WorldWideScience

Sample records for random spatial structure

  1. Spatial Random Sampling: A Structure-Preserving Data Sketching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mostafa; Atia, George K.

    2017-09-01

    Random column sampling is not guaranteed to yield data sketches that preserve the underlying structures of the data and may not sample sufficiently from less-populated data clusters. Also, adaptive sampling can often provide accurate low rank approximations, yet may fall short of producing descriptive data sketches, especially when the cluster centers are linearly dependent. Motivated by that, this paper introduces a novel randomized column sampling tool dubbed Spatial Random Sampling (SRS), in which data points are sampled based on their proximity to randomly sampled points on the unit sphere. The most compelling feature of SRS is that the corresponding probability of sampling from a given data cluster is proportional to the surface area the cluster occupies on the unit sphere, independently from the size of the cluster population. Although it is fully randomized, SRS is shown to provide descriptive and balanced data representations. The proposed idea addresses a pressing need in data science and holds potential to inspire many novel approaches for analysis of big data.

  2. Spatial location identification of structural nonlinearities from random data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, A.; Magnevall, M.; Ahlin, K.; Broman, G.

    2012-02-01

    With growing demands on product performance and growing complexity of engineering structures, efficient tools for analyzing their dynamic behavior are essential. Linear techniques are well developed and often utilized. However, sometimes the errors due to linearization are too large to be acceptable, making it necessary to take nonlinear effects into account. In many practical applications it is common and reasonable to assume that the nonlinearities are highly local and thus only affect a limited set of spatial coordinates. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to finding the spatial location of nonlinearities from measurement data, as this may not always be known beforehand. This information can be used to separate the underlying linear system from the nonlinear parts and create mathematical models for efficient parameter estimation and simulation. The presented approach builds on the reverse-path methodology and utilizes the coherence functions to determine the location of nonlinear elements. A systematic search with Multiple Input/Single Output models is conducted in order to find the nonlinear functions that best describe the nonlinear restoring forces. The obtained results indicate that the presented approach works well for identifying the location of local nonlinearities in structures. It is verified by simulation data from a cantilever beam model with two local nonlinearities and experimental data from a T-beam experimental set-up with a single local nonlinearity. A possible drawback is that a relatively large amount of data is needed. Advantages of the approach are that it only needs a single excitation point that response data at varying force amplitudes is not needed and that no prior information about the underlying linear system is needed.

  3. Full-field, high-spatial-resolution detection of local structural damage from low-resolution random strain field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Sun, Peng; Nagarajaiah, Satish; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2017-07-01

    Structural damage is typically a local phenomenon that initiates and propagates within a limited area. As such high spatial resolution measurement and monitoring is often needed for accurate damage detection. This requires either significantly increased costs from denser sensor deployment in the case of global simultaneous/parallel measurements, or increased measurement time and labor in the case of global sequential measurements. This study explores the feasibility of an alternative approach to this problem: a computational solution in which a limited set of randomly positioned, low-resolution global strain measurements are used to reconstruct the full-field, high-spatial-resolution, two-dimensional (2D) strain field and rapidly detect local damage. The proposed approach exploits the implicit low-rank and sparse data structure of the 2D strain field: it is highly correlated without many edges and hence has a low-rank structure, unless damage-manifesting itself as sparse local irregularity-is present and alters such a low-rank structure slightly. Therefore, reconstruction of the full-field, high-spatial-resolution strain field from a limited set of randomly positioned low-resolution global measurements is modeled as a low-rank matrix completion framework and damage detection as a sparse decomposition formulation, enabled by emerging convex optimization techniques. Numerical simulations on a plate structure are conducted for validation. The results are discussed and a practical iterative global/local procedure is recommended. This new computational approach should enable the efficient detection of local damage using limited sets of strain measurements.

  4. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  5. Spatial Extent of Random Laser Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, K.L.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Mosk, Allard; Lagendijk, Aart

    2007-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the distribution of the spatial extent of modes and the crossover from essentially single-mode to distinctly multimode behavior inside a porous gallium phosphide random laser. This system serves as a paragon for random lasers due to its exemplary high index contrast.

  6. Stereological analysis of spatial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Linda Vadgård

    The thesis deals with stereological analysis of spatial structures. One area of focus has been to improve the precision of well-known stereological estimators by including information that is available via automatic image analysis. Furthermore, the thesis presents a stochastic model for star......-shaped three-dimensional objects using the radial function. It appears that the model is highly fleksiblel in the sense that it can be used to describe an object with arbitrary irregular surface. Results on the distribution of well-known local stereological volume estimators are provided....

  7. Gender Structure and Spatial Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoosh Sadoughianzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the widespread debate on the “gender reading” of the “built environment,” this article aims to situate the subject in a new context, the Iranian society. To depict the subject, two distinct traditional architectures of the region, associated with their respective socio-spatial organizations, have been comparatively explored: the “Introvert” and “Extrovert.” These two almost ageless “Introvert” and “Extrovert” architectures, evolved through centuries in different geographical parts of the country, are spatial patterns aptly illustrating how the “gender structure” of each social organization has contributed to the formation of the relevant “physical space” and, further, how the specific “gender relationships” are pertinently structured within each one of the two types of the spaces. Based on a systematic approach and through concentration on the macro-socio-spatial organization, this article is to explore the gender/space associated variations within either of the social systems they belong to. This perspective is particularly instrumental in pinpointing the Introvert and Extrovert architectures in the context of their social organizations and carefully scrutinizing “gender” and “space” categories as systematically integrated variables.

  8. Custom-tailored spatial mode sorting by controlled random scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fickler, Robert; Ginoya, Manit; Boyd, Robert W.

    2017-04-01

    The need to increase data transfer rates constitutes a key challenge in modern information-driven societies. Taking advantage of the transverse spatial modes of light to encode more information is a promising avenue for both classical and quantum photonics. However, to ease access to the encoded information, it is essential to be able to sort spatial modes into different output channels. Here, we introduce a way to customize the sorting of arbitrary spatial light modes. Our method relies on the high degree of control over random scattering processes by preshaping of the phase structure of the incident light. We demonstrate experimentally that various sets of modes, irrespective of their specific modal structure, can be transformed to a broad range of output channel arrangements. Thus, our method enables full access to all of the information encoded in the transverse structure of the field; for example, azimuthal and radial modes. We also demonstrate that coherence is retained in this complex mode transformation, which opens up applications in quantum and classical information science.

  9. Application of the artificial neural network for reconstructing the internal-structure image of a random medium by spatial characteristics of backscattered optical radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksler, B. A.; Meglinskii, I. V.

    2008-06-01

    The feasibility of using an artificial neural network (ANN), which is the standard Matlab tool, for non-invasive (based on the data of backscattering) diagnostics of macro-inhomogeneities, localised at subsurface layers of the turbid strongly scattering medium was shown. The spatial and angle distribution of the backscattered optical radiation was calculated by using the Monte-Carlo method combining the modelling of effective optical paths and the use of statistical weights. It was shown that application of the backscattering method together with the ANN allows solving inverse problems for determining the average radius of the scattering particles and for reconstructing the images of structural elements within the medium with a high accuracy.

  10. Visibility graphs of random scalar fields and spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacasa, Lucas; Iacovacci, Jacopo

    2017-07-01

    We extend the family of visibility algorithms to map scalar fields of arbitrary dimension into graphs, enabling the analysis of spatially extended data structures as networks. We introduce several possible extensions and provide analytical results on the topological properties of the graphs associated to different types of real-valued matrices, which can be understood as the high and low disorder limits of real-valued scalar fields. In particular, we find a closed expression for the degree distribution of these graphs associated to uncorrelated random fields of generic dimension. This result holds independently of the field's marginal distribution and it directly yields a statistical randomness test, applicable in any dimension. We showcase its usefulness by discriminating spatial snapshots of two-dimensional white noise from snapshots of a two-dimensional lattice of diffusively coupled chaotic maps, a system that generates high dimensional spatiotemporal chaos. The range of potential applications of this combinatorial framework includes image processing in engineering, the description of surface growth in material science, soft matter or medicine, and the characterization of potential energy surfaces in chemistry, disordered systems, and high energy physics. An illustration on the applicability of this method for the classification of the different stages involved in carcinogenesis is briefly discussed.

  11. Spatial Random Field Models Inspired from Statistical Physics with Applications in the Geosciences

    OpenAIRE

    Hristopulos, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial structure of fluctuations in spatially inhomogeneous processes can be modeled in terms of Gibbs random fields. A local low energy estimator (LLEE) is proposed for the interpolation (prediction) of such processes at points where observations are not available. The LLEE approximates the spatial dependence of the data and the unknown values at the estimation points by low-lying excitations of a suitable energy functional. It is shown that the LLEE is a linear, unbiased, non-exact est...

  12. Spatial network surrogates for disentangling complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedermann, Marc; Donges, Jonathan F.; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V.

    2016-04-01

    Networks with nodes embedded in a metric space have gained increasing interest in recent years. The effects of spatial embedding on the networks' structural characteristics, however, are rarely taken into account when studying their macroscopic properties. Here, we propose a hierarchy of null models to generate random surrogates from a given spatially embedded network that can preserve certain global and local statistics associated with the nodes' embedding in a metric space. Comparing the original network's and the resulting surrogates' global characteristics allows one to quantify to what extent these characteristics are already predetermined by the spatial embedding of the nodes and links. We apply our framework to various real-world spatial networks and show that the proposed models capture macroscopic properties of the networks under study much better than standard random network models that do not account for the nodes' spatial embedding. Depending on the actual performance of the proposed null models, the networks are categorized into different classes. Since many real-world complex networks are in fact spatial networks, the proposed approach is relevant for disentangling the underlying complex system structure from spatial embedding of nodes in many fields, ranging from social systems over infrastructure and neurophysiology to climatology.

  13. Stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields models and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Providing a graduate level introduction to various aspects of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields, this volume places a special emphasis on fundamental classes of models and algorithms as well as on their applications, for example in materials science, biology and genetics. This book has a strong focus on simulations and includes extensive codes in Matlab and R, which are widely used in the mathematical community. It can be regarded as a continuation of the recent volume 2068 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics, where other issues of stochastic geometry, spatial statistics and random fields were considered, with a focus on asymptotic methods.

  14. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these ‘cognitive maps’ are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants’ psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants’ cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants’ spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory. PMID:27347681

  15. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Madl

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these 'cognitive maps' are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics characterizing participants' psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants' cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants' spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory.

  16. Exploring the Structure of Spatial Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tamas; Franklin, Stan; Chen, Ke; Trappl, Robert; Montaldi, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that the map-like representations that support human spatial memory are fragmented into sub-maps with local reference frames, rather than being unitary and global. However, the principles underlying the structure of these 'cognitive maps' are not well understood. We propose that the structure of the representations of navigation space arises from clustering within individual psychological spaces, i.e. from a process that groups together objects that are close in these spaces. Building on the ideas of representational geometry and similarity-based representations in cognitive science, we formulate methods for learning dissimilarity functions (metrics) characterizing participants' psychological spaces. We show that these learned metrics, together with a probabilistic model of clustering based on the Bayesian cognition paradigm, allow prediction of participants' cognitive map structures in advance. Apart from insights into spatial representation learning in human cognition, these methods could facilitate novel computational tools capable of using human-like spatial concepts. We also compare several features influencing spatial memory structure, including spatial distance, visual similarity and functional similarity, and report strong correlations between these dimensions and the grouping probability in participants' spatial representations, providing further support for clustering in spatial memory.

  17. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under multiple correlated normal random excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanbin; Mulani, Sameer B.; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Fei, Qingguo; Wu, Shaoqing

    2017-07-01

    An algorithm that integrates Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) and the finite element method (FEM) is proposed to perform non-stationary random vibration analysis of structures under excitations, represented by multiple random processes that are correlated in both time and spatial domains. In KLE, the auto-covariance functions of random excitations are discretized using orthogonal basis functions. The KLE for multiple correlated random excitations relies on expansions in terms of correlated sets of random variables reflecting the cross-covariance of the random processes. During the response calculations, the eigenfunctions of KLE used to represent excitations are applied as forcing functions to the structure. The proposed algorithm is applied to a 2DOF system, a 2D cantilever beam and a 3D aircraft wing under both stationary and non-stationary correlated random excitations. Two methods are adopted to obtain the structural responses: a) the modal method and b) the direct method. Both the methods provide the statistics of the dynamic response with sufficient accuracy. The structural responses under the same type of correlated random excitations are bounded by the response obtained by perfectly correlated and uncorrelated random excitations. The structural response increases with a decrease in the correlation length and with an increase in the correlation magnitude. The proposed methodology can be applied for the analysis of any complex structure under any type of random excitation.

  18. Spatial random field models inspired from statistical physics with applications in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    2006-06-01

    The spatial structure of fluctuations in spatially inhomogeneous processes can be modeled in terms of Gibbs random fields. A local low energy estimator (LLEE) is proposed for the interpolation (prediction) of such processes at points where observations are not available. The LLEE approximates the spatial dependence of the data and the unknown values at the estimation points by low-lying excitations of a suitable energy functional. It is shown that the LLEE is a linear, unbiased, non-exact estimator. In addition, an expression for the uncertainty (standard deviation) of the estimate is derived.

  19. International cooperation on biodiversity conservation when spatial structures matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarado-Quesada, Irene; Weikard, Hans Peter

    2017-01-01

    International cooperation on biodiversity conservation when spatial structures matter. Spatial Economic Analysis. This paper considers the stability of international environmental agreements (IEAs) for biodiversity conservation with an explicit spatial structure. It studies the impact of distance

  20. Spatial-mode conversion using random diffuser and spatial light modulator for reduction of modal crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Koki; Okamoto, Atsushi; Tsuritani, Takehiro; Wakayama, Yuta; Goto, Yuta; Tomita, Akihisa

    2016-02-01

    The mode-division multiplexing (MDM) technique enables the transmission of multiple signals within a multi-mode fiber (MMF) or a few-mode fiber (FMF). To construct an efficient and flexible MDM network in the same way as a wavelength-division multiplexing network, a mode conversion method with low modal crosstalk is required for switching between arbitrary spatial modes. However, in general, modal crosstalk is strongly dependent on the intensity pattern before mode conversion, and it is increased particularly for higher order modes. In order to reduce modal crosstalk, we propose a method using a random diffuser and a spatial light modulator (SLM). In the proposed method, firstly, the input spatial mode is dispersed uniformly by the random diffuser. Subsequently, the diffused phase distribution is canceled and converted into the desired spatial mode by the SLM, which displays phase difference between desired and diffused modes. Consequently, every spatial mode can be evenly converted into a desired mode. Here, we numerically simulate and confirm that the proposed method can reduce modal crosstalk compared to the conversion method without the random diffuser.

  1. The spatial structure of Antarctic biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Convey, P.; Chown, S.; Clarke, A.; Barnes, D.K.A.; Bokhorst, S.; Cummings, V.; Ducklow, H.W.; Frati, F.; Green, T.G.A.; Gordon, S.; Griffiths, H.J.; Howard-Williams, C.; Huiskes, A.H.L.; Laybourn-Parry, J.; Lyons, W.B.; McMinn, A.; Morley, S.A.; Peck, L.S.; Quesada, A.; Robinson, S.A.; Schiaparelli, S.; Wall, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of environmental spatial structure lie at the heart of the most fundamental and familiar patterns of diversity on Earth. Antarctica contains some of the strongest environmental gradients on the planet and therefore provides an ideal study ground to test hypotheses on the relevance of

  2. Emergent spatial synaptic structure from diffusive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Yann; Clopath, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    Some neurotransmitters can diffuse freely across cell membranes, influencing neighbouring neurons regardless of their synaptic coupling. This provides a means of neural communication, alternative to synaptic transmission, which can influence the way in which neural networks process information. Here, we ask whether diffusive neurotransmission can also influence the structure of synaptic connectivity in a network undergoing plasticity. We propose a form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity which is mediated by a diffusive neurotransmitter. Whenever a synapse is modified at an individual neuron through our proposed mechanism, similar but smaller modifications occur in synapses connecting to neighbouring neurons. The effects of this diffusive plasticity are explored in networks of rate-based neurons. This leads to the emergence of spatial structure in the synaptic connectivity of the network. We show that this spatial structure can coexist with other forms of structure in the synaptic connectivity, such as with groups of strongly interconnected neurons that form in response to correlated external drive. Finally, we explore diffusive plasticity in a simple feedforward network model of receptive field development. We show that, as widely observed across sensory cortex, the preferred stimulus identity of neurons in our network become spatially correlated due to diffusion. Our proposed mechanism of diffusive plasticity provides an efficient mechanism for generating these spatial correlations in stimulus preference which can flexibly interact with other forms of synaptic organisation. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Spatially random models, estimation theory, and robot arm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1987-01-01

    Spatially random models provide an alternative to the more traditional deterministic models used to describe robot arm dynamics. These alternative models can be used to establish a relationship between the methodologies of estimation theory and robot dynamics. A new class of algorithms for many of the fundamental robotics problems of inverse and forward dynamics, inverse kinematics, etc. can be developed that use computations typical in estimation theory. The algorithms make extensive use of the difference equations of Kalman filtering and Bryson-Frazier smoothing to conduct spatial recursions. The spatially random models are very easy to describe and are based on the assumption that all of the inertial (D'Alembert) forces in the system are represented by a spatially distributed white-noise model. The models can also be used to generate numerically the composite multibody system inertia matrix. This is done without resorting to the more common methods of deterministic modeling involving Lagrangian dynamics, Newton-Euler equations, etc. These methods make substantial use of human knowledge in derivation and minipulation of equations of motion for complex mechanical systems.

  4. Cascading failures in spatially-embedded random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asztalos, Andrea; Sreenivasan, Sameet; Szymanski, Boleslaw K; Korniss, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    Cascading failures constitute an important vulnerability of interconnected systems. Here we focus on the study of such failures on networks in which the connectivity of nodes is constrained by geographical distance. Specifically, we use random geometric graphs as representative examples of such spatial networks, and study the properties of cascading failures on them in the presence of distributed flow. The key finding of this study is that the process of cascading failures is non-self-averaging on spatial networks, and thus, aggregate inferences made from analyzing an ensemble of such networks lead to incorrect conclusions when applied to a single network, no matter how large the network is. We demonstrate that this lack of self-averaging disappears with the introduction of a small fraction of long-range links into the network. We simulate the well studied preemptive node removal strategy for cascade mitigation and show that it is largely ineffective in the case of spatial networks. We introduce an altruistic strategy designed to limit the loss of network nodes in the event of a cascade triggering failure and show that it performs better than the preemptive strategy. Finally, we consider a real-world spatial network viz. a European power transmission network and validate that our findings from the study of random geometric graphs are also borne out by simulations of cascading failures on the empirical network.

  5. Statistical Downscaling Based on Spartan Spatial Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios

    2010-05-01

    Stochastic methods of space-time interpolation and conditional simulation have been used in statistical downscaling approaches to increase the resolution of measured fields. One of the popular interpolation methods in geostatistics is kriging, also known as optimal interpolation in data assimilation. Kriging is a stochastic, linear interpolator which incorporates time/space variability by means of the variogram function. However, estimation of the variogram from data involves various assumptions and simplifications. At the same time, the high numerical complexity of kriging makes it difficult to use for very large data sets. We present a different approach based on the so-called Spartan Spatial Random Fields (SSRFs). SSRFs were motivated from classical field theories of statistical physics [1]. The SSRFs provide a different approach of parametrizing spatial dependence based on 'effective interactions,' which can be formulated based on general statistical principles or even incorporate physical constraints. This framework leads to a broad family of covariance functions [2], and it provides new perspectives in covariance parameter estimation and interpolation [3]. A significant advantage offered by SSRFs is reduced numerical complexity, which can lead to much faster codes for spatial interpolation and conditional simulation. In addition, on grids composed of rectangular cells, the SSRF representation leads to an explicit expression for the precision matrix (the inverse covariance). Therefore SSRFs could provide useful models of error covariance for data assimilation methods. We use simulated and real data to demonstrate SSRF properties and downscaled fields. keywords: interpolation, conditional simulation, precision matrix References [1] Hristopulos, D.T., 2003. Spartan Gibbs random field models for geostatistical applications, SIAM Journal in Scientific Computation, 24, 2125-2162. [2] Hristopulos, D.T., Elogne, S. N. 2007. Analytic properties and covariance

  6. The Nature of Tectonic Spatial Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Adrian; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2010-01-01

    Since earliest times mankind has sought inspiration from nature for our built structures. However until the dawn of the modern era in architecture and design, the true structural character of a building was invariably full y or partially encased in an ornamented cladding, of often stylised motifs...... of nature. The modern emphasis on honest structural expression has resulted in more sincere and innovative interpretations of nature in spatial structures. With reference to the works of amongst others of Gaudi, Candela, Otto, Nervi, Utzon, Calatrava and Foreign Office Architects (FOA) and the writings...... particularly of Kenneth Frampton, this paper will argue that the direct inspiration of nature and the increasing use of advanced parametric digital design tools that replicate virtually instantaneously evolutionary processes results in structures that are not only elegant tectonically and in terms of economy...

  7. The influence of sampling unit size and spatial arrangement patterns on neighborhood-based spatial structure analyses of forest stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, G.; Hui, G.; Li, Y.; Hu, Y.; Zhao, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: Neighborhood-based stand spatial structure parameters can quantify and characterize forest spatial structure effectively. How these neighborhood-based structure parameters are influenced by the selection of different numbers of nearest-neighbor trees is unclear, and there is some disagreement in the literature regarding the appropriate number of nearest-neighbor trees to sample around reference trees. Understanding how to efficiently characterize forest structure is critical for forest management. Area of study: Multi-species uneven-aged forests of Northern China. Material and methods: We simulated stands with different spatial structural characteristics and systematically compared their structure parameters when two to eight neighboring trees were selected. Main results: Results showed that values of uniform angle index calculated in the same stand were different with different sizes of structure unit. When tree species and sizes were completely randomly interspersed, different numbers of neighbors had little influence on mingling and dominance indices. Changes of mingling or dominance indices caused by different numbers of neighbors occurred when the tree species or size classes were not randomly interspersed and their changing characteristics can be detected according to the spatial arrangement patterns of tree species and sizes. Research highlights: The number of neighboring trees selected for analyzing stand spatial structure parameters should be fixed. We proposed that the four-tree structure unit is the best compromise between sampling accuracy and costs for practical forest management. (Author)

  8. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Bream, Kent D W; Barg, Frances K; Branas, Charles C

    2014-04-10

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available.

  9. Modeling for spatial multilevel structural data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Suqin; He, Xiaoqun

    2013-03-01

    The traditional multilevel model assumed independence between groups. However, the datasets grouped by geographical units often has spatial dependence. The individual is influenced not only by its region but also by the adjacent regions, and level-2 residual distribution assumption of traditional multilevel model is violated. In order to deal with such spatial multilevel data, we introduce spatial statistics and spatial econometric models into multilevel model, and apply spatial parameters and adjacency matrix in traditional level-2 model to reflect the spatial autocorrelation. Spatial lag model express spatial effects. We build spatial multilevel model which consider both multilevel thinking and spatial correlation.

  10. Monocular Road Detection Using Structured Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xiao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Road detection is a key task for autonomous land vehicles. Monocular vision-based road-detection algorithms are mostly based on machine learning approaches and are usually cast as classification problems. However, the pixel-wise classifiers are faced with the ambiguity caused by changes in road appearance, illumination and weather. An effective way to reduce the ambiguity is to model the contextual information with structured learning and prediction. Currently, the widely used structured prediction model in road detection is the Markov random field or conditional random field. However, the random field-based methods require additional complex optimization after pixel-wise classification, making them unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we present a structured random forest-based road-detection algorithm which is capable of modelling the contextual information efficiently. By mapping the structured label space to a discrete label space, the test function of each split node can be trained in a similar way to that of the classical random forests. Structured random forests make use of the contextual information of image patches as well as the structural information of the labels to get more consistent results. Besides this benefit, by predicting a batch of pixels in a single classification, the structured random forest-based road detection can be much more efficient than the conventional pixel-wise random forest. Experimental results tested on the KITTI-ROAD dataset and data collected in typical unstructured environments show that structured random forest-based road detection outperforms the classical pixel-wise random forest both in accuracy and efficiency.

  11. Spatially Modulated Structures in Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsien-Ching

    This dissertation focuses on the study of spatially modulated structures in pattern forming systems. The work is motivated by recent interest in spatially localized states observed in convective systems. Weakly nonlinear analysis is applied to derive the modulation equations and systematic studies, both analytical and numerical, are then performed on the simplified equations. The following is a summary of this work: Weakly Subcritical Patterns: The transition from subcritical to supercritical periodic patterns is described by the one-dimensional cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation with cubic nonlinear gradient terms. The coefficients are real indicating that the system is spatially reversible. Properties of the equation such as well-posedness, gradient structure, and bifurcation behavior depend significantly on the coefficients of the cubic nonlinear gradient terms. In this system, periodic patterns may in turn become unstable through one of two different mechanisms, an Eckhaus instability or an oscillatory instability. Dynamics and bifurcations near the instability thresholds are analyzed. Among the stationary solutions, the front solution which connects the zero state to a spatially periodic state plays the most important role. The location of the front in the parameter mu is treated as a Maxwell point. The spatially modulated solutions which bifurcate from the periodic solutions demonstrate protosnaking behavior near this point. These results are used to shed light on both variational and non-variational systems exhibiting homoclinic snaking. Localized Patterns in Rotating Convection and Magnetoconvection: In two-dimensional rotating convection and magnetoconvection, the formation of spatially localized patterns is strongly affected by the interaction between convection and a large scale mode: zonal velocity in rotating convection and magnetic flux in magnetoconvection. A nonlocal fifth order Ginzburg-Landau theory is developed to describe the localization

  12. Non-Stationary Dependence Structures for Spatial Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Huser, Raphaël

    2016-03-03

    Max-stable processes are natural models for spatial extremes because they provide suitable asymptotic approximations to the distribution of maxima of random fields. In the recent past, several parametric families of stationary max-stable models have been developed, and fitted to various types of data. However, a recurrent problem is the modeling of non-stationarity. In this paper, we develop non-stationary max-stable dependence structures in which covariates can be easily incorporated. Inference is performed using pairwise likelihoods, and its performance is assessed by an extensive simulation study based on a non-stationary locally isotropic extremal t model. Evidence that unknown parameters are well estimated is provided, and estimation of spatial return level curves is discussed. The methodology is demonstrated with temperature maxima recorded over a complex topography. Models are shown to satisfactorily capture extremal dependence.

  13. The spatial structure of transnational human activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Emanuel

    2016-09-01

    Starting from conflictive predictions of hitherto disconnected debates in the natural and social sciences, this article examines the spatial structure of transnational human activity (THA) worldwide (a) across eight types of mobility and communication and (b) in its development over time. It is shown that the spatial structure of THA is similar to that of animal displacements and local-scale human motion in that it can be approximated by Lévy flights with heavy tails that obey power laws. Scaling exponent and power-law fit differ by type of THA, being highest in refuge-seeking and tourism and lowest in student exchange. Variance in the availability of resources and opportunities for satisfying associated needs appears to explain these differences. Over time (1960-2010), the Lévy-flight pattern remains intact and remarkably stable, contradicting the popular notion that socio-technological trends lead to a "death of distance." Humans have not become more "global" over time, they rather became more mobile in general, i.e. they move and communicate more at all distances. Hence, it would be more adequate to speak of "mobilization" than of "globalization." Longitudinal change occurs only in some types of THA and predominantly at short distances, indicating regional rather than global shifts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial distribution of random velocity inhomogeneities in the western part of Nankai subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    In the Nankai trough, there are three seismogenic zones of megathrust earthquakes (Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes). Lithospheric structures in and around these seismogenic zones are important for the studies on mutual interactions and synchronization of their fault ruptures. Recent studies on seismic wave scattering at high frequencies (>1Hz) make it possible to estimate 3D distributions of random inhomogeneities (or scattering coefficient) in the lithosphere, and clarified that random inhomogeneity is one of the important medium properties related to microseismicity and damaged structure near the fault zone [Asano & Hasegawa, 2004; Takahashi et al. 2009]. This study estimates the spatial distribution of the power spectral density function (PSDF) of random inhomogeneities the western part of Nankai subduction zone, and examines the relations with crustal velocity structure and seismic activity. Seismic waveform data used in this study are those recorded at seismic stations of Hi-net & F-net operated by NIED, and 160 ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) deployed at Hyuga-nada region from Dec. 2008 to Jan. 2009. This OBS observation was conducted by JAMSTEC as a part of "Research concerning Interaction Between the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai Earthquakes" funded by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan. Spatial distribution of random inhomogeneities is estimated by the inversion analysis of the peak delay time of small earthquakes [Takahashi et al. 2009], where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. We assumed the von Karman type functional form for the PSDF. Peak delay times are measured from root mean squared envelopes at 4-8Hz, 8-16Hz and 16-32Hz. Inversion result can be summarized as follows. Random inhomogeneities beneath the Quaternary volcanoes are characterized by strong inhomogeneities at small spatial scale (~ a few hundreds meter) and weak spectral gradient

  15. Testing in a Random Effects Panel Data Model with Spatially Correlated Error Components and Spatially Lagged Dependent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a random effects panel data model with both spatially correlated error components and spatially lagged dependent variables. We focus on diagnostic testing procedures and derive Lagrange multiplier (LM test statistics for a variety of hypotheses within this model. We first construct the joint LM test for both the individual random effects and the two spatial effects (spatial error correlation and spatial lag dependence. We then provide LM tests for the individual random effects and for the two spatial effects separately. In addition, in order to guard against local model misspecification, we derive locally adjusted (robust LM tests based on the Bera and Yoon principle (Bera and Yoon, 1993. We conduct a small Monte Carlo simulation to show the good finite sample performances of these LM test statistics and revisit the cigarette demand example in Baltagi and Levin (1992 to illustrate our testing procedures.

  16. Spatially modulated structural colour in bird feathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Andrew J.; Washington, Adam L.; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O.; Hill, Christopher J.; Bianco, Antonino; Burg, Stephanie L.; Dennison, Andrew J. C.; Snape, Mary; Cadby, Ashley J.; Smith, Andrew; Prevost, Sylvain; Whittaker, David M.; Jones, Richard A. L.; Fairclough, J. Patrick. A.; Parker, Andrew R.

    2015-12-01

    Eurasian Jay (Garrulus glandarius) feathers display periodic variations in the reflected colour from white through light blue, dark blue and black. We find the structures responsible for the colour are continuous in their size and spatially controlled by the degree of spinodal phase separation in the corresponding region of the feather barb. Blue structures have a well-defined broadband ultra-violet (UV) to blue wavelength distribution; the corresponding nanostructure has characteristic spinodal morphology with a lengthscale of order 150 nm. White regions have a larger 200 nm nanostructure, consistent with a spinodal process that has coarsened further, yielding broader wavelength white reflectance. Our analysis shows that nanostructure in single bird feather barbs can be varied continuously by controlling the time the keratin network is allowed to phase separate before mobility in the system is arrested. Dynamic scaling analysis of the single barb scattering data implies that the phase separation arrest mechanism is rapid and also distinct from the spinodal phase separation mechanism i.e. it is not gelation or intermolecular re-association. Any growing lengthscale using this spinodal phase separation approach must first traverse the UV and blue wavelength regions, growing the structure by coarsening, resulting in a broad distribution of domain sizes.

  17. Wave speed in excitable random networks with spatially constrained connections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Vladimirov

    Full Text Available Very fast oscillations (VFO in neocortex are widely observed before epileptic seizures, and there is growing evidence that they are caused by networks of pyramidal neurons connected by gap junctions between their axons. We are motivated by the spatio-temporal waves of activity recorded using electrocorticography (ECoG, and study the speed of activity propagation through a network of neurons axonally coupled by gap junctions. We simulate wave propagation by excitable cellular automata (CA on random (Erdös-Rényi networks of special type, with spatially constrained connections. From the cellular automaton model, we derive a mean field theory to predict wave propagation. The governing equation resolved by the Fisher-Kolmogorov PDE fails to describe wave speed. A new (hyperbolic PDE is suggested, which provides adequate wave speed v( that saturates with network degree , in agreement with intuitive expectations and CA simulations. We further show that the maximum length of connection is a much better predictor of the wave speed than the mean length. When tested in networks with various degree distributions, wave speeds are found to strongly depend on the ratio of network moments / rather than on mean degree , which is explained by general network theory. The wave speeds are strikingly similar in a diverse set of networks, including regular, Poisson, exponential and power law distributions, supporting our theory for various network topologies. Our results suggest practical predictions for networks of electrically coupled neurons, and our mean field method can be readily applied for a wide class of similar problems, such as spread of epidemics through spatial networks.

  18. The Dynamics of Spatial Structure and Spatial Pattern Changes at the Fringe Area of Makassar City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batara Surya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study is conducted at the fringe area of Makassar City by analyzing dynamics of spatial structure and spatial pattern changes at the fringe area of Makassar City. It applies quantitative and qualitative approaches (mixed method. Data is acquired from some sources and informants living at the fringe area of Makassar City. Spatial utilization shift and development of transport infrastructure, especially for main road corridor connecting down town of Makassar City and fringe area, affect significantly spatial structure and spatial pattern changes at the fringe area of  Makassar City. Dynamics of spatial structure and spatial pattern changes contributes changes of resident mobility; while, development tendency of the existing spatial and land use is no longer determined based on productivity, but it is valued by functions of space and land at the fringe are of Makassar City.

  19. Bayesian Clustering Using Hidden Markov Random Fields in Spatial Population Genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Olivier; Ancelet, Sophie; Guillot, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a new Bayesian clustering algorithm for studying population structure using individually geo-referenced multilocus data sets. The algorithm is based on the concept of hidden Markov random field, which models the spatial dependencies at the cluster membership level. We argue that (i) a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure can implement the algorithm efficiently, (ii) it can detect significant geographical discontinuities in allele frequencies and regulate the number of clusters, (iii) it can check whether the clusters obtained without the use of spatial priors are robust to the hypothesis of discontinuous geographical variation in allele frequencies, and (iv) it can reduce the number of loci required to obtain accurate assignments. We illustrate and discuss the implementation issues with the Scandinavian brown bear and the human CEPH diversity panel data set. PMID:16888334

  20. Young children's spatial structuring ability and emerging number sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nes, F.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836370

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents research into the role of young children’s spatial structuring ability in the development of number sense, particularly in terms of insight into numerical relations. We take Battista and Clements’ (1996, p. 503) definition to define the act of spatial structuring as “the mental

  1. Measurement of turbulent spatial structure and kinetic energy spectrum by exact temporal-to-spatial mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika

    2017-01-01

    and spatial structure functions in a way that completely bypasses the need for Taylor’s hypothesis. The spatial statistics agree with the classical counterparts, such as the total kinetic energy spectrum, at least for spatial extents up to the Taylor microscale. The requirements for applying the method......We present a method for converting a time record of turbulent velocity measured at a point in a flow to a spatial velocity record consisting of consecutive convection elements. The spatial record allows computation of dynamic statistical moments such as turbulent kinetic wavenumber spectra...

  2. Aspects of randomness in neural graph structures

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph-Lilith, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, significant advances have been made in understanding the structural and functional properties of biological networks, via graph-theoretic analysis. In general, most graph-theoretic studies are conducted in the presence of serious uncertainties, such as major undersampling of the experimental data. In the specific case of neural systems, however, a few moderately robust experimental reconstructions do exist, and these have long served as fundamental prototypes for studying connectivity patterns in the nervous system. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of these "historical" graphs, both in (unmodified) directed and (often symmetrized) undirected forms, and focus on simple structural characterizations of their connectivity. We find that in most measures the networks studied are captured by simple random graph models; in a few key measures, however, we observe a marked departure from the random graph prediction. Our results suggest that the mechanism of graph formation in th...

  3. Genetic Drift Suppresses Bacterial Conjugation in Spatially Structured Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Peter D.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Jiménez, José I.; Chen, Irene A.

    2014-02-01

    Conjugation is the primary mechanism of horizontal gene transfer that spreads antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Although conjugation normally occurs in surface-associated growth (e.g., biofilms), it has been traditionally studied in well-mixed liquid cultures lacking spatial structure, which is known to affect many evolutionary and ecological processes. Here we visualize spatial patterns of gene transfer mediated by F plasmid conjugation in a colony of Escherichia coli growing on solid agar, and we develop a quantitative understanding by spatial extension of traditional mass-action models. We found that spatial structure suppresses conjugation in surface-associated growth because strong genetic drift leads to spatial isolation of donor and recipient cells, restricting conjugation to rare boundaries between donor and recipient strains. These results suggest that ecological strategies, such as enforcement of spatial structure and enhancement of genetic drift, could complement molecular strategies in slowing the spread of antibiotic resistance genes.

  4. Spatial Structures and Regulation in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Pernille

    , and the other is the spatial regulation of biological systems, here related to different aspects of the inflammatory response. All systems are studied using computational modelling and mathematical analysis. The first part of the thesis explores different protein aggregation scenarios. In Chapter 1, we consider......Spatial arrangements are very important for many biological systems. This thesis presents several different studies of biological systems, which are related to spatial arrangements at two different levels: one is the growth of biological macromolecules, here related to protein aggregation...... system and resembles a situation of chronic inflammation in the tissue. In Chapter 5 we consider inflammatory response in the islets of Langerhans, which are responsible for regulating the levels of blood sugar (by releasing insulin and glucagon) and which are located in the pancreas. Low-grade chronic...

  5. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...

  6. Robustness Assessment of Spatial Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    Robustness of structural systems has obtained a renewed interest due to a much more frequent use of advanced types of structures with limited redundancy and serious consequences in case of failure. In order to minimise the likelihood of such disproportionate structural failures many modern building...... codes consider the need for robustness of structures and provide strategies and methods to obtain robustness. Therefore a structural engineer may take necessary steps to design robust structures that are insensitive to accidental circumstances. The present paper summaries issues with respect...

  7. Spatial contiguity analysis. A method for describing spatial structures of seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraj, A. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1-4 Av. de Bois-Preau, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France); Cailly, F. [Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoleon Bonaparte, 92500 Rueil Malmaison, Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    We apply spatial contiguity analysis (SCA) to study spatial structures contained in seismic images. Compared to classical methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA), SCA is more efficient for multivariate description and spatial filtering of this kind of images. We present SCA according to geostatistic formalism defined by Matheron. A preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables is required. Made with the help of variogram curves, this permits to underline spatial properties of these variables and defines contiguity distance and direction to apply SCA. A series of mathematical tools is defined. They allow quantifying the information held by initial variables and factorial components in terms of variance and spatial variability and exhibit data spatial structures on different scales. The method is applied to analyse a seismic data set. We compare PCA and SCA results. This data set gives us the opportunity to show the interest of preliminary spatial analysis of initial variables, and the effects of spatial direction and distance on the data decomposition in elementary structures.

  8. Spatial Structure and Scaling of Agricultural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Considering agricultural landscapes as networks can provide information about spatial connectivity relevant for a wide range of applications including pollination, pest management, and ecology. Global agricultural networks are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. However, regional analyses capture only a subset of the total global network. Most analyses are regional. In this paper, we seek to address the following questions: Does the globally observed scale-free property of agricultural networks hold over smaller spatial domains? Can similar properties be observed at kilometer to meter scales? We analyze 9 intensively cultivated Landsat scenes on 5 continents with a wide range of vegetation distributions. We find that networks of vegetation fraction within the domain of each of these Landsat scenes exhibit substantial variability - but still possess similar scaling properties to the global distribution of agriculture. We also find similar results using a 39 km2 IKONOS image. To illustrate an a...

  9. Fatigue in Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading is studied. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part of the investigation, fatigue test series have been carried through on various...... types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 360-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-1010 MPa. The fatigue tests and the fracture mechanics analyses...... test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend...

  10. Transforming spatial point processes into Poisson processes using random superposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Berthelsen, Kasper Klitgaaard

    with a complementary spatial point process Y  to obtain a Poisson process X∪Y  with intensity function β. Underlying this is a bivariate spatial birth-death process (Xt,Yt) which converges towards the distribution of (X,Y). We study the joint distribution of X and Y, and their marginal and conditional distributions....... In particular, we introduce a fast and easy simulation procedure for Y conditional on X. This may be used for model checking: given a model for the Papangelou intensity of the original spatial point process, this model is used to generate the complementary process, and the resulting superposition is a Poisson...... process with intensity function β if and only if the true Papangelou intensity is used. Whether the superposition is actually such a Poisson process can easily be examined using well known results and fast simulation procedures for Poisson processes. We illustrate this approach to model checking...

  11. A spatial error model with continuous random effects and an application to growth convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Márcio Poletti

    2017-10-01

    We propose a spatial error model with continuous random effects based on Matérn covariance functions and apply this model for the analysis of income convergence processes (β -convergence). The use of a model with continuous random effects permits a clearer visualization and interpretation of the spatial dependency patterns, avoids the problems of defining neighborhoods in spatial econometrics models, and allows projecting the spatial effects for every possible location in the continuous space, circumventing the existing aggregations in discrete lattice representations. We apply this model approach to analyze the economic growth of Brazilian municipalities between 1991 and 2010 using unconditional and conditional formulations and a spatiotemporal model of convergence. The results indicate that the estimated spatial random effects are consistent with the existence of income convergence clubs for Brazilian municipalities in this period.

  12. Spatial Structures and Regulation in Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Pernille

    system and resembles a situation of chronic inflammation in the tissue. In Chapter 5 we consider inflammatory response in the islets of Langerhans, which are responsible for regulating the levels of blood sugar (by releasing insulin and glucagon) and which are located in the pancreas. Low-grade chronic...... inflammation and over-production of the cytokine IL-1β are characteristic features of islets in patients with type II diabetes. We expand the model of Chapter 4 in order to study the inflammatory response in islets of Langerhans, with a special focus on the influence imposed by the spatial conditions - namely...

  13. On the Inference of Spatial Continuity using Spartan Random Field Models

    OpenAIRE

    Elogne, Samuel; Hristopulos, Dionisis

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the inference of spatial dependence in the context of a recently proposed framework. More specifically, the paper focuses on the estimation of model parameters for a class of generalized Gibbs random fields, i.e., Spartan Spatial Random Fields (SSRFs). The problem of parameter inference is based on the minimization of a distance metric. The latter involves a specifically designed distance between sample constraints (variance, generalized ``gradient'' and ``curvature'') an...

  14. The effect of spatial structure on adaptation in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Perfeito, Lilia; Pereira, M. Inês; Campos, Paulo R. A.; Gordo, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Populations of organisms are generally organized in a given spatial structure. However, the vast majority of population genetic studies are based on populations in which every individual competes globally. Here we use experimental evolution in Escherichia coli to directly test a recently made prediction that spatial structure slows down adaptation and that this cost increases with the mutation rate. This was studied by comparing populations of different mutation rates adapting to a liquid (un...

  15. Large-area imaging reveals biologically driven non-random spatial patterns of corals at a remote reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Clinton B.; Eynaud, Yoan; Williams, Gareth J.; Pedersen, Nicole E.; Zgliczynski, Brian J.; Gleason, Arthur C. R.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Sandin, Stuart A.

    2017-12-01

    For sessile organisms such as reef-building corals, differences in the degree of dispersion of individuals across a landscape may result from important differences in life-history strategies or may reflect patterns of habitat availability. Descriptions of spatial patterns can thus be useful not only for the identification of key biological and physical mechanisms structuring an ecosystem, but also by providing the data necessary to generate and test ecological theory. Here, we used an in situ imaging technique to create large-area photomosaics of 16 plots at Palmyra Atoll, central Pacific, each covering 100 m2 of benthic habitat. We mapped the location of 44,008 coral colonies and identified each to the lowest taxonomic level possible. Using metrics of spatial dispersion, we tested for departures from spatial randomness. We also used targeted model fitting to explore candidate processes leading to differences in spatial patterns among taxa. Most taxa were clustered and the degree of clustering varied by taxon. A small number of taxa did not significantly depart from randomness and none revealed evidence of spatial uniformity. Importantly, taxa that readily fragment or tolerate stress through partial mortality were more clustered. With little exception, clustering patterns were consistent with models of fragmentation and dispersal limitation. In some taxa, dispersion was linearly related to abundance, suggesting density dependence of spatial patterning. The spatial patterns of stony corals are non-random and reflect fundamental life-history characteristics of the taxa, suggesting that the reef landscape may, in many cases, have important elements of spatial predictability.

  16. Homogeneous 1-based structures and interpretability in random structures

    OpenAIRE

    Koponen, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Let $V$ be a finite relational vocabulary in which no symbol has arity greater than 2. Let $M$ be countable $V$-structure which is homogeneous, simple and 1-based. The first main result says that if $M$ is, in addition, primitive, then it is strongly interpretable in a random structure. The second main result, which generalizes the first, implies (without the assumption on primitivity) that if $M$ is "coordinatized" by a set with SU-rank 1 and there is no definable (without parameters) nontri...

  17. DPR-tree: a distributed parallel spatial index structure for high performance spatial databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Qiang

    2008-12-01

    Parallelism of spatial index could significantly improve the performance of spatial queries, special for massive spatial databases, so the research of parallel spatial index takes a important role in high performance spatial databases. Existing parallel spatial index methods have two main shortcoming: one is accessing hotspot and bottleneck of index items located in main server, the other is high costs and complicated operations for maintaining index consistency. Aim at these, a distributed parallel spatial index structure called DPR-tree is proposed. It splits whole index region into partition sub-regions by using Hilbert space-filling curve grid and organizes index sub-regions according to locality of spatial objects, then maps index sub-regions to partition sub-regions and assigns these index sub-regions to different computer nodes by a appointed map function, Each computer node manages a multi-level distributed sub-Rtree which is built from a index sub-region. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed parallel spatial index can achieve speedup well and offer significant potential for reducing query response time.

  18. Bulgarian Spatial Prefixes and Event Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explore the combination possibilities of Bulgarian directional prefixes with various motion verbs. Adopting Ramchand’s (in press event decomposition, Zwarts’ (2005 vector space semantics for directional prepositions, and drawing on various discussions regarding the manner component in the verbal meaning, I propose an analysis that captures the distribution of Goal and Source prefixes. I show how this proposal accounts for the change in the syntactic behavior of prefixed motion verbs compared to their unprefixed counterparts. The proposal also explains the syntactic properties exhibited by verbs when prefixed by different prefixes. I offer a unified treatment of path structure and event structure and suggest that directional prepositions and directional prefixes are semantically identical and originate in the extended PP. The differences between them are due to the syntactic structure in which they participate.

  19. Spatial quantum correlations induced by random multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that ca...... only be described by a quantum mechanical theory for multiple scattering. The spatial quantum correlation is revealed in the fluctuations of the total intensity transmission or reflection through the multiple scattering medium.......The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that can...

  20. Spatial Visualization Tasks To Support Students’ Spatial Structuring In Learning Volume Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shintia Revina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Many prior researches found that most of students in grade five tended to have difficulty in fully grasping the concept of volume measurement because they have to build their competence in spatial structuring. The unit of volume “packing” measurement must be integrated and coordinated in three-dimension. On the other hand, it is revealed the errors that students made on the volume measurement tasks with threedimensional cube arrays are related to some aspects of spatial visualization, such as the skill to "read off" two-dimensional representation of solid objects. For those reasons, this research is aimed to develop classroom activities with the use of spatial visualization tasks to support students’ spatial structuring in learning volume measurement. Consequently, design research was chosen as an appropriate means to achieve this research goal. In this research, a sequence of instructional activities is designed and developed based on the hypothesis of students’ learning processes. This research was conducted in grade 5 of SD Pupuk Sriwijaya Palembang, Indonesia.Keywords: volume measurement, spatial structuring, spatial visualization, design research. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.745.127-146

  1. Managing spatial development in zones undergoing major structural changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper considers different aspects of spatial development management in the zones characterized by significant spatial interventions, whose consequences are structural changes in usage of space, social and economic development, environmental and ambient quality. Those are, above all, big mining regions, zones of big water accumulations and main infrastructure corridors. Paper deals with normative, institutional and organizational assumptions for managing spatial development, planning approaches, construction and spatial arrangement, searching and structuring data basis and development of information system, system of indicators and monitoring system. Special attention is given to balance and synchronization of activities during compilation of study, planning and technical documentation, as well as procedures of considering and enacting appropriate decisions by competent authorities on national, regional and local level.

  2. Genetic drift suppresses bacterial conjugation in spatially structured populations

    OpenAIRE

    Freese, Peter D.; Korolev, Kirill S.; Jiménez, José I.; Chen, Irene A.

    2014-01-01

    Conjugation is the primary mechanism of horizontal gene transfer that spreads antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Although conjugation normally occurs in surface-associated growth (e.g., biofilms), it has been traditionally studied in well-mixed liquid cultures lacking spatial structure, which is known to affect many evolutionary and ecological processes. Here we visualize spatial patterns of gene transfer mediated by F plasmid conjugation in a colony of Escherichia coli growing on solid ag...

  3. A new eigenfunction spatial analysis describing population genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Diniz, João Vitor Barnez P L; Rangel, Thiago Fernando; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; Telles, Mariana Pires de Campos; Collevatti, Rosane Garcia; Bini, Luis Mauricio

    2013-12-01

    Several methods of spatial analyses have been proposed to infer the relative importance of evolutionary processes on genetic population structure. Here we show how a new eigenfunction spatial analysis can be used to model spatial patterns in genetic data. Considering a sample of n local populations, the method starts by modeling the response variable (allele frequencies or phenotypic variation) against the eigenvectors sequentially extracted from a geographic distance matrix (n × n). The relationship between the coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the models and the cumulative eigenvalues, which we named the spatial signal-representation (SSR) curve, can be more efficient than Moran's I correlograms in describing different patterns. The SSR curve was also applied to simulated data (under distinct scenarios of population differentiation) and to analyze spatial patterns in alleles from microsatellite data for 25 local populations of Dipteryx alata, a tree species endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado. The SSR curves are consistent with previous phylogeographical patterns of the species, revealing combined effects of isolation-by-distance and range expansion. Our analyses demonstrate that the SSR curve is a useful exploratory tool for describing spatial patterns of genetic variability and for selecting spatial eigenvectors for models aiming to explain spatial responses to environmental variables and landscape features.

  4. A Versatile and Efficient GPU Data Structure for Spatial Indexing

    KAUST Repository

    Schneider, Jens

    2016-08-10

    In this paper we present a novel GPU-based data structure for spatial indexing. Based on Fenwick trees—a special type of binary indexed trees—our data structure allows construction in linear time. Updates and prefixes can be computed in logarithmic time, whereas point queries require only constant time on average. Unlike competing data structures such as summed-area tables and spatial hashing, our data structure requires a constant amount of bits for each data element, and it offers unconstrained point queries. This property makes our data structure ideally suited for applications requiring unconstrained indexing of large data, such as block-storage of large and block-sparse volumes. Finally, we provide asymptotic bounds on both run-time and memory requirements, and we show applications for which our new data structure is useful.

  5. Damage Spreading in Spatial and Small-world Random Boolean Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Qiming [Fermilab; Teuscher, Christof [Portland State U.

    2014-02-18

    The study of the response of complex dynamical social, biological, or technological networks to external perturbations has numerous applications. Random Boolean Networks (RBNs) are commonly used a simple generic model for certain dynamics of complex systems. Traditionally, RBNs are interconnected randomly and without considering any spatial extension and arrangement of the links and nodes. However, most real-world networks are spatially extended and arranged with regular, power-law, small-world, or other non-random connections. Here we explore the RBN network topology between extreme local connections, random small-world, and pure random networks, and study the damage spreading with small perturbations. We find that spatially local connections change the scaling of the relevant component at very low connectivities ($\\bar{K} \\ll 1$) and that the critical connectivity of stability $K_s$ changes compared to random networks. At higher $\\bar{K}$, this scaling remains unchanged. We also show that the relevant component of spatially local networks scales with a power-law as the system size N increases, but with a different exponent for local and small-world networks. The scaling behaviors are obtained by finite-size scaling. We further investigate the wiring cost of the networks. From an engineering perspective, our new findings provide the key design trade-offs between damage spreading (robustness), the network's wiring cost, and the network's communication characteristics.

  6. Spatial panel data models of aquaculture production in West Sumatra province with random-effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartika, Wimi; Susetyo, Budi; Syafitri, Utami Dyah

    2017-03-01

    Spatial Panel Regression is a statistical model that used to analyze the effect of several independent variables on the dependent variable based on using panel data and take the spatial effect into account. There are two approaches on predicting spatial panel data, Fixed Effect Spatial Autoregressive (SAR-FE) and Random Effect Spatial Autoregressive (SAR-RE). SAR-FE has the assumption that the intercept has vary acrros spatial unit, while the SAR-RE's assumption is the interception is on residual model and it only has a general intercept. The purpose of this study is to modeling the production of West Sumatra fishery using Spatial Panel Regression. The model uses secondary data which is published by "Badan Pusat Statistik" on the results of aquaculture production in West Sumatra. The test results shown that the level of West Sumatra 2004-2012 aquaculture production was precisely modeled by the approach of Spatial Autoregressive Random Effect. From SAR-RE model, the most influence factors on aquaculture production in West Sumatra province in 2004-2012 was the number of motor boats, the area of fish seeds, fish seed production, and the number of fishermen public waters.

  7. Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0053 Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures Takeshi Seki TOHOKU UNIVERSITY Final Report 06/27...currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      27-06-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final...3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 12 Jun 2015 to 12 Dec 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Control of Spin Wave Dynamics in Spatially Twisted Magnetic Structures

  8. Binary morphology with spatially variant structuring elements: algorithm and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Hugo; Dokladal, Petr; Owall, Viktor

    2009-03-01

    Mathematical morphology with spatially variant structuring elements outperforms translation-invariant structuring elements in various applications and has been studied in the literature over the years. However, supporting a variable structuring element shape imposes an overwhelming computational complexity, dramatically increasing with the size of the structuring element. Limiting the supported class of structuring elements to rectangles has allowed for a fast algorithm to be developed, which is efficient in terms of number of operations per pixel, has a low memory requirement, and a low latency. These properties make this algorithm useful in both software and hardware implementations, not only for spatially variant, but also translation-invariant morphology. This paper also presents a dedicated hardware architecture intended to be used as an accelerator in embedded system applications, with corresponding implementation results when targeted for both field programmable gate arrays and application specific integrated circuits.

  9. Prediction of the spatial occurrence of fire induced spalling in concrete slabs using random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Coile R.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the loss of concrete cover can significantly influence the reliability of concrete elements during fire, spalling should be taken into account when performing reliability calculations. However, the occurrence and spatial variation of spalling are highly uncertain. A first step towards a probabilistic analysis of spalling is made by combining existing deterministic models with a stochastic representation of the concrete tensile strength and by using random fields to model the tensile strength spatial variation.

  10. A Structural Equation Approach to Models with Spatial Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, Johan H. L.; Folmer, Henk

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  11. A structural equation approach to models with spatial dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  12. A Structural Equation Approach to Models with Spatial Dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oud, J.H.L.; Folmer, H.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the class of structural equation models (SEMs) and corresponding estimation procedures into a spatial dependence framework. SEM allows both latent and observed variables within one and the same (causal) model. Compared with models with observed variables only, this feature makes it

  13. Variable spatial structure of schooling pelagic fish off Namibia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of aggregation patterns of the different species on the precision of the acoustic estimates was analysed with respect to spatial variability and diurnal effects. Isotropic variograms computed from values of acoustic back-scattering strength showed little or no structure for all three species. Indicator variograms ...

  14. Spatial distribution and structure of benthic macroinvertebrates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taabo Lake is facing eutrophication process characterized by a permanent and continuous colonization of its water body by invasive aquatic macrophytes since 1990. Until now, there is limited knowledge of its ecological state. The purpose of this study is to examine the spatial distribution and structure of benthic ...

  15. The effect of railway travel on urban spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dröes, M.I.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of railway travel on urban spatial structure in a polycentric urban land use model. We focus on the role of access to the railway network. We find that if the number of train stations is limited, the degree of urbanization is higher around train stations, but the effect of

  16. Estimation of the Scale of Fluctuation for Spatial Variables of RC Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilyati S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensional and structural properties of RC structures are nonhomogenous due to the quality of workmanship, environmental and material variability. One of the required statistical information for spatial variability analysis of RC structures includes the scale of fluctuation, θ. This paper discusses the estimation of θ for two spatial variables; concrete compressive strength and concrete cover. Methods used to estimate the θ are the Curve fitting method and the Kriging Method. Kriging is an optimal interpolation method which uses the concept of randomness that allows the uncertainty of the predicted values to be calculated. Data measurements for concrete compressive strength and concrete cover were obtained from Peterson (1964 and Public Work Department of Malaysia respectively. The most reliable value for θ of fcu was determined and the value obtained for θ of c was found unreliable due to the insufficient of data points from the available data.

