WorldWideScience

Sample records for random setup variations

  1. Unit-specific calibration of Actigraph accelerometers in a mechanical setup - is it worth the effort? The effect on random output variation caused by technical inter-instrument variability in the laboratory and in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Niels C; Korsholm, Lars; Kristensen, Peter L

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Potentially, unit-specific in-vitro calibration of accelerometers could increase field data quality and study power. However, reduced inter-unit variability would only be important if random instrument variability contributes considerably to the total variation in field data. Therefore...... during free living conditions. RESULTS: Calibration reduced inter-instrument variability considerably in the mechanical setup, both in the MTI instruments (raw SDbetween units = 195 counts*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 65 counts*min-1) and in the CSA instruments (raw SDbetween units = 343 counts......*min-1 vs. calibrated SDbetween units = 67 counts*min-1). However, the effect of applying the derived calibration to children's and adolescents' free living physical activity data did not alter the coefficient of variation (CV) (children: CVraw = 30.2% vs. CVcalibrated = 30.4%, adolescents: CVraw = 36...

  2. SU-E-T-463: Quantification of Rotational Variation in Mouse Setup for IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarroll, R; Rubinstein, A; Kingsley, C; Yang, J; Yang, P; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New small-animal irradiators include extremely precise IGRT capabilities. However, mouse immobilization and localization remains a challenge. In particular, unlike week-to-week translational displacements, rotational changes in positioning are not easily corrected for in subject setup. Using two methods of setup, we aim to quantify week-to-week rotational variation in mice for the purpose of IGRT planning in small animal studies. Methods: Ten mice were imaged weekly using breath-hold CBCT (X-RAD 225 Cx), with the mouse positioned in a half-pipe support, providing 40 scans. A second group of two mice were positioned in a 3D printed immobilization device, which was created using a CT from a similarly shaped mouse, providing 10 scans. For each mouse, the first image was taken to be the reference image. Subsequent CT images were then rigidly registered, based on bony anatomy. Rotations in the axial (roll), sagittal (pitch), and coronal (yaw) planes were recorded and used to quantify variation in angular setup. Results: For the mice imaged in the half pipe, average magnitude of roll was found to be 5.4±4.6° (range: −12.9:18.86°), of pitch 1.6±1.3° (range: −1.4:4.7°), and of yaw 1.9±1.5° (range −5.4:1.1°). For the mice imaged in the printed setup; average magnitude of roll was found to be 0.64±0.6° (range: −2.1:1.0°), of pitch 0.6±0.4° (range: 0.0:1.3°), and of yaw 0.2±0.1° (range: 0.0:0.4°). The printed setup provided reduction in roll, pitch, and yaw by 88, 62, and 90 percent, respectively. Conclusion: For the typical setup routine, roll in mouse position is the dominant source of rotational variation. However, when a printed device was used, drastic improvements in mouse immobilization were seen. This work provides a promising foundation for mouse immobilization, required for full scale small animal IGRT. Currently, we are making improvements to allo±w the use of a similar system for MR, PET, and bioluminescence.

  3. Dose variations caused by setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: A PRESAGE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Kieyin [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Gagliardi, Frank [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Alqathami, Mamdooh [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Ackerly, Trevor [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Geso, Moshi, E-mail: moshi.geso@rmit.edu.au [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires tight margins around the tumor, thus producing a steep dose gradient between the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue. Any setup errors might become clinically significant. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the dosimetric variations caused by setup errors with a 3-dimensional dosimeter, the PRESAGE. This research aimed to evaluate the potential effect that setup errors have on the dose distribution of intracranial SRT. Computed tomography (CT) simulation of a CIRS radiosurgery head phantom was performed with 1.25-mm slice thickness. An ideal treatment plan was generated using Brainlab iPlan. A PRESAGE was made for every treatment with and without errors. A prescan using the optical CT scanner was carried out. Before treatment, the phantom was imaged using Brainlab ExacTrac. Actual radiotherapy treatments with and without errors were carried out with the Novalis treatment machine. Postscan was performed with an optical CT scanner to analyze the dose irradiation. The dose variation between treatments with and without errors was determined using a 3-dimensional gamma analysis. Errors are clinically insignificant when the passing ratio of the gamma analysis is 95% and above. Errors were clinically significant when the setup errors exceeded a 0.7-mm translation and a 0.5° rotation. The results showed that a 3-mm translation shift in the superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 2° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 53.1%. Translational and rotational errors of 1.5 mm and 1°, respectively, generated a passing ratio of 62.2%. Translation shift of 0.7 mm in the directions of SI, RL, and AP and a 0.5° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 96.2%. Preventing the occurrences of setup errors in intracranial SRT treatment is extremely important as errors greater than 0.7 mm and 0.5° alter the dose distribution. The geometrical displacements affect dose delivery

  4. Dose variations caused by setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: a PRESAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kieyin; Gagliardi, Frank; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires tight margins around the tumor, thus producing a steep dose gradient between the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue. Any setup errors might become clinically significant. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the dosimetric variations caused by setup errors with a 3-dimensional dosimeter, the PRESAGE. This research aimed to evaluate the potential effect that setup errors have on the dose distribution of intracranial SRT. Computed tomography (CT) simulation of a CIRS radiosurgery head phantom was performed with 1.25-mm slice thickness. An ideal treatment plan was generated using Brainlab iPlan. A PRESAGE was made for every treatment with and without errors. A prescan using the optical CT scanner was carried out. Before treatment, the phantom was imaged using Brainlab ExacTrac. Actual radiotherapy treatments with and without errors were carried out with the Novalis treatment machine. Postscan was performed with an optical CT scanner to analyze the dose irradiation. The dose variation between treatments with and without errors was determined using a 3-dimensional gamma analysis. Errors are clinically insignificant when the passing ratio of the gamma analysis is 95% and above. Errors were clinically significant when the setup errors exceeded a 0.7-mm translation and a 0.5° rotation. The results showed that a 3-mm translation shift in the superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 2° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 53.1%. Translational and rotational errors of 1.5mm and 1°, respectively, generated a passing ratio of 62.2%. Translation shift of 0.7mm in the directions of SI, RL, and AP and a 0.5° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 96.2%. Preventing the occurrences of setup errors in intracranial SRT treatment is extremely important as errors greater than 0.7mm and 0.5° alter the dose distribution. The geometrical displacements affect dose delivery to

  5. Proton therapy of prostate cancer by anterior-oblique beams: implications of setup and anatomy variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteabbed, M.; Trofimov, A.; Sharp, G. C.; Wang, Y.; Zietman, A. L.; Efstathiou, J. A.; Lu, H.-M.

    2017-03-01

    Proton therapy of prostate by anterior beams could offer an attractive option for treating patients with hip prosthesis and limiting the high-dose exposure to the rectum. We investigated the impact of setup and anatomy variations on the anterior-oblique (AO) proton plan dose, and strategies to manage these effects via range verification and adaptive delivery. Ten patients treated by bilateral (BL) passive-scattering proton therapy (79.2 Gy in 44 fractions) who underwent weekly verification CT scans were selected. Plans with AO beams were additionally created. To isolate the effect of daily variations, initial AO plans did not include range uncertainty margins. The use of fixed planning margins and adaptive range adjustments to manage these effects was investigated. For each case, the planned dose was recalculated on weekly CTs, and accumulated on the simulation CT using deformable registration to approximate the delivered dose. Planned and accumulated doses were compared for each scenario to quantify dose deviations induced by variations. The possibility of estimating the necessary range adjustments before each treatment was explored by simulating the procedure of a diode-based in vivo range verification technique, which would potentially be used clinically. The average planned rectum, penile bulb and femoral heads mean doses were smaller for initial AO compared to BL plans (by 8.3, 16.1 and 25.9 Gy, respectively). After considering interfractional variations in AO plans, the target coverage was substantially reduced. The maximum reduction of V 79.2/D 95/D mean/EUD for AO (without distal margins) (25.3%/10.7/1.6/4.9 Gy, respectively) was considerably larger than BL plans. The loss of coverage was mainly related to changes in water equivalent path length of the prostate after fiducial-based setup, caused by discrepancies in patient anterior surface and bony-anatomy alignment. Target coverage was recovered partially when using fixed planning margins, and fully when

