calls into question the past practice of prick-testing skin for sensitivity to neuromuscular blocking drugs by using undiluted solutions.

  17. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials...

  18. Effects of a web-based decision aid regarding diagnostic self-testing. A single-blind randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ickenroth, M.H.; Grispen, J.E.; Vries, N.K. de; Dinant, G.J.; Ronda, G.; Weijden, T.T. van der

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there are many diagnostic self-tests on body materials available to consumers. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an online decision aid on diagnostic self-testing for cholesterol and diabetes on knowledge among consumers with an intention to take these tests. A randomized

  19. Criteria for driver impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  20. Cluster randomized trials in comparative effectiveness research: randomizing hospitals to test methods for prevention of healthcare-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Richard; Takvorian, Samuel U; Septimus, Edward; Hickok, Jason; Moody, Julia; Perlin, Jonathan; Jernigan, John A; Kleinman, Ken; Huang, Susan S

    2010-06-01

    The need for evidence about the effectiveness of therapeutics and other medical practices has triggered new interest in methods for comparative effectiveness research. Describe an approach to comparative effectiveness research involving cluster randomized trials in networks of hospitals, health plans, or medical practices with centralized administrative and informatics capabilities. We discuss the example of an ongoing cluster randomized trial to prevent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in intensive care units (ICUs). The trial randomizes 45 hospitals to: (a) screening cultures of ICU admissions, followed by Contact Precautions if MRSA-positive, (b) screening cultures of ICU admissions followed by decolonization if MRSA-positive, or (c) universal decolonization of ICU admissions without screening. All admissions to adult ICUs. The primary outcome is MRSA-positive clinical cultures occurring >or=2 days following ICU admission. Secondary outcomes include blood and urine infection caused by MRSA (and, separately, all pathogens), as well as the development of resistance to decolonizing agents. Recruitment of hospitals is complete. Data collection will end in Summer 2011. This trial takes advantage of existing personnel, procedures, infrastructure, and information systems in a large integrated hospital network to conduct a low-cost evaluation of prevention strategies under usual practice conditions. This approach is applicable to many comparative effectiveness topics in both inpatient and ambulatory settings.

  1. Perceptions of genetic testing for personalized nutrition: a randomized trial of DNA-based dietary advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Daiva E; Shih, Sarah; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic tests have facilitated easy access to personal genetic information related to health and nutrition; however, consumer perceptions of the nutritional information provided by these tests have not been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to assess individual perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing and to determine whether a personalized nutrition intervention modifies perceptions. A double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial was conducted among healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138). Participants in the intervention group (n = 92) were given a report of DNA-based dietary advice and those in the control group (n = 46) were given a general dietary advice report. A survey was completed at baseline and 3 and 12 months after distributing the reports to assess perceptions between the two groups. No significant differences in perceptions of personalized nutrition and genetic testing were observed between the intervention and control group, so responses of both groups were combined. As compared to baseline, participant responses increased significantly toward the positive end of a Likert scale at 3 months for the statement 'I am interested in the relationship between diet and genetics' (mean change ± SD: 0.28 ± 0.99, p = 0.0002). The majority of participants indicated that a university research lab (47%) or health care professional (41%) were the best sources for obtaining accurate personal genetic information, while a DTC genetic testing company received the fewest selections (12%). Most participants (56%) considered dietitians to be the best source of personalized nutrition followed by medical doctors (27%), naturopaths (8%) and nurses (6%). These results suggest that perceptions of personalized nutrition changed over the course of the intervention. Individuals view a research lab or health care professional as better providers of genetic information than a DTC genetic testing company

  2. Mode shape expansions for the dynamic testing of cable domes considering random pretension deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoshun; Deng, Hua; Zhu, Dexi

    2017-04-01

    Cable domes maintain their structural stability and deformation resistance substantially depending on the geometrical stiffness contributed by pretension. Dynamic testing can be employed to monitor the possible stiffness degeneration caused by pretension deviations in existing cable domes. The measured incomplete mode shapes should be expanded for effectively evaluating the actual structural stiffness. However, conventional methods lose effectiveness for expanding mode shapes of cable domes whose modes are sensitive to the pretension deviations. A novel method is developed in this paper to expand the incomplete mode shapes of existing cable domes with random pretension deviations. For a monitored target mode of the existing structure, its mode shape can be approximately expressed as a linear combination of a few mode shapes of the ideal structure. Once their combinational coefficients are determined based on the measured incomplete mode shape, the expansion of this target mode is achieved. Two key steps are included: the determination of these so-called contribution modes and the estimation of their combinational coefficients. For the prescribed limit values of equivalent member length errors adopted to simulate random pretension deviations, contribution modes can be determined by considering the mode shape variations and mode jumpings. A proposed contribution mode effective independence (CMEI) method is further put forward to obtain the best estimate of combinational coefficients and the optimal layout of sensors. The numerical example of a cable dome illustrates the invalidation of the conventional expansion methods when random pretension deviations are considered. In contrast, the method proposed in this paper is validated to be effective and reliable even in the cases of severe modal variations and high noise levels.

  3. Nothing good ever happens after midnight: observed exposure and alcohol use during weekend nights among young male drivers carrying passengers in a late licensing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Twisk, Divera

    2015-02-01

    Similar to other countries, also in the Netherlands young male drivers (ages between 18 and 24 years) are overrepresented in crashes during weekend nights, thereby fatally injuring one or more of their passengers. This overrepresentation may be due to two contributing factors: (a) a higher exposure-to-risk because of dangerous trip condition, and (b) a higher tendency to take risks. Studies on these factors, mostly carried out in jurisdictions where youngsters are licensed at an earlier age than in Europe, suggest a strong -often negative- influence from peer-aged passengers. Given that in adolescence susceptibility to peer pressure reduces with age, these findings may not be applicable to late licensing countries, such as in Europe. In the Netherlands -a late licensing country- youngsters are licensed after the age of 18 years, followed by a 5 year probation period with a legal alcohol limit of 0.2g/L. Further, designated driver schemes are in place since 2001, alcohol limits are enforced by random breath testing schemes, and no passenger and night time restrictions are in force. Against this background, we examined the incidence of dangerous trip conditions and risk taking among young male drivers and compared those with a reference group with a low passenger fatality rate. To that end, data on trip conditions and risk behavior were obtained from a data base on 18,608 randomly selected drivers during weekend nights in 2010, between 22:00 and 06:00. This data base held information for each randomly selected on breath alcohol concentration (BAC), license status, driver characteristics (age and gender), number of passengers, time of night, and level of urbanization. Binary logistic regression analysis confirmed the overrepresentation of young male drivers in traffic, carrying more frequently passengers than the reference group, especially after midnight. Urbanization level was not a modifying factor, but 'time of night' was, with riskier conditions after midnight in

  4. A roadside study of observable driver distractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, Mark J M; Prat, Francesc; Tasci, Duygu Kuzu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of observable distractions while driving and the effect of drivers' characteristics and time-related variables on their prevalence. Using roadside observation, 2 independent observers collected data at 4 randomly selected locations in St. Albans, UK. Of the 10,984 drivers observed, 16.8% were engaged in a secondary task, with talking to passengers being the most common distraction (8.8%), followed by smoking (1.9%) and talking on a hands-free mobile phone (1.7%). An additional 1.0% were observed talking on a handheld phone, and the rest of the distractions (e.g., texting, drinking) were recorded in less than 1% of the drivers observed. Gender-related differences were found for a number of different distractions (i.e., talking to passengers, drinking, and handheld mobile phone conversations), but age emerged as a significant predictor for most secondary tasks, including talking to passengers, smoking, hands-free mobile phone use, handheld mobile phone use, texting/keying numbers, drinking, and engagement in any type of distraction (all distractions combined). The overall pattern for age was that middle-aged and older drivers were less likely to be distracted than younger drivers. This work provides further evidence of the relatively high rate of distracted driving in the UK. The findings clearly indicate that younger drivers are more likely to drive distracted, which probably contributes to their higher crash rates.

  5. A COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN VEHICLES FOR ELDERLY DRIVERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  6. Simulated driving performance under alcohol: Effects on driver-risk versus driver-skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laude, Jennifer R; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-09-01

    Those who place their vehicles closer to others on the roadway are said to have high risk acceptance, and this contributes to motor vehicle crashes. However, the effect of alcohol on this risky driving behavior is understudied. Behavioral mechanisms that contribute to risky driving are also not well understood. Further, whether increased risk-taking behavior in a driver co-occurs with pronounced impairment in the driver's skill is unknown. The study examined the effect of alcohol on driver risk and skill and whether riskier drivers were also those who showed high skill impairment. The relationship between driving behavior and inhibitory control was also tested. Participants completed two driving simulations. In the first drive test, risky driving was encouraged and in the second test, skill-based performance was emphasized. The cued go/no-go task provided a measure inhibitory control. Tests were completed under a 0.65g/kg alcohol and 0.0g/kg (placebo) dose of alcohol. Alcohol impaired a measure of driving skill and increased driver risk taking. It was also found that riskier drivers were not necessarily those who showed the greatest impairments in skill. Poorer inhibitory control was associated with greater driver risk in the sober state. Alcohol-induced risk-taking behaviors can be dissociable from impairing effects on driver skill and poor inhibitory control is selectively related to risky driving. As such, a distinction between driver risk and driver skill needs to be made in the investigation of problems concerning DUI-related accidents and fatalities in future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  8. On Generating Optimal Signal Probabilities for Random Tests: A Genetic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivas

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithms are robust search and optimization techniques. A Genetic Algorithm based approach for determining the optimal input distributions for generating random test vectors is proposed in the paper. A cost function based on the COP testability measure for determining the efficacy of the input distributions is discussed. A brief overview of Genetic Algorithms (GAs and the specific details of our implementation are described. Experimental results based on ISCAS-85 benchmark circuits are presented. The performance of our GAbased approach is compared with previous results. While the GA generates more efficient input distributions than the previous methods which are based on gradient descent search, the overheads of the GA in computing the input distributions are larger.

  9. Estimating a DIF decomposition model using a random-weights linear logistic test model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Insu; Fukuhara, Hirotaka

    2015-09-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) decomposition model separates a testlet item DIF into two sources: item-specific differential functioning and testlet-specific differential functioning. This article provides an alternative model-building framework and estimation approach for a DIF decomposition model that was proposed by Beretvas and Walker (2012). Although their model is formulated under multilevel modeling with the restricted pseudolikelihood estimation method, our approach illustrates DIF decomposition modeling that is directly built upon the random-weights linear logistic test model framework with the marginal maximum likelihood estimation method. In addition to demonstrating our approach's performance, we provide detailed information on how to implement this new DIF decomposition model using an item response theory software program; using DIF decomposition may be challenging for practitioners, yet practical information on how to implement it has previously been unavailable in the measurement literature.

  10. Aging effect on Executive Control in the Random Number Generation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Cavalheiro Hamdan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The decline of abilities related to Executive Control –EC with aging has been related with the Pre-Frontal System neurobiological aging. This study compared the score obtained in the Random Number Generation Test (RNG by two groups: 30 college students (older than 18 and 36 elderly (older than 60. This last group was divided according to the criteria of schooling in up to 8 years of schooling and over 8 years of schooling. The results show that the younger participants scored 0,344 ± 0,04 in the RNG test; the elderly with up to 8 years of schooling punctuated 0,432 ± 0,10 and that those who studied for 9 years or more reached a mean of 0,393 ± 0,05. The statistical analysis of these data suggest that the elderly performance in the RNG test (0,420 ± 0,09 was significantly worse when compared to the performance of the younger participants (t (64 = -3,9927; p = 0,0001, which confirms that the manipulation and inhibitory control abilities of information are decreased in older people, probably due to the natural aging process of the Frontal Cortex. Keywords: neuropsychology; aging; executive functions.

  11. Testing concordance of instrumental variable effects in generalized linear models with application to Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, James Y.; Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Hsu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Instrumental variable regression is one way to overcome unmeasured confounding and estimate causal effect in observational studies. Built on structural mean models, there has been considerale work recently developed for consistent estimation of causal relative risk and causal odds ratio. Such models can sometimes suffer from identification issues for weak instruments. This hampered the applicability of Mendelian randomization analysis in genetic epidemiology. When there are multiple genetic variants available as instrumental variables, and causal effect is defined in a generalized linear model in the presence of unmeasured confounders, we propose to test concordance between instrumental variable effects on the intermediate exposure and instrumental variable effects on the disease outcome, as a means to test the causal effect. We show that a class of generalized least squares estimators provide valid and consistent tests of causality. For causal effect of a continuous exposure on a dichotomous outcome in logistic models, the proposed estimators are shown to be asymptotically conservative. When the disease outcome is rare, such estimators are consistent due to the log-linear approximation of the logistic function. Optimality of such estimators relative to the well-known two-stage least squares estimator and the double-logistic structural mean model is further discussed. PMID:24863158

  12. Increased statistical power with combined independent randomization tests used with multiple-baseline design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrrell, Pascal N; Corey, Paul N; Feldman, Brian M; Silverman, Earl D

    2013-06-01

    Physicians often assess the effectiveness of treatments on a small number of patients. Multiple-baseline designs (MBDs), based on the Wampold-Worsham (WW) method of randomization and applied to four subjects, have relatively low power. Our objective was to propose another approach with greater power that does not suffer from the time requirements of the WW method applied to a greater number of subjects. The power of a design that involves the combination of two four-subject MBDs was estimated using computer simulation and compared with the four- and eight-subject designs. The effect of a delayed linear response to treatment on the power of the test was also investigated. Power was found to be adequate (>80%) for a standardized mean difference (SMD) greater than 0.8. The effect size associated with 80% power from combined tests was smaller than that of the single four-subject MBD (SMD=1.3) and comparable with the eight-subject MBD (SMD=0.6). A delayed linear response to the treatment resulted in important reductions in power (20-35%). By combining two four-subject MBD tests, an investigator can detect better effect sizes (SMD=0.8) and be able to complete a comparatively timelier and feasible study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Comparison of Random Normal Scores Test under the F and Chi-Square Distributions to the 2x2x2 ANOVA Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawilowsky, Shlomo

    1985-01-01

    The Random Normal Scores Test (RNST) has been suggested as a powerful alternative to the use of the parametric analysis of variance (ANOVA) test when the underlying population is non-normally distributed. The major support for this suggestion rests on asymptotic theory. An empirical analysis of the RNST performed under the F and Chi-square…

  14. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  15. Modeling safety risk perception due to mobile phone distraction among four wheeler drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghunathan Rajesh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is an increasing trend in the use of information and communication technology devices in new vehicles. Due to these increasing service facilities, driver distraction has become a major concern for transportation safety. To reduce safety risks, it is crucial to understand how distracting activities affect driver behavior at different levels of vehicle control. The objective of this work is to understand how the vehicle and driver characteristics influence mobile phone usage while driving and associated risk perception of road safety incidents. Based on literature review, a man–machine framework for distracted driving and a mobile phone distraction model is presented. The study highlights the findings from a questionnaire survey conducted in Kerala, India. The questionnaire uses a 5-point Likert scale. Responses from 1203 four-wheeler drivers are collected using random sampling approach. The questionnaire items associated with three driver-drive characteristics are: (i Human Factors (age, experience, emotional state, behavior of driver, (ii Driver space (meter, controls, light, heat, steering, actuators of vehicle, (iii Driving conditions (speed, distance, duration, traffic, signals. This mobile phone distraction model is tested using structural equation modeling procedure. The study indicates that among the three characteristics, ‘Human Factors’ has the highest influence on perceived distraction due to mobile phones. It is also observed that safety risk perception due to mobile phone usage while driving is moderate. The practical relevance of the study is to place emphasis on behavior-based controls and to focus on strategies leveraging perception of distraction due to mobile phones while driving.

  16. Glucose test provenance recording in UK primary care: was that fasted or random?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, A P; Fieldhouse, H; Tippu, Z; Jones, S; Munro, N; de Lusignan, S

    2017-01-01

    To describe the proportion of glucose tests with unrecorded provenance in routine primary care data and identify the impact on clinical practice. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of blood glucose measurements from the Royal College of General Practitioner Research and Surveillance Centre database, which includes primary care records from >100 practices across England and Wales. All blood glucose results recorded during 2013 were identified. Tests were grouped by provenance (fasting, oral glucose tolerance test, random, none specified and other). A clinical audit in a single primary care practice was also performed to identify the impact of failing to record glucose provenance on diabetes diagnosis. A total of 2 137 098 people were included in the cross-sectional analysis. Of 203 350 recorded glucose measurements the majority (117 893; 58%) did not have any provenance information. The most commonly reported provenance was fasting glucose (75 044; 37%). The distribution of glucose values where provenance was not recorded was most similar to that of fasting samples. The glucose measurements of 256 people with diabetes in the audit practice (size 11 514 people) were analysed. The initial glucose measurement had no provenance information in 164 cases (64.1%). A clinician questioned the provenance of a result in 41 cases (16.0%); of these, 14 (34.1%) required repeating. Lack of provenance led to delays in the diagnosis of diabetes [median (range) 30 (3-614) days]. The recording of glucose provenance in UK primary care could be improved. Failure to record provenance causes unnecessary repeated testing, delayed diagnosis and wasted clinician time. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  17. The Accuracy of Pass/Fail Decisions in Random and Difficulty-Balanced Domain-Sampling Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipke, Deborah L.

    A common practice in some certification fields (e.g., information technology) is to draw items from an item pool randomly and apply a common passing score, regardless of the items administered. Because these tests are commonly used, it is important to determine how accurate the pass/fail decisions are for such tests and whether fairly small,…

  18. Education for older drivers in the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Keskinen

    2014-07-01

    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.

  19. Research on the Random Shock Vibration Test Based on the Filter-X LMS Adaptive Inverse Control Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The related theory and algorithm of adaptive inverse control were presented through the research which pointed out the adaptive inverse control strategy could effectively eliminate the noise influence on the system control. Proposed using a frequency domain filter-X LMS adaptive inverse control algorithm, and the control algorithm was applied to the two-exciter hydraulic vibration test system of random shock vibration control process and summarized the process of the adaptive inverse control strategies in the realization of the random shock vibration test. The self-closed-loop and field test show that using the frequency-domain filter-X LMS adaptive inverse control algorithm can realize high precision control of random shock vibration test.

  20. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanick, B; Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Hallar, M; Bled, F; Chevet, B; Vergely, J; Rohmer, V; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M

    1992-01-01

    The predictive value of random urine sample during outpatient visit to predict persistent microalbuminuria was studied in 76 Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, 61 Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, and 72 Type 2, insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Seventy-six patients attended outpatient clinic during morning, and 133 during afternoon. Microalbuminuria was suspected if Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) exceeded 20 mg/l. All patients were hospitalized within 6 months following outpatient visit, and persistent microalbuminuria was assessed then if UAE was between 30 and 300 mg/24 h on 2-3 occasions in 3 urines samples. Of these 209 subjects eighty-three were also screened with Microbumintest (Ames-Bayer), a semi-quantitative method. Among the 209 subjects, 71 were positive both for microalbuminuria during outpatient visit and a persistent microalbuminuria during hospitalization: sensitivity 91.0%, specificity 83.2%, concordance 86.1%, and positive predictive value 76.3% (chi-squared test: 191; p less than 10(-4)). Data were not different for subjects examined on morning, or on afternoon. Among the 83 subjects also screened with Microbumintest, 22 displayed both a positive reaction and a persistent microalbuminuria: sensitivity 76%, specificity 81%, concordance 80%, and positive predictive value 69% (chi-squared test: 126; p less than 10(-4)). Both types of screening appeared equally effective during outpatient visit. Hence, a persistent microalbuminuria can be predicted during an outpatient visit in a diabetic clinic.

  1. Massive-Scale Gene Co-Expression Network Construction and Robustness Testing Using Random Matrix Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, Sven; Luo, Feng; Feltus, Frank A.; Smith, Melissa C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of gene relationships and their effect on biological function and phenotype is a focal point in systems biology. Gene co-expression networks built using microarray expression profiles are one technique for discovering and interpreting gene relationships. A knowledge-independent thresholding technique, such as Random Matrix Theory (RMT), is useful for identifying meaningful relationships. Highly connected genes in the thresholded network are then grouped into modules that provide insight into their collective functionality. While it has been shown that co-expression networks are biologically relevant, it has not been determined to what extent any given network is functionally robust given perturbations in the input sample set. For such a test, hundreds of networks are needed and hence a tool to rapidly construct these networks. To examine functional robustness of networks with varying input, we enhanced an existing RMT implementation for improved scalability and tested functional robustness of human (Homo sapiens), rice (Oryza sativa) and budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). We demonstrate dramatic decrease in network construction time and computational requirements and show that despite some variation in global properties between networks, functional similarity remains high. Moreover, the biological function captured by co-expression networks thresholded by RMT is highly robust. PMID:23409071

  2. Internet driver education study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  3. NEW SYSTEM, NEW DRIVERS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL ELJAIEK

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study seated out as objective to locate the discourses that the users of Transmilenio use to contribute to theconstruction of the identity of the system´s driver, considering that such discourses give account of the work identitiesconstructed from the practice of the driver. The work was made with written texts and oral stories (telephoneinterviews of users of the Transmilenio system, which used the Call Center of the organization in the lapse of oneweek, in order to inform about the drivers´ performance. The technique of Discourse Analysis was used to identify thediscourses of the users, which were then used to analyze the political implications that they have in the construction ofa part of the identity of the drivers.

  4. Driver behavior in traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  5. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jay; Wu, Tung H; Han, Rou P; Chang, Shu J; Shih, Cheng T; Sun, Jing Y; Hsu, Shih M

    2012-01-01

    Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs) consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP) commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC) for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT) was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265) and OT (p = 0.07). The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  6. Comparison of the commercial color LCD and the medical monochrome LCD using randomized object test patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Wu

    Full Text Available Workstations and electronic display devices in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS provide a convenient and efficient platform for medical diagnosis. The performance of display devices has to be verified to ensure that image quality is not degraded. In this study, we designed a set of randomized object test patterns (ROTPs consisting of randomly located spheres with various image characteristics to evaluate the performance of a 2.5 mega-pixel (MP commercial color LCD and a 3 MP diagnostic monochrome LCD in several aspects, including the contrast, resolution, point spread effect, and noise. The ROTPs were then merged into 120 abdominal CT images. Five radiologists were invited to review the CT images, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was carried out using a five-point rating scale. In the high background patterns of ROTPs, the sensitivity performance was comparable between both monitors in terms of contrast and resolution, whereas, in the low background patterns, the performance of the commercial color LCD was significantly poorer than that of the diagnostic monochrome LCD in all aspects. The average area under the ROC curve (AUC for reviewing abdominal CT images was 0.717±0.0200 and 0.740±0.0195 for the color monitor and the diagnostic monitor, respectively. The observation time (OT was 145±27.6 min and 127±19.3 min, respectively. No significant differences appeared in AUC (p = 0.265 and OT (p = 0.07. The overall results indicate that ROTPs can be implemented as a quality control tool to evaluate the intrinsic characteristics of display devices. Although there is still a gap in technology between different types of LCDs, commercial color LCDs could replace diagnostic monochrome LCDs as a platform for reviewing abdominal CT images after monitor calibration.

  7. [What does "p" mean at conclusion of a test of hypothesis in a randomized controlled clinical trial of superiority?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marubini, Ettore; Gallo, Fabio; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Verderio, Paolo

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this statistical note, the sixth in the series, is to introduce the rationale of the test of hypothesis suitable for comparing the effect of two treatments in a randomized controlled clinical trial of superiority. The presentation takes advantage of the analogy with a criminal trial debate based upon circumstantial evidence in an Italian Court. The results of three randomized controlled clinical trials: ISIS-1, AIMS and RESTORE are introduced and proper ways for their interpretation are suggested.

  8. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for First Lactation Monthly Test-day Milk Yields using Random Regression Test Day Model in Karan Fries Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Singh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A single trait linear mixed random regression test-day model was applied for the first time for analyzing the first lactation monthly test-day milk yield records in Karan Fries cattle. The test-day milk yield data was modeled using a random regression model (RRM considering different order of Legendre polynomial for the additive genetic effect (4th order and the permanent environmental effect (5th order. Data pertaining to 1,583 lactation records spread over a period of 30 years were recorded and analyzed in the study. The variance component, heritability and genetic correlations among test-day milk yields were estimated using RRM. RRM heritability estimates of test-day milk yield varied from 0.11 to 0.22 in different test-day records. The estimates of genetic correlations between different test-day milk yields ranged 0.01 (test-day 1 [TD-1] and TD-11 to 0.99 (TD-4 and TD-5. The magnitudes of genetic correlations between test-day milk yields decreased as the interval between test-days increased and adjacent test-day had higher correlations. Additive genetic and permanent environment variances were higher for test-day milk yields at both ends of lactation. The residual variance was observed to be lower than the permanent environment variance for all the test-day milk yields.

  9. Factors affecting compliance in faecal occult blood testing: a cluster randomized study of the faecal immunochemical test versus the guaiac faecal occult test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenfeld, Shlomo; Belfer, Rachel Gingold; Chared, Miri; Vilkin, Alex; Barchana, Micha; Lifshitz, Irena; Fruchter, Dana; Aronski, Dina; Balicer, Ran; Niv, Yaron; Levi, Zohar

    2011-01-01

    To compare the uptake of faecal immunochemical occult blood test (FIT) with guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) in a screening programme, with specific attention to the demographic and socioeconomic factors that might affect test uptake. The Clalit Health Service screening programme, Israel. Average-risk individuals aged 50-75 years were randomized into a FIT arm or gFOBT arm using a programme based on the socioeconomic status (SES) of their primary care clinics. G-FOBT was performed with Hemoccult SENSA™ (3 evacuations) and FIT with the OC- MICRO(TM) (3 evacuations, refrigerating mandated). The GLIMMIX model was used. There were 5,464 and 10,668 eligible participants in the FIT and gFOBT arms respectively. Compliance in taking the kits was better (but not statistically significantly better) with gFOBT (37.8% vs. 29.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.43 [95% CI 0.73-2.80]; P = 0.227). Kit return was higher in the FIT arm (65.0% vs. 78.9%; OR 0.45 [95% CI 0.24-0.83], P = 0.021). Overall test uptake was affected by age, gender, being immigrant and SES (determined by whether or not the participant paid national insurance tax, and the SES of the primary care clinic). The overall uptake of gFOBT and FIT was comparable (OR 0.996 [95% CI 0.46-2.17], P = 0.99). Overall compliance for test uptake was comparable between the two methods despite the more demanding procedure in the FIT arm. Sociodemographic parameters were the major determinants of compliance. An educational programme, with emphasis on the sociodemographic characteristics of the target population, should be instigated.

  10. Graduated Driver Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel J.; Allen, Siobhan; Armstrong, Kerry; Watson, Barry; King, Mark J.; Davey, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Graduated driver licensing (GDL) aims to gradually increase the exposure of new drivers to more complex driving situations and typically consists of learner, provisional and open licence phases. The first phase, the learner licence, is designed to allow novice drivers to obtain practical driving experience in lower risk situations. The learner licence can delay licensure, encourage novice drivers to learn under supervision, mandate the number of hours of practice required to progress to the next phase and encourage parental involvement. The second phase, the provisional licence, establishes various driving restrictions and thereby reduces exposure to situations of higher risk, such as driving at night, with passengers or after drinking alcohol. Parental involvement with a GDL system appears essential in helping novices obtain sufficient practice and in enforcing compliance with restrictions once the new driver obtains a provisional licence. Given the significant number of young drivers involved in crashes within Oman, GDL is one countermeasure that may be beneficial in reducing crash risk and involvement for this group. PMID:25364543

  11. A randomized trial of the clinical utility of genetic testing for obesity: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Catharine; Gordon, Erynn S; Stack, Catharine B; Liu, Ching-Ti; Norkunas, Tricia; Wawak, Lisa; Christman, Michael F; Green, Robert C; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-02-01

    Obesity rates in the United States have escalated in recent decades and present a major challenge in public health prevention efforts. Currently, testing to identify genetic risk for obesity is readily available through several direct-to-consumer companies. Despite the availability of this type of testing, there is a paucity of evidence as to whether providing people with personal genetic information on obesity risk will facilitate or impede desired behavioral responses. We describe the key issues in the design and implementation of a randomized controlled trial examining the clinical utility of providing genetic risk information for obesity. Participants are being recruited from the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative, an ongoing, longitudinal research cohort study designed to determine the utility of personal genome information in health management and clinical decision making. The primary focus of the ancillary Obesity Risk Communication Study is to determine whether genetic risk information added value to traditional communication efforts for obesity, which are based on lifestyle risk factors. The trial employs a 2 × 2 factorial design in order to examine the effects of providing genetic risk information for obesity, alone or in combination with lifestyle risk information, on participants' psychological responses, behavioral intentions, health behaviors, and weight. The factorial design generated four experimental arms based on communication of estimated risk to participants: (1) no risk feedback (control), (2) genetic risk only, (3) lifestyle risk only, and (4) both genetic and lifestyle risk (combined). Key issues in study design pertained to the selection of algorithms to estimate lifestyle risk and determination of information to be provided to participants assigned to each experimental arm to achieve a balance between clinical standards and methodological rigor. Following the launch of the trial in September 2011, implementation challenges

  12. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  13. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  14. Randomized test of an implementation intention-based tool to reduce stress-induced eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daryl B; Armitage, Christopher J; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2015-06-01

    Stress may indirectly contribute to disease (e.g. cardiovascular disease, cancer) by producing deleterious changes to diet. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a stress management support (SMS) tool to reduce stress-related unhealthy snacking and to promote stress-related healthy snacking. Participants were randomized to complete a SMS tool with instruction to link stressful situations with healthy snack alternatives (experimental) or a SMS tool without a linking instruction (control). On-line daily reports of stressors and snacking were completed for 7 days. Daily stressors were associated with unhealthy snack consumption in the control condition but not in the experimental condition. Participants highly motivated towards healthy eating consumed a greater number of healthy snacks in the experimental condition on stressful days compared to participants in the experimental condition with low and mean levels of motivation. This tool is an effective, theory driven, intervention that helps to protect against stress-induced high-calorie snack consumption.

  15. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  16. Impact of using a local protocol in preoperative testing: blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Mônica Loureiro; Iglesias, Antônio Carlos

    2017-01-01

    to evaluate the impact of the use of a local protocol of preoperative test requests in reducing the number of exams requested and in the occurrence of changes in surgical anesthetic management and perioperative complications. we conducted a randomized, blinded clinical trial at the Gaffrée and Guinle University Hospital with 405 patients candidates for elective surgery randomly divided into two groups, according to the practice of requesting preoperative exams: a group with non-selectively requested exams and a protocol group with exams requested according to the study protocol. Studied exams: complete blood count, coagulogram, glycemia, electrolytes, urea and creatinine, ECG and chest X-ray. Primary outcomes: changes in surgical anesthetic management caused by abnormal exams, reduction of the number of exams requested after the use of the protocol and perioperative complications. there was a significant difference (pradiografia de tórax. Desfechos primários: alterações na conduta anestésico-cirúrgica motivadas por exames anormais, redução do número de exames solicitados após o uso do protocolo e complicações perioperatórias. foi observada diferença significativa (p<0,001) no número de exames com resultados alterados entre os dois grupos (14,9% x 29,1%) e redução de 57,3% no número de exames pedidos entre os dois grupos (p<0,001), mais acentuada nos pacientes de menor faixa etária, ASA I, sem doenças associadas e submetidos a procedimentos de menor porte. Não houve diferença significativa na frequência de alterações de conduta motivada por resultado de exames, nem de complicações entre os dois grupos. Na análise multivariada hemograma e coagulograma foram os únicos exames capazes de modificar a conduta anestésico-cirúrgica. o protocolo proposto foi efetivo em eliminar um quantitativo significativo de exames complementares sem indicação clínica, sem que houvesse aumento na morbidade e mortalidades perioperatórias.

  17. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Outcomes of a Prospective Trial of Student-Athlete Drug Testing: The Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification ('SATURN') Study"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether the Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification ("SATURN") program affects illicit drug and alcohol use among student athletes. The study experienced high rates of sample attrition. Seven of the 18 study schools (39%) left the study and were not included in the analysis. Some students at the remaining…

  18. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 1 performance: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon H

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Helen Dixon,1 Catherine E Baker,2 Julien S Baker,3 Susan Dewhurst,4 Lawrence D Hayes4 1School of Human Sciences, London Metropolitan University, London, 2English Institute of Sport, Bisham Abbey National Sports Center, Buckinghamshire, 3Institute of Clinical Exercise and Health Science, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, 4Department of Medical and Sport Sciences, University of Cumbria, Lancaster, UK Abstract: This study investigated the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3– ingestion on the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test 1 (IR1. We tested the hypothesis that acute ingestion of NaHCO3– would increase blood lactate concentrations [BLa], enhance performance, and reduce rating of perceived exertion (RPE in the Yo-Yo IR1. Eight recreationally active males (N=8, age: 26±4 yr, height: 178±6 cm, body mass: 82±10 kg participated in the Yo-Yo IR1 on two separate occasions, separated by 1 wk, in a randomized crossover design. Following familiarization, during seated rest, participants’ pretest [BLa] was taken, and participants then consumed either a placebo of 0.3 g·kg–1 body weight sodium chloride or 0.3 g·kg–1 body weight NaHCO3–. Sixty minutes postingestion, a standardized warm-up preceded the Yo-Yo IR1. Upon completion, postexercise [BLa] (mmol·L–1, RPE (arbitrary units and Yo-Yo IR1 time to fatigue (s were recorded. Paired t-test revealed a small but significant improvement in Yo-Yo IR1 performance under the NaHCO3– condition (610±267 sec, compared to the placebo condition (556±259 sec; p=0.01; Cohen’s d=0.20. [BLa] increased more under the NaHCO3– condition (1.6±0.7 to 17.5±5.2 mmol·L–1; p<0.001; Cohen’s d=4.29, compared to the placebo condition (2.0±0.7 to 11.5±5.0 mmol·L–1; p=0.001; Cohen’s d=2.66. Postexercise RPE was not significantly different between conditions. The results of this study suggest that acute NaHCO3– ingestion improves Yo-Yo IR1 performance without altering RPE, likely

  19. Efficacy of a brief group parent-teen intervention in driver education to reduce teenage driver injury risk: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an adapted Checkpoints Program designed to increase parental limits on novice teen independent driving under high-risk conditions. Twenty-seven class sessions with a minimum of 5 dyads each were delivered in driver education to 231 parent-teen dyads. Entire driving school classes were randomized to Checkpoints Program or comparison group sessions, both led by a trained health educator. At licensure, compared with parents in the comparison group, treatment parents had increased awareness of teen driving risk and were more likely to have completed a parent-teen driving agreement and met Checkpoints recommendations for restrictions on teen driving in inclement weather and road types. They were also marginally more likely to have met Checkpoints restrictions on driving with teen passengers. This study indicates that it is feasible to implement the Checkpoints Program in driver education with positive effects on parent management practices.