  17. A general modeling framework for describing spatially structured population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Christine; Fryxell, John; Bieri, Joanna; Federico, Paula; Earl, Julia; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Mattsson, Brady; Flockhart, Tyler; Nicol, Sam; Diffendorfer, James E.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Erickson, Richard A.; Norris, D. Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Variation in movement across time and space fundamentally shapes the abundance and distribution of populations. Although a variety of approaches model structured population dynamics, they are limited to specific types of spatially structured populations and lack a unifying framework. Here, we propose a unified network-based framework sufficiently novel in its flexibility to capture a wide variety of spatiotemporal processes including metapopulations and a range of migratory patterns. It can accommodate different kinds of age structures, forms of population growth, dispersal, nomadism and migration, and alternative life-history strategies. Our objective was to link three general elements common to all spatially structured populations (space, time and movement) under a single mathematical framework. To do this, we adopt a network modeling approach. The spatial structure of a population is represented by a weighted and directed network. Each node and each edge has a set of attributes which vary through time. The dynamics of our network-based population is modeled with discrete time steps. Using both theoretical and real-world examples, we show how common elements recur across species with disparate movement strategies and how they can be combined under a unified mathematical framework. We illustrate how metapopulations, various migratory patterns, and nomadism can be represented with this modeling approach. We also apply our network-based framework to four organisms spanning a wide range of life histories, movement patterns, and carrying capacities. General computer code to implement our framework is provided, which can be applied to almost any spatially structured population. This framework contributes to our theoretical understanding of population dynamics and has practical management applications, including understanding the impact of perturbations on population size, distribution, and movement patterns. By working within a common framework, there is less chance

  18. Nonlinear deterministic structures and the randomness of protein sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Huang Yan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the randomness of protein sequences, we make a detailed analysis of a set of typical protein sequences representing each structural classes by using nonlinear prediction method. No deterministic structures are found in these protein sequences and this implies that they behave as random sequences. We also give an explanation to the controversial results obtained in previous investigations.

  19. POPULATION STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF Ceratozamia mexicana BRONGN. (ZAMIACEAE IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rivera-Fernández

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetal populations are affected by biotic and abiotic factors that influence the regeneration processes. The aims of this study were to know the population structure of Ceratozamia mexicana under two contrasting conditions (conserved site and disturbed site, and to determine if the sexual structure, the population density and the spatial distribution of C. mexicana are modified by effect of disturbance. Eight plots of 25 m2 within each site (conserved and disturbed were used. The structure and spatial distribution of the sites were determined. Methods included analysis of variance, spatial distribution indexes, and climatic and edaphic factors determined by conventional methods for their comparison. The conserved site showed a demographic structure of an inverted "J", while the disturbed site varied slightly with more discontinuous distribution. Population density was 0.78 individuals/m2 in the conserved site and 0.26 individuals/m2 in the disturbed site. Spatial distribution for all development stages of the plant was random, with the exception of the seedling stage, which was aggregated. Results showed that perturbation decreases the density of plants and removes reproductive individuals, which threatens the persistence of the population.

  20. Uncertainty in Random Forests: What does it mean in a spatial context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Fouedjio, Francky

    2017-04-01

    Geochemical surveys are an important part of exploration for mineral resources and in environmental studies. The samples and chemical analyses are often laborious and difficult to obtain and therefore come at a high cost. As a consequence, these surveys are characterised by datasets with large numbers of variables but relatively few data points when compared to conventional big data problems. With more remote sensing platforms and sensor networks being deployed, large volumes of auxiliary data of the surveyed areas are becoming available. The use of these auxiliary data has the potential to improve the prediction of chemical element concentrations over the whole study area. Kriging is a well established geostatistical method for the prediction of spatial data but requires significant pre-processing and makes some basic assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. Some machine learning algorithms, on the other hand, may require less data pre-processing and are non-parametric. In this study we used a dataset provided by Kirkwood et al. [1] to explore the potential use of Random Forest in geochemical mapping. We chose Random Forest because it is a well understood machine learning method and has the advantage that it provides us with a measure of uncertainty. By comparing Random Forest to Kriging we found that both methods produced comparable maps of estimated values for our variables of interest. Kriging outperformed Random Forest for variables of interest with relatively strong spatial correlation. The measure of uncertainty provided by Random Forest seems to be quite different to the measure of uncertainty provided by Kriging. In particular, the lack of spatial context can give misleading results in areas without ground truth data. In conclusion, our preliminary results show that the model driven approach in geostatistics gives us more reliable estimates for our target variables than Random Forest for variables with relatively strong spatial

  1. A Malthusian curb on spatial structure in microorganism populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A P

    2004-10-07

    That all organisms are born in the company of a parent but die alone is a fundamental biological asymmetry. It has been suggested that this provides a deep-rooted source of spatial pattern formation for microorganisms even at the scale of the population. Such a theory, however, neglects the strong influence in nature of the limited and spatially variable availability of food. The tendency, first recognized by Thomas Malthus in the 18th century, of a population to out-strip its food resources will eventually lead, through local starvation, to the suppression of a heterogeneity growing within a population. Using a generic model it is demonstrated that including local food limitation of breeding strongly dampens spatial structure otherwise resulting from birth and death. The extent of this damping is shown to be a function of the strength of the coupling between organisms and their food and of the total abundance of organic material. Moreover, this work provides an example of a density-dependent process acting to diminish spatial structure rather than to create it and highlights the rich variety of behaviour that is missed by continuum models which fail to represent such local dynamics.

  2. Measurement of turbulent spatial structure and kinetic energy spectrum by exact temporal-to-spatial mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara M.

    2017-08-01

    We present a method for converting a time record of turbulent velocity measured at a point in a flow to a spatial velocity record consisting of consecutive convection elements. The spatial record allows computation of dynamic statistical moments such as turbulent kinetic wavenumber spectra and spatial structure functions in a way that completely bypasses the need for Taylor's hypothesis. The spatial statistics agree with the classical counterparts, such as the total kinetic energy spectrum, at least for spatial extents up to the Taylor microscale. The requirements for applying the method are access to the instantaneous velocity magnitude, in addition to the desired flow quantity, and a high temporal resolution in comparison to the relevant time scales of the flow. We map, without distortion and bias, notoriously difficult developing turbulent high intensity flows using three main aspects that distinguish these measurements from previous work in the field: (1) The measurements are conducted using laser Doppler anemometry and are therefore not contaminated by directional ambiguity (in contrast to, e.g., frequently employed hot-wire anemometers); (2) the measurement data are extracted using a correctly and transparently functioning processor and are analysed using methods derived from first principles to provide unbiased estimates of the velocity statistics; (3) the exact mapping proposed herein has been applied to the high turbulence intensity flows investigated to avoid the significant distortions caused by Taylor's hypothesis. The method is first confirmed to produce the correct statistics using computer simulations and later applied to measurements in some of the most difficult regions of a round turbulent jet—the non-equilibrium developing region and the outermost parts of the developed jet. The proposed mapping is successfully validated using corresponding directly measured spatial statistics in the fully developed jet, even in the difficult outer regions of

  3. Beyond pairs: definition and interpretation of third-order structure in spatial point patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaito, Chiho; Dieckmann, Ulf; Sasaki, Akira; Takasu, Fugo

    2015-05-07

    Spatial distributions of biological species are an important source of information for understanding local interactions at the scale of individuals. Technological advances have made it easier to measure these distributions as spatial point patterns, specifying the locations of individuals. Extensive attention has been devoted to analyzing the second-order structure of such point patterns by focusing on pairs of individuals, and it is well known that the local crowdedness of individuals can thus be quantified. Statistical measures such as a point pattern׳s pair correlation function or Ripley׳s K function show whether a given point pattern is clustered (excess of short-distance pairs) or overdispersed (shortage of short-distance pairs). These notions are naturally defined in comparison with control patterns exhibiting complete spatial randomness, i.e., an absence of any spatial structure. However, there is no rational reason why the analysis of point patterns should stop at the second order. In this paper, we focus on triplets of individuals in an attempt to quantify and interpret the third-order structure of a point pattern. We demonstrate that point patterns with "bandedness", in which individuals are primarily distributed within bands, can be detected by an excess of thinner triplets at a characteristic spatial scale linked to the band׳s width. In this context, we show how the generation of control patterns as a reference for gauging a test pattern׳s triplet frequencies is critical for defining and interpreting the third-order structure of point patterns. Since perfect information on a point pattern׳s second-order structure typically suffices for its unique reconstruction (up to translation, rotation, and reflection), we conjecture that it is essential to minimally coarse-grain such second-order information before using it to generate control patterns for identifying a point pattern׳s third-order structure. We recommend the further exploration of this

  4. Analysis of tree stand horizontal structure using random point field methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Sekretenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the model approach to analyze the horizontal structure of forest stands. The main types of models of random point fields and statistical procedures that can be used to analyze spatial patterns of trees of uneven and even-aged stands are described. We show how modern methods of spatial statistics can be used to address one of the objectives of forestry – to clarify the laws of natural thinning of forest stand and the corresponding changes in its spatial structure over time. Studying natural forest thinning, we describe the consecutive stages of modeling: selection of the appropriate parametric model, parameter estimation and generation of point patterns in accordance with the selected model, the selection of statistical functions to describe the horizontal structure of forest stands and testing of statistical hypotheses. We show the possibilities of a specialized software package, spatstat, which is designed to meet the challenges of spatial statistics and provides software support for modern methods of analysis of spatial data. We show that a model of stand thinning that does not consider inter-tree interaction can project the size distribution of the trees properly, but the spatial pattern of the modeled stand is not quite consistent with observed data. Using data of three even-aged pine forest stands of 25, 55, and 90-years old, we demonstrate that the spatial point process models are useful for combining measurements in the forest stands of different ages to study the forest stand natural thinning.

  5. Characterizing the Relative Spatial Structure of Point Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Marcon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize Ripley’s K function to get a new function, M, to characterize the spatial structure of a point pattern relatively to another one. We show that this new approach is pertinent in ecology when space is not homogenous and the size of objects matters. We present how to use the function and test the data against the null hypothesis of independence between points. In a tropical tree data set we detect intraspecific aggregation and interspecific competition.

  6. Spatial Structure and Diffusive Dynamics from Single-Particle Trajectories Using Spline Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Brian R.; Vu, Tania Q.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Single-particle tracking of biomolecular probes has provided a wealth of information about intracellular trafficking and the dynamics of proteins and lipids in the cell membrane. Conventional mean-square displacement (MSD) analysis of single-particle trajectories often assumes that probes are moving in a uniform environment. However, the observed two-dimensional motion of probe particles is influenced by the local three-dimensional geometry of the cell membrane and intracellular structures, which are rarely flat at the submicron scale. This complex geometry can lead to spatially confined trajectories that are difficult to analyze and interpret using conventional two-dimensional MSD analysis. Here we present two methods to analyze spatially confined trajectories: spline-curve dynamics analysis, which extends conventional MSD analysis to measure diffusive motion in confined trajectories; and spline-curve spatial analysis, which measures spatial structures smaller than the limits of optical resolution. We show, using simulated random walks and experimental trajectories of quantum dot probes, that differences in measured two-dimensional diffusion coefficients do not always reflect differences in underlying diffusive dynamics, but can instead be due to differences in confinement geometries of cellular structures. PMID:20409493

  7. Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges, James S

    2013-01-01

    A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut

  8. Efficient Spatial Data Structure for Multiversion Management of Engineering Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Nakamura

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In the engineering database system, multiple versions of a design including engineering drawings should be managed efficiently. The paper proposes an extended spatial data structure for efficient management of multiversion engineering drawings. The R-tree is adapted as a basic data structure. The efficient mechanism to manage the difference between drawings is introduced to the R-tree to eliminate redundant duplications and to reduce the amount of storage required for the data structure. The extended data structures of the R-tree, MVR and MVR* trees, are developed and the performances of these trees are evaluated. A series of simulation tests shows that, compared with the basic R-tree, the amounts of storage required for the MVR and MVR* trees are reduced to 50% and 30%, respectively. The search efficiencies of the R, MVR, and MVR* trees are almost the same.

  9. Pedestrian Detection with Spatially Pooled Features and Structured Ensemble Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisitkriangkrai, Sakrapee; Shen, Chunhua; Hengel, Anton van den

    2016-06-01

    Many typical applications of object detection operate within a prescribed false-positive range. In this situation the performance of a detector should be assessed on the basis of the area under the ROC curve over that range, rather than over the full curve, as the performance outside the prescribed range is irrelevant. This measure is labelled as the partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC). We propose a novel ensemble learning method which achieves a maximal detection rate at a user-defined range of false positive rates by directly optimizing the partial AUC using structured learning. In addition, in order to achieve high object detection performance, we propose a new approach to extracting low-level visual features based on spatial pooling. Incorporating spatial pooling improves the translational invariance and thus the robustness of the detection process. Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach, and we show that it is possible to train state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors using the proposed structured ensemble learning method with spatially pooled features. The result is the current best reported performance on the Caltech-USA pedestrian detection dataset.

  10. Evolution of spatially structured host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lion, S; Gandon, S

    2015-01-01

    Spatial structure has dramatic effects on the demography and the evolution of species. A large variety of theoretical models have attempted to understand how local dispersal may shape the coevolution of interacting species such as host-parasite interactions. The lack of a unifying framework is a serious impediment for anyone willing to understand current theory. Here, we review previous theoretical studies in the light of a single epidemiological model that allows us to explore the effects of both host and parasite migration rates on the evolution and coevolution of various life-history traits. We discuss the impact of local dispersal on parasite virulence, various host defence strategies and local adaptation. Our analysis shows that evolutionary and coevolutionary outcomes crucially depend on the details of the host-parasite life cycle and on which life-history trait is involved in the interaction. We also discuss experimental studies that support the effects of spatial structure on the evolution of host-parasite interactions. This review highlights major similarities between some theoretical results, but it also reveals an important gap between evolutionary and coevolutionary models. We discuss possible ways to bridge this gap within a more unified framework that would reconcile spatial epidemiology, evolution and coevolution. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  11. The effect of spatial randomness on the average fixation time of mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhang-Sardroodi, Suzan; Darooneh, Amir H.; Nikbakht, Moladad; Kohandel, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    The mean conditional fixation time of a mutant is an important measure of stochastic population dynamics, widely studied in ecology and evolution. Here, we investigate the effect of spatial randomness on the mean conditional fixation time of mutants in a constant population of cells, N. Specifically, we assume that fitness values of wild type cells and mutants at different locations come from given probability distributions and do not change in time. We study spatial arrangements of cells on regular graphs with different degrees, from the circle to the complete graph, and vary assumptions on the fitness probability distributions. Some examples include: identical probability distributions for wild types and mutants; cases when only one of the cell types has random fitness values while the other has deterministic fitness; and cases where the mutants are advantaged or disadvantaged. Using analytical calculations and stochastic numerical simulations, we find that randomness has a strong impact on fixation time. In the case of complete graphs, randomness accelerates mutant fixation for all population sizes, and in the case of circular graphs, randomness delays mutant fixation for N larger than a threshold value (for small values of N, different behaviors are observed depending on the fitness distribution functions). These results emphasize fundamental differences in population dynamics under different assumptions on cell connectedness. They are explained by the existence of randomly occurring “dead zones” that can significantly delay fixation on networks with low connectivity; and by the existence of randomly occurring “lucky zones” that can facilitate fixation on networks of high connectivity. Results for death-birth and birth-death formulations of the Moran process, as well as for the (haploid) Wright Fisher model are presented. PMID:29176825

  12. Properties of a new small-world network with spatially biased random shortcuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzawa, Ryo; Tanimoto, Jun; Fukuda, Eriko

    2017-11-01

    This paper introduces a small-world (SW) network with a power-law distance distribution that differs from conventional models in that it uses completely random shortcuts. By incorporating spatial constraints, we analyze the divergence of the proposed model from conventional models in terms of fundamental network properties such as clustering coefficient, average path length, and degree distribution. We find that when the spatial constraint more strongly prohibits a long shortcut, the clustering coefficient is improved and the average path length increases. We also analyze the spatial prisoner's dilemma (SPD) games played on our new SW network in order to understand its dynamical characteristics. Depending on the basis graph, i.e., whether it is a one-dimensional ring or a two-dimensional lattice, and the parameter controlling the prohibition of long-distance shortcuts, the emergent results can vastly differ.

  13. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... perturbation approach and a Markovian method. The second order perturbation approach is grounded on the total probability theorem and can be compactly written. Moreover, the problem to be solved is independent of the dimension of the random variables involved. The Markovian approach suggests transforming...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...

  14. Non-random spatial relationships between mast cells and microvessels in human endometrial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolin, Diego; Marinaccio, Christian; Tortorella, Cinzia; Annese, Tiziana; Ruggieri, Simona; Finato, Nicoletta; Crivellato, Enrico; Ribatti, Domenico

    2017-02-01

    Mast cells (MCs) accumulate in the stroma surrounding tumors, where they secrete angiogenic cytokines and proteases, and an increased number of MCs have been demonstrated in angiogenesis associated with solid and hematological tumors. The aim of this study is to contribute to the knowledge of distribution of MCs in tumors, investigating the pattern of distribution of tryptase-positive MCs around the blood vessels in human endometrial carcinoma samples by introducing a quantitative approach to characterize their spatial distribution. The results have shown that in human endometrial cancer bioptic specimens the spatial distribution of MCs shows significant deviation from randomness as compared with control group in which, instead, the spatial distribution of MCs is consistent with a random distribution. These findings confirm that MCs enhance tumor angiogenesis and their preferential localization along blood vessels and sites of new vessel formation sustaining the suggestion for an association between MCs and angiogenesis. However, this spatial association between vessels and MCs might simply reflect migrating MCs from the blood stream at vessel growing sites.

  15. Generating spatial precipitation ensembles: impact of temporal correlation structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rakovec

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sound spatially distributed rainfall fields including a proper spatial and temporal error structure are of key interest for hydrologists to force hydrological models and to identify uncertainties in the simulated and forecasted catchment response. The current paper presents a temporally coherent error identification method based on time-dependent multivariate spatial conditional simulations, which are conditioned on preceding simulations. A sensitivity analysis and real-world experiment are carried out within the hilly region of the Belgian Ardennes. Precipitation fields are simulated for pixels of 10 km × 10 km resolution. Uncertainty analyses in the simulated fields focus on (1 the number of previous simulation hours on which the new simulation is conditioned, (2 the advection speed of the rainfall event, (3 the size of the catchment considered, and (4 the rain gauge density within the catchment. The results for a sensitivity analysis show for typical advection speeds >20 km h−1, no uncertainty is added in terms of across ensemble spread when conditioned on more than one or two previous hourly simulations. However, for the real-world experiment, additional uncertainty can still be added when conditioning on a larger number of previous simulations. This is because for actual precipitation fields, the dynamics exhibit a larger spatial and temporal variability. Moreover, by thinning the observation network with 50%, the added uncertainty increases only slightly and the cross-validation shows that the simulations at the unobserved locations are unbiased. Finally, the first-order autocorrelation coefficients show clear temporal coherence in the time series of the areal precipitation using the time-dependent multivariate conditional simulations, which was not the case using the time-independent univariate conditional simulations. The presented work can be easily implemented within a hydrological calibration and data assimilation

  16. Modeling Fractal Structure of Systems of Cities Using Spatial Correlation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to analyze the spatial structure of urban systems using ideas from fractals. Regarding a system of cities as a set of "particles" distributed randomly on a triangular lattice, we construct a spatial correlation function of cities. Suppose that the spatial correlation follows the power law. It can be proved that the correlation exponent is the second order generalized dimension. The spatial correlation model is applied to the system of cities in China. The results show that the Chinese urban system can be described by the correlation dimension ranging from 1.3 to 1.6. The fractality of self-organized network of cities in both the conventional geographic space and the "time" space is revealed with the empirical evidence. The spatial correlation analysis is significant in that it is applicable to both large and small sizes of samples and can be used to link different fractal dimensions in urban study, including box dimension and radial dimension.

  17. Geometry, structure and randomness in combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book collects some surveys on current trends in discrete mathematics and discrete geometry. The areas covered include:  graph representations, structural graphs theory, extremal graph theory, Ramsey theory and constrained satisfaction problems.

  18. Twist defect in chiral photonic structures with spatially varying pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiun-Yeu; Chen, Lien-Wen

    2005-04-01

    The properties of photonic defect modes in a chiral photonic structure were investigated using the finite element method. By stacking two cholesteric liquid crystal (ChLC) films, the defect mode due to the introduction of a twist defect was considered in both cases of chiral structures with constant pitch and spatially varying pitch. Two types of linear pitch gradients for achieving a broadband reflection were analysed, and the number of chiral pitches required for establishing the stop band was simulated. The effect of a finite sample thickness on the energy density distribution of the defect mode and on the required polarization of the incident light to excite the defect mode was studied. In both cases of constant pitch and spatially varying pitch, an unusual crossover behaviour in reflection at the defect resonance wavelength of a single circularly polarized mode appears when the structure thickness increases beyond a specific value. The energy distribution inside the sample also reveals the unusual distribution. Two different resonance wavelengths can be created by a twist defect in the ChLC composite film with linearly varying pitch, while only one resonance wavelength can be created in the identical film with constant pitch.

  19. Hierarchical spatial structure of stream fish colonization and extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, N.P.; Roberts, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial variation in extinction and colonization is expected to influence community composition over time. In stream fish communities, local species richness (alpha diversity) and species turnover (beta diversity) are thought to be regulated by high extinction rates in headwater streams and high colonization rates in downstream areas. We evaluated the spatiotemporal structure of fish communities in streams originally surveyed by Burton and Odum 1945 (Ecology 26: 182-194) in Virginia, USA and explored the effects of species traits on extinction and colonization dynamics. We documented dramatic changes in fish community structure at both the site and stream scales. Of the 34 fish species observed, 20 (59%) were present in both time periods, but 11 (32%) colonized the study area and three (9%) were extirpated over time. Within streams, alpha diversity increased in two of three streams but beta diversity decreased dramatically in all streams due to fish community homogenization caused by colonization of common species and extirpation of rare species. Among streams, however, fish communities differentiated over time. Regression trees indicated that reproductive life-history traits such as spawning mound construction, associations with mound-building species, and high fecundity were important predictors of species persistence or colonization. Conversely, native fishes not associated with mound-building exhibited the highest rates of extirpation from streams. Our results demonstrate that stream fish colonization and extinction dynamics exhibit hierarchical spatial structure and suggest that mound-building fishes serve as keystone species for colonization of headwater streams.

  20. Use of forecasting signatures to help distinguish periodicity, randomness, and chaos in ripples and other spatial patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Forecasting of one-dimensional time series previously has been used to help distinguish periodicity, chaos, and noise. This paper presents two-dimensional generalizations for making such distinctions for spatial patterns. The techniques are evaluated using synthetic spatial patterns and then are applied to a natural example: ripples formed in sand by blowing wind. Tests with the synthetic patterns demonstrate that the forecasting techniques can be applied to two-dimensional spatial patterns, with the same utility and limitations as when applied to one-dimensional time series. One limitation is that some combinations of periodicity and randomness exhibit forecasting signatures that mimic those of chaos. For example, sine waves distorted with correlated phase noise have forecasting errors that increase with forecasting distance, errors that, are minimized using nonlinear models at moderate embedding dimensions, and forecasting properties that differ significantly between the original and surrogates. Ripples formed in sand by flowing air or water typically vary in geometry from one to another, even when formed in a flow that is uniform on a large scale; each ripple modifies the local flow or sand-transport field, thereby influencing the geometry of the next ripple downcurrent. Spatial forecasting was used to evaluate the hypothesis that such a deterministic process - rather than randomness or quasiperiodicity - is responsible for the variation between successive ripples. This hypothesis is supported by a forecasting error that increases with forecasting distance, a greater accuracy of nonlinear relative to linear models, and significant differences between forecasts made with the original ripples and those made with surrogate patterns. Forecasting signatures cannot be used to distinguish ripple geometry from sine waves with correlated phase noise, but this kind of structure can be ruled out by two geometric properties of the ripples: Successive ripples are highly

  1. Shade tree spatial structure and pod production explain frosty pod rot intensity in cacao agroforests, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Avelino, Jacques; Deheuvels, Olivier; Cilas, Christian; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-03-01

    Vegetation composition and plant spatial structure affect disease intensity through resource and microclimatic variation effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect and relative importance of host composition and plant spatial structure variables in explaining disease intensity at the plot scale. For that purpose, frosty pod rot intensity, a disease caused by Moniliophthora roreri on cacao pods, was monitored in 36 cacao agroforests in Costa Rica in order to assess the vegetation composition and spatial structure variables conducive to the disease. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the most causal factors. Firstly, pod production, cacao tree density and shade tree spatial structure had significant independent effects on disease intensity. In our case study, the amount of susceptible tissue was the most relevant host composition variable for explaining disease intensity by resource dilution. Indeed, cacao tree density probably affected disease intensity more by the creation of self-shading rather than by host dilution. Lastly, only regularly distributed forest trees, and not aggregated or randomly distributed forest trees, reduced disease intensity in comparison to plots with a low forest tree density. A regular spatial structure is probably crucial to the creation of moderate and uniform shade as recommended for frosty pod rot management. As pod production is an important service expected from these agroforests, shade tree spatial structure may be a lever for integrated management of frosty pod rot in cacao agroforests.

  2. Functional and spatial structure of the urbotechnozem mesopedobiont community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Kunah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of studying the spatial structure of soil mesofauna of an urbanotechnozem by OMI- and RLQ-analysis are presented. The research was conducted on 5 June 2012 in the Botanic Garden of Oles Gonchar University (previously – territory of the Park Y. Gagarin, Dnipropetrovsk. The studied plot is situated on the slope of the Krasnopostachekaya balka (48°25'57.43" N, 35°2'16.52" E. The plot consists of 15 transects directed in a perpendicular manner in relation to the talweg. Each transect is made of seven sample points. The distance between points is 2 m. The coordinates of the lower left point were taken as (0; 0. The plot consisted of artificial grassland with a single tree. The vegetation was composed of grassland and steppe, of a mega-mesotrophic, xeromesophilic character. At each point the mesopedobionts were studied (data presented as L-table; temperature, electrical conductivity and soil penetration resistance, and grass height were measured (data presented as R-table. The soil-zoological test area was 25×25 cm. The mesopedobiont community was represented by 28 species and with total abundance 70.1 ind./m2. The following groups were dominant in the ecological structure of the soil animal community; saprohages, pratants, mesotrophocoenomorphs and the endogeic group. The measured edaphic characteristics were shown to play an important role in structurization of the ecological niche of the mesopedobiont community. The usage of morphological or physiological features of animals for the assessment of degree of specific distinctions is applicable for homogeneous taxonomic or ecological groups possessing comparable characteristics which also can be interpreted ecologically. The soil mesofauna is characterized by high taxonomic and ecological diversity of forms,which are difficult to compare by morphological or physiological criteria. The ecological value of characteristics in different groups will be not identical, and the basis for

  3. The Spectral Signature of Cloud Spatial Structure in Shortwave Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shi

    In this thesis, we aim to systematically understand the relationship between cloud spatial structure and its radiation imprints, i.e., three-dimensional (3D) cloud effects, with the ultimate goal of deriving accurate radiative energy budget estimates from space, aircraft, or ground-based observations under spatially inhomogeneous conditions. By studying the full spectral information in the measured and modeled shortwave radiation fields of heterogeneous cloud scenes sampled during aircraft field experiments, we find evidence that cloud spatial structure reveals itself through spectral signatures in the associated irradiance and radiance fields in the near-ultraviolet and visible spectral range. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in irradiances is apparent as a domain- wide, consistent correlation between the magnitude and spectral dependence of net horizontal photon transport. The physical mechanism of this phenomenon is molecular scattering in conjunction with cloud heterogeneity. A simple parameterization with a single parameter epsilon is developed, which holds for individual pixels and the domain as a whole. We then investigate the impact of scene parameters on the discovered correlation and find that it is upheld for a wide range of scene conditions, although the value of epsilon varies from scene to scene. The spectral signature of 3D cloud effects in radiances manifests itself as a distinct relationship between the magnitude and spectral dependence of reflectance, which cannot be reproduced in the one-dimensional (1D) radiative transfer framework. Using the spectral signature in radiances and irradiances, it is possible to infer information on net horizontal photon transport from spectral radiance perturbations on the basis of pixel populations in sub-domains of a cloud scene. We show that two different biases need to be considered when attempting radiative closure between measured and modeled irradiance fields below inhomogeneous cloud fields: the

  4. Risk Management of Large RC Structures within Spatial Information System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Jianjun; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: The present article addresses the development of a spatial information system (SIS), which aims to facilitate risk management of large‐scale concrete structures. The formulation of the SIS is based on ideas developed in the context of indicator‐based risk modeling for concrete structures...... subject to corrosion and geographical information system based risk modeling concerning large‐scale risk management. The term “risk management” here refers in particular to the process of condition assessment and optimization of the inspection and repair activities. The SIS facilitates the storage...... and handling of all relevant information to the risk management. The probabilistic modeling utilized in the condition assessment takes basis in a Bayesian hierarchical modeling philosophy. It facilitates the updating of risks as well as optimizing inspection plans whenever new information about the condition...

  5. Spatial structure changes of cities in the post socialist period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Branka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the overview of the policy of urban planning in CEE and Southeast Europe during the socialist period. That policy was based on centralistic system which caused specific type of internal structure of the cities. Besides that, the paper compares the changes in the urban planning that took place during the 1990s as the results of global and integrational processes, market rules and privatization, decentralization deindustrialization, commercialization, social segregation etc. These changes are already obvious in urban areas. At the end of the last century unstable policy and economic crisis in Serbia slowed down these processes both the changes in the functional-spatial structure of the cities and especially the changes related to the institutional policy in urban planning.

  6. Toward Accessing Spatial Structure from Building Information Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C.; Bhatt, M.

    2011-08-01

    Data about building designs and layouts is becoming increasingly more readily available. In the near future, service personal (such as maintenance staff or emergency rescue workers) arriving at a building site will have immediate real-time access to enormous amounts of data relating to structural properties, utilities, materials, temperature, and so on. The critical problem for users is the taxing and error prone task of interpreting such a large body of facts in order to extract salient information. This is necessary for comprehending a situation and deciding on a plan of action, and is a particularly serious issue in time-critical and safety-critical activities such as firefighting. Current unifying building models such as the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), while being comprehensive, do not directly provide data structures that focus on spatial reasoning and spatial modalities that are required for high-level analytical tasks. The aim of the research presented in this paper is to provide computational tools for higher level querying and reasoning that shift the cognitive burden of dealing with enormous amounts of data away from the user. The user can then spend more energy and time in planning and decision making in order to accomplish the tasks at hand. We present an overview of our framework that provides users with an enhanced model of "built-up space". In order to test our approach using realistic design data (in terms of both scale and the nature of the building models) we describe how our system interfaces with IFC, and we conduct timing experiments to determine the practicality of our approach. We discuss general computational approaches for deriving higher-level spatial modalities by focusing on the example of route graphs. Finally, we present a firefighting scenario with alternative route graphs to motivate the application of our framework.

  7. A Permutation-Randomization Approach to Test the Spatial Distribution of Plant Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lione, G; Gonthier, P

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the spatial distribution of plant diseases requires the availability of trustworthy geostatistical methods. The mean distance tests (MDT) are here proposed as a series of permutation and randomization tests to assess the spatial distribution of plant diseases when the variable of phytopathological interest is categorical. A user-friendly software to perform the tests is provided. Estimates of power and type I error, obtained with Monte Carlo simulations, showed the reliability of the MDT (power > 0.80; type I error pathogens causing root rot on conifers was successfully performed by verifying the consistency between the MDT responses and previously published data. An application of the MDT was carried out to analyze the relation between the plantation density and the distribution of the infection of Gnomoniopsis castanea, an emerging fungal pathogen causing nut rot on sweet chestnut. Trees carrying nuts infected by the pathogen were randomly distributed in areas with different plantation densities, suggesting that the distribution of G. castanea was not related to the plantation density. The MDT could be used to analyze the spatial distribution of plant diseases both in agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  8. Clark's nutcracker spatial memory: the importance of large, structural cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednekoff, Peter A; Balda, Russell P

    2014-02-01

    Clark's nutcrackers, Nucifraga columbiana, cache and recover stored seeds in high alpine areas including areas where snowfall, wind, and rockslides may frequently obscure or alter cues near the cache site. Previous work in the laboratory has established that Clark's nutcrackers use spatial memory to relocate cached food. Following from aspects of this work, we performed experiments to test the importance of large, structural cues for Clark's nutcracker spatial memory. Birds were no more accurate in recovering caches when more objects were on the floor of a large experimental room nor when this room was subdivided with a set of panels. However, nutcrackers were consistently less accurate in this large room than in a small experimental room. Clark's nutcrackers probably use structural features of experimental rooms as important landmarks during recovery of cached food. This use of large, extremely stable cues may reflect the imperfect reliability of smaller, closer cues in the natural habitat of Clark's nutcrackers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary dynamics of collective action in spatially structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Jorge; Nöldeke, Georg; Lehmann, Laurent

    2015-10-07

    Many models proposed to study the evolution of collective action rely on a formalism that represents social interactions as n-player games between individuals adopting discrete actions such as cooperate and defect. Despite the importance of spatial structure in biological collective action, the analysis of n-player games games in spatially structured populations has so far proved elusive. We address this problem by considering mixed strategies and by integrating discrete-action n-player games into the direct fitness approach of social evolution theory. This allows to conveniently identify convergence stable strategies and to capture the effect of population structure by a single structure coefficient, namely, the pairwise (scaled) relatedness among interacting individuals. As an application, we use our mathematical framework to investigate collective action problems associated with the provision of three different kinds of collective goods, paradigmatic of a vast array of helping traits in nature: "public goods" (both providers and shirkers can use the good, e.g., alarm calls), "club goods" (only providers can use the good, e.g., participation in collective hunting), and "charity goods" (only shirkers can use the good, e.g., altruistic sacrifice). We show that relatedness promotes the evolution of collective action in different ways depending on the kind of collective good and its economies of scale. Our findings highlight the importance of explicitly accounting for relatedness, the kind of collective good, and the economies of scale in theoretical and empirical studies of the evolution of collective action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Color effects from scattering on random surface structures in dielectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jeppe; Christiansen, Alexander B; Garnæs, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    We show that cheap large area color filters, based on surface scattering, can be fabricated in dielectric materials by replication of random structures in silicon. The specular transmittance of three different types of structures, corresponding to three different colors, have been characterized...

  11. Random generation of RNA secondary structures according to native distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebel Markus E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Random biological sequences are a topic of great interest in genome analysis since, according to a powerful paradigm, they represent the background noise from which the actual biological information must differentiate. Accordingly, the generation of random sequences has been investigated for a long time. Similarly, random object of a more complicated structure like RNA molecules or proteins are of interest. Results In this article, we present a new general framework for deriving algorithms for the non-uniform random generation of combinatorial objects according to the encoding and probability distribution implied by a stochastic context-free grammar. Briefly, the framework extends on the well-known recursive method for (uniform random generation and uses the popular framework of admissible specifications of combinatorial classes, introducing weighted combinatorial classes to allow for the non-uniform generation by means of unranking. This framework is used to derive an algorithm for the generation of RNA secondary structures of a given fixed size. We address the random generation of these structures according to a realistic distribution obtained from real-life data by using a very detailed context-free grammar (that models the class of RNA secondary structures by distinguishing between all known motifs in RNA structure. Compared to well-known sampling approaches used in several structure prediction tools (such as SFold ours has two major advantages: Firstly, after a preprocessing step in time O(n2 for the computation of all weighted class sizes needed, with our approach a set of m random secondary structures of a given structure size n can be computed in worst-case time complexity Om⋅n⋅ log(n while other algorithms typically have a runtime in O(m⋅n2. Secondly, our approach works with integer arithmetic only which is faster and saves us from all the discomforting details of using floating point arithmetic with

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION IN ROMANIA THROUGH EUROPEAN STRUCTURAL FUNDS – A SPATIAL ECONOMETRICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Codruta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available European Structural Funds have been created with the clear goal to redistribute money among European Union members in such a way as to help poorer regions diminish the gaps between them and the richer ones. The present study assesses this problem for the Structural Operational Programme Environment in Romania. Using spatial econometrics methods, we evaluate two issues on the sample of 42 Romanian counties. The first one is if any clusterization process takes place in what regards contracting funds through ESF for environmental protection projects. The second one is intended to test whether the main principle of the ESF is satisfied – helping the poor in a sustainable development process. Using the quartile maps and the spatial Moran's I autocorrelation coefficient we show different results for the clusterization topic. When considering the budget value of the projects implemented through SOP ENV, both as total and as eligible share, Romanian counties group based on a positive global spatial autocorrelation. This means that counties with approximately the same budget levels are neighbours. Transylvanian counties have gained the most out of the projects on environment. When the number of contracts is assessed, the distribution of the counties proves to be random and no global spatial autocorrelation was found. Moreover, the map analysis shows that, in general, there is a negative relationship between the value of the budget and the number of contracts. The spatial regression analysis shows the violation of the ESF principle. The coefficients of the GDP are positive. This implies a direct relationship between the richness of the county and the projects implemented through the SOP ENV. Thus, instead of being used by the poorer regions, money goes to the richer ones. The higher the GDP, the higher the value of the budget for the environmental protection programmes financed through European funds. The GDP also positively influences the number of

  13. Dynamic multiprotein assemblies shape the spatial structure of cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Jang, Hyunbum

    2014-01-01

    Cell signaling underlies critical cellular decisions. Coordination, efficiency as well as fail-safe mechanisms are key elements. How the cell ensures that these hallmarks are at play are important questions. Cell signaling is often viewed as taking place through discrete and cross-talking pathways; oftentimes these are modularized to emphasize distinct functions. While simple, convenient and clear, such models largely neglect the spatial structure of cell signaling; they also convey inter-modular (or inter-protein) spatial separation that may not exist. Here our thesis is that cell signaling is shaped by a network of multiprotein assemblies. While pre-organized, the assemblies and network are loose and dynamic. They contain transiently-associated multiprotein complexes which are often mediated by scaffolding proteins. They are also typically anchored in the membrane, and their continuum may span the cell. IQGAP1 scaffolding protein which binds proteins including Raf, calmodulin, Mek, Erk, actin, and tens more, with actin shaping B-cell (and likely other) membrane-anchored nanoclusters and allosterically polymerizing in dynamic cytoskeleton formation, and Raf anchoring in the membrane along with Ras, provides a striking example. The multivalent network of dynamic proteins and lipids, with specific interactions forming and breaking, can be viewed as endowing gel-like properties. Collectively, this reasons that efficient, productive and reliable cell signaling takes place primarily through transient, preorganized and cooperative protein-protein interactions spanning the cell rather than stochastic, diffusion-controlled processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spatial structure of summertime ionospheric plasma near magnetic noon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Sims

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from a multi-instrument study of the spatial distribution of the summertime, polar ionospheric electron density under conditions of relatively stable IMF Bz<0. The EISCAT Svalbard radar revealed a region of enhanced densities near magnetic noon that, when comparing radar scans from different local times, appeared to be spatially confined in longitude. This was identified as the tongue-of-ionisation (TOI that comprised photoionisation of sub-auroral origin that is drawn poleward into the polar cap by the anti-sunward flow of the high-latitude convection. The TOI was bounded in longitude by high-latitude troughs; the pre-noon trough on the morning side with a minimum near 78° N and the post-noon trough on the afternoon side with a minimum at 80° N. Complementary measurements by radio tomography, the SuperDARN radars, and a DMSP satellite, together with comparisons with earlier modelling work, provided supporting evidence for the interpretation of the density structuring, and highlighted the role of plasma convection in the formation of summertime plasma distribution. Soft particle precipitation played only a secondary role in the modulation of the large summertime densities entering the polar cap.

  15. The random field model of the spatial distribution of heavy vehicle loads on long-span bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhicheng; Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2016-04-01

    A stochastic model based on Markov random field is proposed to model the spatial distribution of vehicle loads on longspan bridges. The bridge deck is divided into a finite set of discrete grid cells, each cell has two states according to whether the cell is occupied by the heavy vehicle load or not, then a four-neighbor lattice-structured undirected graphical model with each node corresponding to a cell state variable is proposed to model the location distribution of heavy vehicle loads on the bridge deck. The node potential is defined to quantitatively describe the randomness of node state, and the edge potential is defined to quantitatively describe the correlation of the connected node pair. The junction tree algorithm is employed to obtain the systematic solutions of inference problems of the graphical model. A marked random variable is assigned to each node to represent the amplitude of the total weight of vehicle applied on the corresponding cell of the bridge deck. The rationality of the model is validated by a Monte Carlo simulation of a learned model based on monitored data of a cable-stayed bridge.

  16. Spatial structure increases the waiting time for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Kostadinov, Rumen; Maley, Carlo C

    2011-01-01

    epithelial tissues. In this study, we propose a novel model of cancer progression that considers a spatially structured cell population where clones expand via adaptive waves. This model is used to asses two different paradigms of asexual evolution that have been suggested to delineate the process of cancer...... progression. The standard scenario of periodic selection assumes that driver mutations are accumulated strictly sequentially over time. However, when the mutation supply is sufficiently high, clones may arise simultaneously on distinct genetic backgrounds, and clonal adaptation waves interfere with each other......Cancer results from a sequence of genetic and epigenetic changes which lead to a variety of abnormal phenotypes including increased proliferation and survival of somatic cells, and thus, to a selective advantage of pre-cancerous cells. The notion of cancer progression as an evolutionary process has...

  17. A BAYESIAN HIERARCHICAL SPATIAL MODEL FOR DENTAL CARIES ASSESSMENT USING NON-GAUSSIAN MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ick Hoon; Yuan, Ying; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2016-01-01

    Research in dental caries generates data with two levels of hierarchy: that of a tooth overall and that of the different surfaces of the tooth. The outcomes often exhibit spatial referencing among neighboring teeth and surfaces, i.e., the disease status of a tooth or surface might be influenced by the status of a set of proximal teeth/surfaces. Assessments of dental caries (tooth decay) at the tooth level yield binary outcomes indicating the presence/absence of teeth, and trinary outcomes at the surface level indicating healthy, decayed, or filled surfaces. The presence of these mixed discrete responses complicates the data analysis under a unified framework. To mitigate complications, we develop a Bayesian two-level hierarchical model under suitable (spatial) Markov random field assumptions that accommodates the natural hierarchy within the mixed responses. At the first level, we utilize an autologistic model to accommodate the spatial dependence for the tooth-level binary outcomes. For the second level and conditioned on a tooth being non-missing, we utilize a Potts model to accommodate the spatial referencing for the surface-level trinary outcomes. The regression models at both levels were controlled for plausible covariates (risk factors) of caries, and remain connected through shared parameters. To tackle the computational challenges in our Bayesian estimation scheme caused due to the doubly-intractable normalizing constant, we employ a double Metropolis-Hastings sampler. We compare and contrast our model performances to the standard non-spatial (naive) model using a small simulation study, and illustrate via an application to a clinical dataset on dental caries.

  18. Spatial Structure of Soil Macrofauna Diversity and Tree Canopy in Riparian Forest of Maroon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sayad

    2017-02-01

    spatially structured; the variograms revealed the presence of spatial autocorrelation. The variograms of variables especially tree canopy, were characterized by relatively large nugget values, which can be explained by sampling error, short range variability, random and inherent variability.Soil macrofauna diversity indices and tree canopy were moderately spatially dependent. Spatial similarity between variables, indicating potential relationships between macrofauna and tree canopy, was evaluated by cross-variograms for pairs of macrofauna indices and measured tree canopy. According to the cross-variograms, using RSS as criterion for model performance, macrofauna diversity were spatially closely related to total tree canopy, Populus canopy. Spatial distribution of soil macrofauna may be influenced by factors like gradients in soil properties and vegetation cover structure. These factors together with intrinsic population processes constitute proximate controlling factors of population structure. Conclusion: The relationship between macrofauna indices and tree canopy was further explored by means of spatial analyses. Macrofauna indices and tree canopy (excepted Tamarix canopy were spatially structured. Tree canopy distribution is important for the spatial variability and structure of Soil macrofauna diversity.

  19. Spatial Abilities of High-School Students in the Perception of Geologic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kali, Yael; Orion, Nir

    1996-01-01

    Characterizes specific spatial abilities required in geology studies through the examination of the performance of high school students in solving structural geology problems on the geologic spatial ability test (GeoSAT). Concludes that visual penetration ability and the ability to perceive the spatial configuration of the structure are…

  20. Implementing a generic method for bias correction in statistical models using random effects, with spatial and population dynamics examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models play an important role in fisheries science when reconciling ecological theory with available data for wild populations or experimental studies. Ecological models increasingly include both fixed and random effects, and are often estimated using maximum likelihood techniques...... configurations of an age-structured population dynamics model. This simulation experiment shows that the epsilon-method and the existing bias-correction method perform equally well in data-rich contexts, but the epsilon-method is slightly less biased in data-poor contexts. We then apply the epsilon......-method to a spatial regression model when estimating an index of population abundance, and compare results with an alternative bias-correction algorithm that involves Markov-chain Monte Carlo sampling. This example shows that the epsilon-method leads to a biologically significant difference in estimates of average...

  1. Asymptotic structural properties of quasi-random saturated structures of RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background RNA folding depends on the distribution of kinetic traps in the landscape of all secondary structures. Kinetic traps in the Nussinov energy model are precisely those secondary structures that are saturated, meaning that no base pair can be added without introducing either a pseudoknot or base triple. In previous work, we investigated asymptotic combinatorics of both random saturated structures and of quasi-random saturated structures, where the latter are constructed by a natural stochastic process. Results We prove that for quasi-random saturated structures with the uniform distribution, the asymptotic expected number of external loops is O(logn) and the asymptotic expected maximum stem length is O(logn), while under the Zipf distribution, the asymptotic expected number of external loops is O(log2n) and the asymptotic expected maximum stem length is O(logn/log logn). Conclusions Quasi-random saturated structures are generated by a stochastic greedy method, which is simple to implement. Structural features of random saturated structures appear to resemble those of quasi-random saturated structures, and the latter appear to constitute a class for which both the generation of sampled structures as well as a combinatorial investigation of structural features may be simpler to undertake. PMID:24156624

  2. [Population structure and spatial distribution pattern of Camellia azalea in E' huangzhang Nature Reserve of Guangdong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-lei; Sun, Zhen-yuan; Li, Ji-yuan; Xu, Yi; Luo, Jian

    2013-08-01

    This paper studied the structures of basal diameter, height and canopy width of Camellia azalea population in E' huangzhang Nature Reserve of Guangdong. The spatial distribution patterns and dynamics of the population were measured by applying aggregate indices including disperse coefficient, negative binomial distribution, Cassie index, clumping index, mean crowding, patch index and Green index. The results showed that in the natural distribution region, the population was mainly composed of adult trees, and was in declining due to seriously lack of seedlings. The structures of diameter, height and canopy width were not identical among different plots. In the plots, the spatial distribution pattern of C. azalea population showed clump or random, and changed from clump to random with the development of the population.

  3. Spatial structure facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma : Empirical evidence from a bacterial community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, F.J.H.; Galajda, P.; Nagy, K.; Woolthuis, R.G.; Dekker, C.; Keymer, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperative organisms are ubiquitous in nature, despite their vulnerability to exploitation by cheaters. Although numerous theoretical studies suggest that spatial structure is critical for cooperation to persist, the spatial ecology of microbial cooperation remains largely unexplored

  4. Polarized spatial frequency domain imaging of heart valve fiber structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goth, Will; Yang, Bin; Lesicko, John; Allen, Alicia; Sacks, Michael S.; Tunnell, James W.

    2016-03-01

    Our group previously introduced Polarized Spatial Frequency Domain Imaging (PSFDI), a wide-field, reflectance imaging technique which we used to empirically map fiber direction in porcine pulmonary heart valve leaflets (PHVL) without optical clearing or physical sectioning of the sample. Presented is an extended analysis of our PSFDI results using an inverse Mueller matrix model of polarized light scattering that allows additional maps of fiber orientation distribution, along with instrumentation permitting increased imaging speed for dynamic PHVL fiber measurements. We imaged electrospun fiber phantoms with PSFDI, and then compared these measurements to SEM data collected for the same phantoms. PHVL was then imaged and compared to results of the same leaflets optically cleared and imaged with small angle light scattering (SALS). The static PHVL images showed distinct regional variance of fiber orientation distribution, matching our SALS results. We used our improved imaging speed to observe bovine tendon subjected to dynamic loading using a biaxial stretching device. Our dynamic imaging experiment showed trackable changes in the fiber microstructure of biological tissue under loading. Our new PSFDI analysis model and instrumentation allows characterization of fiber structure within heart valve tissues (as validated with SALS measurements), along with imaging of dynamic fiber remodeling. The experimental data will be used as inputs to our constitutive models of PHVL tissue to fully characterize these tissues' elastic behavior, and has immediate application in determining the mechanisms of structural and functional failure in PHVLs used as bio-prosthetic implants.

  5. The molecular clock of neutral evolution can be accelerated or slowed by asymmetric spatial structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Allen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Over time, a population acquires neutral genetic substitutions as a consequence of random drift. A famous result in population genetics asserts that the rate, K, at which these substitutions accumulate in the population coincides with the mutation rate, u, at which they arise in individuals: K = u. This identity enables genetic sequence data to be used as a "molecular clock" to estimate the timing of evolutionary events. While the molecular clock is known to be perturbed by selection, it is thought that K = u holds very generally for neutral evolution. Here we show that asymmetric spatial population structure can alter the molecular clock rate for neutral mutations, leading to either Ku. Our results apply to a general class of haploid, asexually reproducing, spatially structured populations. Deviations from K = u occur because mutations arise unequally at different sites and have different probabilities of fixation depending on where they arise. If birth rates are uniform across sites, then K ≤ u. In general, K can take any value between 0 and Nu. Our model can be applied to a variety of population structures. In one example, we investigate the accumulation of genetic mutations in the small intestine. In another application, we analyze over 900 Twitter networks to study the effect of network topology on the fixation of neutral innovations in social evolution.

  6. Graphene materials having randomly distributed two-dimensional structural defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H; Zhao, Xin; Hayner, Cary M; Kung, Mayfair C

    2013-10-08

    Graphene-based storage materials for high-power battery applications are provided. The storage materials are composed of vertical stacks of graphene sheets and have reduced resistance for Li ion transport. This reduced resistance is achieved by incorporating a random distribution of structural defects into the stacked graphene sheets, whereby the structural defects facilitate the diffusion of Li ions into the interior of the storage materials.

  7. Random walk models of large-scale structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. This paper describes the insights gained from the excursion set approach, in which vari- ous questions about the phenomenology of large-scale structure formation can be mapped to problems associated with the first crossing distribution of appropriately defined barriers by random walks. Much of this is ...

  8. Random Effects Structure for Confirmatory Hypothesis Testing: Keep It Maximal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J.; Levy, Roger; Scheepers, Christoph; Tily, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Linear mixed-effects models (LMEMs) have become increasingly prominent in psycholinguistics and related areas. However, many researchers do not seem to appreciate how random effects structures affect the generalizability of an analysis. Here, we argue that researchers using LMEMs for confirmatory hypothesis testing should minimally adhere to the…

  9. Exploring community structure in biological networks with random graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Singh, Lisa O; Clauset, Aaron; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-06-25

    Community structure is ubiquitous in biological networks. There has been an increased interest in unraveling the community structure of biological systems as it may provide important insights into a system's functional components and the impact of local structures on dynamics at a global scale. Choosing an appropriate community detection algorithm to identify the community structure in an empirical network can be difficult, however, as the many algorithms available are based on a variety of cost functions and are difficult to validate. Even when community structure is identified in an empirical system, disentangling the effect of community structure from other network properties such as clustering coefficient and assortativity can be a challenge. Here, we develop a generative model to produce undirected, simple, connected graphs with a specified degrees and pattern of communities, while maintaining a graph structure that is as random as possible. Additionally, we demonstrate two important applications of our model: (a) to generate networks that can be used to benchmark existing and new algorithms for detecting communities in biological networks; and (b) to generate null models to serve as random controls when investigating the impact of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and modularity in empirical biological networks. Our model allows for the systematic study of the presence of community structure and its impact on network function and dynamics. This process is a crucial step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural properties of biological systems and uncovering the mechanisms that drive these systems.

  10. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng, E-mail: xfchen@sjtu.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Optical Communication Systems and Networks, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2014-07-14

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm{sup 2} is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  11. Random lasing action in a polydimethylsiloxane wrinkle induced disordered structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenhua; Wu, Leilei; Zhu, Shu; Zheng, Yuanlin; Chen, Xianfeng

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a chip-scale random lasing action utilizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) wrinkles with random periods as disordered medium. Nanoscale wrinkles with long range disorder structures are formed on the oxidized surface of a PDMS slab and confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Light multiply scattered at each PDMS wrinkle-dye interfaces is optically amplified in the presence of pump gain. The shift of laser emission wavelength when pumping at different regions indicates the randomness of the winkle period. In addition, a relatively low threshold of about 27 μJ/mm2 is realized, which is comparable with traditional optofluidic dye laser. This is due to the unique sinusoidal Bragg-grating-like random structure. Contrast to conventional microfluidic dye laser that inevitably requires the accurate design and implementation of microcavity to provide optical feedback, the convenience in both fabrication and operation makes PDMS wrinkle based random laser a promising underlying element in lab-on-a-chip systems and integrated microfluidic networks.

  12. Response of Launch Pad Structures to Random Acoustic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi N. Margasahayam

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of launch pad structures, particularly those having a large area-to-mass ratio, is governed by launch-induced acoustics, a relatively short transient with random pressure amplitudes having a non-Gaussian distribution. The factors influencing the acoustic excitation and resulting structural responses are numerous and cannot be predicted precisely. Two solutions (probabilistic and deterministic for the random vibration problem are presented in this article from the standpoint of their applicability to predict the response of ground structures exposed to rocket noise. Deficiencies of the probabilistic method, especially to predict response in the low-frequency range of launch transients (below 20 Hz, prompted the development of the deterministic analysis. The relationship between the two solutions is clarified for future implementation in a finite element method (FEM code.

  13. Spatial impacts of urban structures on micrometeorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelbing, Merle; Schuetz, Tobias; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The heterogeneity of urban surfaces including buildings and the urban vegetation causes high variability of micrometeorological variables on small spatial scales which makes it hard to observe or even predict climate conditions and in particular evapotranspiration with high resolution on the scale of entire cities. Regarding future climate changes and their impacts on urban climate and hydrology the predictability of these small scale variations becomes more and more relevant i.e. for city planners to improve the development of appropriate mitigation strategies. Therefore, new transfer functions for meteorological variables are needed, which consider the structural variability in urban areas and its impacts on the energy balance (shading effects, ventilation, lateral longwave energy fluxes). We approach this goal by testing a mobile meteorological station (the station is mounted on a bicycle trailer and transported by an E-Bike) as a means to derive empirical spatial transfer functions for specific urban structures. We observe air temperature and relative air humidity at 2 different heights, wind direction and speed, incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation as well as infrared temperature from above and below and the four directions. First measurements have been performed in December 2015 at 22 locations in four clusters, which represent manifold different characteristics of urban areas within the city of Freiburg. Every location has been monitored two to six times. Overall, nearly 200 measurements of each variable have been taken. Each measurement takes five minutes. Values are logged every 15 seconds. These measurements were analyzed with regard to a climate station mounted on a rooftop in the proximity of all clusters. Results show a systematic pattern in the differences between the values taken with the fixed and those taken with the mobile climate station, depending on the measurement locations. For example, lower air temperature and higher relative air

  14. Validating spatial structure in canopy water content using geostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Zhang, M. H.; Ustin, S. L.; Rejmankova, E.; Haxo, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneity in ecological phenomena are scale dependent and affect the hierarchical structure of image data. AVIRIS pixels average reflectance produced by complex absorption and scattering interactions between biogeochemical composition, canopy architecture, view and illumination angles, species distributions, and plant cover as well as other factors. These scales affect validation of pixel reflectance, typically performed by relating pixel spectra to ground measurements acquired at scales of 1m(exp 2) or less (e.g., field spectra, foilage and soil samples, etc.). As image analysis becomes more sophisticated, such as those for detection of canopy chemistry, better validation becomes a critical problem. This paper presents a methodology for bridging between point measurements and pixels using geostatistics. Geostatistics have been extensively used in geological or hydrogeolocial studies but have received little application in ecological studies. The key criteria for kriging estimation is that the phenomena varies in space and that an underlying controlling process produces spatial correlation between the measured data points. Ecological variation meets this requirement because communities vary along environmental gradients like soil moisture, nutrient availability, or topography.