  6. Sunspot random walk and 22-year variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, E. Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We examine two stochastic models for consistency with observed long-term secular trends in sunspot number and a faint, but semi-persistent, 22-yr signal: (1) a null hypothesis, a simple one-parameter random-walk model of sunspot-number cycle-to-cycle change, and, (2) an alternative hypothesis, a two-parameter random-walk model with an imposed 22-yr alternating amplitude. The observed secular trend in sunspots, seen from solar cycle 5 to 23, would not be an unlikely result of the accumulation of multiple random-walk steps. Statistical tests show that a 22-yr signal can be resolved in historical sunspot data; that is, the probability is low that it would be realized from random data. On the other hand, the 22-yr signal has a small amplitude compared to random variation, and so it has a relatively small effect on sunspot predictions. Many published predictions for cycle 24 sunspots fall within the dispersion of previous cycle-to-cycle sunspot differences. The probability is low that the Sun will, with the accumulation of random steps over the next few cycles, walk down to a Dalton-like minimum. Our models support published interpretations of sunspot secular variation and 22-yr variation resulting from cycle-to-cycle accumulation of dynamo-generated magnetic energy.

  7. Evaluation of RayStation robust optimisation for superficial target coverage with setup variation in breast IMRT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Mikel; Hu, Yunfei; Archibald-Heeren, Ben

    2016-09-01

    When planning breast IMRT, the distance of the CTV from the patient external surface is often less than the PTV margin required, presenting difficulties for ensuring CTV coverage. Several techniques have been proposed to ensure coverage in this scenario, one of which is robust optimisation; a technique that simultaneously optimises a plan in multiple geometries representing the worst case setup error expected. A range of plans were created utilising opposed tangential beams and these differing planning techniques, and were delivered and computed at 5 and 10 mm offsets perpendicular to the beam axes. The accuracy of dose computation was verified with a scintillator and film, and the surface dose coverage was evaluated for each of the plans in the offset positions. When 10 mm robust optimisation was used the CTV minimum, maximum and mean dose at the 5 and 10 mm offset locations were all within 3 % of those at the no offset setup. Robust optimisation was found to be comparable to other established planning methods for ensuring coverage of the breast CTV with setup variations.

  8. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-09-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the necessity to specify a priori a fixed number of hidden states available but also of the problem of overfitting. Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling algorithms are often employed for inference in such models. However, convergence of such algorithms is rather difficult to verify, and as the complexity of the task at hand increases the computational cost of such algorithms often becomes prohibitive. These limitations can be overcome by variational techniques. In this paper, we present a generalized framework for infinite HCRF models, and a novel variational inference approach on a model based on coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures, the HCRF-DPM. We show that the variational HCRF-DPM is able to converge to a correct number of represented hidden states, and performs as well as the best parametric HCRFs-chosen via cross-validation-for the difficult tasks of recognizing instances of agreement, disagreement, and pain in audiovisual sequences.

  9. Energy loss and set-up due to breaking random waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Janssen, J.P.F.M.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a model developed for the prediction of the dissipation of energy in random waves breaking on a beach. The dissipation rate per breaking wave is estimated from that in a bore of corresponding height, while the probability of occurrence of breaking waves is estimated on the

  10. Anesthesia machine checkout and room setup: a randomized, single-blind, comparison of two teaching modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spofford, Christina M; Bayman, Emine O; Szeluga, Debra J; From, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods for teaching are needed to enhance the efficiency of academic anesthesia departments as well as provide approaches to learning that are aligned with current trends and advances in technology. A video was produced that taught the key elements of anesthesia machine checkout and room set up. Novice learners were randomly assigned to receive either the new video format or traditional lecture-based format for this topic during their regularly scheduled lecture series. Primary outcome was the difference in written examination score before and after teaching between the two groups. Secondary outcome was the satisfaction score of the trainees in the two groups. Forty-two students assigned to the video group and 36 students assigned to the lecture group completed the study. Students in each group similar interest in anesthesia, pre-test scores, post-test scores, and final exam scores. The median posttest to pretest difference was greater in the video groups (3.5 (3.0-5.0) vs 2.5 (2.0-3.0), for video and lecture groups respectively, p 0.002). Despite improved test scores, students reported higher satisfaction the traditional, lecture-based format (22.0 (18.0-24.0) vs 24.0 (20.0-28.0), for video and lecture groups respectively, p teaching group, however students rated traditional, live lectures higher than newer video-based teaching.

  11. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  12. Variational data assimilation using targetted random walks

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, S. L.

    2011-02-15

    The variational approach to data assimilation is a widely used methodology for both online prediction and for reanalysis. In either of these scenarios, it can be important to assess uncertainties in the assimilated state. Ideally, it is desirable to have complete information concerning the Bayesian posterior distribution for unknown state given data. We show that complete computational probing of this posterior distribution is now within the reach in the offline situation. We introduce a Markov chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) method which enables us to directly sample from the Bayesian posterior distribution on the unknown functions of interest given observations. Since we are aware that these methods are currently too computationally expensive to consider using in an online filtering scenario, we frame this in the context of offline reanalysis. Using a simple random walk-type MCMC method, we are able to characterize the posterior distribution using only evaluations of the forward model of the problem, and of the model and data mismatch. No adjoint model is required for the method we use; however, more sophisticated MCMC methods are available which exploit derivative information. For simplicity of exposition, we consider the problem of assimilating data, either Eulerian or Lagrangian, into a low Reynolds number flow in a two-dimensional periodic geometry. We will show that in many cases it is possible to recover the initial condition and model error (which we describe as unknown forcing to the model) from data, and that with increasing amounts of informative data, the uncertainty in our estimations reduces. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Variational Infinite Hidden Conditional Random Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, Konstantinos; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Zoubin

    2015-01-01

    Hidden conditional random fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An Infinite hidden conditional random field is a hidden conditional random field with a countably infinite number of

  14. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography–Guided Positioning of Laryngeal Cancer Patients with Large Interfraction Time Trends in Setup and Nonrigid Anatomy Variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangsaas, Anne, E-mail: a.gangsaas@erasmusmc.nl; Astreinidou, Eleftheria; Quint, Sandra; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To investigate interfraction setup variations of the primary tumor, elective nodes, and vertebrae in laryngeal cancer patients and to validate protocols for cone beam computed tomography (CBCT)-guided correction. Methods and Materials: For 30 patients, CBCT-measured displacements in fractionated treatments were used to investigate population setup errors and to simulate residual setup errors for the no action level (NAL) offline protocol, the extended NAL (eNAL) protocol, and daily CBCT acquisition with online analysis and repositioning. Results: Without corrections, 12 of 26 patients treated with radical radiation therapy would have experienced a gradual change (time trend) in primary tumor setup ≥4 mm in the craniocaudal (CC) direction during the fractionated treatment (11/12 in caudal direction, maximum 11 mm). Due to these trends, correction of primary tumor displacements with NAL resulted in large residual CC errors (required margin 6.7 mm). With the weekly correction vector adjustments in eNAL, the trends could be largely compensated (CC margin 3.5 mm). Correlation between movements of the primary and nodal clinical target volumes (CTVs) in the CC direction was poor (r{sup 2}=0.15). Therefore, even with online setup corrections of the primary CTV, the required CC margin for the nodal CTV was as large as 6.8 mm. Also for the vertebrae, large time trends were observed for some patients. Because of poor CC correlation (r{sup 2}=0.19) between displacements of the primary CTV and the vertebrae, even with daily online repositioning of the vertebrae, the required CC margin around the primary CTV was 6.9 mm. Conclusions: Laryngeal cancer patients showed substantial interfraction setup variations, including large time trends, and poor CC correlation between primary tumor displacements and motion of the nodes and vertebrae (internal tumor motion). These trends and nonrigid anatomy variations have to be considered in the choice of setup verification protocol