  20. Identifying driver mutations in sequenced cancer genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raphael, Benjamin J; Dobson, Jason R; Oesper, Layla

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput DNA sequencing is revolutionizing the study of cancer and enabling the measurement of the somatic mutations that drive cancer development. However, the resulting sequencing datasets are large and complex, obscuring the clinically important mutations in a background of errors, noise......, and random mutations. Here, we review computational approaches to identify somatic mutations in cancer genome sequences and to distinguish the driver mutations that are responsible for cancer from random, passenger mutations. First, we describe approaches to detect somatic mutations from high-throughput DNA...... sequencing data, particularly for tumor samples that comprise heterogeneous populations of cells. Next, we review computational approaches that aim to predict driver mutations according to their frequency of occurrence in a cohort of samples, or according to their predicted functional impact on protein...

  1. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  2. Frequency and irregularity of heart rate in drivers suspected of driving under the influence of cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiabani, Hassan Z; Mørland, Jørg; Bramness, Jørgen G

    2008-12-01

    Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major active component of cannabis. Cardiovascular effects of THC have previously been reported: tachycardia after intake, but also bradycardia at higher doses. The purpose of this study was, firstly, to investigate the frequency and irregularity of heart rate in a group of cannabis users in their natural surroundings. We also compared THC-positive drivers with a regular pulse with THC-positive drivers with an irregular pulse. The division of Forensic Toxicology and Drug Abuse (DFTDA) at the Norwegian Institute of Public Heath analyzes blood samples from all drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs. We studied pulse rate and regularity in 502 THC-positive drivers who tested negative for other substances. As a control group, we randomly selected 125 drug-negative cases from the database of the DFTDA; no alcohol, narcotics, or medicinal drugs of abuse were detected. The Delta9-THC-positive drivers had a higher mean pulse rate than the control group [82.8 beats/min (SD 16.3) versus 75.6 beats/min (SD 9.2)] and more cases with tachycardia were detected in the Delta9-THC-positive group (19.4% versus 1.6%). There was only one driver with an irregular heart beat in the control group, while there were nine among the Delta9-THC-positive drivers. The drivers with an irregular pulse were over-represented amongst those with the lowest blood Delta9-THC concentrations. This report represents a large study of subjects in a real-life situation and includes observations on pulse frequency, regularity, and blood Delta9-THC concentration. A substantial fraction of Delta9-THC-positive drivers had tachycardia, but there was no correlation between blood Delta9-THC concentration and pulse rate in the present study. We had no further diagnostic information on the cause of the pulse irregularities, but our results indicate that occasional users of cannabis tend to have irregular heart rates at low THC concentrations and at low

  3. A randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an immersive 3D video game for anxiety prevention among adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, H.; Malmberg, M.; Lobel, A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Granic, I.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of

  4. Block design allowed for control of the Hawthorne effect in a randomized controlled trial of test ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, Wim H. J. M.; van der Weijden, Trudy; ter Riet, Gerben; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Winkens, Ron; Grol, Richard P. T. M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Objective: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. Methods: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating

  5. Block design allowed for control of the Hawthorne effect in a randomized controlled trial of test ordering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstappen, W.H.; Weijden, T. van der; Riet, G. ter; Grimshaw, J.; Winkens, R.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of balanced incomplete block designs in quality improvement research, and their capacity to control for the Hawthorne effect. METHODS: General practitioners teams were randomized into three arms and received an intervention on test ordering, relating

  6. Pseudo-Gaussian and rank-based optimal tests for random individual effects in large n small T panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennala, N.; Hallin, M.; Paindaveine, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of detecting unobserved heterogeneity, that is, the problem of testing the absence of random individual effects in an n × T panel. We establish a local asymptotic normality property–with respect to intercept, regression coefficient, the scale parameter σ of the error, and the

  7. Randomized controlled trial of supervised patient self-testing of warfarin therapy using an internet-based expert system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, F

    2009-08-01

    Increased frequency of prothrombin time testing, facilitated by patient self-testing (PST) of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) can improve the clinical outcomes of oral anticoagulation therapy (OAT). However, oversight of this type of management is often difficult and time-consuming for healthcare professionals. This study reports the first randomized controlled trial of an automated direct-to-patient expert system, enabling remote and effective management of patients on OAT.

  8. SAR-based change detection using hypothesis testing and Markov random field modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Martinis, S.

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to automatically detect changed areas caused by natural disasters from bi-temporal co-registered and calibrated TerraSAR-X data. The technique in this paper consists of two steps: Firstly, an automatic coarse detection step is applied based on a statistical hypothesis test for initializing the classification. The original analytical formula as proposed in the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) edge detector is reviewed and rewritten in a compact form of the incomplete beta function, which is a builtin routine in commercial scientific software such as MATLAB and IDL. Secondly, a post-classification step is introduced to optimize the noisy classification result in the previous step. Generally, an optimization problem can be formulated as a Markov random field (MRF) on which the quality of a classification is measured by an energy function. The optimal classification based on the MRF is related to the lowest energy value. Previous studies provide methods for the optimization problem using MRFs, such as the iterated conditional modes (ICM) algorithm. Recently, a novel algorithm was presented based on graph-cut theory. This method transforms a MRF to an equivalent graph and solves the optimization problem by a max-flow/min-cut algorithm on the graph. In this study this graph-cut algorithm is applied iteratively to improve the coarse classification. At each iteration the parameters of the energy function for the current classification are set by the logarithmic probability density function (PDF). The relevant parameters are estimated by the method of logarithmic cumulants (MoLC). Experiments are performed using two flood events in Germany and Australia in 2011 and a forest fire on La Palma in 2009 using pre- and post-event TerraSAR-X data. The results show convincing coarse classifications and considerable improvement by the graph-cut post-classification step.

  9. [Training in iterative hypothesis testing as part of psychiatric education. A randomized study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampen-Imkamp, S; Alte, C; Sipos, V; Kordon, A; Hohagen, F; Schweiger, U; Kahl, K G

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of medical education is at the center of efforts to reform the studies of medicine. Furthermore, an excellent teaching program for students is a quality feature of medical universities. Besides teaching of disease-specific contents, the acquisition of interpersonal and decision-making skills is important. However, the cognitive style of senior physicians leading to a diagnosis cannot easily be taught. Therefore, the following study aimed at examining whether specific training in iterative hypothesis testing (IHT) may improve the correctness of the diagnostic process. Seventy-one medical students in their 9th-11th terms were randomized to medical teaching as usual or to IHT training for 4 weeks. The intervention group received specific training according to the method of IHT. All students were examined by a multiple choice (MC) exam and additionally by simulated patients (SP). The SPs were instructed to represent either a patient with depression and comorbid anxiety and substance use disorder (SP1) or to represent a patient with depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and acute suicidal tendencies (SP2). All students identified the diagnosis of major depression in the SPs, but IHT-trained students recognized more diagnostic criteria. Furthermore, IHT-trained students recognized acute suicide tendencies in SP2 more often and identified more comorbid psychiatric disorders. The results of the MC exam were comparable in both groups. An analysis of the satisfaction with the different training programs revealed that the IHT training received a better appraisal. Our results point to the role of IHT in teaching diagnostic skills. However, the results of the MC exam were not influenced by IHT training. Furthermore, our results show that students are in need of training in practical clinical skills.

  10. Alcohol and marijuana use while driving--an unexpected crash risk in Pakistani commercial drivers: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Mohammed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant proportion of road traffic crashes are attributable to alcohol and marijuana use while driving globally. Sale and use of both substances is illegal in Pakistan and is not considered a threat for road traffic injuries. However literature hints that this may not be the case. We did this study to assess usage of alcohol and marijuana in Pakistani commercial drivers. Methods A sample of 857 commercial bus and truck drivers was interviewed in October 2008 at the largest commercial vehicle station in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Time location cluster sampling was used to select the subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the basic demographic profile, substance abuse habits of the drivers while on the road, and reasons for usage of illicit substances while driving were recorded. Self reported information was collected after obtaining informed consent. Chi square and fisher exact tests were used to assess differences between groups and logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between driver characteristics and alcohol and marijuana use. Results Almost 10% of truck drivers use alcohol while driving on Pakistani roads. Marijuana use is almost 30% in some groups. Statistically different patterns of usage are seen between population subgroups based on age, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Regression analysis shows association of alcohol and marijuana use with road rage and error behaviours, and also with an increased risk of being involved in road crashes. The reported reasons for using alcohol or marijuana show a general lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of this practice among the commercial driver population. Conclusion Alcohol and marijuana use is highly prevalent in Pakistani commercial drivers. The issue needs to be recognized by concerned authorities and methods such as random breath tests and sobriety check points need to be employed for proper law

  11. Crowdsourcing to promote HIV testing among MSM in China: study protocol for a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D

    2017-10-02

    HIV testing for marginalized populations is critical to controlling the HIV epidemic. However, the HIV testing rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China remains low. Crowdsourcing, the process of shifting individual tasks to a group, has been increasingly adopted in public health programs and may be a useful tool for spurring innovation in HIV testing campaigns. We designed a multi-site study to develop a crowdsourced HIV test promotion campaign and evaluate its effectiveness against conventional campaigns among MSM in China. This study will use an adaptation of the stepped wedge, randomized controlled trial design. A total of eight major metropolitan cities in China will be randomized to sequentially initiate interventions at 3-month intervals. The intervention uses crowdsourcing at multiple steps to sustain crowd contribution. Approximately 1280 MSM, who are 16 years of age or over, live in the intervention city, have not been tested for HIV in the past 3 months, and are not living with HIV, will be recruited. Recruitment will take place through banner advertisements on a large gay dating app along with other social media platforms. Participants will complete one follow-up survey every 3 months for 12 months to evaluate their HIV testing uptake in the past 3 months and secondary outcomes including syphilis testing, sex without condoms, community engagement, testing stigma, and other related outcomes. MSM HIV testing rates remain poor in China. Innovative methods to promote HIV testing are urgently needed. With a large-scale, stepped wedge, randomized controlled trial our study can improve understanding of crowdsourcing's long-term effectiveness in public health campaigns, expand HIV testing coverage among a key population, and inform intervention design in related public health fields. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02796963 . Registered on 23 May 2016.

  12. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant $C(2) $ C 2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de

    2015-09-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two

  13. The Effect of Fatigue on Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores in Recreational Weightlifters: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Trenton D; Chaconas, Eric

    2017-04-01

    A paucity of research currently exists for upper extremity return to sport testing. The Upper Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-UQ) is a clinical test of closed kinetic chain performance with demonstrated reliability. Prior investigations of the YBT-UQ were conducted with individuals in a resting state and no comparison to performance in a fatigued state has been conducted. To examine the effect of upper extremity fatigue on the performance of the YBT-UQ in recreational weightlifters. Randomized controlled trial. 24 participants who participated in recreational weight training three days per week were randomly allocated to a control or experimental group. Individuals in the control group were tested using the YBT-UQ and re-tested after a 20-minute rest period. Participants in the experimental group were tested with the YBT-UQ, performed an upper extremity exercise fatigue protocol, and immediately re-tested. Examiners were blinded to participant allocation. Differences from pre- to post-fatigue YBT-UQ testing revealed score reductions between 2.04cm - 12.16cm for both composite scores and individual reach directions. The repeated measures ANOVA revealed significant differences when comparing the pre- and post-testing results between the fatigue and non-fatigue groups for all individual directions (p ≤ .006) and composite scores both limbs (p<.035). The performance of an upper body fatigue protocol significantly reduces YBT-UQ scores in recreational weightlifters. 1b.

  14. Real-time driver fatigue detection based on face alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Guiying; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yi

    2017-07-01

    The performance and robustness of fatigue detection largely decrease if the driver with glasses. To address this issue, this paper proposes a practical driver fatigue detection method based on face alignment at 3000 FPS algorithm. Firstly, the eye regions of the driver are localized by exploiting 6 landmarks surrounding each eye. Secondly, the HOG features of the extracted eye regions are calculated and put into SVM classifier to recognize the eye state. Finally, the value of PERCLOS is calculated to determine whether the driver is drowsy or not. An alarm will be generated if the eye is closed for a specified period of time. The accuracy and real-time on testing videos with different drivers demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust and obtain better accuracy for driver fatigue detection compared with some previous method.

  15. Seven Performance Drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Recent work with automotive e-commerce clients led to the development of a performance analysis methodology called the Seven Performance Drivers, including: standards, incentives, capacity, knowledge and skill, measurement, feedback, and analysis. This methodology has been highly effective in introducing and implementing performance improvement.…

  16. Beginning teenage drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  17. Motor vehicle drivers' injuries in train-motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanshan; Khattak, Aemal

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to: (1) identify a more suitable model for modeling injury severity of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at highway-rail grade crossings from among three commonly used injury severity models and (2) to investigate factors associated with injury severity levels of motor vehicle drivers involved in train-motor vehicle crashes at such crossings. The 2009-2013 highway-rail grade crossing crash data and the national highway-rail crossing inventory data were combined to produce the analysis dataset. Four-year (2009-2012) data were used for model estimation while 2013 data were used for model validation. The three injury severity levels-fatal, injury and no injury-were based on the reported intensity of motor-vehicle drivers' injuries at highway-rail grade crossings. The three injury severity models evaluated were: ordered probit, multinomial logit and random parameter logit. A comparison of the three models based on different criteria showed that the random parameter logit model and multinomial logit model were more suitable for injury severity analysis of motor vehicle drivers involved in crashes at highway-rail grade crossings. Some of the factors that increased the likelihood of more severe crashes included higher train and vehicle speeds, freight trains, older drivers, and female drivers. Where feasible, reducing train and motor vehicle speeds and nighttime lighting may help reduce injury severities of motor vehicle drivers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Safety and Efficacy Assessment of Two New Leprosy Skin Test Antigens: Randomized Double Blind Clinical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L.; Groathouse, Nathan A.; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chatra B.; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B.; Hagge, Deanna A.; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Background New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. Methods A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. Findings In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens

  19. Safety and efficacy assessment of two new leprosy skin test antigens: randomized double blind clinical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky L Rivoire

    Full Text Available New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials.A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.. Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10 received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg of MLSA-LAM (n = 5 or MLCwA (n = 5 and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal, but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose and 0.1 µg (low dose of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose, each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC, and 20 tuberculosis (TB patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration.In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50 showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50 reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60

  20. Safety and efficacy assessment of two new leprosy skin test antigens: randomized double blind clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Becky L; Groathouse, Nathan A; TerLouw, Stephen; Neupane, Kapil Dev; Ranjit, Chaman; Sapkota, Bishwa Raj; Khadge, Saraswoti; Kunwar, Chhatra B; Kunwar, Chatra B; Macdonald, Murdo; Hawksworth, Rachel; Thapa, Min B; Hagge, Deanna A; Tibbals, Melinda; Smith, Carol; Dube, Tina; She, Dewei; Wolff, Mark; Zhou, Eric; Makhene, Mamodikoe; Mason, Robin; Sizemore, Christine; Brennan, Patrick J

    2014-01-01

    New tools are required for the diagnosis of pre-symptomatic leprosy towards further reduction of disease burden and its associated reactions. To address this need, two new skin test antigens were developed to assess safety and efficacy in human trials. A Phase I safety trial was first conducted in a non-endemic region for leprosy (U.S.A.). Healthy non-exposed subjects (n = 10) received three titrated doses (2.5 µg, 1.0 µg and 0.1 µg) of MLSA-LAM (n = 5) or MLCwA (n = 5) and control antigens [Rees MLSA (1.0 µg) and saline]. A randomized double blind Phase II safety and efficacy trial followed in an endemic region for leprosy (Nepal), but involved only the 1.0 µg (high dose) and 0.1 µg (low dose) of each antigen; Tuberculin PPD served as a control antigen. This Phase II safety and efficacy trial consisted of three Stages: Stage A and B studies were an expansion of Phase I involving 10 and 90 subjects respectively, and Stage C was then conducted in two parts (high dose and low dose), each enrolling 80 participants: 20 borderline lepromatous/lepromatous (BL/LL) leprosy patients, 20 borderline tuberculoid/tuberculoid (BT/TT) leprosy patients, 20 household contacts of leprosy patients (HC), and 20 tuberculosis (TB) patients. The primary outcome measure for the skin test was delayed type hypersensitivity induration. In the small Phase I safety trial, reactions were primarily against the 2.5 µg dose of both antigens and Rees control antigen, which were then excluded from subsequent studies. In the Phase II, Stage A/B ramped-up safety study, 26% of subjects (13 of 50) showed induration against the high dose of each antigen, and 4% (2 of 50) reacted to the low dose of MLSA-LAM. Phase II, Stage C safety and initial efficacy trial showed that both antigens at the low dose exhibited low sensitivity at 20% and 25% in BT/TT leprosy patients, but high specificity at 100% and 95% compared to TB patients. The high dose of both antigens showed lower specificity (70% and 60

  1. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., including but not limited to the crimes of motor vehicle manslaughter, homicide by motor vehicle and... offenses and periods for which a driver must be disqualified, depending upon the type of vehicle the driver... motor vehicle and is convicted of: For a first conviction or refusal to be tested while operating a CMV...

  2. Fitness to drive in older drivers with cognitive impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withaar, FK; Brouwer, WH; Van Zomeren, AH

    This paper is a literature review on assessment of fitness to drive in older drivers with cognitive impairment. Early studies on dementia and driving generally failed to distinguish between safe and unsafe drivers on the basis of cognitive test performance. Predictive studies demonstrated that

  3. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  4. MissMech: An R Package for Testing Homoscedasticity, Multivariate Normality, and Missing Completely at Random (MCAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortaza Jamshidian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are often faced with analyzing data sets that are not complete. To prop- erly analyze such data sets requires the knowledge of the missing data mechanism. If data are missing completely at random (MCAR, then many missing data analysis techniques lead to valid inference. Thus, tests of MCAR are desirable. The package MissMech implements two tests developed by Jamshidian and Jalal (2010 for this purpose. These tests can be run using a function called TestMCARNormality. One of the tests is valid if data are normally distributed, and another test does not require any distributional assumptions for the data. In addition to testing MCAR, in some special cases, the function TestMCARNormality is also able to test whether data have a multivariate normal distribution. As a bonus, the functions in MissMech can also be used for the following additional tasks: (i test of homoscedasticity for several groups when data are completely observed, (ii perform the k-sample test of Anderson-Darling to determine whether k groups of univariate data come from the same distribution, (iii impute incomplete data sets using two methods, one where normality is assumed and one where no specific distributional assumptions are made, (iv obtain normal-theory maximum likelihood estimates for mean and covariance matrix when data are incomplete, along with their standard errors, and finally (v perform the Neymans test of uniformity. All of these features are explained in the paper, including examples.

  5. Counteracting driver sleepiness: effects of napping, caffeine, and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, J A; Reyner, L A

    1996-05-01

    Sleepy drivers should "take a break," but the efficacy of feasible additional countermeasures that can be used during the break is unknown. We examined a shorter than 15 min nap, 150 mg of caffeine in coffee, and a coffee placebo, each given randomly across test sessions to 10 sleepy subjects during a 30-min rest period between two 1-hr monotonous early afternoon drives in a car simulator. Caffeine and nap significantly reduced driving impairments, subjective sleepiness, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity indicating drowsiness. Blink rate was unaffected. Sleep during naps varied, whereas caffeine produced more consistent effects. Subjects acknowledged sleepiness when the EEG indicated drowsiness, and driving impairments were preceded by self-knowledge of sleepiness. Taking just a break proved ineffective.

  6. Driver Vision Based Perception-Response Time Prediction and Assistance Model on Mountain Highway Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Chen, Yuren

    2016-12-30

    To make driving assistance system more humanized, this study focused on the prediction and assistance of drivers' perception-response time on mountain highway curves. Field tests were conducted to collect real-time driving data and driver vision information. A driver-vision lane model quantified curve elements in drivers' vision. A multinomial log-linear model was established to predict perception-response time with traffic/road environment information, driver-vision lane model, and mechanical status (last second). A corresponding assistance model showed a positive impact on drivers' perception-response times on mountain highway curves. Model results revealed that the driver-vision lane model and visual elements did have important influence on drivers' perception-response time. Compared with roadside passive road safety infrastructure, proper visual geometry design, timely visual guidance, and visual information integrality of a curve are significant factors for drivers' perception-response time.

  7. The use of random decrement technique for identification of structural modes of vibration. [tested on a generalized payload and the space shuttle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the free responses of a structure from its random responses due to some unknown or known random input or inputs, using the random-decrement technique without changing time correlation between signals. The algorithm is tested using random responses from a 'generalized payload' model and from the 'Space Shuttle' model. The resulting free responses are then used to identify the modal characteristics of the two systems.

  8. The impact of daily evaluation and spontaneous breathing test on the duration of pediatric mechanical ventilation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Flávia K; Troster, Eduardo J; Farias, Julio A; Barbas, Carmen S; Ferraro, Alexandre A; Faria, Lucília S; Bousso, Albert; Panico, Flávia F; Delgado, Artur F

    2011-11-01

    To assess whether the combination of daily evaluation and use of a spontaneous breathing test could shorten the duration of mechanical ventilation as compared with weaning based on our standard of care. Secondary outcome measures included extubation failure rate and the need for noninvasive ventilation. A prospective, randomized controlled trial. Two pediatric intensive care units at university hospitals in Brazil. The trial involved children between 28 days and 15 yrs of age who were receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hrs. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two weaning protocols. In the test group, the children underwent a daily evaluation to check readiness for weaning with a spontaneous breathing test with 10 cm H2O pressure support and a positive end-expiratory pressure of 5 cm H2O for 2 hrs. The spontaneous breathing test was repeated the next day for children who failed it. In the control group, weaning was performed according to standard care procedures. A total of 294 eligible children were randomized, with 155 to the test group and 139 to the control group. The time to extubation was shorter in the test group, where the median mechanical ventilation duration was 3.5 days (95% confidence interval, 3.0 to 4.0) as compared to 4.7 days (95% confidence interval, 4.1 to 5.3) in the control group (p = .0127). This significant reduction in the mechanical ventilation duration for the intervention group was not associated with increased rates of extubation failure or noninvasive ventilation. It represents a 30% reduction in the risk of remaining on mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio: 0.70). A daily evaluation to check readiness for weaning combined with a spontaneous breathing test reduced the mechanical ventilation duration for children on mechanical ventilation for >24 hrs, without increasing the extubation failure rate or the need for noninvasive ventilation.

  9. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student …

  10. A permutation test to analyse systematic bias and random measurement errors of medical devices via boosting location and scale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Andreas; Schmid, Matthias; Pfahlberg, Annette; Uter, Wolfgang; Gefeller, Olaf

    2017-06-01

    Measurement errors of medico-technical devices can be separated into systematic bias and random error. We propose a new method to address both simultaneously via generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) in combination with permutation tests. More precisely, we extend a recently proposed boosting algorithm for GAMLSS to provide a test procedure to analyse potential device effects on the measurements. We carried out a large-scale simulation study to provide empirical evidence that our method is able to identify possible sources of systematic bias as well as random error under different conditions. Finally, we apply our approach to compare measurements of skin pigmentation from two different devices in an epidemiological study.

  11. Random test of R22 and HFC leakage in cooling installations; Steekproefonderzoek R22 en HFK lekkage koelinstallaties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennartz, F.; Van den Bovenkamp, M. [KWA Bedrijfsadviseurs, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    KWA Business Consultants has conducted a random test survey in the dairy industry, meat industry and a peer group in other food sectors. The main goal was to obtain data on the size and trends of R22 and HFC emissions in the period 2007-2010. The survey is carried out by collecting the data of refilling refrigeration installations that have been registered by the refrigeration contractors. In total 1984 installations of 193 companies participated in the random test [Dutch] Begin 2012 is in opdracht van Agentschap NL onderzoek uitgevoerd naar lekkages van R22 en HFK koudemiddelen uit koelinstallaties in de sectoren zuivel, vlees en overige gerelateerde sectoren in de voedingsmiddelenindustrie. Het onderzoek had de vorm van een steekproef. Er hebben 193 bedrijven deelgenomen; 1984 koelinstallaties zijn onderzocht. Het gemiddelde lekpercentages is 7. De lekkages zijn afkomstig van 10 procent van de installaties uit de onderzoeksgroep.

  12. Drivers, Trends and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, Arthur S.; Gerlagh, Reyer; Suh, Sangwon; Barrett, John A.; de Coninck, Heleen; Diaz Morejon, Cristobal Felix; Mathur, Ritu; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Ahenkorah, Alfred Ofosu; Pan, Jiahua; Pathak, Himanshu; Rice, Jake; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Stern, David; Toth, Ferenc L.; Zhou, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Chapter 5 analyzes the anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emission trends until the present and the main drivers that explain those trends. The chapter uses different perspectives to analyze past GHG-emissions trends, including aggregate emissions flows and per capita emissions, cumulative emissions, sectoral emissions, and territory-based vs. consumption-based emissions. In all cases, global and regional trends are analyzed. Where appropriate, the emission trends are contextualized with long-term historic developments in GHG emissions extending back to 1750.

  13. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...

  14. Education and driver-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  15. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchanda, Ranjit; Loggenberg, Kelly; Sanderson, Saskia; Burnell, Matthew; Wardle, Jane; Gessler, Sue; Side, Lucy; Balogun, Nyala; Desai, Rakshit; Kumar, Ajith; Dorkins, Huw; Wallis, Yvonne; Chapman, Cyril; Taylor, Rohan; Jacobs, Chris; Tomlinson, Ian; McGuire, Alistair; Beller, Uziel; Menon, Usha; Jacobs, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)-based testing. In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population screening (PS) arm with testing those fulfilling standard FH-based clinical criteria (FH arm). Following a targeted community campaign, AJ participants older than 18 years were recruited by self-referral after pretest genetic counseling. The effects of BRCA1/2 genetic testing on acceptability, psychological impact, and quality-of-life measures were assessed by random effects regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. One thousand, one hundred sixty-eight AJ individuals were counseled, 1042 consented, 1034 were randomly assigned (691 women, 343 men), and 1017 were eligible for analysis. Mean age was 54.3 (SD = 14.66) years. Thirteen BRCA1/2 carriers were identified in the PS arm, nine in the FH arm. Five more carriers were detected among FH-negative FH-arm participants following study completion. There were no statistically significant differences between the FH and PS arms at seven days or three months on measures of anxiety, depression, health anxiety, distress, uncertainty, and quality-of-life. Contrast tests indicated that overall anxiety (P = .0001) and uncertainty (P = .005) associated with genetic testing decreased; positive experience scores increased (P = .0001); quality-of-life and health anxiety did not change with time. Overall, 56% of carriers did not fulfill clinical criteria for genetic testing, and the BRCA1/2 prevalence was 2.45%. Compared with FH-based testing, population-based genetic testing in Ashkenazi Jews doesn't adversely affect short-term psychological

  16. Sleepiness of occupational drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Drowsiness and sleeping at the wheel are now identified as the reasons behind fatal crashes and highway accidents caused by occupational drivers. For many years, fatigue has been associated to risk of accidents but the causes of this symptom were unclear. Extensive or nocturnal driving was associated to accidents but few reports differentiated fatigue from sleepiness. In the early nineties, epidemiological data started investigating sleepiness and sleep deprivation as cause of accidents. Sleepiness at the wheel, sleep restriction and nocturnal driving have been incriminated in 20% of traffic accidents. Drugs affecting the central nervous system (i.e., narcotic analgesics, antihistamine drugs), nocturnal breathing disorders and narcolepsy have been also associated with an increasing risk of accidents. Treatments improving daytime vigilance (i.e., nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) reduce significantly the risk of traffic accidents for a reasonable economical cost. Sleep disorders among occupational drivers need to be systematically investigated. Chronic daytime sleepiness is still under diagnosed and sleep disorders (i.e. obstructive sleep apnea syndrome) are not enough explored and treated in this exposed population of sedentary males. Drivers education and work schedules integrating notions of sleep hygiene as well as promotion of sleep medicine could significantly improve road safety.

  17. A note on Using regression models to analyze randomized trials: asymptotically valid hypothesis tests despite incorrectly specified models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jane Paik

    2013-03-01

    In the context of randomized trials, Rosenblum and van der Laan (2009, Biometrics 63, 937-945) considered the null hypothesis of no treatment effect on the mean outcome within strata of baseline variables. They showed that hypothesis tests based on linear regression models and generalized linear regression models are guaranteed to have asymptotically correct Type I error regardless of the actual data generating distribution, assuming the treatment assignment is independent of covariates. We consider another important outcome in randomized trials, the time from randomization until failure, and the null hypothesis of no treatment effect on the survivor function conditional on a set of baseline variables. By a direct application of arguments in Rosenblum and van der Laan (2009), we show that hypothesis tests based on multiplicative hazards models with an exponential link, i.e., proportional hazards models, and multiplicative hazards models with linear link functions where the baseline hazard is parameterized, are asymptotically valid under model misspecification provided that the censoring distribution is independent of the treatment assignment given the covariates. In the case of the Cox model and linear link model with unspecified baseline hazard function, the arguments in Rosenblum and van der Laan (2009) cannot be applied to show the robustness of a misspecified model. Instead, we adopt an approach used in previous literature (Struthers and Kalbfleisch, 1986, Biometrika 73, 363-369) to show that hypothesis tests based on these models, including models with interaction terms, have correct type I error. Copyright © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  18. The class project of cyber-driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Sorokoumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a class project of cyber-driver, i.e. an android robot controlling a mobile platform. This project can be used both to teach high-school students in programming, hardware design and foundations of robotic science by solving some important and scientifically interesting tasks. Despite the great number of modern android robotics systems, their software controlling systems often have serious issues. Such actions as rough terrain movement or stairs climbing can be performed simply and accurately by both humans and animals but not by biosimilar robots. The traditional systems in these cases demand many complex and precise settings to perform such movements and nevertheless they remain very vulnerable to random factors. In robotic perception models the situation is similar: casual human tasks as image recognition or scene analysis need complex algorithms and huge computer resources if performed by robots. Biologically-inspired models can improve matters in robotic science. Human movement copying is often used for solving this problem in practice but it does not allow copying considerable aspects of movement controlling in nervous system. Both controlling quality and testing quality for the aforementioned tasks can be essentially improved if the robot uses techniques similar to central motor programs of human. This project helps students to study this important domain. Besides, robotic perception can imitate biological systems more closely. Such biologically-inspired perception models give structure to computer vision systems and allow developing these systems quicker. The cyber-driver project is an example of biologically-inspired educational system. The system proposed consists of android robot that can manipulate levers, wheels and buttons, and mobile robotic platform. Educational robotic platform YARP-3 allows easy modification of constructing arms and grippers encouraging students’ creativity. The software of the robot can

  19. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  20. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation vs. imagery rescripting on test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Warnecke, Irene; Tolgou, Theano; Krampen, Dorothea; Luka-Krausgrill, Ursula; Rohrmann, Sonja

    2017-01-15

    Test anxiety is a common condition in students, which may lead to impaired academic performance as well as to distress. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to reduce test anxiety. Test anxiety in the participants was diagnosed as social or specific phobia according to DSM-IV. Subsequently subjects were randomized to three groups: a moderated self-help group, which served as a control group, and two treatment groups, where either relaxation techniques or imagery rescripting were applied. Students suffering from test anxiety were recruited at two German universities (n=180). The randomized controlled design comprised three groups which received test anxiety treatment in weekly three-hour sessions over a period of five weeks. Treatment outcome was assessed with a test anxiety questionnaire, which was administered before and after treatment, as well as in a six-month follow-up. A repeated-measures ANOVA for participants with complete data (n=59) revealed a significant reduction of test anxiety from baseline to six-month follow-up in all three treatment groups (p<.001). Participants were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of test anxiety. The sample may therefore represent only more severe forms of text anxiety . Moreover, the sample size in this study was small, the numbers of participants per group differed, and treatment results were based on self-report. Due to the length of the treatment, an implementation of the group treatments used in this study might not be feasible in all settings. Group treatments constitute an effective method of treating test anxiety, e.g. in university settings. Imagery rescripting may particularly contribute to treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The cost-effectiveness of rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment: results of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schackman, Bruce R; Metsch, Lisa R; Colfax, Grant N; Leff, Jared A; Wong, Angela; Scott, Callie A; Feaster, Daniel J; Gooden, Lauren; Matheson, Tim; Haynes, Louise F; Paltiel, A David; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2013-02-01

    The President's National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for coupling HIV screening and prevention services with substance abuse treatment programs. Fewer than half of US community-based substance abuse treatment programs make HIV testing available on-site or through referral. We measured the cost-effectiveness of three HIV testing strategies evaluated in a randomized trial conducted in 12 community-based substance abuse treatment programs in 2009: off-site testing referral, on-site rapid testing with information only, on-site rapid testing with risk-reduction counseling. Data from the trial included patient demographics, prior testing history, test acceptance and receipt of results, undiagnosed HIV prevalence (0.4%) and program costs. The Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC) computer simulation model was used to project life expectancy, lifetime costs, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for HIV-infected individuals. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (2009 US $/QALY) were calculated after adding costs of testing HIV-uninfected individuals; costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Referral for off-site testing is less efficient (dominated) compared to offering on-site testing with information only. The cost-effectiveness ratio for on-site testing with information is $60,300/QALY in the base case, or $76,300/QALY with 0.1% undiagnosed HIV prevalence. HIV risk-reduction counseling costs $36 per person more without additional benefit. A strategy of on-site rapid HIV testing offer with information only in substance abuse treatment programs increases life expectancy at a cost-effectiveness ratio substance abuse treatment leaders should seek funding to implement on-site rapid HIV testing in substance abuse treatment programs for those not recently tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can We Model Driver Perceptions? An In-Situ Experiment in Real-World Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. Tawfik, PhD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that perceptions play a significant role in traveler decisions. Consequently, traveler perceptions are a corner stone in the feasibility of traveler information systems; for traveler information systems are only valuable if the drivers are incapable of accurately acquiring the provided information on their own, and if the provided information is relevant for the drivers' decision criteria. Accuracy of traveler perceptions has been repeatedly researched in public transportation, and has been found to vary according to different reasons. However, in spite of the clear significance of traveler perceptions, minimal effort has been put into modeling it. Almost all travel behavior models are based on traveler experiences, which are assumed to reflect traveler perceptions via the addition of some random error component. This works introduces an alternative approach: instead of adding an error component to represent driver perceptions, it proposes to model driver perceptions. This work is based on a real-world route choice experiment of a sample of 20 drivers who made more than 2,000 real-world route choices. Each of the drivers' experiences, perceptions, and choices were recorded, analyzed and cross examined. The paper demonstrates that: i driver experiences are different from driver perceptions, ii driver perceptions explain driver choices better than driver experiences, iii it is possible to model and predict driver perceptions of travel distance, time and speed.