  15. Characterising two-pathogen competition in spatially structured environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Chiara; Meloni, Sandro; van Metre, Ashleigh; Colizza, Vittoria; Moreno, Yamir; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Different pathogens spreading in the same host population often generate complex co-circulation dynamics because of the many possible interactions between the pathogens and the host immune system, the host life cycle, and the space structure of the population. Here we focus on the competition between two acute infections and we address the role of host mobility and cross-immunity in shaping possible dominance/co-dominance regimes. Host mobility is modelled as a network of traveling flows connecting nodes of a metapopulation, and the two-pathogen dynamics is simulated with a stochastic mechanistic approach. Results depict a complex scenario where, according to the relation among the epidemiological parameters of the two pathogens, mobility can either be non-influential for the competition dynamics or play a critical role in selecting the dominant pathogen. The characterisation of the parameter space can be explained in terms of the trade-off between pathogen's spreading velocity and its ability to diffuse in a sparse environment. Variations in the cross-immunity level induce a transition between presence and absence of competition. The present study disentangles the role of the relevant biological and ecological factors in the competition dynamics, and provides relevant insights into the spatial ecology of infectious diseases.

  16. Spatial variation of phytoplankton community structure in Daya Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Yu; Wang, You-Shao; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Fei, Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Daya Bay is one of the largest and most important gulfs in the southern coast of China, in the northern part of the South China Sea. The phylogenetic diversity and spatial distribution of phytoplankton from the Daya Bay surface water and the relationship with the in situ water environment were investigated by the clone library of the large subunit of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) gene. The dominant species of phytoplankton were diatoms and eustigmatophytes, which accounted for 81.9 % of all the clones of the rbcL genes. Prymnesiophytes were widely spread and wide varieties lived in Daya Bay, whereas the quantity was limited. The community structure of phytoplankton was shaped by pH and salinity and the concentration of silicate, phosphorus and nitrite. The phytoplankton biomass was significantly positively affected by phosphorus and nitrite but negatively by salinity and pH. Therefore, the phytoplankton distribution and biomass from Daya Bay were doubly affected by anthropic activities and natural factors.

  17. Spatial structure of ion beams in an expanding plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, E. M.; Scime, E. E.; Thompson, D. S.; Good, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We report spatially resolved perpendicular and parallel, to the magnetic field, ion velocity distribution function (IVDF) measurements in an expanding argon helicon plasma. The parallel IVDFs, obtained through laser induced fluorescence (LIF), show an ion beam with v ≈ 8000 m/s flowing downstream and confined to the center of the discharge. The ion beam is measurable for tens of centimeters along the expansion axis before the LIF signal fades, likely a result of metastable quenching of the beam ions. The parallel ion beam velocity slows in agreement with expectations for the measured parallel electric field. The perpendicular IVDFs show an ion population with a radially outward flow that increases with distance from the plasma axis. Structures aligned to the expanding magnetic field appear in the DC electric field, the electron temperature, and the plasma density in the plasma plume. These measurements demonstrate that at least two-dimensional and perhaps fully three-dimensional models are needed to accurately describe the spontaneous acceleration of ion beams in expanding plasmas.

  18. POROSIMETRY BY RANDOM NODE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of the aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. However, aggregate grain surfaces lead to anisotropy in porosity. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements. In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, introduced earlier in IA&S (Stroeven et al., 2011b and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information.

  19. 3-D stochastic finite elements for thermal creep analysis of piping structures with spatial material inhomogeneities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appalanaidu, Y.; Roy, A.; Gupta, S.

    2017-01-01

    A stochastic finite element-based methodology is developed for creep damage assessment in pipings carrying high-temperature fluids. The material properties are assumed to be spatially randomly inhomogeneous and are modelled as 3-D non-Gaussian fields. A spectral-based approach for random field

  20. Covariance-based Spatial Channel Structure Emulation for MIMO OTA Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalaki, Elpiniki; Alrabadi, Osama; Fan, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a general framework for recreating the spatial channel structure in a MIMO over-the-air (OTA) multiprobe anechoic chamber testing setup. The idea is to find the power weights of the spatial taps (antenna probes) that minimize a certain distance between the spatial channel...

  1. Persistent Sinai-type diffusion in Gaussian random potentials with decaying spatial correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goychuk, Igor; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Metzler, Ralf

    2017-11-01

    Logarithmic or Sinai-type subdiffusion is usually associated with random force disorder and nonstationary potential fluctuations whose root-mean-squared amplitude grows with distance. We show here that extremely persistent, macroscopic logarithmic diffusion also universally emerges at sufficiently low temperatures in stationary Gaussian random potentials with spatially decaying correlations, known to exist in a broad range of physical systems. Combining results from extensive simulations with a scaling approach we elucidate the physical mechanism of this unusual subdiffusion. In particular, we explain why with growing temperature and/or time a first crossover occurs to standard, power-law subdiffusion, with a time-dependent power-law exponent, and then a second crossover occurs to normal diffusion with a disorder-renormalized diffusion coefficient. Interestingly, the initial, nominally ultraslow diffusion turns out to be much faster than the universal de Gennes-Bässler-Zwanzig limit of the renormalized normal diffusion, which realistically cannot be attained at sufficiently low temperatures and/or for strong disorder. The ultraslow diffusion is also shown to be nonergodic and it displays a local bias phenomenon. Our simple scaling theory not only explains our numerical findings but qualitatively also has a predictive character.

  2. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bansal Shweta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Results Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics. Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. Conclusion ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in

  3. Exploring biological network structure with clustered random networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shweta; Khandelwal, Shashank; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

    2009-12-09

    Complex biological systems are often modeled as networks of interacting units. Networks of biochemical interactions among proteins, epidemiological contacts among hosts, and trophic interactions in ecosystems, to name a few, have provided useful insights into the dynamical processes that shape and traverse these systems. The degrees of nodes (numbers of interactions) and the extent of clustering (the tendency for a set of three nodes to be interconnected) are two of many well-studied network properties that can fundamentally shape a system. Disentangling the interdependent effects of the various network properties, however, can be difficult. Simple network models can help us quantify the structure of empirical networked systems and understand the impact of various topological properties on dynamics. Here we develop and implement a new Markov chain simulation algorithm to generate simple, connected random graphs that have a specified degree sequence and level of clustering, but are random in all other respects. The implementation of the algorithm (ClustRNet: Clustered Random Networks) provides the generation of random graphs optimized according to a local or global, and relative or absolute measure of clustering. We compare our algorithm to other similar methods and show that ours more successfully produces desired network characteristics.Finding appropriate null models is crucial in bioinformatics research, and is often difficult, particularly for biological networks. As we demonstrate, the networks generated by ClustRNet can serve as random controls when investigating the impacts of complex network features beyond the byproduct of degree and clustering in empirical networks. ClustRNet generates ensembles of graphs of specified edge structure and clustering. These graphs allow for systematic study of the impacts of connectivity and redundancies on network function and dynamics. This process is a key step in unraveling the functional consequences of the structural

  4. The impact of spatial structure on viral genomic diversity generated during adaptation to thermal stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Ally

    Full Text Available Most clinical and natural microbial communities live and evolve in spatially structured environments. When changes in environmental conditions trigger evolutionary responses, spatial structure can impact the types of adaptive response and the extent to which they spread. In particular, localized competition in a spatial landscape can lead to the emergence of a larger number of different adaptive trajectories than would be found in well-mixed populations. Our goal was to determine how two levels of spatial structure affect genomic diversity in a population and how this diversity is manifested spatially.We serially transferred bacteriophage populations growing at high temperatures (40°C on agar plates for 550 generations at two levels of spatial structure. The level of spatial structure was determined by whether the physical locations of the phage subsamples were preserved or disrupted at each passage to fresh bacterial host populations. When spatial structure of the phage populations was preserved, there was significantly greater diversity on a global scale with restricted and patchy distribution. When spatial structure was disrupted with passaging to fresh hosts, beneficial mutants were spread across the entire plate. This resulted in reduced diversity, possibly due to clonal interference as the most fit mutants entered into competition on a global scale. Almost all substitutions present at the end of the adaptation in the populations with disrupted spatial structure were also present in the populations with structure preserved.Our results are consistent with the patchy nature of the spread of adaptive mutants in a spatial landscape. Spatial structure enhances diversity and slows fixation of beneficial mutants. This added diversity could be beneficial in fluctuating environments. We also connect observed substitutions and their effects on fitness to aspects of phage biology, and we provide evidence that some substitutions exclude each other.

  5. Moisture diffusivity in structure of random fractal fiber bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fanglong, E-mail: zhufanglong_168@163.com [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); The Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces Academy, Langfan City (China); Zhou, Yu; Feng, Qianqian [College of Textile, Zhongyuan University of Technology, Zhengzhou City (China); Xia, Dehong [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China)

    2013-11-08

    A theoretical expression related to effective moisture diffusivity to random fiber bed is derived by using fractal theory and considering both parallel and perpendicular channels to diffusion flow direction. In this Letter, macroporous structure of hydrophobic nonwoven material is investigated, and Knudsen diffusion and surface diffusion are neglected. The effective moisture diffusivity predicted by the present fractal model are compared with water vapor transfer rate (WVTR) experiment data and calculated values obtained from other theoretical models. This verifies the validity of the present fractal diffusivity of fibrous structural beds.

  6. [Species composition and spatial structure of plants in urban parks of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Juan-Juan; Ouyang, Zhi-Yun; Zheng, Hua; Xu, Wei-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Ke

    2009-02-01

    By the method of stratified random sampling, the species composition and spatial structure of the plants in 53 parks in Beijing urban area were investigated, aimed to provide basic information for the protection of plant diversity in the parks and the management of the parks. A total of 492 plant species belong to 96 families and 283 genera were recorded. Based on the data of 21 investigation items about the trees, shrubs, and grasses in the study area and related statistical analyses, the plant structural patterns commonly seen in the green space of the parks of Beijing urban area were introduced. Among the plants in the parks, native species occupied 53.86% of the total. The chorological composition of the genera embraced broad kinds of geographical elements in China, and the predominance of dominant plants was remarkable. In most green patches of the parks, herbaceous species were more abundant and had higher coverage, shrubs had relatively low coverage and were less beneath tree canopy, and trees and shrubs had lower species richness and density. The canopy breadth and the diameter of breast height of trees as well as the breadth of shrubs and the heights of trees and shrubs were basically at the second grade, but the canopy structure of the trees were better, with good conditions of sunlight and growth. The crown missing of the shrubs was relatively low. It was suggested from correlation analyses and document survey of Beijing parks construction history that park landscape design, alien species introduction; and cultivation management were the main factors affecting the species composition and spatial structure of the plants in Beijing urban parks.

  7. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests...... and the fracture mechanics analyses have been carried out using load histories, which are realistic in relation to the types of structures studied, i.e. primarily bridges, offshore structures and chimneys. In general, the test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude...

  8. Representing Spatial Structure through Maps and Language: Lord of the Rings Encodes the Spatial Structure of Middle Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwerse, Max M.; Benesh, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Spatial mental representations can be derived from linguistic and non-linguistic sources of information. This study tested whether these representations could be formed from statistical linguistic frequencies of city names, and to what extent participants differed in their performance when they estimated spatial locations from language or maps. In…

  9. A sequential point process model and Bayesian inference for spatial point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a flexible spatial point process model for spatial point patterns exhibiting linear structures, without incorporating a latent line process. The model is given by an underlying sequential point process model. Under this model, the points can be of one of three types: a ‘background...... for producing point patterns with linear structures and propose to use the model as the likelihood in a Bayesian setting when analysing a spatial point pattern exhibiting linear structures. We illustrate this methodology by analysing two spatial point pattern datasets (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark...

  10. Gender Structure and Spatial Organization: Iranian Traditional Spaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sadoughianzadeh, Minoosh

    2013-01-01

    .... To depict the subject, two distinct traditional architectures of the region, associated with their respective socio-spatial organizations, have been comparatively explored: the “Introvert” and “Extrovert...

  11. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Manish, E-mail: manishk@physics.iitd.ac.in; Joseph, Joby, E-mail: joby@physics.iitd.ac.in [Photonics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-08-04

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90° bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable, and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  12. Optical generation of a spatially variant two-dimensional lattice structure by using a phase only spatial light modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Manish

    2016-01-01

    We propose a simple and straightforward method to generate a spatially variant lattice structures by optical interference lithography method. Using this method, it is possible to independently vary the orientation and period of the two-dimensional lattice. The method consists of two steps which are: numerical synthesis of corresponding phase mask by employing a two-dimensional integrated gradient calculations and experimental implementation of synthesized phase mask by making use of a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. As a working example, we provide the experimental fabrication of a spatially variant square lattice structure which has the possibility to guide a Gaussian beam through a 90{\\deg} bend by photonic crystal self-collimation phenomena. The method is digitally reconfigurable, is completely scalable and could be extended to other kind of lattices as well.

  13. The Impact of Spatial Scales and Spatial Smoothing on the Outcome of Bayesian Spatial Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Su Yun; McGree, James; Mengersen, Kerrie

    2013-01-01

    Discretization of a geographical region is quite common in spatial analysis. There have been few studies into the impact of different geographical scales on the outcome of spatial models for different spatial patterns. This study aims to investigate the impact of spatial scales and spatial smoothing on the outcomes of modelling spatial point-based data. Given a spatial point-based dataset (such as occurrence of a disease), we study the geographical variation of residual disease risk using regular grid cells. The individual disease risk is modelled using a logistic model with the inclusion of spatially unstructured and/or spatially structured random effects. Three spatial smoothness priors for the spatially structured component are employed in modelling, namely an intrinsic Gaussian Markov random field, a second-order random walk on a lattice, and a Gaussian field with Matérn correlation function. We investigate how changes in grid cell size affect model outcomes under different spatial structures and different smoothness priors for the spatial component. A realistic example (the Humberside data) is analyzed and a simulation study is described. Bayesian computation is carried out using an integrated nested Laplace approximation. The results suggest that the performance and predictive capacity of the spatial models improve as the grid cell size decreases for certain spatial structures. It also appears that different spatial smoothness priors should be applied for different patterns of point data. PMID:24146799

  14. The effect of sex-biased dispersal on opposite-sexed spatial genetic structure and inbreeding risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod

    2015-04-01

    Natal sex-biased dispersal has long been thought to reduce the risk of inbreeding by spatially separating opposite-sexed kin. Yet, comprehensive and quantitative evaluations of this hypothesis are lacking. In this study, we quantified the effectiveness of sex-biased dispersal as an inbreeding avoidance strategy by combining spatially explicit simulations and empirical data. We quantified the extent of kin clustering by measuring the degree of spatial autocorrelation among opposite-sexed individuals (FM structure). This allowed us to systematically explore how the extent of sex-biased dispersal, generational overlap, and mate searching distance, influenced both kin clustering, and the resulting inbreeding in the absence of complementary inbreeding avoidance strategies. Simulations revealed that when sex-biased dispersal was limited, positive FM genetic structure developed quickly and increased as the mate searching distance decreased or as generational overlap increased. Interestingly, complete long-range sex-biased dispersal did not prevent the development of FM genetic structure when generations overlapped. We found a very strong correlation between FM genetic structure and both FIS under random mating, and pedigree-based measures of inbreeding. Thus, we show that the detection of FM genetic structure can be a strong indicator of inbreeding risk. Empirical data for two species with different life history strategies yielded patterns congruent with our simulations. Our study illustrates a new application of spatial genetic autocorrelation analysis that offers a framework for quantifying the risk of inbreeding that is easily extendable to other species. Furthermore, our findings provide other researchers with a context for interpreting observed patterns of opposite-sexed spatial genetic structure. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Paracetamol sharpens reflection and spatial memory: a double-blind randomized controlled study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickering G

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gisèle Pickering,1–3 Nicolas Macian,1,2 Claude Dubray,1–3 Bruno Pereira4 1University Hospital, CHU Clermont-Ferrand, Centre de Pharmacologie Clinique, 2Inserm, CIC 1405, UMR Neurodol 1107, 3Clermont Université, Laboratoire de Pharmacologie, Faculté de médecine, 4CHU de Clermont-Ferrand, Délégation Recherche Clinique Innovation, Clermont-Ferrand, France Background: Acetaminophen (APAP, paracetamol mechanism for analgesic and antipyretic outcomes has been largely addressed, but APAP action on cognitive function has not been studied in humans. Animal studies have suggested an improved cognitive performance but the link with analgesic and antipyretic modes of action is incomplete. This study aims at exploring cognitive tests in healthy volunteers in the context of antinociception and temperature regulation. A double-blind randomized controlled study (NCT01390467 was carried out from May 30, 2011 to July 12, 2011. Methods: Forty healthy volunteers were included and analyzed. Nociceptive thresholds, core temperature (body temperature, and a battery of cognitive tests were recorded before and after oral APAP (2 g or placebo: Information sampling task for predecisional processing, Stockings of Cambridge for spatial memory, reaction time, delayed matching of sample, and pattern recognition memory tests. Analysis of variance for repeated measures adapted to crossover design was performed and a two-tailed type I error was fixed at 5%. Results: APAP improved information sampling task (diminution of the number of errors, latency to open boxes, and increased number of opened boxes; all P<0.05. Spatial planning and working memory initial thinking time were decreased (P=0.04. All other tests were not modified by APAP. APAP had an antinociceptive effect (P<0.01 and body temperature did not change. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that APAP sharpens decision making and planning strategy in healthy volunteers and that cognitive performance

  16. The Fatigue Behavior of Steel Structures under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Fatigue damage accumulation in steel structures under random loading has been studied in a number of investigations at the Technical University of Denmark. The fatigue life of welded joints has been determined both experimentally and from a fracture mechanics analysis. In the experimental part...... of the investigation, fatigue test series with a total of 540 fatigue tests have been carried through on various types of welded plate test specimens and full-scale offshore tubular joints. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel or high-strength steel. The fatigue tests...... and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner’s rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel structures, may give results, which are unconservative, and that the validity of the results obtained from...

  17. Random field Ising model and community structure in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S.-W.; Jeong, H.; Noh, J. D.

    2006-04-01

    We propose a method to determine the community structure of a complex network. In this method the ground state problem of a ferromagnetic random field Ising model is considered on the network with the magnetic field Bs = +∞, Bt = -∞, and Bi≠s,t=0 for a node pair s and t. The ground state problem is equivalent to the so-called maximum flow problem, which can be solved exactly numerically with the help of a combinatorial optimization algorithm. The community structure is then identified from the ground state Ising spin domains for all pairs of s and t. Our method provides a criterion for the existence of the community structure, and is applicable equally well to unweighted and weighted networks. We demonstrate the performance of the method by applying it to the Barabási-Albert network, Zachary karate club network, the scientific collaboration network, and the stock price correlation network. (Ising, Potts, etc.)

  18. Active control of tensegrity structures under random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh Raja, M.; Narayanan, S.

    2007-06-01

    In this paper we consider vibration control of tensegrity structures under stationary and nonstationary random excitations. These excitations may be representative of many physical loading conditions, such as earthquake, wind, aerodynamic and acoustic excitations. The optimal control theory based on H2 and \\mathrm {H}_{\\infty } controller with full state and limited state feedback is used for the control. The response of the tensegrity structure is represented by the zero lag covariance matrix and the same is obtained by solving the matrix Lyapunov equation. The force generated by the electro-mechanical coupling of the piezoelectric actuator is used in the formulation. A tensegrity structure of class-1 comprising of two modules, with 24 pretension cables and six struts with piezoelectric actuators, is considered.

  19. Incorporating Spatial Structures in Ecological Inference: An Information Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Bernardini Papalia

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Information Theory-based method for modeling economic aggregates and estimating their sub-group (sub-area decomposition when no individual or sub-group data are available. This method offers a flexible framework for modeling the underlying variation in sub-group indicators, by addressing the spatial dependency problem. A basic ecological inference problem, which allows for spatial heterogeneity and dependence, is presented with the aim of first estimating the model at the aggregate level, and then of employing the estimated coefficients to obtain the sub-group level indicators.

  20. Spatial structure arising from neighbour-dependent bias in collective cell movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binny, Rachelle N; Haridas, Parvathi; James, Alex; Law, Richard; Simpson, Matthew J; Plank, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical models of collective cell movement often neglect the effects of spatial structure, such as clustering, on the population dynamics. Typically, they assume that individuals interact with one another in proportion to their average density (the mean-field assumption) which means that cell-cell interactions occurring over short spatial ranges are not accounted for. However, in vitro cell culture studies have shown that spatial correlations can play an important role in determining collective behaviour. Here, we take a combined experimental and modelling approach to explore how individual-level interactions give rise to spatial structure in a moving cell population. Using imaging data from in vitro experiments, we quantify the extent of spatial structure in a population of 3T3 fibroblast cells. To understand how this spatial structure arises, we develop a lattice-free individual-based model (IBM) and simulate cell movement in two spatial dimensions. Our model allows an individual's direction of movement to be affected by interactions with other cells in its neighbourhood, providing insights into how directional bias generates spatial structure. We consider how this behaviour scales up to the population level by using the IBM to derive a continuum description in terms of the dynamics of spatial moments. In particular, we account for spatial correlations between cells by considering dynamics of the second spatial moment (the average density of pairs of cells). Our numerical results suggest that the moment dynamics description can provide a good approximation to averaged simulation results from the underlying IBM. Using our in vitro data, we estimate parameters for the model and show that it can generate similar spatial structure to that observed in a 3T3 fibroblast cell population.

  1. SUMOhunt: Combining Spatial Staging between Lysine and SUMO with Random Forests to Predict SUMOylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Modification with SUMO protein has many key roles in eukaryotic systems which renders the identification of its target proteins and sites of considerable importance. Information regarding the SUMOylation of a protein may tell us about its subcellular localization, function, and spatial orientation. This modification occurs at particular and not all lysine residues in a given protein. In competition with biochemical means of modified-site recognition, computational methods are strong contenders in the prediction of SUMOylation-undergoing sites on proteins. In this research, physicochemical properties of amino acids retrieved from AAIndex, especially those involved in docking of modifier and target proteins and optimal presentation of target lysine, in combination with sequence information and random forest-based classifier presented in WEKA have been used to develop a prediction model, SUMOhunt, with statistics significantly better than all previous predictors. In this model 97.56% accuracy, 100% sensitivity, 94% specificity, and 0.95 MCC have been achieved which shows that proposed amino acid properties have a significant role in SUMO attachment. SUMOhunt will hence bring great reliability and efficiency in SUMOylation prediction. PMID:25937950

  2. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  3. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  4. [The spatial structure of demographic behavior in Eastern Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, J

    1991-01-01

    The author uses data from the recently published "Atlas de la population europeenne" to identify the unique demographic features of the countries of Eastern Europe. Specifically, he examines the extent to which political factors have affected demographic indicators such as fertility, mortality, migration, and spatial distribution in this region.

  5. Spatial Prediction Filtering of Acoustic Clutter and Random Noise in Medical Ultrasound Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Junseob; Huang, Lianjie

    2017-02-01

    One of the major challenges in array-based medical ultrasound imaging is the image quality degradation caused by sidelobes and off-axis clutter, which is an inherent limitation of the conventional delay-and-sum (DAS) beamforming operating on a finite aperture. Ultrasound image quality is further degraded in imaging applications involving strong tissue attenuation and/or low transmit power. In order to effectively suppress acoustic clutter from off-axis targets and random noise in a robust manner, we introduce in this paper a new adaptive filtering technique called frequency-space (F-X) prediction filtering or FXPF, which was first developed in seismic imaging for random noise attenuation. Seismologists developed FXPF based on the fact that linear and quasilinear events or wavefronts in the time-space (T-X) domain are manifested as a superposition of harmonics in the frequency-space (F-X) domain, which can be predicted using an auto-regressive (AR) model. We describe the FXPF technique as a spectral estimation or a direction-of-arrival problem, and explain why adaptation of this technique into medical ultrasound imaging is beneficial. We apply our new technique to simulated and tissue-mimicking phantom data. Our results demonstrate that FXPF achieves CNR improvements of 26% in simulated noise-free anechoic cyst, 109% in simulated anechoic cyst contaminated with random noise of 15 dB SNR, and 93% for experimental anechoic cyst from a custom-made tissue-mimicking phantom. Our findings suggest that FXPF is an effective technique to enhance ultrasound image contrast and has potential to improve the visualization of clinically important anatomical structures and diagnosis of diseased conditions.

  6. Clonality as a driver of spatial genetic structure in populations of clonal tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dering, Monika; Chybicki, Igor Jerzy; Rączka, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Random genetic drift, natural selection and restricted gene dispersal are basic factors of the spatial genetic structure (SGS) in plant populations. Clonal reproduction has a profound effect on population dynamics and genetic structure and thus emerges as a potential factor in contributing to and modelling SGS. In order to assess the impact of clonality on SGS we studied clonal structure and SGS in the population of Populus alba. Six hundred and seventy-two individuals were mapped and genotyped with 16 nuclear microsatellite markers. To answer the more general question regarding the relationship between SGS and clonality we used Sp statistics, which allows for comparisons of the extent of SGS among different studies, and the comparison of published data on SGS in clonal and non-clonal tree species. Sp statistic was extracted for 14 clonal and 27 non-clonal species belonging to 7 and 18 botanical families, respectively. Results of genetic investigations conducted in the population of P. alba showed over-domination of clonal reproduction, which resulted in very low clonal diversity (R = 0.12). Significant SGS was found at both ramet (Sp = 0.095) and genet level (Sp = 0.05) and clonal reproduction was indicated as an important but not sole driving factor of SGS. Within-population structure, probably due to family structure also contributed to high SGS. High mean dominance index (D = 0.82) indicated low intermingling among genets. Literature survey revealed that clonal tree species significantly differ from non-clonal species with respect to SGS, having 2.8-fold higher SGS. This led us to conclude that clonality is a life-history trait that can have deep impact on processes acting in populations of clonal tree species leading to significant SGS.

  7. Exponential random graph models for networks with community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczak, Piotr; Fronczak, Agata; Bujok, Maksymilian

    2013-09-01

    Although the community structure organization is an important characteristic of real-world networks, most of the traditional network models fail to reproduce the feature. Therefore, the models are useless as benchmark graphs for testing community detection algorithms. They are also inadequate to predict various properties of real networks. With this paper we intend to fill the gap. We develop an exponential random graph approach to networks with community structure. To this end we mainly built upon the idea of blockmodels. We consider both the classical blockmodel and its degree-corrected counterpart and study many of their properties analytically. We show that in the degree-corrected blockmodel, node degrees display an interesting scaling property, which is reminiscent of what is observed in real-world fractal networks. A short description of Monte Carlo simulations of the models is also given in the hope of being useful to others working in the field.

  8. Maps of random walks on complex networks reveal community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosvall, Martin; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2008-01-29

    To comprehend the multipartite organization of large-scale biological and social systems, we introduce an information theoretic approach that reveals community structure in weighted and directed networks. We use the probability flow of random walks on a network as a proxy for information flows in the real system and decompose the network into modules by compressing a description of the probability flow. The result is a map that both simplifies and highlights the regularities in the structure and their relationships. We illustrate the method by making a map of scientific communication as captured in the citation patterns of >6,000 journals. We discover a multicentric organization with fields that vary dramatically in size and degree of integration into the network of science. Along the backbone of the network-including physics, chemistry, molecular biology, and medicine-information flows bidirectionally, but the map reveals a directional pattern of citation from the applied fields to the basic sciences.

  9. Correlation between Local Structure Order and Spatial Heterogeneity in a Metallic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Hirata, Akihiko; Liu, Pan; Song, Shuangxi; Tian, Yuan; Han, Jiuhui; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2017-11-01

    Although nanoscale spatial heterogeneity of metallic glasses has been demonstrated by extensive experimental and theoretical investigations, the nature of spatial heterogeneity remains poorly known owing to the absence of a structural depiction of the inhomogeneity from experimental insight. Here we report the experimental characterization of the spatial heterogeneity of a metallic glass by utilizing state-of-the-art angstrom-beam electron diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The subnanoscale electron diffraction reveals that the nanoscale spatial heterogeneity and corresponding density fluctuation have a close correlation with the local structure variation from icosahedronlike to tetragonal crystal-like order. The structural insights of spatial heterogeneity have important implications in understanding the properties and dynamics of metallic glasses.

  10. Spatial Analysis of Linear Structures in the Exploration of Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdramane Dembele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of linear structures on major geological formations plays a crucial role in resource exploration in the Inner Niger Delta. Highlighting and mapping of the large lithological units were carried out using image fusion, spectral bands (RGB coding, Principal Component Analysis (PCA, and band ratio methods. The automatic extraction method of linear structures has permitted the obtaining of a structural map with 82,659 linear structures, distributed on different stratigraphic stages. The intensity study shows an accentuation in density over 12.52% of the total area, containing 22.02% of the linear structures. The density and nodes (intersections of fractures formed by the linear structures on the different lithologies allowed to observe the behavior of the region’s aquifers in the exploration of subsoil resources. The central density, in relation to the hydrographic network of the lowlands, shows the conditioning of the flow and retention of groundwater in the region, and in-depth fluids. The node areas and high-density linear structures, have shown an ability to have rejections in deep (pores that favor the formation of structural traps for oil resources.

  11. Structural variations in prefrontal cortex mediate the relationship between early childhood stress and spatial working memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hanson, Jamie L; Chung, Moo K; Avants, Brian B; Rudolph, Karen D; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-01-01

    .... Analysis of variations in brain structure revealed that cumulative life stress and spatial working memory were related to smaller volumes in the PFC, specifically prefrontal gray and white matter...

  12. A spatial- and age-structured assessment model to estimate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , thereby indirectly negatively impacting juvenile abalone which rely on the urchins for shelter. A model is developed for abalone that is an extension of more standard age-structured assessment models because it explicitly takes spatial effects ...

  13. Single-cell control of initial spatial structure in biofilm development using laser trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Jaime B; Rodesney, Christopher A; Kaushik, Karishma S; Le, Henry H; Hurwitz, Daniel A; Irie, Yasuhiko; Gordon, Vernita D

    2014-04-22

    Biofilms are sessile communities of microbes that are spatially structured by an embedding matrix. Biofilm infections are notoriously intractable. This arises, in part, from changes in the bacterial phenotype that result from spatial structure. Understanding these interactions requires methods to control the spatial structure of biofilms. We present a method for growing biofilms from initiating cells whose positions are controlled with single-cell precision using laser trapping. The native growth, motility, and surface adhesion of positioned microbes are preserved, as we show for model organisms Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. We demonstrate that laser-trapping and placing bacteria on surfaces can reveal the effects of spatial structure on bacterial growth in early biofilm development.

  14. Sorting out the effect of spatial structure on the emergence of cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Roca, Carlos P; Sánchez, Angel

    2008-01-01

    The positive effect on cooperation of the spatial structure of a population is currently regarded as a well established principle in evolutionary game theory. Since Nowak and May's report of a promotion of cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma, the most demanding binary game, many subsequent studies have supported this conclusion. Some recent results, however, seem to refute it. The present situation is that this question remains basically unresolved, as it has not been investigated systematically and with enough detail, considering different social dilemmas and rules for the update of strategies. Moreover, the time evolution of these models has hardly been studied, with the result that a convincing explanation of the effect of spatial structure is not available. We have addressed these issues to provide a complete picture of the effect of spatial structure on the evolution of cooperation, as well as the identification of the underlying dynamical mechanisms. We have found that spatial structure, in general, o...

  15. Dispersal Ability Determines the Role of Environmental, Spatial and Temporal Drivers of Metacommunity Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padial, André A.; Ceschin, Fernanda; Declerck, Steven A. J.; De Meester, Luc; Bonecker, Cláudia C.; Lansac-Tôha, Fabio A.; Rodrigues, Liliana; Rodrigues, Luzia C.; Train, Sueli; Velho, Luiz F. M.; Bini, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, community ecologists are focusing on the relative importance of local environmental factors and proxies to dispersal limitation to explain spatial variation in community structure. Albeit less explored, temporal processes may also be important in explaining species composition variation in

  16. On parts and holes: the spatial structure of the human body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Maureen

    2004-01-01

    Spatial representation and reasoning is a central component of medical informatics. The spatial concepts most often used in medicine are not the quantitative, point-based concepts of classical geometry, but rather qualitative relations among extended objects such as body parts. A mereotopology is a formal theory of qualitative spatial relations, such as parthood and connection. This paper considers how an extension of mereotopology which includes also location relations can be used to represent and reason about the spatial structure of the human body.

  17. Spatially explicit measurements of forest structure and fire behavior following restoration treatments in dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin Paul Ziegler; Chad Hoffman; Michael Battaglia; William Mell

    2017-01-01

    Restoration treatments in dry forests of the western US often attempt silvicultural practices to restore the historical characteristics of forest structure and fire behavior. However, it is suggested that a reliance on non-spatial metrics of forest stand structure, along with the use of wildland fire behavior models that lack the ability to handle complex structures,...

  18. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  19. Tree spatial structure, host composition and resource availability influence mirid density or black pod prevalence in cacao agroforests in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Gidoin

    Full Text Available Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests

  20. Tree Spatial Structure, Host Composition and Resource Availability Influence Mirid Density or Black Pod Prevalence in Cacao Agroforests in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidoin, Cynthia; Babin, Régis; Bagny Beilhe, Leïla; Cilas, Christian; ten Hoopen, Gerben Martijn; Bieng, Marie Ange Ngo

    2014-01-01

    Combining crop plants with other plant species in agro-ecosystems is one way to enhance ecological pest and disease regulation mechanisms. Resource availability and microclimatic variation mechanisms affect processes related to pest and pathogen life cycles. These mechanisms are supported both by empirical research and by epidemiological models, yet their relative importance in a real complex agro-ecosystem is still not known. Our aim was thus to assess the independent effects and the relative importance of different variables related to resource availability and microclimatic variation that explain pest and disease occurrence at the plot scale in real complex agro-ecosystems. The study was conducted in cacao (Theobroma cacao) agroforests in Cameroon, where cocoa production is mainly impacted by the mirid bug, Sahlbergella singularis, and black pod disease, caused by Phytophthora megakarya. Vegetation composition and spatial structure, resource availability and pest and disease occurrence were characterized in 20 real agroforest plots. Hierarchical partitioning was used to identify the causal variables that explain mirid density and black pod prevalence. The results of this study show that cacao agroforests can be differentiated on the basis of vegetation composition and spatial structure. This original approach revealed that mirid density decreased when a minimum number of randomly distributed forest trees were present compared with the aggregated distribution of forest trees, or when forest tree density was low. Moreover, a decrease in mirid density was also related to decreased availability of sensitive tissue, independently of the effect of forest tree structure. Contrary to expectations, black pod prevalence decreased with increasing cacao tree abundance. By revealing the effects of vegetation composition and spatial structure on mirids and black pod, this study opens new perspectives for the joint agro-ecological management of cacao pests and diseases at the

  1. Conditional Random Fields for Pattern Recognition Applied to Structured Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Burr

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition uses measurements from an input domain, X, to predict their labels from an output domain, Y. Image analysis is one setting where one might want to infer whether a pixel patch contains an object that is “manmade” (such as a building or “natural” (such as a tree. Suppose the label for a pixel patch is “manmade”; if the label for a nearby pixel patch is then more likely to be “manmade” there is structure in the output domain that can be exploited to improve pattern recognition performance. Modeling P(X is difficult because features between parts of the model are often correlated. Therefore, conditional random fields (CRFs model structured data using the conditional distribution P(Y|X = x, without specifying a model for P(X, and are well suited for applications with dependent features. This paper has two parts. First, we overview CRFs and their application to pattern recognition in structured problems. Our primary examples are image analysis applications in which there is dependence among samples (pixel patches in the output domain. Second, we identify research topics and present numerical examples.

  2. A Geometric-Structure Theory for Maximally Random Jammed Packings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jianxiang; Xu, Yaopengxiao; Jiao, Yang; Torquato, Salvatore

    2015-11-16

    Maximally random jammed (MRJ) particle packings can be viewed as prototypical glasses in that they are maximally disordered while simultaneously being mechanically rigid. The prediction of the MRJ packing density ϕMRJ, among other packing properties of frictionless particles, still poses many theoretical challenges, even for congruent spheres or disks. Using the geometric-structure approach, we derive for the first time a highly accurate formula for MRJ densities for a very wide class of two-dimensional frictionless packings, namely, binary convex superdisks, with shapes that continuously interpolate between circles and squares. By incorporating specific attributes of MRJ states and a novel organizing principle, our formula yields predictions of ϕMRJ that are in excellent agreement with corresponding computer-simulation estimates in almost the entire α-x plane with semi-axis ratio α and small-particle relative number concentration x. Importantly, in the monodisperse circle limit, the predicted ϕMRJ = 0.834 agrees very well with the very recently numerically discovered MRJ density of 0.827, which distinguishes it from high-density "random-close packing" polycrystalline states and hence provides a stringent test on the theory. Similarly, for non-circular monodisperse superdisks, we predict MRJ states with densities that are appreciably smaller than is conventionally thought to be achievable by standard packing protocols.

  3. Cannibals in space: the coevolution of cannibalism and dispersal in spatially structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Volker H W; Kamo, Masashi; Boots, Mike

    2010-05-01

    The propensity for cannibalism varies considerably both within and between species. Currently we have little understanding of both the causes of this variation and its evolutionary consequences for other life-history traits. We examine how different levels of spatial structure affect the evolution of cannibalism and how cannibalism in turn drives the evolution of dispersal. Using pair approximations and simulations, we show that cannibalism can easily evolve in spatially structured populations as long as some dispersal exists. Furthermore, for a wide range of intermediate levels of spatial structure, we find the possibility of evolutionary branching leading to polymorphism in cannibalism. We also show that cannibalism itself can have important evolutionary consequences and select for increased dispersal rates, thus helping to determine the spatial structure of populations. The coevolution of cannibalism and dispersal results in the evolution of various alternative life-history strategies with different dispersal and cannibalism regimes. Which strategy evolves depends on the environmental conditions that determine initial cannibalism rates. Our results therefore suggest that differences in spatial structure could explain variation in the propensity for cannibalism and cannibalistic polyphenism. Furthermore, results emphasize that cannibalism can drive the evolution of other life-history traits and determine the spatial structure of natural populations.

  4. Emergence of patterns in random processes. II. Stochastic structure in random events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William I

    2014-06-01

    Random events can present what appears to be a pattern in the length of peak-to-peak sequences in time series and other point processes. Previously, we showed that this was the case in both individual and independently distributed processes as well as for Brownian walks. In addition, we introduced the use of the discrete form of the Langevin equation of statistical mechanics as a device for connecting the two limiting sets of behaviors, which we then compared with a variety of observations from the physical and social sciences. Here, we establish a probabilistic framework via the Smoluchowski equation for exploring the Langevin equation and its expected peak-to-peak sequence lengths, and we introduce a concept we call "stochastic structure in random events," or SSRE. We extend the Brownian model to include antipersistent processes via autoregressive (AR) models. We relate the latter to describe the behavior of Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, and we devise a further test for the validity of the Langevin and AR models. Given our analytic results, we show how the Langevin equation can be adapted to describe population cycles of three to four years observed among many mammalian species in biology.

  5. A sequential point process model and Bayesian inference for spatial point patterns with linear structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl

    We introduce a flexible spatial point process model for spatial point patterns exhibiting linear structures, without incorporating a latent line process. The model is given by an underlying sequential point process model, i.e. each new point is generated given the previous points. Under this model...... pattern exhibiting linear structures but where the exact mechanism responsible for the formations of lines is unknown. We illustrate this methodology by analyzing two spatial point pattern data sets (locations of bronze age graves in Denmark and locations of mountain tops in Spain) without knowing which...

  6. A Deep-Structured Conditional Random Field Model for Object Silhouette Tracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Shafiee

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce a deep-structured conditional random field (DS-CRF model for the purpose of state-based object silhouette tracking. The proposed DS-CRF model consists of a series of state layers, where each state layer spatially characterizes the object silhouette at a particular point in time. The interactions between adjacent state layers are established by inter-layer connectivity dynamically determined based on inter-frame optical flow. By incorporate both spatial and temporal context in a dynamic fashion within such a deep-structured probabilistic graphical model, the proposed DS-CRF model allows us to develop a framework that can accurately and efficiently track object silhouettes that can change greatly over time, as well as under different situations such as occlusion and multiple targets within the scene. Experiment results using video surveillance datasets containing different scenarios such as occlusion and multiple targets showed that the proposed DS-CRF approach provides strong object silhouette tracking performance when compared to baseline methods such as mean-shift tracking, as well as state-of-the-art methods such as context tracking and boosted particle filtering.

  7. Quantifying the effect of crop spatial arrangement on weed suppression using functional-structural plant modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Jochem B; Bastiaans, Lammert

    2016-05-01

    Suppression of weed growth in a crop canopy can be enhanced by improving crop competitiveness. One way to achieve this is by modifying the crop planting pattern. In this study, we addressed the question to what extent a uniform planting pattern increases the ability of a crop to compete with weed plants for light compared to a random and a row planting pattern, and how this ability relates to crop and weed plant density as well as the relative time of emergence of the weed. To this end, we adopted the functional-structural plant modelling approach which allowed us to explicitly include the 3D spatial configuration of the crop-weed canopy and to simulate intra- and interspecific competition between individual plants for light. Based on results of simulated leaf area development, canopy photosynthesis and biomass growth of the crop, we conclude that differences between planting pattern were small, particularly if compared to the effects of relative time of emergence of the weed, weed density and crop density. Nevertheless, analysis of simulated weed biomass demonstrated that a uniform planting of the crop improved the weed-suppression ability of the crop canopy. Differences in weed suppressiveness between planting patterns were largest with weed emergence before crop emergence, when the suppressive effect of the crop was only marginal. With simultaneous emergence a uniform planting pattern was 8 and 15 % more competitive than a row and a random planting pattern, respectively. When weed emergence occurred after crop emergence, differences between crop planting patterns further decreased as crop canopy closure was reached early on regardless of planting pattern. We furthermore conclude that our modelling approach provides promising avenues to further explore crop-weed interactions and aid in the design of crop management strategies that aim at improving crop competitiveness with weeds.

  8. Spatial correlations of density and structural fluctuations in liquid water: a comparative simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Felix; Horinek, Dominik; Netz, Roland R

    2011-02-09

    We use large-scale classical simulations employing different force fields to study spatial correlations between local density and structural order for water in the liquid temperature range. All force fields investigated reproduce the main features of the experimental SAXS structure factor S(q), including the minimum at small q, and the recent TIP4P/2005 parametrization yields almost quantitative agreement. As local structural order parameters we consider the tetrahedrality and the number of hydrogen bonds and calculate all pure and mixed spatial two-point correlation functions. Except for the density-density correlation function, there are only weak features present in all other correlation functions, showing that the tendency to form structural clusters is much weaker than the well-known tendency of water to form density clusters (i.e., spatially correlated regions where the density deviates from the mean). In particular, there are only small spatial correlations between local density and structural fluctuations, suggesting that features in density-density correlations (such as measured by the structure factor) are not straightforwardly related to spatial correlations of structure in liquid water.

  9. Amplitude requirements, visual information, and the spatial structure of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifkin, Andrew B; Eder, Jeffrey R

    2012-08-01

    Studies using a variety of experimental tasks have established that when humans repeatedly produce an action, the amount of variability in system output is distributed across a range of time scales or frequencies. A finding of particular interest is that fluctuations in the output of cognitive systems are the highest at the lowest frequencies with fluctuation magnitude (power) systematically declining as frequency increases. Such time-series structure--captured by spectral analysis--is termed pink noise. However, the appearance of pink noise seems to be limited to tasks where action is executed in the absence of external, task-related feedback. In contrast, a few studies have demonstrated that when action was executed in the presence of external, task-related feedback, power was evenly distributed across all spectral frequencies--that is, a white-noise time-series structure was revealed. Here, we sought to determine if the time-series structure of movement amplitude values would change when movement amplitude requirements increased (6.35, 12.70, 25.40, 50.80, and 101.60 mm) under conditions of full visual feedback. Given that increases in movement amplitude requirements are known to induce increased reliance on the available visual feedback, we predicted an amplitude-requirement-induced shift in time-series structure from pink to white noise. Indeed, those results were revealed. Last, the main findings were captured by a computer simulation that was based on established principles of motor control.

  10. Spatial and population genetic structure of microsatellites in white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula E. Marquardt; Bryan K. Epperson

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the population genetic structure of seven microsatellite loci for old growth and second growth populations of eastern white pine (Pinus strobus). From each population, located within Hartwick Pines State Park, Grayling, Michigan, USA, 120-122 contiguous trees were sampled for genetic analysis. Within each population, genetic diversity...

  11. Harnessing data structure for recovery of randomly missing structural vibration responses time history: Sparse representation versus low-rank structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Nagarajaiah, Satish

    2016-06-01

    Randomly missing data of structural vibration responses time history often occurs in structural dynamics and health monitoring. For example, structural vibration responses are often corrupted by outliers or erroneous measurements due to sensor malfunction; in wireless sensing platforms, data loss during wireless communication is a common issue. Besides, to alleviate the wireless data sampling or communication burden, certain accounts of data are often discarded during sampling or before transmission. In these and other applications, recovery of the randomly missing structural vibration responses from the available, incomplete data, is essential for system identification and structural health monitoring; it is an ill-posed inverse problem, however. This paper explicitly harnesses the data structure itself-of the structural vibration responses-to address this (inverse) problem. What is relevant is an empirical, but often practically true, observation, that is, typically there are only few modes active in the structural vibration responses; hence a sparse representation (in frequency domain) of the single-channel data vector, or, a low-rank structure (by singular value decomposition) of the multi-channel data matrix. Exploiting such prior knowledge of data structure (intra-channel sparse or inter-channel low-rank), the new theories of ℓ1-minimization sparse recovery and nuclear-norm-minimization low-rank matrix completion enable recovery of the randomly missing or corrupted structural vibration response data. The performance of these two alternatives, in terms of recovery accuracy and computational time under different data missing rates, is investigated on a few structural vibration response data sets-the seismic responses of the super high-rise Canton Tower and the structural health monitoring accelerations of a real large-scale cable-stayed bridge. Encouraging results are obtained and the applicability and limitation of the presented methods are discussed.

  12. Research on Ultrasonic Flaw Detection of Steel Weld in Spatial Grid Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tao; Sun, Jiandong; Fu, Shengguang; Zhang, Changquan; Gao, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The welding quality of spatial grid member is an important link in quality control of steel structure. The paper analyzed the reasons that the welding seam of small-bore pipe with thin wall grid structure is difficult to be detected by ultrasonic wave from the theoretical and practical aspects. A series of feasible detection methods was also proposed by improving probe and operation approaches in this paper, and the detection methods were verified by project cases. Over the years, the spatial grid structure is widely used the engineering by virtue of its several outstanding characteristics such as reasonable structure type, standard member, excellent space integrity and quick installation. The wide application of spatial grid structure brings higher requirements on nondestructive test of grid structure. The implementation of new Code for Construction Quality Acceptance of Steel Structure Work GB50205-2001 strengthens the site inspection of steel structure, especially the site inspection of ultrasonic flaw detection in steel weld. The detection for spatial grid member structured by small-bore and thin-walled pipes is difficult due to the irregular influence of sound pressure in near-field region of sound field, sound beam diffusion generated by small bore pipe and reduction of sensitivity. Therefore, it is quite significant to select correct detecting conditions. The spatial grid structure of welding ball and bolt ball is statically determinate structure with high-order axial force which is connected by member bars and joints. It is welded by shrouding or conehead of member bars and of member bar and bolt-node sphere. It is obvious that to ensure the quality of these welding positions is critical to the quality of overall grid structure. However, the complexity of weld structure and limitation of ultrasonic detection method cause many difficulties in detection. No satisfactory results will be obtained by the conventional detection technology, so some special

  13. Generation mechanisms of fundamental rogue wave spatial-temporal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Liming; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Guo, Boling

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the generation mechanism of fundamental rogue wave structures in N-component coupled systems, based on analytical solutions of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and modulational instability analysis. Our analysis discloses that the pattern of a fundamental rogue wave is determined by the evolution energy and growth rate of the resonant perturbation that is responsible for forming the rogue wave. This finding allows one to predict the rogue wave pattern without the need to solve the N-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, our results show that N-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger systems may possess N different fundamental rogue wave patterns at most. These results can be extended to evaluate the type and number of fundamental rogue wave structure in other coupled nonlinear systems.

  14. Perturbation Solutions for Random Linear Structural Systems subject to Random Excitation using Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köyluoglu, H.U.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Cakmak, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order perturbat......The paper deals with the first and second order statistical moments of the response of linear systems with random parameters subject to random excitation modelled as white-noise multiplied by an envelope function with random parameters. The method of analysis is basically a second order...... for multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems and the method is illustrated for a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillator. The results are compared to those of exact results for a random oscillator subject to white noise excitation with random intensity....

  15. The influence of environmental, biotic and spatial factors on diatom metacommunity structure in Swedish headwater streams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Göthe

    Full Text Available Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes. The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1 a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2 assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km(2, which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor, environmental (physicochemical and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses. We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial

  16. The Influence of Environmental, Biotic and Spatial Factors on Diatom Metacommunity Structure in Swedish Headwater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göthe, Emma; Angeler, David G.; Gottschalk, Steffi; Löfgren, Stefan; Sandin, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Stream assemblages are structured by a combination of local (environmental filtering and biotic interactions) and regional factors (e.g., dispersal related processes). The relative importance of environmental and spatial (i.e., regional) factors structuring stream assemblages has been frequently assessed in previous large-scale studies, but biotic predictors (potentially reflecting local biotic interactions) have rarely been included. Diatoms may be useful for studying the effect of trophic interactions on community structure since: (1) a majority of experimental studies shows significant grazing effects on diatom species composition, and (2) assemblages can be divided into guilds that have different susceptibility to grazing. We used a dataset from boreal headwater streams in south-central Sweden (covering a spatial extent of ∼14000 km2), which included information about diatom taxonomic composition, abundance of invertebrate grazers (biotic factor), environmental (physicochemical) and spatial factors (obtained through spatial eigenfunction analyses). We assessed the relative importance of environmental, biotic, and spatial factors structuring diatom assemblages, and performed separate analyses on different diatom guilds. Our results showed that the diatom assemblages were mainly structured by environmental factors. However, unique spatial and biological gradients, specific to different guilds and unrelated to each other, were also evident. We conclude that biological predictors, in combination with environmental and spatial variables, can reveal a more complete picture of the local vs. regional control of species assemblages in lotic environments. Biotic factors should therefore not be overlooked in applied research since they can capture additional local control and therefore increase accuracy and performance of predictive models. The inclusion of biotic predictors did, however, not significantly influence the unique fraction explained by spatial factors

  17. The Structural Biology of Muscle: Spatial and Temporal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kenneth C.

    Understanding muscle contraction has resulted from the synergy of a ­number of approaches for which structure has provided an integrating framework. Nearly 60 years ago interference and phase contrast light microscopy established the sliding filament model of muscle contraction. A little later H.E. Huxley exploited electron microscopy to visualize the macromolecular architecture of the sarcomere: the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments with connecting myosin cross-bridges. These observations allowed him to outline a structural basis for muscle contraction: a rowing-like progression of the myosin cross-bridges along the actin filament. X-ray fibre diffraction from insect flight muscle first demonstrated that the cross-bridges could indeed take up two configurations that might represent the ends of an active stroke. Later intense X-ray synchrotron radiation allowed the recording of the movements of the cross-bridges during a contraction with high precision. In 1993 Rayments's group ushered in a much more detailed understanding of myosin function by solving the structure of the myosin cross-bridge by X-ray crystallography. It showed that the cross-bridge consists of a large catalytic domain, often called the motor domain, containing the ATP binding site and the actin binding site. At the C-terminus of the motor domain is a long lever arm. The catalytic mechanism is similar to the G-proteins: the active site contains a P-loop and switch 1 and switch 2 elements. The lever arm was later found in two different conformations (so called pre-power-stroke and post-rigor) showing how switch 2 movement is coupled to a swing of the lever arm. Further crystallographic studies coupled with high resolution em reconstructions of decorated actin (the rigor complex) showed how ATP binding sequesters switch 1 thereby opening the large cleft in the motor domain and breaking the strong binding to actin. Conversely, the strong binding to actin causes a movement of switch 1 with

  18. Spatial structures in a simple model of population dynamics for parasite-host interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, J. J.; Skinner, B.; Breecher, N.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2015-08-01

    Spatial patterning can be crucially important for understanding the behavior of interacting populations. Here we investigate a simple model of parasite and host populations in which parasites are random walkers that must come into contact with a host in order to reproduce. We focus on the spatial arrangement of parasites around a single host, and we derive using analytics and numerical simulations the necessary conditions placed on the parasite fecundity and lifetime for the populations long-term survival. We also show that the parasite population can be pushed to extinction by a large drift velocity, but, counterintuitively, a small drift velocity generally increases the parasite population.

  19. Spatial structures in a simple model of population dynamics for parasite-host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. J.; Skinner, B.; Breecher, N.; Schmittmann, B.; Zia, R. K. P.

    2015-08-01

    Spatial patterning can be crucially important for understanding the behavior of interacting populations. Here we investigate a simple model of parasite and host populations in which parasites are random walkers that must come into contact with a host in order to reproduce. We focus on the spatial arrangement of parasites around a single host, and we derive using analytics and numerical simulations the necessary conditions placed on the parasite fecundity and lifetime for the population's long-term survival. We also show that the parasite population can be pushed to extinction by a large drift velocity, but, counterintuitively, a small drift velocity generally increases the parasite population.

  20. Villes et structures spatiales élémentaires du KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Folio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available However significant the legacy of former segregational policies in the spatial organisation of South African cities, it is important to include other basic spatial structures that have often been minimised. That is the aim of this paper. The towns in KwaZulu-Natal province provide a strong illustration of this point. The urban entities in the province can be differentiated by several criteria – either historical or contemporary – that are not always related to apartheid policy. The towns are underpinned by basic structures that organise the province. These structures are determined not only by racial discrimination, but also by economics. Recent developments seem to reinforce this trend.

  1. Structure Preserving Spatial Discretization of a 1-D Piezoelectric Timoshenko Beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voss, T.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we show how to spatially discretize a distributed model of a piezoelectric beam representing the dynamics of an inflatable space reflector in port-Hamiltonian (pH) form. This model can then be used to design a controller for the shape of the inflatable structure. Inflatable structures

  2. Kerr comb generation from the perspective of spatial dissipative structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Balakireva, Irina; Saleh, Khaldoun; Henriet, Rémi; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-03-01

    The theoretical understanding of Kerr combs has been the object of extensive efforts worldwide in the last ten years. Several insights have been provided since then into this problem and have enabled significant progress for the optimization and tailoring of these combs. Here, we investigate the formation of dissipative structures in crystalline whispering-gallery mode disk resonators that are pumped in different dispersion regimes. In the Fourier domain, these dissipative structures correspond to specific types of mode-locked Kerr optical frequency combs. Depending on the sign of the second-order chromatic dispersion and on the pumping conditions, we show that either bright or dark cavity solitons can emerge, and we show these two regimes are associated with characteristic spectral signatures that can be discriminated experimentally. We use the Lugiato-Lefever spatiotemporal formalism to investigate the temporal dynamics leading to the formation of these azimuthal solitons, as well as the emergence of Turing patterns. The theoretical results are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements that are obtained using calcium and magnesium fluoride disk resonators pumped near 1550 nm.

  3. Performance of non-parametric algorithms for spatial mapping of tropical forest structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mapping tropical forest structure is a critical requirement for accurate estimation of emissions and removals from land use activities. With the availability of a wide range of remote sensing imagery of vegetation characteristics from space, development of finer resolution and more accurate maps has advanced in recent years. However, the mapping accuracy relies heavily on the quality of input layers, the algorithm chosen, and the size and quality of inventory samples for calibration and validation. Results By using airborne lidar data as the “truth” and focusing on the mean canopy height (MCH as a key structural parameter, we test two commonly-used non-parametric techniques of maximum entropy (ME and random forest (RF for developing maps over a study site in Central Gabon. Results of mapping show that both approaches have improved accuracy with more input layers in mapping canopy height at 100 m (1-ha pixels. The bias-corrected spatial models further improve estimates for small and large trees across the tails of height distributions with a trade-off in increasing overall mean squared error that can be readily compensated by increasing the sample size. Conclusions A significant improvement in tropical forest mapping can be achieved by weighting the number of inventory samples against the choice of image layers and the non-parametric algorithms. Without future satellite observations with better sensitivity to forest biomass, the maps based on existing data will remain slightly biased towards the mean of the distribution and under and over estimating the upper and lower tails of the distribution.