  15. Experimental setup and commissioning baseline study in search of time-variations in beta-decay half-lives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, Braden, E-mail: goddard.braden@gmail.com [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Hitt, George W. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Solodov, Alexander A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Bridi, Dorian; Isakovic, A.F. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); El-Khazali, Reyad [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Abulail, Ayman, E-mail: aabulail@pi.ac.ae [Department of Applied Mathematics and Science, Khalifa University of Science, Technology & Research, P.O. Box 127788, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-03-11

    Recently there have been a number of investigations into whether the decay constant of a radioactive isotope can be influenced by external factors, such as the Earth–Sun distance or Solar flare activity. Positive claims suggest that annual oscillations of ~0.1% and accelerations of ~0.4% in the relative activity of beta-emitters coincide with the Earth–Sun distance and solar flare activity, respectively. Results from replication experiments have so far been conflicting. The main criticism of the measurements used to trace and quantify these effects is that the data is of poor quality or limited in scope. Data have often been collected as part of short duration weekly calibration measurements, measured with a single type of low precision detector, only using one isotope, and having no environmental conditions information (temperature, pressure, humidity) accompanying the radiation measurements. This paper describes the setup of a series of counting experiments commissioned for addressing these criticisms. Six dedicated detector systems (four different types) measuring six different isotopes ({sup 14}C, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 204}Tl, and {sup 226}Ra) have been continuously collecting source activity synchronously with environmental data for a period of one month (April 2014). The results of this baseline commissioning study show that there are correlations between activity and environmental conditions for some detector types which are then quantified. The results also show that the one sigma counting uncertainties in all the detectors are less than 0.024% for a given 24 h period. After accounting for propagated uncertainties from corrections against correlations with environmental data, the ability to resolve 0.1% activity changes varies, from 8 min to 1.6 days, depending on the specific detector. All six experiments therefore, will have sufficient precision over the upcoming year to scrutinize claims of both annual activity oscillations and

  16. Manifolds in random media: beyond the variational approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschmidt, Yadin Y.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we give a closed form expression for the 1/d corrections to the selfenergy characterizing the correlation function of a manifold in random media. This amounts to the first confection beyond the variational approximation. At this time we were able to evaluate these corrections in the high temperature "phase" of the notorious toy-model describing a classical particle subject to the influence of both a harmonic potential and a random potential. Although in this phase the correct solution is replica symmetric the calculation is non-trivial. The outcome is compared with previous analytical and numerical results. The corrections diverge at the "transition" temperature.

  17. Random noise attenuation using an improved anisotropic total variation regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Diriba; Yuan, Huan; Ma, Jianwei

    2017-09-01

    In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise from the observed data is the basic step which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of seismic data. In this paper, we proposed an anisotropic total bounded variation regularization approach to attenuate noise. An improved constraint convex optimization model is formulated for this approach and then the split Bregman algorithm is used to solve the optimization model. Generalized cross validation (GCV) technique is used to estimate the regularization parameter. Synthetic and real seismic data are considered to show the out performance of the proposed method in terms of event-preserving denoising, in comparison with FX deconvolution, shearlet hard thresholding, and anisotropic total variation methods. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method effectively attenuates random noise by preserving the structure and important features of seismic data.

  18. setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesandro Antônio Baptista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work the authors proposed a model suitable for reducing the number of cutting tools required for machining in factory environments, where production lots consisting of a small number of pieces of different materials and geometries were optimized. The model, although yielding good results in simulations, lacked a practical application. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and provide any needed modifications of the optimization model and then validate the more recent one using data obtained from its practical implementation in the shop floor of an industry that operates using flexible machining practices. This implementation is important to allow the identification of other situations that were not perceived in simulation, such as the variation in cutting tool life. The results show that the model can be successfully applied to flexible manufacturing environments.

  19. Variational Calculation of Effective Parameters in Random Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T.; Christakos, George

    1998-03-01

    Effective parameters are used in stochastic hydrology and petroleum engineering as estimates of the coarse-grained behavior of fluid flow and transport. Stochastic effective parameter estimation involves averaging over the local heterogeneity. Explicit evaluation methods are often based on low order perturbation expansions. We obtain more general estimates using a variational scheme that employs auxiliary probability measures. The average over the local fluctuations is evaluated by means of the logarithm transform and the replica trick. The equations satisfied by the effective parameters are obtained variationally from an effective free energy functional. We use this method for the evaluation of the effective permeability of random porous media with Gaussian local fluctuations. The resulting equations are solved explicitly in specific cases, and the results are compared with leading-order perturbation estimates and experimental data. Explicit finite-size expressions are obtained using momentum-space filters. The implications of the finite size behavior for the scaleup problem are discussed.

  20. Random matrix approach to the dynamics of stock inventory variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei-Xing; Mu, Guo-Hua; Kertész, János

    2012-09-01

    It is well accepted that investors can be classified into groups owing to distinct trading strategies, which forms the basic assumption of many agent-based models for financial markets when agents are not zero-intelligent. However, empirical tests of these assumptions are still very rare due to the lack of order flow data. Here we adopt the order flow data of Chinese stocks to tackle this problem by investigating the dynamics of inventory variations for individual and institutional investors that contain rich information about the trading behavior of investors and have a crucial influence on price fluctuations. We find that the distributions of cross-correlation coefficient Cij have power-law forms in the bulk that are followed by exponential tails, and there are more positive coefficients than negative ones. In addition, it is more likely that two individuals or two institutions have a stronger inventory variation correlation than one individual and one institution. We find that the largest and the second largest eigenvalues (λ1 and λ2) of the correlation matrix cannot be explained by random matrix theory and the projections of investors' inventory variations on the first eigenvector u(λ1) are linearly correlated with stock returns, where individual investors play a dominating role. The investors are classified into three categories based on the cross-correlation coefficients CV R between inventory variations and stock returns. A strong Granger causality is unveiled from stock returns to inventory variations, which means that a large proportion of individuals hold the reversing trading strategy and a small part of individuals hold the trending strategy. Our empirical findings have scientific significance in the understanding of investors' trading behavior and in the construction of agent-based models for emerging stock markets.

  1. Seismic random noise attenuation using shearlet and total generalized variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Dehui; Peng, Zhenming

    2015-12-01

    Seismic denoising from a corrupted observation is an important part of seismic data processing which improves the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and resolution. In this paper, we present an effective denoising method to attenuate seismic random noise. The method takes advantage of shearlet and total generalized variation (TGV) regularization. Different regularity levels of TGV improve the quality of the final result by suppressing Gibbs artifacts caused by the shearlet. The problem is formulated as mixed constraints in a convex optimization. A Bregman algorithm is proposed to solve the proposed model. Extensive experiments based on one synthetic datum and two post-stack field data are done to compare performance. The results demonstrate that the proposed method provides superior effectiveness and preserve the structure better.

  2. Application of variational mode decomposition to seismic random noise reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Cao, Siyuan; Wang, Zhiming

    2017-08-01

    We have proposed a new denoising method for the simultaneous noise reduction and preservation of seismic signals based on variational mode decomposition (VMD). VMD is a recently developed adaptive signal decomposition method and an advance in non-stationary signal analysis. It solves the mode-mixing and non-optimal reconstruction performance problems of empirical mode decomposition that have existed for a long time. By using VMD, a multi-component signal can be non-recursively decomposed into a series of quasi-orthogonal intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), each of which has a relatively local frequency range. Meanwhile, the signal will focus on a smaller number of obtained IMFs after decomposition, and thus the denoised result is able to be obtained by reconstructing these signal-dominant IMFs. Synthetic examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison is made with the complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition, which demonstrates that the VMD algorithm has lower computational cost and better random noise elimination performance. The application of on field seismic data further illustrates the superior performance of our method in both random noise attenuation and the recovery of seismic events.