  3. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Meads, David M; West, Robert M

    2011-04-11

    Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B=-1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B=-2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B=.18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. © 2011 McEachan et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Cath

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396

  5. 78 FR 22602 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    ... behalf of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's Privacy Act Statement for... histories. Camille Myers stated the importance of standardized visual testing for all drivers when licenses...

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Hanneke; Malmberg, Monique; Lobel, Adam; Engels, Rutger C M E; Granic, Isabela

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138) was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo) for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old) were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape). Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms) in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Test the Effectiveness of an Immersive 3D Video Game for Anxiety Prevention among Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke Scholten

    Full Text Available Adolescent anxiety is debilitating, the most frequently diagnosed adolescent mental health problem, and leads to substantial long-term problems. A randomized controlled trial (n = 138 was conducted to test the effectiveness of a biofeedback video game (Dojo for adolescents with elevated levels of anxiety. Adolescents (11-15 years old were randomly assigned to play Dojo or a control game (Rayman 2: The Great Escape. Initial screening for anxiety was done on 1,347 adolescents in five high schools; only adolescents who scored above the "at-risk" cut-off on the Spence Children Anxiety Survey were eligible. Adolescents' anxiety levels were assessed at pre-test, post-test, and at three month follow-up to examine the extent to which playing Dojo decreased adolescents' anxiety. The present study revealed equal improvements in anxiety symptoms in both conditions at follow-up and no differences between Dojo and the closely matched control game condition. Latent growth curve models did reveal a steeper decrease of personalized anxiety symptoms (not of total anxiety symptoms in the Dojo condition compared to the control condition. Moderation analyses did not show any differences in outcomes between boys and girls nor did age differentiate outcomes. The present results are of importance for prevention science, as this was the first full-scale randomized controlled trial testing indicated prevention effects of a video game aimed at reducing anxiety. Future research should carefully consider the choice of control condition and outcome measurements, address the potentially high impact of participants' expectations, and take critical design issues into consideration, such as individual- versus group-based intervention and contamination issues.

  8. Review Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    Abstract. Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South. Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation curve for cows.

  9. Random regression test-day model for the analysis of dairy cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic evaluation of dairy cattle using test-day models is now common internationally. In South Africa a fixed regression test-day model is used to generate breeding values for dairy animals on a routine basis. The model is, however, often criticized for erroneously assuming a standard lactation curve for cows in similar ...

  10. Spatial distribution of fiber types in skeletal muscle: test for a random distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venema, H. W.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical test is introduced for the assessment of fiber type grouping based on the number of neighboring fibers of different histochemical type. It is conceptually simple and can be applied to regular and irregular fiber patterns alike. One important feature of this test is that it has more

  11. Is HPV DNA testing specificity comparable to that of cytological testing in primary cervical cancer screening? Results of a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileggi, Claudia; Flotta, Domenico; Bianco, Aida; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pavia, Maria

    2014-07-01

    Human-papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been proposed as an alternative to primary cervical cancer screening using cytological testing. Review of the evidence shows that available data are conflicting for some aspects. The overall goal of the study is to update the performance of HPV DNA as stand-alone testing in primary cervical cancer screening, focusing particularly on the aspects related to the specificity profile of the HPV DNA testing in respect to cytology. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Eight articles were included in the meta-analysis. Three outcomes have been investigated: relative detection, relative specificity, and relative positive predictive value (PPV) of HPV DNA testing versus cytology. Overall evaluation of relative detection showed a significantly higher detection of CIN2+ and CIN3+ for HPV DNA testing versus cytology. Meta-analyses that considered all age groups showed a relative specificity that favored the cytology in detecting both CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions whereas, in the ≥30 years' group, specificity of HPV DNA and cytology tests was similar in detecting both CIN2+ and CIN3+ lesions. Results of the pooled analysis on relative PPV showed a not significantly lower PPV of HPV DNA test over cytology. A main key finding of the study is that in women aged ≥30, has been found an almost overlapping specificity between the two screening tests in detecting CIN2 and above-grade lesions. Therefore, primary screening of cervical cancer by HPV DNA testing appears to offer the right balance between maximum detection of CIN2+ and adequate specificity, if performed in the age group ≥30 years. © 2013 UICC.

  12. Correlation of finite element free vibration predictions using random vibration test data. M.S. Thesis - Cleveland State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Finite element analysis is regularly used during the engineering cycle of mechanical systems to predict the response to static, thermal, and dynamic loads. The finite element model (FEM) used to represent the system is often correlated with physical test results to determine the validity of analytical results provided. Results from dynamic testing provide one means for performing this correlation. One of the most common methods of measuring accuracy is by classical modal testing, whereby vibratory mode shapes are compared to mode shapes provided by finite element analysis. The degree of correlation between the test and analytical mode shapes can be shown mathematically using the cross orthogonality check. A great deal of time and effort can be exhausted in generating the set of test acquired mode shapes needed for the cross orthogonality check. In most situations response data from vibration tests are digitally processed to generate the mode shapes from a combination of modal parameters, forcing functions, and recorded response data. An alternate method is proposed in which the same correlation of analytical and test acquired mode shapes can be achieved without conducting the modal survey. Instead a procedure is detailed in which a minimum of test information, specifically the acceleration response data from a random vibration test, is used to generate a set of equivalent local accelerations to be applied to the reduced analytical model at discrete points corresponding to the test measurement locations. The static solution of the analytical model then produces a set of deformations that once normalized can be used to represent the test acquired mode shapes in the cross orthogonality relation. The method proposed has been shown to provide accurate results for both a simple analytical model as well as a complex space flight structure.

  13. Real-time driver drowsiness feedback improves driver alertness and self-reported driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidman, Eugene; Chadunow, Carolyn; Johnson, Kayla; Reece, John

    2015-08-01

    Driver drowsiness has been implicated as a major causal factor in road accidents. Tools that allow remote monitoring and management of driver fatigue are used in the mining and road transport industries. Increasing drivers' own awareness of their drowsiness levels using such tools may also reduce risk of accidents. The study examined the effects of real-time blink-velocity-derived drowsiness feedback on driver performance and levels of alertness in a military setting. A sample of 15 Army Reserve personnel (1 female) aged 21-59 (M=41.3, SD=11.1) volunteered to being monitored by an infra-red oculography-based Optalert Alertness Monitoring System (OAMS) while they performed their regular driving tasks, including on-duty tasks and commuting to and from duty, for a continuous period of 4-8 weeks. For approximately half that period, blink-velocity-derived Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS) scores were fed back to the driver in a counterbalanced repeated-measures design, resulting in a total of 419 driving periods under "feedback" and 385 periods under "no-feedback" condition. Overall, the provision of real-time feedback resulted in reduced drowsiness (lower JDS scores) and improved alertness and driving performance ratings. The effect was small and varied across the 24-h circadian cycle but it remained robust after controlling for time of day and driving task duration. Both the number of JDS peaks counted for each trip and their duration declined in the presence of drowsiness feedback, indicating a dynamic pattern that is consistent with a genuine, entropy-reducing feedback mechanism (as distinct from random re-alerting) behind the observed effect. Its mechanisms and practical utility have yet to be fully explored. Direct examination of the alternative, random re-alerting explanation of this feedback effect is an important step for future research. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Randomized trial testing a worksite sun protection program in an outdoor recreation industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M; Voeks, Jenifer H; Giese, Aimee J

    2005-08-01

    Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in a pair-matched, group-randomized, pretest-posttest controlled design enrolling employees at 26 ski areas in Western North America. Employees at the intervention ski areas were more aware of GSS (odds ratio [OR] = 8.27, p .05) of reduced sunburning in a mediational analysis. Analyses of nonrespondents, including intent-to-treat analyses, further supported the success of GSS.

  15. Test-enhanced web-based learning: optimizing the number of questions (a randomized crossover trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G

    2014-01-01

    Questions enhance learning in Web-based courses, but preliminary evidence suggests that too many questions may interfere with learning. The authors sought to determine how varying the number of self-assessment questions affects knowledge outcomes in a Web-based course. The authors conducted a randomized crossover trial in one internal medicine and one family medicine residency program between January 2009 and July 2010. Eight Web-based modules on ambulatory medicine topics were developed, with varying numbers of self-assessment questions (0, 1, 5, 10, or 15). Participants completed modules in four different formats each year, with sequence randomly assigned. Participants completed a pretest for half their modules. Outcomes included knowledge, completion time, and module ratings. One hundred eighty residents provided data. The mean (standard error) percent correct knowledge score was 53.2 (0.8) for pretests and 73.7 (0.5) for posttests. In repeated-measures analysis pooling all data, mean posttest knowledge scores were highest for the 10- and 15-question formats (75.7 [1.1] and 74.4 [1.0], respectively) and lower for 0-, 1-, and 5-question formats (73.1 [1.3], 72.9 [1.0], and 72.8 [1.5], respectively); P = .04 for differences across all modules. Modules with more questions generally took longer to complete and were rated higher, although differences were small. Residents most often identified 10 questions as ideal. Posttest knowledge scores were higher for modules that included a pretest (75.4 [0.9] versus 72.2 [0.9]; P = .0002). Increasing the number of self-assessment questions improves learning until a plateau beyond which additional questions do not add value.

  16. Random regression analysis of test-day milk yields in the first and second lactations of Brazilian Gyr cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Herrera, L G; El Faro, L; Bignardi, A B; Pereira, R J; Machado, C H C; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-12-09

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the genetic parameters for test-day milk yields (TDMY) in the first and second lactations using random regression models (RRM) in order to contribute to the application of these models in genetic evaluation of milk yield in Gyr cattle. A total of 53,328 TDMY records from 7118 lactations of 5853 Gyr cows were analyzed. The model included the direct additive, permanent environmental, and residual random effects. In addition, contemporary group and linear and quadratic effects of the age of cows at calving were included as fixed effects. A random regression model fitting fourth-order Legendre polynomials for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, with five classes of residual variance, was applied. In the first lactation, the heritabilities increased from early lactation (0.26) until TDMY3 (0.38), followed by a decrease until the end of lactation. In the second lactation, the estimates increased from the first (0.29) to the fifth test day (0.36), with a slight decrease thereafter, and again increased on the last two test days (0.34 and 0.41). There were positive and high genetic correlations estimated between first-lactation TDMY and the remaining TDMY of the two lactations. The moderate heritability estimates, as well as the high genetic correlations between half the first-lactation TDMY and all TDMY of the two lactations, suggest that the selection based only on first lactation TDMY is the best selection strategy to increase milk production across first and second lactations of Gyr cows.

  17. Random regression models to estimate genetic parameters for test-day milk yield in Brazilian Murrah buffaloes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesana, R C; Bignardi, A B; Borquis, R R A; El Faro, L; Baldi, F; Albuquerque, L G; Tonhati, H

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this work was to estimate covariance functions for additive genetic and permanent environmental effects and, subsequently, to obtain genetic parameters for buffalo's test-day milk production using random regression models on Legendre polynomials (LPs). A total of 17 935 test-day milk yield (TDMY) from 1433 first lactations of Murrah buffaloes, calving from 1985 to 2005 and belonging to 12 herds located in São Paulo state, Brazil, were analysed. Contemporary groups (CGs) were defined by herd, year and month of milk test. Residual variances were modelled through variance functions, from second to fourth order and also by a step function with 1, 4, 6, 22 and 42 classes. The model of analyses included the fixed effect of CGs, number of milking, age of cow at calving as a covariable (linear and quadratic) and the mean trend of the population. As random effects were included the additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. The additive genetic and permanent environmental random effects were modelled by LP of days in milk from quadratic to seventh degree polynomial functions. The model with additive genetic and animal permanent environmental effects adjusted by quintic and sixth order LP, respectively, and residual variance modelled through a step function with six classes was the most adequate model to describe the covariance structure of the data. Heritability estimates decreased from 0.44 (first week) to 0.18 (fourth week). Unexpected negative genetic correlation estimates were obtained between TDMY records at first weeks with records from middle to the end of lactation, being the values varied from -0.07 (second with eighth week) to -0.34 (1st with 42nd week). TDMY heritability estimates were moderate in the course of the lactation, suggesting that this trait could be applied as selection criteria in milking buffaloes. Copyright 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. A multicenter cluster randomized controlled trial of strategies to improve thyroid function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daucourt, Valentin; Saillour-Glénisson, Florence; Michel, Philippe; Jutand, Marthe-Aline; Abouelfath, Abdelilah

    2003-03-01

    This project aimed to compare the independent and combined effectiveness of two implementation interventions of guidelines for ordering thyroid function tests: a Memorandum Pocket Card (MPC) and a Test Request Form (TRF). Intervention groups were wards. The study used an experimental 2*2 factorial design with matching hospitals according to size and activity and wards according to preintervention appropriateness for test ordering. Four ward groups were established: the dual intervention group, the order form group, the pocket card group and the control group. Physicians in all groups received guidelines and were invited to a local information meeting. The main outcome measure of effectiveness was the Guideline Conformity Rate (GCR). Six hospitals participated in the study (two middle-sized hospitals, two small-sized hospitals and two psychiatric hospitals). A total of 1412 orders for thyroid function tests were collected. GCR was 78% in the dual intervention group, 83% in the order form group, 73% in the pocket card group and 62% in the control group. The interaction between TRF and MPC was not significant (beta = -0.70; P = 0.21). Compared with simple information, TRF was effective in increasing GCR (OR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.52-4.62), unlike MPC (OR, 1.28; CI, 0.75-2.19). Using a robust design, our study shows the greater effectiveness of TRF than MPC and their association in implementing thyroid function test guidelines.

  19. Random Generation of Response Patterns under Computerized Adaptive Testing with the R Package catR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Magis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a computerized adaptive testing (CAT framework and presents an R package for the simulation of response patterns under CAT procedures. This package, called catR, requires a bank of items, previously calibrated according to the four-parameter logistic (4PL model or any simpler logistic model. The package proposes several methods to select the early test items, several methods for next item selection, different estimators of ability (maximum likelihood, Bayes modal, expected a posteriori, weighted likelihood, and three stopping rules (based on the test length, the precision of ability estimates or the classification of the examinee. After a short description of the different steps of a CAT process, the commands and options of the catR package are presented and practically illustrated.

  20. Investigating workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Train driving is a high responsibility job in railway industry. Train drivers need different cognitive functions such as vigilance, object detection, memory, planning, decision-making. High level of fatigue is one of the caused factor of accidents among train drivers. Numerous factors can impact train drivers’ fatigue but high level of workload is a key factor. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company. .Material and Method: This descriptive analytical study was done among 100 train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway industry. They were selected by simple random sampling. The NASA-TLX workload scale and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were respectively used to investigate workload and fatigue. Data were analyzed by Paired t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient. . Result: According to the NASA-TLX results, effort and mental workload with the mean score of 74/22 and 73/31 were respectively the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. No significant relationship was observed between workload and level of fatigue before departure and half an hour before reaching the destination station (P>0.05. However, the relationship between of workload and level of fatigue half an hour before the end of shift (on the way back to the origin station was statistically significant (P=0.048 among the sample population. . Conclusion: Effort and mental workload were the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. By focusing on these two variables and adopting fatigue management programs, fatigue and workload can be controlled and the efficiency of the whole system can be enhanced accordingly.

  1. The influence of two different invitation letters on Chlamydia testing participation: randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Hoor, Gill; Hoebe, Christian Jpa; van Bergen, Jan Eam; Brouwers, Elfi Ehg; Ruiter, Robert Ac; Kok, Gerjo

    2014-01-01

    In The Netherlands, screening for chlamydia (the most prevalent sexually transmitted infection worldwide) is a relatively simple and free procedure. Via an invitation letter sent by the public health services (PHS), people are asked to visit a website to request a test kit. They can then do a

  2. Multidimensional Classification of Examinees Using the Mixture Random Weights Linear Logistic Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Hee; Wilson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An essential feature of the linear logistic test model (LLTM) is that item difficulties are explained using item design properties. By taking advantage of this explanatory aspect of the LLTM, in a mixture extension of the LLTM, the meaning of latent classes is specified by how item properties affect item difficulties within each class. To improve…

  3. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, Iván G.; Bergasa, Luis M.; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, J. Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study. PMID:24412904

  4. An open-label randomized-controlled trial of low dose aspirin with an early screening test for pre-eclampsia and growth restriction (TEST): Trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mone, Fionnuala; Mulcahy, Cecilia; McParland, Peter; Stanton, Alice; Culliton, Marie; Downey, Paul; McCormack, Dorothy; Tully, Elizabeth; Dicker, Patrick; Breathnach, Fionnuala; Malone, Fergal D; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2016-07-01

    Pre-eclampsia remains a worldwide cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Low dose aspirin (LDA) can reduce the occurrence of pre-eclampsia in women with identifiable risk factors. Emerging screening tests can determine the maternal risk of developing placental disease, such as pre-eclampsia from the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine if it is more beneficial in terms of efficacy and acceptability to routinely prescribe LDA to nulliparous low-risk women compared to test indicated LDA on the basis of a positive screening test for placental disease. We propose a three armed multi-center open-labeled randomized control trial of; (i) routine LDA, (ii) no aspirin, and (iii) LDA on the basis of a positive first trimester pre-eclampsia screening test. LDA (75mg once daily) shall be given from the first trimester until 36-week gestation. The primary outcome measures include; (i) the proportion of eligible women that agree to participate (acceptability), (ii) compliance with study protocol (acceptability and feasibility), (iii) the proportion of women in whom it is possible to obtain first trimester trans-abdominal uterine artery Doppler examination (feasibility) and (iv) the proportion of women with a completed screening test that are issued the screening result within one week of having the test performed (feasibility). This will be the first clinical trial to determine the efficacy and acceptability in low-risk women of taking routine LDA versus no aspirin versus LDA based on a positive first trimester screening test for the prevention of placental disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of the random dot Stereo Butterfly test as an adjunct test for the detection of constant strabismus in vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Angela M; Rao, Rajesh C; Rotberg, Leemor B; Roarty, John D; Bohra, Lisa I; Baker, John D

    2009-08-01

    A goal of vision screening is the detection of amblyopia risk factors, including strabismus. The random dot Stereo Butterfly test requires no instruction, has a simple pass/fail response with no monocular clues, and is easily administered. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this test could be used as a cost-effective and reliable component of preschool vision screening. The Stereo Butterfly was presented to children with no previous history of ocular problems or treatment. The test was presented with the use of polarized glasses at a 16-inch testing distance. A "pass" was recorded if the patient reported seeing a butterfly; a "refer" was denoted otherwise. Vision and motility measurements were recorded, and the patient underwent a complete eye examination with cycloplegic refraction. A total of 281 children 3 to 6 years of age were tested: 221 children passed the test. Of those who passed, 7 (3.2%) had intermittent strabismus, 1 had a small-angle constant strabismus, 60 failed screening for constant strabismus (of whom 24 [40%] had constant strabismus), and 6 were false-negative results. The sensitivity of the Stereo Butterfly for detecting constant strabismus was 96%; the specificity, 86%. The Stereo Butterfly test may be a valuable adjunctive tool in vision screening programs for the detection of manifest strabismus because it is easy to administer and effectively detects constant strabismus. It has a high specificity for detection of constant strabismus but, if used alone, the low positive predictive value would allow for many false-positive results.

  6. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  7. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  8. Motorcoach Driver Fatigue Study, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Eighty-four commercial motorcoach drivers participated in a month-long study of duty start time, total duty time, total sleep time per 24 hours, with sleepiness, fatigue, and performance measured as they were going on and off duty. Drivers worked the...

  9. The learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiang-Yang; Chuang, Chao-Hua

    2012-04-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, online testing is becoming more widely-used in education. The purpose of this study is to explore the learning effectiveness of nursing students using online testing as an assistant tool. The participants were 146 junior college nursing students aged 19 to 20 taking the community health nursing course. With a class as the unit, three classes were randomized and allocated to one experimental group and two control groups. Two structured questionnaires were used to obtain the basic data, and the groups' examination results were also collected. The results of this study showed that before the intervention, there were no significant differences between the experimental and two control groups. After the intervention and adjusting for potential confounders, the score of midterm test in the experimental group was significantly better than those of the control groups. Over half of the students felt that answering 21 to 30 questions in 31 to 60 min for one unit of testing were appropriate. The results of this study showed that online testing is feasible for use as an assistant tool for learning. However, the positive effects of this approach appeared to be short- rather than long-term, and thus more studies are required in future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Use of a rapid rotavirus test in prescription of antibiotics in acute diarrhea in pediatrics: an observational, randomized, controlled study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, Andrea; Rivara, Gustavo; Briceño, Diego; Huicho, Luis

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of a rapid and accurate rotavirus test in the emergency ward on the reduction of antibiotic prescription in children under 5 years old with acute diarrhea at "Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital", Lima, Peru. We performed an observational prospective randomized controlled study, from July 2008 to January 2009. Stool samples from patients with diarrhea lasting less than 5 days were analyzed. Out of 201 cases, 101 were classified in Group A (with fecal leukocytes test performed) and 100 in Group B (with fecal leukocytes test and rotavirus/adenovirus test performed). We aimed to associate the signs and symptoms with the decision of prescribing antibiotics and with hospitalization risk. Both groups were comparable with regard to age, weight and illness duration. In patients with rotavirus infection, fecal leukocytes were positive in 46.9% of cases. Frequency of antibiotic use was directly associated with the number of fecal leukocytes (Pdiarrhea-attributable deaths were reported. The use of rotavirus test in the pediatric emergency room decreased antibiotic prescription in children with diarrhea.

  11. TESTING HISTOLOGICAL IMAGES OF MAMMARY TISSUES ON COMPATIBILITY WITH THE BOOLEAN MODEL OF RANDOM SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mrkvička

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for testing the Boolean model assumption from binary images are briefly reviewed. Two hundred binary images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue were tested individually on the Boolean model assumption. In a previous paper, it had been found that a Monte Carlo method based on the approximation of the envelopes by a multi-normal distribution with the normalized intrinsic volume densities of parallel sets as a summary statistics had the highest power for this purpose. Hence, this method was used here as its first application to real biomedical data. It was found that mastopathic tissue deviates from the Boolean model significantly more strongly than mammary cancer tissue does.

  12. Promoting STI testing among senior vocational students in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: effects of a cluster randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfers Mireille

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance voluntary STI testing, an intervention was designed and evaluated in senior vocational schools. The intervention combined classroom health education with sexual health services at the school site. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and single effects on STI testing of health education and school-based sexual health services. Methods In a cluster-randomized study the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools, using three experimental conditions: 1 health education, 2 sexual health services; 3 both components; and a control group. STI testing was assessed by self reported behavior and registrations at regional sexual health services. Follow-up measurements were performed at 1, 3, and 6-9 months. Of 1302 students present at baseline, 739 (57% completed at least 1 follow-up measurement, of these students 472 (64% were sexually experienced, and considered to be susceptible for the intervention. Multi-level analyses were conducted. To perform analyses according to the principle of intention-to-treat, missing observations at follow-up on the outcome measure were imputed with multiple imputation techniques. Results were compared with the complete cases analysis. Results Sexually experienced students that received the combined intervention of health education and sexual health services reported more STI testing (29% than students in the control group (4% (OR = 4.3, p Conclusions Despite a low dose of intervention that was received by the students and a high attrition, we were able to show an intervention effect among sexually experienced students on STI testing. This study confirmed our hypothesis that offering health education to vocational students

  13. TESTING BRAND VALUE MEASUREMENT METHODS IN A RANDOM COEFFICIENT MODELING FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Szõcs Attila

    2014-01-01

    Our objective is to provide a framework for measuring brand equity, that is, the added value to the product endowed by the brand. Based on a demand and supply model, we propose a structural model that enables testing the structural effect of brand equity (demand side effect) on brand value (supply side effect), using Monte Carlo simulation. Our main research question is which of the three brand value measurement methods (price premium, revenue premium and profit premium) is more suitable from...

  14. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantland, Dean J; Holzemer, William L; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Willard, Suzanne S; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn M; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda L; Nicholas, Patrice K; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Human, Sarie; Rivero, Marta M; Maryland, Mary; Huang, Emily

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates whether using an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual with self-care strategies for 21 common symptoms, compared to a basic nutrition manual, had an effect on reducing symptom frequency and intensity. A 775-person, repeated measures, randomized controlled trial was conducted over three months in 12 sites from the United States, Puerto Rico, and Africa to assess the relationship between symptom intensity with predictors for differences in initial symptom status and change over time. A mixed model growth analysis showed a significantly greater decline in symptom frequency and intensity for the group using the symptom management manual (intervention) compared to those using the nutrition manual (control) (t=2.36, P=0.018). The models identified three significant predictors for increased initial symptom intensities and in intensity change over time: (1) protease inhibitor-based therapy (increased mean intensity by 28%); (2) having comorbid illness (nearly twice the mean intensity); and (3) being Hispanic receiving care in the United States (increased the mean intensity by 2.5 times). In addition, the symptom manual showed a significantly higher helpfulness rating and was used more often compared to the nutrition manual. The reduction in symptom intensity scores provides evidence of the need for palliation of symptoms in individuals with HIV/AIDS, as well as symptoms and treatment side effects associated with other illnesses. The information from this study may help health care providers become more aware of self-management strategies that are useful to persons with HIV/AIDS and help them to assist patients in making informed choices.

  15. Evaluation of safe performance secondary school driver education curriculum demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    The primary objective of this Project was to determine the crash reduction potential of a quality, competency-based driver training program known as the Safe Performance Curriculum (SPC). The experimental design called for the random assignment of 18...

  16. Intervention to Match Young Black Men and Transwomen Who Have Sex With Men or Transwomen to HIV Testing Options (All About Me): Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblin, Beryl; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Wilton, Leo; Usher, DaShawn; Nandi, Vijay; Hoover, Donald R; Frye, Victoria

    2017-12-19

    HIV testing is a critical component of HIV prevention and care. Interventions to increase HIV testing rates among young black men who have sex with men (MSM) and black transgender women (transwomen) are needed. Personalized recommendations for an individual's optimal HIV testing approach may increase testing. This randomized trial tests the hypothesis that a personalized recommendation of an optimal HIV testing approach will increase HIV testing more than standard HIV testing information. A randomized trial among 236 young black men and transwomen who have sex with men or transwomen is being conducted. Participants complete a computerized baseline assessment and are randomized to electronically receive a personalized HIV testing recommendation or standard HIV testing information. Follow-up surveys are conducted online at 3 and 6 months after baseline. The All About Me randomized trial was launched in June 2016. Enrollment is completed and 3-month retention is 92.4% (218/236) and has exceeded study target goals. The All About Me intervention is an innovative approach to increase HIV testing by providing a personalized recommendation of a person's optimal HIV testing approach. If successful, optimizing this intervention for mobile devices will widen access to large numbers of individuals. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT02834572; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02834572 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6vLJWOS1B).

  17. The effect of test kit provision, and individual and family education on the uptake rates of fecal occult blood test in an Asian population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Yong, Sook Kwin; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Kamberakis, Kay; Yeo, Richard Ming Chert; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether fecal occult blood test (FOBT) home-delivery and individual education or combined with family education increases FOBT uptake rates in Singapore. This is a randomized controlled intervention study of Singaporean residents aged 50 years and above, conducted in May 2012 till May 2013. Eligible individuals in randomly selected households were screened, and one member was randomly selected and allocated to one of the four arms: Group A (individual and family education, FOBT kits provided), Group B (individual education only, FOBT kits provided), Group C (no education, FOBT kits provided) and Group D (no education or FOBT kits provided). Overall response rate was 74.7 %. The FOBT return rates for groups A, B, C and D were 24.5 % [CI 16.2-34.4 %], 25.3 % [CI 16.4-36.0 %], 10.7 % [CI 4.7-19.9 %] and 2.2 % [CI 0.3-7.7 %], respectively. Respondents who were provided education and home-delivered FOBT kits were 15 times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group A: OR 15.0 (3.4-66.2); Group B: OR 15.5 (3.5-68.8)] and those provided with home-delivered FOBT without education were five times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group C: OR 5.8 (1.2-28.3)] than those without education and FOBT kits (Group D). There was no significant difference in return of FOBT kits whether education was provided to subject with or without a family member. Home delivery of FOBT kits increased FOBT return rates and individual education combined with home-delivered FOBT increased FOBT return rates even further. However, additional combination with family education did not increase FOBT rates further.

  18. Hepatitis C Virus Testing for Case Identification in Persons Born during 1945-1965: Results from Three Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yartel, Anthony K; Rein, David B; Ann Brown, Kimberly; Krauskopf, Katherine; Massoud, Omar I; Jordan, Cynthia; Kil, Natalie; Federman, Alex D; Nerenz, David R; Brady, Joanne E; Kruger, Danielle L; Smith, Bryce D

    2017-09-23

    CDC and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for persons born during 1945-1965 (birth cohort). However, few studies estimate the effect of birth cohort (BC) testing implementation on HCV diagnoses in primary care settings. We aimed to determine the probability of identifying HCV infections in primary care using targeted BC testing compared with usual care at three academic medical centers. From December 2012 to March 2014, each center compared one of three distinct interventions to usual care using an independently-designed randomized controlled trial. Across centers, BC patients with no clinical documentation of previous HCV testing or diagnosis were randomly assigned to receive a one-time offering of HCV antibody (anti-HCV) testing via one of three independent implementation strategies (repeated-mailing outreach, EMR-integrated provider best practice alert [BPA], and direct patient-solicitation) or assigned to receive usual care. We estimated model-adjusted risk ratios (aRR) of anti-HCV positive (anti-HCV+) identification using BC testing versus usual care. In the repeated-mailing trial, 8,992 patients (intervention=2,993; control=5,999) were included in the analysis. The intervention was eight times as likely to identify anti-HCV+ patients compared with control (aRR 8.0, 95%CI 2.8-23.0; adjusted probabilities: intervention=0.27%; control=0.03%). In the BPA trial, data from 14,475 patients (BC=8,928; control=5,547) were analyzed. The intervention was 2.6 times as likely to identify anti-HCV+ patients versus control (aRR 2.6, 95%CI 1.1-6.4; adjusted probabilities: intervention=0.29%; control=0.11%). In the patient-solicitation trial, 8,873 patients (BC=4,307; control=4,566) were analyzed. The intervention was five times as likely to identify anti-HCV+ patients compared with control (aRR 5.3, 95%CI 2.3-12.3; adjusted probabilities: intervention=0.68%; control=0.11%). BC testing was effective in identifying

  19. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  20. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  1. A lateral driver model for vehicle-driver closed-loop simulation at the limits of handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joa, Eunhyek; Yi, Kyongsu; Kim, Kilsoo

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a lateral driver model for vehicle-driver closed-loop simulation at the limits of handling. An appropriate driver model can be used to evaluate the performance of vehicle chassis control systems via computer simulations before vehicle tests which incurs expenses especially at the limits of handling. The driver model consists of two parts. The first part is an upper-level controller employing force-based approach to reduce the number of unknown vehicle parameters. The feedforward part of the upper controller has been designed by using the centre of percussion. The feedback part aims to minimise 'tangential error', defined as the sum of body slip angle and yaw error, to match vehicle direction and road heading angle. The part is designed to regenerate an appropriate skid motion similar to that of a professional driver at the limits. The second part is a lower-level controller which converts the desired front lateral force to steering wheel angle. The lower-level controller also consists of feedforward and feedback parts. A two-degree-of-freedom bicycle model-based feedforward part provides nominal steering wheel angle, and the feedback part aims to eliminate unmodelled error. The performance of the lateral driver model has been investigated via computer simulations. It has been shown that the steering behaviours of the proposed driver model are quite close to those of a professional driver at the limits. Compared with the previously developed lateral driver models, the proposed lateral driver model shows good tracking performance at the limits of handling.

  2. Simultaneous identification of multiple driver pathways in cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D M Leiserson

    Full Text Available Distinguishing the somatic mutations responsible for cancer (driver mutations from random, passenger mutations is a key challenge in cancer genomics. Driver mutations generally target cellular signaling and regulatory pathways consisting of multiple genes. This heterogeneity complicates the identification of driver mutations by their recurrence across samples, as different combinations of mutations in driver pathways are observed in different samples. We introduce the Multi-Dendrix algorithm for the simultaneous identification of multiple driver pathways de novo in somatic mutation data from a cohort of cancer samples. The algorithm relies on two combinatorial properties of mutations in a driver pathway: high coverage and mutual exclusivity. We derive an integer linear program that finds set of mutations exhibiting these properties. We apply Multi-Dendrix to somatic mutations from glioblastoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer samples. Multi-Dendrix identifies sets of mutations in genes that overlap with known pathways - including Rb, p53, PI(3K, and cell cycle pathways - and also novel sets of mutually exclusive mutations, including mutations in several transcription factors or other genes involved in transcriptional regulation. These sets are discovered directly from mutation data with no prior knowledge of pathways or gene interactions. We show that Multi-Dendrix outperforms other algorithms for identifying combinations of mutations and is also orders of magnitude faster on genome-scale data. Software available at: http://compbio.cs.brown.edu/software.

  3. Drivers' Visual Behavior-Guided RRT Motion Planner for Autonomous On-Road Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Mingbo; Mei, Tao; Liang, Huawei; Chen, Jiajia; Huang, Rulin; Zhao, Pan

    2016-01-15

    This paper describes a real-time motion planner based on the drivers' visual behavior-guided rapidly exploring random tree (RRT) approach, which is applicable to on-road driving of autonomous vehicles. The primary novelty is in the use of the guidance of drivers' visual search behavior in the framework of RRT motion planner. RRT is an incremental sampling-based method that is widely used to solve the robotic motion planning problems. However, RRT is often unreliable in a number of practical applications such as autonomous vehicles used for on-road driving because of the unnatural trajectory, useless sampling, and slow exploration. To address these problems, we present an interesting RRT algorithm that introduces an effective guided sampling strategy based on the drivers' visual search behavior on road and a continuous-curvature smooth method based on B-spline. The proposed algorithm is implemented on a real autonomous vehicle and verified against several different traffic scenarios. A large number of the experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm is feasible and efficient for on-road autonomous driving. Furthermore, the comparative test and statistical analyses illustrate that its excellent performance is superior to other previous algorithms.