  4. Spatial analysis of early successional, temperate forest community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. H.; Williams, C. A.; MacLean, R. G.; Epstein, H. E.; Vanderhoof, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The global importance of sequestration of carbon by temperate forests makes characterizing the regrowth of these forests post-disturbance both ecologically and economically important. High intensity disturbances, such as logging, result in substantial alteration of community composition post-disturbance, creating the potential for alterations to the cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients in the ecosystem. Because logging pressure in New England continues to increase, understanding how forest ecosystems in this region respond to disturbance is crucial. This study aims to characterize interspecies interactions within New England forests by identifying synchronous and asynchronous colocation of species following a disturbance. To accomplish this, line-intercept surveys of vegetation were conducted in a clearcut forest stand located within the Harvard Forest LTER site. Survey data collected two (2010) and five (2013) years post-clearcut were analyzed using a one-dimensional Ripley's K. From 2010 to 2013, an increase in the number of interspecies relationships was observed, indicating the development of community structure. Additionally, the analysis found an increase in total vegetative cover from 2010 to 2013, and also found the majority of observed interspecies relationships to be asynchronous relationships. Together, these results imply an increase in resource competition that had the potential to drive the increase in community structure. Specifically, an increase in community structure led to the development of three distinct sub-communities: homogenous fern, tree seedling canopy over ground cover, and shrub dominated. This creates a patchy landscape in the early successional forest that allows for high species diversity (Shannon's H = 2.455). Based on the results of the Ripley's K analyses, species demonstrated definite patterns of synchronicity and asynchronicity based on both specific species interactions as well as functional group interactions. These

  5. A spatial equilibrium model for region size, urbanization ratio, and rural structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Guldmann J--

    1997-05-01

    "Earlier economic models of city size have either focused on urban agglomeration effects while ignoring the spatial structure of the rural hinterland, or made unrealistic assumptions (for example, uniform rural population distribution) so as to simplify the problem. Following the classic von Thunen framework, we present a two-sector spatial equilibrium model of a city located at the center of an agricultural hinterland. The city produces industrial goods, and the rural area produces agricultural goods. Both goods are consumed both by urban and by rural residents. Market equilibrium for these goods determines: (1) the spatial size of the region, (2) the urbanization ratio (urban to total population) and the population size of the city, and (3) the rural spatial structure (wage, population distribution, land rent, and agricultural yield). Given various sets of exogenous parameters pertaining to the industrial, agricultural, and transportation production functions and to population preferences, the model is solved numerically, and response functions are estimated and analyzed." excerpt

  6. Ancient sedimentary structures in the Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noffke, Nora

    2015-02-01

    Sandstone beds of the Mars have been interpreted as evidence of an ancient playa lake environment. On Earth, such environments have been sites of colonization by microbial mats from the early Archean to the present time. Terrestrial microbial mats in playa lake environments form microbialites known as microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS). On Mars, three lithofacies of the Gillespie Lake Member sandstone display centimeter- to meter-scale structures similar in macroscopic morphology to terrestrial MISS that include "erosional remnants and pockets," "mat chips," "roll-ups," "desiccation cracks," and "gas domes." The microbially induced sedimentary-like structures identified in Curiosity rover mission images do not have a random distribution. Rather, they were found to be arranged in spatial associations and temporal successions that indicate they changed over time. On Earth, if such MISS occurred with this type of spatial association and temporal succession, they would be interpreted as having recorded the growth of a microbially dominated ecosystem that thrived in pools that later dried completely: erosional pockets, mat chips, and roll-ups resulted from water eroding an ancient microbial mat-covered sedimentary surface; during the course of subsequent water recess, channels would have cut deep into the microbial mats, leaving erosional remnants behind; desiccation cracks and gas domes would have occurred during a final period of subaerial exposure of the microbial mats. In this paper, the similarities of the macroscopic morphologies, spatial associations, and temporal succession of sedimentary structures on Mars to MISS preserved on Earth has led to the following hypothesis: The sedimentary structures in the Mars are ancient MISS produced by interactions between microbial mats and their environment. Proposed here is a strategy for detecting, identifying, confirming, and differentiating possible MISS during current and future Mars missions.

  7. Spatio-temporal structure, path characteristics and perceptual grouping in immediate serial spatial recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo De Lillo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Immediate serial spatial recall measures the ability to retain sequences of locations in short-term memory and is considered the spatial equivalent of digit span. It is tested by requiring participants to reproduce sequences of movements performed by an experimenter or displayed on a monitor. Different organizational factors dramatically affect serial spatial recall but they are often confounded or underspecified. Untangling them is crucial for the characterization of working-memory models and for establishing the contribution of structure and memory capacity to spatial span. We report five experiments assessing the relative role and independence of factors that have been reported in the literature. Experiment 1 disentangled the effects of spatial clustering and path-length by manipulating the distance of items displayed on a touchscreen monitor. Long-path sequences segregated by spatial clusters were compared with short-path sequences not segregated by clusters. Recall was more accurate for sequences segregated by clusters independently from path-length. Experiment 2 featured conditions where temporal pauses were introduced between or within cluster boundaries during the presentation of sequences with the same paths. Thus, the temporal structure of the sequences was either consistent or inconsistent with a hierarchical representation based on segmentation by spatial clusters but the effect of structure could not be confounded with effects of path-characteristics. Pauses at cluster boundaries yielded more accurate recall, as predicted by a hierarchical model. In Experiment 3, the systematic manipulation of sequence structure, path-length and presence of path-crossings of sequences showed that structure explained most of the variance, followed by the presence/absence of path-crossings, and path-length. Experiments 4 and 5 replicated the results of the previous experiments in immersive virtual reality navigation tasks where the viewpoint of the

  8. Soil respiration across a permafrost transition zone: spatial structure and environmental correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, James C.; Anderson, Carolyn G.; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Crump, Alex R.; Chen, Xingyuan; Hess, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    Soil respiration is a key ecosystem function whereby shifts in respiration rates can shift systems from carbon sinks to sources. Soil respiration in permafrost-associated systems is particularly important given climate change driven permafrost thaw that leads to significant uncertainty in resulting ecosystem carbon dynamics. Here we characterize the spatial structure and environmental drivers of soil respiration across a permafrost transition zone. We find that soil respiration is characterized by a non-linear threshold that occurs at active-layer depths greater than 140 cm. We also find that within each season, tree basal area is a dominant driver of soil respiration regardless of spatial scale, but only in spatial domains with significant spatial variability in basal area. Our analyses further show that spatial variation (the coefficient of variation) and mean-variance power-law scaling of soil respiration in our boreal system are consistent with previous work in other ecosystems (e.g., tropical forests) and in population ecology, respectively. Comparing our results to those in other ecosystems suggests that temporally stable features such as tree-stand structure are often primary drivers of spatial variation in soil respiration. If so, this provides an opportunity to better estimate the magnitude and spatial variation in soil respiration through remote sensing. Combining such an approach with broader knowledge of thresholding behavior - here related to active layer depth - would provide empirical constraints on models aimed at predicting ecosystem responses to ongoing permafrost thaw.

  9. The spatial structure of the Russian economy and the multipolar world

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Lapo

    2012-01-01

    There have been several poles of development USA, Europe, and China are formatted in the world economy. How does the multipolar world economy influence the Russian region‘s development? How does the spatial structure of Russian economy develop under the multipolar world economy? The studies based on the main results of new economic geography and gravity theory concerning the spatial concentration of production, the core and periphery formation in the economy of countries and large regions. We...

  10. Integrating Temporal and Spatial Scales: Human Structural Network Motifs Across Age and Region of Interest Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echtermeyer, Christoph; Han, Cheol E.; Rotarska-Jagiela, Anna; Mohr, Harald; Uhlhaas, Peter J.; Kaiser, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Human brain networks can be characterized at different temporal or spatial scales given by the age of the subject or the spatial resolution of the neuroimaging method. Integration of data across scales can only be successful if the combined networks show a similar architecture. One way to compare networks is to look at spatial features, based on fiber length, and topological features of individual nodes where outlier nodes form single node motifs whose frequency yields a fingerprint of the network. Here, we observe how characteristic single node motifs change over age (12–23 years) and network size (414, 813, and 1615 nodes) for diffusion tensor imaging structural connectivity in healthy human subjects. First, we find the number and diversity of motifs in a network to be strongly correlated. Second, comparing different scales, the number and diversity of motifs varied across the temporal (subject age) and spatial (network resolution) scale: certain motifs might only occur at one spatial scale or for a certain age range. Third, regions of interest which show one motif at a lower resolution may show a range of motifs at a higher resolution which may or may not include the original motif at the lower resolution. Therefore, both the type and localization of motifs differ for different spatial resolutions. Our results also indicate that spatial resolution has a higher effect on topological measures whereas spatial measures, based on fiber lengths, remain more comparable between resolutions. Therefore, spatial resolution is crucial when comparing characteristic node fingerprints given by topological and spatial network features. As node motifs are based on topological and spatial properties of brain connectivity networks, these conclusions are also relevant to other studies using connectome analysis. PMID:21811454

  11. Transport properties of a two-dimensional electron gas due to a spatially random magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushforth, A. W.; Gallagher, B. L.; Main, P. C.; Neumann, A. C.; Marrows, C. H.; Zoller, I.; Howson, M. A.; Hickey, B. J.; Henini, M.

    2000-02-01

    We have studied the magnetoresistance of a near-surface two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the presence of a random magnetic field produced by CoPd multilayers deposited onto the surface of the heterostructure. This novel method allows us to switch the random field on and off by applying an external magnetic field and also to control the amplitude and correlation length of the random field by varying the growth parameters of the multilayers. The presence of the random field is confirmed by quenching of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and we see an enhanced magnetoresistance which can be interpreted semi-classically. We also observe other unusual features which may be quantum in origin.

  12. The spatial structure of European wind storms as characterized by bivariate extreme-value Copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonazzi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The winds associated with extra-tropical cyclones are amongst the costliest natural perils in Europe. Re/insurance companies typically have insured exposure at multiple locations and hence the losses they incur from any individual storm crucially depend on that storm's spatial structure. Motivated by this, this study investigates the spatial structure of the most extreme windstorms in Europe. The data consists of a carefully constructed set of 135 of the most damaging storms in the period 1972–2010. Extreme value copulas are applied to this data to investigate the spatial dependencies of gusts.

    The copula method is used to investigate three aspects of windstorms. First, spatial maps of expected hazard damage between large cities and their surrounding areas are presented. Second, we demonstrate a practical application of the copula method to benchmark catalogues of artificial storms for use in the re/insurance sector. Third, the copula-based method is used to investigate the sensitivity of spatially aggregated damage to climate variability. The copula method allows changes to be expressed in terms of storm frequency, local intensity, and storm spatial structure and gives a more detailed view of how climate variability may affect multi-location risk in Europe.

  13. Methods of fabrication of medical models with complex spatial structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kudasik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of creating medical models for experimental tests applying modern Rapid Prototyping methods is presented in the article.Respective Rapid Prototyping methods i.e. JS-PolyJet, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS, ProJet and Vacuum Casting (VS methods are alsocharacterised. The possibilities of using the above in model research and especially in photoelastic research on the examples of humanskull top part and a fragment of syndesmosis of the skull are discussed. Rapid Prototyping and Rapid Tooling methods together withcomputer aided systems CAD/CAM make it possible to carry out numerical analysis and experimental tests on models of very complicated inside and outside shapes. RP techniques allow for fabricating medical models of a tissue structure of human skeleton bones. In case of photoelastic tests, when examined medical object can be destructed, RT techniques and precisely Vacuum Casting method allows for making medical models with reasonable prices and quantities adequate for experimental aims. There is a possibility of analyzing much bigger range of cases of loading regardless of the costs of experiment. Therefore applying Rapid Prototyping techniques for fabricating medical models allows for extending the possible applications of experimental tests in medicine.

  14. Experiments with central-limit properties of spatial samples from locally covariant random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T.H.; Smith, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    When spatial samples are statistically dependent, the classical estimator of sample-mean standard deviation is well known to be inconsistent. For locally dependent samples, however, consistent estimators of sample-mean standard deviation can be constructed. The present paper investigates the sampling properties of one such estimator, designated as the tau estimator of sample-mean standard deviation. In particular, the asymptotic normality properties of standardized sample means based on tau estimators are studied in terms of computer experiments with simulated sample-mean distributions. The effects of both sample size and dependency levels among samples are examined for various value of tau (denoting the size of the spatial kernel for the estimator). The results suggest that even for small degrees of spatial dependency, the tau estimator exhibits significantly stronger normality properties than does the classical estimator of standardized sample means. ?? 1992.

  15. Random and systematic spatial variability of 137Cs inventories at reference sites in South-Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correchel Vladia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The precision of the 137Cs fallout redistribution technique for the evaluation of soil erosion rates is strongly dependent on the quality of an average inventory taken at a representative reference site. The knowledge of the sources and of the degree of variation of the 137Cs fallout spatial distribution plays an important role on its use. Four reference sites were selected in the South-Central region of Brazil which were characterized in terms of soil chemical, physical and mineralogical aspects as well as the spatial variability of 137Cs inventories. Some important differences in the patterns of 137Cs depth distribution in the soil profiles of the different sites were found. They are probably associated to chemical, physical, mineralogical and biological differences of the soils but many questions still remain open for future investigation, mainly those regarding the adsorption and dynamics of the 137Cs ions in soil profiles under tropical conditions. The random spatial variability (inside each reference site was higher than the systematic spatial variability (between reference sites but their causes were not clearly identified as possible consequences of chemical, physical, mineralogical variability, and/or precipitation.

  16. Structural variations in prefrontal cortex mediate the relationship between early childhood stress and spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Chung, Moo K; Avants, Brian B; Rudolph, Karen D; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Gee, James C; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2012-06-06

    A large corpus of research indicates that exposure to stress impairs cognitive abilities, specifically executive functioning dependent on the prefrontal cortex (PFC). We collected structural MRI scans (n = 61), well-validated assessments of executive functioning, and detailed interviews assessing stress exposure in humans to examine whether cumulative life stress affected brain morphometry and one type of executive functioning, spatial working memory, during adolescence-a critical time of brain development and reorganization. Analysis of variations in brain structure revealed that cumulative life stress and spatial working memory were related to smaller volumes in the PFC, specifically prefrontal gray and white matter between the anterior cingulate and the frontal poles. Mediation analyses revealed that individual differences in prefrontal volumes accounted for the association between cumulative life stress and spatial working memory. These results suggest that structural changes in the PFC may serve as a mediating mechanism through which greater cumulative life stress engenders decrements in cognitive functioning.

  17. Quantifying Spatial Genetic Structuring in Mesophotic Populations of the Precious Coral Corallium rubrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58–118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations. PMID:23646109

  18. The Effects of Defective Spatial Structure on the Agricultural Property Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielska Anna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas in Poland are distinguished by one of the worst spatial structures of individual land properties in the European Union. The least favourable structure occurs in the southern and south-eastern part of the country, where it results in farms losing 20-30% of their agricultural revenue. The bad spatial organisation of land is also reflected in transaction prices obtained for agricultural land. Considering criteria such as: land management, parcel area, width, and elongation (length to width ratio, and soil bonitation value, this paper determines the effect of each of the criteria separately on the development of transaction prices of agricultural land in the years 2009-2014 in selected villages in the southern part of the Cegłów (Mińsk district, Mazowieckie province, distinguished by the unfavourable spatial structure of agricultural land. Meeting this objective involved the application of the analytical capacity of the Geographic Information Systems (GIS, cadastral data base, soil-agricultural map vector, study of the conditions and directions of the spatial management of the Cegłów area, and the property price and value register. The obtained study results suggest that in areas with particularly defective spatial structure, land with parameters permitting its efficient use, i.e. with proper width and elongation is particularly valuable. Another parameter determining the level of obtained prices is the bonitation value, although it is of less importance for the analysed area than for agricultural areas with proper management conditions.

  19. Spatial genetic structure of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in mainland Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlaing, Thaung; Tun-Lin, Willoughby; Somboon, Pradya; Socheat, Duong; Setha, To; Min, Sein; Thaung, Sein; Anyaele, Okorie; De Silva, Babaranda; Chang, Moh Seng; Prakash, Anil; Linton, Yvonne; Walton, Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Aedes aegypti mosquitoes originated in Africa and are thought to have spread recently to Southeast Asia, where they are the major vector of dengue. Thirteen microsatellite loci were used to determine the genetic population structure of A. aegypti at a hierarchy of spatial scales encompassing 36 sites in Myanmar, Cambodia and Thailand, and two sites in Sri Lanka and Nigeria. Low, but significant, genetic structuring was found at all spatial scales (from 5 to >2000 km) and significant F IS values indicated genetic structuring even within 500 m. Spatially dependent genetic-clustering methods revealed that although spatial distance plays a role in shaping larger-scale population structure, it is not the only factor. Genetic heterogeneity in major port cities and genetic similarity of distant locations connected by major roads, suggest that human transportation routes have resulted in passive long-distance migration of A. aegypti. The restricted dispersal on a small spatial scale will make localized control efforts and sterile insect technology effective for dengue control. Conversely, preventing the establishment of insecticide resistance genes or spreading refractory genes in a genetic modification strategy would be challenging. These effects on vector control will depend on the relative strength of the opposing effects of passive dispersal.

  20. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Costantini

    Full Text Available While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  1. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  2. Validation of the k-filtering technique for a signal composed of random-phase plane waves and non-random coherent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. W. Roberts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations of astrophysical magnetic fields have shown the presence of fluctuations being wave-like (propagating in the plasma frame and those described as being structure-like (advected by the plasma bulk velocity. Typically with single-spacecraft missions it is impossible to differentiate between these two fluctuations, due to the inherent spatio-temporal ambiguity associated with a single point measurement. However missions such as Cluster which contain multiple spacecraft have allowed for temporal and spatial changes to be resolved, using techniques such as k filtering. While this technique does not assume Taylor's hypothesis it requires both weak stationarity of the time series and that the fluctuations can be described by a superposition of plane waves with random phases. In this paper we test whether the method can cope with a synthetic signal which is composed of a combination of non-random-phase coherent structures with a mean radius d and a mean separation λ, as well as plane waves with random phase.

  3. Quantifying seascape structure: Extending terrestrial spatial pattern metrics to the marine realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedding, L.M.; Christopher, L.A.; Pittman, S.J.; Friedlander, A.M.; Jorgensen, S.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial pattern metrics have routinely been applied to characterize and quantify structural features of terrestrial landscapes and have demonstrated great utility in landscape ecology and conservation planning. The important role of spatial structure in ecology and management is now commonly recognized, and recent advances in marine remote sensing technology have facilitated the application of spatial pattern metrics to the marine environment. However, it is not yet clear whether concepts, metrics, and statistical techniques developed for terrestrial ecosystems are relevant for marine species and seascapes. To address this gap in our knowledge, we reviewed, synthesized, and evaluated the utility and application of spatial pattern metrics in the marine science literature over the past 30 yr (1980 to 2010). In total, 23 studies characterized seascape structure, of which 17 quantified spatial patterns using a 2-dimensional patch-mosaic model and 5 used a continuously varying 3-dimensional surface model. Most seascape studies followed terrestrial-based studies in their search for ecological patterns and applied or modified existing metrics. Only 1 truly unique metric was found (hydrodynamic aperture applied to Pacific atolls). While there are still relatively few studies using spatial pattern metrics in the marine environment, they have suffered from similar misuse as reported for terrestrial studies, such as the lack of a priori considerations or the problem of collinearity between metrics. Spatial pattern metrics offer great potential for ecological research and environmental management in marine systems, and future studies should focus on (1) the dynamic boundary between the land and sea; (2) quantifying 3-dimensional spatial patterns; and (3) assessing and monitoring seascape change. ?? Inter-Research 2011.

  4. The influence of spatial and temporal rainfall structure on the PMF for small alpine catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimetz, Fraenz; Receanu, Ramona; Hertig, Jacques-André; Schleiss, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The estimation of the extreme flood, often referred to as the design flood, is an important issue for the safety of dams and other anthropogenic structures. However, it is still related to huge uncertainties. The design flood is considered in Switzerland as 1.5×Q1000. Nowadays, hydrological modeling offers great possibilities for flood estimation, starting from a known precipitation. However, most of the time this precipitation is uniformly distributed, and the influence of its particular spatial or temporal structure is disregarded. This paper aims to shed light on the issue of the influence of spatial and temporal structure of precipitation on the flood hydrograph, not only in terms of concentration time, but also as maximum flow. From an initial spatial distribution point of view, different distributions of the intensity clouds over the watershed are analyzed. The number and shape of these clouds, as well as their initial position, can have a significant influence on the shape of the resulting flood. The paper analyzes the influence of these initial conditions. In the second part of this paper, the influence of a spatio-temporal structure is analyzed. Several precipitation structures are built for long durations of 9, 12 and 24 hours, using as building blocks the spatial distributions up to 6h, for which the used model has already been tested. The goal of this development is to obtain rain structures which are both spatially and temporally closer to these occurring naturally. As opposed to a uniform distribution, these realistic spatio-temporal distributions can lead to variations in the maximum discharge, out of which only the maximum value is retained as the design flood. The precipitation values used as inputs in the model are the PMP (Probable Maximum Precipitation), and thus the obtained flood is the PMF (Probable Maximum Flood). Results are presented for two Swiss alpine catchments and various spatial and temporal rain distributions. These are compared to

  5. Spatial education: improving conservation delivery through space-structured decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Clinton T.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Gannon, Jill J.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making designed to guide management of natural resource systems when their behaviors are uncertain. Where decision making can be replicated across units of a landscape, learning can be accelerated, and biological processes can be understood in a larger spatial context. Broad-based partnerships among land management agencies, exemplified by Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (conservation partnerships created through the U.S. Department of the Interior), are potentially ideal environments for implementing spatially structured adaptive management programs.

  6. Nonlinear spatial focusing in random layered media by spectral pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Alex C.; Milner, Valery

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate numerically a method of focusing two-photon fields inside one-dimensional random media. The approach is based on coherent control of backscattering achieved by adaptive spectral pulse shaping. The spectral phases of a femtosecond laser pulse are adjusted for the constructive interference of its backward-traveling components, resulting in an enhanced reflection from within the random system. A delayed forward-propagating second pulse overlaps with the controlled reflection, increasing the interpulse multiphoton field at a location determined by the delay between the two pulses. The technique is shown to be robust against the variations of the disorder and to work with realistic pulse-shaping parameters, hence enabling applications in controlling random lasing and multiphoton imaging in scattering materials.

  7. Simulation Analyses of Behaviours of Spatially Extended Predator-Prey Systems with Random Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISHIKAWA, M.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We often observe some kind or another of random fluctuations in physical, chemical and social phenomena to a greater or lesser extent. The analysis of influence of such fluctuations on phenomena is very important as a basic problem in various fields including design and planning of controlled systems in control engineering and analysis of option pricing in economics. In this paper, focusing on biological communities, we study the influence of the random fluctuations on predator-prey systems with diffusion. Noting that interaction of phytoplankton and zooplankton is the basis of a food chain in the lake and the ocean, we consider the two-species predator-prey systems consists of phytoplankton and zooplankton. We analyze the influence of the random fluctuations on the spatio-temporal patterns generated by phytoplankton and zooplankton by the numerical simulations.

  8. Ten-Structure as Strategy of Addition 1-20 by Involving Spatial Structuring Ability for First Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmah, Ummy; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; Somakim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to design learning activities that can support students to develop strategies for the addition of number 1 to 20 in the first grade by involving students' spatial structuring ability. This study was conducted in Indonesia by involving 27 students. In this paper, one of three activities is discussed namely ten-box activity.…

  9. Elements of metacommunity structure in Amazonian Zygoptera among streams under different spatial scales and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Vieira, Thiago Bernardi; de Oliveira-Junior, José Max Barbosa; Dias-Silva, Karina; Juen, Leandro

    2017-05-01

    An important aspect of conservation is to understand the founding elements and characteristics of metacommunities in natural environments, and the consequences of anthropogenic disturbance on these patterns. In natural Amazonian environments, the interfluves of the major rivers play an important role in the formation of areas of endemism through the historical isolation of species and the speciation process. We evaluated elements of metacommunity structure for Zygoptera (Insecta: Odonata) sampled in 93 Amazonian streams distributed in two distinct biogeographic regions (areas of endemism). Of sampled streams, 43 were considered to have experienced negligible anthropogenic impacts, and 50 were considered impacted by anthropogenic activities. Our hypothesis was that preserved ("negligible impact") streams would present a Clementsian pattern, forming clusters of distinct species, reflecting the biogeographic pattern of the two regions, and that anthropogenic streams would present random patterns of metacommunity, due to the loss of more sensitive species and dominance of more tolerant species, which have higher dispersal ability and environmental tolerance. In negligible impact streams, the Clementsian pattern reflected a strong biogeographic pattern, which we discuss considering the areas of endemism of Amazonian rivers. As for communities in human-impacted streams, a biotic homogenization was evident, in which rare species were suppressed and the most common species had become hyper-dominant. Understanding the mechanisms that trigger changes in metacommunities is an important issue for conservation, because they can help create mitigation measures for the impacts of anthropogenic activities on biological communities, and so should be expanded to studies using other taxonomic groups in both tropical and temperate systems, and, wherever possible, at multiple spatial scales.

  10. Spatially explicit feedbacks between seagrass meadow structure, sediment and light: Habitat suitability for seagrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Joel; D'Odorico, Paul; McGlathery, Karen; Wiberg, Patricia L.

    2016-01-01

    In shallow coastal bays where nutrient loading and riverine inputs are low, turbidity, and the consequent light environment are controlled by resuspension of bed sediments due to wind-waves and tidal currents. High sediment resuspension and low light environments can limit benthic primary productivity; however, both currents and waves are affected by the presence of benthic plants such as seagrass. This feedback between the presence of benthic primary producers such as seagrass and the consequent light environment has been predicted to induce bistable dynamics locally. However, these vegetated areas influence a larger area than they footprint, including a barren adjacent downstream area which exhibits reduced shear stresses. Here we explore through modeling how the patchy structure of seagrass meadows on a landscape may affect sediment resuspension and the consequent light environment due to the presence of this sheltered region. Heterogeneous vegetation covers comprising a mosaic of randomly distributed patches were generated to investigate the effect of patch modified hydrodynamics. Actual cover of vegetation on the landscape was used to facilitate comparisons across landscape realizations. Hourly wave and current shear stresses on the landscape along with suspended sediment concentration and light attenuation characteristics were then calculated and spatially averaged to examine how actual cover and mean water depth affect the bulk sediment and light environment. The results indicate that an effective cover, which incorporates the sheltering area, has important controls on the distributions of shear stress, suspended sediment, light environment, and consequent seagrass habitat suitability. Interestingly, an optimal habitat occurs within a depth range where, if actual cover is reduced past some threshold, the bulk light environment would no longer favor seagrass growth.

  11. Design of a spatial data structure using the relational normal forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roessel, Jan W.

    1987-01-01

    In previous work, a relational data structure aimed at the exchange of spatial data between systems was developed. As this data structure was relational it was of first normal form, but compliance with the higher normal forms was not investigated. Recently, a new procedural method for composing fully normalized data structures from the basic data fields has been developed by H. C. Smith, as an alternative to the process of non-loss decomposition which is difficult to understand. Smith's method has been applied to data fields required to store points, lines and polygons in a chain-node spatial data model. When geographic domain, coverage layer and map are also considered, the procedure naturally leads to a catalogue model, needed for the exchange of spatial data. Although the method produces a fully normalized data structure, it is not as easy to identify which normal forms are responsible for the ultimate arrangement of the data fields into relations, but the benefits of these criteria for data base development also apply to spatial data structures and related ancillary data.

  12. Multilevel discretized random field models with 'spin' correlations for the simulation of environmental spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žukovič, Milan; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.

    2009-02-01

    A current problem of practical significance is how to analyze large, spatially distributed, environmental data sets. The problem is more challenging for variables that follow non-Gaussian distributions. We show by means of numerical simulations that the spatial correlations between variables can be captured by interactions between 'spins'. The spins represent multilevel discretizations of environmental variables with respect to a number of pre-defined thresholds. The spatial dependence between the 'spins' is imposed by means of short-range interactions. We present two approaches, inspired by the Ising and Potts models, that generate conditional simulations of spatially distributed variables from samples with missing data. Currently, the sampling and simulation points are assumed to be at the nodes of a regular grid. The conditional simulations of the 'spin system' are forced to respect locally the sample values and the system statistics globally. The second constraint is enforced by minimizing a cost function representing the deviation between normalized correlation energies of the simulated and the sample distributions. In the approach based on the Nc-state Potts model, each point is assigned to one of Nc classes. The interactions involve all the points simultaneously. In the Ising model approach, a sequential simulation scheme is used: the discretization at each simulation level is binomial (i.e., ± 1). Information propagates from lower to higher levels as the simulation proceeds. We compare the two approaches in terms of their ability to reproduce the target statistics (e.g., the histogram and the variogram of the sample distribution), to predict data at unsampled locations, as well as in terms of their computational complexity. The comparison is based on a non-Gaussian data set (derived from a digital elevation model of the Walker Lake area, Nevada, USA). We discuss the impact of relevant simulation parameters, such as the domain size, the number of

  13. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Peucker, Amanda J; Valautham, Sureen K; Styan, Craig A; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. © The American Genetic Association 2015.

  14. Nonequilibrium Conditions Explain Spatial Variability in Genetic Structuring of Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peucker, Amanda J.; Valautham, Sureen K.; Styan, Craig A.; Dann, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Factors responsible for spatial structuring of population genetic variation are varied, and in many instances there may be no obvious explanations for genetic structuring observed, or those invoked may reflect spurious correlations. A study of little penguins (Eudyptula minor) in southeast Australia documented low spatial structuring of genetic variation with the exception of colonies at the western limit of sampling, and this distinction was attributed to an intervening oceanographic feature (Bonney Upwelling), differences in breeding phenology, or sea level change. Here, we conducted sampling across the entire Australian range, employing additional markers (12 microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, 697 individuals, 17 colonies). The zone of elevated genetic structuring previously observed actually represents the eastern half of a genetic cline, within which structuring exists over much shorter spatial scales than elsewhere. Colonies separated by as little as 27 km in the zone are genetically distinguishable, while outside the zone, homogeneity cannot be rejected at scales of up to 1400 km. Given a lack of additional physical or environmental barriers to gene flow, the zone of elevated genetic structuring may reflect secondary contact of lineages (with or without selection against interbreeding), or recent colonization and expansion from this region. This study highlights the importance of sampling scale to reveal the cause of genetic structuring. PMID:25833231

  15. Eastern Mediterranean Sea Spatial and Temporal Variability of Thermohaline Structure and Circulation Identified from Observational (T, S) Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    MEDITERRANEAN SEA SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF THERMOHALINE STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IDENTIFIED FROM OBSERVATIONAL (T, S) PROFILES by Nuri...MEDITERRANEAN SEA SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF THERMOHALINE STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IDENTIFIED FROM OBSERVATIONAL (T, S) PROFILES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS...variability of thermohaline structure and circulation were investigated. Surface depth shows high seasonal temperature variability through the year

  16. The Emergence of the Spatial Structure of Tectal Spontaneous Activity Is Independent of Visual Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Pietri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The brain is spontaneously active, even in the absence of sensory stimulation. The functionally mature zebrafish optic tectum shows spontaneous activity patterns reflecting a functional connectivity adapted for the circuit’s functional role and predictive of behavior. However, neither the emergence of these patterns during development nor the role of retinal inputs in their maturation has been characterized. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we analyzed spontaneous activity in intact and enucleated zebrafish larvae throughout tectum development. At the onset of retinotectal connections, intact larvae showed major changes in the spatiotemporal structure of spontaneous activity. Although the absence of retinal inputs had a significant impact on the development of the temporal structure, the tectum was still capable of developing a spatial structure associated with the circuit’s functional roles and predictive of behavior. We conclude that neither visual experience nor intrinsic retinal activity is essential for the emergence of a spatially structured functional circuit.

  17. A spatial-structural model for classification and change detection of vegetation coverage on multispectral satellite image

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Trinh; Hoai, Dao

    2014-01-01

    In analyzing the spatial-structures of various object types represented on multispectral images, we propose a new spatial-structural model for classification and two models for change detection vegetation coverage. The model for evaluation of coastline dynamic change has eliminated the disadvantage of traditional methods. It can be applied to images received from various sensors. Both change detection models used the spatial-structural model for classification purpose. Results of analytical p...

  18. Detection of forest stand-level spatial structure in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erik A. Lilleskov; Thomas D. Bruns; Thomas R. Horton; D. Lee Taylor; Paul Grogan

    2004-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities are highly diverse at the stand level. To begin to understand what might lead to such diversity, and to improve sampling designs, we investigated the spatial structure of these communities. We used EMF community data from a number of studies carried out in seven mature and one recently fire-initiated forest stand. We applied...

  19. Local spatial structure in pondweed populations : the role of propagule size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hangelbroek, Helen Harriët

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis I focused on the study of factors that determine local spatial structure of an aquatic clonal plant (Potamogeton pectinatus) at both the population and community level. Particular attention was paid to the adaptive value of propagule size under various ecological conditions, with

  20. Isolation by oceanic distance and spatial genetic structure in an overharvested international fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truelove, Nathan K.; Box, Stephen J.; Aiken, Karl A.; Blythe-Mallett, Azra; Boman, Erik M.; Booker, Catherine J.; Byfield, Tamsen T.; Cox, Courtney E.; Davis, Martha H.; Delgado, Gabriel A.; Glazer, Bob A.; Griffiths, Sarah M.; Kitson-Walters, Kimani; Kough, Andy S.; Pérez Enríquez, Ricardo; Preziosi, Richard F.; Roy, Marcia E.; Segura-García, Iris; Webber, Mona K.; Stoner, Allan W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: A detailed understanding of spatial genetic structure (SGS) and the factors driving contemporary patterns of gene flow and genetic diversity are fundamental for developing conservation and management plans for marine fisheries. We performed a detailed study of SGS and genetic diversity

  1. The impact of natural transformation on adaptation in spatially structured bacterial populations

    OpenAIRE

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Engelstädter, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that natural transformation and the formation of highly structured populations in bacteria are interconnected. In spite of growing evidence about this connection, little is known about the dynamics of natural transformation in spatially structured bacterial populations. Results In this work, we model the interdependency between the dynamics of the bacterial gene pool and those of environmental DNA in space to dissect the effect of transformation on ...

  2. Quantifying Spatial Genetic Structuring in Mesophotic Populations of the Precious Coral Corallium rubrum

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Costantini; Lorenzo Carlesi; Marco Abbiati

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m ...

  3. Photonic stop bands of two-dimensional quasi-random structures based on macroporous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Mohammad Mahbubur; Ferre-Borrull, Josep; Pallares, Josep; Marsal, Lluis F. [Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Nano-electronic and Photonic Systems (NePhoS), Av. Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2011-03-15

    The existence of photonic stop bands in macroporous silicon with a quasi-random structure transferred from nanoporous anodic alumina is studied. The quasi-random structure consists of a periodic triangular arrangement broken into domains of random orientation and size. By means of Finite-Difference Time-Domain simulation, transmittance spectra of the structure are calculated which show that stop bands exist for the TE polarization in the same frequency range it exist for periodic photonic crystals. For TM polarization local minima of the transmittance are predicted by the calculations. A general trend of the transmittance to decrease with increasing frequency is observed. The comparison with the transmittance for random structures shows that such trend is due to incoherent scattering caused by the degree of randomness of the structure (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Seeing shapes in seemingly random spatial patterns: Fractal analysis of Rorschach inkblots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. P.; Martin, T. P.; Montgomery, R. D.; Smith, J. H.; Micolich, A. P.; Boydston, C.; Scannell, B. C.; Fairbanks, M. S.; Spehar, B.

    2017-01-01

    Rorschach inkblots have had a striking impact on the worlds of art and science because of the remarkable variety of associations with recognizable and namable objects they induce. Originally adopted as a projective psychological tool to probe mental health, psychologists and artists have more recently interpreted the variety of induced images simply as a signature of the observers’ creativity. Here we analyze the relationship between the spatial scaling parameters of the inkblot patterns and the number of induced associations, and suggest that the perceived images are induced by the fractal characteristics of the blot edges. We discuss how this relationship explains the frequent observation of images in natural scenery. PMID:28196082

  5. Spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure influences dispersal and genetic structure: empirical evidence from a grasshopper in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffre, Bertrand; Mallez, Sophie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Leblois, Raphael; Litrico, Isabelle; Delaunay, Sabrina; Badenhausser, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Dispersal may be strongly influenced by landscape and habitat characteristics that could either enhance or restrict movements of organisms. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure could influence gene flow and the spatial structure of populations. In the past decades, agricultural intensification has led to the reduction in grassland surfaces, their fragmentation and intensification. As these changes are not homogeneously distributed in landscapes, they have resulted in spatial heterogeneity with generally less intensified hedged farmland areas remaining alongside streams and rivers. In this study, we assessed spatial pattern of abundance and population genetic structure of a flightless grasshopper species, Pezotettix giornae, based on the surveys of 363 grasslands in a 430-km² agricultural landscape of western France. Data were analysed using geostatistics and landscape genetics based on microsatellites markers and computer simulations. Results suggested that small-scale intense dispersal allows this species to survive in intensive agricultural landscapes. A complex spatial genetic structure related to landscape and habitat characteristics was also detected. Two P. giornae genetic clusters bisected by a linear hedged farmland were inferred from clustering analyses. This linear hedged farmland was characterized by high hedgerow and grassland density as well as higher grassland temporal stability that were suspected to slow down dispersal. Computer simulations demonstrated that a linear-shaped landscape feature limiting dispersal could be detected as a barrier to gene flow and generate the observed genetic pattern. This study illustrates the relevance of using computer simulations to test hypotheses in landscape genetics studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  7. Sampling Strategies for Three-Dimensional Spatial Community Structures in IBD Microbiota Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaocun; Cao, Xiaocang; Huang, He

    2017-01-01

    Identifying intestinal microbiota is arguably an important task that is performed to determine the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD); thus, it is crucial to collect and analyze intestinally-associated microbiota. Analyzing a single niche to categorize individuals does not enable researchers to comprehensively study the spatial variations of the microbiota. Therefore, characterizing the spatial community structures of the inflammatory bowel disease microbiome is critical for advancing our understanding of the inflammatory landscape of IBD. However, at present there is no universally accepted consensus regarding the use of specific sampling strategies in different biogeographic locations. In this review, we discuss the spatial distribution when screening sample collections in IBD microbiota research. Here, we propose a novel model, a three-dimensional spatial community structure, which encompasses the x-, y-, and z-axis distributions; it can be used in some sampling sites, such as feces, colonoscopic biopsy, the mucus gel layer, and oral cavity. On the basis of this spatial model, this article also summarizes various sampling and processing strategies prior to and after DNA extraction and recommends guidelines for practical application in future research.

  8. Spatial variation in vegetation structure coupled to plant available water determined by two-dimensional soil resistivity profiling in a Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joice N; Bustamante, Mercedes; Garcia-Montiel, Diana C; Caylor, Kelly K; Davidson, Eric A

    2007-08-01

    Tropical savannas commonly exhibit large spatial heterogeneity in vegetation structure. Fine-scale patterns of soil moisture, particularly in the deeper soil layers, have not been well investigated as factors possibly influencing vegetation patterns in savannas. Here we investigate the role of soil water availability and heterogeneity related to vegetation structure in an area of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). Our objective was to determine whether horizontal spatial variations of soil water are coupled with patterns of vegetation structure across tens of meters. We applied a novel methodological approach to convert soil electrical resistivity measurements along three 275-m transects to volumetric water content and then to estimates of plant available water (PAW). Structural attributes of the woody vegetation, including plant position, height, basal circumference, crown dimensions, and leaf area index, were surveyed within twenty-two 100-m(2) plots along the same transects, where no obvious vegetation gradients had been apparent. Spatial heterogeneity was evaluated through measurements of spatial autocorrelation in both PAW and vegetation structure. Comparisons with null models suggest that plants were randomly distributed over the transect with the greatest mean PAW and lowest PAW heterogeneity, and clustered in the driest and most heterogeneous transect. Plant density was positively related with PAW in the top 4 m of soil. The density-dependent vegetation attributes that are related to plot biomass, such as sum of tree heights per plot, exhibited spatial variation patterns that were remarkably similar to spatial variation of PAW in the top 4 m of soil. For PAW below 4 m depth, mean vegetation attributes, such as mean height, were negatively correlated with PAW, suggesting greater water uptake from the deep soil by plants of larger stature. These results are consistent with PAW heterogeneity being an important structuring factor in the plant distribution at the

  9. Stochastic model reduction for robust dynamical characterization of structures with random parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghienne, Martin; Blanzé, Claude; Laurent, Luc

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we characterize random eigenspaces with a non-intrusive method based on the decoupling of random eigenvalues from their corresponding random eigenvectors. This method allows us to estimate the first statistical moments of the random eigenvalues of the system with a reduced number of deterministic finite element computations. The originality of this work is to adapt the method used to estimate each random eigenvalue depending on a global accuracy requirement. This allows us to ensure a minimal computational cost. The stochastic model of the structure is thus reduced by exploiting specific properties of random eigenvectors associated with the random eigenfrequencies being sought. An indicator with no additional computation cost is proposed to identify when the method needs to be enhanced. Finally, a simple three-beam frame and an industrial structure illustrate the proposed approach.

  10. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krbálek, Milan, E-mail: milan.krbalek@fjfi.cvut.cz; Hobza, Tomáš

    2016-05-06

    Highlights: • New class of random matrices (DUE) is proposed and analyzed in detail. • Approximation formula for level spacing distribution in DUE ensembles is analytically derived. • Connection between DUE and vehicular systems (analogical to a well-known link between GUE and Mexico buses) is presented. • It is shown that LS distribution of DUE matrices is the same as clearance distribution measured on expressways. - Abstract: We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  11. Inner structure of vehicular ensembles and random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krbálek, Milan; Hobza, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a special class of random matrices (DUE) whose spectral statistics corresponds to statistics of microscopical quantities detected in vehicular flows. Comparing the level spacing distribution (for ordered eigenvalues in unfolded spectra of DUE matrices) with the time-clearance distribution extracted from various areas of the flux-density diagram (evaluated from original traffic data measured on Czech expressways with high occupancies) we demonstrate that the set of classical systems showing an universality associated with Random Matrix Ensembles can be extended by traffic systems.

  12. Ecological divergence among colour morphs mediated by changes in spatial network structure associated with disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Matthew S; Miles, Donald B

    2014-11-01

    Differences in individual behaviour affect social interactions and contribute to the spatial structuring of animal populations. However, disturbance should also affect spatial networks by altering habitat heterogeneity and resource availability. Variation in resource availability should perturb the frequency and nature of social and ecological interactions within a population by affecting the spatial distribution of individuals. In disturbed habitats where resources are limiting, spatial relationships should reflect behavioural differences among individuals, with higher-quality resources controlled by dominant individuals. In contrast, all individuals may exploit preferred resources in resource-rich habitats. Environmental variation and population reorganization may also result in variation in morphological, behavioural and ecological traits, which ultimately affect fitness. We addressed these considerations for male tree lizards (Urosaurus ornatus) at three sites that differ in levels of disturbance. The habitats at these localities differed in the availability of live trees, the preferred microhabitat of U. ornatus. In addition, male U. ornatus exhibits a polymorphism in dewlap colour linked with differences in aggression, which should influence their position in a network and access to resources. We applied a network framework to characterize the spatial organization of male morphs at each site and quantified male aggressive behaviour in the laboratory. We also compared body size, body condition, number of bite marks, parasite load and the microhabitat use and diet, of males among the sites. We detected no significant differences in spatial network structure between unburned and infrequently burned sites. However, at a frequently burned site, the network shifted towards geographically closer, heteromorphic male neighbour associations. Males at this site were also larger, more aggressive and had more bite marks but fewer parasites than males at the other sites

  13. Spatial structure and distribution of small pelagic fish in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Saraux

    Full Text Available Understanding the ecological and anthropogenic drivers of population dynamics requires detailed studies on habitat selection and spatial distribution. Although small pelagic fish aggregate in large shoals and usually exhibit important spatial structure, their dynamics in time and space remain unpredictable and challenging. In the Gulf of Lions (north-western Mediterranean, sardine and anchovy biomasses have declined over the past 5 years causing an important fishery crisis while sprat abundance rose. Applying geostatistical tools on scientific acoustic surveys conducted in the Gulf of Lions, we investigated anchovy, sardine and sprat spatial distributions and structures over 10 years. Our results show that sardines and sprats were more coastal than anchovies. The spatial structure of the three species was fairly stable over time according to variogram outputs, while year-to-year variations in kriged maps highlighted substantial changes in their location. Support for the McCall's basin hypothesis (covariation of both population density and presence area with biomass was found only in sprats, the most variable of the three species. An innovative method to investigate species collocation at different scales revealed that globally the three species strongly overlap. Although species often co-occurred in terms of presence/absence, their biomass density differed at local scale, suggesting potential interspecific avoidance or different sensitivity to local environmental characteristics. Persistent favourable areas were finally detected, but their environmental characteristics remain to be determined.

  14. Spatial structures of the environment and of dispersal impact species distribution in competitive metacommunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Dexiecuo; Gravel, Dominique; Chu, Chengjin; Wang, Gang

    2013-01-01

    The correspondence between species distribution and the environment depends on species' ability to track favorable environmental conditions (via dispersal) and to maintain competitive hierarchy against the constant influx of migrants (mass effect) and demographic stochasticity (ecological drift). Here we report a simulation study of the influence of landscape structure on species distribution. We consider lottery competition for space in a spatially heterogeneous environment, where the landscape is represented as a network of localities connected by dispersal. We quantified the contribution of neutrality and species sorting to their spatial distribution. We found that neutrality increases and the strength of species-sorting decreases with the centrality of a community in the landscape when the average dispersal among communities is low, whereas the opposite was found at elevated dispersal. We also found that the strength of species-sorting increases with environmental heterogeneity. Our results illustrate that spatial structure of the environment and of dispersal must be taken into account for understanding species distribution. We stress the importance of spatial geographic structure on the relative importance of niche vs. neutral processes in controlling community dynamics.

  15. Influence of correspondence noise and spatial scaling on the upper limit for spatial displacement in fully-coherent random-dot kinematogram stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srimant P Tripathy

    Full Text Available Correspondence noise is a major factor limiting direction discrimination performance in random-dot kinematograms. In the current study we investigated the influence of correspondence noise on Dmax, which is the upper limit for the spatial displacement of the dots for which coherent motion is still perceived. Human direction discrimination performance was measured, using 2-frame kinematograms having leftward/rightward motion, over a 200-fold range of dot-densities and a four-fold range of dot displacements. From this data Dmax was estimated for the different dot densities tested. A model was proposed to evaluate the correspondence noise in the stimulus. This model summed the outputs of a set of elementary Reichardt-type local detectors that had receptive fields tiling the stimulus and were tuned to the two directions of motion in the stimulus. A key assumption of the model was that the local detectors would have the radius of their catchment areas scaled with the displacement that they were tuned to detect; the scaling factor k linking the radius to the displacement was the only free parameter in the model and a single value of k was used to fit all of the psychophysical data collected. This minimal, correspondence-noise based model was able to account for 91% of the variability in the human performance across all of the conditions tested. The results highlight the importance of correspondence noise in constraining the largest displacement that can be detected.

  16. An inverse method for the identification of a distributed random excitation acting on a vibrating structure. Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granger, S.; Perotin, L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France)

    1997-12-31

    Maintaining the PWR components under reliable operating conditions requires a complex design to prevent various damaging processes, including fatigue and wear problems due to flow-induced vibration. In many practical situations, it is difficult, if not impossible, to perform direct measurements or calculations of the external forces acting on vibrating structures. Instead, vibrational responses can often be conveniently measured. This paper presents an inverse method for estimating a distributed random excitation from the measurement of the structural response at a number of discrete points. This paper is devoted to the presentation of the theoretical development. The force identification method is based on a modal model for the structure and a spatial orthonormal decomposition of the excitation field. The estimation of the Fourier coefficients of this orthonormal expansion is presented. As this problem turns out to be ill-posed, a regularization process is introduced. The minimization problem associated to this process is then formulated and its solutions is developed. (author) 17 refs.

  17. [Differences in spatial structures of the influenza virus M1 protein in crystal, solution and virion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, E N; Dolgov, A A; Chulichkov, A L; Shishkov, A V; Ksenofontov, A L; Fedorova, N V; Baratova, L A

    2012-01-01

    Spatial structure of the influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8, subtype H1N1) M1 protein in a solution and composition of the virion was studied by tritium planigraphy technique. The special algorithm for modeling of the spatial structure is used to simulate the experiment, as well as a set of algorithms predicting secondary structure and disordered regions in proteins. Tertiary structures were refined using the program Rosetta. To compare the structures in solution and in virion, also used the X-ray diffraction data for NM-domain. The main difference between protein structure in solution and crystal is observed in the contact region of N- and M-domains, which are more densely packed in the crystalline state. Locations include the maximum label is almost identical to the unstructured regions of proteins predicted by bioinformatics analysis. These areas are concentrated in the C-domain and in the loop regions between the M-, N-, and C-domains. Analytical centrifugation and dynamic laser light scattering confirm data of tritium planigraphy. Anomalous hydrodynamic size, and low structuring of the M1 protein in solution were found. The multifunctionality of protein in the cell appears to be associated with its plastic tertiary structure, which provides at the expense of unstructured regions of contact with various molecules-partners.

  18. Eigenspectrum bounds for semirandom matrices with modular and spatial structure for neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Dylan R; Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The eigenvalue spectrum of the matrix of directed weights defining a neural network model is informative of several stability and dynamical properties of network activity. Existing results for eigenspectra of sparse asymmetric random matrices neglect spatial or other constraints in determining entries in these matrices, and so are of partial applicability to cortical-like architectures. Here we examine a parameterized class of networks that are defined by sparse connectivity, with connection weighting modulated by physical proximity (i.e., asymmetric Euclidean random matrices), modular network partitioning, and functional specificity within the excitatory population. We present a set of analytical constraints that apply to the eigenvalue spectra of associated weight matrices, highlighting the relationship between connectivity rules and classes of network dynamics.

  19. Discovery of Non-random Spatial Distribution of Impacts in the Stardust Cometary Collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westphal, A J; Bastien, R K; Borg, J; Bridges, J; Brownlee, D E; Burchell, M J; Cheng, A F; Clark, B C; Djouadi, Z; Floss, C; Franchi, I; Gainsforth, Z; Graham, G; Green, S F; Heck, P R; Horanyi, M; Hoppe, P; Horz, F P; Huth, J; Kearsley, A; Leroux, H; Marhas, K; Nakamura-Messenger, K; Sandford, S A; See, T H; Stadermann, F J; Teslich, N E; Tsitrin, S; Warren, J L; Wozniakiewicz, P J; Zolensky, M E

    2007-04-06

    We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than {approx} 10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluated several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis was consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.

  20. A Random Forest approach to predict the spatial distribution of sediment pollution in an estuarine system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S Walsh

    Full Text Available Modeling the magnitude and distribution of sediment-bound pollutants in estuaries is often limited by incomplete knowledge of the site and inadequate sample density. To address these modeling limitations, a decision-support tool framework was conceived that predicts sediment contamination from the sub-estuary to broader estuary extent. For this study, a Random Forest (RF model was implemented to predict the distribution of a model contaminant, triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxyphenol (TCS, in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, USA. TCS is an unregulated contaminant used in many personal care products. The RF explanatory variables were associated with TCS transport and fate (proxies and direct and indirect environmental entry. The continuous RF TCS concentration predictions were discretized into three levels of contamination (low, medium, and high for three different quantile thresholds. The RF model explained 63% of the variance with a minimum number of variables. Total organic carbon (TOC (transport and fate proxy was a strong predictor of TCS contamination causing a mean squared error increase of 59% when compared to permutations of randomized values of TOC. Additionally, combined sewer overflow discharge (environmental entry and sand (transport and fate proxy were strong predictors. The discretization models identified a TCS area of greatest concern in the northern reach of Narragansett Bay (Providence River sub-estuary, which was validated with independent test samples. This decision-support tool performed well at the sub-estuary extent and provided the means to identify areas of concern and prioritize bay-wide sampling.

  1. Effect of spatial forcing data and landscape heterogeneity on performance and consistency of model structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Tanja; Winsemius, Hessel; Hrachowitz, Markus; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    One of the main questions in hydrological modelling is how to design conceptual rainfall-runoff models with a higher degree of realism. It is expected that if models have a higher degree of realism, their predictive power will increase. One frequently discussed option is the use of more spatial information, which is increasingly available. Information with spatial variability can be found for example for forcing data, elevation, land use, etc. The abundance of spatially variable data requires the modeller to carefully select which data add realism to the model and which data only add complexity. An additional complication is further that the spatial detail required is a function of the time scales of the forcing data and the required output. The amount of spatially variable data available can guide the choice of an adequate distribution level of a model. As it is often difficult to determine the most suitable level of distribution for a certain catchment, this study systematically evaluates the value of incorporating distributed forcing data and distributed model structures in a stepwise approach for the Ourthe catchment (Belgium). The distribution of the model structures is based on landscape heterogeneity, using both elevation data and land use data. Eight different model configurations are tested: a lumped and a distributed model structure, each with lumped and stepwise distributed fluxes and stocks. To stepwise distribute the fluxes and stocks, the distributed forcing data is sequentially kept distributed for each reservoir of the model. To compare the degree of realism of the different configurations, both model performance and consistency are compared. Performance describes the ability of a model configuration to mimic a specific part of the hydrological behaviour in a specific catchment. Consistency describes the ability of a model configuration to adequately reproduce several hydrological signatures simultaneously. FARM (Framework to Assess the Realism of

  2. Variable chromatin structure revealed by in situ spatially correlated DNA cleavage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risca, Viviana I; Denny, Sarah K; Straight, Aaron F; Greenleaf, William J

    2017-01-12

    Chromatin structure at the length scale encompassing local nucleosome-nucleosome interactions is thought to play a crucial role in regulating transcription and access to DNA. However, this secondary structure of chromatin remains poorly understood compared with the primary structure of single nucleosomes or the tertiary structure of long-range looping interactions. Here we report the first genome-wide map of chromatin conformation in human cells at the 1-3 nucleosome (50-500 bp) scale, obtained using ionizing radiation-induced spatially correlated cleavage of DNA with sequencing (RICC-seq) to identify DNA-DNA contacts that are spatially proximal. Unbiased analysis of RICC-seq signal reveals regional enrichment of DNA fragments characteristic of alternating rather than adjacent nucleosome interactions in tri-nucleosome units, particularly in H3K9me3-marked heterochromatin. We infer differences in the likelihood of nucleosome-nucleosome contacts among open chromatin, H3K27me3-marked, and H3K9me3-marked repressed chromatin regions. After calibrating RICC-seq signal to three-dimensional distances, we show that compact two-start helical fibre structures with stacked alternating nucleosomes are consistent with RICC-seq fragmentation patterns from H3K9me3-marked chromatin, while non-compact structures and solenoid structures are consistent with open chromatin. Our data support a model of chromatin architecture in intact interphase nuclei consistent with variable longitudinal compaction of two-start helical fibres.

  3. Research on spatial economic structure for different economic sectors from a perspective of a complex network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sen; Yang, Hualei; Cai, Boliang; Yang, Chunxia

    2013-09-01

    The economy system is a complex system, and the complex network is a powerful tool to study its complexity. Here we calculate the economic distance matrices based on annual GDP of nine economic sectors from 1995-2010 in 31 Chinese provinces and autonomous regions,1 then build several spatial economic networks through the threshold method and the Minimal Spanning Tree method. After the analysis on the structure of the networks and the influence of geographic distance, some conclusions are drawn. First, connectivity distribution of a spatial economic network does not follow the power law. Second, according to the network structure, nine economic sectors could be divided into two groups, and there is significant discrepancy of network structure between these two groups. Moreover, the influence of the geographic distance plays an important role on the structure of a spatial economic network, network parameters are changed with the influence of the geographic distance. At last, 2000 km is the critical value for geographic distance: for real estate and finance, the spearman’s rho with l2000, and the case is opposite for other economic sectors.