  3. Setup planning for machining

    CERN Document Server

    Hazarika, Manjuri

    2015-01-01

    Professionals as well as researchers can benefit from this comprehensive introduction into the topic of setup planning, which reflects the latest state of research and gives hands-on examples. Starting with a brief but thorough introduction, this book explains the significance of setup planning in process planning and includes a reflection on its external constraints. Step-by-step the different phases of setup planning are outlined and traditional as well as modern approaches, such as fuzzy logic based setup planning, on the solution of setup planning problems are presented. Three detailed examples of applications provide a clear and accessible insight into the up-to-date techniques and various approaches in setup planning.

  4. Implications of random variation in the Stand Prognosis Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Hamilton

    1991-01-01

    Although the Stand Prognosis Model has several stochastic components, features have been included in the model in an attempt to minimize run-to-run variation attributable to these stochastic components. This has led many users to assume that comparisons of management alternatives could be made based on a single run of the model for each alternative. Recent analyses...

  5. Variational Hidden Conditional Random Fields with Coupled Dirichlet Process Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousmalis, K.; Zafeiriou, S.; Morency, L.P.; Pantic, Maja; Ghahramani, Z.

    Hidden Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs) are discriminative latent variable models which have been shown to successfully learn the hidden structure of a given classification problem. An infinite HCRF is an HCRF with a countably infinite number of hidden states, which rids us not only of the

  6. Policies Affect Preferences: Evidence from Random Variation in Abortion Jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Daniel L.; Levonyan, Vardges; Yeh, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Whether policies shift preferences is relevant to policy design. We exploit the random assignment of U.S. federal judges creating geographically local precedent and the fact that judges’ politics, religion, and race predict decision-making in abortion jurisprudence. Instrumenting for abortion jurisprudence with exogenous judicial characteristics, we estimate the impact of abortion jurisprudence on state laws, campaign donations, and abortion attitudes. We verify information transmission in th...

  7. The virtual slice setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  8. Improved mortar setup technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available 2008 Brisbane October 2008 Improved mortar setup technique Danie de Villiers CSIR, Defence Piece Safety and Security program ABSTRACT Mortars will still play an important roll in modern warfare. This paper describes a unique way... of mirror R – right side of mirror F – front side of mirror B – back side of mirror After setup the mortar will be in front of the mirror and the target at the back of the mirror. On the dial are three marks to be used when reading the bearing value...

  9. Noninferiority, randomized, controlled trial comparing embryo development using media developed for sequential or undisturbed culture in a time-lapse setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardarson, Thorir; Bungum, Mona; Conaghan, Joe; Meintjes, Marius; Chantilis, Samuel J; Molnar, Laszlo; Gunnarsson, Kristina; Wikland, Matts

    2015-12-01

    To study whether a culture medium that allows undisturbed culture supports human embryo development to the blastocyst stage equivalently to a well-established sequential media. Randomized, double-blinded sibling trial. Independent in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. One hundred twenty-eight patients, with 1,356 zygotes randomized into two study arms. Embryos randomly allocated into two study arms to compare embryo development on a time-lapse system using a single-step medium or sequential media. Percentage of good-quality blastocysts on day 5. Percentage of day 5 good-quality blastocysts was 21.1% (standard deviation [SD] ± 21.6%) and 22.2% (SD ± 22.1%) in the single-step time-lapse medium (G-TL) and the sequential media (G-1/G-2) groups, respectively. The mean difference (-1.2; 95% CI, -6.0; 3.6) between the two media systems for the primary end point was less than the noninferiority margin of -8%. There was a statistically significantly lower number of good-quality embryos on day 3 in the G-TL group [50.7% (SD ± 30.6%) vs. 60.8% (SD ± 30.7%)]. Four out of the 11 measured morphokinetic parameters were statistically significantly different for the two media used. The mean levels of ammonium concentration in the media at the end of the culture period was statistically significantly lower in the G-TL group as compared with the G-2 group. We have shown that a single-step culture medium supports blastocyst development equivalently to established sequential media. The ammonium concentrations were lower in the single-step media, and the measured morphokinetic parameters were modified somewhat. NCT01939626. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A practical guide and power analysis for GLMMs: detecting among treatment variation in random effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, Morgan P; Bolker, Ben M; McCoy, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    In ecology and evolution generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) are becoming increasingly used to test for differences in variation by treatment at multiple hierarchical levels. Yet, the specific sampling schemes that optimize the power of an experiment to detect differences in random effects by treatment/group remain unknown. In this paper we develop a blueprint for conducting power analyses for GLMMs focusing on detecting differences in variance by treatment. We present parameterization and power analyses for random-intercepts and random-slopes GLMMs because of their generality as focal parameters for most applications and because of their immediate applicability to emerging questions in the field of behavioral ecology. We focus on the extreme case of hierarchically structured binomial data, though the framework presented here generalizes easily to any error distribution model. First, we determine the optimal ratio of individuals to repeated measures within individuals that maximizes power to detect differences by treatment in among-individual variation in intercept, among-individual variation in slope, and within-individual variation in intercept. Second, we explore how power to detect differences in target variance parameters is affected by total variation. Our results indicate heterogeneity in power across ratios of individuals to repeated measures with an optimal ratio determined by both the target variance parameter and total sample size. Additionally, power to detect each variance parameter was low overall (in most cases >1,000 total observations per treatment needed to achieve 80% power) and decreased with increasing variance in non-target random effects. With growing interest in variance as the parameter of inquiry, these power analyses provide a crucial component for designing experiments focused on detecting differences in variance. We hope to inspire novel experimental designs in ecology and evolution investigating the causes and implications of

  11. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksomaa, Marko, E-mail: marko.laaksomaa@pshp.fi [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Kapanen, Mika [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Tulijoki, Tapio [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ≤ 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ≤ 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients.

  12. A modern theory of random variation with applications in stochastic calculus, financial mathematics, and Feynman integration

    CERN Document Server

    Muldowney, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    A Modern Theory of Random Variation is a new and radical re-formulation of the mathematical underpinnings of subjects as diverse as investment, communication engineering, and quantum mechanics. Setting aside the classical theory of probability measure spaces, the book utilizes a mathematically rigorous version of the theory of random variation that bases itself exclusively on finitely additive probability distribution functions. In place of twentieth century Lebesgue integration and measure theory, the author uses the simpler concept of Riemann sums, and the non-absolute Riemann-type integration of Henstock. Readers are supplied with an accessible approach to standard elements of probability theory such as the central limmit theorem and Brownian motion as well as remarkable, new results on Feynman diagrams and stochastic integrals. Throughout the book, detailed numerical demonstrations accompany the discussions of abstract mathematical theory, from the simplest elements of the subject to the most complex. I...

  13. Changes in quality of life from a homelessness intervention: true change, response shift, or random variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Guido Antonio; Adair, Carol E; Streiner, David L; Mayo, Nancy; Latimer, Eric

    2017-07-01

    Participants experiencing homelessness and mental illness who received housing and support through the At Home/Chez Soi trial showed modest gains in quality of life (QOL) compared to treatment as usual participants. Participants' QOL ratings over time may have been affected by either response shift triggered by new life circumstances or by random variation in the meaning of QOL ratings. This study seeks to identify both phenomena to estimate the intervention's effect on true change in QOL. Using the residuals from a regression model of the global item of Lehman's 20-item quality of life interview (QOLI-20), latent trajectory analysis was used to identify response shift, while a measure of overall variability in residuals identified random variation of QOL. The latter was used to adjust group comparisons of QOLI-20 total scores and the global item. Equivalent distributions of both groups' participants across latent trajectory classes (χ 2  = 2.97, p = .397) suggest that the intervention did not trigger response shift. However, random variation interacted significantly with the treatment effect on global item ratings. For every increase of one standard deviation of residuals, treatment odds ratios decreased by a factor of 0.70 (SE 1.18, p = .036, 95% CI 0.50-0.98). Measuring random variation in QOL ratings from the standard deviation of residuals offers the ability to approximate, although indirectly, how participants' QOL is truly affected by a housing intervention. Specifically, we found that QOL improvement is more evident when QOL ratings have a consistent meaning over time.