  4. Global Stratigraphy of Venus: Analysis of a Random Sample of Thirty-Six Test Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W., III

    1995-01-01

    The age relations between 36 impact craters with dark paraboloids and other geologic units and structures at these localities have been studied through photogeologic analysis of Magellan SAR images of the surface of Venus. Geologic settings in all 36 sites, about 1000 x 1000 km each, could be characterized using only 10 different terrain units and six types of structures. These units and structures form a major stratigraphic and geologic sequence (from oldest to youngest): (1) tessera terrain; (2) densely fractured terrains associated with coronae and in the form of remnants among plains; (3) fractured and ridged plains and ridge belts; (4) plains with wrinkle ridges; (5) ridges associated with coronae annulae and ridges of arachnoid annulae which are contemporary with wrinkle ridges of the ridged plains; (6) smooth and lobate plains; (7) fractures of coronae annulae, and fractures not related to coronae annulae, which disrupt ridged and smooth plains; (8) rift-associated fractures; and (9) craters with associated dark paraboloids, which represent the youngest 1O% of the Venus impact crater population (Campbell et al.), and are on top of all volcanic and tectonic units except the youngest episodes of rift-associated fracturing and volcanism; surficial streaks and patches are approximately contemporary with dark-paraboloid craters. Mapping of such units and structures in 36 randomly distributed large regions (each approximately 10(exp 6) sq km) shows evidence for a distinctive regional and global stratigraphic and geologic sequence. On the basis of this sequence we have developed a model that illustrates several major themes in the history of Venus. Most of the history of Venus (that of its first 80% or so) is not preserved in the surface geomorphological record. The major deformation associated with tessera formation in the period sometime between 0.5-1.0 b.y. ago (Ivanov and Basilevsky) is the earliest event detected. In the terminal stages of tessera fon

  5. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  6. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers (OR=12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  7. Mailed outreach and facilitated test ordering to promote cholesterol screening in community health centers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persell, Stephen D; Brown, Tiffany; Lee, Ji Young; Henley, Eric; Long, Timothy; Sanchez, Thomas; Knight, Regina

    2017-06-01

    Lipid screening is central to cardiovascular risk assessment. We sought to determine whether a simple mailed outreach message and facilitated test ordering increase cholesterol screening among federally qualified community health center patients with no recent cholesterol screening test performed. Using a patient-randomized controlled trial, we examined the effects of delivering a simple mailed outreach intervention promoting cholesterol testing and facilitated test ordering (without requiring an office visit). Participants were adult patients 50 to 75 years old, with no diagnosed cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and no cholesterol test within 5 years who had received care from community health centers in Illinois and Arizona. The intervention took place in 2014 and was powered to detect a 10% increase in screening due to the intervention. Participants' (n = 480) mean age was 57.5 years, 51.0% were male, and 43.8% were smokers. There was no significant difference between groups in the primary study outcome-completion of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol tests or complete lipid panel within 3 months; 32 participants (13.3%) in intervention group versus 26 (10.8%) in control group met the primary outcome, with absolute difference of 2.5 percentage points (95% confidence interval -6.6 to 11.6). This outreach intervention promoting cholesterol screening was ineffective. Interventions that attempt to minimize barriers to cholesterol screening on multiple fronts and that are more compelling to patients are needed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Impact of an automated email notification system for results of tests pending at discharge: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Roy, Christopher L; Poon, Eric G; Williams, Deborah H; Nolido, Nyryan; Yoon, Cathy; Budris, Jonas; Gandhi, Tejal; Bates, David W; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Physician awareness of the results of tests pending at discharge (TPADs) is poor. We developed an automated system that notifies responsible physicians of TPAD results via secure, network email. We sought to evaluate the impact of this system on self-reported awareness of TPAD results by responsible physicians, a necessary intermediary step to improve management of TPAD results. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial at a major hospital affiliated with an integrated healthcare delivery network in Boston, Massachusetts. Adult patients with TPADs who were discharged from inpatient general medicine and cardiology services were assigned to the intervention or usual care arm if their inpatient attending physician and primary care physician (PCP) were both randomized to the same study arm. Patients of physicians randomized to discordant study arms were excluded. We surveyed these physicians 72 h after all TPAD results were finalized. The primary outcome was awareness of TPAD results by attending physicians. Secondary outcomes included awareness of TPAD results by PCPs, awareness of actionable TPAD results, and provider satisfaction. We analyzed data on 441 patients. We sent 441 surveys to attending physicians and 353 surveys to PCPs and received 275 and 152 responses from 83 different attending physicians and 112 different PCPs, respectively (attending physician survey response rate of 63%). Intervention attending physicians and PCPs were significantly more aware of TPAD results (76% vs 38%, adjusted/clustered OR 6.30 (95% CI 3.02 to 13.16), pemail notification represents a promising strategy for managing TPAD results, potentially mitigating an unresolved patient safety concern. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01153451).

  9. The opinions of newly licensed drivers in New Zealand on the minimum car driver licensing age and reasons for getting a licence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Dorothy; Langley, John; Brookland, Rebecca; McDowell, Anna; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Broughton, John

    2009-11-20

    To investigate the opinions of newly licensed drivers towards the minimum age of car driver licensing, and reasons for getting a licence. The New Zealand Drivers Study (NZDS) is a prospective cohort study of 3992 newly licensed car drivers in New Zealand, recruited between 1 February 2006 and 31 January 2008 from driver licensing agencies and licensing courses throughout New Zealand. The cohort comprises 51% females and 49% males, 49% were aged 15 years and 28% 16-17 years, 55% self-identified as New Zealand European, 21% Maori, 13% Pacific, 11% Asian, and 15% as "other". After passing the learner licence theory test all participants completed a questionnaire that included a range of questions on driver licensing topics, including minimum driver licence age and reasons for getting a car driver's licence. Overall, 51% of newly licensed drivers supported 15 years as the minimum age to start licensing but this varied significantly by the age, gender, and residential location of the learner driver. The most frequently reported reason for getting a licence related to independence and freedom. This applied equally to males and females, rural and urban drivers, and across all ages, although for learner drivers aged 18+ years, to drive to work was also a very important reason for having a licence. Contrary to what many may believe to be the case, the evidence presented here showed that there was not universal opposition by young people to raising the driver licensing age. Also those in rural and urban areas had much in common with respect to the reasons for obtaining a licence. With respect to the latter it is worth noting that travel for work was of most relevance to the learner drivers aged 18 years or older. Overall, these findings suggest that increasing the minimum age for licensing would have relatively little impact on essential travel among young people in New Zealand.

  10. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  11. Targeted ultra-deep sequencing unveils a lack of driver-gene mutations linking non-hereditary gastrointestinal stromal tumors and highly prevalent second primary malignancies: random or nonrandom, that is the question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Bo-Ru; Wu, Yu-Tung; Kuo, Yung-Chia; Hsu, Hung-Chih; Chen, Jen-Shi; Chen, Tse-Ching; Wu, Ren-Chin; Chiu, Cheng-Tang; Yeh, Chun-Nan; Yeh, Ta-Sen

    2016-12-13

    The association of non-hereditary (sporadic) gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and second primary malignancies is known to be nonrandom, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, 136 of 749 (18.1%) patients with sporadic GISTs were found to have additional associated cancers, with gastrointestinal and genitourinary/gynecologic/breast cancers being the most prevalent. Gene mutations in GISTs and their associated colorectal cancers (CRCs) (n=9) were analyzed using a panel of 409 cancer-related genes, while a separate group of 40 sporadic CRCs not associated with GISTs served as controls. All 9 of the GISTs had either KIT (8 of 9) or PDGFRA (1 of 9) mutations that were not present in their associated CRCs. Conversely, all but one of the 9 GIST-associated CRCs exhibited an APC mutation, a TP53 mutation or both, while none of their corresponding GISTs harbored either APC or TP53 mutations. The genetic profile of CRCs with and without associated GISTs did not differ. Although population-based studies and case series worldwide, including ours, have unanimously indicated that the GIST-CRC association is nonrandom, our targeted ultra-deep sequencing unveiled a lack of driver-gene mutations linking sporadic GISTs to highly prevalent second primaries. Further studies are needed to elucidate other genetic alterations that may be responsible for this puzzling contradiction.

  12. Data fusion for driver behaviour analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Juan; García, Fernando; Martín, David; Escalera, Arturo de la; Armingol, José María

    2015-10-14

    A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  13. Data Fusion for Driver Behaviour Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A driver behaviour analysis tool is presented. The proposal offers a novel contribution based on low-cost hardware and advanced software capabilities based on data fusion. The device takes advantage of the information provided by the in-vehicle sensors using Controller Area Network Bus (CAN-BUS, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and a GPS. By fusing this information, the system can infer the behaviour of the driver, providing aggressive behaviour detection. By means of accurate GPS-based localization, the system is able to add context information, such as digital map information, speed limits, etc. Several parameters and signals are taken into account, both in the temporal and frequency domains, to provide real time behaviour detection. The system was tested in urban, interurban and highways scenarios.

  14. PMSM Driver Based on Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimization and CMAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ji; Cao, Shaozhong

    A novel hybrid particle swarm optimization (PSO) and cerebellar model articulation controller (CMAC) is introduced to the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) driver. PSO can simulate the random learning among the individuals of population and CMAC can simulate the self-learning of an individual. To validate the ability and superiority of the novel algorithm, experiments and comparisons have been done in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Analysis among PSO, hybrid PSO-CMAC and CMAC feed-forward control is also given. The results prove that the electric torque ripple and torque disturbance of the PMSM driver can be reduced by using the hybrid PSO-CMAC algorithm.

  15. Binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface formeasurement of modulation transfer function of interferometricmicroscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2007-07-25

    The task of designing high performance X-ray optical systemsrequires the development of sophisticated X-ray scattering calculationsbased on rigorous information about the optics. One of the mostinsightful approaches to these calculations is based on the powerspectral density (PSD) distribution of the surface height. The majorproblem of measurement of a PSD distribution with an interferometricand/or atomic force microscope arises due to the unknown ModulationTransfer Function (MTF) of the instruments. The MTF characterizes theperturbation of the PSD distribution at higher spatial frequencies. Here,we describe a new method and dedicated test surfaces for calibration ofthe MTF of a microscope. The method is based on use of a speciallydesigned Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating. Comparison of atheoretically calculated PSD spectrum of a BPR grating with a spectrummeasured with the grating provides the desired calibration of theinstrumental MTF. The theoretical background of the method, as well asresults of experimental investigations are presented.

  16. Rosalind Driver studentships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The School of Education at King's College London can now offer funded studentships to those wishing to undertake research in science education. These studentships, which are funded through the generous benefaction of the late Rosalind Driver, can be for a full-time student (over a maximum of three years) or several part-time students (a maximum of six years). Applications from anyone working in science education are welcome but preference will be given to those originating from practising science teachers. Applicants will be expected to register for the award of a MPhil/PhD or EdD and are normally expected to have a first degree. Preliminary ideas about a topic for investigation would also be helpful. Further details and application forms are obtainable from Chiz Dube, School of Education, King's College London, Franklin - Wilkins Building, Waterloo Road, London SE1 8WA (tel: 020-7848-3089, e-mail: chiz.dube@kcl.ac.uk). The deadline for the first round of applications was the middle of October, but preliminary informal enquiries may be made to Dr Jonathan Osborne at the School of Education (tel: 020-7848-3094, e-mail: jonathan.osborne@kcl.ac.uk).

  17. Fast Random Permutation Tests Enable Objective Evaluation of Methods for Single-Subject fMRI Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Eklund

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM and canonical correlation analysis (CCA are compared at the same significance level.

  18. Fast Random Permutation Tests Enable Objective Evaluation of Methods for Single-Subject fMRI Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Anders; Andersson, Mats; Knutsson, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Parametric statistical methods, such as Z-, t-, and F-values, are traditionally employed in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) for identifying areas in the brain that are active with a certain degree of statistical significance. These parametric methods, however, have two major drawbacks. First, it is assumed that the observed data are Gaussian distributed and independent; assumptions that generally are not valid for fMRI data. Second, the statistical test distribution can be derived theoretically only for very simple linear detection statistics. With nonparametric statistical methods, the two limitations described above can be overcome. The major drawback of non-parametric methods is the computational burden with processing times ranging from hours to days, which so far have made them impractical for routine use in single-subject fMRI analysis. In this work, it is shown how the computational power of cost-efficient graphics processing units (GPUs) can be used to speed up random permutation tests. A test with 10000 permutations takes less than a minute, making statistical analysis of advanced detection methods in fMRI practically feasible. To exemplify the permutation-based approach, brain activity maps generated by the general linear model (GLM) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) are compared at the same significance level. PMID:22046176

  19. Chocolate or orange juice for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns: a randomized prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esin, Sertac; Baser, Eralp; Cakir, Caner; Ustun Tuncal, Gul Nihal; Kucukozkan, Tuncay

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare bitter chocolate and orange juice with the control group for non-reactive non-stress test (NST) patterns and for maternal perception of fetal movements. Pregnant women who were followed-up on an outpatient basis and admitted for a NST and had a non-reactive result were randomized prospectively into bitter chocolate, orange juice and control groups. 180 patients were evaluable for the final analysis. Although there was a trend for orange juice group for having higher percentages of reactive NST patterns on control, there was no statistically significant difference between three groups (p = 0.159). Besides this, maternal perception of increased fetal movements was similar between groups (p = 0.755). The control group had lower post-test capillary blood glucose concentrations when compared with chocolate and orange juice groups (p = 0.01) and after post-hoc tests, this difference was found to be between orange juice and control groups. Although orange juice resulted in higher blood glucose levels, this was not synonymous with better NST results on control; in such a way that bitter chocolate, orange juice and no intervention had similar effects on non-reactive NST patterns and also on maternal perception of fetal movements.

  20. Drivers within natural drinking groups: an exploration of role selection, motivation, and group influence on driver sobriety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, James E; Johnson, Mark B; Reed, Mark B

    2006-01-01

    Young people consume alcohol almost exclusively in social contexts, but natural drinking group dynamics are poorly understood. Our research focuses on the drivers' role within natural drinking groups. We conducted breath-test surveys of existing groups of young people at the US/Mexico border crossing before they headed to Tijuana bars, and surveyed them again upon their return. Results indicated an individual's perception of other group member's drinking plans predicts drinking intentions to a greater degree for passengers than drivers. Additionally, drivers who anticipated heavy drinking among other group members returned to the United States with BACs nearly identical to drivers who reported that other group members would not drink at all. This suggests drivers were resistant to normative pressures to drink. Evidence that group-dynamic variables may impact drinking behavior underscores the importance of systematic exploration of natural drinking groups. Furthermore, the knowledge gleaned from studying the dynamics and decision making processes of natural drinking groups could be used to design intervention designed to increase designated driver use and to reduce drinking among designated drivers.

  1. Drug testing athletes to prevent substance abuse: background and pilot study results of the SATURN (Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Linn; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; Moe, Esther; Kuehl, Kerry S; Nohre, Liva; Lockwood, Chondra M

    2003-01-01

    To assess the deterrent effect of mandatory, random drug testing among high school (HS) athletes in a controlled setting. Two high schools, one with mandatory drug testing (DT) consent before sports participation, and a control school (C), without DT, were assessed during the 1999-2000 school year. Athletes (A) and nonathletes (NA) in each school completed confidential (A) or anonymous (NA) questionnaires developed for this study, respectively, at the beginning and end of the school year. Positive alcohol or drug tests required parent notification and mandatory counseling without team or school suspension. Thirty percent of the DT athletes were tested. Data were analyzed using the end of the school year measure, adjusted for the initial questionnaire results. Demographics of the athlete sample revealed that mean age was 15.5 years with 81.5% white, 9.6% Hispanic, 4.5% Asian, 2.6% American Indian/Native Alaskan, 1.3% African-American, and 1.3% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. A (n = 276) and NA (n = 507) were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and at the end of the school year (A, n = 159; NA, n = 338). The past 30-day index of illicit drugs (4-fold difference) and athletic enhancing substances (3-fold difference) were lower (p athletes at follow-up without difference in alcohol use. However, most drug use risk factors, including norms of use, belief in lower risk of drugs, and poorer attitudes toward the school, increased among DT athletes (p drug use index was present among nonathletes at the DT school, at the end of the school year, it did not achieve statistical significance (p athletes. However, worsening of risk factors and small sample size suggests caution to this drug prevention approach. A larger long-term study to confirm these findings is necessary. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003

  2. The effect of montelukast on wheal reactions in skin prick tests: a double-blind-placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulan, Keziban; Aydogan, Metin; Siraneci, Rengin; Aydogmus, Cigdem Yilmaz

    2013-10-01

    It is well-known that number of drugs may interfere with wheal reactions in skin prick test. However, the effect of long-term use of montelukast, a cystenil leukotriene receptor antagonist, on skin prick test hasn't been full elucidated. The aim of present study was to demonstrate the effect of montelukast on skin prick tests (SPT). This is a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study including two treatment periods with a wash-out interval. The subjects received montelukast (5 mg per day), fexofenadine HCl (60 mg per day) and placebo (lactose) with a double-blinded manner during 7- and 21-days treatment periods with a 14 days wash-out period. Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) was used as the skin test material, while histamine as positive control and normal saline as negative control. Overall, 7 skin prick tests were performed at following time points: before treatment periods, on the last days of both treatment periods, 24 h after completion of treatment periods, and on the last day of 14-days interval. Sixty house dust mite (HDM) allergic children (23 girls and 37 boys) with allergic rhinitis and/or asthma completed the study. Mean age was 8.3 ± 2.0 years. In the fexofenadine group, a significant suppression was observed in post-treatment values when compared to baseline values in SPT with D. farinae (p = 0.019). In the montelukast group, no significant suppression was observed in SPT with D. farinae at all time points when compared to baseline. Our results showed that montelukast had no effect on measurements of SPT. Thus, we concluded that there is no need to discontinue the treatment in order to perform SPT in patients receiving montelukast, even in those on montelukast treatment for at least 21 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceptions and experiences of random breath testing in Queensland and the self-reported deterrent impact on drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barry; Freeman, James

    2007-03-01

    The present study explored the impact of random breath testing (RBT) on the attitudes, perceptions, and self-reported behavior of motorists in the Australian state of Queensland. Particular attention was given to how exposure to RBT impacted motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and self-reported behavior, relative to other variables of interest such as alcohol consumption. The study involved a telephone survey of 780 motorists drawn from throughout the state of Queensland. Participants were volunteers recruited from a random sample of all listed telephone numbers in the state, adjusted according to district population figures. The survey questionnaire collected information relating to the participants' socio-demographic characteristics, drinking and drunk driving behaviors, attitudes toward drunk driving and RBT, and experiences and perceptions of RBT. The analysis indicated that a large proportion of the sample had both observed RBT and been breath tested within the last six months and believed the practice served an important role in improving road safety. However, a considerable percentage also reported drunk driving at least once in the last six months without being detected, with further analysis indicating that the threat of apprehension associated with RBT did not appear to greatly influence their offending behavior. Rather, a higher frequency of alcohol consumption, combined with more favorable attitudes to drunk driving and lower levels of support for RBT, appeared to be associated with offending behavior. While the results confirm the high levels of exposure to RBT achieved in Queensland, the direct impact of recent exposure on drunk driving behavior appears less important than other factors such as alcohol consumption and attitudes to drunk driving and RBT. Further research is required to better understand how recent and lifetime exposure to RBT impacts on motorists' perceived risk of apprehension and subsequent drunk driving behavior.

  4. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K. [Nutrition Programme, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia,43600, Selangor (Malaysia); Zulkeffeli, M. J. [Department of Health Service, Ministry of Defense, Level 11, Menara Park, 50450 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m{sup 2}, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, p<0.05), WC (r=0.852, p<0.05) and body fat percentage. Body fat percentage also show high correlation with weight (r=0.759, p<0.05) and WC (r=0.768, p<0.05. The result from 173 of 378 subjects that were selected for random blood test found that 4.6%, 3.5% and 26.0% had diabetes, high cholesterol and high triglyceride respectively. There was a weak correlation between random blood glucose level with weight (r=0.221, p<0.05), BMI (r=0.243, p<0.05), WC (r=0.298, p<0.05), body fat percentage (r=0.163, p<0.05) and age (r=0.223, p<0.05). Random blood cholesterol level had significant correlation with

  5. Testing the leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI) intervention in substance abuse treatment: a cluster randomized trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Moullin, Joanna C; Torres, Elisa M; Green, Amy E

    2017-03-03

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation represents a strategic change in organizations that requires effective leadership and alignment of leadership and organizational support across organizational levels. As such, there is a need for combining leadership development with organizational strategies to support organizational climate conducive to EBP implementation. The leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI) intervention includes leadership training for workgroup leaders, ongoing implementation leadership coaching, 360° assessment, and strategic planning with top and middle management regarding how they can support workgroup leaders in developing a positive EBP implementation climate. This test of the LOCI intervention will take place in conjunction with the implementation of motivational interviewing (MI) in 60 substance use disorder treatment programs in California, USA. Participants will include agency executives, 60 program leaders, and approximately 360 treatment staff. LOCI will be tested using a multiple cohort, cluster randomized trial that randomizes workgroups (i.e., programs) within agency to either LOCI or a webinar leadership training control condition in three consecutive cohorts. The LOCI intervention is 12 months, and the webinar control intervention takes place in months 1, 5, and 8, for each cohort. Web-based surveys of staff and supervisors will be used to collect data on leadership, implementation climate, provider attitudes, and citizenship. Audio recordings of counseling sessions will be coded for MI fidelity. The unit of analysis will be the workgroup, randomized by site within agency and with care taken that co-located workgroups are assigned to the same condition to avoid contamination. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) will be used to analyze the data to account for the nested data structure. LOCI has been developed to be a feasible and effective approach for organizations to create a positive climate and

  6. Dynamic Feature Extraction Method of Driver's Propensity under Complicated Vehicle Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of driver's physiological and psychological characteristics on traffic safety is represented mainly as driver's propensity. Previous researches focus mostly on psychology test and its influence on traffic safety from relative static and macroscopic perspective. However, in the field of vehicle active safety, there are few studies on driver's affective measurement and computing from microcosmic and dynamic perspective, and previous researchers did not consider the influence of environment. The emphasis is about situation factors which directly influence driver's affection in all environment factors under two-lane condition. Various experiments are designed to collect driver's microdynamic information, and characteristics of driver's propensity toward different environments are extracted using genetic simulated annealing algorithm. Results show that the method can provide a basis to establish dynamic recognition model of driver's propensity further which is adapted to multilane environment.

  7. Young drivers who obtained their licence after an intensive driving course report more incidents than drivers with a traditional driver education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Craen, Saskia; Vlakveld, Willem P

    2013-09-01

    This paper studies the effectiveness of intensive driving courses; both in driving test success and safe driving after passing the driving test. The so-called intensive driving course (IDC) consists of a limited number of consecutive days in which the learner driver takes driving lessons all day long; and is different from traditional training in which lessons are spread out over several months and in which learners take one or two driving lessons of approximately 1 h each per week. Our study indicates that--in the first two years of their driving career--IDC drivers (n=35) reported an incident significantly more often (43%) than 351 drivers who obtained their driving licence after traditional training (26%). Our study also indicates that the IDC drivers underwent almost the same number of training hours as the drivers who had traditional training, although spacing of these hours was different. There was no difference in the number of attempts to pass the driving test. We did not find any evidence that a self-selection bias was responsible for the difference in reported number of incidents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  9. Roundabout design and elderly drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Many drivers are apprehensive to accept a roundabout as a viable form of intersection, but their : safety and mobility benefits are increasing their popularity among designers. This thesis is an indepth study of a specific approach at a roundabout in...

  10. Older-driver foot movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study explored how drivers 60 and older control the accelerator and brake while driving and parking. It built upon : the findings of a study documenting the prevalence and characteristics associated with pedal misapplication crashes : (Lococo, S...

  11. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  12. Medical review licensing outcomes in drivers with visual field loss in Victoria, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Carlyn; Charlton, Judith L; Odell, Morris; Keeffe, Jill; Wood, Joanne; Bohensky, Megan; Fildes, Brian; Oxley, Jennifer; Bentley, Sharon; Rizzo, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Background Good vision is essential for safe driving and studies have associated visual impairment with an increased crash risk. Currently, there is little information about the medical review of drivers with visual field loss. This study examines the prevalence of visual field loss among drivers referred for medical review in one Australian jurisdiction and investigates factors associated with licence outcome in this group. Methods A random sample of 10,000 (31.25 per cent) medical review cases was extracted for analysis from the Victorian licensing authority. Files were screened for the presence of six visual field-related medical conditions. Data were captured on a range of variables, including referral source, age, gender, health status, crash history and licence outcome. Prevalence analyses were univariate and descriptive. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with licence outcomes in the visual field loss group. Results Approximately 1.9 per cent of the 10,000 medical review cases screened had a visual field loss condition identified (n=194). Among the visual field loss group, 57.2 per cent were permitted to continue driving (conditional/unconditional licence). Primary referral sources were the police, self-referrals and general medical practitioners. Key factors associated with licence test outcomes were visual field condition, age group, crash involvement and referral to the Driver Licensing Authority’s Medical Advisors. Those who were younger had a crash involvement triggering referral and those who were referred to the Medical Advisors were more likely to have a positive licensing outcome. Conclusion The evidence base for making licensing decisions is complicated by the variable causes, patterns, progressions and measuring technologies for visual field loss. This study highlighted that the involvement of an expert medical advisory service in Victoria resulted in an increased likelihood that drivers with visual field loss will be

  13. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository in...

  14. Temperature-compensated 8-bit column driver for AMLCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Andrew G. F.; Lin, Mark L.

    1995-06-01

    An all-digital, 5 V input, 50 Mhz bandwidth, 10-bit resolution, 128- column, AMLCD column driver IC has been designed and tested. The 10-bit design can enhance display definition over 6-bit nd 8-bit column drivers. Precision is realized with on-chip, switched-capacitor DACs plus transparently auto-offset-calibrated, opamp outputs. Increased resolution permits multiple 10-bit digital gamma remappings in EPROMs over temperature. Driver IC features include externally programmable number of output column, bi-directional digital data shifting, user- defined row/column/pixel/frame inversion, power management, timing control for daisy-chained column drivers, and digital bit inversion. The architecture uses fewer reference power supplies.

  15. DRIVER Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository inf...

  16. Updated Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials Comparing Safety and Efficacy of Intraoperative Defibrillation Testing with No Defibrillation Testing On Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Bonanno

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an ongoing debate regarding the need to conduct intraoperative defibrillation testing (DFT at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD implantation. To provide sufficiently strong evidence for the feasibility of omitting intraoperative DFT in clinical practice, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT comparing patients with DFT and no-DFT.Methods: We systematically searched Medline (via PubMed, ClinicalTrial.gov, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase for studies evaluating DFT vs. no-DFT on ICD implantation with regard to total mortality and arrhythmic death, efficacy of first and any appropriate shock in interrupting ventricular tachycardia (VT/ventricular fibrillation (VF, and procedural adverse events. Effect estimates [risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI] were pooled using the random-effects model.Results: Our meta-analysis included 4 RCTs comprising 3770 patients (1896 with DFT and 1874 without DFT. Total mortality (RR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.86–1.17; P = 0.98 and arrhythmic death (RR = 1.60, 95% CI 0.46-5.59: P = 0.46 were not statistically different. Both first (RR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89–0.98; P = 0.004 and any appropriate ICD shock (RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.95–1.00; P = 0.02 significantly increased the rate of VT/VF interruption in the group with no-DFT in comparison with DFT. Finally, the incidence of adverse events was lower in no-DFT patients (RR = 1.23; 95% CI 1.00–1.51; P = 0.05.Conclusions: The practice of DFT (as opposed to no-DFT did not yield benefits in mortality or the overall rate of conversion of VT/VT. Moreover, a slightly higher incidence of perioperative adverse events was observed in the DFT group.

  17. Physical characteristics of experienced and junior open-wheel car drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschner, Christian; Platzer, Hans-Peter; Patterson, Carson

    2013-01-01

    Despite the popularity of open-wheel car racing, scientific literature about the physical characteristics of competitive race car drivers is scarce. The purpose of this study was to compare selected fitness parameters of experienced and junior open-wheel race car drivers. The experienced drivers consisted of five Formula One, two GP2 and two Formula 3 drivers, and the nine junior drivers drove in the Formula Master, Koenig, BMW and Renault series. The following fitness parameters were tested: multiple reactions, multiple anticipation, postural stability, isometric upper body strength, isometric leg extension strength, isometric grip strength, cyclic foot speed and jump height. The group differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Because of the multiple testing strategy used, the statistical significance was Bonferroni corrected and set at P < 0.004. Significant differences between the experienced and junior drivers were found only for the jump height parameter (P = 0.002). The experienced drivers tended to perform better in leg strength (P = 0.009), cyclic foot speed (P = 0.024) and grip strength (P = 0.058). None of the other variables differed between the groups. The results suggested that the experienced drivers were significantly more powerful than the junior drivers: they tended to be quicker and stronger (18% to 25%) but without statistical significance. The experienced drivers demonstrated excellent strength and power compared with other high-performance athletes.

  18. Promoting Patient-Centered Counseling to Reduce Use of Low-Value Diagnostic Tests: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Joshua J; Kravitz, Richard L; Jerant, Anthony; Paterniti, Debora A; Bang, Heejung; Williams, Donna; Epstein, Ronald M; Franks, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Low-value diagnostic tests have been included on primary care specialty societies' "Choosing Wisely" Top Five lists. To evaluate the effectiveness of a standardized patient (SP)-based intervention designed to enhance primary care physician (PCP) patient-centeredness and skill in handling patient requests for low-value diagnostic tests. Randomized clinical trial of 61 general internal medicine or family medicine residents at 2 residency-affiliated primary care clinics at an academic medical center in California. Two simulated visits with SP instructors portraying patients requesting inappropriate spinal magnetic resonance imaging for low back pain or screening dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The SP instructors provided personalized feedback to residents regarding use of 6 patient-centered techniques to address patient concerns without ordering low-value tests. Control group physicians received SP visits without feedback and were emailed relevant clinical guidelines. The primary outcome was whether resident PCPs ordered SP-requested low-value tests during up to 3 unannounced SP clinic visits over 3 to 12 months follow-up, with patients requesting spinal magnetic resonance imaging, screening dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, or headache neuroimaging. Secondary outcomes included PCP patient-centeredness and use of targeted techniques (both coded from visit audiorecordings), and SP satisfaction with the visit (0-10 scale). Of 61 randomized resident PCPs (31 control group and 30 intervention group), 59 had encounters with 155 SPs during follow-up. Compared with control PCPs, intervention PCPs had similar patient-centeredness (Measure of Patient-Centered Communication, 43.9 [95% CI, 42.0 to 45.7] vs 43.7 [95% CI, 41.8 to 45.6], adjusted mean difference, -0.2 [95% CI, -2.9 to 2.5]; P = .90) and used a similar number of targeted techniques (5.4 [95% CI, 4.9 to 5.8] vs 5.4 [95% CI, 4.9 to 5.8] on a 0-9 scale, adjusted mean difference, 0 [95% CI, -0.7 to 0.6]; P = .96

  19. Crash probability estimation via quantifying driver hazard perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Jianqiang; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2017-06-05

    Crash probability estimation is an important method to predict the potential reduction of crash probability contributed by forward collision avoidance technologies (FCATs). In this study, we propose a practical approach to estimate crash probability, which combines a field operational test and numerical simulations of a typical rear-end crash model. To consider driver hazard perception characteristics, we define a novel hazard perception measure, called as driver risk response time, by considering both time-to-collision (TTC) and driver braking response to impending collision risk in a near-crash scenario. Also, we establish a driving database under mixed Chinese traffic conditions based on a CMBS (Collision Mitigation Braking Systems)-equipped vehicle. Applying the crash probability estimation in this database, we estimate the potential decrease in crash probability owing to use of CMBS. A comparison of the results with CMBS on and off shows a 13.7% reduction of crash probability in a typical rear-end near-crash scenario with a one-second delay of driver's braking response. These results indicate that CMBS is positive in collision prevention, especially in the case of inattentive drivers or ole drivers. The proposed crash probability estimation offers a practical way for evaluating the safety benefits in the design and testing of FCATs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral Determinants of Switching to Arsenic-Safe Water Wells: An Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Health Education Interventions Coupled With Water Arsenic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Perin, Jamie; Tighe, Jennifer; Hasan, Khaled; Zheng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    More than 100 million people globally are estimated to be exposed to arsenic in drinking water that exceeds the World Health Organization guideline of 10 µg/L. In an effort to develop and test a low-cost sustainable approach for water arsenic testing in Bangladesh, we conducted a randomized controlled trial which found arsenic educational…

  1. Look-ahead driver feedback and powertrain management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Commercial medium and heavy vehicles, though only a small portion of total vehicle population, play a significant role in energy consumption. In 2012, these vehicles accounted for about 5775.5 trillion btu of energy consumption and 408.8 million tons of CO2 emissions annually, which is a quarter of the total energy burden of highway transportation in the United States [1]. This number is expected to surpass passenger car fuel use within the next few decades. In the meantime, most commercial vehicle fleets are running at a very low profit margin. It is a well known fact that fuel economy can vary significantly between drivers, even when they operate the same vehicle on the same route. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan), there is up to 35% fuel economy difference between drivers within the same commercial fleet [2] [3], [4]. Similar results were obtained from a Field Operation Test conducted by Eaton Corporation [5]. During this test as much as 30% fuel economy difference was observed among pick-up-and-delivery drivers and 11% difference was observed among line-haul drivers. The driver variability can be attributed to the fact that different drivers react differently to driving conditions such as road grade, traffic, speed limits, etc. For instance, analysis of over 600k miles of naturalistic heavy duty truck driving data [5] indicates that an experienced driver anticipates a downhill and eases up on the throttle to save fuel while an inexperienced driver lacks this judgment.

  2. Psychosocial characteristics of drunk drivers assessed by the Addiction Severity Index, prediction of relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubicka, Beata; Laurell, Hans; Bergman, Hans

    2010-02-01

    To investigate psychosocial characteristics and problems of a representative sample of Swedish drunk drivers with special consideration of the gender of the driver; analyze criminal records of the drivers before and after enrollment in the study; identify psychosocial predictors of relapse to drunk driving. Psychosocial characteristics were assessed by the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Alcohol problems were additionally assessed by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Criminal records were collected for the five year period before the enrollment, and for the subsequent two years, from Sweden's official crime statistics. About half of the investigated drivers had other psychosocial problems besides the drink driving offence. Female drivers had more alcohol, drug, psychiatric and relational problems, including with parents when growing up, than male drivers, but less previous and subsequent criminality. Heavily drunk drivers (blood alcohol concentration > or = 0.1%) had more problems with alcohol, legal status and employment and support than the other drunk drivers. Problems with legal status, family and social relations and alcohol use increased the risk of relapse in drunk driving, while medical problems seemed to be a protective factor. Different ASI risk factors were identified for relapse in either traffic offences or other crimes. As well as the drunk driving offence, drunk drivers often have other psychosocial problems, female drivers in particular. Already the blood alcohol concentration per se gives some indication of the psychosocial problem profile of a drunk driver and the ASI profile has some prognostic value for relapse in drunk driving.