  4. Slepian Simulations of Plastic Displacements of Randomly Excited Hysteretic Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov

    2003-01-01

    The object of the study is a fast simulation method for generation and analysis of the plastic response of a randomly excited MDOF oscillatro with several potential elements with elasto-plastic constitutive behavior. The oscillator is statically determinate with linear damping. The external...... that are interesting for the plastic displacement process. These parts are those that are in the vicinity of the points of crossing of the response from the elastic domain to the plastic domain. The principle of the method is to use the known response properties at the crossing points of the stationary Gaussian white...... noise excited linear oscillator obtained from the elasto-plastic oscillator by totally removing the plastic domain. Thus the key to the applicability of the method is that the oscillator has a linear domain within which the response stays for a sufficiently long time to make the random response behave...

  5. Spatial Structuring and the Development of Number Sense: A Case Study of Young Children Working with Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nes, Fenna; van Eerde, Dolly

    2010-01-01

    This case study discusses an activity that makes up one of five lessons in an ongoing classroom teaching experiment. The goal of the teaching experiment is (a) to gain insight into kindergartners' spatial structuring abilities, and (b) to design an educational setting that can support kindergartners in becoming aware of spatial structures and in…

  6. Incorporating covariance estimation uncertainty in spatial sampling design for prediction with trans-Gaussian random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter eSpöck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spock and Pilz [38], demonstratedthat the spatial sampling design problem forthe Bayesian linear kriging predictor can betransformed to an equivalent experimentaldesign problem for a linear regression modelwith stochastic regression coefficients anduncorrelated errors. The stochastic regressioncoefficients derive from the polar spectralapproximation of the residual process. Thus,standard optimal convex experimental designtheory can be used to calculate optimal spatialsampling designs. The design functionals ̈considered in Spock and Pilz [38] did nottake into account the fact that kriging isactually a plug-in predictor which uses theestimated covariance function. The resultingoptimal designs were close to space-fillingconfigurations, because the design criteriondid not consider the uncertainty of thecovariance function.In this paper we also assume that thecovariance function is estimated, e.g., byrestricted maximum likelihood (REML. Wethen develop a design criterion that fully takesaccount of the covariance uncertainty. Theresulting designs are less regular and space-filling compared to those ignoring covarianceuncertainty. The new designs, however, alsorequire some closely spaced samples in orderto improve the estimate of the covariancefunction. We also relax the assumption ofGaussian observations and assume that thedata is transformed to Gaussianity by meansof the Box-Cox transformation. The resultingprediction method is known as trans-Gaussiankriging. We apply the Smith and Zhu [37]approach to this kriging method and show thatresulting optimal designs also depend on theavailable data. We illustrate our results witha data set of monthly rainfall measurementsfrom Upper Austria.

  7. Spatial prediction of landslides using a hybrid machine learning approach based on Random Subspace and Classification and Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh Thai; Prakash, Indra; Tien Bui, Dieu

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid machine learning approach of Random Subspace (RSS) and Classification And Regression Trees (CART) is proposed to develop a model named RSSCART for spatial prediction of landslides. This model is a combination of the RSS method which is known as an efficient ensemble technique and the CART which is a state of the art classifier. The Luc Yen district of Yen Bai province, a prominent landslide prone area of Viet Nam, was selected for the model development. Performance of the RSSCART model was evaluated through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, statistical analysis methods, and the Chi Square test. Results were compared with other benchmark landslide models namely Support Vector Machines (SVM), single CART, Naïve Bayes Trees (NBT), and Logistic Regression (LR). In the development of model, ten important landslide affecting factors related with geomorphology, geology and geo-environment were considered namely slope angles, elevation, slope aspect, curvature, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and rainfall. Performance of the RSSCART model (AUC = 0.841) is the best compared with other popular landslide models namely SVM (0.835), single CART (0.822), NBT (0.821), and LR (0.723). These results indicate that performance of the RSSCART is a promising method for spatial landslide prediction.

  8. Disaggregating radar-derived rainfall measurements in East Azarbaijan, Iran, using a spatial random-cascade model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Osgouei, Hojjatollah; Zarghami, Mahdi; Ashouri, Hamed

    2017-07-01

    The availability of spatial, high-resolution rainfall data is one of the most essential needs in the study of water resources. These data are extremely valuable in providing flood awareness for dense urban and industrial areas. The first part of this paper applies an optimization-based method to the calibration of radar data based on ground rainfall gauges. Then, the climatological Z-R relationship for the Sahand radar, located in the East Azarbaijan province of Iran, with the help of three adjacent rainfall stations, is obtained. The new climatological Z-R relationship with a power-law form shows acceptable statistical performance, making it suitable for radar-rainfall estimation by the Sahand radar outputs. The second part of the study develops a new heterogeneous random-cascade model for spatially disaggregating the rainfall data resulting from the power-law model. This model is applied to the radar-rainfall image data to disaggregate rainfall data with coverage area of 512 × 512 km2 to a resolution of 32 × 32 km2. Results show that the proposed model has a good ability to disaggregate rainfall data, which may lead to improvement in precipitation forecasting, and ultimately better water-resources management in this arid region, including Urmia Lake.

  9. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  10. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  11. Spatial structure of an individual-based plant–pollinator network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupont, Yoko Luise; Nielsen, Kristian Trøjelsgaard; Hagen, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    for which the identities and spatial locations of stems were mapped in a 50  50 m study plot. The plant–pollinator network was dominated by parasitic male bumblebees and had a significantly modular structure, with four identified modules being clearly separated in space. This indicated that individual......The influence of space on the structure (e.g. modularity) of complex ecological networks remains largely unknown. Here, we sampled an individual-based plant–pollinator network by following the movements and flower visits of marked bumblebee individuals within a population of thistle plants...... flower visitors opted for the fine-scale division of resources, even within a local site. However, spatial mapping of network modules and movements of bumblebee individuals also showed an overlap in the dense center of the plant patch. Model selection based on Akaike information criterion with traits...

  12. Alexa Fluor-labeled Fluorescent Cellulose Nanocrystals for Bioimaging Solid Cellulose in Spatially Structured Microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grate, Jay W.; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J.; Brockman, Fred J.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2015-03-18

    Cellulose nanocrystal materials have been labeled with modern Alexa Fluor dyes in a process that first links the dye to a cyanuric chloride molecule. Subsequent reaction with cellulose nanocrystals provides dyed solid microcrystalline cellulose material that can be used for bioimaging and suitable for deposition in films and spatially structured microenvironments. It is demonstrated with single molecular fluorescence microscopy that these films are subject to hydrolysis by cellulose enzymes.

  13. Analysis on city tour routes in relation to urban spatial structure and pedestrian movement

    OpenAIRE

    Uoosang, Yoo; Choi, Hyun-Yeol; Oh, Junho

    2012-01-01

    Gwangju has a plan for Urban Regeneration in an old urban center where it has witnessed the decrease of population and economic vitality, Gwangju tries to draw more tourists to the old urban center by introducing a large-scale cultural project. The Asia Culture Complex (ACC) scheduled to be completed in 2014 is the biggest cultural facility in Asia. It is supposed to bring many changes in urban spatial structure and to attract more tourists. This study, utilizing Space Syntax modeling, analyz...

  14. New Constraints on Spatial Variations of the Fine Structure Constant from Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan De Martino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We have constrained the spatial variation of the fine structure constant using multi-frequency measurements of the thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect of 618 X-ray selected clusters. Although our results are not competitive with the ones from quasar absorption lines, we improved by a factor 10 and ∼2.5 previous results from Cosmic Microwave Background power spectrum and from galaxy clusters, respectively.

  15. Spatial Genetic Structure and Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of Argentinean Populations of the Grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus

    OpenAIRE

    Rosetti, Natalia; Remis, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of ...

  16. Novel Ordered Stepped-Wedge Cluster Trial Designs for Detecting Ebola Vaccine Efficacy Using a Spatially Structured Mathematical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakite, Ibrahim; Mooring, Eric Q; Velásquez, Gustavo E; Murray, Megan B

    2016-08-01

    During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak, policy-makers were confronted with difficult decisions on how best to test the efficacy of EVD vaccines. On one hand, many were reluctant to withhold a vaccine that might prevent a fatal disease from study participants randomized to a control arm. On the other, regulatory bodies called for rigorous placebo-controlled trials to permit direct measurement of vaccine efficacy prior to approval of the products. A stepped-wedge cluster study (SWCT) was proposed as an alternative to a more traditional randomized controlled vaccine trial to address these concerns. Here, we propose novel "ordered stepped-wedge cluster trial" (OSWCT) designs to further mitigate tradeoffs between ethical concerns, logistics, and statistical rigor. We constructed a spatially structured mathematical model of the EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone. We used the output of this model to simulate and compare a series of stepped-wedge cluster vaccine studies. Our model reproduced the observed order of first case occurrence within districts of Sierra Leone. Depending on the infection risk within the trial population and the trial start dates, the statistical power to detect a vaccine efficacy of 90% varied from 14% to 32% for standard SWCT, and from 67% to 91% for OSWCTs for an alpha error of 5%. The model's projection of first case occurrence was robust to changes in disease natural history parameters. Ordering clusters in a step-wedge trial based on the cluster's underlying risk of infection as predicted by a spatial model can increase the statistical power of a SWCT. In the event of another hemorrhagic fever outbreak, implementation of our proposed OSWCT designs could improve statistical power when a step-wedge study is desirable based on either ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

  17. Novel Ordered Stepped-Wedge Cluster Trial Designs for Detecting Ebola Vaccine Efficacy Using a Spatially Structured Mathematical Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Diakite

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD outbreak, policy-makers were confronted with difficult decisions on how best to test the efficacy of EVD vaccines. On one hand, many were reluctant to withhold a vaccine that might prevent a fatal disease from study participants randomized to a control arm. On the other, regulatory bodies called for rigorous placebo-controlled trials to permit direct measurement of vaccine efficacy prior to approval of the products. A stepped-wedge cluster study (SWCT was proposed as an alternative to a more traditional randomized controlled vaccine trial to address these concerns. Here, we propose novel "ordered stepped-wedge cluster trial" (OSWCT designs to further mitigate tradeoffs between ethical concerns, logistics, and statistical rigor.We constructed a spatially structured mathematical model of the EVD outbreak in Sierra Leone. We used the output of this model to simulate and compare a series of stepped-wedge cluster vaccine studies. Our model reproduced the observed order of first case occurrence within districts of Sierra Leone. Depending on the infection risk within the trial population and the trial start dates, the statistical power to detect a vaccine efficacy of 90% varied from 14% to 32% for standard SWCT, and from 67% to 91% for OSWCTs for an alpha error of 5%. The model's projection of first case occurrence was robust to changes in disease natural history parameters.Ordering clusters in a step-wedge trial based on the cluster's underlying risk of infection as predicted by a spatial model can increase the statistical power of a SWCT. In the event of another hemorrhagic fever outbreak, implementation of our proposed OSWCT designs could improve statistical power when a step-wedge study is desirable based on either ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

  18. Localized surface plasmon enhanced cellular imaging using random metallic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Taehwang; Lee, Wonju; Kim, Donghyun

    2017-02-01

    We have studied fluorescence cellular imaging with randomly distributed localized near-field induced by silver nano-islands. For the fabrication of nano-islands, a 10-nm silver thin film evaporated on a BK7 glass substrate with an adhesion layer of 2-nm thick chromium. Micrometer sized silver square pattern was defined using e-beam lithography and then the film was annealed at 200°C. Raw images were restored using electric field distribution produced on the surface of random nano-islands. Nano-islands were modeled from SEM images. 488-nm p-polarized light source was set to be incident at 60°. Simulation results show that localized electric fields were created among nano-islands and that their average size was found to be 135 nm. The feasibility was tested using conventional total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy while the angle of incidence was adjusted to maximize field enhancement. Mouse microphage cells were cultured on nano-islands, and actin filaments were selectively stained with FITC-conjugated phalloidin. Acquired images were deconvolved based on linear imaging theory, in which molecular distribution was sampled by randomly distributed localized near-field and blurred by point spread function of far-field optics. The optimum fluorophore distribution was probabilistically estimated by repetitively matching a raw image. The deconvolved images are estimated to have a resolution in the range of 100-150 nm largely determined by the size of localized near-fields. We also discuss and compare the results with images acquired with periodic nano-aperture arrays in various optical configurations to excite localized plasmonic fields and to produce super-resolved molecular images.

  19. Random vectorial fields representing the local structure of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevillard, Laurent [Laboratoire de Physique de l' ENS Lyon, CNRS, Universite de Lyon, 46 allee d' Italie, 69007 Lyon (France); Robert, Raoul [Institut Fourier, CNRS, Universite Grenoble 1, 100 rue des Mathematiques, BP 74, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres cedex (France); Vargas, Vincent, E-mail: laurent.chevillard@ens-lyon.fr [Ceremade, CNRS, Universite Paris-Dauphine, F-75016 Paris (France)

    2011-12-22

    We propose a method to build up a random homogeneous, isotropic and incompressible turbulent velocity field that mimics turbulence in the inertial range. The underlying Gaussian field is given by a modified Biot-Savart law. The long range correlated nature of turbulence is then incorporated heuristically using a non linear transformation inspired by the recent fluid deformation imposed by the Euler equations. The resulting velocity field shows a non vanishing mean energy transfer towards the small scales and realistic alignment properties of vorticity with the eigenframe of the deformation rate.

  20. Analytical and Experimental Random Vibration of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-28

    dinamics . Sijthoff- Hilton, H H. and Feigen. M. Minimum weight analysis based on structural Noordhoff Co, Netherlands. reliability. J Aerospace Sc, 27...AEROELASTIC STRUCTURES January 28, 1987 ELECT Tpp. AIM" 0OV 7PTCE OF 9r(’TF1CP RESCH JAMi) NOTI-CE OF wIM 1 T AL TO D .TAC’ ..hirte;h-tz’ l rer)t ’(V...freedom aeroelastic structural model in the neighborhood of combination internal resonance condition. The Fokker:Planck equation approach is used to

  1. The impact of natural transformation on adaptation in spatially structured bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradigaravand, Danesh; Engelstädter, Jan

    2014-06-20

    Recent studies have demonstrated that natural transformation and the formation of highly structured populations in bacteria are interconnected. In spite of growing evidence about this connection, little is known about the dynamics of natural transformation in spatially structured bacterial populations. In this work, we model the interdependency between the dynamics of the bacterial gene pool and those of environmental DNA in space to dissect the effect of transformation on adaptation. Our model reveals that even with only a single locus under consideration, transformation with a free DNA fragment pool results in complex adaptation dynamics that do not emerge in previous models focusing only on the gene shuffling effect of transformation at multiple loci. We demonstrate how spatial restriction on population growth and DNA diffusion in the environment affect the impact of transformation on adaptation. We found that in structured bacterial populations intermediate DNA diffusion rates predominantly cause transformation to impede adaptation by spreading deleterious alleles in the population. Overall, our model highlights distinctive evolutionary consequences of bacterial transformation in spatially restricted compared to planktonic bacterial populations.

  2. Emergence of spatial structure in cell groups and the evolution of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey D Nadell

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available On its own, a single cell cannot exert more than a microscopic influence on its immediate surroundings. However, via strength in numbers and the expression of cooperative phenotypes, such cells can enormously impact their environments. Simple cooperative phenotypes appear to abound in the microbial world, but explaining their evolution is challenging because they are often subject to exploitation by rapidly growing, non-cooperative cell lines. Population spatial structure may be critical for this problem because it influences the extent of interaction between cooperative and non-cooperative individuals. It is difficult for cooperative cells to succeed in competition if they become mixed with non-cooperative cells, which can exploit the public good without themselves paying a cost. However, if cooperative cells are segregated in space and preferentially interact with each other, they may prevail. Here we use a multi-agent computational model to study the origin of spatial structure within growing cell groups. Our simulations reveal that the spatial distribution of genetic lineages within these groups is linked to a small number of physical and biological parameters, including cell growth rate, nutrient availability, and nutrient diffusivity. Realistic changes in these parameters qualitatively alter the emergent structure of cell groups, and thereby determine whether cells with cooperative phenotypes can locally and globally outcompete exploitative cells. We argue that cooperative and exploitative cell lineages will spontaneously segregate in space under a wide range of conditions and, therefore, that cellular cooperation may evolve more readily than naively expected.

  3. Completely random measures for modelling block-structured sparse networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Many statistical methods for network data parameterize the edge-probability by attributing latent traits to the vertices such as block structure and assume exchangeability in the sense of the Aldous-Hoover representation theorem. Empirical studies of networks indicate that many real-world networks...... [2014] proposed the use of a different notion of exchangeability due to Kallenberg [2006] and obtained a network model which admits power-law behaviour while retaining desirable statistical properties, however this model does not capture latent vertex traits such as block-structure. In this work we re......-introduce the use of block-structure for network models obeying allenberg’s notion of exchangeability and thereby obtain a model which admits the inference of block-structure and edge inhomogeneity. We derive a simple expression for the likelihood and an efficient sampling method. The obtained model...

  4. Regulation of the demographic structure in isomorphic biphasic life cycles at the spatial fine scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Manuel Nobre de Carvalho da Silva Vieira

    Full Text Available Isomorphic biphasic algal life cycles often occur in the environment at ploidy abundance ratios (Haploid:Diploid different from 1. Its spatial variability occurs within populations related to intertidal height and hydrodynamic stress, possibly reflecting the niche partitioning driven by their diverging adaptation to the environment argued necessary for their prevalence (evolutionary stability. Demographic models based in matrix algebra were developed to investigate which vital rates may efficiently generate an H:D variability at a fine spatial resolution. It was also taken into account time variation and type of life strategy. Ploidy dissimilarities in fecundity rates set an H:D spatial structure miss-fitting the ploidy fitness ratio. The same happened with ploidy dissimilarities in ramet growth whenever reproductive output dominated the population demography. Only through ploidy dissimilarities in looping rates (stasis, breakage and clonal growth did the life cycle respond to a spatially heterogeneous environment efficiently creating a niche partition. Marginal locations were more sensitive than central locations. Related results have been obtained experimentally and numerically for widely different life cycles from the plant and animal kingdoms. Spore dispersal smoothed the effects of ploidy dissimilarities in fertility and enhanced the effects of ploidy dissimilarities looping rates. Ploidy dissimilarities in spore dispersal could also create the necessary niche partition, both over the space and time dimensions, even in spatial homogeneous environments and without the need for conditional differentiation of the ramets. Fine scale spatial variability may be the key for the prevalence of isomorphic biphasic life cycles, which has been neglected so far.

  5. Structured learning for spatial information extraction from biomedical text: bacteria biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordjamshidi, Parisa; Roth, Dan; Moens, Marie-Francine

    2015-04-25

    We aim to automatically extract species names of bacteria and their locations from webpages. This task is important for exploiting the vast amount of biological knowledge which is expressed in diverse natural language texts and putting this knowledge in databases for easy access by biologists. The task is challenging and the previous results are far below an acceptable level of performance, particularly for extraction of localization relationships. Therefore, we aim to design a new system for such extractions, using the framework of structured machine learning techniques. We design a new model for joint extraction of biomedical entities and the localization relationship. Our model is based on a spatial role labeling (SpRL) model designed for spatial understanding of unrestricted text. We extend SpRL to extract discourse level spatial relations in the biomedical domain and apply it on the BioNLP-ST 2013, BB-shared task. We highlight the main differences between general spatial language understanding and spatial information extraction from the scientific text which is the focus of this work. We exploit the text's structure and discourse level global features. Our model and the designed features substantially improve on the previous systems, achieving an absolute improvement of approximately 57 percent over F1 measure of the best previous system for this task. Our experimental results indicate that a joint learning model over all entities and relationships in a document outperforms a model which extracts entities and relationships independently. Our global learning model significantly improves the state-of-the-art results on this task and has a high potential to be adopted in other natural language processing (NLP) tasks in the biomedical domain.

  6. Phonon structures of GaN-based random semiconductor alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Xiaobin; Li, Gang; Zheng, Fawei; Zhang, Ping

    2017-12-01

    Accurate modeling of thermal properties is strikingly important for developing next-generation electronics with high performance. Many thermal properties are closely related to phonon dispersions, such as sound velocity. However, random substituted semiconductor alloys AxB1-x usually lack translational symmetry, and simulation with periodic boundary conditions often requires large supercells, which makes phonon dispersion highly folded and hardly comparable with experimental results. Here, we adopt a large supercell with randomly distributed A and B atoms to investigate substitution effect on the phonon dispersions of semiconductor alloys systematically by using phonon unfolding method [F. Zheng, P. Zhang, Comput. Mater. Sci. 125, 218 (2016)]. The results reveal the extent to which phonon band characteristics in (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) are preserved or lost at different compositions and q points. Generally, most characteristics of phonon dispersions can be preserved with indium substitution of gallium in GaN, while substitution of nitrogen with phosphorus strongly perturbs the phonon dispersion of GaN, showing a rapid disintegration of the Bloch characteristics of optical modes and introducing localized impurity modes. In addition, the sound velocities of both (In,Ga)N and Ga(N,P) display a nearly linear behavior as a function of substitution compositions. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page at http://https://doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2017-80481-0.

  7. Aedes aegypti has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Gordana; Endersby-Harshman, Nancy; Tantowijoyo, Warsito; Goundar, Anjali; White, Vanessa; Yang, Qiong; Filipović, Igor; Johnson, Petrina; Hoffmann, Ary A; Arguni, Eggi

    2015-12-01

    Dengue fever, the most prevalent global arboviral disease, represents an important public health problem in Indonesia. Control of dengue relies on the control of its main vector, the mosquito Aedes aegypti, yet nothing is known about the population history and genetic structure of this insect in Indonesia. Our aim was to assess the spatio-temporal population genetic structure of Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta, a densely populated region on Java with common dengue outbreaks. We used multiple marker systems (microsatellites, nuclear and mitochondrial genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms generated via Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing) to analyze 979 Ae. aegypti individuals collected from the Yogyakarta city and the surrounding hamlets during the wet season in 2011 and the following dry season in 2012. We employed individual- and group-based approaches for inferring genetic structure. We found that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta has spatially structured and seasonally stable populations. The spatial structuring was significant for the nuclear and mitochondrial markers, while the temporal structuring was non-significant. Nuclear markers identified three main genetic clusters, showing that hamlets have greater genetic isolation from each other and from the inner city sites. However, one hamlet experienced unrestricted mosquito interbreeding with the inner city, forming a single genetic cluster. Genetic distance was poorly correlated with the spatial distance among mosquito samples, suggesting stronger influence of human-assisted gene flow than active mosquito movement on spatial genetic structure. A star-shaped mitochondrial haplotype network and a significant R(2) test statistic (R(2) = 0.0187, P = 0.001) support the hypothesis that Ae. aegypti in Yogyakarta originated from a small or homogeneous source and has undergone a relatively recent demographic expansion. We report the first insights into the spatio-temporal genetic structure and the underlying

  8. Mixed model with spatial variance-covariance structure for accommodating of local stationary trend and its influence on multi-environmental crop variety trial assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negash, A. W.; Mwambi, H.; Zewotir, T.; Eweke, G.

    2014-06-01

    The most common procedure for analyzing multi-environmental trials is based on the assumption that the residual error variance is homogenous across all locations considered. However, this may often be unrealistic, and therefore limit the accuracy of variety evaluation or the reliability of variety recommendations. The objectives of this study were to show the advantages of mixed models with spatial variance-covariance structures, and direct implications of model choice on the inference of varietal performance, ranking and testing based on two multi-environmental data sets from realistic national trials. A model comparison with a {chi}{sup 2}-test for the trials in the two data sets (wheat data set BW00RVTI and barley data set BW01RVII) suggested that selected spatial variance-covariance structures fitted the data significantly better than the ANOVA model. The forms of optimally-fitted spatial variance-covariance, ranking and consistency ratio test were not the same from one trial (location) to the other. Linear mixed models with single stage analysis including spatial variance-covariance structure with a group factor of location on the random model also improved the real estimation of genotype effect and their ranking. The model also improved varietal performance estimation because of its capacity to handle additional sources of variation, location and genotype by location (environment) interaction variation and accommodating of local stationary trend. (Author)

  9. Role of synaptic structural plasticity in impairments of spatial learning and memory induced by developmental lead exposure in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmei Xiao

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb is found to impair cognitive function. Synaptic structural plasticity is considered to be the physiological basis of synaptic functional plasticity and has been recently found to play important roles in learning and memory. To study the effect of Pb on spatial learning and memory at different developmental stages, and its relationship with alterations of synaptic structural plasticity, postnatal rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control; Pre-weaning Pb (Parents were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 3 weeks before mating until weaning of pups; Post-weaning Pb (Weaned pups were exposed to 2 mM PbCl2 for 9 weeks. The spatial learning and memory of rats was measured by Morris water maze (MWM on PND 85-90. Rat pups in Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups performed significantly worse than those in Control group (p<0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the performance of MWM between the two Pb-exposure groups. Before MWM (PND 84, the number of neurons and synapses significantly decreased in Pre-weaning Pb group, but not in Post-weaning Pb group. After MWM (PND 91, the number of synapses in Pre-weaning Pb group increased significantly, but it was still less than that of Control group (p<0.05; the number of synapses in Post-weaning Pb group was also less than that of Control group (p<0.05, although the number of synapses has no differences between Post-weaning Pb and Control groups before MWM. In both Pre-weaning Pb and Post-weaning Pb groups, synaptic structural parameters such as thickness of postsynaptic density (PSD, length of synaptic active zone and synaptic curvature increased significantly while width of synaptic cleft decreased significantly compared to Control group (p<0.05. Our data demonstrated that both early and late developmental Pb exposure impaired spatial learning and memory as well as synaptic structural plasticity in Wistar rats.

  10. The contribution of spatial analysis to understanding HIV/TB mortality in children: a structural equation modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eustasius Musenge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa accounts for more than a sixth of the global population of people infected with HIV and TB, ranking her highest in HIV/TB co-infection worldwide. Remote areas often bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality, yet there are spatial differences within rural settings. Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate HIV/TB mortality determinants and their spatial distribution in the rural Agincourt sub-district for children aged 1–5 years in 2004. Our secondary aim was to model how the associated factors were interrelated as either underlying or proximate factors of child mortality using pathway analysis based on a Mosley-Chen conceptual framework. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis based on cross-sectional data collected in 2004 from the Agincourt sub-district in rural northeast South Africa. Child HIV/TB death was the outcome measure derived from physician assessed verbal autopsy. Modelling used multiple logit regression models with and without spatial household random effects. Structural equation models were used in modelling the complex relationships between multiple exposures and the outcome (child HIV/TB mortality as relayed on a conceptual framework. Results: Fifty-four of 6,692 children aged 1–5 years died of HIV/TB, from a total of 5,084 households. Maternal death had the greatest effect on child HIV/TB mortality (adjusted odds ratio=4.00; 95% confidence interval=1.01–15.80. A protective effect was found in households with better socio-economic status and when the child was older. Spatial models disclosed that the areas which experienced the greatest child HIV/TB mortality were those without any health facility. Conclusion: Low socio-economic status and maternal deaths impacted indirectly and directly on child mortality, respectively. These factors are major concerns locally and should be used in formulating interventions to reduce child mortality. Spatial prediction maps can guide policy

  11. Non-random correlation structures and dimensionality reduction in multivariate climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejmelka, Martin; Pokorná, Lucie; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Hartman, David; Jajcay, Nikola; Paluš, Milan

    2015-05-01

    It is well established that the global climate is a complex phenomenon with dynamics driven by the interaction of a multitude of identifiable but intertwined subsystems. The identification, at some level, of these subsystems is an important step towards understanding climate dynamics. We present a method to determine the number of principal components representing non-random correlation structures in climate data, or components that cannot be generated by a surrogate model of independent stochastic processes replicating the auto-correlation structure of each time series. The purpose of the method is to automatically reduce the dimensionality of large climate datasets into spatially localised components suitable for further interpretation or, for example, for use as nodes in a complex network analysis of large-scale climate dynamics. We apply the method to two 2.5° resolution NCEP/NCAR reanalysis global datasets of monthly means: the sea level pressure (SLP) and the surface air temperature (SAT), and extract 60 components explaining 87 % variance and 68 components explaining 72 % variance, respectively. The obtained components are in agreement with previous results in that they recover many well-known climate modes previously identified using other approaches including regionally constrained principal component analysis. Selected SLP components are discussed in more detail with respect to their correlation with important climate indices and their relationship to other SLP and SAT components. Finally, we consider a subset of the obtained components that have not yet been explicitly identified by other authors but seem plausible in the context of regional climate observations discussed in literature.

  12. Transmission of electromagnetic waves through a two-layer plasma structure with spatially nonuniform electron density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denysenko, I B; Ivko, S; Smolyakov, A; Azarenkov, N A

    2012-11-01

    Transmission of a p-polarized electromagnetic wave through a two-layer plasma structure with spatially nonuniform distributions of electron density in the layers is studied. The case, when the electromagnetic wave is obliquely incident on the structure and is evanescent in both plasma layers, is considered. The conditions for total transparency of the two-layer structure are found for the thin slab case and when the plasma inhomogeneity is weak. It is shown that the transmission coefficient of the p-polarized wave can be about unity, even if the plasma inhomogeneity is large. The effects of plasma inhomogeneity on transparency of the structure are more important if the slabs are thick, comparing with the case of thin layers.

  13. Environmental and Spatial Influences on Biogeography and Community Structure of Benthic Diatoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, C.; Hill-Spanik, K.; Lowry, J.

    2016-02-01

    Several theoretical and practical reasons suggest that benthic microalgae could be useful bioindicators. For instance, an ideal indicator species or community would be associated with a given habitat due to local physical conditions or biotic interactions (i.e., `environmental filtering'), not due to dispersal limitation. Due to their small size, immense abundances, and reliance on passive dispersal, the popular notion about micro-organisms is that `Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' (Baas-Becking 1934). Although much recent research concerning planktonic bacteria and dispersal limitation has been conducted, very little in this regard is known about microeukaryotes, especially benthic microbes. The purpose of our study was to identify and compare spatial and environmental influences on benthic diatom community structure and biogeography. In summer 2015, sediment was sampled at various spatial scales from four barrier island beaches in South Carolina, USA, and high-throughput (Ion Torrent) DNA sequencing was used to characterize diatom assemblages. ANOSIM and principal coordinates analysis revealed that communities were statistically distinct on the four islands. Community dissimilarity was compared to both spatial distance and environmental differences to determine potential influences of these variables on community structure. We found that geographic distance had the strongest correlation with community similarity, with and without one anomalous location, while differences in temperature (air, water, and sediment), nutrients, organic matter, and turbidity also had significant but weaker relationships with community structure. Surprisingly, air temperature, which changes on very short time scales, appeared to be the environmental factor most strongly related to diatom species composition, potentially implicating some unmeasured variable (e.g., cloud cover). However, we also found that temperature and geographic distance were strongly

  14. Improving detector spatial resolution using pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Langechuan; Lu, Minghui; Cao, Wanqing; Peng, Luke; Chen, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    Indirect conversion flat panel detectors (FPDs) based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) technology are widely used in digital X-ray imaging. In such FPDs a scintillator layer is used for converting X-rays into visible light photons. However, the lateral spread of these photons inside the scintillator layer reduces spatial resolution of the FPD. In this study, FPDs incorporating pixelated scintillators with a barrier rib structure were developed to limit lateral spread of light photons thereby improving spatial resolution. For the pixelated scintillator, a two-dimensional barrier rib structure was first manufactured on a substrate layer, coated with reflective materials, and filled to the rim with the scintillating material of gadolinium oxysulfide (GOS). Several scintillator samples were fabricated, with pitch size varying from 160 to 280 μm and rib height from 200 to 280 μm. The samples were directly coupled to an a-Si flat panel photodiode array with a pitch of 200 μm to convert optical photons to electronic signals. With the pixelated scintillator, the detector modulation transfer function was shown to improve significantly (by 94% at 2 cycle/mm) compared to a detector using an unstructured GOS layer. However, the prototype does show lower sensitivity due to the decrease in scintillator fill factor. The preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of using the barrier-rib structure to improve the spatial resolution of FPDs. Such an improvement would greatly benefit nondestructive testing applications where the spatial resolution is the most important parameter. Further investigation will focus on improving the detector sensitivity and exploring its medical applications.

  15. The contrasting structure of Acts 12:5−17: A spatial reading

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    Ronald H. van der Bergh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The episode of Peter’s rescue from prison in Acts 12:5–17 occupies an intriguing position in the narrative of Acts as a whole. Scholars hold differing views on the episode’s function. These views range from seeing the episode as a hermeneutical key to the work as a whole to making no discernable difference to the narrative whatsoever. The present article seeks to contribute to the debate by reading Acts 12:5–17 spatially. In paying attention to the various spatial references in the text, the movement of characters, their locales and their own and the reader’s experience of them being present or not present, a contrasting structure may be perceived in the text. Furthermore, spatiality helps to point out the contrast between different character groups in the narrative. Some implications for reading the episode in this contrasting fashion will be indicated, and the enigmatic statement about Peter’s ‘going to another place’ (Ac 12:17 will be read against the text’s spatial background.

  16. A spatial age-structured model for describing sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason M.; Wilberg, Michael J.; Adams, Jean V.; Jones, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The control of invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) presents large scale management challenges in the Laurentian Great Lakes. No modeling approach has been developed that describes spatial dynamics of lamprey populations. We developed and validated a spatial and age-structured model and applied it to a sea lamprey population in a large river in the Great Lakes basin. We considered 75 discrete spatial areas, included a stock-recruitment function, spatial recruitment patterns, natural mortality, chemical treatment mortality, and larval metamorphosis. Recruitment was variable, and an upstream shift in recruitment location was observed over time. From 1993–2011 recruitment, larval abundance, and the abundance of metamorphosing individuals decreased by 80, 84, and 86%, respectively. The model successfully identified areas of high larval abundance and showed that areas of low larval density contribute significantly to the population. Estimated treatment mortality was less than expected but had a large population-level impact. The results and general approach of this work have applications for sea lamprey control throughout the Great Lakes and for the restoration and conservation of native lamprey species globally.

  17. High-resolution structure of viruses from random diffraction snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2014-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record diffraction snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and thence the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing Bayesian approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution typically to 1/10 of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to high resolution, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic level. Our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and nanocrystalline objects.

  18. Beyond co-localization: inferring spatial interactions between sub-cellular structures from microscopy images

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    Paul Grégory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-cellular structures interact in numerous direct and indirect ways in order to fulfill cellular functions. While direct molecular interactions crucially depend on spatial proximity, other interactions typically result in spatial correlations between the interacting structures. Such correlations are the target of microscopy-based co-localization analysis, which can provide hints of potential interactions. Two complementary approaches to co-localization analysis can be distinguished: intensity correlation methods capitalize on pattern discovery, whereas object-based methods emphasize detection power. Results We first reinvestigate the classical co-localization measure in the context of spatial point pattern analysis. This allows us to unravel the set of implicit assumptions inherent to this measure and to identify potential confounding factors commonly ignored. We generalize object-based co-localization analysis to a statistical framework involving spatial point processes. In this framework, interactions are understood as position co-dependencies in the observed localization patterns. The framework is based on a model of effective pairwise interaction potentials and the specification of a null hypothesis for the expected pattern in the absence of interaction. Inferred interaction potentials thus reflect all significant effects that are not explained by the null hypothesis. Our model enables the use of a wealth of well-known statistical methods for analyzing experimental data, as demonstrated on synthetic data and in a case study considering virus entry into live cells. We show that the classical co-localization measure typically under-exploits the information contained in our data. Conclusions We establish a connection between co-localization and spatial interaction of sub-cellular structures by formulating the object-based interaction analysis problem in a spatial statistics framework based on nearest-neighbor distance

  19. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of the Spatial Layered Rod Structures

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    I. V. Stankevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the features of finite element technology to determine the temperature state of layered rod structures with complex spatial design. The area of research, on the one hand, is defined by the fact that the rod structures (frames are so-called “skeletal framework” of aviation, machinery, shipbuilding products and structures for industrial construction and an issue of implementation of most research and industrial projects, strongly promising from the practical point of view, depends largely on the level of reliability, bearing capacity, and general performance of its “skeletal framework”. On the other hand, the laminates have a wide range and unique combination of valuable properties such as high strength, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat resistance, abrasion resistance and many others. The use of layered metal compositions allows to increase the reliability and durability of a large range of parts and equipment and to reduce significantly the consumption of high-alloyed steels and nonferrous metals. A temperature field is one of the main factors to determine the expected performance of multilayer rod structures, operation conditions of which imply intensive thermal loading.The paper shows how within a single finite element model that approximates the spatial design of steel structures consisting of multilayer curvilinear rods, at the stage of discretization in space to take into account the thermo-physical properties of all materials, forming layer of each timber. Using the technique described in the paper has been created a complex of application programs that allows us to solve a wide class of scientific and applied problems, and explore the impact of various structural, technological and operational factors on the temperature state of multilayer rod structures. The paper presents research results of the multilayer rod design. It shows that the high conductivity layer available

  20. Observations of the spatial structure of electron precipitation pulsations using an imaging riometer

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    A. Senior

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Electron precipitation can be modulated by geomagnetic pulsation activity. This can be observed as pulsation of cosmic noise absorption as measured by riometers. Observations of such pulsations exhibiting field-line resonance and particle-driven characteristics using an imaging riometer are presented and the capability of the instrument to map their spatial structure is demonstrated. It is shown that for the events studied, the spatial variation of pulsation phase as measured by the riometer agrees with that inferred from ground-based magnetometers, whereas the spatial variation of pulsation amplitude may show a different structure. It is suggested that this is consistent with the mechanism proposed by Coroniti and Kennel (1970 where one would expect a fixed phase relationship between magnetic and absorption pulsations, but where the amplitude of the absorption pulsation can depend on several factors other than the amplitude of the magnetic pulsation.Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  1. Observations of the spatial structure of electron precipitation pulsations using an imaging riometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Senior

    Full Text Available Electron precipitation can be modulated by geomagnetic pulsation activity. This can be observed as pulsation of cosmic noise absorption as measured by riometers. Observations of such pulsations exhibiting field-line resonance and particle-driven characteristics using an imaging riometer are presented and the capability of the instrument to map their spatial structure is demonstrated. It is shown that for the events studied, the spatial variation of pulsation phase as measured by the riometer agrees with that inferred from ground-based magnetometers, whereas the spatial variation of pulsation amplitude may show a different structure. It is suggested that this is consistent with the mechanism proposed by Coroniti and Kennel (1970 where one would expect a fixed phase relationship between magnetic and absorption pulsations, but where the amplitude of the absorption pulsation can depend on several factors other than the amplitude of the magnetic pulsation.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere–magnetosphere interactions; particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities

  2. the Role of Species, Structure, and Biochemical Traits in the Spatial Distribution of a Woodland Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeline, K.; Ustin, S.; Roth, K. L.; Huesca Martinez, M.; Schaaf, C.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The assessment of canopy biochemical diversity is critical for monitoring ecological and physiological functioning and for mapping vegetation change dynamics in relation to environmental resources. For example in oak woodland savannas, these dynamics are mainly driven by water constraints. Inversion using radiative transfer theory is one method for estimating canopy biochemistry. However, this approach generally only considers relatively simple scenarios to model the canopy due to the difficulty in encompassing stand heterogeneity with spatial and temporal consistency. In this research, we compared 3 modeling strategies for estimating canopy biochemistry variables (i.e. chlorophyll, carotenoids, water, dry matter) by coupling of the PROSPECT (leaf level) and DART (canopy level) models : i) a simple forest representation made of ellipsoid trees, and two representations taking into account the tree species and structural composition, and the landscape spatial pattern, using (ii) geometric tree crown shapes and iii) detailed tree crown and wood structure retrieved from terrestrial lidar acquisitions. AVIRIS 18m remote sensing data are up-scaled to simulate HyspIRI 30m images. Both spatial resolutions are validated by measurements acquired during 2013-2014 field campaigns (cover/tree inventory, LAI, leaf sampling, optical measures). The results outline the trade-off between accurate and abstract canopy modeling for inversion purposes and may provide perspectives to assess the impact of the California drought with multi-temporal monitoring of canopy biochemistry traits.

  3. Doppler HF Radar Application for the Study of Spatial Structure of Currents in the Black Sea

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    V.V. Gorbatskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of the surface current spatial structure observations performed by SeaSonde Doppler HF radar (operating frequency is 25 MHz in the Black Sea region adjacent to the city of Gelendzhik are represented. The observations imply a special technique consisting in successive measurements at two selected points of the coastline. Initially, the measurements are carried out in the first of two selected coastal points during two hours. Then the radar system is transferred to the second point on the coast where the procedure is repeated. At that the velocity field is assumed to remain unchanged during the total measurement period (including the time of the radar displacement from both points. The measurement results are shown in a form of a spatial map of the current velocity vectors in the research region (with 20 × 20 km dimensions. Some features of the current spatial and temporal variability in the coastal waters are revealed. Particularly, the eddy-like formations (the diameter is a few kilometers which rapidly move and collapse. Since similar eddies are detected using the contact measurement methods, complex and variable structure of the surface currents measured by a radar does not seem to be an artifact. Nevertheless, reliability of the data resulted from the radar measurements of the surface current velocity field should be verified in future by comparing it with the results of the quasi-synchronous velocity field measurements performed by stationary, drifting and towed velocity meters.

  4. Preservation of three-dimensional spatial structure in the gut microbiome.

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    Yuko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Preservation of three-dimensional structure in the gut is necessary in order to analyze the spatial organization of the gut microbiota and gut luminal contents. In this study, we evaluated preparation methods for mouse gut with the goal of preserving micron-scale spatial structure while performing fluorescence imaging assays. Our evaluation of embedding methods showed that commonly used media such as Tissue-Tek Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT compound, paraffin, and polyester waxes resulted in redistribution of luminal contents. By contrast, a hydrophilic methacrylate resin, Technovit H8100, preserved three-dimensional organization. Our mouse intestinal preparation protocol optimized using the Technovit H8100 embedding method was compatible with microbial fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and other labeling techniques, including immunostaining and staining with both wheat germ agglutinin (WGA and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Mucus could be visualized whether the sample was fixed with paraformaldehyde (PFA or with Carnoy's fixative. The protocol optimized in this study enabled simultaneous visualization of micron-scale spatial patterns formed by microbial cells in the mouse intestines along with biogeographical landmarks such as host-derived mucus and food particles.

  5. Queries of nature neighbor objects on UnitsDelaunay structure in spatial database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiatian; Zhao, Renliang; Chen, Jun

    2006-10-01

    existing relationship, and regarded the space scope of every subset as a Unit, defined the structure of UnitsDelaunay and proposed the construction algorithm of the UnitsDelaunay. For the Quad GridFile: (i) Respectively approximated the Units composed of β and γ-type triangles by two methods of MBR of MCR and MBR. (ii) Demonstrated the completeness of the closure of the result set of point querying. (iii) Taking into account the update of GridFile, we proposed the Quad GridFile index structure, i.e. the structure added into quad tree spatial partition, replacing the update of structure by the reconstruction of GridFile structure, which the space scope of GridFile is represented by every leaf node. We utilized the extraction of candidate set of point spatial selection and self-join spatial selection as the instances. In the environment of Oracle 9.2.1 and Eclipse 3.1, we accomplished the proposed structures and related algorithm. Finally, we gave illustrations of the experimental results.

  6. DSSR: an integrated software tool for dissecting the spatial structure of RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiang-Jun; Bussemaker, Harmen J; Olson, Wilma K

    2015-12-02

    Insight into the three-dimensional architecture of RNA is essential for understanding its cellular functions. However, even the classic transfer RNA structure contains features that are overlooked by existing bioinformatics tools. Here we present DSSR (Dissecting the Spatial Structure of RNA), an integrated and automated tool for analyzing and annotating RNA tertiary structures. The software identifies canonical and noncanonical base pairs, including those with modified nucleotides, in any tautomeric or protonation state. DSSR detects higher-order coplanar base associations, termed multiplets. It finds arrays of stacked pairs, classifies them by base-pair identity and backbone connectivity, and distinguishes a stem of covalently connected canonical pairs from a helix of stacked pairs of arbitrary type/linkage. DSSR identifies coaxial stacking of multiple stems within a single helix and lists isolated canonical pairs that lie outside of a stem. The program characterizes 'closed' loops of various types (hairpin, bulge, internal, and junction loops) and pseudoknots of arbitrary complexity. Notably, DSSR employs isolated pairs and the ends of stems, whether pseudoknotted or not, to define junction loops. This new, inclusive definition provides a novel perspective on the spatial organization of RNA. Tests on all nucleic acid structures in the Protein Data Bank confirm the efficiency and robustness of the software, and applications to representative RNA molecules illustrate its unique features. DSSR and related materials are freely available at http://x3dna.org/. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The Emergence of the Spatial Structure of Tectal Spontaneous Activity Is Independent of Visual Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietri, Thomas; Romano, Sebastián A; Pérez-Schuster, Verónica; Boulanger-Weill, Jonathan; Candat, Virginie; Sumbre, Germán

    2017-05-02

    The brain is spontaneously active, even in the absence of sensory stimulation. The functionally mature zebrafish optic tectum shows spontaneous activity patterns reflecting a functional connectivity adapted for the circuit's functional role and predictive of behavior. However, neither the emergence of these patterns during development nor the role of retinal inputs in their maturation has been characterized. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we analyzed spontaneous activity in intact and enucleated zebrafish larvae throughout tectum development. At the onset of retinotectal connections, intact larvae showed major changes in the spatiotemporal structure of spontaneous activity. Although the absence of retinal inputs had a significant impact on the development of the temporal structure, the tectum was still capable of developing a spatial structure associated with the circuit's functional roles and predictive of behavior. We conclude that neither visual experience nor intrinsic retinal activity is essential for the emergence of a spatially structured functional circuit. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metabolic and demographic feedbacks shape the emergent spatial structure and function of microbial communities.

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    Sylvie Estrela

    Full Text Available Microbes are predominantly found in surface-attached and spatially structured polymicrobial communities. Within these communities, microbial cells excrete a wide range of metabolites, setting the stage for interspecific metabolic interactions. The links, however, between metabolic and ecological interactions (functional relationships, and species spatial organization (structural relationships are still poorly understood. Here, we use an individual-based modelling framework to simulate the growth of a two-species surface-attached community where food (resource is traded for detoxification (service and investigate how metabolic constraints of individual species shape the emergent structural and functional relationships of the community. We show that strong metabolic interdependence drives the emergence of mutualism, robust interspecific mixing, and increased community productivity. Specifically, we observed a striking and highly stable emergent lineage branching pattern, generating a persistent lineage mixing that was absent when the metabolic exchange was removed. These emergent community properties are driven by demographic feedbacks, such that aid from neighbouring cells directly enhances focal cell growth, which in turn feeds back to neighbour fecundity. In contrast, weak metabolic interdependence drives conflict (exploitation or competition, and in turn greater interspecific segregation. Together, these results support the idea that species structural and functional relationships represent the net balance of metabolic interdependencies.

  9. Spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies within large-scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Javier; Trujillo, Ignacio

    2017-06-01

    Taking advantage of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe82 data, we have explored the spatial distribution of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) within an area of 8 × 8 Mpc2 centred around the galaxy cluster Abell 168 (z = 0.045). This intermediate massive cluster (σ = 550 km s-1) is surrounded by a complex large-scale structure. Our work confirms the presence of UDGs in the cluster and in the large-scale structure that surrounds it, and it is the first detection of UDGs outside clusters. Approximately 50 per cent of the UDGs analysed in the selected area inhabit the cluster region (˜11 ± 5 per cent in the core and ˜39 ± 9 per cent in the outskirts), whereas the remaining UDGs are found outside the main cluster structure (˜50 ± 11 per cent). The colours and the spatial distribution of the UDGs within this large-scale structure are more similar to dwarf galaxies than to L⋆ galaxies, suggesting that most UDGs could be bona fide dwarf galaxies.

  10. Genetic Diversity and Spatial Genetic Structure of the Grassland Perennial Saxifraga granulata along Two River Systems.

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    Sascha van der Meer

    Full Text Available Due to changes in land use, the natural habitats of an increasing number of plant species have become more and more fragmented. In landscapes that consist of patches of suitable habitat, the frequency and extent of long-distance seed dispersal can be expected to be an important factor determining local genetic diversity and regional population structure of the remaining populations. In plant species that are restricted to riparian habitats, rivers can be expected to have a strong impact on the dynamics and spatial genetic structure of populations as they may enable long-distance seed dispersal and thus maintain gene flow between fragmented populations. In this study, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of 28 populations of Saxifraga granulata along two rivers in central Belgium. We hypothesized that rivers might be essential for gene flow among increasingly isolated populations of this species. Genetic diversity was high (HS = 0.68, which to a certain extent can be explained by the octoploid nature of S. granulata in the study area. Populations along the Dijle and Demer rivers were also highly differentiated (G"ST = 0.269 and 0.164 and DEST = 0.190 and 0.124, respectively and showed significant isolation-by-distance, indicating moderate levels of gene flow primarily between populations that are geographically close to each other. Along the river Demer population genetic diversity was higher upstream than downstream, suggesting that seed dispersal via the water was not the primary mode of dispersal. Overall, these results indicate that despite increasing fragmentation populations along both rivers were highly genetically diverse. The high ploidy level and longevity of S. granulata have most likely buffered negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of populations in riparian grasslands.

  11. Genetic Diversity and Spatial Genetic Structure of the Grassland Perennial Saxifraga granulata along Two River Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Sascha; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Due to changes in land use, the natural habitats of an increasing number of plant species have become more and more fragmented. In landscapes that consist of patches of suitable habitat, the frequency and extent of long-distance seed dispersal can be expected to be an important factor determining local genetic diversity and regional population structure of the remaining populations. In plant species that are restricted to riparian habitats, rivers can be expected to have a strong impact on the dynamics and spatial genetic structure of populations as they may enable long-distance seed dispersal and thus maintain gene flow between fragmented populations. In this study, we used polymorphic microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of 28 populations of Saxifraga granulata along two rivers in central Belgium. We hypothesized that rivers might be essential for gene flow among increasingly isolated populations of this species. Genetic diversity was high (HS = 0.68), which to a certain extent can be explained by the octoploid nature of S. granulata in the study area. Populations along the Dijle and Demer rivers were also highly differentiated (G"ST = 0.269 and 0.164 and DEST = 0.190 and 0.124, respectively) and showed significant isolation-by-distance, indicating moderate levels of gene flow primarily between populations that are geographically close to each other. Along the river Demer population genetic diversity was higher upstream than downstream, suggesting that seed dispersal via the water was not the primary mode of dispersal. Overall, these results indicate that despite increasing fragmentation populations along both rivers were highly genetically diverse. The high ploidy level and longevity of S. granulata have most likely buffered negative effects of fragmentation on genetic diversity and the spatial genetic structure of populations in riparian grasslands.

  12. Diffusion et structuration spatiale d’une question de recherche en biologie moléculaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Maisonobe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose une approche géographique pour étudier l'évolution d'un collectif scientifique de dimension mondiale en biologie moléculaire. Un corpus de 908 publications représentatives d'une question de recherche est analysé. On montre que les résultats obtenus en bibliométrie sont extrêmement sensibles au niveau d'agrégation des données. L'analyse, longitudinale, se centre sur la diffusion spatiale de la question de recherche. Le recours à la théorie des graphes permet d'interroger les effets du temps sur la structure du réseau de copublications et par extension sur l'organisation spatiale du collectif scientifique.

  13. High-spatial-frequency periodic surface structures on steel substrate induced by subnanosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikage, Haruki; Nosaka, Nami; Matsuo, Shigeki

    2017-11-01

    By irradiation with 0.5 ns laser pulses at a wavelength λ = 1.064 µm, laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) were fabricated on a steel substrate. In addition to low-spatial-frequency LIPSS (LSFL), a high-spatial-frequency LIPSS (HSFL) of period Λ ∼ 0.4λ with two-dimensional expansion was formed, although it is generally recognized that HSFL are formed only by ultrafast laser pulses. The wavevector of the observed HSFL was perpendicular to the electric field of the irradiated laser pulse (each ridge/groove of the HSFL was parallel to the electric field). We discuss the relationship between the formation of HSFL and the pulse duration.

  14. Structure and Spatial Distribution of Ge Nanocrystals Subjected to Fast Neutron Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Ionov

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fast neutron irradiation on the structure and spatial distribution of Ge nanocrystals (NC embedded in an amorphous SiO2 matrix has been studied. The investigation was conducted by means of laser Raman Scattering (RS, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The irradiation of Ge- NC samples by a high dose of fast neutrons lead to a partial destruction of the nanocrystals. Full reconstruction of crystallinity was achieved after annealing the radiation damage at 8000C, which resulted in full restoration of the RS spectrum. HR-TEM images show, however, that the spatial distributions of Ge-NC changed as a result of irradiation and annealing. A sharp decrease in NC distribution towards the SiO2 surface has been observed. This was accompanied by XPS detection of Ge oxides and elemental Ge within both the surface and subsurface region.

  15. Electron avalanche structure determined by random walk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, G. W.

    1973-01-01

    A self-consistent avalanche solution which accounts for collective long range Coulomb interactions as well as short range elastic and inelastic collisions between electrons and background atoms is made possible by a random walk technique. Results show that the electric field patterns in the early formation stages of avalanches in helium are close to those obtained from theory based on constant transport coefficients. Regions of maximum and minimum induced electrostatic potential phi are located on the axis of symmetry and within the volume covered by the electron swarm. As formation time continues, however, the region of minimum phi moves to slightly higher radii and the electric field between the extrema becomes somewhat erratic. In the intermediate formation periods the avalanche growth is slightly retarded by the high concentration of ions in the tail which oppose the external electric field. Eventually the formation of ions and electrons in the localized regions of high field strength more than offset this effect causing a very abrupt increase in avalanche growth.

  16. High-Resolution Structure of Viruses from Random Snapshots

    CERN Document Server

    Hosseinizadeh, A; Dashti, A; Fung, R; D'Souza, R M; Ourmazd, A

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) has made it possible to record snapshots of biological entities injected into the X-ray beam before the onset of radiation damage. Algorithmic means must then be used to determine the snapshot orientations and reconstruct the three-dimensional structure of the object. Existing approaches are limited in reconstruction resolution to at best 1/30th of the object diameter, with the computational expense increasing as the eighth power of the ratio of diameter to resolution. We present an approach capable of exploiting object symmetries to recover three-dimensional structure to 1/100th of the object diameter, and thus reconstruct the structure of the satellite tobacco necrosis virus to atomic resolution. Combined with the previously demonstrated capability to operate at ultralow signal, our approach offers the highest reconstruction resolution for XFEL snapshots to date, and provides a potentially powerful alternative route for analysis of data from crystalline and...

  17. Compositional divergence and convergence in local communities and spatially structured landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tancredi Caruso

    Full Text Available Community structure depends on both deterministic and stochastic processes. However, patterns of community dissimilarity (e.g. difference in species composition are difficult to interpret in terms of the relative roles of these processes. Local communities can be more dissimilar (divergence than, less dissimilar (convergence than, or as dissimilar as a hypothetical control based on either null or neutral models. However, several mechanisms may result in the same pattern, or act concurrently to generate a pattern, and much research has recently been focusing on unravelling these mechanisms and their relative contributions. Using a simulation approach, we addressed the effect of a complex but realistic spatial structure in the distribution of the niche axis and we analysed patterns of species co-occurrence and beta diversity as measured by dissimilarity indices (e.g. Jaccard index using either expectations under a null model or neutral dynamics (i.e., based on switching off the niche effect. The strength of niche processes, dispersal, and environmental noise strongly interacted so that niche-driven dynamics may result in local communities that either diverge or converge depending on the combination of these factors. Thus, a fundamental result is that, in real systems, interacting processes of community assembly can be disentangled only by measuring traits such as niche breadth and dispersal. The ability to detect the signal of the niche was also dependent on the spatial resolution of the sampling strategy, which must account for the multiple scale spatial patterns in the niche axis. Notably, some of the patterns we observed correspond to patterns of community dissimilarities previously observed in the field and suggest mechanistic explanations for them or the data required to solve them. Our framework offers a synthesis of the patterns of community dissimilarity produced by the interaction of deterministic and stochastic determinants of community

  18. Delineating ecological regions in marine systems: Integrating physical structure and community composition to inform spatial management in the eastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Matthew R.; Hollowed, Anne B.