  14. Bayesian and variational Bayesian approaches for flows in heterogeneous random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Keren; Guha, Nilabja; Efendiev, Yalchin; Mallick, Bani K.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study porous media flows in heterogeneous stochastic media. We propose an efficient forward simulation technique that is tailored for variational Bayesian inversion. As a starting point, the proposed forward simulation technique decomposes the solution into the sum of separable functions (with respect to randomness and the space), where each term is calculated based on a variational approach. This is similar to Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD). Next, we apply a multiscale technique to solve for each term (as in [1]) and, further, decompose the random function into 1D fields. As a result, our proposed method provides an approximation hierarchy for the solution as we increase the number of terms in the expansion and, also, increase the spatial resolution of each term. We use the hierarchical solution distributions in a variational Bayesian approximation to perform uncertainty quantification in the inverse problem. We conduct a detailed numerical study to explore the performance of the proposed uncertainty quantification technique and show the theoretical posterior concentration.

  15. Superresolution with compound Markov random fields via the variational EM algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemura, Atsunori; Maeda, Shin-ichi; Ishii, Shin

    2009-09-01

    This study deals with a reconstruction-type superresolution problem and the accompanying image registration problem simultaneously. We propose a Bayesian approach in which the prior is modeled as a compound Gaussian Markov random field (MRF) and marginalization is performed over unknown variables to avoid overfitting. Our algorithm not only avoids overfitting, but also preserves discontinuity in the estimated image, unlike existing single-layer Gaussian MRF models for Bayesian superresolution. Maximum-marginal-likelihood estimation of the registration parameters is carried out using a variational EM algorithm where hidden variables are marginalized out, and the posterior distribution is variationally approximated by a factorized trial distribution. High-resolution image estimates are obtained through the process of posterior computation in the EM algorithm. Experiments show that our Bayesian approach with the two-layer compound model exhibits better performance both in quantitative measures and visual quality than the single-layer model.

  16. Novel Complete Probabilistic Models of Random Variation in High Frequency Performance of Nanoscale MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawid Banchuin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The novel probabilistic models of the random variations in nanoscale MOSFET's high frequency performance defined in terms of gate capacitance and transition frequency have been proposed. As the transition frequency variation has also been considered, the proposed models are considered as complete unlike the previous one which take only the gate capacitance variation into account. The proposed models have been found to be both analytic and physical level oriented as they are the precise mathematical expressions in terms of physical parameters. Since the up-to-date model of variation in MOSFET's characteristic induced by physical level fluctuation has been used, part of the proposed models for gate capacitance is more accurate and physical level oriented than its predecessor. The proposed models have been verified based on the 65 nm CMOS technology by using the Monte-Carlo SPICE simulations of benchmark circuits and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests as highly accurate since they fit the Monte-Carlo-based analysis results with 99% confidence. Hence, these novel models have been found to be versatile for the statistical/variability aware analysis/design of nanoscale MOSFET-based analog/mixed signal circuits and systems.

  17. Server farms with setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandhi, A.; Harchol-Balter, M.; Adan, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider server farms with a setup cost. This model is common in manufacturing systems and data centers, where there is a cost to turn servers on. Setup costs always take the form of a time delay, and sometimes there is additionally a power penalty, as in the case of data centers.

  18. Setup in the Surfzone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, 41 pp., 1989. Dally, W.R., R.G. Dean , and R.A. Dalrymple , Wave height variation across beaches of arbitrary profile, J...for Distribution: Depar ent of AppliedOcean ysics and Engineering Paola Malanotte-Rizzoli James A. Yoder MIT Director of Joint Program WHOI Dean of...2002JC00 1355, 2003. 20 Hailer, M.C., R.A. Dalrymple , I.A. Svendsen, Experimental study of nearshore dynamics on a barred beach with rip channels, J

  19. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. METHODS: We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled...... trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting 'critically important' and 'important' outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting.......6%, 40/66), were the commonly reported 'critically important' outcomes. Gestational weight gain (84.5%, 56/66) and birth weight (87.9%, 58/66) were reported in most papers, although not considered critically important. The median quality of reporting was 0.60 (interquartile range 0.25, 0...

  20. Correlation between static random access memory power-up state and transistor variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kiyoshi; Mizutani, Tomoko; Saraya, Takuya; Shinohara, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Hiramoto, Toshiro

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the static random access memory (SRAM) power-up state (i.e., state 0 or 1 immediately after the power supply is turned on) and cell transistor variation is systematically studied by circuit simulations and mismatch space partitioning. It is revealed that, while both the mismatches of pFETs (pull-up) and nFETs (pull-down and access) contribute, their relative importance changes depending on the voltage ramping speed. The static retention noise margin well correlates with the power-up state only if the ramping speed is sufficiently low. Otherwise, pull-up transistor mismatch dominates the power-up state determination owing to the interference of capacitive current and asymmetrical capacitive coupling of the storage nodes to the ground and power supply.

  1. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and variation of essential oil components of Atractylodes plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohjyouma, M; Nakajima, S; Namera, A; Shimizu, R; Mizukami, H; Kohda, H

    1997-05-01

    Total DNAs were prepared from the leaves of Atractylodes lancea DE CANDOLLE, A. chinensis KOIDZUMI, A. lancea var. simplicifolia KITAMURA, A. japonica KOIDZUMI ex KITAMURA and A. ovata DE CANDOLLE. The DNAs were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. Some primers showed the definitive polymorphic DNA patterns in A. lancea, A. japonica and A. ovata. The RAPD of A. lancea var. simplicifolia and one of A. chinensis gave similar patterns to those of A. lancea, but one of the other A. chinensis gave a similar pattern to A. japonica. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of atractylon, hinesol, beta-eudesmol and atractylodin in the rhizomes was done using gas chromatography. Though atractylon was detected not only in A. japonica and A. ovata but also in some of A. lancea, their RAPD profiles revealed the presence of intraspecific variation with A. lancea.

  2. Quasi optimal and adaptive sparse grids with control variates for PDEs with random diffusion coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Tamellini, Lorenzo

    2016-01-05

    In this talk we discuss possible strategies to minimize the impact of the curse of dimensionality effect when building sparse-grid approximations of a multivariate function u = u(y1, ..., yN ). More precisely, we present a knapsack approach , in which we estimate the cost and the error reduction contribution of each possible component of the sparse grid, and then we choose the components with the highest error reduction /cost ratio. The estimates of the error reduction are obtained by either a mixed a-priori / a-posteriori approach, in which we first derive a theoretical bound and then tune it with some inexpensive auxiliary computations (resulting in the so-called quasi-optimal sparse grids ), or by a fully a-posteriori approach (obtaining the so-called adaptive sparse grids ). This framework is very general and can be used to build quasi-optimal/adaptive sparse grids on bounded and unbounded domains (e.g. u depending on uniform and normal random distributions for yn), using both nested and non-nested families of univariate collocation points. We present some theoretical convergence results as well as numerical results showing the efficiency of the proposed approach for the approximation of the solution of elliptic PDEs with random diffusion coefficients. In this context, to treat the case of rough permeability fields in which a sparse grid approach may not be suitable, we propose to use the sparse grids as a control variate in a Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    in fifteen bulls, steers and heifers, respectively, fed a complete diet ad libitum. The diet was based on chopped straw formulated to secure physical regulation of feed intake. Total random variation of recorded VDMI corresponded to a coefficient of variation (CV) of 24.6%. Two thirds of this variation...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  4. Design of Energy Aware Adder Circuits Considering Random Intra-Die Process Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Lanuzza

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is one of the main barriers to current high-performance designs. Moreover, the increased variability experienced in advanced process technologies implies further timing yield concerns and therefore intensifies this obstacle. Thus, proper techniques to achieve robust designs are a critical requirement for integrated circuit success. In this paper, the influence of intra-die random process variations is analyzed considering the particular case of the design of energy aware adder circuits. Five well known adder circuits were designed exploiting an industrial 45 nm static complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS standard cell library. The designed adders were comparatively evaluated under different energy constraints. As a main result, the performed analysis demonstrates that, for a given energy budget, simpler circuits (which are conventionally identified as low-energy slow architectures operating at higher power supply voltages can achieve a timing yield significantly better than more complex faster adders when used in low-power design with supply voltages lower than nominal.