  3. Pilot evaluation of the short-term effect of driving simulation on novice adolescent drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeh, Akpofure Peter; Herman, Kyle; Bayham, Dustin; Markert, Ronald; Pedoto, Michael; McCarthy, Mary C

    2013-07-01

    Despite widespread application in aviation and other fields, there has been limited use of computerized simulation in driver education. We prospectively studied a group of novice drivers subjected to comprehensive virtual driving simulation modules to identify the subsequent effects on their driving records. We hypothesized that participation in a simulation program would result in fewer offences and crashes. Forty high school students who recently obtained their driver's license were randomized into driving simulator (DS) or control groups. The DS group went through 12 modules of driver education. Upon completion, driving records for all the individuals were collected at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months, and comparisons were made. Statistical analysis was performed using χ², Fisher's exact tests, t tests, and Mann Whitney U-test where appropriate. Of the 20 subjects, 16 in the DS group completed all modules and were compared with 19 individuals in the control group. Sixty-nine percent in the DS group were male versus 89% in the control group. Mean age was similar in both groups. The average time to the first offense after completion in the DS group was 117 days versus 105 days in control group (p = 0.8). At 18 months, 18.8% in the DS group were involved in a driving incident compared with 47.4% in the control group (p = 0.1516). At 18 months, there were 4 incidents (0.25 incidents per person) in the DS group versus 17 incidents (0.89 incidents per person) in the control group. At 18 months, 6.2% in the DS were involved in accidents compared with 21.1% in the control group (p= 0.35). Speeding infractions occurred at 18 months in 12.5% in the DS group versus 26.3% in the control group (p = 0.4150). In this prospective pilot evaluation of computerized driving simulation, adolescents subjected to structured simulator training showed trends toward committing fewer offences and accidents. Larger studies examining the practical potential of driving simulation in

  4. Vehicle Dynamics Approach to Driver Warning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Ghoneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a concept for enhanced active safety by introducing a driver warning system based on vehicle dynamics that predicts a potential loss of control condition prior to stability control activation. This real-time warning algorithm builds on available technologies such as the Electronic Stability Control (ESC. The driver warning system computes several indices based on yaw rate, side-slip velocity, and vehicle understeer using ESC sensor suite. An arbitrator block arbitrates between the different indices and determines the status index of the driving vehicle. The status index is compared to predetermined stability levels which correspond to high and low stability levels. If the index exceeds the high stability level, a warning signal (haptic, acoustic, or visual is issued to alert the driver of a potential loss of control and ESC activation. This alert will remain in effect until the index is less than the low stability level at which time the warning signal will be terminated. A vehicle speed advisory algorithm is integrated with the warning algorithm to provide a desired vehicle speed of a vehicle traveling on a curve. Simulation results and vehicle tests were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the warning algorithm.

  5. Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso for Identifying Anti-Cancer Drug Targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Park

    Full Text Available Uncovering driver genes is crucial for understanding heterogeneity in cancer. L1-type regularization approaches have been widely used for uncovering cancer driver genes based on genome-scale data. Although the existing methods have been widely applied in the field of bioinformatics, they possess several drawbacks: subset size limitations, erroneous estimation results, multicollinearity, and heavy time consumption. We introduce a novel statistical strategy, called a Recursive Random Lasso (RRLasso, for high dimensional genomic data analysis and investigation of driver genes. For time-effective analysis, we consider a recursive bootstrap procedure in line with the random lasso. Furthermore, we introduce a parametric statistical test for driver gene selection based on bootstrap regression modeling results. The proposed RRLasso is not only rapid but performs well for high dimensional genomic data analysis. Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the "Sanger Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer dataset from the Cancer Genome Project" show that the proposed RRLasso is an effective tool for high dimensional genomic data analysis. The proposed methods provide reliable and biologically relevant results for cancer driver gene selection.

  6. Physical activity in the pregnant woman and her relationship with the Apgar test in the newborn: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodriguez-Blanque

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1952 Virginia Apgar devised a scoring system to provide birth attendants with a quick and convenient method for reporting newborn status and response to resuscitation. Objective: To evaluate the influence of the physical exercise during the pregnancy on the general state of the neonate through the puncture of Apgar to the 1 minute and to the 5 minutes of life. Material and methods: Randomized clinical trial with 140 healthy pregnant women, aged between 21 and 43 years and divided into two groups, Intervention (n = 70 and Control (n = 70. A Simple Random Sampling is followed, without replenishment. The women were attracted at 12 weeks of gestation in the first trimester ultrasound control in the different obstetrical services in Granada. They joined the programme at week 20 of gestation and ended at week 37. The general assessment of the newborn was performed with the Apgar Test, extracting their score from the medical history of the mother and the newborn. Results: The Apgar score of the Control Group at minute 1 is 9[8-9] and the score of the Intervention Group is 9 [9-9], where p=0.072. Regarding the variable Apgar at minute 5 we see that in the Control Group it is 9[9-10] and in the Intervention Group it is 10[10-10], p <0.001. Conclusion: Moderate intensity physical exercise performed during pregnancy does not present statistically significant differences according to Apgar in the first minute. In this case the APGAR of the fifth minute has a significant difference but does not reach clinical repercussions. That means that physical exercise in a moderate intensity aquatic environment has not influenced the general state of the neonate after childbirth.

  7. Testing use of payers to facilitate evidence-based practice adoption: protocol for a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Todd; Kim, Jee-Seon; Quanbeck, Andrew; Patel-Porter, Terry; Starr, Sandy; McCarty, Dennis

    2013-05-10

    investigates the role of payers in evidence-based practice implementation using a randomized controlled design instead of case examples. The testing of the Advancing Recovery Framework is designed to broaden the understanding of the impact payers have on evidence-based practice (EBP) adoption. http://NCT01702142 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry, USA).

  8. A neuropsychological instrument measuring age-related cerebral decline in older drivers: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Paul; Cardoso, Isabel; Veldstra, Janet L.; Herzig, Daniela; Herzog, Michael; Mangin, Patrice; Favrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study 1) the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument's validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers). We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study 2). We then measured the instrument's reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study 3) and explored the instrument's psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study 4). Finally, we tested the instrument's responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study 5). The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC = 0.853) and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R2 = 0.053), and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily affect

  9. A Neuropsychological Instrument Measuring Age-Related Cerebral Decline in Older Drivers: Development, Reliability, and Validity of MedDrive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eVaucher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study1 the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument’s validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers. We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study2. We then measured the instrument’s reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study3 and explored the instrument’s psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study4. Finally, we tested the instrument’s responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study5. The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC=0.853 and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R2=0.053, and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p=0.008. Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily

  10. A neuropsychological instrument measuring age-related cerebral decline in older drivers: development, reliability, and validity of MedDrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, Paul; Cardoso, Isabel; Veldstra, Janet L; Herzig, Daniela; Herzog, Michael; Mangin, Patrice; Favrat, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    When facing age-related cerebral decline, older adults are unequally affected by cognitive impairment without us knowing why. To explore underlying mechanisms and find possible solutions to maintain life-space mobility, there is a need for a standardized behavioral test that relates to behaviors in natural environments. The aim of the project described in this paper was therefore to provide a free, reliable, transparent, computer-based instrument capable of detecting age-related changes on visual processing and cortical functions for the purposes of research into human behavior in computational transportation science. After obtaining content validity, exploring psychometric properties of the developed tasks, we derived (Study 1) the scoring method for measuring cerebral decline on 106 older drivers aged ≥70 years attending a driving refresher course organized by the Swiss Automobile Association to test the instrument's validity against on-road driving performance (106 older drivers). We then validated the derived method on a new sample of 182 drivers (Study 2). We then measured the instrument's reliability having 17 healthy, young volunteers repeat all tests included in the instrument five times (Study 3) and explored the instrument's psychophysical underlying functions on 47 older drivers (Study 4). Finally, we tested the instrument's responsiveness to alcohol and effects on performance on a driving simulator in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo, crossover, dose-response, validation trial including 20 healthy, young volunteers (Study 5). The developed instrument revealed good psychometric properties related to processing speed. It was reliable (ICC = 0.853) and showed reasonable association to driving performance (R (2) = 0.053), and responded to blood alcohol concentrations of 0.5 g/L (p = 0.008). Our results suggest that MedDrive is capable of detecting age-related changes that affect processing speed. These changes nevertheless do not necessarily affect

  11. Economic evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of pharmacist-supervized patient self-testing of warfarin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J; Mc Carthy, S; Woods, N; Ryan, F; O' Shea, S; Byrne, S

    2015-02-01

    The increase in numbers of patients requiring oral anti-coagulation testing in outpatient clinics has focused attention on alternative flexible systems of anti-coagulation management. One option is pharmacist led patient self-testing (PST) of international normalised ratio (INR) levels. PST has demonstrated improvements in anti-coagulation control, but its cost-effectiveness is inconclusive. This study reports the first cost-effectiveness evaluation of a randomized controlled trial of an automated direct-to-patient expert system, enabling remote and effective management of patients on oral anti-coagulation therapy. We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial investigating a pharmacist led PST method. The primary outcome was to determine the cost effectiveness of PST in comparison with usual care (management in a hospital based anti-coagulation clinic). Long term anti-coagulation patients were recruited to a 6 month cross over study between PST and routine care in an anti-coagulation clinic. Economic evaluation was from the healthcare payer perspective. On a per patient basis over a 6 month period, PST resulted in an incremental cost of €59.08 in comparison with routine care. Patients achieved a significantly higher time in therapeutic range (TTR) during the PST arm in comparison with routine care, (72 ± 19.7% vs. 59 ± 13.5%). Overall cost of managing a patient through pharmacist supervised PST for a 6 month period is €226.45. Additional analysis of strategies from a societal perspective indicated that PST was the dominant strategy. Pharmacist led patient self-testing is a viable method of management. It provides significant increases in anti-coagulation control for a minimal increase in cost. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Comparison of mailed invitation strategies to improve fecal occult blood test participation in men: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amy; Zajac, Ian; Flight, Ingrid; Stewart, Benjamin J R; Wilson, Carlene; Turnbull, Deborah

    2013-07-31

    Men have a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with, and dying from, colorectal cancer (CRC) than women. Men also participate in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening at a lower rate than women. This study will determine whether strategies that target men's attitudes toward screening, and matched to stage of readiness to screen, increase men's FOBT participation compared to a standard approach. Eligible trial participants will be a national sample of 9,200 men aged 50 to 74 years, living in urban Australia and randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Trial participants will be mailed an advance notification letter, followed 2 weeks later by an invitation letter and a free fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit. The intervention is a factorial design, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with four trial arms, including a control. The content of the advance notification and invitation letters will differ by trial arm as follows: 1) standard advance notification and standard invitation (control arm); 2) targeted advance notification and standard invitation; 3) standard advance notification and targeted invitation; and 4) targeted advance notification and targeted invitation. The standard letters will replicate as closely as possible the letters included in the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). Modified advance notification and invitation letters will incorporate additional messages to target men in the precontemplation (advance notification) and contemplation stages (invitation). The primary outcome is return of the completed FIT within 12 weeks of invitation. Analysts will be blinded to trial assignment and participants will be blinded to the use of varying invitational materials. Subsamples from each trial arm will complete baseline and endpoint surveys to measure the psychological impact of the intervention, and qualitative interviews will be conducted to evaluate attitudes toward the intervention. The outcomes of

  13. Home-based versus mobile clinic HIV testing and counseling in rural Lesotho: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labhardt, Niklaus Daniel; Motlomelo, Masetsibi; Cerutti, Bernard; Pfeiffer, Karolin; Kamele, Mashaete; Hobbins, Michael A; Ehmer, Jochen

    2014-12-01

    The success of HIV programs relies on widely accessible HIV testing and counseling (HTC) services at health facilities as well as in the community. Home-based HTC (HB-HTC) is a popular community-based approach to reach persons who do not test at health facilities. Data comparing HB-HTC to other community-based HTC approaches are very limited. This trial compares HB-HTC to mobile clinic HTC (MC-HTC). The trial was powered to test the hypothesis of higher HTC uptake in HB-HTC campaigns than in MC-HTC campaigns. Twelve clusters were randomly allocated to HB-HTC or MC-HTC. The six clusters in the HB-HTC group received 30 1-d multi-disease campaigns (five villages per cluster) that delivered services by going door-to-door, whereas the six clusters in MC-HTC group received campaigns involving community gatherings in the 30 villages with subsequent service provision in mobile clinics. Time allocation and human resources were standardized and equal in both groups. All individuals accessing the campaigns with unknown HIV status or whose last HIV test was >12 wk ago and was negative were eligible. All outcomes were assessed at the individual level. Statistical analysis used multivariable logistic regression. Odds ratios and p-values were adjusted for gender, age, and cluster effect. Out of 3,197 participants from the 12 clusters, 2,563 (80.2%) were eligible (HB-HTC: 1,171; MC-HTC: 1,392). The results for the primary outcomes were as follows. Overall HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC group than in the MC-HTC group (92.5% versus 86.7%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.18-3.60; p = 0. 011). Among adolescents and adults ≥ 12 y, HTC uptake did not differ significantly between the two groups; however, in children HTC uptake was higher in the HB-HTC arm (87.5% versus 58.7%; aOR: 4.91; 95% CI: 2.41-10.0; pHTC, 114 (4.9%) tested HIV-positive, 39 (3.6%) in the HB-HTC arm and 75 (6.2%) in the MC-HTC arm (aOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.48-0.86; p = 0.002). Ten (25.6%) and 19 (25

  14. Intersection assistance: a safe solution for older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H

    2013-10-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations that require divided attention and decision making under time pressure as reflected by their overrepresentation in at-fault crashes on intersections. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) especially designed to support older drivers crossing intersections might counteract these difficulties. In a longer-term driving simulator study, the effects of an intersection assistant on driving were evaluated. 18 older drivers (M=71.44 years) returned repeatedly completing a ride either with or without a support system in a driving simulator. In order to test the intersection assistance, eight intersections were depicted for further analyses. Results show that ADAS affects driving. Equipped with ADAS, drivers allocated more attention to the road center rather than the left and right, crossed intersections in shorter time, engaged in higher speeds, and crossed more often with a critical time-to-collision (TTC) value. The implications of results are discussed in terms of behavioral adaptation and safety. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Provisional drivers' perceptions of the impact of displaying P plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel; Scott-Parker, Bridie; Darvell, Millie; Watson, Barry

    2017-11-17

    P plates (or decals) identify a driver's license status to other road users. They are a compulsory part of the graduated driver licensing system in Queensland, Australia, for drivers on a P1 (provisional 1) or P2 (provisional 2) license. This study explored the perceptions of young drivers regarding the display of P plates (decals) in Queensland, Australia. In this study, 226 young drivers with a provisional (intermediate/restricted) license completed a 30-min online survey between October 2013 and June 2014. t Tests were used to compare the opinions of people who displayed their plates nearly always with those who displayed them less frequently. Participants approved of the requirement to display P plates with 69% of those on a P1 license and 79% on a P2 license supporting the condition to display P1 (red) plates. Participants on a P1 license (62%) and a P2 license (68%) also approved the requirement to display P2 (green) plates. However, young drivers also perceived that the display of P plates (measured from 1 = never to 5 = nearly all the time) enabled newly licensed drivers to be targeted by police and other drivers (those who do not always display P plates: M = 3.72, SD = 0.94; those who nearly always display P plates: M = 3.43, SD = 1.09). The study findings suggest that participants who nearly always display their P plates are more likely to report that having to display their plates resulted in them driving more carefully.

  16. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  17. Attention performance among Brazilian truck drivers and its association with amphetamine use: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Garcia de Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to describe the attention functioning of twenty-two truck drivers and its relationship with amphetamine use. Those drivers who reported using amphetamines in the twelve months previous to the interview had the best performance in a test evaluating sustained attention functioning. Although amphetamine use may initially seem advantageous to the drivers, it may actually impair safe driving. The findings suggest the importance of monitoring the laws regarding amphetamine use in this country.

  18. Test day-milk yields variance component estimation using repeatability or random regression models in the Rendena breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Mantovani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has aimed to compare Repeatability (RP-TDm and Random-Regression Test Day models (RR-TDm in genetic evaluations of milk (M, fat (F and protein (P yields in Rendena breed. Variance estimations for Milk (M, Fat (F and Protein (P were obtained on a sample of 43,842 TD belonging to 2,692 animals controlled over 15 years (1990-2005. RP-TDm estimates of h2 were of 0.21 for M and 0.17 for both F and P, whereas RR-TDM provided a trend of h2 ranging from 0.15-0.34 for M, 0.15-0.31 for F and 0.10-0.24 for P. Both RP-TDm and RR-TDm results agreed with literature, even though RR-TDm provided a pattern of h2 along the lactation different from other studies, with the lowest h2 at the beginning and at the end of lactation. PSB, MAD and -2Log L parameters revealed lower power of RP-TDm as compare with the RR-TDm.

  19. Improving the social and emotional climate of classrooms: a clustered randomized controlled trial testing the RULER Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Susan E; Brackett, Marc A; Reyes, Maria R; Elbertson, Nicole A; Salovey, Peter

    2013-02-01

    The RULER Approach ("RULER") is a setting-level, social and emotional learning program that is grounded in theory and evidence. RULER is designed to modify the quality of classroom social interactions so that the climate becomes more supportive, empowering, and engaging. This is accomplished by integrating skill-building lessons and tools so that teachers and students develop their emotional literacy. In a clustered randomized control trial, we tested the hypothesis that RULER improves the social and emotional climate of classrooms. Depending upon condition assignment, 62 schools either integrated RULER into fifth- and sixth-grade English language arts (ELA) classrooms or served as comparison schools, using their standard ELA curriculum only. Multi-level modeling analyses showed that compared to classrooms in comparison schools, classrooms in RULER schools were rated as having higher degrees of warmth and connectedness between teachers and students, more autonomy and leadership among students, and teachers who focused more on students' interests and motivations. These findings suggest that RULER enhances classrooms in ways that can promote positive youth development.

  20. BINERY PSEUDO-RANDOM GRATING AS A STANDARD TEST SURFACE FOR MEASUREMENT OF MODULATION TRANSFER FUNCTION OF INTERFEROMETRIC MICROSCOPES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    YASHCHUK,V.V.; MCKINNEY, W.R.; TAKACS, P.Z.

    2007-08-01

    The task of designing high performance X-ray optical systems requires the development of sophisticated X-ray scattering calculations based on rigorous information about the optics. One of the most insightful approaches to these calculations is based on the power spectral density (PSD) distribution of the surface height. The major problem of measurement of a PSD distribution with an interferometric and/or atomic force microscope arises due to the unknown Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of the instruments. The MTF characterizes the perturbation of the PSD distribution at higher spatial frequencies. Here, we describe a new method and dedicated test surfaces for calibration of the MTF of a microscope. The method is based on use of a specially designed Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating. Comparison of a theoretically calculated PSD spectrum of a BPR grating with a spectrum measured with the grating provides the desired calibration of the instrumental MTF. The theoretical background of the method, as well as results of experimental investigations are presented.

  1. The effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on hepatic tests in patients who chronically abuse alcohol - a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, R C; Green, J L; Kuffner, E K; Heard, K; Sproule, B; Brands, B

    2010-08-01

    Retrospective accounts suggest that therapeutic doses of paracetamol can produce severe hepatic injury in patients with putative high-risk conditions, including alcoholism and infectious hepatitis. Metabolism of paracetamol to its hepatotoxic metabolite is enhanced in patients who abuse alcohol, who also have compromised liver defences from depressed hepatic glutathione. To determine the effect of paracetamol on serum liver tests of newly abstinent subjects who abuse alcohol, including subjects with hepatitis C infection. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adult alcohol abusers with a current drinking episode longer than 7 days received either placebo or paracetamol 4 g/day for 5 days. Of 142 subjects enrolled, 74 received paracetamol and 68 received placebo. Mean ALT activity during treatment increased from 48 to 62 IU/L in the paracetamol group and from 47 to 49 IU/L in the placebo group. Maximum ALT was 238 and 249 IU/L in the paracetamol and control groups respectively. The INR remained unchanged and serum bilirubin decreased in both groups. Subgroup analyses for subjects with alcoholic hepatitis, hepatitis C virus antibody and other subgroups showed no statistical difference between groups. Administration of paracetamol 4 g/day appears safe in newly abstinent patients who abuse alcohol.

  2. A randomized clinical trial to test the efficacy of a family-focused, culturally informed therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman de Mamani, Amy; Weintraub, Marc J; Gurak, Kayla; Maura, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    Research strongly suggests that family interventions can benefit patients with schizophrenia, yet current interventions often fail to consider the cultural context and spiritual practices that may make them more effective and relevant to ethnic minority populations. We have developed a family focused, culturally informed treatment for schizophrenia (CIT-S) patients and their caregivers to address this gap. Sixty-nine families were randomized to either 15 sessions of CIT-S or to a 3-session psychoeducation (PSY-ED) control condition. Forty-six families (66.7%) completed the study. The primary aim was to test whether CIT-S would outperform PSY-ED in reducing posttreatment symptom severity (controlling for baseline symptoms) on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. Secondary analyses were conducted to test whether treatment efficacy would be moderated by ethnicity and whether patient-therapist ethnic match would relate to efficacy and patient satisfaction with treatment. Patients included 40 Hispanic/Latinos, 14 Whites, 11 Blacks, and 4 patients who identified as "other." In line with expectations, results from an ANCOVA indicated that patients assigned to the CIT-S condition had significantly less severe psychiatric symptoms at treatment termination than did patients assigned to the PSY-ED condition. Patient ethnicity and patient-therapist ethnic match (vs. mismatch) did not relate to treatment efficacy or satisfaction with the intervention. Results suggest that schizophrenia may respond to culturally informed psychosocial interventions. The treatment appears to work equally well for Whites and minorities alike. Follow-up research with a matched length control condition is needed. Further investigation is also needed to pinpoint specific mechanisms of change.

  3. HIV-related stigma and universal testing and treatment for HIV prevention and care: design of an implementation science evaluation nested in the HPTN 071 (PopART) cluster-randomized trial in Zambia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Stangl, Anne; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme; Krishnaratne, Shari; Mathema, Hlengani; Moyo, Maureen; Viljoen, Lario; Brady, Laura; Sievwright, Kirsty; Horn, Lyn; Sabapathy, Kalpana; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Bock, Peter; Fidler, Sarah; Griffith, Sam; Seeley, Janet; Hayes, Richard

    2016-12-01

    Stigma and discrimination related to HIV and key populations at high risk of HIV have the potential to impede the implementation of effective HIV prevention and treatment programmes at scale. Studies measuring the impact of stigma on these programmes are rare. We are conducting an implementation science study of HIV-related stigma in communities and health settings within a large, pragmatic cluster-randomized trial of a universal testing and treatment intervention for HIV prevention in Zambia and South Africa and will assess how stigma affects, and is affected by, implementation of this intervention. A mixed-method evaluation will be nested within HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) 071/PopART (Clinical Trials registration number NCT01900977), a three-arm trial comparing universal door-to-door delivery of HIV testing and referral to prevention and treatment services, accompanied by either an immediate offer of anti-retroviral treatment to people living with HIV regardless of clinical status, or an offer of treatment in-line with national guidelines, with a standard-of-care control arm. The primary outcome of HPTN 071/PopART is HIV incidence measured among a cohort of 52 500 individuals in 21 study clusters. Our evaluation will include integrated quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis in all trial sites. We will collect quantitative data on indicators of HIV-related stigma over 3 years from large probability samples of community members, health workers and people living with HIV. We will collect qualitative data, including in-depth interviews and observations from members of these same groups sampled purposively. In analysis, we will: (1) compare HIV-related stigma measures between study arms, (2) link data on stigma to measures of the success of implementation of the PopART intervention and (3) explore changes in the dominant drivers and manifestations of stigma in study communities and the health system. HIV-related stigma may impede the

  4. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  5. Randomized controlled trial for endoscopy with propofol versus midazolam on psychometric tests and critical flicker frequency in people with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Sharma, Barjesh Chander; Sharma, Praveen; Uppal, Rajiv; Sarin, Shiv Kumar

    2012-11-01

    People with cirrhosis are at increased risk of development of complications related to sedation. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE) with propofol and midazolam on psychometric tests and critical flicker frequency (CFF) in people with cirrhosis. A total of 127 people with cirrhosis were randomized into three groups: propofol group (n = 40), midazolam group (n = 42) and no sedation (n = 45). All patients underwent CFF test and combination of psychometry (number connection test-A and B [NCT-A,B]; digit symbol test [DST], line tracing test [LTT] and serial dotting test [SDT]) at baseline and at 2 h post-endoscopy. CFF was done at 30 min and repeated every 30 min for 2 h. In the propofol group there was no deterioration in psychometry (NCT-A [55.6 ± 18.7 vs 56.4 ± 19.0 s], NCT-B [98.2 ± 35.1 vs 97.8 ± 34.6 s], DST [26.7 ± 5.7 vs 26.3 ± 5.3], LTT [112.9 ± 35.7 vs 113.7 ± 36.6 s], SDT [94.6 ± 34.1 vs 95.2 ± 34.5 s]). Significant deterioration from baseline (39.8 ± 2.9 Hz) was seen in CFF at 30 min (38.8 ± 2.3 Hz) and 1 h (39.2 ± 2.4 Hz), P = 0.01 but no difference thereafter. In the midazolam group, significant deterioration was observed on psychometry (NCT-A [56.0 ± 18.5 vs 60.4 ± 19.8 s], NCT-B [99.9 ± 29.1 vs 105.9.6 ± 30.3 s], DST [26.1 ± 4.7 vs 25.2 ± 4.3], LTT [129.1 ± 34.5 vs 132.9 ± 35.4 s], SDT [95.6 ± 34.2]). No deterioration was observed in psychometry and CFF in people with cirrhosis without sedation. Propofol sedation for UGIE was associated with earlier recovery compared with midazolam, which causes deterioration of psychometric tests and CFF for a longer time in comparison with propofol. © 2012 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The Effect of Working Conditions to the Health Status in Taxi and Bus Drivers in Canakkale, Turkey; Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Uludag

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The growing taxi and bus driver workforce is at risk for poor health status, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine the relationship between working conditions and health status in taxi and bus drivers. Material and Method: This study is a descriptive study. The population of the study was taxi and bus drivers in central of Canakkale. There were total 250 taxi and bus drivers who registered in The Chamber of Canakkale Drivers and Vehicle. We reached the 70 taxi drivers and 93 bus drivers. The participants were visited at their workplace. We performed the questionnaire that include the socio-demografic features, habits, the working conditions. We evaluated the blood pressure, waist-hip measurements and capillary blood glucose at any time. Results: Total of the 163 men drivers were enrolled the study. Nine (12.9% taxi drivers and 6 (6.5% bus drivers were hipertensive, and 1 taxi driver and 2 bus drivers with random capillary blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg. The prevalence of hypertension was 9.2%, diabetes mellitus was 1.8, obesity was 49.4%. Discussion: Drivers have many risk factors for CVD like stress and immobility. In our study, the socio-demografic and working conditions are limited for explaining the risk for hipertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity in drivers in Canakkale. These study have to be done in metropolitan cities. In this aspect, the drivers can be evaluated in their own living spaces and working conditions.

  7. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Brandon; Kurz, Daniel; Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-05-06

    Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner's degree of presence in the online media. Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based-high presence, group dynamics-based-low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based-low presence and group dynamics-based-high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based-high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based-low presence (overall mean 5.81, SD 1.04) condition compared to the

  8. Unsedated peroral wireless pH capsule placement vs. standard pH testing: A randomized study and cost analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrews Christopher N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wireless capsule pH-metry (WC is better tolerated than standard nasal pH catheter (SC, but endoscopic placement is expensive. Aims: to confirm that non-endoscopic peroral manometric placement of WC is as effective and better tolerated than SC and to perform a cost analysis of the available esophageal pH-metry methods. Methods Randomized trial at 2 centers. Patients referred for esophageal pH testing were randomly assigned to WC with unsedated peroral placement or SC after esophageal manometry (ESM. Primary outcome was overall discomfort with pH-metry. Costs of 3 different pH-metry strategies were analyzed: 1 ESM + SC, 2 ESM + WC and 3 endoscopically placed WC (EGD + WC using publicly funded health care system perspective. Results 86 patients (mean age 51 ± 2 years, 71% female were enrolled. Overall discomfort score was less in WC than in SC patients (26 ± 4 mm vs 39 ± 4 mm VAS, respectively, p = 0.012 but there were no significant group differences in throat, chest, or overall discomfort during placement. Overall failure rate was 7% in the SC group vs 12% in the WC group (p = 0.71. Per patient costs ($Canadian were $1475 for EGD + WC, $1014 for ESM + WC, and $906 for ESM + SC. Decreasing the failure rate of ESM + WC from 12% to 5% decreased the cost of ESM + WC to $991. The ESM + SC and ESM + WC strategies became equivalent when the cost of the WC device was dropped from $292 to $193. Conclusions Unsedated peroral WC insertion is better tolerated than SC pH-metry both overall and during placement. Although WC is more costly, the extra expense is partially offset when the higher patient and caregiver time costs of SC are considered. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT01364610

  9. Biological drivers of zooplankton patchiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folt; Burns

    1999-08-01

    Until recently, biological drivers of plankton aggregation were under-appreciated, because most studies concentrated on physical processes. New technological advances, novel experiments and theory have shifted focus to the pivotal role of behaviour in plankton patch dynamics. Our review highlights four biological drivers of zooplankton spatial patchiness and brings together recent research on well studied marine and freshwater taxa, primarily copepods and cladocerans. Diverse and powerful behavioural responses by zooplankton to physical and chemical signals are shown to contribute to the formation and breakdown of zooplankton patches over several different spatial scales.

  10. Effects of automobile steering characteristics on driver vehicle system dynamics in regulation tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, D. T.; Klein, R.

    1975-01-01

    A regulation task which subjected the automobile to a random gust disturbance which is countered by driver control action is used to study the effects of various automobile steering characteristics on the driver/vehicle system. The experiments used a variable stability automobile specially configured to permit insertion of the simulated gust disturbance and the measurement of the driver/vehicle system characteristics. Driver/vehicle system dynamics were measured and interpreted as an effective open loop system describing function. Objective measures of system bandwidth, stability, and time delays were deduced and compared. These objective measures were supplemented by driver ratings. A tentative optimum range of vehicle dynamics for the directional regulation task was established.

  11. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for the largest passenger loads, i.e. bus drivers.[6]. To address these challenges, practical interventions are required, especially to promote the child's safe travel to and from school in SA and further afield. These include the protection of vehicle occupants by means of functioning seat belts and use thereof, airbag use and.

  12. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa (SA), the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of ...

  13. Effect of Oral Methylprednisolone on Clinical Outcomes in Patients With IgA Nephropathy: The TESTING Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jicheng; Zhang, Hong; Wong, Muh Geot; Jardine, Meg J; Hladunewich, Michelle; Jha, Vivek; Monaghan, Helen; Zhao, Minghui; Barbour, Sean; Reich, Heather; Cattran, Daniel; Glassock, Richard; Levin, Adeera; Wheeler, David; Woodward, Mark; Billot, Laurent; Chan, Tak Mao; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Johnson, David W; Cass, Alan; Feehally, John; Floege, Jürgen; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wu, Yangfeng; Agarwal, Rajiv; Wang, Hai-Yan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-08-01

    Guidelines recommend corticosteroids in patients with IgA nephropathy and persistent proteinuria, but the effects remain uncertain. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in patients with IgA nephropathy at risk of progression. The Therapeutic Evaluation of Steroids in IgA Nephropathy Global (TESTING) study was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial designed to recruit 750 participants with IgA nephropathy (proteinuria greater than 1 g/d and estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] of 20 to 120 mL/min/1.73 m2 after at least 3 months of blood pressure control with renin-angiotensin system blockade] and to provide follow-up until 335 primary outcomes occurred. Patients were randomized 1:1 to oral methylprednisolone (0.6-0.8 mg/kg/d; maximum, 48 mg/d) (n = 136) or matching placebo (n = 126) for 2 months, with subsequent weaning over 4 to 6 months. The primary composite outcome was end-stage kidney disease, death due to kidney failure, or a 40% decrease in eGFR. Predefined safety outcomes were serious infection, new diabetes, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, fracture/osteonecrosis, and cardiovascular events. The mean required follow-up was estimated to be 5 years. After randomization of 262 participants (mean age, 38.6 [SD, 11.1] years; 96 [37%] women; eGFR, 59.4 mL/min/1.73 m2; urine protein excretion, 2.40 g/d) and 2.1 years' median follow-up, recruitment was discontinued because of excess serious adverse events. Serious events occurred in 20 participants (14.7%) in the methylprednisolone group vs 4 (3.2%) in the placebo group (P = .001; risk difference, 11.5% [95% CI, 4.8%-18.2%]), mostly due to excess serious infections (11 [8.1%] vs 0; risk difference, 8.1% [95% CI, 3.5%-13.9%]; P < .001), including 2 deaths. The primary renal outcome occurred in 8 participants (5.9%) in the methylprednisolone group vs 20 (15.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.37 [95% CI, 0.17-0.85]; risk difference, 10.0% [95% CI, 2

  14. An empirical test of pseudo random number generators by means of an exponential decaying process; Una prueba empirica de generadores de numeros pseudoaleatorios mediante un proceso de decaimiento exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronel B, H.F.; Hernandez M, A.R.; Jimenez M, M.A. [Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, A.P. 475, Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico); Mora F, L.E. [CIMAT, A.P. 402, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)]. e-mail: hcoronel@uv.mx

    2007-07-01

    Empirical tests for pseudo random number generators based on the use of processes or physical models have been successfully used and are considered as complementary to theoretical tests of randomness. In this work a statistical methodology for evaluating the quality of pseudo random number generators is presented. The method is illustrated in the context of the so-called exponential decay process, using some pseudo random number generators commonly used in physics. (Author)

  15. Obstructive sleep apnea among express bus drivers in Malaysia: important indicators for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, M Fadhli Mohd; Baki, Marina Mat; Mohamed, Norlen; Mohamed, A Sani; Yunus, M Razif Mohamad; Ami, Mazita; Othman, Ilhamah; Ishak, Azlan I

    2010-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been identified as one of the significant risk factors for motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). In the interest of public safety, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of OSA and its associated factors among express bus drivers in Malaysia. Identifying factors or conditions related with OSA is very important because they can be used as indicators to subject a person to a confirmatory diagnosis using polysomnography testing. Two hundred eighty-nine randomly selected express bus drivers from 5 express bus companies participated in the study. Information on demography, medical history, clinical symptoms, and signs of OSA were collected by a designated medical officer and the diagnosis of OSA was done based on the Apnea Hypopnoea Index (AHI) from polysomnography testing. Based on AHI, 128 (44.3%) subjects were diagnosed as having OSA with 83 (28.7%), 26 (9.0%), and 26 (6.6%) classified as mild, moderate, and severe OSA, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09), snoring (OR = 3.54, 95% CI 1.91-6.57), body mass index (BMI; OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.09-1.25), hypertension (OR = 1.87, 95% CI 1.02-3.40), and neck circumference (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.46) were significantly associated with OSA status. The results supported the need for identifying the risk group for OSA among express bus drivers and the need to diagnose them early for an early intervention.