    2014-11-01

    Characterizing spatial structure and delineating meaningful spatial boundaries have useful applications to understanding regional dynamics in marine systems, and are integral to ecosystem approaches to fisheries management. Physical structure and drivers combine with biological responses and interactions to organize marine systems in unique ways at multiple scales. We apply multivariate statistical methods to define spatially coherent ecological units or ecoregions in the eastern Bering Sea. We also illustrate a practical approach to integrate data on species distribution, habitat structure and physical forcing mechanisms to distinguish areas with distinct biogeography as one means to define management units in large marine ecosystems. We use random forests to quantify the relative importance of habitat and environmental variables to the distribution of individual species, and to quantify shifts in multispecies assemblages or community composition along environmental gradients. Threshold shifts in community composition are used to identify regions with distinct physical and biological attributes, and to evaluate the relative importance of predictor variables to determining regional boundaries. Depth, bottom temperature and frontal boundaries were dominant factors delineating distinct biological communities in this system, with a latitudinal divide at approximately 60°N. Our results indicate that distinct climatic periods will shift habitat gradients and that dynamic physical variables such as temperature and stratification are important to understanding temporal stability of ecoregion boundaries. We note distinct distribution patterns among functional guilds and also evidence for resource partitioning among individual species within each guild. By integrating physical and biological data to determine spatial patterns in community composition, we partition ecosystems along ecologically significant gradients. This may provide a basis for defining spatial management

  19. Spatial-structural analysis of leafless woody riparian vegetation for hydraulic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissteiner, Clemens; Jalonen, Johanna; Järvelä, Juha; Rauch, Hans Peter

    2013-04-01

    Woody riparian vegetation is a vital element of riverine environments. On one hand woody riparian vegetation has to be taken into account from a civil engineering point of view due to boundary shear stress and vegetation drag. On the other hand it has to be considered from a river ecological point of view due to shadowing effects and as a source of organic material for aquatic habitats. In hydrodynamic and hydro-ecological studies the effects of woody riparian vegetation on flow patterns are usually investigated on a very detailed level. On the contrary vegetation elements and their spatial patterns are generally analysed and discussed on the basis of an integral approach measuring for example basal diameters, heights and projected plant areas. For a better understanding of the influence of woody riparian vegetation on turbulent flow and on river ecology, it is essential to record and analyse plant data sets on the same level of quality as for hydrodynamic or hydro-ecologic purposes. As a result of the same scale of the analysis it is possible to incorporate riparian vegetation as a sub-model in the hydraulic analysis. For plant structural components, such as branches on different topological levels it is crucial to record plant geometrical parameters describing the habitus of the plant on branch level. An exact 3D geometrical model of real plants allows for an extraction of various spatial-structural plant parameters. In addition, allometric relationships help to summarize and describe plant traits of riparian vegetation. This paper focuses on the spatial-structural composition of leafless riparia woddy vegetation. Structural and spatial analyses determine detailed geometric properties of the structural components of the plants. Geometrical and topological parameters were recorded with an electro-magnetic scanning device. In total, 23 plants (willows, alders and birches) were analysed in the study. Data were recorded on branch level, which allowed for the

  20. Optical signal processing of spatially distributed sensor data in smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, K. D.; Claus, R. O.; Murphy, K. A.; Goette, A. M.

    1989-01-01

    Smart structures which contain dense two- or three-dimensional arrays of attached or embedded sensor elements inherently require signal multiplexing and processing capabilities to permit good spatial data resolution as well as the adequately short calculation times demanded by real time active feedback actuator drive circuitry. This paper reports the implementation of an in-line optical signal processor and its application in a structural sensing system which incorporates multiple discrete optical fiber sensor elements. The signal processor consists of an array of optical fiber couplers having tailored s-parameters and arranged to allow gray code amplitude scaling of sensor inputs. The use of this signal processor in systems designed to indicate the location of distributed strain and damage in composite materials, as well as to quantitatively characterize that damage, is described. Extension of similar signal processing methods to more complicated smart materials and structures applications are discussed.

  1. An Integrated Photogrammetric and Spatial Database Management System for Producing Fully Structured Data Using Aerial and Remote Sensing Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Farnood Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D spatial data acquired from aerial and remote sensing images by photogrammetric techniques is one of the most accurate and economic data sources for GIS, map production, and spatial data updating. However, there are still many problems concerning storage, structuring and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using these techniques. According to the capabilities of spatial database management systems (SDBMSs; direct integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems can save time and cost of producing and updating digital maps. This integration is accomplished by replacing digital maps with a single spatial database. Applying spatial databases overcomes the problem of managing spatial and attributes data in a coupled approach. This management approach is one of the main problems in GISs for using map products of photogrammetric workstations. Also by the means of these integrated systems, providing structured spatial data, based on OGC (Open GIS Consortium standards and topological relations between different feature classes, is possible at the time of feature digitizing process. In this paper, the integration of photogrammetric systems and SDBMSs is evaluated. Then, different levels of integration are described. Finally design, implementation and test of a software package called Integrated Photogrammetric and Oracle Spatial Systems (IPOSS is presented.

  2. An Integrated Photogrammetric and Spatial Database Management System for Producing Fully Structured Data Using Aerial and Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farshid Farnood; Ebadi, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    3D spatial data acquired from aerial and remote sensing images by photogrammetric techniques is one of the most accurate and economic data sources for GIS, map production, and spatial data updating. However, there are still many problems concerning storage, structuring and appropriate management of spatial data obtained using these techniques. According to the capabilities of spatial database management systems (SDBMSs); direct integration of photogrammetric and spatial database management systems can save time and cost of producing and updating digital maps. This integration is accomplished by replacing digital maps with a single spatial database. Applying spatial databases overcomes the problem of managing spatial and attributes data in a coupled approach. This management approach is one of the main problems in GISs for using map products of photogrammetric workstations. Also by the means of these integrated systems, providing structured spatial data, based on OGC (Open GIS Consortium) standards and topological relations between different feature classes, is possible at the time of feature digitizing process. In this paper, the integration of photogrammetric systems and SDBMSs is evaluated. Then, different levels of integration are described. Finally design, implementation and test of a software package called Integrated Photogrammetric and Oracle Spatial Systems (IPOSS) is presented. PMID:22574014

  3. Blood feeding patterns of mosquitoes: random or structured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Andy M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The foraging behavior of blood-sucking arthropods is the defining biological event shaping the transmission cycle of vector-borne parasites. It is also a phenomenon that pertains to the realm of community ecology, since blood-feeding patterns of vectors can occur across a community of vertebrate hosts. Although great advances in knowledge of the genetic basis for blood-feeding choices have been reported for selected vector species, little is known about the role of community composition of vertebrate hosts in determining such patterns. Methods & Results Here, we present an analysis of feeding patterns of vectors across a variety of locations, looking at foraging patterns of communities of mosquitoes, across communities of hosts primarily comprised of mammals and birds. Using null models of species co-occurrence, which do not require ancillary information about host abundance, we found that blood-feeding patterns were aggregated in studies from multiple sites, but random in studies from a single site. This combination of results supports the idea that mosquito species in a community may rely primarily on host availability in a given landscape, and that contacts with specific hosts will be influenced more by the presence/absence of hosts than by innate mosquito choices. This observation stresses the importance of blood-feeding plasticity as a key trait explaining the emergence of many zoonotic mosquito transmitted diseases. Discussion From an epidemiological perspective our observations support the idea that phenomena promoting synchronization of vectors and hosts can promote the emergence of vector-borne zoonotic diseases, as suggested by observations on the linkages between deforestation and the emergence of several human diseases.

  4. Fast randomized approximate string matching with succinct hash data structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policriti, Alberto; Prezza, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The high throughput of modern NGS sequencers coupled with the huge sizes of genomes currently analysed, poses always higher algorithmic challenges to align short reads quickly and accurately against a reference sequence. A crucial, additional, requirement is that the data structures used should be light. The available modern solutions usually are a compromise between the mentioned constraints: in particular, indexes based on the Burrows-Wheeler transform offer reduced memory requirements at the price of lower sensitivity, while hash-based text indexes guarantee high sensitivity at the price of significant memory consumption. In this work we describe a technique that permits to attain the advantages granted by both classes of indexes. This is achieved using Hamming-aware hash functions--hash functions designed to search the entire Hamming sphere in reduced time--which are also homomorphisms on de Bruijn graphs. We show that, using this particular class of hash functions, the corresponding hash index can be represented in linear space introducing only a logarithmic slowdown (in the query length) for the lookup operation. We point out that our data structure reaches its goals without compressing its input: another positive feature, as in biological applications data is often very close to be un-compressible. The new data structure introduced in this work is called dB-hash and we show how its implementation--BW-ERNE--maintains the high sensitivity and speed of its (hash-based) predecessor ERNE, while drastically reducing space consumption. Extensive comparison experiments conducted with several popular alignment tools on both simulated and real NGS data, show, finally, that BW-ERNE is able to attain both the positive features of succinct data structures (that is, small space) and hash indexes (that is, sensitivity). In applications where space and speed are both a concern, standard methods often sacrifice accuracy to obtain competitive throughputs and memory footprints

  5. Mycorrhizal preferences and fine spatial structure of the epiphytic orchid Epidendrum rhopalostele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío, María L; Cruz, Dario; Torres, Elena; de la Cruz, Marcelino; Iriondo, José M; Suárez, Juan Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The presence of compatible fungi is necessary for epiphytic orchid recruitment. Thus, identifying associated mycorrhizal fungi at the population level is essential for orchid conservation. Recruitment patterns may also be conditioned by factors such as seed dispersal range and specific environmental characteristics. In a forest plot, all trees with a diameter at breast height >1 cm and all individuals of the epiphytic orchid Epidendrum rhopalostele were identified and mapped. Additionally, one flowering individual of E. rhopalostele per each host tree was randomly selected for root sampling and DNA extraction. A total of 239 E. rhopalostele individuals were located in 25 of the 714 potential host trees. Light microscopy of sampled roots showed mycorrhizal fungi in 22 of the 25 sampled orchids. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences yielded two Tulasnella clades. In four cases, plants were found to be associated with both clades. The difference between univariate and bivariate K functions was consistent with the random labeling null model at all spatial scales, indicating that trees hosting clades A and B of Tulasnella are not spatially segregated. The analysis of the inhomogenous K function showed that host trees are not clustered, suggesting no limitations to population-scale dispersal. χ(2) analysis of contingency tables showed that E. rhopalostele is more frequent on dead trees than expected. EPIDENDRUM RHOPALOSTELE establishes mycorrhizal associations with at least two different Tulasnella species. The analysis of the distribution patterns of this orchid suggests a microsite preference for dead trees and no seed dispersal limitation.

  6. Structured Labels in Random Forests for Semantic Labelling and Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontschieder, Peter; Bulò, Samuel Rota; Pelillo, Marcello; Bischof, Horst

    2014-10-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, known as Random Forests, have become a valuable machine learning tool for addressing many computer vision problems. Despite their popularity, few works have tried to exploit contextual and structural information in random forests in order to improve their performance. In this paper, we propose a simple and effective way to integrate contextual information in random forests, which is typically reflected in the structured output space of complex problems like semantic image labelling. Our paper has several contributions: We show how random forests can be augmented with structured label information and be used to deliver structured low-level predictions. The learning task is carried out by employing a novel split function evaluation criterion that exploits the joint distribution observed in the structured label space. This allows the forest to learn typical label transitions between object classes and avoid locally implausible label configurations. We provide two approaches for integrating the structured output predictions obtained at a local level from the forest into a concise, global, semantic labelling. We integrate our new ideas also in the Hough-forest framework with the view of exploiting contextual information at the classification level to improve the performance on the task of object detection. Finally, we provide experimental evidence for the effectiveness of our approach on different tasks: Semantic image labelling on the challenging MSRCv2 and CamVid databases, reconstruction of occluded handwritten Chinese characters on the Kaist database and pedestrian detection on the TU Darmstadt databases.

  7. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  8. Diffusion of a particle in the spatially correlated exponential random energy landscape: Transition from normal to anomalous diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, S V

    2018-01-14

    Diffusive transport of a particle in a spatially correlated random energy landscape having exponential density of states has been considered. We exactly calculate the diffusivity in the nondispersive quasi-equilibrium transport regime for the 1D transport model and found that for slow decaying correlation functions the diffusivity becomes singular at some particular temperature higher than the temperature of the transition to the true non-equilibrium dispersive transport regime. It means that the diffusion becomes anomalous and does not follow the usual ∝ t1/2 law. In such situation, the fully developed non-equilibrium regime emerges in two stages: first, at some temperature there is the transition from the normal to anomalous diffusion, and then at lower temperature the average velocity for the infinite medium goes to zero, thus indicating the development of the true dispersive regime. Validity of the Einstein relation is discussed for the situation where the diffusivity does exist. We provide also some arguments in favor of conservation of the major features of the new transition scenario in higher dimensions.

  9. Evolution of microparasites in spatially and genetically structured host populations: the example of RHDV infecting rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouchet, David; Le Pendu, Jacques; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Guiserix, Micheline; Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique

    2009-03-21

    Several studies have shown that classical results of microparasite evolution could not extend to the case where the host species shows an important spatial structure. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), responsible for rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), which recently emerged in rabbits, has strains within a wide range of virulence, thus providing an interesting example of competition between strains infecting a host species with a metapopulation structure. In addition, rabbits may show a genetic diversity regarding RHDV susceptibility. In the present paper we use the example of the rabbit-RHDV interaction to study the competition between strains of a same microparasite in a host population that is both spatially and genetically structured. Using metapopulation models we show that the evolution of the microparasite is guided by a trade-off between its capacity to invade subpopulations potentially infected by other strains and its capacity to persist within the subpopulation. In such a context, host genetic diversity acts by reducing the number of hosts susceptible to each strain, often favouring more persistent-and generally less virulent-strains. We also show that even in a stochastic context where host genes regularly go locally extinct, the microparasite pressure helps maintain the genetic diversity in the long term while reinforcing gene loss risk in the short term. Finally, we study how different demographic and epidemiologic parameters affect the coevolution between the rabbit and RHDV.

  10. Characterizing spatial structure of sediment E. coli populations to inform sampling design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, Gregory S; Jamieson, Rob C; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Bezanson, Greg S; Yost, Chris K

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli can persist in streambed sediments and influence water quality monitoring programs through their resuspension into overlying waters. This study examined the spatial patterns in E. coli concentration and population structure within streambed morphological features during baseflow and following stormflow to inform sampling strategies for representative characterization of E. coli populations within a stream reach. E. coli concentrations in bed sediments were significantly different (p = 0.002) among monitoring sites during baseflow, and significant interactive effects (p = 0.002) occurred among monitoring sites and morphological features following stormflow. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression revealed that water velocity and effective particle size (D 10) explained E. coli concentration during baseflow, whereas sediment organic carbon, water velocity and median particle diameter (D 50) were important explanatory variables following stormflow. Principle Coordinate Analysis illustrated the site-scale differences in sediment E. coli populations between disconnected stream segments. Also, E. coli populations were similar among depositional features within a reach, but differed in relation to high velocity features (e.g., riffles). Canonical correspondence analysis resolved that E. coli population structure was primarily explained by spatial (26.9–31.7 %) over environmental variables (9.2–13.1 %). Spatial autocorrelation existed among monitoring sites and morphological features for both sampling events, and gradients in mean particle diameter and water velocity influenced E. coli population structure for the baseflow and stormflow sampling events, respectively. Representative characterization of streambed E. coli requires sampling of depositional and high velocity environments to accommodate strain selectivity among these features owing to sediment and water velocity heterogeneity.

  11. Spatial development of transport structures in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Els eHerremans; Pieter eVerboven; Maarten eHertog; Dennis eCantre; Mattias evan Dael; Thomas eDe Schryver; Luc eVan Hoorebeke; Bart eNicolai

    2015-01-01

    The void network and vascular system are important pathways for the transport of gases, water and solutes in apple fruit (Malus x domestica Borkh). Here we used X-ray micro-tomography at various spatial resolutions to investigate the growth of these transport structures in 3D during fruit development of ‘Jonagold’ apple. The size of the void space and porosity in the cortex tissue increased considerably. In the core tissue, the porosity was consistently lower, and seemed to decrease towards t...

  12. Spatial structure of drift-wave turbulence and transport in a stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, G.; Ramisch, M.; Fuchert, G.; Köhn, A.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U.

    2013-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of drift-wave turbulence and turbulent transport is investigated in plasmas of the stellarator experiment TJ-K. By means of two poloidal Langmuir probe arrays placed at different toroidal positions, density and potential fluctuations are recorded simultaneously at 128 positions on a single flux surface. From these data, the spatial drift-wave turbulence pattern including perpendicular and parallel structure sizes are obtained using a cross-correlation technique. A comparison with the magnetic field structure indicates an initially perfect alignment of turbulent structures with magnetic field lines. Passing over regions with different field-line pitches according to the local variation of the rotational transform, however, results in a measured displacement of turbulent structures with respect to the field lines during their radial propagation. A reduction in the perpendicular correlation lengths in regions of high absolute values of local magnetic shear is found. Prominent and poloidally narrow turbulent transport maxima are measured at different toroidal positions. They are connected by the magnetic field lines and located in regions of negative normal curvature. The poloidal propagation pattern of turbulent structures and the exact position of the transport maximum depend on the magnetic field direction.

  13. Understanding structure of urban traffic network based on spatial-temporal correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanfang; Jia, Limin; Qin, Yong; Han, Shixiu; Dong, Honghui

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the structural characteristics of urban traffic network comprehensively can provide references for improving road utilization rate and alleviating traffic congestion. This paper focuses on the spatial-temporal correlations between different pairs of traffic series and proposes a complex network-based method of constructing the urban traffic network. In the network, the nodes represent road segments, and an edge between a pair of nodes is added depending on the result of significance test for the corresponding spatial-temporal correlation. Further, a modified PageRank algorithm, named the geographical weight-based PageRank algorithm (GWPA), is proposed to analyze the spatial distribution of important segments in the road network. Finally, experiments are conducted by using three kinds of traffic series collected from the urban road network in Beijing. Experimental results show that the urban traffic networks constructed by three traffic variables all indicate both small-world and scale-free characteristics. Compared with the results of PageRank algorithm, GWPA is proved to be valid in evaluating the importance of segments and identifying the important segments with small degree.

  14. SCANDI – an all-sky Doppler imager for studies of thermospheric spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A new all-sky Fabry-Perot Interferometer called the Scanning Doppler Imager (SCANDI was built and installed at Longyearbyen in December 2006. Observations have been made of the Doppler shifts and Doppler broadening of the 630 nm airglow and aurora, from which upper thermospheric winds and temperatures are calculated. SCANDI allows measurements over a field-of-view (FOV with a horizontal radius of nearly 600 km for observations at an altitude of 250 km using a time resolution of 8 min. The instrument provides the ability to observe thermospheric spatial structure within a FOV which overlaps that of the EISCAT Svalbard radar and CUTLASS SuperDARN radars. Coordinating with these instruments provides an important opportunity for studying ion-neutral coupling. The all-sky image is divided into several sectors to provide a horizontal spatial resolution of between 100–300 km. This is a powerful extension in observational capability but requires careful calibration and data analysis, as described here. Two observation modes were used: a fixed and a scanning etalon gap. SCANDI results are corroborated using the Longyearbyen single look direction FPI, and ESR measurements of the ion temperatures. The data show thermospheric temperature gradients of a few Kelvins per kilometre, and a great deal of meso-scale variability on spatial scales of several tens of kilometres.

  15. Spatial and Orientational Structure of the Hydration Shell of Benzene in Sub- and Supercritical Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ashu; Chandra, Amalendu

    2015-07-09

    The spatial and orientational structure of the solvation shell of benzene in sub- and supercritical water are investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations. The present study reveals different local organization of water molecules at different parts of the solute. The π-hydrogen-bonding between benzene and water along the axial direction is found to exist even at supercritical conditions although to a reduced extent. The coordination number of benzene decreases substantially on increase of temperature and decrease of density. While the π-hydrogen-bonded part in the axial region shows a slight expansion, the hydrophobically solvated part in the equatorial plane shows an opposite behavior as the temperature is increased from normal to the supercritical temperature. Two other distribution functions, namely the radial/angular and spatial orientational functions (SOFs) are calculated to explore the spatially resolved angular preferences of water molecules around the benzene solute. Water molecules located axial to the benzene are found to have strong inward orientation toward the solute, however an opposite behavior is found in the equatorial region. Although at supercritical conditions, the orientational distributions of water molecules are broadened, the preferential orientations in the axial and equatorial regions remain similar to that under ambient condition on average.

  16. Local motion adaptation enhances the representation of spatial structure at EMD arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinglin; Lindemann, Jens P; Egelhaaf, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Neuronal representation and extraction of spatial information are essential for behavioral control. For flying insects, a plausible way to gain spatial information is to exploit distance-dependent optic flow that is generated during translational self-motion. Optic flow is computed by arrays of local motion detectors retinotopically arranged in the second neuropile layer of the insect visual system. These motion detectors have adaptive response characteristics, i.e. their responses to motion with a constant or only slowly changing velocity decrease, while their sensitivity to rapid velocity changes is maintained or even increases. We analyzed by a modeling approach how motion adaptation affects signal representation at the output of arrays of motion detectors during simulated flight in artificial and natural 3D environments. We focused on translational flight, because spatial information is only contained in the optic flow induced by translational locomotion. Indeed, flies, bees and other insects segregate their flight into relatively long intersaccadic translational flight sections interspersed with brief and rapid saccadic turns, presumably to maximize periods of translation (80% of the flight). With a novel adaptive model of the insect visual motion pathway we could show that the motion detector responses to background structures of cluttered environments are largely attenuated as a consequence of motion adaptation, while responses to foreground objects stay constant or even increase. This conclusion even holds under the dynamic flight conditions of insects.

  17. Spatially structured oscillations in a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression

    KAUST Repository

    Kilpatrick, Zachary P.

    2009-10-29

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of a two-dimensional excitatory neuronal network with synaptic depression. Coupling between populations of neurons is taken to be nonlocal, while depression is taken to be local and presynaptic. We show that the network supports a wide range of spatially structured oscillations, which are suggestive of phenomena seen in cortical slice experiments and in vivo. The particular form of the oscillations depends on initial conditions and the level of background noise. Given an initial, spatially localized stimulus, activity evolves to a spatially localized oscillating core that periodically emits target waves. Low levels of noise can spontaneously generate several pockets of oscillatory activity that interact via their target patterns. Periodic activity in space can also organize into spiral waves, provided that there is some source of rotational symmetry breaking due to external stimuli or noise. In the high gain limit, no oscillatory behavior exists, but a transient stimulus can lead to a single, outward propagating target wave. © Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009.

  18. Genetic spatial structure of European common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) - a result of repeated range expansion and demographic bottlenecks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann, K.; Michaux, R.; Maak, S.; Jansman, H.A.H.; Kayser, A.; Mundt, G.; Gattermann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The spatial genetic structure of common hamsters (Cricetus cricetus) was investigated using three partial mitochondrial (mt) genes and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci. All marker systems revealed significant population differentiation across Europe. Hamsters in central and western Europe belong

  19. Highly Effective Light Beam Diffraction on Holographic PDLC Photonic Structure, Controllable by the Spatially Inhomogeneous Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semkin, A. O.; Sharangovich, S. N.

    In this work the highly effiective light beam diffraction on holographic photonic structure formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLCs) is theoretically described. The ability to manage its diffraction characteristics by the spatially inhomogeneous electric field is also shown.

  20. Spatial structure and activity mechanism of a novel spider antimicrobial peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovskii, Peter V; Volynsky, Pavel E; Polyansky, Anton A; Chupin, Vladimir V; Efremov, Roman G; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2006-09-05

    Latarcins (Ltc), linear peptides (ca. 25 amino acid long) isolated from the venom of the Lachesana tarabaevi spider, exhibit a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, most likely acting on the bacterial plasmatic membrane. We study the structure-activity relationships in the series of these compounds. At the first stage, we investigated the spatial structure of one of the peptides, Ltc2a, and its mode of membrane perturbation. This was done by a combination of experimental and theoretical methods. The approach includes (i) structural study of the peptide by CD spectroscopy in phospholipid liposomes and by (1)H NMR in detergent micelles, (ii) determination of the effect on the liposomes by a dye leakage fluorescent assay and (31)P NMR spectroscopy, (iii) refinement of the NMR-derived spatial structure via Monte Carlo simulations in an implicit water-octanol slab, and (iv) calculation of the molecular hydrophobicity potential. The molecule of Ltc2a was found to consist of two helical regions (residues 3-9 and 13-21) connected via a poorly ordered fragment. The effect of the peptide on the liposomes suggests the carpet mechanism of the membrane deterioration. This is also supported by the analysis of hydrophobic/hydrophilic characteristics of Ltc2a and homologous antimicrobial peptides. These peptides exhibiting a helix-hinge-helix structural motif are characterized by a distinct and feebly marked amphiphilicity of their N- and C-terminal helices, respectively, and by a hydrophobicity gradient along the peptide chain. The approach we suggested may be useful in studying not only other latarcins but also a wider class of membrane-active peptides.

  1. Model-based estimators of density and connectivity to inform conservation of spatially structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Dana J.; Fuller, Angela K.; Royle, J. Andrew; Sutherland, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Conservation and management of spatially structured populations is challenging because solutions must consider where individuals are located, but also differential individual space use as a result of landscape heterogeneity. A recent extension of spatial capture–recapture (SCR) models, the ecological distance model, uses spatial encounter histories of individuals (e.g., a record of where individuals are detected across space, often sequenced over multiple sampling occasions), to estimate the relationship between space use and characteristics of a landscape, allowing simultaneous estimation of both local densities of individuals across space and connectivity at the scale of individual movement. We developed two model-based estimators derived from the SCR ecological distance model to quantify connectivity over a continuous surface: (1) potential connectivity—a metric of the connectivity of areas based on resistance to individual movement; and (2) density-weighted connectivity (DWC)—potential connectivity weighted by estimated density. Estimates of potential connectivity and DWC can provide spatial representations of areas that are most important for the conservation of threatened species, or management of abundant populations (i.e., areas with high density and landscape connectivity), and thus generate predictions that have great potential to inform conservation and management actions. We used a simulation study with a stationary trap design across a range of landscape resistance scenarios to evaluate how well our model estimates resistance, potential connectivity, and DWC. Correlation between true and estimated potential connectivity was high, and there was positive correlation and high spatial accuracy between estimated DWC and true DWC. We applied our approach to data collected from a population of black bears in New York, and found that forested areas represented low levels of resistance for black bears. We demonstrate that formal inference about measures

  2. Surface quasi periodic and random structures based on nanomotor lithography for light trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golghasemi Sorkhabi, Sh.; Ahmadi-Kandjani, S.; Cousseau, F.; Loumaigne, M.; Zielinska, S.; Ortyl, E.; Barille, R.

    2017-07-01

    We compare the characteristics of two types of patterns obtained with two azopolymer materials: a Gaussian random pattern and a quasi-random grating pattern. The surface structurations have been obtained with a simple bottom-up technique, illuminating azopolymer thin films with a single laser beam. We demonstrate the interesting generated properties of these two surfaces. In particular, the surface with quasi-random gratings can address beam splitting for light coupling in different directions in an ultra-thin film. We use these two surfaces as a mold and replicate them on a transparent elastomeric material and demonstrate a very good light entrapment. We also show that the efficiency of light trapping is 20% better with the quasi-random gratings, than with the Gaussian random surface, and is close to 40%.

  3. Spatial structure and nest demography reveal the influence of competition, parasitism and habitat quality on slavemaking ants and their hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer-Blass Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural communities are structured by intra-guild competition, predation or parasitism and the abiotic environment. We studied the relative importance of these factors in two host-social parasite ecosystems in three ant communities in Europe (Bavaria and North America (New York, West Virginia. We tested how these factors affect colony demography, life-history and the spatial pattern of colonies, using a large sample size of more than 1000 colonies. The strength of competition was measured by the distance to the nearest competitor. Distance to the closest social parasite colony was used as a measure of parasitism risk. Nest sites (i.e., sticks or acorns are limited in these forest ecosystems and we therefore included nest site quality as an abiotic factor in the analysis. In contrast to previous studies based on local densities, we focus here on the positioning and spatial patterns and we use models to compare our predictions to random expectations. Results Colony demography was universally affected by the size of the nest site with larger and more productive colonies residing in larger nest sites of higher quality. Distance to the nearest competitor negatively influenced host demography and brood production in the Bavarian community, pointing to an important role of competition, while social parasitism was less influential in this community. The New York community was characterized by the highest habitat variability, and productive colonies were clustered in sites of higher quality. Colonies were clumped on finer spatial scales, when we considered only the nearest neighbors, but more regularly distributed on coarser scales. The analysis of spatial positioning within plots often produced different results compared to those based on colony densities. For example, while host and slavemaker densities are often positively correlated, slavemakers do not nest closer to potential host colonies than expected by random. Conclusions The

  4. The importance of different spatial scales in determining structural and functional characteristics of deep-sea infauna communities

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    J. Ingels

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The urge to understand spatial distributions of species and communities and their causative processes has continuously instigated the development and testing of conceptual models in spatial ecology. For the deep sea, there is evidence that structural and functional characteristics of benthic communities are regulated by a multitude of biotic and environmental processes that act in concert on different spatial scales, but the spatial patterns are poorly understood compared to those for terrestrial ecosystems. Deep-sea studies generally focus on very limited scale ranges, thereby impairing our understanding of which spatial scales and associated processes are most important in driving structural and functional diversity of communities. Here, we used an extensive integrated dataset of free-living nematodes from deep-sea sediments to unravel the importance of different spatial scales in determining benthic infauna communities. Multiple-factor multivariate permutational analyses were performed on different sets of community descriptors (structure, structural and functional diversity, standing stock. The different spatial scales investigated cover two margins in the northeast Atlantic, several submarine canyons/channel/slope areas, a bathymetrical range of 700–4300 m, different sampling locations at each station, and vertical sediment profiles. The results indicated that the most important spatial scale for structural and functional diversity and standing stock variability is the smallest one; infauna communities changed substantially more with differences between sediment depth layers than with differences associated to larger geographical or bathymetrical scales. Community structure differences were greatest between stations at both margins. Important regulating ecosystem processes and the scale on which they occur are discussed. The results imply that, if we are to improve our understanding of ecosystem patterns of deep-sea infauna and the

  5. On Spatial Resolution in Habitat Models: Can Small-scale Forest Structure Explain Capercaillie Numbers?

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    Ilse Storch

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effects of spatial resolution on the performance and applicability of habitat models in wildlife management and conservation. A Habitat Suitability Index (HSI model for the Capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus in the Bavarian Alps, Germany, is presented. The model was exclusively built on non-spatial, small-scale variables of forest structure and without any consideration of landscape patterns. The main goal was to assess whether a HSI model developed from small-scale habitat preferences can explain differences in population abundance at larger scales. To validate the model, habitat variables and indirect sign of Capercaillie use (such as feathers or feces were mapped in six study areas based on a total of 2901 20 m radius (for habitat variables and 5 m radius sample plots (for Capercaillie sign. First, the model's representation of Capercaillie habitat preferences was assessed. Habitat selection, as expressed by Ivlev's electivity index, was closely related to HSI scores, increased from poor to excellent habitat suitability, and was consistent across all study areas. Then, habitat use was related to HSI scores at different spatial scales. Capercaillie use was best predicted from HSI scores at the small scale. Lowering the spatial resolution of the model stepwise to 36-ha, 100-ha, 400-ha, and 2000-ha areas and relating Capercaillie use to aggregated HSI scores resulted in a deterioration of fit at larger scales. Most importantly, there were pronounced differences in Capercaillie abundance at the scale of study areas, which could not be explained by the HSI model. The results illustrate that even if a habitat model correctly reflects a species' smaller scale habitat preferences, its potential to predict population abundance at larger scales may remain limited.

  6. Best period for high spatial resolution satellite images for the detection of marks of buried structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kaimaris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in sensor technology in recent decades led to the creation of ground, air and space imaging systems, whose data can be used in archaeological studies. Greece is one of the lucky areas that are rich in archaeological heritage. The detection of prehistoric/historic undiscovered constructions on satellite images or aerial photos is a complex and complicated matter. These marks are not visible from the ground, they can, however, be traced on satellite or aerial images, because of the differences in tone and texture. These differences appear as crop, soil and shadow marks. Undoubtedly, the detection of buried structures requires a suitable spatial resolution image, taken under appropriate meteorological conditions and during the best period of the vegetation growing cycle. According to the pertinent literature, detecting covered memorials may be achieved either accidentally or, usually, after a systematic investigation based on historical narratives. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors that facilitate or hinder the detection of buried structures through high spatial resolution satellite imagery. In this study, pan sharpened images from the QuickBird-2 satellite were used, of a spatial resolution of 0.60-0.70 m. This study concerns the detection of marks of the ancient Via Egnatia, from the ancient Amphipolis to Philippi (Eastern Macedonia, Greece. We studied different types of vegetation in the region and their phenological cycle. Taking into account the vegetation phenological cycle of the study area as well as the meteorological data, four pan sharpened QuickBird-2 images of a spatial resolution of 0.60–0.70 m. were used, during four different seasons. By processing the four images, we can determine the one acquired during the most appropriate conditions for the detection of buried structures. The application of this methodology in the study area had positive results, and not only was the main purpose of this

  7. Studies on Structural and Resistive Switching Properties of Al/ZnO/Al Structured Resistive Random Access Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongxia; Chen, Yiming; Wu, Xin; Xi, Junhua; Huang, Yanwei; Ji, Zhenguo

    Recently, resistive random access memory has been continuously investigated in order to replace the flash memory. In this paper, Al/ZnO/Al structured device was fabricated by magnetron sputtering and vacuum thermal evaporation. Systematic study has been conducted to explore the structural, morphological, and the resistive switching properties of ZnO films with Al metal as both bottom and top electrodes. The resistive switching mechanism of Al/ZnO/Al device was analyzed based on the above study.

  8. Spatial structure of cone inputs to color cells in alert macaque primary visual cortex (V-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B R

    2001-04-15

    The spatial structure of color cell receptive fields is controversial. Here, spots of light that selectively modulate one class of cones (L, M, or S, or loosely red, green, or blue) were flashed in and around the receptive fields of V-1 color cells to map the spatial structure of the cone inputs. The maps generated using these cone-isolating stimuli and an eye-position-corrected reverse correlation technique produced four findings. First, the receptive fields were Double-Opponent, an organization of spatial and chromatic opponency critical for color constancy and color contrast. Optimally stimulating both center and surround subregions with adjacent red and green spots excited the cells more than stimulating a single subregion. Second, red-green cells responded in a luminance-invariant way. For example, red-on-center cells were excited equally by a stimulus that increased L-cone activity (appearing bright red) and by a stimulus that decreased M-cone activity (appearing dark red). This implies that the opponency between L and M is balanced and argues that these cells are encoding a single chromatic axis. Third, most color cells responded to stimuli of all orientations and had circularly symmetric receptive fields. Some cells, however, showed a coarse orientation preference. This was reflected in the receptive fields as oriented Double-Opponent subregions. Fourth, red-green cells often responded to S-cone stimuli. Responses to M- and S-cone stimuli usually aligned, suggesting that these cells might be red-cyan. In summary, red-green (or red-cyan) cells, along with blue-yellow and black-white cells, establish three chromatic axes that are sufficient to describe all of color space.

  9. Likelihood analysis of spatial capture-recapture models for stratified or class structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royle, J. Andrew; Sutherland, Christopher S.; Fuller, Angela K.; Sun, Catherine C.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a likelihood analysis framework for fitting spatial capture-recapture (SCR) models to data collected on class structured or stratified populations. Our interest is motivated by the necessity of accommodating the problem of missing observations of individual class membership. This is particularly problematic in SCR data arising from DNA analysis of scat, hair or other material, which frequently yields individual identity but fails to identify the sex. Moreover, this can represent a large fraction of the data and, given the typically small sample sizes of many capture-recapture studies based on DNA information, utilization of the data with missing sex information is necessary. We develop the class structured likelihood for the case of missing covariate values, and then we address the scaling of the likelihood so that models with and without class structured parameters can be formally compared regardless of missing values. We apply our class structured model to black bear data collected in New York in which sex could be determined for only 62 of 169 uniquely identified individuals. The models containing sex-specificity of both the intercept of the SCR encounter probability model and the distance coefficient, and including a behavioral response are strongly favored by log-likelihood. Estimated population sex ratio is strongly influenced by sex structure in model parameters illustrating the importance of rigorous modeling of sex differences in capture-recapture models.

  10. Using Logistic Regression and Random Forests multivariate statistical methods for landslide spatial probability assessment in North-Est Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; Esposito, Carlo; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Gabriele

    2015-04-01

    first phase of the work addressed to identify the spatial relationships between the landslides location and the 13 related factors by using the Frequency Ratio bivariate statistical method. The analysis was then carried out by adopting a multivariate statistical approach, according to the Logistic Regression technique and Random Forests technique that gave best results in terms of AUC. The models were performed and evaluated with different sample sizes and also taking into account the temporal variation of input variables such as burned areas by wildfire. The most significant outcome of this work are: the relevant influence of the sample size on the model results and the strong importance of some environmental factors (e.g. land use and wildfires) for the identification of the depletion zones of extremely rapid shallow landslides.

  11. The Red Sea structural architecture assessment based on yield strength spatial variations and Arabian margin preexisting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, T.; Furlong, K. P.

    2016-12-01

    Rift initiation and localization might reflect spatial changes in the lithospheric yield strength. However, this does not appear to be the case in the Red Sea extensional system where fission track analysis shows no significant changes in the geothermal gradient prior to the Red Sea rift onset. In contrast, though the whole Red Sea rift initiated 25 Ma ago, its extensional architecture changes dramatically along strike from narrow localized spreading in the south to asymmetrical diffuse extension north of 21° latitude. This onset of diffuse extension has been recorded in the north-western Arabian margin as old as 33 Ma. Such diversity in the extensional style might reflect along strike yield strength variations as a consequence of the geological setting in the Arabian margin. The north-western Arabian basin, which is part of the Arabian margin, bounded by Qiba high from the east, the Arabian shield from the south and the west and Syrian plateau from the north. The basin accommodates part of the Red Sea diffuse extension and has a preexisting structural architecture represented in the Cenozoic failed rift that called Sarhan graben. Our goal is to analyze the current lithospheric yield strength spatial variations along the Red Sea rift and emphasize their relationship with the Arabian margin structural architecture. We hypothesize that the north-western Arabian margin's lithospheric weakness and structural diversity are playing an important role in producing region of diffuse extension by their interaction with the forces applied by far field stresses represented by the New Tethys slab pull. On the other hand, the south-western Arabian margin interacts with the far field stresses as a single strong block in which led to localize the extension in the southern Red Sea. Our work may improve the scientific community understanding for how rifts initiate and evolve over time.

  12. Spatial organization and correlation properties quantify structural changes on mesoscale of parenchymatous plant tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valous, N. A.; Delgado, A.; Sun, D.-W., E-mail: dawen.sun@ucd.ie [School of Biosystems Engineering, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland); Drakakis, K. [Complex and Adaptive Systems Laboratory, University College Dublin, National University of Ireland, Belfield, Dublin 4, Dublin (Ireland)

    2014-02-14

    The study of plant tissue parenchyma's intercellular air spaces contributes to the understanding of anatomy and physiology. This is challenging due to difficulty in making direct measurements of the pore space and the complex mosaic of parenchymatous tissue. The architectural complexity of pore space has shown that single geometrical measurements are not sufficient for characterization. The inhomogeneity of distribution depends not only on the percentage content of phase, but also on how the phase fills the space. The lacunarity morphometric, as multiscale measure, provides information about the distribution of gaps that correspond to degree of spatial organization in parenchyma. Additionally, modern theories have suggested strategies, where the focus has shifted from the study of averages and histograms to the study of patterns in data fluctuations. Detrended fluctuation analysis provides information on the correlation properties of the parenchyma at different spatial scales. The aim is to quantify (with the aid of the aforementioned metrics), the mesostructural changes—that occur from one cycle of freezing and thawing—in the void phase of pome fruit parenchymatous tissue, acquired with X-ray microcomputed tomography. Complex systems methods provide numerical indices and detailed insights regarding the freezing-induced modifications upon the arrangement of cells and voids. These structural changes have the potential to lead to physiological disorders. The work can further stimulate interest for the analysis of internal plant tissue structures coupled with other physico-chemical processes or phenomena.

  13. Phylogeography and spatial genetic structure of the Southern torrent salamander: Implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.P.; Haig, S.M.; Wagner, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Southern torrent salamander (Rhyacotriton variegatus) was recently found not warranted for listing under the US Endangered Species Act due to lack of information regarding population fragmentation and gene flow. Found in small-order streams associated with late-successional coniferous forests of the US Pacific Northwest, threats to their persistence include disturbance related to timber harvest activities. We conducted a study of genetic diversity throughout this species' range to 1) identify major phylogenetic lineages and phylogeographic barriers and 2) elucidate regional patterns of population genetic and spatial phylogeographic structure. Cytochrome b sequence variation was examined for 189 individuals from 72 localities. We identified 3 major lineages corresponding to nonoverlapping geographic regions: a northern California clade, a central Oregon clade, and a northern Oregon clade. The Yaquina River may be a phylogeographic barrier between the northern Oregon and central Oregon clades, whereas the Smith River in northern California appears to correspond to the discontinuity between the central Oregon and northern California clades. Spatial analyses of genetic variation within regions encompassing major clades indicated that the extent of genetic structure is comparable among regions. We discuss our results in the context of conservation efforts for Southern torrent salamanders. ?? The American Genetic Association. 2006. All rights reserved.

  14. Temporal and spatial influences incur reconfiguration of Arctic heathland soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard; Saetnan, Eli R; Scullion, John; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Ostle, Nick; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-06-01

    Microbial responses to Arctic climate change could radically alter the stability of major stores of soil carbon. However, the sensitivity of plot-scale experiments simulating climate change effects on Arctic heathland soils to potential confounding effects of spatial and temporal changes in soil microbial communities is unknown. Here, the variation in heathland soil bacterial communities at two survey sites in Sweden between spring and summer 2013 and at scales between 0-1 m and, 1-100 m and between sites (> 100 m) were investigated in parallel using 16S rRNA gene T-RFLP and amplicon sequencing. T-RFLP did not reveal spatial structuring of communities at scales structuring effects may not confound comparison between plot-scale treatments, temporal change is a significant influence. Moreover, the prominence of two temporally exclusive keystone taxa suggests that the stability of Arctic heathland soil bacterial communities could be disproportionally influenced by seasonal perturbations affecting individual taxa. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Strong spatial genetic structure reduces reproductive success in the critically endangered plant genus Pseudomisopates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, María E; Silvertown, Jonathan; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth can be a double-edged sword for endangered species, because the short-term insurance against extinction may incur a longer-term hazard of creating small inbred populations with low fecundity. In the present study, we quantify the advantages and disadvantages of clonal growth regarding the fitness of the central Iberian monotypic endangered genus Pseudomisopates. Preliminary studies showed that the species is self-incompatible and exhibits extensive clonal growth with plants flowering profusely. However, seeds at many sites seemed to be unviable, and no seedlings have been observed in the field. A fully replicated nested sampling design (n = 100) was conducted to explore genetic (using seven SSR loci) and environmental factors potentially affecting seed viability, such as: 1) clonal and genetic diversity, 2) spatial genetic structure, and 3) environmental factors (shrub cover and grazing). Generalized Linear Mixed Models were fitted relating genetic and environmental variables to reproductive variables (seed viability and flower display). Our results indicate that the relatively low genotypic diversity of the population (PD = 0.23), as quantified by SSRs, and the strong spatial genetic structure observed are congruent with intense clonal growth. This clonal growth is enhanced by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as canopy closure and grazing. Under these circumstances, both flower display and mate availability decrease, thus hindering sexual reproduction. Indeed, a mixed reproductive system (clonal and sexual) to escape environmental stochasticity is crucial for the survival of Pseudomisopates, a species inhabiting a disturbance-prone ecosystem.

  16. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shaotian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  17. Asymmetric segregation of damaged cellular components in spatially structured multicellular organisms.

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    Charlotte Strandkvist

    Full Text Available The asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components has been observed in species ranging from fission yeast to humans. To study the potential advantages of damage segregation, we have developed a mathematical model describing ageing mammalian tissue, that is, a multicellular system of somatic cells that do not rejuvenate at cell division. To illustrate the applicability of the model, we specifically consider damage incurred by mutations to mitochondrial DNA, which are thought to be implicated in the mammalian ageing process. We show analytically that the asymmetric distribution of damaged cellular components reduces the overall damage level and increases the longevity of the cell population. Motivated by the experimental reports of damage segregation in human embryonic stem cells, dividing symmetrically with respect to cell-fate, we extend the model to consider spatially structured systems of cells. Imposing spatial structure reduces, but does not eliminate, the advantage of asymmetric division over symmetric division. The results suggest that damage partitioning could be a common strategy for reducing the accumulation of damage in a wider range of cell types than previously thought.

  18. Spatial Diversity in Composition and Structure of Nekton in Ngenep Spring and its Channels, Karangploso - Malang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Hapsari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Water springs and its channel degradation due to anthropogenic pollution may alter the community structure of aquatic organisms. Water spring degradation tehrefore affect the quality of water as tourism resources. This study aims to investigate the changes in community structure of nekton  and determine the relationships between water quality characteristics to the diversity of nekton.  The field survey was set up in Ngenep spring and its channels. Results showed that nekton species found in Ngenep spring and its channels consists of 4 classes, 4 orders, 6 families, and 7 species with total 627 nekton samples. It is comprises of fishes, shrimp, frogs and waterstriders. Nekton diversity index (H’ in the spring and irrigation channel were in moderate level (1spatial variations of  physico-chemical water qualitiy parameters in Ngenep springs and its channels (temperature, stream velocity, turbidity, conductivity, pH, DO, BOD and TOM which affected to nekton diversity and community structure. Clustering analyses and PCA result shows correlation pattern between nekton distribution with physico-chemical water quality parameters. However, physico-chemical water quality parameters in Ngenep springs and its channel were still optimum as nekton habitat (PP No. 82/ 2001. Keywords: Community structure, Nekton, Spatial diversity, Spring, Water channel

  19. Special quasirandom structures for binary/ternary group IV random alloys

    KAUST Repository

    Chroneos, Alexander I.

    2010-06-01

    Simulation of defect interactions in binary/ternary group IV semiconductor alloys at the density functional theory level is difficult due to the random distribution of the constituent atoms. The special quasirandom structures approach is a computationally efficient way to describe the random nature. We systematically study the efficacy of the methodology and generate a number of special quasirandom cells for future use. In order to demonstrate the applicability of the technique, the electronic structures of E centers in Si1-xGex and Si1-x -yGexSny alloys are discussed for a range of nearest neighbor environments. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Visible Persistence of Single-Transient Random Dot Patterns: Spatial Parameters Affect the Duration of Fading Percepts.

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    Maximilian Bruchmann

    Full Text Available Visible persistence refers to the continuation of visual perception after the physical termination of a stimulus. We studied an extreme case of visible persistence by presenting two matrices of randomly distributed black and white pixels in succession. On the transition from one matrix to the second, the luminance polarity of all pixels within a disk- or annulus-shaped area reversed, physically creating a single second-order transient signal. This transient signal produces the percept of a disk or an annulus with an abrupt onset and a gradual offset. To study the nature of this fading percept we varied spatial parameters, such as the inner and the outer diameter of annuli (Experiment I and the radius and eccentricity of disks (Experiment III, and measured the duration of visible persistence by having subjects adjust the synchrony of the onset of a reference stimulus with the onset or the offset of the fading percept. We validated this method by comparing two modalities of the reference stimuli (Experiment I and by comparing the judgments of fading percepts with the judgments of stimuli that actually fade in luminance contrast (Experiment II. The results show that (i irrespective of the reference modality, participants are able to precisely judge the on- and the offsets of the fading percepts, (ii auditory reference stimuli lead to higher visible persistence durations than visual ones, (iii visible persistence duration increases with the thickness of annuli and the diameter of disks, but decreases with the diameter of annuli, irrespective of stimulus eccentricity. These effects cannot be explained by stimulus energy, which suggests that more complex processing mechanisms are involved. Seemingly contradictory effects of disk and annulus diameter can be unified by assuming an abstract filling-in mechanism that speeds up with the strength of the edge signal and takes more time the larger the stimulus area is.

  1. Spatial variation in mandibular bone elastic modulus and its effect on structural bending stiffness: A test case using the Taï Forest monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Kim N; Marsik, Matthew; Daegling, David J; Duque, Ana; McGraw, William Scott

    2017-03-01

    We investigated how heterogeneity in material stiffness affects structural stiffness in the cercopithecid mandibular cortical bone. We assessed (1) whether this effect changes the interpretation of interspecific structural stiffness variation across four primate species, (2) whether the heterogeneity is random, and (3) whether heterogeneity mitigates bending stress in the jaw associated with food processing. The sample consisted of Taï Forest, Cote d'Ivoire, monkeys: Cercocebus atys, Piliocolobus badius, Colobus polykomos, and Cercopithecus diana. Vickers indentation hardness samples estimated elastic moduli throughout the cortical bone area of each coronal section of postcanine corpus. For each section, we calculated maximum area moment of inertia, Imax (structural mechanical property), under three models of material heterogeneity, as well as spatial autocorrelation statistics (Moran's I, IMORAN ). When the model considered material stiffness variation and spatial patterning, Imax decreased and individual ranks based on structural stiffness changed. Rank changes were not significant across models. All specimens showed positive (nonrandom) spatial autocorrelation. Differences in IMORAN were not significant among species, and there were no discernable patterns of autocorrelation within species. Across species, significant local IMORAN was often attributed to proximity of low moduli in the alveolar process and high moduli in the basal process. While our sample did not demonstrate species differences in the degree of spatial autocorrelation of elastic moduli, there may be mechanical effects of heterogeneity (relative strength and rigidity) that do distinguish at the species or subfamilial level (i.e., colobines vs. cercopithecines). The potential connections of heterogeneity to diet and/or taxonomy remain to be discovered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Robustness of spatial micronetworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Thomas C.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Bagrow, James P.

    2015-04-01

    Power lines, roadways, pipelines, and other physical infrastructure are critical to modern society. These structures may be viewed as spatial networks where geographic distances play a role in the functionality and construction cost of links. Traditionally, studies of network robustness have primarily considered the connectedness of large, random networks. Yet for spatial infrastructure, physical distances must also play a role in network robustness. Understanding the robustness of small spatial networks is particularly important with the increasing interest in microgrids, i.e., small-area distributed power grids that are well suited to using renewable energy resources. We study the random failures of links in small networks where functionality depends on both spatial distance and topological connectedness. By introducing a percolation model where the failure of each link is proportional to its spatial length, we find that when failures depend on spatial distances, networks are more fragile than expected. Accounting for spatial effects in both construction and robustness is important for designing efficient microgrids and other network infrastructure.

  3. NOTES ON SPATIAL-STRUCTURAL CHANGE IN URBAN SOUTH AFRICA - THE 1990S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanus S. GEYER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal businesses used to be something that was only tolerated in the former black townships during the years of apartheid. Since then the informal business sector has become an integral part of the central business setup of cities in South Africa. It not only serves to widen the security net of the urban poor in cities, it also epresents the outcome of the democratization process in the country over the past fifteen years. Yet, there has been a tendency amongst local authorities to take steps to reduce the footprint of this sector in the urban environment in recent years. This trend ties in with the new approach of government to transform South African cities to become ’world class’ centres—a step that is aimed at making the cities more visually acceptable to visitors from abroad. In this paperan attempt is made to demonstrate the importance of the informal ector within the urban business makeup and to show what role it played in the spatial-structural evolution of the urban economies during the 1990s. The paper analyzes the structure of the urban business sector as a whole and structurally links the formal and informal sectors, demonstrating the importance of both sectors in the economic makeup of the cities. It analyses the structure of the informal sector and shows how different layers of the sector potentially relates to the formal urban sector.

  4. Spatial genetic structure and mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Argentinean populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Rosetti

    Full Text Available Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of Minisatellite Regions (DAMD and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI mitochondrial gene to investigate intraspecific structure, demographic history and gene flow patterns in twenty Argentinean populations of this species belonging to different geographic and biogeographic regions. DAMD data suggest that, although genetic drift and migration occur within and between populations, measurable relatedness among neighbouring populations declines with distance and dispersal over distances greater than 200 km is not typical, whereas effective gene flow may occur for populations separated by less than 100 km. Landscape analysis was useful to detect genetic discontinuities associated with environmental heterogeneity reflecting the changing agroecosystem. The COI results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between two groups of populations located at both margins of the Paraná River which became separated during climate oscillations of the Middle Pleistocene, suggesting a significant restriction in effective dispersion mediated by females and large scale geographic differentiation. The number of migrants between populations estimated through mitochondrial and DAMD markers suggest that gene flow is low prompting a non-homogeneous spatial structure and justifying the variation through space. Moreover, the genetic analysis of both markers allows us to conclude that males appear to disperse more than females, reducing the chance of the

  5. Spatial genetic structure and mitochondrial DNA phylogeography of Argentinean populations of the grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosetti, Natalia; Remis, Maria Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Many grasshopper species are considered of agronomical importance because they cause damage to pastures and crops. Comprehension of pest population dynamics requires a clear understanding of the genetic diversity and spatial structure of populations. In this study we report on patterns of genetic variation in the South American grasshopper Dichroplus elongatus which is an agricultural pest of crops and forage grasses of great economic significance in Argentina. We use Direct Amplification of Minisatellite Regions (DAMD) and partial sequences of the cytochrome oxydase 1 (COI) mitochondrial gene to investigate intraspecific structure, demographic history and gene flow patterns in twenty Argentinean populations of this species belonging to different geographic and biogeographic regions. DAMD data suggest that, although genetic drift and migration occur within and between populations, measurable relatedness among neighbouring populations declines with distance and dispersal over distances greater than 200 km is not typical, whereas effective gene flow may occur for populations separated by less than 100 km. Landscape analysis was useful to detect genetic discontinuities associated with environmental heterogeneity reflecting the changing agroecosystem. The COI results indicate the existence of strong genetic differentiation between two groups of populations located at both margins of the Paraná River which became separated during climate oscillations of the Middle Pleistocene, suggesting a significant restriction in effective dispersion mediated by females and large scale geographic differentiation. The number of migrants between populations estimated through mitochondrial and DAMD markers suggest that gene flow is low prompting a non-homogeneous spatial structure and justifying the variation through space. Moreover, the genetic analysis of both markers allows us to conclude that males appear to disperse more than females, reducing the chance of the genetic loss

  6. Spatial structure of soil properties at different scales of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Anna; Huwe, Bernd

    2013-04-01

    Soils of tropical mountain ecosystems provide important ecosystem services like water and carbon storage, water filtration and erosion control. As these ecosystems are threatened by global warming and the conversion of natural to human-modified landscapes, it is important to understand the implications of these changes. Within the DFG Research Unit "Kilimanjaro ecosystems under global change: Linking biodiversity, biotic interactions and biogeochemical ecosystem processes", we study the spatial heterogeneity of soils and the available water capacity for different land use systems. In the savannah zone of Mt. Kilimanjaro, maize fields are compared to natural savannah ecosystems. In the lower montane forest zone, coffee plantations, traditional home gardens, grasslands and natural forests are studied. We characterize the soils with respect to soil hydrology, emphasizing on the spatial variability of soil texture and bulk density at different scales. Furthermore soil organic carbon and nitrogen, cation exchange capacity and the pH-value are measured. Vis/Nir-Spectroscopy is used to detect small scale physical and chemical heterogeneity within soil profiles, as well as to get information of soil properties on a larger scale. We aim to build a spectral database for these soil properties for the Kilimanjaro region in order to get rapid information for geostatistical analysis. Partial least square regression with leave one out cross validation is used for model calibration. Results for silt and clay content, as well as carbon and nitrogen content are promising, with adjusted R² ranging from 0.70 for silt to 0.86 for nitrogen. Furthermore models for other nutrients, cation exchange capacity and available water capacity will be calibrated. We compare heterogeneity within and across the different ecosystems and state that spatial structure characteristics and complexity patterns in soil parameters can be quantitatively related to biodiversity and functional diversity

  7. Spatial arrangement overrules environmental factors to structure native and non-native assemblages of synanthropic harvestmen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Muster

    Full Text Available Understanding how space affects the occurrence of native and non-native species is essential for inferring processes that shape communities. However, studies considering spatial and environmental variables for the entire community - as well as for the native and non-native assemblages in a single study - are scarce for animals. Harvestmen communities in central Europe have undergone drastic turnovers during the past decades, with several newly immigrated species, and thus provide a unique system to study such questions. We studied the wall-dwelling harvestmen communities from 52 human settlements in Luxembourg and found the assemblages to be largely dominated by non-native species (64% of specimens. Community structure was analysed using Moran's eigenvector maps as spatial variables, and landcover variables at different radii (500 m, 1000 m, 2000 m in combination with climatic parameters as environmental variables. A surprisingly high portion of pure spatial variation (15.7% of total variance exceeded the environmental (10.6% and shared (4% components of variation, but we found only minor differences between native and non-native assemblages. This could result from the ecological flexibility of both, native and non-native harvestmen that are not restricted to urban habitats but also inhabit surrounding semi-natural landscapes. Nevertheless, urban landcover variables explained more variation in the non-native community, whereas coverage of semi-natural habitats (forests, rivers at broader radii better explained the native assemblage. This indicates that some urban characteristics apparently facilitate the establishment of non-native species. We found no evidence for competitive replacement of native by invasive species, but a community with novel combination of native and non-native species.