  5. Reproductive Fitness and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Variation among Isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinochet, P; Cenis, J L; Fernández, C; Doucet, M; Maruli, J

    1994-09-01

    The reproductive fitness of seven isolates of Pratylenchus vulnus from different geographical areas and hosts was assessed in monoxenic cultures (carrot), and greenhouse cultures (plum, sour orange, and quince). The genetic makeup of the different isolates was compared by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR). The apple (PvAP-S) and apricot (PvAT-F) isolates reproduced less in monoxenic cultures than the rose (PvRO-S) and walnut (PvWA-A and PvWA-U) isolates. On plum, the rose isolate (PvRO-S) reproduced better than the apple (PvAP-S) and walnut isolate from the United States (PvWA-U). On sour orange, the apple (PvAP-S), unknown origin (PvU-UK), and walnut isolate from Argentina (PvWA-A) multiplied well, whereas the walnut isolate from the United States (PvWA-U), apricot (PvAT-F), and rose (PvRO-S) did not. On quince, the apple (PvAP-S) and walnut (PvWA-U) isolates showed a higher reproduction than the one from unknown origin (PvU-UK). RAPD-PCR patterns among the seven P. vulnus isolates were similar, although high intraspecific varibility was detected. Very few bands of P. neglectus were shared by any population of P. vulnus. A high degree of similarity was found among the patterns corresponding to the rose (PvRO-S), apple (PvAP-S), walnut from the United States (PvWA-U), and unknown origin (PvUK-U) isolates. The apricot isolate (PvAT-F) was the most dissimilar among the seven isolates. No correlation could be established between the genetic variation of P. vulnus detected by RAPD-PCR and reproductive fitness. Results demonstrate high genetic varibility between geographically separated populations of P. vulnus.

  6. Random phenotypic variation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) single-gene knockouts fits a double pareto-lognormal distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John H; Robb, Daniel T; Poe, Amy R

    2012-01-01

    Distributed robustness is thought to influence the buffering of random phenotypic variation through the scale-free topology of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. If this hypothesis is true, then the phenotypic response to the perturbation of particular nodes in such a network should be proportional to the number of links those nodes make with neighboring nodes. This suggests a probability distribution approximating an inverse power-law of random phenotypic variation. Zero phenotypic variation, however, is impossible, because random molecular and cellular processes are essential to normal development. Consequently, a more realistic distribution should have a y-intercept close to zero in the lower tail, a mode greater than zero, and a long (fat) upper tail. The double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution is an ideal candidate distribution. It consists of a mixture of a lognormal body and upper and lower power-law tails. If our assumptions are true, the DPLN distribution should provide a better fit to random phenotypic variation in a large series of single-gene knockout lines than other skewed or symmetrical distributions. We fit a large published data set of single-gene knockout lines in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to seven different probability distributions: DPLN, right Pareto-lognormal (RPLN), left Pareto-lognormal (LPLN), normal, lognormal, exponential, and Pareto. The best model was judged by the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Phenotypic variation among gene knockouts in S. cerevisiae fits a double Pareto-lognormal (DPLN) distribution better than any of the alternative distributions, including the right Pareto-lognormal and lognormal distributions. A DPLN distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that developmental stability is mediated, in part, by distributed robustness, the resilience of gene regulatory, metabolic, and protein-protein interaction networks. Alternatively, multiplicative cell growth, and the mixing of

  7. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  8. Racial variation in treatment preferences and willingness to randomize in the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arega, Addisalem; Birkmeyer, Nancy J O; Lurie, Jon D N; Tosteson, Tor; Gibson, Jennifer; Taylor, Brett A; Morgan, Tamara Shawver; Weinstein, James N

    2006-09-01

    Analysis of baseline data for patients enrolled in Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT), a project conducting three randomized and three observational cohort studies of surgical and nonoperative treatments for intervertebral disc herniation (IDH), spinal stenosis (SpS), and degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). To explore racial variation in treatment preferences and willingness to be randomized. Increasing minority participation in research has been a priority at the NIH. Prior studies have documented lower rates of participation in research and preferences for invasive treatment among African-Americans. Patients enrolled in SPORT (March 2000 to February 2005) that reported data on their race (n = 2,323) were classified as White (87%), Black (8%), or Other (5%). Treatment preferences (nonoperative, unsure, surgical), and willingness to be randomized were compared among these groups while controlling for baseline differences using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS.: There were numerous significant differences in baseline characteristics among the racial groups. Following adjustment for these differences, Blacks remained less likely to prefer surgical treatment among both IDH (White, 55%; Black, 37%; Other, 55%, P = 0.023) and SpS/DS (White, 46%; Black, 30%; Other, 43%; P = 0.017) patients. Higher randomization rates among Black IDH patients (46% vs. 30%) were no longer significant following adjustment (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, P = 0.235). Treatment preference remained a strong independent predictor of randomization in multivariate analyses for both IDH (unsure OR = 3.88, P race and willingness to be randomized.

  9. Statistical Assessment of Proton Treatment Plans Under Setup and Range Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Peter C.; Cheung, Joey P.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Wei; Li, Heng; Mohan, Radhe; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method for quantifying the effect of setup errors and range uncertainties on dose distribution and dose–volume histogram using statistical parameters; and to assess existing planning practice in selected treatment sites under setup and range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Twenty passively scattered proton lung cancer plans, 10 prostate, and 1 brain cancer scanning-beam proton plan(s) were analyzed. To account for the dose under uncertainties, we performed a comprehensive simulation in which the dose was recalculated 600 times per given plan under the influence of random and systematic setup errors and proton range errors. On the basis of simulation results, we determined the probability of dose variations and calculated the expected values and standard deviations of dose–volume histograms. The uncertainties in dose were spatially visualized on the planning CT as a probability map of failure to target coverage or overdose of critical structures. Results: The expected value of target coverage under the uncertainties was consistently lower than that of the nominal value determined from the clinical target volume coverage without setup error or range uncertainty, with a mean difference of −1.1% (−0.9% for breath-hold), −0.3%, and −2.2% for lung, prostate, and a brain cases, respectively. The organs with most sensitive dose under uncertainties were esophagus and spinal cord for lung, rectum for prostate, and brain stem for brain cancer. Conclusions: A clinically feasible robustness plan analysis tool based on direct dose calculation and statistical simulation has been developed. Both the expectation value and standard deviation are useful to evaluate the impact of uncertainties. The existing proton beam planning method used in this institution seems to be adequate in terms of target coverage. However, structures that are small in volume or located near the target area showed greater sensitivity to uncertainties.

  10. Setup Analysis: Combining SMED with Other Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadnicka Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose the methodology for the setup analysis, which can be implemented mainly in small and medium enterprises which are not convinced to implement the setups development. The methodology was developed after the research which determined the problem. Companies still have difficulties with a long setup time. Many of them do nothing to decrease this time. A long setup is not a sufficient reason for companies to undertake any actions towards the setup time reduction. To encourage companies to implement SMED it is essential to make some analyses of changeovers in order to discover problems. The methodology proposed can really encourage the management to take a decision about the SMED implementation, and that was verified in a production company. The setup analysis methodology is made up of seven steps. Four of them concern a setups analysis in a chosen area of a company, such as a work stand which is a bottleneck with many setups. The goal is to convince the management to begin actions concerning the setups improvement. The last three steps are related to a certain setup and, there, the goal is to reduce a setup time and the risk of problems which can appear during the setup. In this paper, the tools such as SMED, Pareto analysis, statistical analysis, FMEA and other were used.