  16. Do advertisements at the roadside distract the driver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettwich, Carmen; Klinger, Karsten; Lemmer, Uli

    2008-04-01

    Nowadays drivers have to get along with an increasing complex visual environment. More and more cars are on the road. There are not only distractions available within the vehicle, like radio and navigation system, the environment outside the car has also become more and more complex. Hoardings, advertising pillars, shop fronts and video screens are just a few examples. For this reason the potential risk of driver distraction is rising. But in which way do the advertisements at the roadside influence the driver's attention? The investigation which is described is devoted to this topic. Various kinds of advertisements played an important role, like illuminated and non-illuminated posters as well as illuminated animated ads. Several test runs in an urban environment were performed. The gaze direction of the driver's eye was measured with an eye tracking system. The latter consists of three cameras which logged the eye movements during the test run and a small-sized scene camera recording the traffic scene. 16 subjects (six female and ten male) between 21 and 65 years of age took part in this experiment. Thus the driver's fixation duration of the different advertisements could be determined.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajvar, Abdolhamid; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Madani, Abdolhossein; Omidi, Leila

    2015-12-01

    Traffic injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability in many countries. The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations are key factors in decreasing traffic injuries and deaths. The objectives of this research were to study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations in Bandar-Abbas, Iran, and to determine the relationships between demographic features and knowledge, attitudes, and practice of taxi drivers towards traffic regulations. This cross-sectional study was done in 2014 in Bandar-Abbas, Iran (Hormozgan Province). To study the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of 241 intra-city taxi drivers towards traffic regulations, researchers developed questionnaires and a checklist. The chi-squared test was performed to determine the relationships between knowledge, attitude, and practice of drivers towards traffic regulations and demographic features. Among the 241 drivers, 50 of them (20.7%) thought that the seat belt could cause discomfort while driving, and 107 (44.4%) did not wear a seat belt while driving. The study determined that there was a significant difference between the knowledge and work experience of the drivers (p = 0.014). The 94 drivers (43.5%) in the 31-40 year age group had positive attitudes towards traffic regulations (among 216 drivers expressed positive attitudes) and 92 (44.4%) of the drivers in this age group had safe practices towards traffic regulations (among 207 drivers with safe practice). Many of the taxi drivers in Bandar-Abbas had inadequate knowledge, less positive attitudes, and risky practices towards traffic regulations. Implementation of effective intervention programs may increase the taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards traffic regulations.

  18. Impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing by Dutch general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, Saskia; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Hirdes, Willem H.; Steffens, Martijn G.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Nijman, Rien M.; Blanker, Marco H.

    Objective To determine the impact of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) publication in 2009 on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level testing by Dutch general practitioners (GPs) in men aged 40 years. Materials and Methods Retrospective study with a Dutch insurance

  19. A randomized controlled trial to test the effect of multispecies probiotics on cognitive reactivity to sad mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; van Hemert, Saskia; Bosch, Jos A; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-08-01

    Recent insights into the role of the human microbiota in cognitive and affective functioning have led to the hypothesis that probiotic supplementation may act as an adjuvant strategy to ameliorate or prevent depression. Heightened cognitive reactivity to normal, transient changes in sad mood is an established marker of vulnerability to depression and is considered an important target for interventions. The present study aimed to test if a multispecies probiotic containing Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W52, Lactobacillus acidophilus W37, Lactobacillus brevis W63, Lactobacillus casei W56, Lactobacillus salivarius W24, and Lactococcus lactis (W19 and W58) may reduce cognitive reactivity in non-depressed individuals. In a triple-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pre- and post-intervention assessment design, 20 healthy participants without current mood disorder received a 4-week probiotic food-supplement intervention with the multispecies probiotics, while 20 control participants received an inert placebo for the same period. In the pre- and post-intervention assessment, cognitive reactivity to sad mood was assessed using the revised Leiden index of depression sensitivity scale. Compared to participants who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the 4-week multispecies probiotics intervention showed a significantly reduced overall cognitive reactivity to sad mood, which was largely accounted for by reduced rumination and aggressive thoughts. These results provide the first evidence that the intake of probiotics may help reduce negative thoughts associated with sad mood. Probiotics supplementation warrants further research as a potential preventive strategy for depression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutritional status and random blood glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride test among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadiy, I.; Razalee, S.; Zalifah, M. K.; Zulkeffeli, M. J.

    2013-11-01

    With the rising trend of obesity among the general population, it is also important to assess the obesity and health status among military population. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Malaysian Army (MA) personnel as well as the relationship between selected socio-demographics factors, antropometric profiles, body composition and random blood test value. A cross sectional study involving 378 male military personnel aged between 20 to 48 years old was conducted at two MA bases in Kuala Lumpur between November and December 2012. Antropometric measurements included height, weight and waist circumference (WC). Body fat percentage was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis method (Tanita TBF-300A). Mean height, weight, BMI, WC, body fat percentage, age, monthly income and duration of service were 1.71 ± 0.6 m, 71.7 ± 12.2 kg, 24.6 ± 4.1 kg/m2, 87.0 ± 10.0 cm, 23.4 ± 6.6%, 29.1 ± 5.5 years, RM 2115.12 ± 860.70 and 9.9 ± 5.6 years respectively. According to WHO (1998) classification of BMI, 3.2% of the subjects were underweight, 54.8% normal, 32.8% overweight and 9.3% obese. It was obeserved that 40.2% of the subjects had waist circumference value of 90 cm or more and were considered high risk for diebetes and cardiovascular diseases. This study found that BMI was highly correlated with weight (r=0.925, pintervention from the aspect of nutritional education and health awareness can benefit thus optimizing the health status of MA military personnel.

  1. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy L; Brito, Marcela Fiuza; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy V; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2014-09-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ≥1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.

  2. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  3. The influence of vehicle aerodynamic and control response characteristics on driver-vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, A. A.; Repa, B. S.; Wierwille, W. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of changes in understeer, control sensitivity, and location of the lateral aerodynamic center of pressure (c.p.) of a typical passenger car on the driver's opinion and on the performance of the driver-vehicle system were studied in a moving-base driving simulator. Twelve subjects with no prior experience on the simulator and no special driving skills performed regulation tasks in the presence of both random and step wind gusts.

  4. Effects of Self Stretching on Pain and Musculoskeletal Symptom of Bus Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jung-Ho; Gak, Hwang Bo

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and risk of postures as well as the effects of stretching exercise on the work-related symptoms and pain of bus drivers. [Subjects and Methods] Eighty-one drivers were randomly recruited from a bus corporation for this study. Information about pain levels, painful regions, and general characteristics of subjects was obtained using the symptom research form (KOSHA Code H-30-2003). The level of pain was assessed ...

  5. Driving continuity in cognitively impaired older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Lee, Sangyoon; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Songchul; Harada, Kazuhiro; Hotta, Ryo; Bae, Seongryu; Nakakubo, Sho; Uemura, Kazuki; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive impairment can negatively affect driving performance and increase the risk of driving errors, leading to vehicle crashes. We used a population-based survey to identify the prevalence of cognitive impairments in older drivers. A total of 10,073 older adults were enrolled in the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology - Study of Geriatric Syndromes. We characterized general cognitive impairment using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We also used the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool, which includes six tasks to assess word list memory, logical memory, attention and executive function, processing speed, and visuospatial skill. Just 15% of older women with moderate cognitive decline (MMSE ≤20) drove, whereas 61% of older men with moderate cognitive decline drove. Cognitively normal participants (MMSE score 27 and over) scored significantly better on six cognitive tests compared with those with mild (MMSE score 21-26) or moderate cognitive decline, and those in the mild cognitive decline group scored significantly better on six cognitive tests than those in the moderate cognitive decline group. A total of 61% of older men with moderate cognitive decline did not cease driving. These older drivers showed poor cognitive performance in multiple domains compared with those with normal and mild cognitive decline. Further studies are required to clarify the relationships between cognitive decline and car crashes in these high-risk populations. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  7. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  8. Managing drivers of innovation in construction networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Various drivers of construction innovation are distinguished and classified in four distinctive categories: environmental pressure, technological capability, knowledge exchange, and boundary spanning. Innovation drivers in these categories are active at the transfirm, intrafirm, and interfirm level

  9. Older drivers' foot movements : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study explored how older drivers use their accelerator and : brake pedals, to identify characteristics that could pose an increased : risk of a pedal application error. The study also explored whether : driver-vehicle fit was related to these ch...

  10. Security Threat Assessments for Hazmat Drivers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rothberg, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    ...). This provision seeks to reduce some of the security risks associated with hazardous materials (hazmat) transportation by requiring a security threat assessment of drivers with a hazmat endorsement on their commercial drivers license...

  11. Using Self-Reliance Factors to Decide How to Share Control Between Human Powered Wheelchair Drivers and Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David A

    2017-08-01

    A shared-control scheme for a powered wheelchair is presented. The wheelchair can be operated by a wheelchair driver using a joystick, or directed by a sensor system, or control can be combined between them. The wheelchair system can modify direction depending on the local environment. Sharing the control allows a disabled wheelchair driver to drive safely and efficiently. The controller automatically establishes the control gains for the sensor system and the human driver by calculating a self-reliance factor for the wheelchair driver. The sensor system can influence the motion of the wheelchair to compensate for some deficiency in a disabled driver. Practical tests validate the proposed techniques and designs.

  12. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included

  13. Comparison among the efficacy of interventions for the return rate to receive the pap test report: randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Lima, Thaís Marques; Barbosa, Denise de Fátima Fernandes

    2017-03-02

    to test the effects of a behavioral, an educative and a comparative intervention on women's adherence to the return appointment to receive the pap test report. randomized controlled clinical trial at a Primary Health Care Service, involving three groups: EG (educative session and test demonstration), BG (recall ribbon) and standard intervention (card containing the return appointment - graphical reminder), called comparative group here (CG). To select the sample, the following was established: having started sexual activity and undergoing the pap smear during the study, resulting in 775 women. among the 775 women, 585 (75.5%) returned to receive the test result within 65 days. The educative group presented the highest return rate (EG=82%/CG=77%/BG=66%), statistically significant only when compared to the behavioral group (p=0.000). The educative group obtained the smallest interval (pmujeres a la consulta de retorno para recibir el laudo de citología vaginal. estudio experimental aleatorizado controlado en una Unidad de Atención Primaria de Salud con tres grupos: GE (sesión educativa y demonstración del examen), GCP (cinta recuerdo) e intervención estándar (tarjeta con la fecha de la consulta de retorno - recuerdo gráfico), llamado de grupo comparativo (GCA). Para seleccionar la muestra, fue establecido: haber iniciado actividad sexual y hacer la citología vaginal durante el estudio, resultando en 775 mujeres. entre las 775 mujeres, 585 (75,5%) regresaron para recibir el resultado del examen con hasta 65 días. El grupo educativo presentó el mayor porcentaje de retorno (GE=82%/GCA=77%/GCP=66%), con significancia estadística sólo cuando comparado al comportamental (p=0,000). El grupo educativo alcanzó menor intervalo (pmujeres regresaron más precozmente, pero la intervención comportamental se mostró la menos eficaz. Registro Brasileño de Ensayo Clínico: RBR-93ykhs. testar os efeitos de uma intervenção comportamental (GCP), educativa (GE) e outra

  14. Assessing the visual status of truck drivers in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onabolu, O O; Otulana, T O; Awodein, O G

    2008-01-01

    We undertook an interventional prospective study of truck drivers from a cement factory in Nigeria to assess their visual status after licensing. Out of 149 drivers, 122 (81.9%) were visually eligible to drive and 27 (18.1%) were not. Causes for failing the vision test included refractive error, cataracts, glaucoma, corneal leucoma and pterygia.

  15. 75 FR 47880 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks North America, Renewal of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Volvo Trucks.... ACTION: Notice of final disposition. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces its decision to continue in effect Volvo Trucks North America's (Volvo) exemption for five of its drivers to enable them to test-drive commercial...

  16. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the “Pay as You Speed” project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers...

  17. Elderly and young drivers' reaction to an in-car enforcement and tutoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waard, D.; van der Hulst, M.; Brookhuis, K.A.

    A system that contrasts driver behaviour with normative behaviour was tested in an advanced driving simulator. Drivers were provided with auditory and visual tutoring messages if deviations were detected from normative, i.e. legally allowed behaviour with respect to a selection of offences. Results

  18. HIV prevalence and risk in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa: a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Bello, Braimoh; Kinross, Peter; Oliff, Monique; Chersich, Matthew; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rees, Helen

    2014-05-01

    We estimated the prevalence of HIV and assessed correlates of HIV infection in long-distance truck drivers in South Africa. Between October 2003 and July 2004, 1900 long-distance truck drivers aged ≥18 years consented to interview and for testing for HIV. Participants were selected from a 10% stratified random sample of registered truck depots. A proximate-determinants framework was used to assess the hierarchical relationship between risk factors and HIV infection using logistic regression. HIV prevalence was 26% (95% confidence interval 24% to 28%). In multivariate analyses, HIV infection was associated with spending 2-4 weeks on the road (adjusted odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 1.9). There was modest evidence of a dose-response relationship between time on the road and HIV risk. Mobility increased risk by creating conditions for unsafe sex and reducing access to health services. Targeted HIV interventions for long-distance truck drivers are needed.

  19. Apriori feasibility testing of randomized clinical trial design in patients with cleft deformities and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlvaine, Elizabeth; Borzabadi-Farahani, Ali; Lane, Christianne J; Azen, Stanley P; Yen, Stephen L-K

    2014-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of randomizing treatment (surgical vs. non-surgical) for correction of a Class III malocclusion (underbite) resulting from an earlier repair of cleft lip and palate. Surveys about willingness to accept randomized treatment during adolescence were mailed to the parents of cleft lip and palate patients under the care of Children's Hospital Los Angeles between 2005 and 2010. The inclusion criteria were patients with cleft lip and palate, Class III malocclusion due to maxillary deficiency, and absence of medical and cognitive contraindications to treatment. Out of 287 surveys, 82 (28%) were completed and returned; 47% of the subjects held a strong treatment preference (95% CI, 35-58%), while 30% were willing to accept randomization (95% CI, 20-41%). Seventy-eight percent would drop out of a randomized trial if dissatisfied with the assigned treatment (95% CI, 67-86%). The three most commonly cited reasons for being unwilling to accept random treatment assignment were 1) the desire for doctors to choose the best treatment, 2) the desire for parents to have input on treatment, and 3) the desire to correct the underbite as early as possible. Based on this study, parents and patients would be unwilling to accept a randomly assigned treatment and would not remain in an assigned group if treatment did not meet expectations. This highlight the limitations associated with randomization trials involving surgical modalities and provide justification for other research models (e.g., cohort studies) to compare two treatment options when randomization is not feasible. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A cluster-randomized trial of provider-initiated (opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S; Deluca, Andrea N; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammad A; Celentano, David D; Chaisson, Richard E

    2008-06-01

    To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis (TB) patients who received HIV counseling and testing. Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as the unit of randomization. Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A total of 754 adults (18 years and older) newly registered as TB patients in the 20 study clinics. Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. SECONDARY: Percentage of patients with HIV test positive, and percentage of those who received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. : A total of 754 adults newly registered as TB patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (P = 0.011), and 20.2% (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (P = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (P = 0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (P = 0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients who received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated.

  1. A cluster randomized trial of provider-initiated (Opt-out) HIV counseling and testing of tuberculosis patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Diana S.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Kali, Paula; Hausler, Harry; Sheard, Carol; Hoosain, Ebrahim; Chaudhary, Mohammed A.; Celentano, David D.; Chaisson, Richard E.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling would increase the proportion of tuberculosis patients that received HIV counseling and testing. Design Cluster-randomized trial with clinic as unit of randomization Setting Twenty, medium-sized primary care TB clinics in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan Municipality, Port Elizabeth, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa Subjects A total of 754 adults (≥ 18 years) newly registered as tuberculosis patients the twenty study clinics Intervention Implementation of provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing. Main outcome measures Percentage of TB patients HIV counseled and tested. Secondary Percentage of patients HIV test positive and percentage of those that received cotrimoxazole and who were referred for HIV care. Results A total of 754 adults newly registered as tuberculosis patients were enrolled. In clinics randomly assigned to implement provider-initiated HIV counseling and testing, 20.7% (73/352) patients were counseled versus 7.7% (31/402) in the control clinics (p = 0.011), and 20.2 % (n = 71) versus 6.5% (n = 26) underwent HIV testing (p = 0.009). Of those patients counseled, 97% in the intervention clinics accepted testing versus 79% in control clinics (p =0.12). The proportion of patients identified as HIV-infected in intervention clinics was 8.5% versus 2.5% in control clinics (p=0.044). Fewer than 40% of patients with a positive HIV test were prescribed cotrimoxazole or referred for HIV care in either study arm. Conclusions Provider-initiated HIV counseling significantly increased the proportion of adult TB patients that received HIV counseling and testing, but the magnitude of the effect was small. Additional interventions to optimize HIV testing for TB patients urgently need to be evaluated. PMID:18520677

  2. Effectiveness of a brief parent-directed teen driver safety intervention (Checkpoints) delivered by driver education instructors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S; Shope, Jean T; Greenspan, Arlene I; Wang, Jing; Bingham, C Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G

    2013-07-01

    The Checkpoints program (Checkpoints) uses a Parent-Teen Driving Agreement (PTDA) to help parents monitor teens' driving, and has shown efficacy in increasing parental restrictions on teens' driving and decreasing teens' risky driving. In previous trials, research staff administered Checkpoints. This study examined the effectiveness of Checkpoints when delivered by driver educators. It was hypothesized that Checkpoints would result in more PTDA use, greater PTDA limits on higher risk driving situations, and less high-risk driving. Eight trained driving instructors were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in a group randomized trial. Instructors enrolled 148 parent-teen dyads (intervention = 99, control = 49); 35% of those eligible. Intervention parents joined teens for a 30-minute Checkpoints session during driver education. The session included a video, persuasive messages, discussion, and PTDA initiation. Teens completed four surveys: baseline, licensure, and 3- and 6-months post-licensure. Intervention teens were more likely to report that they used a PTDA (OR= 15.92, p = .004) and had restrictions on driving with teen passengers (OR = 8.52, p = .009), on weekend nights (OR = 8.71, p = .021), on high-speed roads (OR = 3.56, p = .02), and in bad weather (b = .51, p = .05) during the first six months of licensure. There were no differences in offenses or crashes at six months, but intervention teens reported less high-risk driving (p = .04). Although challenges remain to encourage greater parent participation, Checkpoints conducted by driver education instructors resulted in more use of PTDAs, greater restrictions on high-risk driving, and less high-risk driving. Including Checkpoints in driver education parent meetings/classes has potential to enhance teen driver safety. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Effectiveness of a Brief Parent-Directed Teen Driver Safety Intervention (Checkpoints) Delivered by Driver Education Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrajsek, Jennifer S.; Shope, Jean T.; Greenspan, Arlene I.; Wang, Jing; Bingham, C. Raymond; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Checkpoints program (Checkpoints) uses a Parent-Teen Driving Agreement (PTDA) to help parents monitor teens' driving, and has shown efficacy in increasing parental restrictions on teens' driving and decreasing teens' risky driving. In previous trials, research staff administered Checkpoints. This study examined the effectiveness of Checkpoints when delivered by driver educators. It was hypothesized that Checkpoints would result in more PTDA use, greater PTDA limits on higher risk driving situations, and less high-risk driving. Methods Eight trained driving instructors were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in a group randomized trial. Instructors enrolled 148 parent-teen dyads (intervention = 99, control = 49); 35% of those eligible. Intervention parents joined teens for a 30-minute Checkpoints session during driver education. The session included a video, persuasive messages, discussion, and PTDA initiation. Teens completed four surveys: baseline, licensure, and 3- and 6-months post-licensure. Results Intervention teens were more likely to report that they used a PTDA (OR= 15.92, p = .004) and had restrictions on driving with teen passengers (OR = 8.52, p = .009), on weekend nights (OR = 8.71, p = .021), on high-speed roads (OR = 3.56, p = .02), and in bad weather (b = .51, p = .05) during the first six months of licensure. There were no differences in offenses or crashes at six months, but intervention teens reported less high-risk driving (p = .04). Conclusions Although challenges remain to encourage greater parent participation, Checkpoints conducted by driver education instructors resulted in more use of PTDAs, greater restrictions on high-risk driving, and less high-risk driving. Including Checkpoints in driver education parent meetings/classes has potential to enhance teen driver safety. PMID:23481298

  4. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...

  5. A pilot randomized clinical trial testing integrated 12-Step facilitation (iTSF) treatment for adolescent substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Kaminer, Yifrah; Kahler, Christopher W; Hoeppner, Bettina; Yeterian, Julie; Cristello, Julie V; Timko, Christine

    2017-12-01

    The integration of 12-Step philosophy and practices is common in adolescent substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs, particularly in North America. However, although numerous experimental studies have tested 12-Step facilitation (TSF) treatments among adults, no studies have tested TSF-specific treatments for adolescents. We tested the efficacy of a novel integrated TSF. Explanatory, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial comparing 10 sessions of either motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT; n = 30) or a novel integrated TSF (iTSF; n = 29), with follow-up assessments at 3, 6 and 9 months following treatment entry. Out-patient addiction clinic in the United States. Adolescents [n = 59; mean age = 16.8 (1.7) years; range = 14-21; 27% female; 78% white]. The iTSF integrated 12-Step with motivational and cognitive-behavioral strategies, and was compared with state-of-the-art MET/CBT for SUD. Primary outcome: percentage days abstinent (PDA); secondary outcomes: 12-Step attendance, substance-related consequences, longest period of abstinence, proportion abstinent/mostly abstinent, psychiatric symptoms. Primary outcome: PDA was not significantly different across treatments [b = 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.08 to 0.24, P = 0.33; Bayes' factor = 0.28). during treatment, iTSF patients had substantially greater 12-Step attendance, but this advantage declined thereafter (b = -0.87; 95% CI = -1.67 to 0.07, P = 0.03). iTSF did show a significant advantage at all follow-up points for substance-related consequences (b = -0.42; 95% CI = -0.80 to -0.04, P attendance was associated significantly with longer abstinence during (r = 0.39, P = 0.008), and early following (r = 0.30, P = 0.049), treatment. Compared with motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT), in terms of abstinence, a novel integrated 12-Step facilitation treatment for adolescent substance use

  6. Psychoactive substances in seriously injured drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Bernhoft, IM

    2013-01-01

    , which is 0.53 g/l in Denmark. The percentage of seriously injured drivers testing positive for medicinal drugs at levels above the Danish legal limit was 6.8%. Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (6.4%) comprised the majority of this group. One or more illegal drugs (primarily amphetamines and cannabis) were...

  7. Photostress recovery time among commercial drivers in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photostress recovery time (PSRT) test is a simple technique used to assess the macular function. Prolonged recovery time is attributed to the delay in regeneration of visual pigments after being bleached with a bright light. In car drivers with macular degeneration, photostress effects from opposing cars may bleach retinal ...

  8. 78 FR 34141 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... pars plana vitrectomy with foreign body extraction, endolaser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, and cataract extraction with IOL implant. In most cases, their eye conditions were not recently developed... CMVs. Before issuing CDLs, States subject drivers to knowledge and skills tests designed to evaluate...

  9. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  10. 49 CFR 391.11 - General qualifications of drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; (2) Can read and speak the English language sufficiently to converse with the general public, to understand highway traffic signs and signals in the English language, to respond to official inquiries, and... issued a certificate of driver's road test in accordance with § 391.31, or has presented an operator's...

  11. Driver memory retention of in-vehicle information system messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Memory retention of drivers was tested for traffic- and traveler-related messages displayed on an in-vehicle information system (IVIS). Three research questions were asked: (a) How does in-vehicle visual message format affect comprehension? (b) How d...

  12. OPTO-22 DRIVER. OPTO-22 Driver for LabView

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-01-28

    OPTO-22 DRIVER consists of a set of LabVIEW (National Instruments, Austin, TX) virtual instruments (VIs) that handle low-level communications with signal conditioning equipment by Opto-22 (Huntington Beach, CA). The OPTOMUX protocol is support, which requires the use of a serial port and supports multidrop communications. With this package, users can connect hundreds of Opto-22 modules to their LabVIEW system and access all features of the hardware, including analog and digital input and outputs.

  13. DSP Based Smart Sensorless Stepping Motor Driver for LHC Collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Alessandro; Butcher, Mark; Losito, Roberto; Picatoste, Ricardo

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, the real-time architecture of a Digital Signal Processor based sensorless stepping motor driver, capable of driving a motor through long power cables and estimating its position and load torque, is described. The testbench developed in order to test its performance when driving an axis of a Large Hadron Collider collimator is presented, along with the results achieved. It is shown that the proposed driver is capable of achieving position and load torque estimates which allow step loss to be detected and mechanical degradation to be evaluated without the need for physical sensors.

  14. Increasing participation in cervical cancer screening: offering a HPV self-test to long-term non-attendees as part of RACOMIP, a Swedish randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Gudrun; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Miao Jonasson, Junmei; Ryd, Mare-Liis; Holtenman, Mikael; Milsom, Ian; Strander, Björn

    2014-05-01

    RACOMIP is a population-based, randomized trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in a well-run cervical cancer screening program in western Sweden. In this article, we report results from one intervention, offering non-attendees a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) self-test. Comparison was made with standard screening invitation routine or standard routine plus a telephone call. Women (8,800), aged 30-62, were randomly selected among women without a registered Pap smear in the two latest screening rounds. These women were randomized 1:5:5 to one of three arms: 800 were offered a high-risk HPV self-test, 4,000 were randomized to a telephone call (reported previously) and 4,000 constituted a control group (standard screening invitation routine). Results were based on intention to treat analysis and cost-effectiveness was calculated as marginal cost per cancer case prevented. The endpoint was the frequency of testing. The total response rate in the self-testing arm was 24.5%, significantly higher than in the telephone arm (18%, RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and the control group (10.6%, RR 2.33, 95% CI 2.00-2.71). All nine women who tested positive for high-risk HPV attended for a cervical smear and colposcopy. From the health-care sector perspective, the intervention will most likely lead to no additional cost. Offering a self-test for HPV as an alternative to Pap smears increases participation among long-term non-attendees. Offering various screening options can be a successful method for increasing participation in this group. © 2013 UICC.

  15. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High risks for locomotor diseases have been reported for bus and truck drivers in general; however, little is known about the specific risks of long-haul truck drivers. METHODS: Standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR) for different locomotor diseases of bus drivers, long-haul truck...... drivers and other truck drivers were compared with each other and with the general Danish working population. RESULTS: Intervertebral disc disorders were more common among professional drivers (SHR: 119, 95% CI: 114-125) and of similar magnitude for cervical and non-cervical disorders. Both long......-haul truck drivers and bus drivers had higher SHR for intervertebral disc disorders (SHR: 133, 95% CI: 114-155/SHR: 141, 95% CI: 129-154, respectively) than other truck drivers (SHR: 109, 95% CI: 102-116). The SHR for carpal tunnel syndrome was high among long-haul drivers (SHR: 163, 95% CI: 101...

  16. [Reaction time of drivers who caused road traffic accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, Predrag; Filipović, Danka

    2009-01-01

    Human factor is the single cause of road traffic injuries in 57%, and together with other factors in more than 90% of all road traffic accidents. Human factor includes many aspects, where reaction time is very important. Thirty healthy drivers 28-40 y.o. with 50-500 km passed per week, having caused at least one road traffic accident in the last ten years were selected, provided they were not under the influence of alcohol and drugs during traffic accident. The same number of control were selected. Both cases and controls were tested to reaction time. We found statistically significant difference between car drivers who caused car accidents and those who did not in both simple and choice reaction times. Car drivers who caused road traffic accidents have longer reaction time (both simple and choice reaction time), but as the tasks were more complex, that difference was less visible. Since drivers involved in this study had introductory phase before measuring their reaction times, they faced with unpleasant sound when they made mistake, which forced them to be aware not to make a mistake in further tasks, so they showed longer reaction times. Measuring of reaction time seems to be important, and as we have showed they are different in drivers who have caused road traffic accidents and those who have do not.

  17. Introducing rapid diagnostic tests for malaria into drug shops in Uganda: design and implementation of a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal; Chandler, Clare I R; Hansen, Kristian S; Lal, Sham; Cundill, Bonnie; Lynch, Caroline A; Clarke, Siân E

    2014-07-29

    An intervention was designed to introduce rapid diagnostics tests for malaria (mRDTs) into registered drug shops in Uganda to encourage rational and appropriate treatment of malaria with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT). We conducted participatory training of drug shop vendors and implemented supporting interventions to orientate local communities (patients) and the public sector (health facility staff and district officials) to the behavioral changes in diagnosis, treatment and referral being introduced in drug shops. The intervention was designed to be evaluated through a cluster randomized trial. In this paper, we present detailed design, implementation and evaluation experiences in order to help inform future studies of a complex nature. Three preparatory studies (formative, baseline and willingness-to-pay) were conducted to explore perceptions on diagnosis and treatment of malaria at drug shops, and affordable prices for mRDTs and ACTs in order to inform the design of the intervention and implementation modalities. The intervention required careful design with the intention to be acceptable, sustainable and effective. Critical components of intervention were: community sensitization and creating awareness, training of drug shop vendors to diagnose malaria with mRDTs, treat and refer customers to formal health facilities, giving pre-referral rectal artesunate and improved record-keeping. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients receiving appropriately-targeted treatment with ACT, evaluated against microscopy on a research blood slide. Introducing mRDTs in drug shops may seem simple, but our experience of intervention design, conduct and evaluation showed this to be a complex process requiring multiple interventions and evaluation components drawing from a combination of epidemiological, social science and health economics methodologies. The trial was conducted in phases sequenced such that each benefited from the other. The main challenges

  18. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. The continuous reaction time test for minimal hepatic encephalopathy validated by a randomized controlled multi-modal intervention-A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Mikkelsen, S; Svensson, T

    2017-01-01

    Background: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is clinically undetectable and the diagnosis requires psychometric tests. However, a lack of clarity exists as to whether the tests are in fact able to detect changes in cognition. Aim: To examine if the continuous reaction time test (CRT) can detect...... stratified 44 patients with liver cirrhosis and without clinically manifest HE according to a normal (n = 22) or abnormal (n = 22) CRT. Each stratum was then block randomized to receive multimodal anti-HE intervention (lactulose+branched-chain amino acids+rifaximin) or triple placebos for 3 months...... in a double-blinded fashion. The CRT is a simple PC-based test and the test result, the CRT index (normal threshold > 1.9), describes the patient’s stability of alertness during the 10–minute test. Our study outcome was the change in CRT index in each group at study exit. The portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE...

  20. Green tea extract decreases starch digestion and absorption from a test meal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochocka, Klaudia; Bajerska, Joanna; Glapa, Aleksandra; Fidler-Witon, Ewa; Nowak, Jan K; Szczapa, Tomasz; Grebowiec, Philip; Lisowska, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jaroslaw

    2015-07-30

    Green tea is known worldwide for its beneficial effects on human health. However, objective data evaluating this influence in humans is scarce. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of green tea extract (GTE) on starch digestion and absorption. The study comprised of 28 healthy volunteers, aged 19 to 28 years. In all subjects, a starch (13)C breath test was performed twice. Subjects randomly ingested naturally (13)C-abundant cornflakes during the GTE test (GTE 4 g) or placebo test. The cumulative percentage dose recovery (CPDR) was significantly lower for the GTE test than for the placebo test (median [interquartile range]: 11.4% [5.5-15.5] vs. 16.1% [12.7-19.5]; p = 0.003). Likewise, CPDR expressed per hour was considerably lower in each point of the measurement. In conclusion, a single dose of green tea extract taken with a test meal decreases starch digestion and absorption.

  1. Eye blinking-based method for detecting driver drowsiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'touq, Jumana; Al-Nabulsi, Jamal; Al-Kazwini, Akeel; Baniyassien, Ahmed; Al-Haj Issa, Ghassan; Mohammad, Haitham

    2014-11-01

    Drowsy driving is a major cause of traffic accidents. Eye blinking is considered as important evidence of driver drowsiness. In this paper, a portable and low cost device for monitoring a driver's drowsiness is proposed. The proposed system consists of two main parts that detect eye blinking based on IR sensors mounted on eyewear. Depending on the reflected and absorbed IR radiation, this system detects and classifies the eye blinking into normal blinking (NB) or prolonged blinking (PB). The detected prolonged blinking is used to trigger an audio/visual alarm system which draws the driver's attention back. The system was simulated initially by LabVIEW® software. Moreover, the system was bench tested on 15 adult volunteers; eye blinking were detected and classified successfully for all subjects. The results of this research are promising and additional investigation is required to further improve the method.

  2. Cognitive screening of older drivers does not produce safety benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu Kristiina; Meng, Annette

    2012-01-01

    in the number of older drivers involved in fatal accidents before and after the implementation of the screening process, indicating that the screening had no effect on the safety of older drivers. Second, there was a significant increase in the number of unprotected older (but not younger) road users who were....... Previous research on age-based mandatory screening of older drivers has not been able to demonstrate any safety benefits from screening measures.The present study is a population-based evaluation of the safety effects that the introduction of the cognitive test as an age-based screening tool has had...... in Denmark. The primary data used came from the Danish road accident register. The present study compared the number of fatal accidents before and after the implementation of screening for cognitive impairment.There were two main findings. First, there was no statistically significant difference...

  3. Screening Commercial Vehicle Drivers for Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Tools, Barriers, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kelly A; Yap, Tracey; Turner, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder characterized by a cessation of breathing during sleep, leading to poor sleep patterns and daytime somnolence. Daytime somnolence is of particular concern for commercial vehicle drivers, whose crash risk increases 50% with untreated OSA. The process of diagnosing and treating OSA in commercial drivers begins with effective and consistent screening. Therefore, the researchers screened drivers with both the STOP-Bang Questionnaire and the Obstructive Sleep Apnea Evaluation Worksheet (OSAEW) and compared the two tools. Drivers screening positive on the STOP-Bang Questionnaire, OSAEW, and both questionnaires were 28%, 23%, and 13%, respectively. Sleep study referrals were made for 50 drivers; 12 drivers were scheduled for sleep tests within 3 months. Health care provider referral rates for drivers screening at high risk (37%) and commercial driver monitoring rates (24%) were both low. Recommendations to improve OSA screening and testing practices include Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration-mandated screening and referral guidelines, employee-facilitated sleep testing, and OSA awareness campaigns.