  8. Spatial P heterogeneity in forest soil: Influence on microbial P uptake and community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilla, Thomas; Angulo-Schipper, Bridith; Méndez, Juan Carlos; Dippold, Michaela A.; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Spielvogel, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    Other than nitrogen, phosphorus (P) is the most important growth limiting nutrient in soils. Yet, little information is available concerning the spatial heterogeneity of P content in forest soils. More so, the effects of a homogeneous vs. heterogeneous soil P distribution on microbial P acquisition and community structure have yet to be determined. Thus, a rhizotron experiment based on a P-deficient forest soil was conducted to investigate competitive P uptake strategies of microbes. F. sylvatica-bearing rhizotrons were labeled with Fe33PO4, a relatively immobile P source native to the study soil. Homogeneous and heterogeneous P patterns were created to study the effects of spatial P heterogeneity on plant and microbial P acquisition. P mobilization by microorganisms was tracked by an improved 33P-PLFA method, linking 33P incorporation in microbes with changes in microbial community structure in soils in situ. The microbial P uptake was enhanced in rhizotrons with high P availability and in those with a patchy P distribution. Characteristic PLFAs indicate a congregation of beech-associated ectomycorrhizal fungi in P-rich patches. These ectomycorrhizal fungi are likely to strongly increase P mobilization from the used Fe33PO4 in high P habitats. In contrast, habitats with low P availability require a more complex microbial community structure without a dominant group to mobilize this inaccessible P source. Therefore, hotspots of P are likely to promote the efforts of fungal hyphae for P mobilization - an effect which decreases with lower P content. Additionally, gram positive and negative bacteria exhibit a vastly higher P uptake under increasingly patchy P distributions. However, they form a smaller portion of the microbial community than in homogeneously P enriched rhizotrons, suggesting that filamentous organisms benefit from the patchy P distribution. Thus, only a heterogeneous P distribution promotes P acquisition of forest microbial communities from mineral P

  9. The Spatial Structure of Planform Migration - Curvature Relation of Meandering Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneralp, I.; Rhoads, B. L.

    2005-12-01

    Planform dynamics of meandering rivers have been of fundamental interest to fluvial geomorphologists and engineers because of the intriguing complexity of these dynamics, the role of planform change in floodplain development and landscape evolution, and the economic and social consequences of bank erosion and channel migration. Improved understanding of the complex spatial structure of planform change and capacity to predict these changes are important for effective stream management, engineering and restoration. The planform characteristics of a meandering river channel are integral to its planform dynamics. Active meandering rivers continually change their positions and shapes as a consequence of hydraulic forces exerted on the channel banks and bed, but as the banks and bed change through sediment transport, so do the hydraulic forces. Thus far, this complex feedback between form and process is incompletely understood, despite the fact that the characteristics and the dynamics of meandering rivers have been studied extensively. Current theoretical models aimed at predicting planform dynamics relate rates of meander migration to local and upstream planform curvature where weighting of the influence of curvature on migration rate decays exponentially over distance. This theoretical relation, however, has not been rigorously evaluated empirically. Furthermore, although models based on exponential-weighting of curvature effects yield fairly realistic predictions of meander migration, such models are incapable of reproducing complex forms of bend development, such as double heading or compound looping. This study presents the development of a new methodology based on parametric cubic spline interpolation for the characterization of channel planform and the planform curvature of meandering rivers. The use of continuous mathematical functions overcomes the reliance on bend-averaged values or piece-wise discrete approximations of planform curvature - a major limitation

  10. Legacy of Pre-Disturbance Spatial Pattern Determines Early Structural Diversity following Severe Disturbance in Montane Spruce Forests.

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    Radek Bače

    Full Text Available Severe canopy-removing disturbances are native to many temperate forests and radically alter stand structure, but biotic legacies (surviving elements or patterns can lend continuity to ecosystem function after such events. Poorly understood is the degree to which the structural complexity of an old-growth forest carries over to the next stand. We asked how pre-disturbance spatial pattern acts as a legacy to influence post-disturbance stand structure, and how this legacy influences the structural diversity within the early-seral stand.Two stem-mapped one-hectare forest plots in the Czech Republic experienced a severe bark beetle outbreak, thus providing before-and-after data on spatial patterns in live and dead trees, crown projections, down logs, and herb cover.Post-disturbance stands were dominated by an advanced regeneration layer present before the disturbance. Both major species, Norway spruce (Picea abies and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia, were strongly self-aggregated and also clustered to former canopy trees, pre-disturbance snags, stumps and logs, suggesting positive overstory to understory neighbourhood effects. Thus, although the disturbance dramatically reduced the stand's height profile with ~100% mortality of the canopy layer, the spatial structure of post-disturbance stands still closely reflected the pre-disturbance structure. The former upper tree layer influenced advanced regeneration through microsite and light limitation. Under formerly dense canopies, regeneration density was high but relatively homogeneous in height; while in former small gaps with greater herb cover, regeneration density was lower but with greater heterogeneity in heights.These findings suggest that pre-disturbance spatial patterns of forests can persist through severe canopy-removing disturbance, and determine the spatial structure of the succeeding stand. Such patterns constitute a subtle but key legacy effect, promoting structural complexity in early

  11. Coupling Neumann development and component mode synthesis methods for stochastic analysis of random structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Driss Sarsri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a method to calculate the first two moments (mean and variance of the structural dynamics response of a structure with uncertain variables and subjected to random excitation. For this, Newmark method is used to transform the equation of motion of the structure into a quasistatic equilibrium equation in the time domain. The Neumann development method was coupled with Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the statistical values of the random response. The use of modal synthesis methods can reduce the dimensions of the model before integration of the equation of motion. Numerical applications have been developed to highlight effectiveness of the method developed to analyze the stochastic response of large structures.

  12. Data from: Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, A.A.; Duminil, J.; Wouters, T.C.A.E.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The file "Data fine-scale structure of Boswellia papyrifera TGGE paper.xlsx" contains the microsatellite data used in the study " Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation", by A. B. Addisalem, J. Duminil, D.

  13. Parallelization of a spatial random field characterization process using the Method of Anchored Distributions and the HTCondor high throughput computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-Murillo, C. A.; Over, M. W.; Frystacky, H.; Ames, D. P.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    A new software application called MAD# has been coupled with the HTCondor high throughput computing system to aid scientists and educators with the characterization of spatial random fields and enable understanding the spatial distribution of parameters used in hydrogeologic and related modeling. MAD# is an open source desktop software application used to characterize spatial random fields using direct and indirect information through Bayesian inverse modeling technique called the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD). MAD relates indirect information with a target spatial random field via a forward simulation model. MAD# executes inverse process running the forward model multiple times to transfer information from indirect information to the target variable. MAD# uses two parallelization profiles according to computational resources available: one computer with multiple cores and multiple computers - multiple cores through HTCondor. HTCondor is a system that manages a cluster of desktop computers for submits serial or parallel jobs using scheduling policies, resources monitoring, job queuing mechanism. This poster will show how MAD# reduces the time execution of the characterization of random fields using these two parallel approaches in different case studies. A test of the approach was conducted using 1D problem with 400 cells to characterize saturated conductivity, residual water content, and shape parameters of the Mualem-van Genuchten model in four materials via the HYDRUS model. The number of simulations evaluated in the inversion was 10 million. Using the one computer approach (eight cores) were evaluated 100,000 simulations in 12 hours (10 million - 1200 hours approximately). In the evaluation on HTCondor, 32 desktop computers (132 cores) were used, with a processing time of 60 hours non-continuous in five days. HTCondor reduced the processing time for uncertainty characterization by a factor of 20 (1200 hours reduced to 60 hours.)

  14. Multisite Randomized Controlled Trial Examining Intelligent Tutoring of Structure Strategy for Fifth-Grade Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijekumar, Kausalai; Meyer, Bonnie J. F.; Lei, Pui-Wa; Lin, Yu-Chu; Johnson, Lori A.; Spielvogel, James A.; Shurmatz, Kathryn M.; Ray, Melissa; Cook, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a large scale randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of a web-based intelligent tutoring system for the structure strategy designed to improve content area reading comprehension. The research was conducted with 128 fifth-grade classrooms within 12 school districts in rural and suburban settings. Classrooms within…

  15. High Efficiency Computation of the Variances of Structural Evolutionary Random Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Lin

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For structures subjected to stationary or evolutionary white/colored random noise, their various response variances satisfy algebraic or differential Lyapunov equations. The solution of these Lyapunov equations used to be very difficult. A precise integration method is proposed in the present paper, which solves such Lyapunov equations accurately and very efficiently.

  16. Intervention for Verb Argument Structure in Children with Persistent SLI: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; van der Lely, Heather K. J.; Dockrell, Julie E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The authors aimed to establish whether 2 theoretically motivated interventions could improve use of verb argument structure in pupils with persistent specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Twenty-seven pupils with SLI (ages 11;0-16;1) participated in this randomized controlled trial with "blind" assessment. Participants were randomly…

  17. Detecting community structure in networks via consensus dynamics and spatial transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; He, He; Hu, Xiaoming

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel clustering algorithm for community detection, based on the dynamics towards consensus and spatial transformation. The community detection problem is translated to a clustering problem in the N-dimensional Euclidean space by three stages: (1) the dynamics running on a network is emulated to a procedure of gas diffusion in a finite space; (2) the pressure distribution vectors are used to describe the influence that each node exerts on the whole network; (3) the similarity measures between two nodes are quantified in the N-dimensional Euclidean space by k-Nearest Neighbors method. After such steps, we could merge clusters according to their similarity distances and show the community structure of a network by a hierarchical clustering tree. Tests on several benchmark networks are presented and the results show the effectiveness and reliability of our algorithm.

  18. A Matérn model of the spatial covariance structure of point rain rates

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2014-07-15

    It is challenging to model a precipitation field due to its intermittent and highly scale-dependent nature. Many models of point rain rates or areal rainfall observations have been proposed and studied for different time scales. Among them, the spectral model based on a stochastic dynamical equation for the instantaneous point rain rate field is attractive, since it naturally leads to a consistent space–time model. In this paper, we note that the spatial covariance structure of the spectral model is equivalent to the well-known Matérn covariance model. Using high-quality rain gauge data, we estimate the parameters of the Matérn model for different time scales and demonstrate that the Matérn model is superior to an exponential model, particularly at short time scales.

  19. Optics. Spatially structured photons that travel in free space slower than the speed of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Daniel; Romero, Jacquiline; Potoček, Václav; Ferenczi, Gergely; Speirits, Fiona; Barnett, Stephen M; Faccio, Daniele; Padgett, Miles J

    2015-02-20

    That the speed of light in free space is constant is a cornerstone of modern physics. However, light beams have finite transverse size, which leads to a modification of their wave vectors resulting in a change to their phase and group velocities. We study the group velocity of single photons by measuring a change in their arrival time that results from changing the beam's transverse spatial structure. Using time-correlated photon pairs, we show a reduction in the group velocity of photons in both a Bessel beam and photons in a focused Gaussian beam. In both cases, the delay is several micrometers over a propagation distance of ~1 meter. Our work highlights that, even in free space, the invariance of the speed of light only applies to plane waves. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Flow environment and matrix structure interact to determine spatial competition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Carey D; Ricaurte, Deirdre; Yan, Jing; Drescher, Knut; Bassler, Bonnie L

    2017-01-13

    Bacteria often live in biofilms, which are microbial communities surrounded by a secreted extracellular matrix. Here, we demonstrate that hydrodynamic flow and matrix organization interact to shape competitive dynamics in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Irrespective of initial frequency, in competition with matrix mutants, wild-type cells always increase in relative abundance in planar microfluidic devices under simple flow regimes. By contrast, in microenvironments with complex, irregular flow profiles - which are common in natural environments - wild-type matrix-producing and isogenic non-producing strains can coexist. This result stems from local obstruction of flow by wild-type matrix producers, which generates regions of near-zero shear that allow matrix mutants to locally accumulate. Our findings connect the evolutionary stability of matrix production with the hydrodynamics and spatial structure of the surrounding environment, providing a potential explanation for the variation in biofilm matrix secretion observed among bacteria in natural environments.

  1. Robust Structured Light Pattern for Use with a Spatial Light Modulator in 3-D Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Benjamin; De Leener, Benjamin; Debeir, Olivier; Beumier, Charles; Lambert, Pierre; Delchambre, Alain

    2013-04-01

    This article introduces a novel structured light pattern designed to be compatible with the spatial light modulator (SLM) projection. The proposed pattern is a De Bruijn-based sequence applied to a combination of continuous and dashed lines for the pattern. The sequence is coded in the period and duty cycles of the dashed lines. It provides 16 different lines which limits to two the required number of dashed lines needed for identification. The segmentation has been made easier by alternating continuous and dashed lines. As required by the use of SLMs, the sequence has been adapted by making it symmetric. It has been improved by guaranteeing a hamming distance equal to two for two successive dashed lines. The implementation on a virtual model has shown that a subpixel accuracy has been achieved. This pattern has been developped for 3-D endoscopy.

  2. Structural health monitoring by using fiber-optic distributed strain sensors with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Wada, Daichi; Igawa, Hirotaka

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we review our researches on the topics of the structural health monitoring (SHM) with the fiber-optic distributed strain sensor. Highly-dense information on strains in a structure can be useful to identify some kind of existing damages or applied loads in implementation of SHM. The fiber-optic distributed sensors developed by the authors have been applied to the damage detection of a single-lap joint and load identification of a beam simply supported. We confirmed that the applicability of the distributed sensor to SHM could be improved as making the spatial resolution higher. In addition, we showed that the simulation technique considering both structural and optical effects seamlessly in strain measurement could be powerful tools to evaluate the performance of a sensing system and design it for SHM. Finally, the technique for simultaneous distributed strain and temperature measurement using the PANDA-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is shown in this paper, because problems caused by the cross-sensitivity toward strain and temperature would be always inevitable in strain measurement for SHM.

  3. Restoring method for missing data of spatial structural stress monitoring based on correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeyu; Luo, Yaozhi

    2017-07-01

    Long-term monitoring of spatial structures is of great importance for the full understanding of their performance and safety. The missing part of the monitoring data link will affect the data analysis and safety assessment of the structure. Based on the long-term monitoring data of the steel structure of the Hangzhou Olympic Center Stadium, the correlation between the stress change of the measuring points is studied, and an interpolation method of the missing stress data is proposed. Stress data of correlated measuring points are selected in the 3 months of the season when missing data is required for fitting correlation. Data of daytime and nighttime are fitted separately for interpolation. For a simple linear regression when single point's correlation coefficient is 0.9 or more, the average error of interpolation is about 5%. For multiple linear regression, the interpolation accuracy is not significantly increased after the number of correlated points is more than 6. Stress baseline value of construction step should be calculated before interpolating missing data in the construction stage, and the average error is within 10%. The interpolation error of continuous missing data is slightly larger than that of the discrete missing data. The data missing rate of this method should better not exceed 30%. Finally, a measuring point's missing monitoring data is restored to verify the validity of the method.

  4. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  5. Spin Structures and Phase Diagrams of Extended Spatially Completely Anisotropic Triangular Lattice Antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakida, Keishiro; Shimahara, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Motivated by recently discovered organic antiferromagnets, we examine an extended triangular lattice that consists of two types of triangles of bonds with exchange coupling constants Jℓ and J'ℓ (ℓ= 1, 2, and 3), respectively. The simplified system with Jℓ = J'ℓ > 0 is the spatially completely anisotropic triangular lattice (SCATL) antiferromagnet examined previously. The extended system, which we call an extended SCATL (ESCATL), has two different spatial anisotropy parameters J3/J2 and J'3/J'2 when J1 = J'1 is assumed. We derive classical phase diagrams and spin structures. It is found that the ESCATL antiferromagnet exhibits two up-up-down-down (uudd) phases when the imbalance of the anisotropy parameters is significant, in addition to the three Néel phases that occur in the SCATL. When the model parameters vary, these collinear phases are continuously connected by the spiral-spin phase. Using the available model parameters for the organic compounds λ-(BETS)2XCl4 (X = Fe and Ga), we examine the stabilities of the spin structures of the independent π-electron system, which is considered to primarily sustain the magnetic order, where BETS represents bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene. It is found that one of the uudd phases has an energy close to the ground-state energy for λ-(BETS)2FeCl4. We discuss the relevance of the magnetic anion FeCl4 and the quantum fluctuation to the magnetism of these compounds. When J'3 = 0, the system is reduced to a trellis lattice antiferromagnet. The system exhibits a stripe spiral-spin phase, which comprises one-dimensional spiral-spin states stacked alternately.

  6. Human influence on the spatial structure of threatened Pacific salmon metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Aimee H; Lindley, Steven T; Pess, George R; Feist, Blake E; Steel, E Ashley; McElhany, Paul

    2011-10-01

    To remain viable, populations must be resilient to both natural and human-caused environmental changes. We evaluated anthropogenic effects on spatial connections among populations of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) (designated as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act) in the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers. For several anthropogenic-effects scenarios, we used graph theory to characterize the spatial relation among populations. We plotted variance in population size against connectivity among populations. In our scenarios, reduced habitat quality decreased the size of populations and hydropower dams on rivers led to the extirpation of several populations, both of which decreased connectivity. Operation of fish hatcheries increased connectivity among populations and led to patchy or panmictic populations. On the basis of our results, we believe recolonization of the upper Cowlitz River by fall and spring Chinook and winter steelhead would best restore metapopulation structure to near-historical conditions. Extant populations that would best conserve connectivity would be those inhabiting the Molalla (spring Chinook), lower Cowlitz, or Clackamas (fall Chinook) rivers and the south Santiam (winter steelhead) and north fork Lewis rivers (summer steelhead). Populations in these rivers were putative sources; however, they were not always the most abundant or centrally located populations. This result would not have been obvious if we had not considered relations among populations in a metapopulation context. Our results suggest that dispersal rate strongly controls interactions among the populations that comprise salmon metapopulations. Thus, monitoring efforts could lead to understanding of the true rates at which wild and hatchery fish disperse. Our application of graph theory allowed us to visualize how metapopulation structure might respond to human activity. The method could be easily extended to evaluations of

  7. Spatial patterns in herbivory on a coral reef are influenced by structural complexity but not by algal traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vergés

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patterns of herbivory can alter the spatial structure of ecosystems, with important consequences for ecosystem functions and biodiversity. While the factors that drive spatial patterns in herbivory in terrestrial systems are well established, comparatively less is known about what influences the distribution of herbivory in coral reefs. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption in a cross-section of Ningaloo Reef (Western Australia. We used a combination of descriptive and experimental approaches to assess the influence of multiple macroalgal traits and structural complexity in establishing the observed spatial patterns in macroalgal herbivory, and to identify potential feedback mechanisms between herbivory and macroalgal nutritional quality. Spatial patterns in macroalgal consumption were best explained by differences in structural complexity among habitats. The biomass of herbivorous fish, and rates of herbivory were always greater in the structurally-complex coral-dominated outer reef and reef flat habitats, which were also characterised by high biomass of herbivorous fish, low cover and biomass of macroalgae and the presence of unpalatable algae species. Macroalgal consumption decreased to undetectable levels within 75 m of structurally-complex reef habitat, and algae were most abundant in the structurally-simple lagoon habitats, which were also characterised by the presence of the most palatable algae species. In contrast to terrestrial ecosystems, herbivory patterns were not influenced by the distribution, productivity or nutritional quality of resources (macroalgae, and we found no evidence of a positive feedback between macroalgal consumption and the nitrogen content of algae. SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlights the importance of seascape-scale patterns in structural complexity in determining spatial patterns of macroalgal consumption by fish. Given the importance of

  8. Physical Activity Improves Verbal and Spatial Memory in Older Adults with Probable Mild Cognitive Impairment: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay S. Nagamatsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report secondary findings from a randomized controlled trial on the effects of exercise on memory in older adults with probable MCI. We randomized 86 women aged 70–80 years with subjective memory complaints into one of three groups: resistance training, aerobic training, or balance and tone (control. All participants exercised twice per week for six months. We measured verbal memory and learning using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT and spatial memory using a computerized test, before and after trial completion. We found that the aerobic training group remembered significantly more items in the loss after interference condition of the RAVLT compared with the control group after six months of training. In addition, both experimental groups showed improved spatial memory performance in the most difficult condition where they were required to memorize the spatial location of three items, compared with the control group. Lastly, we found a significant correlation between spatial memory performance and overall physical capacity after intervention in the aerobic training group. Taken together, our results provide support for the prevailing notion that exercise can positively impact cognitive functioning and may represent an effective strategy to improve memory in those who have begun to experience cognitive decline.

  9. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaotian; Xing, Yaowu; Su, Tao; Zhou, Zhekun; Dilcher, Emeritus David L; Soltis, Douglas E

    2012-04-30

    Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM) in 705 individuals from 47 localities. A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P northern lineage in the region outside the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The divergence between these two lineages was estimated at 4.4 MYA. A correlation between the genetic and the geographic distances indicates that genetic drift was more influential than gene flow in the northern clade with lower diversity and divergence. However, a scenario of regional equilibrium between gene flow and drift was shown for the southern clade. The feature of spatial distribution of the genetic diversity of the southern lineage possibly indicated that allopatric fragmentation was dominant in the collections from the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai

  10. Spatial distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Hendrichsen, Ditte Katrine; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2008-01-01

    influences the outcome of ecological processes. For instance, interactions between predator species and their prey can have widely different population impacts in different landscapes. At the very largest scales, the position and sizes of the entire range of species also follow characteristic patterns......Living organisms are distributed over the entire surface of the planet. The distribution of the individuals of each species is not random; on the contrary, they are strongly dependent on the biology and ecology of the species, and vary over different spatial scale. The structure of whole...... populations reflects the location and fragmentation pattern of the habitat types preferred by the species, and the complex dynamics of migration, colonization, and population growth taking place over the landscape. Within these, individuals are distributed among each other in regular or clumped patterns...

  11. Analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibrations of built-up structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lin; Huang, Zhenyu

    2013-06-01

    The paper concerns the analysis of subsystem randomness effects on the mid-frequency vibration responses of built-up systems. The system model considered, in the first instance, is a long-wavelength finite element (FE) subsystem connected with a short-wavelength statistical energy analysis (SEA) subsystem via discrete couplings. The randomness effects of the SEA subsystem on both the displacement response of the FE subsystem and the energy response of the SEA subsystem are then investigated under the frame of the hybrid FE/SEA theory [P. Shorter, R. Langley, Vibro-acoustic analysis of complex systems, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 288 (2005) 669-700]. It is found that the subsystem randomness effects may be well indicated by a dimensionless parameter α, which is a function of the number of coupling points, the dynamic mismatch between the FE and SEA subsystems and the modal overlap factor of the SEA subsystem. The smaller the value of α is, the more insignificant the randomness effects are. As a result, a so-called "α-criterion" is derived which states that, if a built-up structure satisfies the condition of α≪1, the randomness effects of the SEA subsystem can be neglected. In this case, the SEA subsystem can be simply treated as an infinite (or semi-infinite as appropriate) structure regardless of its mode count being sufficiently high or not. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the validity of the present theory.

  12. Modelling of the education quality of a high schools in Sumenep Regency using spatial structural equation modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekawati, Anik; Widjanarko Otok, Bambang; Purhadi; Sutikno

    2017-09-01

    In some cases, education research often involves the latent variables that have a causal relationship as well as a spatial effect. Therefore, it requires a statistical analysis technique called spatial structural equation modelling (spatial SEM). In this research, a spatial SEM was developed to model the quality of education in high schools in Sumenep Regency. This model was improved after the evaluation of an outer and inner model of the model scheme centroid, factor and path since some indicators were not valid. The path scheme model showed better results compared to the other schemes since all of its indicators were valid and its value of R-square increased. Furthermore, only the model of path scheme was tested for spatial effects. The result of the identification test of spatial effects on the inner model using a robust Lagrange multiplier test (using queen contiguity) showed that the education quality model leads to a spatial autoregressive model (SAR in SEM) with a significance level α of 5%, while the model of school infrastructure has no significant spatial effects. The improved model of SAR in SEM, the R2 value obtained was 47.33%, so that it is clear that data variation can be explained by the model of SAR in SEM for the quality of education in high schools.

  13. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Vaughn

    Full Text Available Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  14. Multiple Scales of Control on the Structure and Spatial Distribution of Woody Vegetation in African Savanna Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Nicholas R; Asner, Gregory P; Smit, Izak P J; Riddel, Edward S

    2015-01-01

    Factors controlling savanna woody vegetation structure vary at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and as a consequence, unraveling their combined effects has proven to be a classic challenge in savanna ecology. We used airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging) to map three-dimensional woody vegetation structure throughout four savanna watersheds, each contrasting in geologic substrate and climate, in Kruger National Park, South Africa. By comparison of the four watersheds, we found that geologic substrate had a stronger effect than climate in determining watershed-scale differences in vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density. Generalized Linear Models were used to assess the spatial distribution of woody vegetation structural properties, including cover, height and crown density, in relation to mapped hydrologic, topographic and fire history traits. For each substrate and climate combination, models incorporating topography, hydrology and fire history explained up to 30% of the remaining variation in woody canopy structure, but inclusion of a spatial autocovariate term further improved model performance. Both crown density and the cover of shorter woody canopies were determined more by unknown factors likely to be changing on smaller spatial scales, such as soil texture, herbivore abundance or fire behavior, than by our mapped regional-scale changes in topography and hydrology. We also detected patterns in spatial covariance at distances up to 50-450 m, depending on watershed and structural metric. Our results suggest that large-scale environmental factors play a smaller role than is often attributed to them in determining woody vegetation structure in southern African savannas. This highlights the need for more spatially-explicit, wide-area analyses using high resolution remote sensing techniques.

  15. The Hidden Flow Structure and Metric Space of Network Embedding Algorithms Based on Random Walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weiwei; Gong, Li; Lou, Xiaodan; Zhang, Jiang

    2017-10-13

    Network embedding which encodes all vertices in a network as a set of numerical vectors in accordance with it's local and global structures, has drawn widespread attention. Network embedding not only learns significant features of a network, such as the clustering and linking prediction but also learns the latent vector representation of the nodes which provides theoretical support for a variety of applications, such as visualization, link prediction, node classification, and recommendation. As the latest progress of the research, several algorithms based on random walks have been devised. Although those algorithms have drawn much attention for their high scores in learning efficiency and accuracy, there is still a lack of theoretical explanation, and the transparency of those algorithms has been doubted. Here, we propose an approach based on the open-flow network model to reveal the underlying flow structure and its hidden metric space of different random walk strategies on networks. We show that the essence of embedding based on random walks is the latent metric structure defined on the open-flow network. This not only deepens our understanding of random- walk-based embedding algorithms but also helps in finding new potential applications in network embedding.

  16. East Sea Spatial and Temporal Variability of Thermohaline Structure and Circulation Identified From Observational (T, S) Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    VARIABILITY OF THERMOHALINE STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IDENTIFIED FROM OBSERVATIONAL (T, S) PROFILES by Hyewon Choi December 2015 Thesis Advisor...the gridded data, seasonal and inter-annual variability of thermohaline structure and circulation of the East Sea were analyzed. Found was a low...unlimited EAST SEA SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF THERMOHALINE STRUCTURE AND CIRCULATION IDENTIFIED FROM OBSERVATIONAL (T, S) PROFILES Hyewon Choi

  17. RESEARCH OF RELIABILITY OF A LONG-SPAN STRUCTURE EXPOSED TO RANDOM SEISMIC IMPACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mondrus Vladimir L'vovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the problem of assessment of structural reliability in the course of random seismic impacts. The authors apply the Monte Carlo method and the method of canonical decomposition to generate accelerograms, and explicit time integration methods, by taking account of physical, geometrical and structural nonlinearities. The research results were subjected to statistical post-processing, and the analysis revealed that the structure demonstrated its high reliability. Therefore, the authors believe that the proposed approaches can be used to solve reliability problems that constitute variable processes.

  18. Ancient Humans Influenced the Current Spatial Genetic Structure of Common Walnut Populations in Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Pollegioni

    Full Text Available Common walnut (Juglans regia L is an economically important species cultivated worldwide for its wood and nuts. It is generally accepted that J. regia survived and grew spontaneously in almost completely isolated stands in its Asian native range after the Last Glacial Maximum. Despite its natural geographic isolation, J. regia evolved over many centuries under the influence of human management and exploitation. We evaluated the hypothesis that the current distribution of natural genetic resources of common walnut in Asia is, at least in part, the product of ancient anthropogenic dispersal, human cultural interactions, and afforestation. Genetic analysis combined with ethno-linguistic and historical data indicated that ancient trade routes such as the Persian Royal Road and Silk Road enabled long-distance dispersal of J. regia from Iran and Trans-Caucasus to Central Asia, and from Western to Eastern China. Ancient commerce also disrupted the local spatial genetic structure of autochthonous walnut populations between Tashkent and Samarkand (Central-Eastern Uzbekistan, where the northern and central routes of the Northern Silk Road converged. A significant association between ancient language phyla and the genetic structure of walnut populations is reported even after adjustment for geographic distances that could have affected both walnut gene flow and human commerce over the centuries. Beyond the economic importance of common walnut, our study delineates an alternative approach for understanding how the genetic resources of long-lived perennial tree species may be affected by the interaction of geography and human history.

  19. Spatial development of transport structures in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herremans, Els; Verboven, Pieter; Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Cantre, Dennis; van Dael, Mattias; De Schryver, Thomas; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2015-01-01

    The void network and vascular system are important pathways for the transport of gases, water and solutes in apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh). Here we used X-ray micro-tomography at various spatial resolutions to investigate the growth of these transport structures in 3D during fruit development of “Jonagold” apple. The size of the void space and porosity in the cortex tissue increased considerably. In the core tissue, the porosity was consistently lower, and seemed to decrease toward the end of the maturation period. The voids in the core were more narrow and fragmented than the voids in the cortex. Both the void network in the core and in the cortex changed significantly in terms of void morphology. An automated segmentation protocol underestimated the total vasculature length by 9–12% in comparison to manually processed images. Vascular networks increased in length from a total of 5 m at 9 weeks after full bloom, to more than 20 m corresponding to 5 cm of vascular tissue per cubic centimeter of apple tissue. A high degree of branching in both the void network and vascular system and a complex three-dimensional pattern was observed across the whole fruit. The 3D visualizations of the transport structures may be useful for numerical modeling of organ growth and transport processes in fruit. PMID:26388883

  20. Nonlinear random responses of a structure parametrically coupled with liquid sloshing in a cylindrical tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Ibrahim, R. A.

    2005-06-01

    The nonlinear random interaction of an elastic structure with liquid sloshing dynamics in a cylindrical tank is investigated in the neighborhood of 2:1 internal resonance. Such internal resonance takes place when the natural frequency of the elastic structure is close to twice the natural frequency of the anti-symmetric sloshing mode (1,1). The excitation is generated from the response of a linear shaping filter subjected to a Gaussian white noise. The analytical model involves three sloshing modes (1,1), (0,1) and (2,1). The system response statistics and stability boundaries are numerically estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The influence of the excitation center frequency, its bandwidth, and the liquid level on the system responses is studied. It is found that there is an irregular energy exchange between the structure and the liquid free surface motion when the center frequency is close to the structure natural frequency. Depending on the excitation power spectral density, the liquid free surface experiences zero motion, uncertain motion (intermittency), partially developed motion, and fully developed random motion. The structure response probability density function is almost Gaussian, while the liquid elevation deviates from normality. The unstable region, where the liquid motion occurs, becomes wider as the excitation intensity increases or as the bandwidth decreases. As the liquid depth or the structure spring stiffness decreases, the region of nonlinear interaction shrinks and is associated with a shift of the peak of the structure mean square response toward the left side of the frequency axis.

  1. A Spatially-Registered, Massively Parallelised Data Structure for Interacting with Large, Integrated Geodatasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, D. H.; Rasheed, M.; O'Doherty, N.

    2010-12-01

    The efficient storage, retrieval and interactive use of subsurface data present great challenges in geodata management. Data volumes are typically massive, complex and poorly indexed with inadequate metadata. Derived geomodels and interpretations are often tightly bound in application-centric and proprietary formats; open standards for long-term stewardship are poorly developed. Consequently current data storage is a combination of: complex Logical Data Models (LDMs) based on file storage formats; 2D GIS tree-based indexing of spatial data; and translations of serialised memory-based storage techniques into disk-based storage. Whilst adequate for working at the mesoscale over a short timeframes, these approaches all possess technical and operational shortcomings: data model complexity; anisotropy of access; scalability to large and complex datasets; and weak implementation and integration of metadata. High performance hardware such as parallelised storage and Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) have long been exploited in many solutions but the underlying data structure must provide commensurate efficiencies to allow multi-user, multi-application and near-realtime data interaction. We present an open Spatially-Registered Data Structure (SRDS) built on Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) database architecture implemented by a ANSI SQL 2008 compliant RDBMS. We propose a LDM comprising a 3D Earth model that is decomposed such that each increasing Level of Detail (LoD) is achieved by recursively halving the bin size until it is less than the error in each spatial dimension for that data point. The value of an attribute at that point is stored as a property of that point and at that LoD. It is key to the numerical efficiency of the SRDS that it is under-pinned by a power-of-two relationship thus precluding the need for computationally intensive floating point arithmetic. Our approach employed a tightly clustered MPP array with small clusters of storage

  2. Proposal of the Methodology for Analysing the Structural Relationship in the System of Random Process Using the Data Mining Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    German Michaľčonok; Michaela Horalová Kalinová; Martin Németh

    2014-01-01

    .... In this paper, we will approach the area of the random processes, present the process of structural analysis and select suitable circuit data mining methods applicable to the area of structural analysis...

  3. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  4. Impact of random safety analyses on structure, process and outcome indicators: multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodí, María; Oliva, Iban; Martín, Maria Cruz; Gilavert, Maria Carmen; Muñoz, Carlos; Olona, Montserrat; Sirgo, Gonzalo

    2017-12-01

    To assess the impact of a real-time random safety tool on structure, process and outcome indicators. Prospective study conducted over a period of 12 months in two adult patient intensive care units. Safety rounds were conducted three days a week ascertaining 37 safety measures (grouped into 10 blocks). In each round, 50% of the patients and 50% of the measures were randomized. The impact of this safety tool was analysed on indicators of structure (safety culture, healthcare protocols), process (improvement proportion related to tool application, IPR) and outcome (mortality, average stay, rate of catheter-related bacteraemias and rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia, VAP). A total of 1214 patient-days were analysed. Structure indicators: the use of the safety tool was associated with an increase in the safety climate and the creation/modification of healthcare protocols (sedation/analgesia and weaning). Process indicators: Twelve of the 37 measures had an IPR > 10%; six showed a progressive decrease in the IPR over the study period. Nursing workloads and patient severity on the day of analysis were independently associated with a higher IPR in half of the blocks of variables. Outcome indicators: A significant decrease in the rate of VAP was observed. The real-time random safety tool improved the care process and adherence to clinical practice guidelines and was associated with an improvement in structure, process and outcome indicators.

  5. POROSIMETRY BY DOUBLE-RANDOM MULTIPLE TREE STRUCTURING IN VIRTUAL CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Stroeven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two different porosimetry methods are presented in two successive papers. Inspiration for the development came from the rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT approach used in robotics. The novel methods are applied to virtual cementitious materials produced by a modern concurrent algorithm-based discrete element modeling system, HADES. This would render possible realistically simulating all aspects of particulate matter that influence structure-sensitive features of the pore network structure in maturing concrete, namely size, shape and dispersion of aggregate and cement particles. Pore space is a complex tortuous entity. Practical methods conventionally applied for assessment of pore size distribution may fail or present biased information. Among them, mercury intrusion porosimetry and 2D quantitative image analysis are popular. The mathematical morphology operator “opening” can be applied to sections and even provide 3D information on pore size distribution, provided isotropy is guaranteed. Unfortunately, aggregate grain surfaces lead to pore anisotropy. The presented methods allow exploration of pore space in the virtual material, after which pore size distribution is derived from star volume measurements.  In addition to size of pores their continuity is of crucial importance for durability estimation. Double-random multiple tree structuring (DRaMuTS, presented herein, and random node structuring (RaNoS provide such information. The latter method will be introduced in a next issue of IA&S.

  6. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A; Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Hathaway, Stacie A; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies--the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries--can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  7. Spatial Genetic Structure of the Abundant and Widespread Peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magni Olsen Kyrkjeeide

    Full Text Available Spore-producing organisms have small dispersal units enabling them to become widespread across continents. However, barriers to gene flow and cryptic speciation may exist. The common, haploid peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum occurs in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere, and is commonly used as a model in studies of peatland ecology and peatmoss physiology. Even though it will likely act as a rich source in functional genomics studies in years to come, surprisingly little is known about levels of genetic variability and structuring in this species. Here, we assess for the first time how genetic variation in S. magellanicum is spatially structured across its full distribution range (Northern Hemisphere and South America. The morphologically similar species S. alaskense was included for comparison. In total, 195 plants were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. Sequences from two plastid loci (trnG and trnL were obtained from 30 samples. Our results show that S. alaskense and almost all plants of S. magellanicum in the northern Pacific area are diploids and share the same gene pool. Haploid plants occur in South America, Europe, eastern North America, western North America, and southern Asia, and five genetically differentiated groups with different distribution ranges were found. Our results indicate that S. magellanicum consists of several distinct genetic groups, seemingly with little or no gene flow among them. Noteworthy, the geographical separation of diploids and haploids is strikingly similar to patterns found within other haploid Sphagnum species spanning the Northern Hemisphere. Our results confirm a genetic division between the Beringian and the Atlantic that seems to be a general pattern in Sphagnum taxa. The pattern of strong genetic population structuring throughout the distribution range of morphologically similar plants need to be considered in future functional genomic studies of S. magellanicum.

  8. Spatial Genetic Structure of the Abundant and Widespread Peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum Brid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkjeeide, Magni Olsen; Hassel, Kristian; Flatberg, Kjell Ivar; Shaw, A Jonathan; Yousefi, Narjes; Stenøien, Hans K

    2016-01-01

    Spore-producing organisms have small dispersal units enabling them to become widespread across continents. However, barriers to gene flow and cryptic speciation may exist. The common, haploid peatmoss Sphagnum magellanicum occurs in both the Northern and Southern hemisphere, and is commonly used as a model in studies of peatland ecology and peatmoss physiology. Even though it will likely act as a rich source in functional genomics studies in years to come, surprisingly little is known about levels of genetic variability and structuring in this species. Here, we assess for the first time how genetic variation in S. magellanicum is spatially structured across its full distribution range (Northern Hemisphere and South America). The morphologically similar species S. alaskense was included for comparison. In total, 195 plants were genotyped at 15 microsatellite loci. Sequences from two plastid loci (trnG and trnL) were obtained from 30 samples. Our results show that S. alaskense and almost all plants of S. magellanicum in the northern Pacific area are diploids and share the same gene pool. Haploid plants occur in South America, Europe, eastern North America, western North America, and southern Asia, and five genetically differentiated groups with different distribution ranges were found. Our results indicate that S. magellanicum consists of several distinct genetic groups, seemingly with little or no gene flow among them. Noteworthy, the geographical separation of diploids and haploids is strikingly similar to patterns found within other haploid Sphagnum species spanning the Northern Hemisphere. Our results confirm a genetic division between the Beringian and the Atlantic that seems to be a general pattern in Sphagnum taxa. The pattern of strong genetic population structuring throughout the distribution range of morphologically similar plants need to be considered in future functional genomic studies of S. magellanicum.

  9. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessica Rico

    Full Text Available Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9, whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range.

  10. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Amy A.; Young, Hillary S.; McCauley, Douglas J.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Fisher, Robert N.

    2012-01-01

    While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies—the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries—can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp.) that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated) forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ trongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  11. Effects of spatial subsidies and habitat structure on the foraging ecology and size of geckos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Briggs

    Full Text Available While it is well established that ecosystem subsidies--the addition of energy, nutrients, or materials across ecosystem boundaries--can affect consumer abundance, there is less information available on how subsidy levels may affect consumer diet, body condition, trophic position, and resource partitioning among consumer species. There is also little information on whether changes in vegetation structure commonly associated with spatial variation in subsidies may play an important role in driving consumer responses to subsidies. To address these knowledge gaps, we studied changes in abundance, diet, trophic position, size, and body condition of two congeneric gecko species (Lepidodactylus spp. that coexist in palm dominated and native (hereafter dicot dominated forests across the Central Pacific. These forests differ strongly both in the amount of marine subsidies that they receive from seabird guano and carcasses, and in the physical structure of the habitat. Contrary to other studies, we found that subsidy level had no impact on the abundance of either gecko species; it also did not have any apparent effects on resource partitioning between species. However, it did affect body size, dietary composition, and trophic position of both species. Geckos in subsidized, dicot forests were larger, had higher body condition and more diverse diets, and occupied a much higher trophic position than geckos found in palm dominated, low subsidy level forests. Both direct variation in subsidy levels and associated changes in habitat structure appear to play a role in driving these responses. These results suggest that variation in subsidy levels may drive important behavioral responses in predators, even when their numerical response is limited. Strong changes in trophic position of consumers also suggest that subsidies may drive increasingly complex food webs, with longer overall food chain length.

  12. Alexa fluor-labeled fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals for bioimaging solid cellulose in spatially structured microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grate, Jay W; Mo, Kai-For; Shin, Yongsoon; Vasdekis, Andreas; Warner, Marvin G; Kelly, Ryan T; Orr, Galya; Hu, Dehong; Dehoff, Karl J; Brockman, Fred J; Wilkins, Michael J

    2015-03-18

    Methods to covalently conjugate Alexa Fluor dyes to cellulose nanocrystals, at limiting amounts that retain the overall structure of the nanocrystals as model cellulose materials, were developed using two approaches. In the first, aldehyde groups are created on the cellulose surfaces by reaction with limiting amounts of sodium periodate, a reaction well-known for oxidizing vicinal diols to create dialdehyde structures. Reductive amination reactions were then applied to bind Alexa Fluor dyes with terminal amino-groups on the linker section. In the absence of the reductive step, dye washes out of the nanocrystal suspension, whereas with the reductive step, a colored product is obtained with the characteristic spectral bands of the conjugated dye. In the second approach, Alexa Fluor dyes were modified to contain chloro-substituted triazine ring at the end of the linker section. These modified dyes then were reacted with cellulose nanocrystals in acetonitrile at elevated temperature, again isolating material with the characteristic spectral bands of the Alexa Fluor dye. Reactions with Alexa Fluor 546 are given as detailed examples, labeling on the order of 1% of the total glucopyranose rings of the cellulose nanocrystals at dye loadings of ca. 5 μg/mg cellulose. Fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals were deposited in pore network microfluidic structures (PDMS) and proof-of-principle bioimaging experiments showed that the spatial localization of the solid cellulose deposits could be determined, and their disappearance under the action of Celluclast enzymes or microbes could be observed over time. In addition, single molecule fluorescence microscopy was demonstrated as a method to follow the disappearance of solid cellulose deposits over time, following the decrease in the number of single blinking dye molecules with time instead of fluorescent intensity.

  13. Lack of Spatial Immunogenetic Structure among Wolverine (Gulo gulo) Populations Suggestive of Broad Scale Balancing Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Yessica; Morris-Pocock, James; Zigouris, Joanna; Nocera, Joseph J.; Kyle, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the adaptive genetic potential of wildlife populations to environmental selective pressures is fundamental for species conservation. Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are highly polymorphic, and play a key role in the adaptive immune response against pathogens. MHC polymorphism has been linked to balancing selection or heterogeneous selection promoting local adaptation. However, spatial patterns of MHC polymorphism are also influenced by gene flow and drift. Wolverines are highly vagile, inhabiting varied ecoregions that include boreal forest, taiga, tundra, and high alpine ecosystems. Here, we investigated the immunogenetic variation of wolverines in Canada as a surrogate for identifying local adaptation by contrasting the genetic structure at MHC relative to the structure at 11 neutral microsatellites to account for gene flow and drift. Evidence of historical positive selection was detected at MHC using maximum likelihood codon-based methods. Bayesian and multivariate cluster analyses revealed weaker population genetic differentiation at MHC relative to the increasing microsatellite genetic structure towards the eastern wolverine distribution. Mantel correlations of MHC against geographical distances showed no pattern of isolation by distance (IBD: r = -0.03, p = 0.9), whereas for microsatellites we found a relatively strong and significant IBD (r = 0.54, p = 0.01). Moreover, we found a significant correlation between microsatellite allelic richness and the mean number of MHC alleles, but we did not observe low MHC diversity in small populations. Overall these results suggest that MHC polymorphism has been influenced primarily by balancing selection and to a lesser extent by neutral processes such as genetic drift, with no clear evidence for local adaptation. This study contributes to our understanding of how vulnerable populations of wolverines may respond to selective pressures across their range. PMID:26448462

  14. The importance of temporal and spatial vegetation structure information in biotope mapping schemes: a case study in Helsingborg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tian; Qiu, Ling; Hammer, Mårten; Gunnarsson, Allan

    2012-02-01

    Temporal and spatial vegetation structure has impact on biodiversity qualities. Yet, current schemes of biotope mapping do only to a limited extend incorporate these factors in the mapping. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of a modified biotope mapping scheme that includes temporal and spatial vegetation structure. A refined scheme was developed based on a biotope classification, and applied to a green structure system in Helsingborg city in southern Sweden. It includes four parameters of vegetation structure: continuity of forest cover, age of dominant trees, horizontal structure, and vertical structure. The major green structure sites were determined by interpretation of panchromatic aerial photographs assisted with a field survey. A set of biotope maps was constructed on the basis of each level of modified classification. An evaluation of the scheme included two aspects in particular: comparison of species richness between long-continuity and short-continuity forests based on identification of woodland continuity using ancient woodland indicators (AWI) species and related historical documents, and spatial distribution of animals in the green space in relation to vegetation structure. The results indicate that (1) the relationship between forest continuity: according to verification of historical documents, the richness of AWI species was higher in long-continuity forests; Simpson's diversity was significantly different between long- and short-continuity forests; the total species richness and Shannon's diversity were much higher in long-continuity forests shown a very significant difference. (2) The spatial vegetation structure and age of stands influence the richness and abundance of the avian fauna and rabbits, and distance to the nearest tree and shrub was a strong determinant of presence for these animal groups. It is concluded that continuity of forest cover, age of dominant trees, horizontal and vertical structures of vegetation

  15. Analysis of spatial genetic structure in an expanding Pinus halepensis population reveals development of fine-scale genetic clustering over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, D; Nathan, R; Vendramin, G G

    2006-10-01

    We analysed the change of spatial genetic structure (SGS) of reproductive individuals over time in an expanding Pinus halepensis population. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study to analyse the temporal component of SGS by following the dynamics of successive cohorts of the same population over time, rather than analysing different age cohorts at a single time. SGS is influenced by various factors including restricted gene dispersal, microenvironmental selection, mating patterns and the spatial pattern of reproductive individuals. Several factors that affect SGS are expected to vary over time and as adult density increases. Using air photo analysis, tree-ring dating and molecular marker analysis we reconstructed the spread of reproductive individuals over 30 years beginning from five initial individuals. In the early stages, genotypes were distributed randomly in space. Over time and with increasing density, fine-scale (< 20 m) SGS developed and the magnitude of genetic clustering increased. The SGS was strongly affected by the initial spatial distribution and genetic variation of the founding individuals. The development of SGS may be explained by fine-scale environmental heterogeneity and possibly microenvironmental selection. Inbreeding and variation in reproductive success may have enhanced SGS magnitude over time.

  16. Managing Information Uncertainty in Wave Height Modeling for the Offshore Structural Analysis through Random Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqin Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This chapter presents a reliability study for an offshore jacket structure with emphasis on the features of nonconventional modeling. Firstly, a random set model is formulated for modeling the random waves in an ocean site. Then, a jacket structure is investigated in a pushover analysis to identify the critical wave direction and key structural elements. This is based on the ultimate base shear strength. The selected probabilistic models are adopted for the important structural members and the wave direction is specified in the weakest direction of the structure for a conservative safety analysis. The wave height model is processed in a P-box format when it is used in the numerical analysis. The models are applied to find the bounds of the failure probabilities for the jacket structure. The propagation of this wave model to the uncertainty in results is investigated in both an interval analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results are compared in context of information content and numerical accuracy. Further, the failure probability bounds are compared with the conventional probabilistic approach.

  17. Analysis of the structure of random packings of powder particles in laser additive technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Under consideration are the peculiarities of the computer simulation of random packings of the particles involved in the laser additive technologies of selective laser melting and sintering of powders. The results of definition of random packings of monodisperse solid spheres are presented. Numerical analysis and structural investigations of their morphology are carried out. The peculiar character of the theoretical and computer models used for the analysis of particle packings in real powder media is understood. The technique of ray tracing is proposed for the description of laser radiation absorption and scattering in the layer of the stainless steel powder with the structure of the loose packing of mono-size spherical particles

  18. Control of the spatial emission structure of broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers by feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz-Ruhtenberg, M [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 2/4, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Tanguy, Y; Ackemann, T [SUPA and Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom); Huang, K F [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Jaeger, R, E-mail: thorsten.ackemann@strath.ac.u [Philips Technologie GmbH, U-L-M Photonics, Lise-Meitner-Str. 13, 89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2009-03-07

    The wave number of transverse spatial structures in broad-area vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) is controlled via frequency-selective feedback from an external self-imaging cavity in a broad range of wave numbers and emission frequencies. The selected states follow the dispersion curves of the free-running laser. A control range of about 2.5 {mu}m{sup -1} in spatial frequency space and 2.5 nm in emission wavelength was obtained for square VCSELs and of about 3 {mu}m{sup -1} and 8 nm for circular VCSELs having a different dispersion curve. By spatial filtering in Fourier space, the shape of the structures can also be controlled to some extent. It is argued that the feedback techniques are useful to 'probe' emission states of the free-running laser.

  19. Spatial Structure Indices of Mature Pedunculate Oak Stands in NW Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Indir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In order to potentiate a valid comparison of forest stands, numerous indices were developed to express forest structure numerically. Each of those indices described a specific measured or calculated value. In the present study, three of the stand structure indicators, dependent on tree distance, were used: the aggregation index of Clark and Evans, the species mingling index and the diameter differentiation index. The objectives of this study were: to obtain further information about forest structure using the selected indices and to discover any limitations that the implemented indices might display. Materials and Methods: Mature pedunculate oak stands were selected as objects of the study, all located within the “Repaš – Gabajeva Greda” forest management unit, the Forest Administration of Koprivnica. The stands were aged 75 to 132 years. A systematic 500 m grid of 45 circle sample plots was established. The sample plot radius was 15, 25 or 30 meters, depending on the stand’s age. In 2001, the DBH (diameter at breast height and tree positions in regard to the centre of a plot were measured on each sample plot. The mutual distances between trees were calculated, as well as the values of the three selected stand structure indices. The two procedures of the aggregation index of Clark and Evans were calculated for all 45 sample plots. In the first case only the pedunculate oak trees were observed, and in the other all trees on the plot. The species mingling index and the diameter differentiation index were calculated for each tree in two procedures: in relatio to three and four nearest neighbouring trees. The plot/stand totals were managed as the average index of individual trees. Results: Values of the aggregation index of Clark and Evans after all trees have been observed were from 0.89 to 1.28, which indicated a random distribution of trees. In case of considering only pedunculate oak trees, the index of the plots

  20. Dimensional metrology of smooth micro structures utilizing the spatial modulation of white-light interference fringes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Tang, Yan; Deng, Qinyuan; Liu, Junbo; Wang, Jian; Zhao, Lixin

    2017-08-01

    Dimensional metrology for micro structure plays an important role in addressing quality issues and observing the performance of micro-fabricated products. In white light interferometry, the proposed method is expected to measure three-dimensional topography through modulation depth in spatial frequency domain. A normalized modulation depth is first obtained in the xy plane (image plane) for each CCD image individually. After that, the modulation depth of each pixel is analyzed along the scanning direction (z-axis) to reshape the topography of micro samples. Owing to the characteristics of modulation depth in broadband light interferometry, the method could effectively suppress the negative influences caused by light fluctuations and external irradiance disturbance. Both theory and experiments are elaborated in detail to verify that the modulation depth-based method can greatly level up the stability and sensitivity with satisfied precision in the measurement system. This technique can achieve an improved robustness in a complex measurement environment with the potential to be applied in online topography measurement such as chemistry and medical domains.

  1. Spatial Evolution of the Thickness Variations over a CFRP Laminated Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-10-01

    Ply thickness is one of the main drivers of the structural performance of a composite part. For stress analysis calculations (e.g., finite element analysis), composite plies are commonly considered to have a constant thickness compared to the reality (coefficients of variation up to 9% of the mean ply thickness). Unless this variability is taken into account reliable property predictions cannot be made. A modelling approach of such variations is proposed using parameters obtained from a 16-ply quasi-isotropic CFRP plate cured in an autoclave. A discrete Fourier transform algorithm is used to analyse the frequency response of the observed ply and plate thickness profiles. The model inputs, obtained by a mathematical representation of the ply thickness profiles, permit the generation of a representative stratification considering the spatial continuity of the thickness variations that are in good agreement with the real ply profiles spread over the composite part. A residual deformation FE model of the composite plate is used to illustrate the feasibility of the approach.

  2. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2015 British Ecological Society.

  3. Reproductive efficiency of the bethylid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis: the influences of spatial structure and host density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Kapranas, A; Givropoulou, E G; Hardy, I C W

    2017-04-01

    The parasitoid wasp Cephalonomia tarsalis (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) is commonly present in stored product facilities. While beneficial, it does not provide a high degree of biological pest control against its host, the saw-toothed beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Coleoptera: Silvanidae). A candidate explanation for poor host population suppression is that adult females interfere with each other's foraging and reproductive behavior. We used simple laboratory microcosms to evaluate such mutual interference in terms of its overall effects on offspring production. We varied the density of the hosts and also the spatial structure of the environment, via the extent of population sub-division and the provision of different substrates. Production of C. tarsalis offspring was positively influenced by host density and by the isolation of females. With incomplete sub-division within microcosms offspring production was, in contrast, low and even zero. The provision of corrugated paper as a substrate enhanced offspring production and partially mitigated the effects of mutual interference. We recommend simple improvements to mass rearing practice and identify promising areas for further behavioral and chemical studies towards a better understanding of the mechanisms of mutual interference.

  4. Resolving the Spatial Structures of Bound Hole States in Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhizhan; Fang, Hanyan; Carvalho, Alexandra; Rodin, A S; Liu, Yanpeng; Tan, Sherman J R; Telychko, Mykola; Lv, Pin; Su, Jie; Wang, Yewu; Castro Neto, A H; Lu, Jiong

    2017-11-08

    Understanding the local electronic properties of individual defects and dopants in black phosphorus (BP) is of great importance for both fundamental research and technological applications. Here, we employ low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscope (LT-STM) to probe the local electronic structures of single acceptors in BP. We demonstrate that the charge state of individual acceptors can be reversibly switched by controlling the tip-induced band bending. In addition, acceptor-related resonance features in the tunnelling spectra can be attributed to the formation of Rydberg-like bound hole states. The spatial mapping of the quantum bound states shows two distinct shapes evolving from an extended ellipse shape for the 1s ground state to a dumbbell shape for the 2p x excited state. The wave functions of bound hole states can be well-described using the hydrogen-like model with anisotropic effective mass, corroborated by our theoretical calculations. Our findings not only provide new insight into the many-body interactions around single dopants in this anisotropic two-dimensional material but also pave the way to the design of novel quantum devices.