  11. Total variation regularization of the 3-D gravity inverse problem using a randomized generalized singular value decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatankhah, Saeed; Renaut, Rosemary A.; Ardestani, Vahid E.

    2018-01-01

    We present a fast algorithm for the total variation regularization of the 3-D gravity inverse problem. Through imposition of the total variation regularization, subsurface structures presenting with sharp discontinuities are preserved better than when using a conventional minimum-structure inversion. The associated problem formulation for the regularization is non linear but can be solved using an iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm. For small scale problems the regularized least squares problem at each iteration can be solved using the generalized singular value decomposition. This is not feasible for large, or even moderate, scale problems. Instead we introduce the use of a randomized generalized singular value decomposition in order to reduce the dimensions of the problem and provide an effective and efficient solution technique. For further efficiency an alternating direction algorithm is used to implement the total variation weighting operator within the iteratively reweighted least squares algorithm. Presented results for synthetic examples demonstrate that the novel randomized decomposition provides good accuracy for reduced computational and memory demands as compared to use of classical approaches.

  12. Engineering practice variation through provider agreement: a cluster-randomized feasibility trial

    OpenAIRE

    McCarren M; Twedt EL; Mansuri FM; Nelson PR; Peek BT

    2014-01-01

    Madeline McCarren,1 Elaine L Twedt,1 Faizmohamed M Mansuri,2 Philip R Nelson,3 Brian T Peek3 1Pharmacy Benefits Management Services, Department of Veterans Affairs, Hines, IL, 2Wilkes-Barre VA Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 3Charles George VA Medical Center, Asheville, NC, USA Purpose: Minimal-risk randomized trials that can be embedded in practice could facilitate learning health-care systems. A cluster-randomized design was proposed to compare treatment strategies by assigning clusters...

  13. Goal-directed intraoperative fluid therapy guided by stroke volume and its variation in high-risk surgical patients : a prospective randomized multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Wiesenack, Christoph; Gerlach, Herwig; Marx, Gernot

    Perioperative hemodynamic optimisation improves postoperative outcome for patients undergoing high-risk surgery (HRS). In this prospective randomized multicentre study we studied the effects of an individualized, goal-directed fluid management based on continuous stroke volume variation (SVV) and

  14. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Analysis-of-variance (anova)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The anova-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  15. Variational perturbation and extended Plefka approaches to dynamics on random networks: the case of the kinetic Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmid-Romano, L.; Battistin, C.; Opper, M.; Roudi, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mean field equations that are exact for the fully asymmetric random couplings (Mézard and Sakellariou 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 L07001). However, without this restriction the results are different. We also describe an extended Plefka expansion in which in addition to the magnetization, we also fix the correlation and response functions. Finally, we numerically study the performance of these approximations for Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type couplings for various coupling strengths and the degrees of coupling symmetry, for both temporally constant but random, as well as time varying external fields. We show that the dynamical equations derived from the extended Plefka expansion outperform the others in all regimes, although it is computationally more demanding. The unconstrained variational approach does not perform well in the small coupling regime, while it approaches dynamical TAP equations of (Roudi and Hertz 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 P03031) for strong couplings.

  16. Engineering practice variation through provider agreement: a cluster-randomized feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarren M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Madeline McCarren,1 Elaine L Twedt,1 Faizmohamed M Mansuri,2 Philip R Nelson,3 Brian T Peek3 1Pharmacy Benefits Management Services, Department of Veterans Affairs, Hines, IL, 2Wilkes-Barre VA Medical Center, Wilkes-Barre, PA, 3Charles George VA Medical Center, Asheville, NC, USA Purpose: Minimal-risk randomized trials that can be embedded in practice could facilitate learning health-care systems. A cluster-randomized design was proposed to compare treatment strategies by assigning clusters (eg, providers to “favor” a particular drug, with providers retaining autonomy for specific patients. Patient informed consent might be waived, broadening inclusion. However, it is not known if providers will adhere to the assignment or whether institutional review boards will waive consent. We evaluated the feasibility of this trial design.Subjects and methods: Agreeable providers were randomized to “favor” either hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone when starting patients on thiazide-type therapy for hypertension. The assignment applied when the provider had already decided to start a thiazide, and providers could deviate from the strategy as needed. Prescriptions were aggregated to produce a provider strategy-adherence rate.Results: All four institutional review boards waived documentation of patient consent. Providers (n=18 followed their assigned strategy for most of their new thiazide prescriptions (n=138 patients. In the “favor hydrochlorothiazide” group, there was 99% adherence to that strategy. In the “favor chlorthalidone” group, chlorthalidone comprised 77% of new thiazide starts, up from 1% in the pre-study period. When the assigned strategy was followed, dosing in the recommended range was 48% for hydrochlorothiazide (25–50 mg/day and 100% for chlorthalidone (12.5–25.0 mg/day. Providers were motivated to participate by a desire to contribute to a comparative effectiveness study. A study promotional mug, provider information

  17. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based on a ...

  18. Virtual setup: application in orthodontic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camardella, L.T.; Rothier, E.K.; Vilella, O.V.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Breuning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A plaster dental model is a patient's traditional three-dimensional (3D) record. If the dental crowns from a plaster model are separated and positioned in wax, this setup of the crowns can be used to simulate orthodontic treatment. The traditional way to make this dental setup requires

  19. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  20. Non-random seasonal variation in the structure of a Mediterranean snake community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Filippi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The community structure in relation to habitat type was studied in a Mediterranean community of snakes from Canale Monterano, central Italy. Habitat data for snakes were analysed both overall and divided by season, i.e. spring (April–June and summer (July–September. Community analyses were performed using null models (RA2 and RA3 algorithms and Monte Carlo simulations on habitat niche overlap estimates. Null models suggested that the community was assembled non-randomly (according to RA2 but not RA3, indicating that the generalist-specialist nature (the number of resource states, but not necessarily the types used by each species in the assemblage reduced ecological similarity. Similar results were reached also performing the same null model procedures on the spring datasets, whereas no structure emerged during summer either by RA2 or RA3 algorithms. In general, this study suggests that the community structure of snakes during spring may be shaped by the different eco-physiological needs of the various species (probably, the differential tolerance to cold and the consequent needs of finding suitable hibernacula, whereas the lack of structure during summer may be caused by the between-species similar foraging needs.

  1. A block variational procedure for the iterative diagonalization of non-Hermitian random-phase approximation matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Dario; Bai, Zhaojun; Li, Ren-Cang; Galli, Giulia

    2012-01-21

    We present a technique for the iterative diagonalization of random-phase approximation (RPA) matrices, which are encountered in the framework of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) and the Bethe-Salpeter equation. The non-Hermitian character of these matrices does not permit a straightforward application of standard iterative techniques used, i.e., for the diagonalization of ground state Hamiltonians. We first introduce a new block variational principle for RPA matrices. We then develop an algorithm for the simultaneous calculation of multiple eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with convergence and stability properties similar to techniques used to iteratively diagonalize Hermitian matrices. The algorithm is validated for simple systems (Na(2) and Na(4)) and then used to compute multiple low-lying TDDFT excitation energies of the benzene molecule. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  2. Polymorphic variation in CHAT gene modulates general cognitive ability: An association study with random student cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Shi, Yuanyu; Niu, Binbin; Shi, Zhangyan; Li, Junlin; Ma, Zhe; Wang, Jian; Gong, Pingyuan; Zheng, Anyun; Zhang, Fuchang; Gao, Xiaocai; Zhang, Kejin