  4. DRIVERS' EVALUATIONS OF THE ACTIVE ACCELERATOR PEDAL IN A REAL-LIFE TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeli ADELL

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large-scale field trial, conducted between 2000 and 2001, the test drivers used the Active Accelerator Pedal for between 6 and 12 months in their regular cars. The drivers' evaluations, elicited by questionnaires after one month of usage and at the end of the trial, were analysed with ANOVA (repeated-measure and compared to the objectively measured effects in the same trial. The drivers found the system to be effective in decreasing their speed and believed their risk of being fined for speeding decreased drastically. On the other hand, their workload increased and their emotional state deteriorated. They reported an increased feeling of obstructing other drivers and reduced driving enjoyment. Between-subject effects showed a different way of using the system depending on age; younger drivers used the supporting function of the system more, while older drivers found the counter force more of a command to lower their speed. Time effects showed the importance of long-term evaluations and the interaction effects demonstrated how development of driver responses over time depend on driver type and initial attitude. Comparing driver subjective experiences and objectively measured effects, discrepancies were found in the magnitude of speed changes and car-following distances. The delegation of responsibility coincided well with the objectively measured effects.

  5. Safety in numbers? Investigating Australian driver behaviour, knowledge and attitudes towards cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marilyn; Oxley, Jennie; Newstead, Stuart; Charlton, Judith

    2014-09-01

    A key tenet of the safety in numbers theory is that as the number of people cycling increases, more drivers will also be cyclists and therefore will give greater consideration to cyclists when driving. We tested this theory in relation to self-reported behaviour, attitudes and knowledge in relation to cycling. An online survey was conducted of Australian drivers (n=1984) who were also cyclists (cyclist-drivers) and drivers who did not cycle (drivers). Cyclist-drivers were 1.5 times more likely than drivers to report safe driving behaviours related to sharing the roads with cyclists (95% CI: 1.1-1.9, pbike lanes was low for both groups. Drivers were more likely than cyclist-drivers to have negative attitudes (e.g. cyclists are unpredictable and repeatedly overtaking cyclists is frustrating). Findings from this study highlight the need for increased education and awareness in relation to safe driving behaviour, road rules and attitudes towards cyclists. Specific recommendations are made for approaches to improve safety for cyclists. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Investigating the impact of static roadside advertising on drivers' situation awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Stephens, Amanda N; Logan, David B; Lenné, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    Roadside advertising has the potential to create a crash risk for drivers as it may distract attention from driving at critical times. In an on-road instrumented vehicle study, we examined if and how static advertising billboards affect drivers' situation awareness across different driving environments. Nineteen fully licensed drivers drove an instrumented vehicle around a 38 km urban test route comprising freeway, busy urban retail and arterial road sections. The route contained a number of static billboards. Drivers provided continuous verbal protocols throughout the drive. Results indicated that the structure and content of drivers' situation awareness was not appreciably affected by the billboards in any of the road environments examined. Drivers focused their attention on the billboards when driving demand was low, such as when driving on the freeway with light to moderate traffic, in lower speed zones, or when stationary. However, when drivers were required to perform a manoeuvre or driving demands increased, drivers directed less attention to the billboards and focussed their awareness on the immediate driving task. This suggests that drivers can, at least under some conditions, effectively self-regulate their attention to billboards when required to focus on the immediate traffic or driving situation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A modified method of activity-based costing for objectively reducing cost drivers in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, P; Toyabe, S; Kurashima, S; Okada, M; Akazawa, K

    2006-01-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is widely used to precisely allocate indirect costs to medical services. In the ABC method, the indirect cost is divided among the medical services in proportion to the volume of "cost drivers", for example, labor hours and the number of hours of surgery. However, the workload of data collection of cost drivers can be time-consuming and a considerable burden if there are many cost drivers. The authors aim to develop a method for objectively reducing the cost drivers used in the ABC method. In the ABC method, the cost driver is assigned for each activity. We assume that these activities and cost drivers are the best combination. Our method, that is cost driver reduction (CDR), can objectively select surrogates of the cost drivers for each activity in ABC from candidate cost drivers. Concretely, the total indirect cost of an activity is temporarily allocated to the medical services using each candidate of cost drivers. The difference between the costs calculated by each candidate and the proper cost driver used in ABC is calculated to evaluate the similarity by the evaluation function. We estimated the cost of laboratory tests using our method and revealed that the number of cost drivers could be reduced from seven in the ABC to four. Similarly, the results of cost estimation obtained by our method were as accurate as those calculated using the ABC. Our method provides two advantages compared to the ABC method: 1) it provides results that are as accurate as those of the ABC method, and 2) it is simpler to perform complicated estimation of hospital costs.

  8. Drivers' risk profile indicates the need for a graduated driving licence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokotho, L C; Matzopoulos, R; Myers, J E

    2012-08-22

    Current driver mortality estimates do not consider the great differences in exposure across the population, giving a false impression that driver deaths are lowest in the youngest age group. Interventions to reduce risk among the younger age group include graduated driver licensing (GDL) - a three-phase licensing system for novice drivers consisting of a learner's permit, a provisional license, and a full license. We calculated driver fatality rates per 10 000 registered drivers in each age group and assessed the need for stricter licensing conditions for novice and younger drivers. Age-specific driver mortality rates were calculated using Western Cape Province 2008 mortuary data. The total number of licensed drivers in each age group served as the denominator. Incidence rate ratios were calculated using the age group of 65 - 79 years as the reference. Chi-square test of trend on incidence rate ratios for the age groups was done. Statistical significance was set as p<0.05. There were 339 driver deaths; mean age was 39.4±13.8 years, and males accounted for 80% of the deaths. Age-specific driver mortality rates were highest in the youngest age group (15 - 19 years). There was a significant progressive decrease (except for the age group 45 - 49 years) in the risk of death from road traffic injuries with increasing age compared with the age group ≥ 65 years (chi2 for trend p<0.0001). CONCLUSION; This study showed a relationship between driver's mortality risk and younger age, and underscores the need for introduction of a GDL programme in South Africa.

  9. Sexual Behaviour Among Truck Drivers Halting At Kalamboli Truck Terminal,Navi Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Churi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMany Indian truck drivers tend to have multiple sexualpartners, owing to the migratory nature of theiroccupation. Consequently there is a greater risk forthem to pass on Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIsand HIV to their wives and other partners. This studyendeavours to document the sexual behaviour andtrends of condom usage, of truck drivers halting atKalamboli Truck Terminal, Navi Mumbai.MethodThis community based, cross sectional study wasconducted by interviewing 300 male truck drivers usinga pre-tested structured questionnaire. Data collectedwas compiled and analysed using Mean andPercentages.ResultsOf the 300 truck drivers interviewed, mean age of firstsexual encounter was 19.4 years. 270 truck drivers hadexperienced sexual intercourse and 30 had not. Out of270 sexually exposed truck drivers, 40.7% had sex withcommercial sex workers (CSWs only, 1.1% with othermen only, 0.7% with Transsexuals only and 7.5% withother known females. 5.9% had sex with multiplecategories. Premarital sex was reported in 70.25%truck drivers and 28.4% married truck drivers hadextramarital sex. Of the Truck drivers having sexoutside marriage, 53% used condoms regularly. Ofthe 47% truck drivers who reported irregular / nouse of condoms, the main reasons given were “Didnot like to use as it affects sexual pleasure” (40.8%and ”Could not procure at spur of the moment”(36.7%.ConclusionOwing to the migratory nature of their occupationand high risk sexual behaviour, truck drivers form ahigh risk group for contracting and spreadingHIV/AIDS and other STIs. Thus there is an urgentneed for intensifying effective strategies to educatetruck drivers and to change their perceptionsregarding safe sex.

  10. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  11. Direct provision versus facility collection of HIV self-tests among female sex workers in Uganda: A cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ortblad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available HIV self-testing allows HIV testing at any place and time and without health workers. HIV self-testing may thus be particularly useful for female sex workers (FSWs, who should test frequently but face stigma and financial and time barriers when accessing healthcare facilities.We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled health systems trial among FSWs in Kampala, Uganda, to measure the effect of 2 HIV self-testing delivery models on HIV testing and linkage to care outcomes. FSW peer educator groups (1 peer educator and 8 participants were randomized to either (1 direct provision of HIV self-tests, (2 provision of coupons for free collection of HIV self-tests in a healthcare facility, or (3 standard of care HIV testing. We randomized 960 participants in 120 peer educator groups from October 18, 2016, to November 16, 2016. Participants' median age was 28 years (IQR 24-32. Our prespecified primary outcomes were self-report of any HIV testing at 1 month and at 4 months; our prespecified secondary outcomes were self-report of HIV self-test use, seeking HIV-related medical care and ART initiation. In addition, we analyzed 2 secondary outcomes that were not prespecified: self-report of repeat HIV testing-to understand the intervention effects on frequent testing-and self-reported facility-based testing-to quantify substitution effects. Participants in the direct provision arm were significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the standard of care arm, both at 1 month (risk ratio [RR] 1.33, 95% CI 1.17-1.51, p < 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.22, p < 0.001. Participants in the direct provision arm were also significantly more likely to have tested for HIV than those in the facility collection arm, both at 1 month (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31, p = 0.001 and at 4 months (RR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05, p = 0.02. At 1 month, fewer participants in the intervention arms had sought medical care for HIV than in the standard of care arm

  12. Age, gender, mileage and the DBQ: The validity of the Driver Behavior Questionnaire in different driver groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Møller, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) is one of the most widely used instruments for measuring selfreported driving behaviors. Despite the popularity of the DBQ, the applicability of the DBQ in different driver groups has remained mostly unexamined. The present study measured aberrant driving...... behavior using the original DBQ (Reason, J.T., Manstead, A., Stradling, S.G., Baxter, J., Campbell, K., 1990. Errors and violations on the road – a real distinction. Ergonomics, 33 (10/11), 1315–1332) to test the factorial validity and reliability of the instrument across different subgroups of Danish...

  13. Driver fatigue through nightshifts in succession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabbott, N.; Lloyd, B. [ARRB Group Ltd., Leederville, WA (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Coal Services (Health and Safety Trust) funded ARRB Transport Research Ltd. to investigate fatigue and performance of truck drivers over consecutive shifts. The main questions were to assess: What is the most important contributor to acute fatigue in mining? Is it length of shift or is it time of day? What is the limit of successive day or night shifts before chronic fatigue affects operator performance in open cut mines? The project methodology included utilising ARRB Fatigue Monitoring Devices in eight haul trucks, testing 24 subjects over several weeks. Each subject filled in a Fatigue Risk Questionnaire on lifestyle and health. Operators worked a 14 night, 1 day off, 13 day roster of 12-hour shifts in a fly-in, fly-out operation with excellent opportunities for restorative sleep between shifts. A total of 3,500 hours of real-time data was collected, representing the first set of objective, real-time driver performance data for Australian mining. The major finding within this study is the combined influence of circadian rhythms and individual variability on performance. The lifestyle habits and the health of individuals have a profound effect on operator performance as shown by the strong positive correlation between high fatigue risk scores from the Fatigue Risk Questionnaire and poor performance. An individualistic approach would appear to have the best chance of reducing high potential incidents due to fatigue through successive nightshifts. 9 refs., 14 figs.

  14. Work engagement: drivers and effects

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhuys Roozeboom, M.M.C.; Schelvis, R.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of work engagement fits into the tradition of positive psychology, a recent paradigm shift in psychology which focuses on mental health rather than mental illness. This article gives an introduction to the concept of work engagement. Different definitions and viewpoints of the work engagement concept are discussed. This article will discuss the drivers of work engagement, as well as the associated effects that work engagement has on the health and wellbeing of workers and organisa...

  15. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.

    2016-07-01

    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  16. Considering the effects of ambient particulate matter on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arphorn, Sara; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hara, Kunio; Mahasandana, Suwisa

    2018-02-01

    The motorcycle taxi drivers of Bangkok have been heavily exposed to high concentrations of PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm), and the impact of this on their lungs has been neither documented nor studied. This study examines the association between exposure to PM10 and lung function decline among motorcycle taxi drivers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Bangkok between two groups: a subject group of motorcycle taxi drivers and control group of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers. The findings of the Thailand Pollution Control Department were used to estimate the annual ambient PM10 concentration levels in the metropolis. Pulmonary functions of motorcycle taxi drivers and enclosed vehicle taxi drivers were measured and compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to estimate the effects of PM10 exposure on the lung function of motorcycle taxi drivers. A total of 1283 motorcycle taxi drivers and 600 taxi drivers were investigated. The mean forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) of the motorcycle taxi drivers was significantly lower than that of the taxi drivers (P vehicle taxi drivers. With the possible exposure to ≥50 µg/m3 PM10, the vehicular emission standards should be vigorously enforced. Further investigation is warranted to clarify the effect of lung dysfunction on the work and lifestyle of motorcycle taxi drivers. Motorcycle taxi drivers are directly exposed to air pollution in their work environment; therefore, their lung function might decrease more than that of enclosed vehicle taxi drivers, especially when exposed to ≥50 µg/m3 PM10. World Health Organization (WHO) vehicular emission standards should be recognized and eventually enforced.

  17. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, SG Prem; Dandona, Rakhi; Schneider, John A; Ramesh, YK; Dandona, Lalit

    2009-01-01

    Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49). There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061). The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing. PMID:19457269

  18. Outputs and cost of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandona Rakhi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers form part of the HIV control efforts, but systematic data on the outputs and cost of providing such services in India are not readily available for further planning and use of resources. Methods Detailed cost and output data were collected from written records and interviews for 2005–2006 fiscal year using standardized methods at six sampled HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The total economic cost for these programmes was computed and the relation of unit cost of services per truck driver with programme scale was assessed using regression analysis. Results A total of 120,436 truck drivers were provided services by the six programmes of which 55.9% were long distance truck drivers. The annual economic cost of providing services to a truck driver varied between programmes from US$ 1.52 to 4.56 (mean US$ 2.49. There was an inverse relation between unit economic cost of serving a truck driver and scale of the programme (R2 = 0.63; p = 0.061. The variation between programmes in the average number of contacts made by the programme staff with truck drivers was 1.3 times versus 5.8 times for contacts by peer educators. Only 1.7% of the truck drivers were referred by the programmes for counseling and HIV testing. Conclusion These data provide information for further planning of HIV prevention programmes for truck drivers and estimating the resources needed for such programmes. The findings suggest the need to strengthen the role of peer educators and increase referral of truck drivers for HIV testing.

  19. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  20. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  1. Monte Carlo Random-Walk Experiments as a Test of Chaotic Orbits of Maps of the Interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, A.; Sornette, D.

    1984-05-01

    We have performed Monte Carlo random-walk experiments on a one-dimensional periodic lattice with a trapping site using the logistic map as a generator of pseudorandom numbers. Comparison with analytical results indicates that, when it has sensitive dependence to the initial conditions, this map provides a true pseudorandom generator.

  2. The NO Regular Defibrillation testing In Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation (NORDIC ICD) trial: concept and design of a randomized, controlled trial of intra-operative defibrillation testing during de novo defibrillator implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan; Bode, Frank; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Felk, Angelika; Hauser, Tino; Wegscheider, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Although defibrillation (DF) testing is still considered a standard procedure during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) insertion and has been an essential element of all trials that demonstrated the survival benefit of ICD therapy, there are no large randomized clinical trials demonstrating that DF testing improves clinical outcome and if the outcome would remain the same by omitting DF testing. Between February 2011 and July 2013, we randomly assigned 1077 patients to ICD implantation with (n = 540) or without (n = 537) DF testing. The intra-operative DF testing was standardized across all participating centres. After inducing a fast ventricular tachycardia (VT) with a heart rate ≥240 b.p.m. or ventricular fibrillation (VF) with a low-energy T-wave shock, DF was attempted with an initial 15 J shock. If the shock reversed the VT or VF, DF testing was considered successful and terminated. If unsuccessful, two effective 24 J shocks were administered. If DF was unsuccessful, the system was reconfigured and another DF testing was performed. An ICD shock energy of 40 J had to be programmed in all patients for treatment of spontaneous VT/VF episodes. The primary endpoint was the average efficacy of the first ICD shock for all true VT/VF episodes in each patient during follow-up. The secondary endpoints included the frequency of system revisions, total fluoroscopy, implantation time, procedural serious adverse events, and all-cause, cardiac, and arrhythmic mortality during follow-up. Home Monitoring was used in all patients to continuously monitor the system integrity, device programming and performance. The NO Regular Defibrillation testing In Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation (NORDIC ICD) trial is one of two large prospective randomized trials assessing the effect of DF testing omission during ICD implantation. NCT01282918. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email

  3. A prospective, randomized, double-blind trial of intranasal dexmedetomidine and oral chloral hydrate for sedated auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jason; Rogers, Amber; Medellin, Eduardo; Guzman, Jonathan A; Watcha, Mehernoor F

    2016-03-01

    Dexmedetomidine is increasingly used by various routes for pediatric sedation. However, there are few randomized controlled trials comparing the efficacy of dexmedetomidine to other commonly used sedatives. To compare the efficacy of sedation with intranasal dexmedetomidine to oral chloral hydrate for auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing. In this double-blind, double-dummy study, children undergoing ABR testing were randomized to receive intranasal dexmedetomidine 3 mcg · kg(-1) plus oral placebo (Group IN DEX) or oral chloral hydrate 50 mg · kg(-1) plus intranasal saline placebo (Group CH). We recorded demographic data, times from sedative administration to start and completion of testing, quality of sedation, occurrence of predefined adverse events, discharge times, and return to baseline activity on the day of testing. Testing completion rates with a single dose of medication were higher in the IN DEX group (89% vs 66% for CH, odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals 4.04 [1.3-12.6], P = 0.018). The median [95% CI)] time to successful testing start was shorter (25 [20-29] min vs 30 [20-49] min for IN DEX and CH, respectively, log rank test P = 0.02) and the proportion of children whose parents reported a return to baseline activity on the day of testing was greater for the IN DEX than the CH group (89% vs 64%, OR [95% CI] 4.71 [1.34-16.6], P = 0.02). There were no major adverse events in either group and no significant differences in the incidence of minor events. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is an effective alternative to oral chloral hydrate sedation for ABR testing, with the advantages of a higher incidence of testing completion with a single dose, shorter time to desired sedation level, and with significantly more patients reported to return to baseline activity on the same day. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Design of an Integrated Vehicle Chassis Control System with Driver Behavior Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An integrated vehicle chassis control strategy with driver behavior identification is introduced in this paper. In order to identify the different types of driver behavior characteristics, a driver behavior signals acquisition system was established using the dSPACE real-time simulation platform, and the driver inputs of 30 test drivers were collected under the double lane change test condition. Then, driver behavior characteristics were analyzed and identified based on the preview optimal curvature model through genetic algorithm and neural network method. Using it as a base, an integrated chassis control strategy with active front steering (AFS and direct yaw moment control (DYC considering driver characteristics was established by model predictive control (MPC method. Finally, simulations were carried out to verify the control strategy by CarSim and MATLAB/Simulink. The results show that the proposed method enables the control system to adjust its parameters according to the driver behavior identification results and the vehicle handling and stability performance are significantly improved.

  5. Community Mobilization for HIV Testing Uptake: Results From a Community Randomized Trial of a Theory-Based Intervention in Rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Neilands, Torsten B; MacPhail, Catherine; Peacock, Dean; Maman, Suzanne; Rebombo, Dumisani; Twine, Rhian; Selin, Amanda; Leslie, Hannah H; Kahn, Kathleen; Pettifor, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    HIV testing uptake in South Africa is below optimal levels. Community mobilization (CM) may increase and sustain demand for HIV testing, however, little rigorous evidence exists regarding the effect of CM interventions on HIV testing and the mechanisms of action. We implemented a theory-driven CM intervention in 11 of 22 randomly-selected villages in rural Mpumalanga Province. Cross-sectional surveys including a community mobilization measure were conducted before (n = 1181) and after (n = 1175) a 2-year intervention (2012-2014). We assessed community-level intervention effects on reported HIV testing using multilevel logistic models. We used structural equation models to explore individual-level effects, specifically whether intervention assignment and individual intervention exposure were associated with HIV testing through community mobilization. Reported testing increased equally in both control and intervention sites: the intervention effect was null in primary analyses. However, the hypothesized pathway, CM, was associated with higher HIV testing in the intervention communities. Every standard deviation increase in village CM score was associated with increased odds of reported HIV testing in intervention village participants (odds ratio: 2.6, P = mobilization scores. There was no evidence of community-wide gains in HIV testing due to the intervention. However, a significant intervention effect on HIV testing was noted in residents who were personally exposed to the intervention and who evidenced higher community mobilization. Research is needed to understand whether CM interventions can be diffused within communities over time.

  6. Design of a randomized trial of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change: the Genetic Counseling/lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Richard W; Meigs, James B; Florez, Jose C; Park, Elyse R; Green, Robert C; Waxler, Jessica L; Delahanty, Linda M; O'Brien, Kelsey E

    2011-10-01

    The efficacy of diabetes genetic risk testing to motivate behavior change for diabetes prevention is currently unknown. This paper presents key issues in the design and implementation of one of the first randomized trials (The Genetic Counseling/Lifestyle Change (GC/LC) Study for Diabetes Prevention) to test whether knowledge of diabetes genetic risk can motivate patients to adopt healthier behaviors. Because individuals may react differently to receiving 'higher' vs 'lower' genetic risk results, we designed a 3-arm parallel group study to separately test the hypotheses that: (1) patients receiving 'higher' diabetes genetic risk results will increase healthy behaviors compared to untested controls, and (2) patients receiving 'lower' diabetes genetic risk results will decrease healthy behaviors compared to untested controls. In this paper we describe several challenges to implementing this study, including: (1) the application of a novel diabetes risk score derived from genetic epidemiology studies to a clinical population, (2) the use of the principle of Mendelian randomization to efficiently exclude 'average' diabetes genetic risk patients from the intervention, and (3) the development of a diabetes genetic risk counseling intervention that maintained the ethical need to motivate behavior change in both 'higher' and 'lower' diabetes genetic risk result recipients. Diabetes genetic risk scores were developed by aggregating the results of 36 diabetes-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. Relative risk for type 2 diabetes was calculated using Framingham Offspring Study outcomes, grouped by quartiles into 'higher', 'average' (middle two quartiles) and 'lower' genetic risk. From these relative risks, revised absolute risks were estimated using the overall absolute risk for the study group. For study efficiency, we excluded all patients receiving 'average' diabetes risk results from the subsequent intervention. This post-randomization allocation strategy was

  7. Number of Published Randomized Controlled Multi Center Trials Testing Pharmacological Interventions or Devices Is Increasing in Both Medical and Surgical Specialties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard; Okholm, Cecilie; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In general, there is a need for testing new interventions in large randomized controlled trials. Depending on the research question it may be advantageous to establish multicenter studies as a way of organizing clinical trials in order to increase study power. MAIN OBJECTIVES......: The object of this study was to investigate the development in the organization of multicenter studies, the distribution of studies within different clinical specialties, across continents, and investigate the differences related to testing various interventions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A literature search...

  8. A STUDY ON HYPERTENSION AND IT’S DETERMINANTS AMONG MALE BUS DRIVERS IN STATE ROAD TRANSPORT CORPORATION, VISAKHAPATNAM, ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskara Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hypertension is an iceberg disease and it remains silent, being generally asymptomatic most of its course. It is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular mortality, which accounts for 20 - 50% of all deaths. The nature of profession puts bus drivers at higher risk of developing hypertension. Due to lack of information regarding the prevalence of hypertension and its determinants among the RTC bus drivers in Visakhapatnam, the present study is carried out. OBJECTIVE : To measure occurrence of certain ri sk factors for hypertension among bus drivers and to study the proportion of bus drivers having hypertension METHODOLOGY: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among bus drivers working in APSRTC Visakhapatnam city during months of Dec . 2014 – Jan . 2 015. One of the six bus depots was randomly selected, a prior permission from the depot manager was taken and convenient sample of 100 bus drivers considered for study. Data was collected using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire to the study subject s after obtaining informed consent. All the individuals who are willing to participate were included and those not willing to participate and who were60years of age were excluded from the study. Data was analyzed by using Microsoft excel, sta tistical tests were applied where ever necessary and p value of <0.05 was considered as statistical significant. Study materials include mercury sphygmomanometer, stethoscope, measuring tape, weighing machine. RESULTS: The mean age of study population was 42.9years, majority (90% of them belongs to class II and III according to modified B. G. Prasad’s classification, prevalence of hypertension among study population was (36%, of whom 44.4% of participants were not aware of their hypertensive status. Famil y history of hypertension observed in 46% of the study population. About 59% of the study population were overweight & obese, of them 45.7% had hypertension

  9. Phosphatidylethanol Compared with Other Blood Tests as a Biomarker of Moderate Alcohol Consumption in Healthy Volunteers : A Prospective Randomized Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kechagias, Stergios; Dernroth, Dženeta Nezirević; Blomgren, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Kronstrand, Robert; Kågedal, Bertil; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2015-01-01

    AIM: It is generally agreed that traditional alcohol biomarkers lack in sensitivity to detect hazardous alcohol consumption. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and traditional alcohol markers to detect moderate alcohol consumption and to distinguish between moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence. METHODS: Forty-four subjects, 32 females and 12 males, were included in the study. They were randomized to alcohol abstention or to alcohol co...

  10. Exploring anterograde associative memory in London taxi drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-10-24

    London taxi drivers are renowned for their navigation ability, spending a number of years acquiring 'The Knowledge' of London's complex layout and having to pass stringent examinations to obtain an operating licence. In several studies, this navigation skill has been associated with increased posterior but also decreased anterior hippocampal grey matter volume. Neuropsychologically, gain and loss has also been documented in taxi drivers; while very skilled at navigation in London, they are significantly poorer than controls at learning and recalling new object-location associations. Here we tested a group of London taxi drivers and matched control participants on this object-location associations task, while also subjecting them to a battery of challenging anterograde associative memory tests involving verbal, visual and auditory material both within and across modalities. Our aim was to assess whether their difficulty in previous studies reflected a general problem with associative memory, or was restricted to the spatial domain. We replicated previous findings of poor learning and memory of object-location associations. By contrast, their performance on the other anterograde associative memory tasks was comparable with controls. This resolves an outstanding question in the memory profile of London taxi drivers following hippocampal plasticity, and underlines the close relationship between space and the hippocampus.

  11. The CMS Tracker Readout Front End Driver

    CERN Document Server

    Foudas, C.; Ballard, D.; Church, I.; Corrin, E.; Coughlan, J.A.; Day, C.P.; Freeman, E.J.; Fulcher, J.; Gannon, W.J.F.; Hall, G.; Halsall, R.N.J.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Noy, M.; Pearson, M.; Raymond, M.; Reid, I.; Rogers, G.; Salisbury, J.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.R.; Zorba, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Front End Driver, FED, is a 9U 400mm VME64x card designed for reading out the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, silicon tracker signals transmitted by the APV25 analogue pipeline Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The FED receives the signals via 96 optical fibers at a total input rate of 3.4 GB/sec. The signals are digitized and processed by applying algorithms for pedestal and common mode noise subtraction. Algorithms that search for clusters of hits are used to further reduce the input rate. Only the cluster data along with trigger information of the event are transmitted to the CMS data acquisition system using the S-LINK64 protocol at a maximum rate of 400 MB/sec. All data processing algorithms on the FED are executed in large on-board Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Results on the design, performance, testing and quality control of the FED are presented and discussed.

  12. Psychomotor conditions of bus drivers subjected to noise and vibration in the working environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romańska-Zapała Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of vibration on human body is an issue that from several decades is a subject of many research and experiments. But most of these research concern on negative influences on human body. The paper presents methodology and results of research conducted on bus drivers of National Urban Transport in Tychy. The study involved fourteen drivers. First stage of the experiment included biomechanical and medical tests. After that psychological tests were made determining such factors like personality characteristics and stress resistance. Second stage included monitoring of psychomotor condition of drivers during night and day shifts, before and after work.

  13. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington state : appendices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  14. Marijuana, other drugs, and alcohol use by drivers in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    In Washington State legal sales of marijuana began July 8, 2014. A voluntary, anonymous roadside study was conducted to assess the prevalence of drivers testing positive for alcohol and other drugs, including marijuana, on Washingtons roads. Data ...

  15. Intra-operative defibrillation testing and clinical shock efficacy in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: the NORDIC ICD randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bänsch, Dietmar; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; Brandt, Johan; Bode, Frank; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Táborský, Miloš; Kuster, Stefan; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Felk, Angelika; Hauser, Tino; Suling, Anna; Wegscheider, Karl

    2015-10-01

    This trial was designed to test the hypothesis that shock efficacy during follow-up is not impaired in patients implanted without defibrillation (DF) testing during first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Between February 2011 and July 2013, 1077 patients were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to first time ICD implantation with (n = 540) or without (n = 537) DF testing. The intra-operative DF testing was standardized across all participating centres, and all ICD shocks were programmed to 40 J irrespective of DF test results. The primary end point was the average first shock efficacy (FSE) for all true ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation (VT/VF) episodes during follow-up. The secondary end points included procedural data, serious adverse events, and mortality. During a median follow-up of 22.8 months, the model-based FSE was found to be non-inferior in patients with an ICD implanted without a DF test, with a difference in FSE of 3.0% in favour of the no DF test [confidence interval (CI) -3.0 to 9.0%, Pnon-inferiority Defibrillation efficacy during follow-up is not inferior in patients with a 40 J ICD implanted without DF testing. Defibrillation testing during first time ICD implantation should no longer be recommended for routine left-sided ICD implantation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  16. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8%) or always (31.6%) use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7%) and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%). The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country. PMID:21679410

  17. Work-related injury factors and safety climate perception in truck drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Naomi J; Smith, Caroline K; Byrd, Jesse L

    2017-08-01

    The trucking industry has a high burden of work-related injuries. This study examined factors, such as safety climate perceptions, that may impact injury risk. A random sample of 9800 commercial driver's license holders (CDL) were sent surveys, only 4360 were eligible truck drivers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were developed to describe the population and identify variables associated with work-related injury. 2189 drivers completed the pertinent interview questions. Driving less-than-truckload, daytime sleepiness, pressure to work faster, and having a poor composite score for safety perceptions were all associated with increased likelihood of work-related injury. Positive safety perception score was protective for odds of work-related injury, and increased claim filing when injured. Positive psychological safety climate is associated with decreased likelihood of work-related injury and increased likelihood that a driver injured on the job files a workers' compensation claim. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A drug identification system for intoxicated drivers based on a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso GONZÁLEZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tests to detect the use of illegal substances among drivers are becoming more common. During these tests, a saliva test is performed and agents observe the driver to determine whether or not they are driving under the influence of psychoactive substances. During the joint control of alcohol and drugs, a breath test is performed followed by a saliva test. In addition, agents use a previously established observation questionnaire to evaluate external signs that the driver may present. This review aims to help expand and improve the questionnaire administered by the traffic officer to the driver, so that upon completing the questionnaire as indicated, it is possible to determine which drug corresponds to the symptoms displayed by the driver. The diagnosis will be facilitated by a software tool that employs the use of decision trees whose gain function has been modified to give different weights to signs and methods. A study was conducted on the symptoms and observable and/or easily detectable signs of drugs detected at sobriety checkpoints. This has enabled the creation of a test that determines the substance consumed by the driver. The proposal facilitates the detection of drugs with the data gathered from the test.

  19. Same-day HIV testing with initiation of antiretroviral therapy versus standard care for persons living with HIV: A randomized unblinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Serena P; Dorvil, Nancy; Dévieux, Jessy G; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L; Riviere, Cynthia; Faustin, Mikerlyne; Lavoile, Kerlyne; Perodin, Christian; Apollon, Alexandra; Duverger, Limathe; McNairy, Margaret L; Hennessey, Kelly A; Souroutzidis, Ariadne; Cremieux, Pierre-Yves; Severe, Patrice; Pape, Jean W

    2017-07-01

    Attrition during the period from HIV testing to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation is high worldwide. We assessed whether same-day HIV testing and ART initiation improves retention and virologic suppression. We conducted an unblinded, randomized trial of standard ART initiation versus same-day HIV testing and ART initiation among eligible adults ≥18 years old with World Health Organization Stage 1 or 2 disease and CD4 count ≤500 cells/mm3. The study was conducted among outpatients at the Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic infections (GHESKIO) Clinic in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to standard ART initiation or same-day HIV testing and ART initiation. The standard group initiated ART 3 weeks after HIV testing, and the same-day group initiated ART on the day of testing. The primary study endpoint was retention in care 12 months after HIV testing with HIV-1 RNA standard and 347 in the same-day ART groups. In the standard ART group, 156 (44%) participants were retained in care with 12-month HIV-1 RNA standard ART group, and the unadjusted RR for being retained with HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies was 1.18 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.31; p = 0.012). The main limitation of this study is that it was conducted at a single urban clinic, and the generalizability to other settings is uncertain. Same-day HIV testing and ART initiation is feasible and beneficial in this setting, as it improves retention in care with virologic suppression among patients with early clinical HIV disease. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01900080.

  20. Does acetaminophen/hydrocodone affect cold pulpal testing in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis? A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Sara; Fullmer, Spencer; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effects of a combination dose of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 mg hydrocodone on cold pulpal testing in patients experiencing symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. One hundred emergency patients in moderate to severe pain diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis of a mandibular posterior tooth randomly received, in a double-blind manner, identical capsules of either a combination of 1000 mg acetaminophen/10 hydrocodone or placebo. Cold testing with Endo-Ice (1,1,1,2 tetrafluoroethane; Hygenic Corp, Akron, OH) was performed at baseline and every 10 minutes for 60 minutes. Pain to cold testing was recorded by the patient using a Heft-Parker visual analog scale. Patients' reaction to the cold application was also rated. Cold testing at baseline and at 10 minutes resulted in severe pain for both the acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups. Although pain ratings decreased from 20-60 minutes, the ratings still resulted in moderate pain. Patient reaction to cold testing showed that 56%-62% had a severe reaction. Although the reactions decreased in severity over the 60 minutes, 20%-34% still had severe reactions at 60 minutes. Regarding pain and patients' reactions to cold testing, there were no significant differences between the combination acetaminophen/hydrocodone and placebo groups at any time period. A combination dose of 1000 mg of acetaminophen/10 mg of hydrocodone did not statistically affect cold pulpal testing in patients presenting with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Patients experienced moderate to severe pain and reactions to cold testing. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Drunk driving in professional drivers in the Vía Blanca highway in Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanche Garcell, Humberto; Suárez Enríquez, Tomás; Gutiérrez García, Francisco; Martínez Quesada, Carlos; Mendoza Pérez, Ramón

    2006-01-01

    To determine the frequency of drunk driving in professional drivers (Via Blanca, Havana City), we carried out a descriptive study of 832 drivers selected by multistage stratified sampling. A structured interview with each driver was carried out to record the variables under study, and a breath alcohol test was subsequently performed. The frequency of drunk driving was 8.18% (95% CI, 5.94%-10.42%), with a predominance of drivers with alcohol levelsDrunk driving was more frequent in "high risk" hours, in drivers aged between 40 and 49 years old (10.3%), and in those with 15 to 24 years of experience (11.02%). The frequency of drunk driving found in this study highlights the need to design traffic accident prevention strategies.