  5. Genetic structure, spatial organization, and dispersal in two populations of bat-eared foxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Jan F; Gray, Melissa M; Oh, Annie; Macdonald, David W

    2013-09-01

    We incorporated radio-telemetry data with genetic analysis of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) from individuals in 32 different groups to examine relatedness and spatial organization in two populations in South Africa that differed in density, home-range sizes, and group sizes. Kin clustering occurred only for female dyads in the high-density population. Relatedness was negatively correlated with distance only for female dyads in the high-density population, and for male and mixed-sex dyads in the low-density population. Home-range overlap of neighboring female dyads was significantly greater in the high compared to low-density population, whereas overlap within other dyads was similar between populations. Amount of home-range overlap between neighbors was positively correlated with genetic relatedness for all dyad-site combinations, except for female and male dyads in the low-density population. Foxes from all age and sex classes dispersed, although females (mostly adults) dispersed farther than males. Yearlings dispersed later in the high-density population, and overall exhibited a male-biased dispersal pattern. Our results indicated that genetic structure within populations of bat-eared foxes was sex-biased, and was interrelated to density and group sizes, as well as sex-biases in philopatry and dispersal distances. We conclude that a combination of male-biased dispersal rates, adult dispersals, and sex-biased dispersal distances likely helped to facilitate inbreeding avoidance in this evolutionarily unique species of Canidae.

  6. Localisation of local nonlinearities in structural dynamics using spatially incomplete measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Khodaparast, Hamed Haddad; Shaw, Alexander D.; Friswell, Michael I.; Zheng, Gangtie

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure to localise nonlinear elements using spatially incomplete measured frequency response data from the structural vibration test. The method does not require measurements of all the responses associated with nonlinear elements and the information about the types of nonlinear elements. In this procedure, the Craig-Bampton reduction method is employed to reduce the dynamic equation onto the measured region and to project the nonlinear forces onto the measured degrees of freedom (DOFs), which are then called reduced nonlinear forces (RNFs). It is shown that the reduced nonlinear forces are the sum of the measured nonlinear forces and the projections of the unmeasured nonlinear forces through the transpose of linear constraint modes. Therefore, by analysing and comparing the magnitude of the reduced nonlinear forces obtained from experiments with the linear constraint modes, we can localise the nonlinear elements without directly measuring their responses. Numerical simulations of a discrete system with two nonlinearities and experimental data from a clamped beam with a nonlinear connection are used to validate the localisation procedure.

  7. Effects of land cover, topography, and built structure on seasonal water quality at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bethany; Chang, Heejun

    2012-03-30

    The relationship among land cover, topography, built structure and stream water quality in the Portland Metro region of Oregon and Clark County, Washington areas, USA, is analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted (GWR) multiple regression models. Two scales of analysis, a sectional watershed and a buffer, offered a local and a global investigation of the sources of stream pollutants. Model accuracy, measured by R(2) values, fluctuated according to the scale, season, and regression method used. While most wet season water quality parameters are associated with urban land covers, most dry season water quality parameters are related topographic features such as elevation and slope. GWR models, which take into consideration local relations of spatial autocorrelation, had stronger results than OLS regression models. In the multiple regression models, sectioned watershed results were consistently better than the sectioned buffer results, except for dry season pH and stream temperature parameters. This suggests that while riparian land cover does have an effect on water quality, a wider contributing area needs to be included in order to account for distant sources of pollutants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Seasonal and spatial changes of macrobenthic community structure and diversity in South Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Xu, Y.

    2016-02-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of macrobenthic community in South Yellow Sea were studied based on the data from three voyages carried out in spring, summer and autumn, 2012. A total of 218 species were obtained, including 80 species of Polychaeta, 75 of Crustacea, 35 of Mollusca, 15 of Echinodermata and 13 of other groups. Mean abundance varied from 151.4 ind./m2 in spring to 188 ind./m2 in autumn showing an increasing trend with season and mean biomass ranged from 12.1 g/m2 in spring to 33.4 g/m2 in summer. Mean secondary productivity varied from 2.5 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in spring to 5.7 g(AFDW)/(m2·a) in summer. Two-way ANOVA indicated that biomass were significantly different among seasons and number of species and Shannon-Weiner index had significant differences among stations. But abundance, Pielou's evenness index and average taxonomic distinctness were not significantly different among either seasons or stations. Non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test showed significant differences of secondary productivity among tations. Two-way crossed ANOSIM indicated overall significant differences of community structure among both seasons and stations. The stations were divided into four groups in spring and five in summer and autumn through the CLUSTER and nMDS analysis. Depth was an important factor influencing distribution of macrobenthos in the South Yellow Sea.

  9. Interspecific interactions influence contrasting spatial genetic structures in two closely related damselfly species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilainen, Aapo; Keränen, Inka; Kuitunen, Katja; Kotiaho, Janne S; Knott, K Emily

    2014-10-01

    Spatial genetic structure (SGS) is largely determined by colonization history, landscape and ecological characteristics of the species. Therefore, sympatric and ecologically similar species are expected to exhibit similar SGSs, potentially enabling prediction of the SGS of one species from that of another. On the other hand, due to interspecific interactions, ecologically similar species could have different SGSs. We explored the SGSs of the closely related Calopteryx splendens and Calopteryx virgo within Finland and related the genetic patterns to characteristics of the sampling localities. We observed different SGSs for the two species. Genetic differentiation even within short distances in C. splendens suggests genetic drift as an important driver. However, we also observed indication of previous gene flow (revealed by a negative relationship between genetic differentiation and increasing potential connectivity of the landscape). Interestingly, genetic diversity of C. splendens was negatively related to density of C. virgo, suggesting that interspecific interactions influence the SGS of C. splendens. In contrast, genetic differentiation between C. virgo subpopulations was low and only exhibited relationships with latitude, pointing to high gene flow, colonization history and range margin effects as the drivers of SGS. The different SGSs of the two ecologically similar species caution indirect inferences of SGS based on ecologically similar surrogate species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Spatial structures of intermittent local electron flux in a linear ECR plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Eiki; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.

    2013-10-01

    Spontaneous generation of intermittent local electron flux has been observed in a linear electron-cyclotron-resonance (ECR) plasma produced in the HYPER-I device (NIFS, Japan). Statistical analysis of temporal variation of floating potential on a Langmuir probe revealed that the phenomenon is characterized by a stationary Poisson process. In order to measure 2D spatial structures of the electron flux, the High-Impedance Wire Grid (HIWG) that consists of 16 electrically-floated electrodes (8 horizontal and 8 vertical) has been developed. By evaluating the magnitude of the flux at each lattice point as the geometric mean of the signal amplitudes on corresponding pair of electrodes at a given time, a snapshot of 2D intensity distribution of the electron flux can be reconstructed. The electron flux has a circular cross-section of which diameter is typically about 30 mm. End view images taken by an ICCD camera with an optical filter also show local enhancement of line emissions of ions and neutrals in the circular region in which the intermittent electron flux enhancement occurs. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 24540544.

  11. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Hoshmand K. 2012. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 130-134. Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world’s land surface. Iran has over 250 wetlands measuring about 2.5 million hectares. Zarivar wetland (ZW is the only natural aquatic ecosystem in Kurdistan province in Iran. The present research was carried out during 2009 through 2010 with the aim of recognizing the capabilities and limitations of ZW through documentary, extensive field visits and also direct field observations during the years of study. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as a main tool. The results of this research showed that ZW has a great talent regarding diversity of bird species and the ecological status of wetland has caused the said wetland welcome numerous species of birds. The results of this research showed that industrial pollutions are not considered as threats to the wetland but evacuation of agricultural runoff and development of Marivan city toward the wetland and the resulting pollution load could be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make necessary studies in the field of various physical and biological parameters of the wetland, and also the facing threats and opportunities.

  12. Spatial structures in the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. van de Berg

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Output from the regional climate model RACMO2/ANT is used to calculate the heat budget of the Antarctic atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. The main feature of the wintertime Antarctic ABL is a persistent temperature deficit compared to the free atmosphere. The magnitude of this deficit is controlled by the heat budget. During winter, transport of heat towards the surface by turbulence and net longwave emission are the primary ABL cooling terms. These processes show horizontal spatial variability only on continental scales. Vertical and horizontal, i.e. along-slope, advection of heat are the main warming terms. Over regions with convex ice sheet topography, i.e. domes and ridges, warming by downward vertical advection is enhanced due to divergence of the ABL wind field. Horizontal advection balances excess warming caused by vertical advection, hence the temperature deficit in the ABL weakens over domes and ridges along the prevailing katabatic wind. Conversely, vertical advection is reduced in regions with concave topography, i.e. valleys, where the ABL temperature deficit enlarges along the katabatic wind. Along the coast, horizontal and vertical advection is governed by the inability of the large-scale circulation to adapt to small scale topographic features. Meso-scale topographic structures have thus a strong impact on the ABL winter temperature, besides latitude and surface elevation. During summer, this mechanism is much weaker, and the horizontal variability of ABL temperatures is smaller.

  13. Classical Branch Structure from Spatial Redundancy in a Many-Body Wave Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, C. Jess

    2017-03-01

    When the wave function of a large quantum system unitarily evolves away from a low-entropy initial state, there is strong circumstantial evidence it develops "branches": a decomposition into orthogonal components that is indistinguishable from the corresponding incoherent mixture with feasible observations. Is this decomposition unique? Must the number of branches increase with time? These questions are hard to answer because there is no formal definition of branches, and most intuition is based on toy models with arbitrarily preferred degrees of freedom. Here, assuming only the tensor structure associated with spatial locality, I show that branch decompositions are highly constrained just by the requirement that they exhibit redundant local records. The set of all redundantly recorded observables induces a preferred decomposition into simultaneous eigenstates unless their records are highly extended and delicately overlapping, as exemplified by the Shor error-correcting code. A maximum length scale for records is enough to guarantee uniqueness. Speculatively, objective branch decompositions may speed up numerical simulations of nonstationary many-body states, illuminate the thermalization of closed systems, and demote measurement from fundamental primitive in the quantum formalism.

  14. Spatial structure of morphological and neutral genetic variation in Brook Trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazyak, David C.; Hilderbrand, Robert H.; Keller, Stephen R.; Colaw, Mark C.; Holloway, Amanda E.; Morgan, Raymond P.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis exhibit exceptional levels of life history variation, remarkable genetic variability, and fine-scale population structure. In many cases, neighboring populations may be highly differentiated from one another to an extent that is comparable with species-level distinctions in other taxa. Although genetic samples have been collected from hundreds of populations and tens of thousands of individuals, little is known about whether differentiation at neutral markers reflects phenotypic differences among Brook Trout populations. We compared differentiation in morphology and neutral molecular markers among populations from four geographically proximate locations (all within 24 km) to examine how genetic diversity covaries with morphology. We found significant differences among and/or within streams for all three morphological axes examined and identified the source stream of many individuals based on morphology (52.3% classification efficiency). Although molecular and morphological differentiation among streams ranged considerably (mean pairwise FST: 0.023–0.264; pairwise PST: 0.000–0.339), the two measures were not significantly correlated. While in some cases morphological characters appear to have diverged to a greater extent than expected by neutral genetic drift, many traits were conserved to a greater extent than were neutral genetic markers. Thus, while Brook Trout exhibit fine-scale spatial patterns in both morphology and neutral genetic diversity, these types of biological variabilities are being structured by different ecological and evolutionary processes. The relative influences of genetic drift versus selection and phenotypic plasticity in shaping morphology appear to vary among populations occupying nearby streams.

  15. QUANTUM-MECHANICAL MODELING OF SPATIAL AND BAND STRUCTURE OF Y3AL5O12 SCINTILLATION CRYSTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vrubel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and electronic structures of a unit cell of yttrium-aluminum garnet have been studied. Quantum-mechanical model have been presented. Semi-empirical methods PM6 and PM7 have been used for geometry optimization of the crystal unit cell. Band structure has been calculated within density functional theory with the use of PBE exchange-correlation functional. Histograms of metal-oxygen distances for equilibrium geometry have been constructed. Comparison of the used methods has been carried out and recommendation about their applicability for such problems was given. The single-particle wave functions and energies have been calculated. The bandgap was estimated. The band structure was plotted. It was shown that the method gives reliable results for spatial and band structure of Y3Al5O12 scintillation crystal. The results of this work can be used for improvement of characteristics of garnet scintillation crystals.

  16. A study of the relation between the spatial structure of the city and the quality of urban development using Space Syntax A case study of Mashhad

    OpenAIRE

    Abbaszadegan, M; S Mokhtarzadeh; R. Bidram

    2012-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionThe primary spatial patterns and the main structures of cities are now changing, due to the present sprawl development patterns. These factors have deconstructed the unified structure of cities and have caused spatial segregation of different parts of these settlements, especially central and old fabrics and finally resulted in their socio- economic segregation. On the other hand, external urban expansion led to a complicated physical and spatial structure, whic...

  17. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Martin Lisewski

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions and in structure (structural defects trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a sensitive to random errors and (b restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  18. Random amino acid mutations and protein misfolding lead to Shannon limit in sequence-structure communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisewski, Andreas Martin

    2008-09-01

    The transmission of genomic information from coding sequence to protein structure during protein synthesis is subject to stochastic errors. To analyze transmission limits in the presence of spurious errors, Shannon's noisy channel theorem is applied to a communication channel between amino acid sequences and their structures established from a large-scale statistical analysis of protein atomic coordinates. While Shannon's theorem confirms that in close to native conformations information is transmitted with limited error probability, additional random errors in sequence (amino acid substitutions) and in structure (structural defects) trigger a decrease in communication capacity toward a Shannon limit at 0.010 bits per amino acid symbol at which communication breaks down. In several controls, simulated error rates above a critical threshold and models of unfolded structures always produce capacities below this limiting value. Thus an essential biological system can be realistically modeled as a digital communication channel that is (a) sensitive to random errors and (b) restricted by a Shannon error limit. This forms a novel basis for predictions consistent with observed rates of defective ribosomal products during protein synthesis, and with the estimated excess of mutual information in protein contact potentials.

  19. Hippocampal Structure and Human Cognition: Key Role of Spatial Processing and Evidence Supporting the Efficiency Hypothesis in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colom, Roberto; Stein, Jason L.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Martinez, Kenia; Hermel, David; Wang, Yalin; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Burgaleta, Miguel; Quiroga, Ma. Angeles; Shih, Pei Chun; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    Here we apply a method for automated segmentation of the hippocampus in 3D high-resolution structural brain MRI scans. One hundred and four healthy young adults completed twenty one tasks measuring abstract, verbal, and spatial intelligence, along with working memory, executive control, attention, and processing speed. After permutation tests…

  20. Spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over north western Indian Ocean during 1983 summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Michael, G.S.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over the north western Indian Ocean during the period 12th July to 2nd September, 1983 has been studied using the upper air data collected during the first scientific cruise of @i...

  1. Some remarks on the methods of assessing the population density of higher plants in cases of aggregated spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Justyna Kwiatkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative analysis of the methods used for. assessing the density of higher plants. The analysis was carried out on natural population (Vaccinium myrtillus L. characterized by aggregated spatial structure. Attention has been paid to the surface methods with high (0.25 m2 and low

  2. Marine archaeal community structure from Potter Cove, Antarctica : high temporal and spatial dominance of the phylum Thaumarchaeota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez, Edgardo A; Piquet, Anouk M.-T.; Lopez, Jose L; Buma, Anita; Mac Cormack, Walter P

    Archaeal communities represent a significant fraction of the Antarctic marine microbial plankton and surely play a relevant role in the proper functioning of the ecosystem. We studied the archaeal community structure in surface water samples from Potter Cove, Antarctica. Temporal and spatial

  3. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure in the frankincense tree Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst. and implications for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addisalem, A.B.; Duminil, J.; Wouters, D.; Bongers, F.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The fine-scale genetic structure and how it varies between generations depends on the spatial scale of gene dispersal and other fundamental aspects of species’ biology, such as the mating system. Such knowledge is crucial for the design of genetic conservation strategies. This is particularly

  4. Spatially-resolved in-situ structural study of organic electronic devices with nanoscale resolution: the plasmonic photovoltaic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paci, B; Bailo, D; Albertini, V Rossi; Wright, J; Ferrero, C; Spyropoulos, G D; Stratakis, E; Kymakis, E

    2013-09-14

    A novel high spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction stratigraphy technique has been applied in-situ to an integrated plasmonic nanoparticle-based organic photovoltaic device. This original approach allows for the disclosure of structure-property relations linking large scale organic devices to length scales of local nano/hetero structures and interfaces between the different components. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Metacommunity ecology meets biogeography: effects of geographical region, spatial dynamics and environmental filtering on community structure in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jani; Soininen, Janne; Alahuhta, Janne; Lappalainen, Jyrki; Virtanen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Metacommunity patterns and underlying processes in aquatic organisms have typically been studied within a drainage basin. We examined variation in the composition of six freshwater organismal groups across various drainage basins in Finland. We first modelled spatial structures within each drainage basin using Moran eigenvector maps. Second, we partitioned variation in community structure among three groups of predictors using constrained ordination: (1) local environmental variables, (2) spatial variables, and (3) dummy variable drainage basin identity. Third, we examined turnover and nestedness components of multiple-site beta diversity, and tested the best fit patterns of our datasets using the "elements of metacommunity structure" analysis. Our results showed that basin identity and local environmental variables were significant predictors of community structure, whereas within-basin spatial effects were typically negligible. In half of the organismal groups (diatoms, bryophytes, zooplankton), basin identity was a slightly better predictor of community structure than local environmental variables, whereas the opposite was true for the remaining three organismal groups (insects, macrophytes, fish). Both pure basin and local environmental fractions were, however, significant after accounting for the effects of the other predictor variable sets. All organismal groups exhibited high levels of beta diversity, which was mostly attributable to the turnover component. Our results showed consistent Clementsian-type metacommunity structures, suggesting that subgroups of species responded similarly to environmental factors or drainage basin limits. We conclude that aquatic communities across large scales are mostly determined by environmental and basin effects, which leads to high beta diversity and prevalence of Clementsian community types.

  6. Environmental controls on spatial variability of summer phytoplankton structure and biomass in the Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Xiang, Peng; Kang, Jian-hua; Ye, You-yin; Lin, Geng-ming; Yang, Qing-liang; Lin, Mao

    2018-01-01

    The subarctic Bering Sea, one of the most productive regions of the world's oceans, is undergoing significant ecological shifts possibly linked to global climate change. During the Fourth Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE) from July 10 to 20 of 2010, phytoplankton community structure, species diversity, spatial distribution, community types, abundance and biomass variations were investigated in a large scale study extending from the Bering Strait into the open waters down to the subarctic Pacific. These patterns were linked to potential environmental drivers, including effects of water masses and seasonal sea ice retreat. Results showed a marked spatial zonation in the taxonomic composition, abundance and biomass. A total of 149 phytoplankton taxa distributed among 57 genera of 5 phyla were identified, characterized into three ecological groups, namely Arctic, Boreal-temperate and cosmopolitan species. Phytoplankton included 101 species of diatoms, 44 species of dinoflagellates, 2 species of Chrysophyta, 1 species of each Chlorophyta and Euglenophyta. Both abundance and biomass were highest in the Bering Shelf, moderate on the Bering Slope, and lowest on the Bering Basin. Chlorophyll a was found highest in the subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM) close to the thermocline and halocline layers but its depth varied regionally. Multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) revealed two types of assemblages, one a deep-sea assemblage associated with the Bering Basin and a neritic assemblage found in the Bering Slope and Shelf. Average abundance (10.22 × 103 cells/L), biomass (0.43 mg/m3), species diversity (2.60) and species richness (1.66) were established for deep-sea assemblage with the dominant species ranked as Neodenticula seminae, Chaetoceros atlanticus, Pseudonitzschia delicatissima, and Thalassionema nitzschioides. Neritic assemblage had higher values with 12.73 × 103 cells/L, 2.41 mg/m3, and 2.55 species richness but lower (2.41) species diversity, and

  7. Effects of seasonality, transport pathway, and spatial structure on greenhouse gas fluxes in a restored wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNicol, Gavin; Sturtevant, Cove S; Knox, Sara H; Dronova, Iryna; Baldocchi, Dennis D; Silver, Whendee L

    2017-07-01

    Wetlands can influence global climate via greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Few studies have quantified the full GHG budget of wetlands due to the high spatial and temporal variability of fluxes. We report annual open-water diffusion and ebullition fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O from a restored emergent marsh ecosystem. We combined these data with concurrent eddy-covariance measurements of whole-ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange to estimate GHG fluxes and associated radiative forcing effects for the whole wetland, and separately for open-water and vegetated cover types. Annual open-water CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions were 915 ± 95 g C-CO 2  m -2  yr -1 , 2.9 ± 0.5 g C-CH 4  m -2  yr -1 , and 62 ± 17 mg N-N 2 O m -2  yr -1 , respectively. Diffusion dominated open-water GHG transport, accounting for >99% of CO 2 and N 2 O emissions, and ~71% of CH 4 emissions. Seasonality was minor for CO 2 emissions, whereas CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes displayed strong and asynchronous seasonal dynamics. Notably, the overall radiative forcing of open-water fluxes (3.5 ± 0.3 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) exceeded that of vegetated zones (1.4 ± 0.4 kg CO 2 -eq m -2  yr -1 ) due to high ecosystem respiration. After scaling results to the entire wetland using object-based cover classification of remote sensing imagery, net uptake of CO 2 (-1.4 ± 0.6 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ) did not offset CH 4 emission (3.7 ± 0.03 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 ), producing an overall positive radiative forcing effect of 2.4 ± 0.3 kt CO 2 -eq yr -1 . These results demonstrate clear effects of seasonality, spatial structure, and transport pathway on the magnitude and composition of wetland GHG emissions, and the efficacy of multiscale flux measurement to overcome challenges of wetland heterogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Role of evolutionary and ecological factors in the reproductive success and the spatial genetic structure of the temperate gorgonian Paramuricea clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar-Jamaï, Kenza; Coma, Rafel; Wang, Jinliang; Zuberer, Frederic; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Aurelle, Didier

    2013-06-01

    Dispersal and mating features strongly influence the evolutionary dynamics and the spatial genetic structure (SGS) of marine populations. For the first time in a marine invertebrate, we examined individual reproductive success, by conducting larval paternity assignments after a natural spawning event, combined with a small-scale SGS analysis within a population of the gorgonian Paramuricea clavata. Thirty four percent of the larvae were sired by male colonies surrounding the brooding female colonies, revealing that the bulk of the mating was accomplished by males from outside the studied area. Male success increased with male height and decreased with increasing male to female distance. The parentage analyses, with a strong level of self-recruitment (25%), unveiled the occurrence of a complex family structure at a small spatial scale, consistent with the limited larval dispersal of this species. However, no evidence of small scale SGS was revealed despite this family structure. Furthermore, temporal genetic structure was not observed, which appears to be related to the rather large effective population size. The low level of inbreeding found suggests a pattern of random mating in this species, which disagrees with expectations that limited larval dispersal should lead to biparental inbreeding. Surface brooding and investment in sexual reproduction in P. clavata contribute to multiple paternity (on average 6.4 fathers were assigned per brood), which enhance genetic diversity of the brood. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of biparental inbreeding in our study such as (i) the lack of sperm limitation at a small scale, (ii) multiple paternity, and (iii) the large effective population size. Thus, our results indicate that limited larval dispersal and complex family structure do not necessarily lead to biparental inbreeding and SGS. In the framework of conservation purposes, our results suggested that colony size, proximity among colonies and the

  9. Clustering, Randomness, and Regularity: Spatial Distributions and Human Performance on the Traveling Salesperson Problem and Minimum Spanning Tree Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Matthew J.; Preiss, Kym; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    We investigated human performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MST-P) in regards to a factor that has previously received little attention within the literature: the spatial distributions of TSP and MST-P stimuli. First, we describe a method for quantifying the relative degree of…

  10. Influence of melt structure on the crystallization behavior and polymorphic composition of polypropylene random copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bin [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS-ENS-UPMC UMR 8640, 24 Rue Lhomond, Paris 75005 (France); Chen, Zhengfang [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Kang, Jian, E-mail: jiankang@scu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Yang, Feng; Chen, Jinyao; Cao, Ya; Xiang, Ming [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Materials Engineering, Polymer Research Institute of Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2015-03-20

    Highlights: • We prepared β-PPR and studied its crystallization behavior with different melt structures. • We observed surprising synergetic effect between β-NA and the ordered structures. • We explored the nature of ordered structures by calculating the equilibrium temperature. - Abstract: Polypropylene random copolymer (PPR) is one of important polypropylene types for the application fields. However, due to the random copolymer chain configuration, it is difficult to obtain high proportion of β-phase even under the influence of β-nucleating agent (β-NA). In this study, the melt structure (namely, the content of ordered structures in the melt) of β-nucleated ethylene-copolymerized PPR (β-PPR) was controlled by tuning the fusion temperature (T{sub f}), and its impact on the crystallization and polymorphic behavior of β-PPR was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), polarized optical microscopy (PLM) and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The result revealed that compared with the β-nucleated iPP homo-polymer, it is more difficult for β-PPR to form β-crystals; interestingly, when T{sub f} is in the temperature range of 162–173 °C, the ordered structures survived in melt exhibit high β-nucleation efficiency under the influence of β-NA, resulting in significant increase of β-phase proportion and evident variation of crystalline morphology, which is called the Ordered Structure Effect (OSE). Moreover, through investigating the self-nucleation behavior and equilibrium melting temperature of pure PPR (non-nucleated PPR), the physical nature of the lower and upper limiting T{sub f} temperatures for the occurrence of OSE in β-PPR was explored; the role of ethylene co-monomer in the occurrence of OSE was discussed.

  11. A Statistical Model Updating Method of Beam Structures with Random Parameters under Static Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Wu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new statistical model updating method of beam structures with random parameters under static load. The new updating method considers structural parameters and measurement errors to be random. To reduce the unmeasured degrees of freedom in the finite element model, a static condensation technique is used in this method. A statistical model updating equation with respect to element updated factors is established afterwards. The element updated factors are expanded as random multivariate power series. Using a high-order perturbation technique, the statistical model updating equation can be solved to obtain the coefficients of the power series expansions of the element updated factors. The results of two numerical examples show that for the solution of the statistical model updating equation, the accuracy of the proposed method agrees with that of the Monte Carlo simulation method very well. The static responses obtained by the updated finite element model coincide with the measured results very well. Finally, a series of static load tests of the concrete beam are conducted to testify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Stochastic stability and the evolution of coordination in spatially structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeremy; Lehmann, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    Animals can often coordinate their actions to achieve mutually beneficial outcomes. However, this can result in a social dilemma when uncertainty about the behavior of partners creates multiple fitness peaks. Strategies that minimize risk ("risk dominant") instead of maximizing reward ("payoff dominant") are favored in economic models when individuals learn behaviors that increase their payoffs. Specifically, such strategies are shown to be "stochastically stable" (a refinement of evolutionary stability). Here, we extend the notion of stochastic stability to biological models of continuous phenotypes at a mutation-selection-drift balance. This allows us to make a unique prediction for long-term evolution in games with multiple equilibria. We show how genetic relatedness due to limited dispersal and scaled to account for local competition can crucially affect the stochastically-stable outcome of coordination games. We find that positive relatedness (weak local competition) increases the chance the payoff dominant strategy is stochastically stable, even when it is not risk dominant. Conversely, negative relatedness (strong local competition) increases the chance that strategies evolve that are neither payoff nor risk dominant. Extending our results to large multiplayer coordination games we find that negative relatedness can create competition so extreme that the game effectively changes to a hawk-dove game and a stochastically stable polymorphism between the alternative strategies evolves. These results demonstrate the usefulness of stochastic stability in characterizing long-term evolution of continuous phenotypes: the outcomes of multiplayer games can be reduced to the generic equilibria of two-player games and the effect of spatial structure can be analyzed readily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthic community in Tai Lake, a large shallow lake, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Li,; Erickson, Richard A.; Song Tang,; Xuwen Li,; Niu, Zhichun; Xia Wang,; Hongling Liu,; Hongxia Yu,

    2016-01-01

    Tai Lake (Chinese: Taihu), the third-largest freshwater lake in China, suffers from harmful cyanobacteria blooms that are caused by economic development and population growth near the lake. Several studies have focused on phytoplankton in Tai Lake after a drinking water crisis in 2007; however, these studies primarily focused on microcystin bioaccumulation and toxicity to individual species without examining the effects of microcystin on macrobenthic community diversity. In this study, we conducted a survey of the lake to examine the effects of microcystine and other pollutants on marcobenthic community diversity. A totally of forty-nine species of macroinvertebrates were found in Tai Lake. Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri and Corbicula fluminea were the most abundant species. Cluster-analysis and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) identified three significantly different macrobenthic communities among the sample sites. More specifically, sites in the eastern bays, where aquatic macrophytes were abundant, had the highest diversity of macrobenthic communities, which were dominated by Bellamya aeruginosa, Bellamya purificata, L. hoffmeisteri, and Alocinma longicornis. Sites in Zhushan Bay contained relatively diverse communities, mainly composed of L. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, L. claparederanus, R. sinicus, and Cythura sp. Sites in the western region, Meiliang Bay and Wuli Bay had the lowest diversity, mainly composed ofL. hoffmeisteri, C. fluminea, Branchiura sowerbyi, and Rhyacodrilus sinicus. In addition, the relationships between macrobenthic metrics (Shannon–Wiener, Margalef, and Pielou) and environmental variables showed that community structure and spatial patterns of macrobenthos in Tai Lake were significantly influenced by chemical oxygen demand (CODCr), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), lead (Pb), and microcystin-LR (L for leucine and R for arginine). Our findings provide critical information that could help managers and policymakers

  14. Biological and spatial structure of an early classic period cemetery at Charco Redondo, Oaxaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Kathleen S; Stojanowski, Christopher M; Butler, Michelle M

    2013-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of biological and spatial patterning of an Early Classic (A.D. 250-500) Chatino cemetery at the archaeological site of Charco Redondo, located in the lower Río Verde Valley, Oaxaca, Mexico. The Early Classic was a time of political instability positioned between two phases of state-level centralization within the coastal valley. The communal cemetery at Charco Redondo adds significantly to the inventory of excavated graves from this time period and provides novel data on mortuary practices during a critical phase in the development of state level polities in the region. Cluster analysis of mortuary data is combined with intracemetery biodistance approaches to reconstruct how the Charco Redondo cemetery was organized with respect to biological relationships. Cluster analysis of mortuary data identified three groupings of burials. Multidimensional scaling of Euclidean distances and Gower coefficients based on 45 odontometric and 13 dental morphological variables suggests a strong relationship between grave characteristics and locations and phenotypic variation. In other words, the cemetery at Charco Redondo appears biologically kin-structured. The communal nature of the cemetery conflicts with the assumed "household" burial model for this time period. We propose the observed combination of features represents a transitional practice in which aspects of community, kin, and individual identity were signaled simultaneously within the funerary environment during a time of political transition in the Valley. This article highlights the utility of intracemetery biodistance analyses for examining dimensions of kinship, "house," and community throughout Mesoamerica where overarching models often mask regional variability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Monadic structures over an ordered universal random graph and finite automata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudakov, Sergey M [Tver' State University, Tver' (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    We continue the investigation of the expressive power of the language of predicate logic for finite algebraic systems embedded in infinite systems. This investigation stems from papers of M. A. Taitslin, M. Benedikt and L. Libkin, among others. We study the properties of a finite monadic system which can be expressed by formulae if such a system is embedded in a random graph that is totally ordered in an arbitrary way. The Buechi representation is used to connect monadic structures and formal languages. It is shown that, if one restricts attention to formulae that are <-invariant in totally ordered random graphs, then these formulae correspond to finite automata. We show that =-invariant formulae expressing the properties of the embedded system itself can express only Boolean combinations of properties of the form 'the cardinality of an intersection of one-place predicates belongs to one of finitely many fixed finite or infinite arithmetic progressions'.

  16. Structural Analysis of Pressurized Small Diameter Lines in a Random Vibration Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark; Ridnour, Andrew; Brethen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The pressurization and propellant feed lines for the Ares 1 Upper Stage Reaction and Roll Control Systems (ReCS and RoCS) were required to be in a high g-load random vibration flight environment. The lines connected the system components and were filled with both liquid hydrazine and gaseous helium. They are considered small and varied between one fourth to one inch in diameter. The random vibration of the lines was considered to be base excitation through the mating components and mounting hardware. It was found that reducing the amount of support structure for the lines added flexibility to the system and improved the line stresses from random vibration, but caused higher stresses from the static g-loads. The locations and number of brackets were optimized by analyzing the mode shapes of the lines causing high stresses. The use of brackets that only constrain motion in the direction of concern further reduced the stresses in the lines. Finite element analysis was used to perform the analysis. The lines were pre-stressed by temperature and internal pressure with fluid and insulation included as non-structural mass. Base excitation was added to the model using Power Spectral Density (PSD) data for the expected flight loads. The random vibration and static g-load cases were combined to obtain the total stress in the lines. This approach advances the state of the art in line analysis by using FEA to predict the stresses in the lines and to optimize the entire system based on the expected flight environment. Adding flexibility to lines has been used in piping system for temperature loads, but in flight environments flexibility has been limited for the static stresses. Adding flexibility to the system in a flight environment by reducing brackets has the benefit of reducing stresses and weight

  17. Random Neighborhood Graphs as Models of Fracture Networks on Rocks: Structural and Dynamical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new model to account for the main structural characteristics of rock fracture networks (RFNs). The model is based on a generalization of the random neighborhood graphs to consider fractures embedded into rectangular spaces. We study a series of 29 real-world RFNs and find the best fit with the random rectangular neighborhood graphs (RRNGs) proposed here. We show that this model captures most of the structural characteristics of the RFNs and allows a distinction between small and more spherical rocks and large and more elongated ones. We use a diffusion equation on the graphs in order to model diffusive processes taking place through the channels of the RFNs. We find a small set of structural parameters that highly correlates with the average diffusion time in the RFNs. In particular, the second smallest eigenvalue of the Laplacian matrix is a good predictor of the average diffusion time on RFNs, showing a Pearson correlation coefficient larger than $0.99$ with the average diffusion time on RFNs. ...

  18. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  19. Solution NMR of MPS-1 reveals a random coil cytosolic domain structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Li

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans MPS1 is a single transmembrane helical auxiliary subunit that co-localizes with the voltage-gated potassium channel KVS1 in the nematode nervous system. MPS-1 shares high homology with KCNE (potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member auxiliary subunits, and its cytosolic domain was reported to have a serine/threonine kinase activity that modulates KVS1 channel function via phosphorylation. In this study, NMR spectroscopy indicated that the full length and truncated MPS-1 cytosolic domain (134-256 in the presence or absence of n-dodecylphosphocholine detergent micelles adopted a highly flexible random coil secondary structure. In contrast, protein kinases usually adopt a stable folded conformation in order to implement substrate recognition and phosphoryl transfer. The highly flexible random coil secondary structure suggests that MPS-1 in the free state is unstructured but may require a substrate or binding partner to adopt stable structure required for serine/threonine kinase activity.

  20. Markov random field-based statistical character structure modeling for handwritten Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2008-05-01

    This paper proposes a statistical-structural character modeling method based on Markov random fields (MRFs) for handwritten Chinese character recognition (HCCR). The stroke relationships of a Chinese character reflect its structure, which can be statistically represented by the neighborhood system and clique potentials within the MRF framework. Based on the prior knowledge of character structures, we design the neighborhood system that accounts for the most important stroke relationships. We penalize the structurally mismatched stroke relationships with MRFs using the prior clique potentials, and derive the likelihood clique potentials from Gaussian mixture models, which encode the large variations of stroke relationships statistically. In the proposed HCCR system, we use the single-site likelihood clique potentials to extract many candidate strokes from character images, and use the pairsite clique potentials to determine the best structural match between the input candidate strokes and the MRF-based character models by relaxation labeling. The experiments on the KAIST character database demonstrate that MRFs can statistically model character structures, and work well in the HCCR system.

  1. Spatial variations in food web structures with alternative stable states: evidence from stable isotope analysis in a large eutrophic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunkai; Zhang, Yuying; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-05-01

    Food web structures are well known to vary widely among ecosystems. Moreover, many food web studies of lakes have generally attempted to characterize the overall food web structure and have largely ignored internal spatial and environmental variations. In this study, we hypothesize that there is a high degree of spatial heterogeneity within an ecosystem and such heterogeneity may lead to strong variations in environmental conditions and resource availability, in turn resulting in different trophic pathways. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were employed for the whole food web to describe the structure of the food web in different sub-basins within Taihu Lake. This lake is a large eutrophic freshwater lake that has been intensively managed and highly influenced by human activities for more than 50 years. The results show significant isotopic differences between basins with different environmental characteristics. Such differences likely result from isotopic baseline differences combining with a shift in food web structure. Both are related to local spatial heterogeneity in nutrient loading in waters. Such variation should be explicitly considered in future food web studies and ecosystem-based management in this lake ecosystem.

  2. Spatial variability and temporal stability of throughfall deposition under beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in relationship to canopy structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staelens, Jeroen [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium)]. E-mail: jeroen_staelens@yahoo.com; De Schrijver, An [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Verheyen, Kris [Ghent University, Laboratory of Forestry, Geraardsbergsesteenweg 267, 9090 Gontrode (Belgium); Verhoest, Niko E.C. [Ghent University, Laboratory of Hydrology and Water Management, Coupure links 653, 9000 Gent (Belgium)

    2006-07-15

    Although the spatial variability of throughfall (TF) in forest ecosystems can have important ecological implications, little is known about the driving factors of within-stand TF variability, particularly in deciduous forests. While the spatial variability of TF water amount and H{sup +} deposition under a dominant beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) tree was significantly higher in the leafed period than in the leafless period, the spatial TF deposition patterns of most major ions were similar in both periods. The semiannual TF depositions of all ions other than H{sup +} were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.68-0.90, p < 0.05) with canopy structure above sample locations throughout the entire year. The amounts of TF water and H{sup +} deposition during the leafed period were negatively correlated with branch cover. We conclude that the spatial heterogeneity of ion deposition under beech was significantly affected by leaves in the growing period and by branches in non-foliated conditions. - Ion deposition under a deciduous beech tree was strongly affected by the canopy structure throughout the entire year.

  3. Patterns of multiannual changes in the spatial structure of a bank vole (Myodes glareolus population in hornbeam-oak forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Мyakushko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of research on changes in the spatial structure of a population of bank vole (Myodes glareolus Schreber, 1780 in the context of a study of multiannual dynamics of population density. The field research took place in Kaniv Nature Reserve, Cherkassy region, Ukraine, in May – June 2009–2012. In forest biotopes of the reserve the dominant mammal species is the bank vole The period of research spanned four consecutive phases of long-term dynamics of density of population of this species, and also of the rodent community in general (growth – peak – decline – depression. The trapping of the animals was carried out by means of the traditional method of study plots. Parameters of spatial distribution of individuals – aggregation coefficient (K and density of individuals within concentrations (m – make it possible to gain an adequate impression of the structure of populations on the basis of data on distribution of individuals within the study plots. It has been established that the spatial structure of populations of rodents naturally changes in the course of multiannual dynamics of the population. During alternation of separate phases reorganizations of the spatial distribution of bank vole populations consisted of changes in the quantity and size of concentrations, and also the density of their placement. A scheme of changes in spatial structure in conditions of cyclic fluctuations of density is presented. Absence of concentration during the depression phase of dynamics is defined by the insignificant number of consumers of environmental resources, which causes a surplus and availability of these resources and is indicated also by the fact that compact distribution of animals interferes with successful realization of reproductive potential. Intensive reproduction and rapid rate of increase in a population, which are characteristic of a growth phase, cause formation and growth of separate concentrations

  4. Modelling ecological complexity for marine species conservation: the effect of variable connectivity on species spatial distribution and age-structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizien, Katell; Bramanti, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Connectivity is currently emphasized as a key factor in conservation for its role in enhancing biodiversity of an area and giving benefit to the adjacent areas. For most marine species, connectivity is synonomous of larval dispersal. We applied a spatially explicit meta-population model to test the hypothesis that larval dispersal can affect local demographical features, consequently misleading conservation practice in the marine environment. Simulations were carried out in the Gulf of Lions where coastal circulation displays highly variable temporal and spatial submeso-scale structures. Two different benthic invertebrate species were considered: a soft bottom short lived species and a hard bottom long lived one. In the first case, simulations showed that highest densities at equilibrium do not inform on self-persistent populations location. In the second case, simulations showed that connectivity effects may result in out-of-equilibria demographical structure. We emphasized the caveats in the parameterization of demographical models when local demography is controlled by connectivity.

  5. [Spatial autocorrelation of genetic structure of Prunus padus population in broadleaved Korean pine forest of Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiao-Min; Shi, Shuai; Wang, Zheng-Feng; Ye, Wan-Hui; Hao, Zhan-Qing

    2014-02-01

    All 396 Prunus padus individuals of the population with DBH (diameter at breast height) > or = 1 cm were sampled in a 25 hm2 broadleaved Korean pine forest plot of Changbai Mountains and divided into three DBH classes: 1-3 cm, 3-10 cm, and >10 cm. They were then genotyped using microsatellite loci. The spatial autocorrelation of their genetic structure was analyzed at different distance classes and life stages. The results showed that positive autocorrelation mainly occurred at scales less than 70 m, while negative autocorrelation occurred at scales larger than 110 m. The spatial genetic structure (SGS) at different life stages was similar due to limited pollen/seed dispersal and asexual reproduction. No significant self-thinning occurred in the studied population.

  6. Generalized linear longitudinal mixed models with linear covariance structure and multiplicative random effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, René; Jørgensen, Bent

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a versatile class of multiplicative generalized linear longitudinal mixed models (GLLMM) with additive dispersion components, based on explicit modelling of the covariance structure. The class incorporates a longitudinal structure into the random effects models and retains...... a marginal as well as a conditional interpretation. The estimation procedure is based on a computationally efficient quasi-score method for the regression parameters combined with a REML-like bias-corrected Pearson estimating function for the dispersion and correlation parameters. This avoids...... the multidimensional integral of the conventional GLMM likelihood and allows an extension of the robust empirical sandwich estimator for use with both association and regression parameters. The method is applied to a set of otholit data, used for age determination of fish....

  7. MODELING OF HARDWARE AND ALGORITHMIC STRUCTURE OF MOBILE MULTIPOSITIONING RADIO RANGEFINDING NAVIGATION AND LANDING AEROSYSTEM IN ITS SPATIAL CONFIGURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Kondrashov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of structuring of radio equipment, mathematical and algorithmic tools to provide computing operations for determining the location of aircraft in spatial configuration of mobile (portable multipositioning radio rangefinding interrogation-reply navigation and landing system is considered in this article. The mathematical modeling of algorithms of aircraft traffic terminal control is carried out. The results of calculations of potential system performance and its analysis for compliance with international safety requirements are represented.

  8. Laser-induced fluorescence imaging of subsurface tissue structures with a volume holographic spatial-spectral imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger-Austin, Paul J; Watson, Jonathan M; Barbastathis, George; Barton, Jennifer K; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-09-15

    A three-dimensional imaging system incorporating multiplexed holographic gratings to visualize fluorescence tissue structures is presented. Holographic gratings formed in volume recording materials such as a phenanthrenquinone poly(methyl methacrylate) photopolymer have narrowband angular and spectral transmittance filtering properties that enable obtaining spatial-spectral information within an object. We demonstrate this imaging system's ability to obtain multiple depth-resolved fluorescence images simultaneously.

  9. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga-Henriques, A.; F.M. PORTEIRO; Ribeiro, P A; V. de Matos; Í. Sampaio; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, s...

  10. Diversity, distribution and spatial structure of the cold-water coral fauna of the Azores (NE Atlantic)

    OpenAIRE

    Braga-Henriques, A.; F.M. PORTEIRO; Ribeiro, P A; V. de Matos; Sampaio, Í.; Ocaña, O.; Santos, R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Cold-water corals are widely considered as important structural components of benthic habitats, potentially enhancing local abundance in a variety of fish and invertebrate species. Yet, current knowledge of the taxonomic diversity and distribution patterns of these vulnerable, slow-growing organisms is scarce and fragmented, limiting the effectiveness of spatial management and conservation measures. We have conducted an exhaustive compilation of records of alcyonaceans, antipatharians, sclera...

  11. Comparison of the Cloud Morphology Spatial Structure Between Jupiter and Saturn Using JunoCam and Cassini ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Justin; Sayanagi, Kunio M.; Blalock, John J.; Gunnarson, Jacob; McCabe, Ryan M.; Gallego, Angelina; Hansen, Candice; Orton, Glenn S.

    2017-10-01

    We present an analysis of the spatial-scales contained in the cloud morphology of Jupiter’s southern high latitudes using images captured by JunoCam in 2016 and 2017, and compare them to those on Saturn using images captured using the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) on board the Cassini orbiter. For Jupiter, the characteristic spatial scale of cloud morphology as a function of latitude is calculated from images taken in three visual (600-800, 500-600, 420-520 nm) bands and a near-infrared (880- 900 nm) band. In particular, we analyze the transition from the banded structure characteristic of Jupiter’s mid-latitudes to the chaotic structure of the polar region. We apply similar analysis to Saturn using images captured using Cassini ISS. In contrast to Jupiter, Saturn maintains its zonally organized cloud morphology from low latitudes up to the poles, culminating in the cyclonic polar vortices centered at each of the poles. By quantifying the differences in the spatial scales contained in the cloud morphology, our analysis will shed light on the processes that control the banded structures on Jupiter and Saturn. Our work has been supported by the following grants: NASA PATM NNX14AK07G, NASA MUREP NNX15AQ03A, and NSF AAG 1212216.

  12. Costs and benefits of thermoregulation revisited: both the heterogeneity and spatial structure of temperature drive energetic costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Michael W; Angilletta, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, ecologists have stepped up to address the challenges imposed by rapidly changing climates. Some researchers have developed niche-based methods to predict how species will shift their ranges. Such methods have evolved rapidly, resulting in models that incorporate physiological and behavioral mechanisms. Despite their sophistication, these models fail to account for environmental heterogeneity at the scale of an organism. We used an individual-based model to quantify the effects of operative environmental temperatures, as well as their heterogeneity and spatial structure, on the thermoregulation, movement, and energetics of ectotherms. Our simulations showed that the heterogeneity and spatial structure of a thermal landscape are as important as its mean temperature. In fact, temperature and heterogeneity interact to determine organismal performance. Consequently, the popular index of environmental quality (d(e)), which ignores variance and spatial structure, is inherently flawed as a descriptor of the thermal quality of an environment. Future efforts to model species' distributions should link thermoregulation and activity to environmental heterogeneity at fine scales.

  13. Numerical simulation of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber network structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tao; Stanciulescu, Ilinca

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a computational framework to simulate the mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with randomly distributed fiber networks. A random walk algorithm is implemented to generate the synthetic fiber network in 2D used in simulations. The embedded fiber approach is then adopted to model the fibers as embedded truss elements in the ground matrix, which is essentially equivalent to the affine fiber kinematics. The fiber-matrix interaction is partially considered in the sense that the two material components deform together, but no relative movement is considered. A variational approach is carried out to derive the element residual and stiffness matrices for finite element method (FEM), in which material and geometric nonlinearities are both included. Using a data structure proposed to record the network geometric information, the fiber network is directly incorporated into the FEM simulation without significantly increasing the computational cost. A mesh sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the influence of mesh size on various simulation results. The proposed method can be easily combined with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to include the influence of the stochastic nature of the network and capture the material behavior in an average sense. The computational framework proposed in this work goes midway between homogenizing the fiber network into the surrounding matrix and accounting for the fully coupled fiber-matrix interaction at the segment length scale, and can be used to study the connection between the microscopic structure and the macro-mechanical behavior of fibrous biomaterials with a reasonable computational cost.

  14. Randomized Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Structured Educational Program for Patients With Essential Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perl, Sabine; Niederl, Ella; Kos, Cornelia; Mrak, Peter; Ederer, Herbert; Rakovac, Ivo; Beck, Peter; Kraler, Elisabeth; Stoff, Ingrid; Klima, Gert; Pieske, Burkert M; Pieber, Thomas R; Zweiker, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to medication and lifestyle interventions are essential keys for the management of hypertension. In this respect, a structured educational program for hypertensive patients has got remarkable merits (herz.leben). In order to determine the isolated effect of participation in the educational program, neglecting the possible impact of more intense care, this prospective multicenter randomized controlled study was designed (NCT00453037). A total of 256 patients in 13 centers were enrolled and randomly assigned to 2 groups (G). G-I (n = 137) underwent the educational program immediately (T-0), G-II (n = 119) after 6 months (T-6). Follow-up visits were done after 6 (T-6) and 12 (T-12) months. Primary endpoint was a difference in office blood pressure (BP) at T-6, when only G-I had undergone the educational program. Patients' baseline characteristics were comparable. At T-6, systolic office and home BP were significantly lower in G-I compared to G-II: office BP systolic 139 (134-150) mm Hg vs. 150 (135-165) mm Hg (P educational program differences in BP disappeared. The results of this multicenter randomized controlled study provide significant evidence for benefit by participation in a structured educational program. Positive effects seem to be mediated by better adherence and life style changes due to higher levels of information and patient empowerment. Therefore, educational strategies should be considered as standard of care for hypertensive patients. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Spatial changes in the prokaryotic community structure across a soil catena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Zhuravleva, Anna; Tkhakakhova, Azida

    2017-04-01

    Mesorelief is a complex biogeochemical factor regulating hydrothermal regimes of the surface soil layer, the type of plant cover, etc., and, therefore, influences on soil microbial community structure. A natural model of soil sequence across the slope is a soil catena. Soils forming on various mesorelief positions significantly differ in physicochemical and biological properties, leading to the changes in spatial distribution of various bacterial and archaeal taxa across the soil catena. The aim of this study was to determine soil microbial community structure of different ecosystems corresponding to three mesorelief positions within the soil catena. The catena was located at the right bank of the Oka River (Moscow region, Russian Federation). Soil samples were taken at depths of 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, and 40-60 cm from three sites within the transect of 960 m with elevation of 80 m, corresponding to the autonomous (AU), transitional (TR) (both Luvisols), and accumulative (AC) (Fluvisol Umbric) positions of the landscape. The dominant vegetation of studied sites were rootstock- and loose bunchgrasses of the fallow ecosystem (AU), a secondary small-leaved forest of the forest ecosystem (TR), and a meadow-bog association of the meadow-bog ecosystem (AC). The distances between the sites were 680 m (AU and TR), and 280 m (TR and AC). The soil samples were homogenized, and the total community DNA of three replicates was extracted using the FastDNA® SPIN kit for Soil. All DNA replicates were combined in a pooled sample and the DNA was used for PCR with specific primers for the 16S V3 and V4 regions. The products were purified and submitted to Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Obtained sequence data were evaluated using the MiSeq Reporter Metagenomics Workflow and QIIME. Quantification of the bacterial and archaeal metabolically active cells was quantified by the FISH-method. Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria, Firmictutes and Actinobacteria were the major phyla in autonomous site

  16. Dynamic, spatial models of parasite transmission in wildlife: Their structure, applications and remaining challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lauren A; Forester, James D; Craft, Meggan E

    2017-09-25

    Individual differences in contact rate can arise from host, group and landscape heterogeneity and can result in different patterns of spatial spread for diseases in wildlife populations with concomitant implications for disease control in wildlife of conservation concern, livestock and humans. While dynamic disease models can provide a better understanding of the drivers of spatial spread, the effects of landscape heterogeneity have only been modelled in a few well-studied wildlife systems such as rabies and bovine tuberculosis. Such spatial models tend to be either purely theoretical with intrinsic limiting assumptions or individual-based models that are often highly species- and system-specific, limiting the breadth of their utility. Our goal was to review studies that have utilized dynamic, spatial models to answer questions about pathogen transmission in wildlife and identify key gaps in the literature. We begin by providing an overview of the main types of dynamic, spatial models (e.g., metapopulation, network, lattice, cellular automata, individual-based and continuous-space) and their relation to each other. We investigate different types of ecological questions that these models have been used to explore: pathogen invasion dynamics and range expansion, spatial heterogeneity and pathogen persistence, the implications of management and intervention strategies and the role of evolution in host-pathogen dynamics. We reviewed 168 studies that consider pathogen transmission in free-ranging wildlife and classify them by the model type employed, the focal host-pathogen system, and their overall research themes and motivation. We observed a significant focus on mammalian hosts, a few well-studied or purely theoretical pathogen systems, and a lack of studies occurring at the wildlife-public health or wildlife-livestock interfaces. Finally, we discuss challenges and future directions in the context of unprecedented human-mediated environmental change. Spatial models

  17. A spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier for very high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bei; Zhong, Yanfei; Zhang, Liangpei

    2016-06-01

    Land-use classification of very high spatial resolution remote sensing (VHSR) imagery is one of the most challenging tasks in the field of remote sensing image processing. However, the land-use classification is hard to be addressed by the land-cover classification techniques, due to the complexity of the land-use scenes. Scene classification is considered to be one of the expected ways to address the land-use classification issue. The commonly used scene classification methods of VHSR imagery are all derived from the computer vision community that mainly deal with terrestrial image recognition. Differing from terrestrial images, VHSR images are taken by looking down with airborne and spaceborne sensors, which leads to the distinct light conditions and spatial configuration of land cover in VHSR imagery. Considering the distinct characteristics, two questions should be answered: (1) Which type or combination of information is suitable for the VHSR imagery scene classification? (2) Which scene classification algorithm is best for VHSR imagery? In this paper, an efficient spectral-structural bag-of-features scene classifier (SSBFC) is proposed to combine the spectral and structural information of VHSR imagery. SSBFC utilizes the first- and second-order statistics (the mean and standard deviation values, MeanStd) as the statistical spectral descriptor for the spectral information of the VHSR imagery, and uses dense scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) as the structural feature descriptor. From the experimental results, the spectral information works better than the structural information, while the combination of the spectral and structural information is better than any single type of information. Taking the characteristic of the spatial configuration into consideration, SSBFC uses the whole image scene as the scope of the pooling operator, instead of the scope generated by a spatial pyramid (SP) commonly used in terrestrial image classification. The experimental

  18. The Interplay between Environmental Filtering and Spatial Processes in Structuring Communities: The Case of Neotropical Snake Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheri, Hamanda; Both, Camila; Martins, Marcio

    2015-01-01

    Both habitat filters and spatial processes can influence community structure. Space alone affects species immigration from the regional species pool, whereas habitat filters affect species distribution and inter-specific interactions. This study aimed to understand how the interplay between environmental and geographical processes influenced the structure of Neotropical snake communities in different habitat types. We selected six studies that sampled snakes in forests, four conducted in savannas and two in grasslands (the latter two are grouped in a non-forest category). We used the net relatedness and nearest taxon indices to assess phylogenetic structure within forest and non-forest areas. We also used the phylogenetic fuzzy-weighting algorithm to characterize phylogenetic structure across communities and the relation of phylogenetic composition patterns to habitat type, structure, and latitude. Finally, we tested for morphological trait convergence and phylogenetic niche conservatism using four forest and four non-forest areas for which morphological data were available. Community phylogenetic composition changed across forest and non-forest areas suggesting that environmental filtering influences community structure. Species traits were affected by habitat type, indicating convergence at the metacommunity level. Tail length, robustness, and number of ventral scales maximized community convergence among forest and non-forest areas. The observed patterns suggested environmental filtering, indicating that less vertically structured habitats represent a strong filter. Despite the fact that phylogenetic structure was not detected individually for each community, we observed a trend towards communities composed by more closely related species in higher latitudes and more overdispersed compositions in lower latitudes. Such pattern suggests that the limited distribution of major snake lineages constrained species distributions. Structure indices for each community

  19. The Interplay between Environmental Filtering and Spatial Processes in Structuring Communities: The Case of Neotropical Snake Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamanda Cavalheri

    Full Text Available Both habitat filters and spatial processes can influence community structure. Space alone affects species immigration from the regional species pool, whereas habitat filters affect species distribution and inter-specific interactions. This study aimed to understand how the interplay between environmental and geographical processes influenced the structure of Neotropical snake communities in different habitat