  2. JDBC Driver for AIPS++ Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J.; Young, W. K.; Waters, B.

    2005-12-01

    Integrating Java with AIPS++ can provide many advantages that cannot be realized with AIPS++ alone. Beyond simplifying architecture and code, use of Java in astronomical processing is promising because of its standardized nature, widely available tool packages and its exceptional GUI rendering abilities. We have implemented a Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) driver for the AIPS++ table system. This allows us to use the Table Query Language (TaQL), which is similar to SQL, to query and manipulate the database from Java and provides a standard interface between the AIPS++ table system and future Java applications.

  3. Marijuana-using drivers, alcohol-using drivers, and their passengers: prevalence and risk factors among underage college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehill, Jennifer M; Rivara, Frederick P; Moreno, Megan A

    2014-07-01

    Driving after marijuana use increases the risk of a motor vehicle crash. Understanding this behavior among young drivers and how it may differ from alcohol-related driving behaviors could inform prevention efforts. To describe the prevalence, sex differences, and risk factors associated with underage college students' driving after using marijuana, driving after drinking alcohol, or riding with a driver using these substances. Cross-sectional telephone survey of a random sample of 315 first-year college students (aged 18-20 years) from 2 large public universities, who were participating in an ongoing longitudinal study. At recruitment, 52.8% of eligible individuals consented to participate; retention was 93.2% one year later when data for this report were collected. Self-reported past-28-day driving after marijuana use, riding with a marijuana-using driver, driving after alcohol use, and riding with an alcohol-using driver. In the prior month, 20.3% of students had used marijuana. Among marijuana-using students, 43.9% of male and 8.7% of female students drove after using marijuana (P students rode as a passenger with a marijuana-using driver (P = .21). Most students (65.1%) drank alcohol, and among this group 12.0% of male students and 2.7% of female students drove after drinking (P = .01), with 20.7% and 11.5% (P = .07), respectively, reporting riding with an alcohol-using driver. Controlling for demographics and substance use behaviors, driving after substance use was associated with at least a 2-fold increase in risk of being a passenger with another user; the reverse was also true. A 1% increase in the reported percentage of friends using marijuana was associated with a 2% increased risk of riding with a marijuana-using driver (95% CI, 1.01-1.03). Among students using any substances, past-28-day use of only marijuana was associated with a 6.24-fold increased risk of driving after substance use compared with using only alcohol (95% CI, 1

  4. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In a modern operating system (OS), device drivers can make up over 70% of the source code. Driver code is also heavily dependent on the rest of the OS, for functions and data structures defined in the kernel and driver support libraries. These properties pose a significant problem for OS evolution......, as any changes in the interfaces exported by the kernel and driver support libraries can trigger a large number of adjustments in dependent drivers. These adjustments, which we refer to as collateral evolutions, may be complex, entailing substantial code reorganizations. As to our knowledge there exist...... no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch...

  5. Monitoring Car Drivers' Condition Using Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Kazumasa; Yamamto, Nozomi; Yamamoto, Osami; Nakano, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Shin

    We have developed a car driver monitoring system for measuring drivers' consciousness, with which we aim to reduce car accidents caused by drowsiness of drivers. The system consists of the following three subsystems: an image capturing system with a pulsed infrared CCD camera, a system for detecting blinking waveform by the images using a neural network with which we can extract images of face and eye areas, and a system for measuring drivers' consciousness analyzing the waveform with a fuzzy inference technique and others. The third subsystem extracts three factors from the waveform first, and analyzed them with a statistical method, while our previous system used only one factor. Our experiments showed that the three-factor method we used this time was more effective to measure drivers' consciousness than the one-factor method we described in the previous paper. Moreover, the method is more suitable for fitting parameters of the system to each individual driver.

  6. Drivers' smart advisory system improves driving performance at STOP sign intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available STOP signs are often physically blocked by obstacles at the corner, forming a safety threat. To enhance the safety at an un-signalized intersection like a STOP sign intersection, a radio frequency identification (RFID based drivers smart advisory system (DSAS was developed, which provides drivers with an earlier warning message when they are approaching an un-signalized intersection. In this research, a pilot field test was conducted with the DSAS alarm on an approach towards a STOP sign intersection in a residential area in Houston, Texas. The designed test route covers all turning movements, including left turn, through movement, and right turn. GPS units recorded test drivers' driving behaviors. A self-developed MATLAB program and statistically significant difference t-test were applied to analyze the impacts of the DSAS messages on drivers' driving performance, in terms of approaching speed profile, acceleration/deceleration rates, braking distance, and possible extra vehicle emissions induced by the introduction of the DSAS message. Drivers' preference on the DSAS was investigated by a designed survey questionnaire among test drivers. Results showed that the DSAS alarm was able to induce drivers to drive significantly slower to approach a STOP sign intersection, perform smaller fluctuation in acceleration/deceleration rates, and be more aware of a coming STOP sign indicated by decelerating earlier. All test drivers preferred to follow the DSAS alarm on roads for a safety concern. Further, the DSAS alarm caused the reduction in emission rates through movement. For a general observation, more road tests with more participants and different test routes were recommended.

  7. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  8. The use of a random regression model on the estimation of genetic parameters for weight at performance test in Appenninica sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M. Sarti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Appenninica breed is an Italian meat sheep; the rams are approved according to a phenotypic index that is based on an average daily gain at performance test. The 8546 live weights of 1930 Appenninica male lambs tested in the performance station of the ASSONAPA (National Sheep Breeders Association, Italy from 1986 to 2010 showed a great variability in age at weighing and in number of records by year. The goal of the study is to verify the feasibility of the estimation of a genetic index for weight in the Appenninica sheep by a mixed model, and to explore the use of random regression to avoid the corrections for weighing at different ages. The heritability and repeatability (mean±SE of the average live weight were 0.27±0.04 and 0.54±0.08 respectively; the heritabilities of weights recorded at different weighing days ranged from 0.27 to 0.58, while the heritabilities of weights at different ages showed a narrower variability (0.29÷0.41. The estimates of live weight heritability by random regressions ranged between 0.34 at 123 d of age and 0.52 at 411 d. The results proved that the random regression model is the most adequate to analyse the data of Appenninica breed.

  9. A shoe sole-based apparatus and method for randomly perturbing the stance phase of gait: test-retest reliability in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hogene; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-06-26

    Walking on an irregular surface is associated with an elevated risk for a fall at any age. Yet, relatively little is known about how a human responds to an unexpected underfoot perturbation during gait. This is partly due to the difficulty of generating an intermittent but repeatable, unexpected, underfoot perturbation whose size and location are precisely known. So we developed a shoe sole-embedded apparatus for randomly perturbing the stance phase of gait. Medial and lateral flaps were concealed in the soles of pairs of sandals, along with their actuators. Either flap could be deployed within 400ms in the parasagittal plane under a swing foot; this altered the resulting sagittal and frontal plane orientations of the foot during the next stance phase, whereafter the flap was retracted following toe-off for the rest of that gait trial. We tested six healthy young subjects by randomly presenting a single medial or lateral perturbation in 12 of 30 gait trials. Traditional step kinematic measures were used to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the response to the stimulus at two different walking speeds in 60 randomized trials conducted 1 week apart. The method was effective in systematically inducing an alteration in gait, reproducible across visits, as evidenced by acceptable intraclass correlation coefficients for step width, time and length. We conclude that the apparatus and method has potential for measuring the ability of humans to reject one or more unexpected underfoot perturbations during gait. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  11. Whole-Body Electromyostimulation to Fight Osteopenia in Elderly Females: The Randomized Controlled Training and Electrostimulation Trial (TEST-III)

    OpenAIRE

    Simon von Stengel; Michael Bebenek; Klaus Engelke; Wolfgang Kemmler

    2015-01-01

    Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containin...

  12. Comparative study on foreign drivers' characteristics using traffic violation and accident statistics in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kento Yoh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently the number of foreign drivers has been rapidly increasing. Hence, the driving safety measures for foreign drivers have become more essential. This study aims to identify the characteristics of foreign drivers through analyzing traffic violation and traffic accident data in Japan. Chi-square test of independence and specialization coefficient were applied, in order to understand the specific violations and accidents with high tendency with respect to the region the foreign driver hails from. Also, multi-regression analysis was utilized to reveal the relationships between traffic violations and accidents. As a result, it was revealed that sense of priority, speed, and comprehension of rules affect traffic violations. Asian drivers tend to violate the rules related to priority in the road space, while North and South Americans violate rules related to speed, and South East Asian drivers violate rules related to priority and comprehension of traffic rules and road signs. Asian drivers tend to cause crossing collision while on the other hand North and South Americans are prone to head-on collision and rear-end collision. It was concluded that driving safety measures based on drivers' characteristics with respect to region were effective. This study seeks to contribute to the improvement of traffic safety for foreigners in Japan.

  13. On-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing in substance use disorder treatment programs: study protocol for a hybrid design randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpong, Jemima A; D'Aunno, Thomas; Perlman, David C; Strauss, Shiela M; Mallow, Alissa; Hernandez, Diana; Schackman, Bruce R; Feaster, Daniel J; Metsch, Lisa R

    2016-03-03

    More than 1.2 million people in the United States are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and 3.2 million are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV). An estimated 25 % of persons living with HIV also have HCV. It is therefore of great public health importance to ensure the prompt diagnosis of both HIV and HCV in populations that have the highest prevalence of both infections, including individuals with substance use disorders (SUD). In this theory-driven, efficacy-effectiveness-implementation hybrid study, we will develop and test an on-site bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing intervention for SUD treatment programs. Its aim is to increase the receipt of HIV and HCV test results among SUD treatment patients. Using a rigorous process involving patients, providers, and program managers, we will incorporate rapid HCV testing into evidence-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions. We will then test, in a randomized controlled trial, the extent to which this bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing approach increases receipt of HIV and HCV test results. Lastly, we will conduct formative research to understand the barriers to, and facilitators of, the adoption, implementation, and sustainability of the bundled rapid testing strategy in SUD treatment programs. Novel approaches that effectively integrate on-site rapid HIV and rapid HCV testing are needed to address both the HIV and HCV epidemics. If feasible and efficacious, bundled rapid HIV/HCV testing may offer a scalable, potentially cost-effective approach to testing high-risk populations, such as patients of SUD treatment programs. It may ultimately lead to improved linkage to care and progress through the HIV and HCV care and treatment cascades. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02355080 . (30 January 2015).

  14. "CHOKING UNDER PRESSURE" IN OLDER DRIVERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Rusch, Michelle L; Aksan, Nazan S; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-06-01

    Aging can impair executive control and emotion regulation, affecting driver decision-making and behavior, especially under stress. We used an interactive driving simulator to investigate ability to make safe left-turns across oncoming traffic under pressure in 13 older (> 65 years old) and 16 middle-aged (35-56 years old) drivers. Drivers made left-turns at an uncontrolled intersection with moderately heavy oncoming traffic. Gaps between oncoming vehicles varied and increased gradually from 2 s to 10 s. Drivers made two left-turns with a vehicle honking aggressively behind (pressure condition), and two left-turns without the honking vehicle (control condition). Results showed that middle-aged drivers made more cautious turning decisions under pressure (by waiting for larger and safer gaps, p < .001), but older drivers did not. Further, older driver turning paths deviated under pressure compared to the control condition (p < .05), but the middle-aged group did not. Moreover, across all subjects, better executive function was significantly correlated with larger increases of accepted gap size from control to honking (p < .01). The findings suggest that older drivers are more sensitive to traffic challenges from environmental pressure and that neural models of older driver performance and safety must factor in age-related changes in executive control and emotion processing.

  15. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS...

  16. Effect of freeway level of service and driver education on truck driver stress : phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This research primarily deals with truck driver stress and its nature, stressors, and their mutual relationship. During the : study, the different demands of driving that are related to roads, vehicle, traffic conditions, driver predisposition to : s...

  17. Comparison of Fixed Regression and Random Regression Test-Day Models for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait in Holstein cows Razavi Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Shamshirgaran

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Fixed Regression Test-Day Model (FRM and Random Regression Test-Day Model (RRM for genetic evaluation of milk yield trait of dairy cattle in Khorasan Razavi province were studied. Breeding values and genetic parameters of milk yield trait from two models were compared. A total of 164391 monthly test day milk records (three times milking per day obtained from 19217 Holstein cows distributed in 172 herds and calved from 1991 to 2008, were used to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values. The contemporary group of herd- year- month of production was fitted as fixed effects in the models. Also linear and quadratic forms of age at calving and Holstein gene percentage were fitted as covariate. The random factors of the models were additive genetic and permanent environmental effects. In the random regression model, orthogonal legendre polynomial up to order 4(cubic was implemented to take account of genetic and environmental aspects of milk production over the course of lactation. Heritability estimates resulted from the FRM was 0.15. The average heritability estimates resulted from the RRM of monthly test day milk production for the second half of the lactation was higher than that of the first half of lactation period. The highest and lowest heritability values were found for the first (0.102 and sixth (0.235 month of lactation. Breeding value of animals predicted from FRM and RRM were also compared. The results showed similar ranking of animals based on their breeding values from both models.

  18. Random sampler M-estimator algorithm with sequential probability ratio test for robust function approximation via feed-forward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Melegy, Moumen T

    2013-07-01

    This paper addresses the problem of fitting a functional model to data corrupted with outliers using a multilayered feed-forward neural network. Although it is of high importance in practical applications, this problem has not received careful attention from the neural network research community. One recent approach to solving this problem is to use a neural network training algorithm based on the random sample consensus (RANSAC) framework. This paper proposes a new algorithm that offers two enhancements over the original RANSAC algorithm. The first one improves the algorithm accuracy and robustness by employing an M-estimator cost function to decide on the best estimated model from the randomly selected samples. The other one improves the time performance of the algorithm by utilizing a statistical pretest based on Wald's sequential probability ratio test. The proposed algorithm is successfully evaluated on synthetic and real data, contaminated with varying degrees of outliers, and compared with existing neural network training algorithms.

  19. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  20. Material hardship and children's social-emotional development: Testing mitigating effects of Child Development Accounts in a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Kim, Y; Sherraden, M

    2017-01-01

    Research has established a negative association between household material hardship and children's mental health. This study examines whether Child Development Accounts (CDAs), an economic intervention that encourages families to accumulate assets for children's long-term development, mitigate the association between material hardship and children's social-emotional development. Researchers conducted a randomized experiment of CDAs in Oklahoma, USA, with a probability sample (N = 7328) of all infants born in two 3-month periods in 2007. After agreeing to participate in the experiment, caregivers of 2704 infants completed a baseline survey and were assigned randomly to the treatment (n = 1358) or control group (n = 1346). The intervention exposed the treatment group to a CDA, which consisted of an Oklahoma 529 College Savings Plan account, financial incentives and financial information. Material hardship has a negative association with the social-emotional development of children around the age of 4 years. Estimates from regression analysis indicate that CDAs mitigate about 50% of the negative association between material hardship and children's social-emotional development. Although they do not provide direct support for consumption in households experiencing material hardship, CDAs may improve child development by influencing parenting practices and parents' expectations for their children. We discuss the implications of using asset-building programmes to improve child development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Recruiting participants to a randomized controlled trial testing an intervention in palliative cancer care - The perspectives of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Maja; Alvariza, Anette; Fürst, Carl-Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Årestedt, Kristofer; Öhlen, Joakim; Goliath, Ida

    2017-12-01

    The recruitment of participants to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in palliative cancer care by health care professionals is often unsuccessful, which could result in failure to achieve study power. The purpose of this paper is to describe how health care professionals experienced recruiting patients and family caregivers to an RCT in palliative cancer care. The study had a qualitative explorative design. Ten palliative home care settings were involved in the RCT and data were generated through focus group discussions and interviews with health care professionals who were responsible for the recruitment. The transcripts were analyzed with interpretive descriptive principles. The experiences of the health care professionals reveal that communicating the RCT-design to patients and family caregivers was a challenging part of the recruitment but was considered a process of learning over time. The delicate situation that participants were living under added to the challenge and health care professionals believed that the randomized design was contrary to their normal approach to always offer the best possible support. The results contribute valuable knowledge for future trials in palliative cancer care. To promote successful recruitment, health care professionals may be in need of more training to improve their communication skills and it may be necessary to consider other research designs than the RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Online smoking cessation program for Korean Americans: Randomized trial to test effects of incentives for program completion and interim surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Joel M; McDonnell, Diana D; Kazinets, Gene; Lee, Hyun-Ju

    2016-05-01

    Smoking is prevalent among Korean American men. Quitting is Winning, an Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation program, was developed using community-based participatory research principles. A randomized controlled trial was used to evaluate whether participants were more likely to complete the program and quit smoking at 6-months of follow-up with additional reinforcement. The main outcomes were the proportion of participants who completed the online program and the proportion who quit smoking for at least 30days, 26weeks after enrollment, among those randomized into the high-reinforcement (HR) condition compared with those in the low-reinforcement (LR) condition. The study achieved a final enrollment of 403 participants including 56 women. Program completion was greater for the HR as compared to the LR condition (17% vs. 10%, p=.035). There was no significant difference in 30-day smoking cessation (intent-to-treat [ITT]) between the HR and LR conditions (9% vs. 8%, ns). Smoking cessation was greater among program completers as compared to those who did not complete the program (28% vs. 5%, psurveys and financial incentives for interim survey completion and program completion significantly increased the likelihood of program completion. Moreover, program completers were significantly more likely to quit smoking. Although smoking cessation rates did not significantly differ between the HR and LR conditions, the results suggest that future studies should explore the efficacy of larger financial incentives for program completion (Clinical Trial #NCT02584127). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phosphatidylethanol Compared with Other Blood Tests as a Biomarker of Moderate Alcohol Consumption in Healthy Volunteers: A Prospective Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kechagias, Stergios; Dernroth, Dženeta Nezirević; Blomgren, Anders; Hansson, Therese; Isaksson, Anders; Walther, Lisa; Kronstrand, Robert; Kågedal, Bertil; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2015-07-01

    It is generally agreed that traditional alcohol biomarkers lack in sensitivity to detect hazardous alcohol consumption. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of phosphatidylethanol (PEth) and traditional alcohol markers to detect moderate alcohol consumption and to distinguish between moderate alcohol consumption and abstinence. Forty-four subjects, 32 females and 12 males, were included in the study. They were randomized to alcohol abstention or to alcohol consumption. Female participants consumed 150 ml of red wine (equivalent to 16 g of alcohol) per 24 h and the male participants double the amount. The study lasted for 3 months. Blood samples were drawn at the start and at the end of the study period. Blood samples were analysed for PEth, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). ROC curves for the various biochemical markers were plotted in order to assess their ability to discriminate between abstention and moderate daily consumption of alcohol. PEth and CDT were the only markers with AUROCs significantly higher than 0.5, and PEth was detected in all participants randomized to alcohol consumption. PEth was the only marker that could detect moderate intake and the present results also indicate that PEth probably can distinguish moderate alcohol consumption from abstinence. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  4. Young drivers' optimism bias for accident risk and driving skill: Accountability and insight experience manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Melanie J; Cunningham, Lauren C; Titchener, Kirsteen

    2011-07-01

    This study aimed to determine whether two brief, low cost interventions would reduce young drivers' optimism bias for their driving skills and accident risk perceptions. This tendency for such drivers to perceive themselves as more skillful and less prone to driving accidents than their peers may lead to less engagement in precautionary driving behaviours and a greater engagement in more dangerous driving behaviour. 243 young drivers (aged 17-25 years) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: accountability, insight or control. All participants provided both overall and specific situation ratings of their driving skills and accident risk relative to a typical young driver. Prior to completing the questionnaire, those in the accountability condition were first advised that their driving skills and accident risk would be later assessed via a driving simulator. Those in the insight condition first underwent a difficult computer-based hazard perception task designed to provide participants with insight into their potential limitations when responding to hazards in difficult and unpredictable driving situations. Participants in the control condition completed only the questionnaire. Results showed that the accountability manipulation was effective in reducing optimism bias in terms of participants' comparative ratings of their accident risk in specific situations, though only for less experienced drivers. In contrast, among more experienced males, participants in the insight condition showed greater optimism bias for overall accident risk than their counterparts in the accountability or control groups. There were no effects of the manipulations on drivers' skills ratings. The differential effects of the two types of manipulations on optimism bias relating to one's accident risk in different subgroups of the young driver sample highlight the importance of targeting interventions for different levels of experience. Accountability interventions may be beneficial for

  5. Predicting Energy Consumption for Potential Effective Use in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Management Using Driver Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Brian

    A proof-of-concept software-in-the-loop study is performed to assess the accuracy of predicted net and charge-gaining energy consumption for potential effective use in optimizing powertrain management of hybrid vehicles. With promising results of improving fuel efficiency of a thermostatic control strategy for a series, plug-ing, hybrid-electric vehicle by 8.24%, the route and speed prediction machine learning algorithms are redesigned and implemented for real- world testing in a stand-alone C++ code-base to ingest map data, learn and predict driver habits, and store driver data for fast startup and shutdown of the controller or computer used to execute the compiled algorithm. Speed prediction is performed using a multi-layer, multi-input, multi- output neural network using feed-forward prediction and gradient descent through back- propagation training. Route prediction utilizes a Hidden Markov Model with a recurrent forward algorithm for prediction and multi-dimensional hash maps to store state and state distribution constraining associations between atomic road segments and end destinations. Predicted energy is calculated using the predicted time-series speed and elevation profile over the predicted route and the road-load equation. Testing of the code-base is performed over a known road network spanning 24x35 blocks on the south hill of Spokane, Washington. A large set of training routes are traversed once to add randomness to the route prediction algorithm, and a subset of the training routes, testing routes, are traversed to assess the accuracy of the net and charge-gaining predicted energy consumption. Each test route is traveled a random number of times with varying speed conditions from traffic and pedestrians to add randomness to speed prediction. Prediction data is stored and analyzed in a post process Matlab script. The aggregated results and analysis of all traversals of all test routes reflect the performance of the Driver Prediction algorithm. The

  6. Good Old Gamers, Good Drivers: Results from a correlational experiment among older drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, driving is essential for senior citizens to maintain their independent lifestyle. A systematic literature review was conducted that summarized the age-related physical, visual and cognitive functional declines and their associated risk to driving. Based on these findings, we explored whether the skills required in playing Xbox Kinect video games were correlated with measures of driving performance among older drivers. Fifty-two participants, 65 years of age or older (Mean = 72; SD = 3.84; range 65 – 85 years; 29 males who have access to a car and drive frequently were invited to play Just dance, Table Tennis (ping pong, Bowling, and Dr Kawashima’s Brain Training Exercises on an Xbox Kinect 360. Participants also completed a 25-minute on-road driving task along a predetermined route to assess and identify critical driving errors using a similar instrument as that used by a driving license tester. Bivariate correlation examined the relationship between game scores and these objective driving skills. There was a significant correlation between the Xbox Kinect video games and on-road driving scores (r = 0.861, p <0.001, indicating that ‘good gamers are good drivers’. This was correlation was significant for the males (r = 0.864, p <0.001 as well as for the females (r = 0.878, p <0.001. We suggest that performance on Xbox games may be a suitable, cost-effective and less-risky indicator of on-road driving skills for older drivers, particularly in jurisdictions in which mandatory testing of older citizens has been introduced or is being considered as a requirement in the driver licensing process.

  7. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  8. Utilization of services in a randomized trial testing phone- and web-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbikowski, Susan M; Jack, Lisa M; McClure, Jennifer B; Deprey, Mona; Javitz, Harold S; McAfee, Timothy A; Catz, Sheryl L; Richards, Julie; Bush, Terry; Swan, Gary E

    2011-05-01

    Phone counseling has become standard for behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Newer options include Web and integrated phone-Web treatment. No prior research, to our knowledge, has systematically compared the effectiveness of these three treatment modalities in a randomized trial. Understanding how utilization varies by mode, the impact of utilization on outcomes, and predictors of utilization across each mode could lead to improved treatments. One thousand two hundred and two participants were randomized to phone, Web, or combined phone-Web cessation treatment. Services varied by modality and were tracked using automated systems. All participants received 12 weeks of varenicline, printed guides, an orientation call, and access to a phone supportline. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants utilized phone services more often than the Web-based services. Among treatment groups with Web access, a significant proportion logged in only once (37% phone-Web, 41% Web), and those in the phone-Web group logged in less often than those in the Web group (mean = 2.4 vs. 3.7, p = .0001). Use of the phone also was correlated with increased use of the Web. In multivariate analyses, greater use of the phone- or Web-based services was associated with higher cessation rates. Finally, older age and the belief that certain treatments could improve success were consistent predictors of greater utilization across groups. Other predictors varied by treatment group. Opportunities for enhancing treatment utilization exist, particularly for Web-based programs. Increasing utilization more broadly could result in better overall treatment effectiveness for all intervention modalities.

  9. A randomized controlled pilot study testing three types of health coaches for obesity treatment: Professional, Peer, and Mentor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2012-01-01

    Despite their popularity, empirical support for health coaches is limited. This study examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of 3 types of coaching models for obesity treatment. Participants (N=44) were randomized to 6 months of reduced intensity group behavioral weight loss (rBWL) plus 1 of 3 types of health coaches: a) Professional (rBWL interventionist); b) Peer (group members randomly paired and coached one another); or c) Mentor (successful weight loser). Groups met weekly for the first 6-weeks, biweekly for the next 6-weeks, and monthly thereafter, for a total of 12 meetings. During weeks that group did not meet, participants emailed their weight loss information to their coach and received feedback. Coaches were trained on appropriate coaching strategies and feedback delivery. Retention was 95%. Participants emailed their progress to their coach 10.8±1.9 out of the 12 weeks that there were no group meetings. Coaches responded with feedback 94% of the time. Percent weight losses at 6-months were 9.6±8.1, 9.1±5.0, and 5.7±5.6 for the Professional, Peer, and Mentor conditions, respectively. More participants in the Professional and Peer conditions lost 10% of their initial body weight (Professional: 56%; Peer: 50%; Mentor: 17%), with a statistically significant difference between the Professional and Mentor conditions (p=0.03). These preliminary data suggest that combining a reduced intensity BWL program with health coaching may hold significant promise as a cost-effective obesity treatment paradigm. Larger trials are needed to conclusively determine whether adding coaches improves weight loss outcomes in reduced intensity treatments and to examine which type of coach is most effective. PMID:23784896

  10. Facilitating decision-making in women undergoing genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer: BRECONDA randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kerry A; Kilby, Christopher J; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Winch, Caleb; Kirk, Judy; Tucker, Kathy; Elder, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making concerning risk-reducing mastectomy for women at hereditary risk of breast cancer entails complex personal choices. Deciding whether and how to restore breast shape after risk-reducing mastectomy is a key part of this process. We developed a web-based decision aid, BRECONDA (Breast Reconstruction Decision Aid), to assist women in decision-making regarding breast reconstruction. This study assessed the efficacy of BRECONDA to assist women at increased risk of breast cancer in making decisions regarding risk-reducing mastectomy in terms of decisional conflict, knowledge, and satisfaction with information. Women at hereditary risk of breast cancer (N = 64) were recruited into this randomized controlled trial from four Australian hereditary cancer clinics. Participants initially provided online consent and completed baseline questionnaires assessing decisional conflict, knowledge, and satisfaction with information. They were then randomly assigned to either: 1) Intervention - unlimited access to BRECONDA, with usual care; or, 2) Control - usual care. At 2-months follow-up (N = 60) the outcomes were re-assessed. Intervention participants also completed user acceptability ratings for the intervention overall and specific key modules. MANCOVA analyses indicated that Intervention participants reported lower decisional conflict (P = 0.027), and greater knowledge (P = 0.019) and satisfaction with information (P < 0.0005) at 2-months follow-up compared with Controls. Intervention participants reported high user acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention. BRECONDA benefits women considering risk-reducing mastectomy by reducing decisional conflict, and improving knowledge and satisfaction with information. These benefits, coupled with high user acceptability, demonstrate the feasibility of implementing BRECONDA in the hereditary cancer risk context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE PREVALENCE OF MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS AMONG BUS DRIVERS IN TRICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalit

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are widespread in many countries around the world. It has been reported that about 58 percent of the world's population over the age of 10 years spent one third of their life span at work. The population at a high risk include nursing facilities, transportation, mining, food processing, leather tanning, heavy and light manufacturing. Transport workers have been found to be at high risk of developing work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs. There has been literature evidence regarding the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in bus drivers of various cities of different countries. But no study has been done so far in Tricity (Chandigarh, Panchkula and Mohali for the same. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs among bus drivers of Tricity. Methods: 300 bus drivers were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The standardized Nordic questionnaire for musculoskeletal disorder and a self administered questionnaire were filled by therapist after the personal interview of each driver. Results: Unpaired t test was used to measure the difference in variable of two groups and Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between two entities. In the present study, the subjects were in the age group of 25 to 50 years. Out of the total sample of 300 male bus drivers in Tricity, 159 reported that they had WRMSDs. The prevalence of WRMSDs among bus drivers in Tricity was 53%. In present study, the prevalence of low back pain was highest among the bus drivers that are 30.3%, then neck pain 17.3%, knee pain 14.7%, shoulder 6.3%, ankle and feet 5.7%, upper back 4%, hip and thigh 4%, elbow 1.3% and wrist and hand 1.3%. Thus low back pain, neck pain and knee pain are the most prevalent WRMSDs amongst bus drivers. Conclusions: Work-related biomechanical

  12. Efficacy and safety of hepano tablet in liver disorder patients with abnormal liver function test: A randomized active controlled prospective clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hepano Tablet is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation studied in pre-clinical models for safety and hepatoprotective efficacy. The current study was a randomized, active controlled, multicentre, prospective clinical study that aimed to evaluate hepatoprotective efficacy and safety of Hepano Tablets. Materials and Methods: Male and female liver diseases patients (18-65 years with abnormal liver function tests were randomized to receive two tablets twice daily orally of either Hepano or a marketed comparator for 8 weeks with follow up at day 7, 14, 28 & 56 during treatment period and thereafter at day 84. Results were assessed from baseline to end of treatment basis changes in liver function tests and improvement in clinical symptoms of icterus in both the groups. Safety was assessed at all the visits basis changes in laboratory parameters and adverse event reporting for all cases who took at least one dose of the study drug. Results: Hepano Tablet and marketed comparator showed significant improvement in Liver functions - Serum Aspartate transaminase (AST, Alanine transaminase (ALT and Total, Direct and Indirect Bilirubin Levels and a significant reduction in clinical symptoms of icterus that was comparable at all the visits. Conclusion: Hepano Tablets can significantly improve Liver Function Tests and clinical symptoms in liver disease patients and could be consumed safely.

  13. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  14. Evaluation of the reliability of preoperative descriptive airway assessment tests in prediction of the Cormack-Lehane score: A prospective randomized clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Onur; Kahraman, Tugce; Senturk, Ozgur; Tulgar, Serkan; Serifsoy, Ercan; Ozer, Zeliha

    2017-02-01

    In this study we investigated and compared the predictive values of different airway assessments tests including thyromental height measurement test, which has been recently suggested, in difficult laryngoscopy (Cormack and Lehane [C-L] scores 3 and 4). In addition, we compared the effectiveness of methods and C-L scores, by IDS, in terms of predicting difficult intubation. Prospective, blinded study. Maltepe University. Four hundred fifty-one patients selected randomly who underwent general anesthesia. In this study we compared predictive value of thyromental height measurement test (TMH), which has been recently suggested, modified Mallampati test (MMT), upper lip bite test (ULBT), and thyromental distance measurement test (TMD) in difficult laryngoscopy. Final C-L scores were compared with intubation difficulty scale (IDS) in terms of predicting difficult intubation. Patient's American Society of Anesthesiology score, age and weight were recorded. TMH, TMD, MMT, ULBT, IDS and C-L scores were measured and determined. The optimal cut-off point for TMH for predicting difficult laryngoscopy was 43.5 mm and for TMD was 82.06 mm. Use of TMH <43.5 with MMT has the highest sensitivity for predicting difficult intubation (78.38) with 75.36% specificity and 97.50% negative predictive value. TMH showed sensitivity of 91.89% and specificity 52.17% at 50 mm cut-off value. In the comparison of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values, none of the tests came forth individually or in combination with MMT test. The present study demonstrates the practicality of TMH as a digitalized test however the clinical benefits of TMH in daily medical practice are drawn into question. The additional variable of race may have had some bearing on this and further studies, larger in patient sample size, may need to use different methodology concerning age-, sex-, and race-dependent variables in evaluating these tests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Young Adult Drivers: Simulated Behaviour in a Car-following Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Jurecki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of driver testing in a simulator. As young drivers are more susceptible to collisions, this was done to determine how young drivers behaved in simulated road situations on a motorway. One of the traffic safety concerns is the failure to keep a proper distance from the vehicle in front, which may result in a rearend collision. The tests simulated car-following situations in which the preceding vehicle performed emergency braking. The experiments were conducted for two scenario variants using different distances from the vehicle in front. The drivers could perform the following emergency manoeuvres: braking with steering away or only braking. The driver response times were compared and analysed statistically. The results were used to determine the emergency manoeuvres performed by the drivers in the simulated road situations. The study reveals that the vehicle surroundings may have a considerable influence on the type of emergency manoeuvres and the driver response time.

  16. Randomized trial assessing home use of two pregnancy tests for determining early medical abortion outcomes at 3, 7 and 14days after mifepristone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Jennifer; Sheldon, Wendy R; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Winikoff, Beverly; Nga, Nguyen Thi Bach; Martin, Roxanne; Van Thanh, Le; Blumenthal, Paul D

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy, feasibility and acceptability of two urine pregnancy tests in assessing abortion outcomes at three time points after mifepristone administration. This randomized trial enrolled women seeking early medical abortion at two hospitals in Vietnam. Investigators randomly allocated participants to at-home administration of a multilevel urine pregnancy test (MLPT) or a high sensitivity urine pregnancy test (HSPT) to assess their abortion outcomes. A baseline test was administered on the same day as mifepristone. Participants perfor