    2016-03-23

    The choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) gene has been associated with various human disorders that involve cognitive impairment or deficiency. However, the influence of disease-associated variants of CHAT on normal individuals remains dubious. Here we demonstrated the impact of CHAT sequence variants (G-120A) on general human cognitive ability in a cohort of 750 Chinese undergraduate students. A multiple choice questionnaire was used to obtain basic demographic information, such as parents' occupations and education levels. We also administered and scored the Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (RSPM). A one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) revealed a significant association between sequence polymorphisms of G-120A and individuals' Raven score (p=0.031 for ANOVA and p=0.026 for K-W tests). Moreover, further hierarchical analysis showed a similar trend in the association between G-120A variants and Raven scores only in the female subjects (p=0.008 for ANOVA and p=0.024 for K-W tests) but not in the male subjects. The results of a multiple linear regression confirmed that after we controlled gender, age, birthplace and other non-genetic factors, CHAT G-120A polymorphisms still significantly influenced individual Raven scores (B=-0.70, SE=0.28, t=-2.50, p=0.013). Our results demonstrated that sequence variants of CHAT were associated with human cognitive ability in not only patients with psychiatric disorders but also normal healthy individuals. However, some issues remained indeterminable, such as gender differences and the extent of the influence on individuals' general cognitive abilities; thus, the further research using an independent random sample was required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Sumatra and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSUMADEWI SRI YULITA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Yulita KS (2011 Genetic variations of Lansium domesticum Corr. accessions from Java, Bengkulu and Ceram based on Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA fingerprints. Biodiversitas 12: 125-130. Duku (Lansium domesticum Corr. is one of popular tropical fruits in SE Asia. The spesies has three varieties, known as duku, langsat and kokosan; and duku is the most popular one for being the sweetiest fruit. Indonesia has several local varieties of duku, such as duku Condet, duku Sumber and duku Palembang. This present study aimed to assess genetic diversity of 47 accessions of duku from Java, Sumatra, and Ceram based on RAPD fingerprints. Ten RAPD’s primers were initially screened and five were selected for the analysis. These five primers (OPA 7, 13, 18, OPB 7, and OPN 12 generated 53 scorable bands with an average of 10.6 polymorphic fragment per primer. Percentage of polymorphism ranged from 16.89% (OPA 7 and OPN 12 to 24.54% (OPB 7 with an average of 20.16% polymorphism. OPB 7 at 450 bp was exclusively possessed by accession 20 (Java, OPA 18 at 500 bp was by accession 6 (Java, 550 bp by 3 clones from Bengkulu. While OPN 12 at 300 bp and OPA 13 at 450 bp were shared among the accessions. Clustering analysis was performed based on RAPD profiles using the UPGMA method. The range of genetic similarity value among accessions was 0.02-0.65 suggesting high variation of gene pool existed among accessions.

  4. Variations in reporting of outcomes in randomized trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozińska, Ewelina; Marlin, Nadine; Yang, Fen; Dodd, Jodie M; Guelfi, Kym; Teede, Helena; Surita, Fernanda; Jensen, Dorte M; Geiker, Nina R W; Astrup, Arne; Yeo, SeonAe; Kinnunen, Tarja I; Stafne, Signe N; Cecatti, Jose G; Bogaerts, Annick; Hauner, Hans; Mol, Ben W; Scudeller, Tânia T; Vinter, Christina A; Renault, Kristina M; Devlieger, Roland; Thangaratinam, Shakila; Khan, Khalid S

    2017-07-01

    Trials on diet and physical activity in pregnancy report on various outcomes. We aimed to assess the variations in outcomes reported and their quality in trials on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy. We searched major databases without language restrictions for randomized controlled trials on diet and physical activity-based interventions in pregnancy up to March 2015. Two independent reviewers undertook study selection and data extraction. We estimated the percentage of papers reporting 'critically important' and 'important' outcomes. We defined the quality of reporting as a proportion using a six-item questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting this quality. Sixty-six randomized controlled trials were published in 78 papers (66 main, 12 secondary). Gestational diabetes (57.6%, 38/66), preterm birth (48.5%, 32/66) and cesarian section (60.6%, 40/66), were the commonly reported 'critically important' outcomes. Gestational weight gain (84.5%, 56/66) and birth weight (87.9%, 58/66) were reported in most papers, although not considered critically important. The median quality of reporting was 0.60 (interquartile range 0.25, 0.83) for a maximum score of one. Study and journal characteristics did not affect quality. Many studies on lifestyle interventions in pregnancy do not report critically important outcomes, highlighting the need for core outcome set development. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Intraoperative monitoring of stroke volume variation versus central venous pressure in laparoscopic liver surgery: a randomized prospective comparative trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratti, Francesca; Cipriani, Federica; Reineke, Raffaella; Catena, Marco; Paganelli, Michele; Comotti, Laura; Beretta, Luigi; Aldrighetti, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Central venous pressure (CVP) is used as a marker of cardiac preload to control intraoperative blood loss in open hepatectomies, while its reliability in laparoscopy is less certain. The aim of this randomized prospective trial was to evaluate the outcome of laparoscopic resections performed with stroke volume variation (SVV) or CVP monitoring. All candidates for laparoscopic liver resection were assigned randomly to SVV or to CVP groups. Outcome was evaluated included conversion rate, cause of conversion, intraoperative blood loss, need for transfusions, length of surgery and postoperative results. Ninety consecutive patients were enrolled: both SVV and CVP groups included 45 patients each and were comparable in terms of patient and disease characteristics. A reduced rate of conversion was recorded in the SVV compared to the CVP group (6.7% and 17.8% respectively, p = 0.02). Blood loss was lower in the SVV group (150 mL), compared to the CVP group (300 mL, p = 0.04). Morbidity, mortality, length of stay and functional recovery were comparable. On multivariate analysis, lesion location, extent of hepatectomy and type of cardiac preload monitoring were associated significantly to risk of conversion. SVV monitoring in laparoscopic liver surgery improves intraoperative outcome, thus enhancing the benefits of the minimally-invasive approach and fast-track protocols. Copyright © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Couch height–based patient setup for abdominal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yao Municipal Hospital, Yao (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Tsujii, Katsutomo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kawanabe, Kiyoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    There are 2 methods commonly used for patient positioning in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction: one is the skin mark patient setup method (SMPS) and the other is the couch height–based patient setup method (CHPS). This study compared the setup accuracy of these 2 methods for abdominal radiation therapy. The enrollment for this study comprised 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. For treatments (539 sessions), patients were set up by using isocenter skin marks and thereafter treatment couch was shifted so that the distance between the isocenter and the upper side of the treatment couch was equal to that indicated on the computed tomographic (CT) image. Setup deviation in the A-P direction for CHPS was measured by matching the spine of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of a lateral beam at simulation with that of the corresponding time-integrated electronic portal image. For SMPS with no correction (SMPS/NC), setup deviation was calculated based on the couch-level difference between SMPS and CHPS. SMPS/NC was corrected using 2 off-line correction protocols: no action level (SMPS/NAL) and extended NAL (SMPS/eNAL) protocols. Margins to compensate for deviations were calculated using the Stroom formula. A-P deviation > 5 mm was observed in 17% of SMPS/NC, 4% of SMPS/NAL, and 4% of SMPS/eNAL sessions but only in one CHPS session. For SMPS/NC, 7 patients (30%) showed deviations at an increasing rate of > 0.1 mm/fraction, but for CHPS, no such trend was observed. The standard deviations (SDs) of systematic error (Σ) were 2.6, 1.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and the root mean squares of random error (σ) were 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 0.9 mm for SMPS/NC, SMPS/NAL, SMPS/eNAL, and CHPS, respectively. Margins to compensate for the deviations were wide for SMPS/NC (6.7 mm), smaller for SMPS/NAL (4.6 mm) and SMPS/eNAL (3.1 mm), and smallest for CHPS (2.2 mm). Achieving better setup with smaller margins, CHPS appears to be a reproducible method for abdominal patient setup.

  7. Features of surfaces with random structure variations: Poster at Strategic Workshop "Principles and Development of Bio-Inspired Materials", 13 - 15 April 2010; Vienna, Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Mölders, N.; Nellesen, A.; Bertling, J.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the precision requested in industrial processing, biological structures only seem to possess a perfect, uniform regularity. Within the recurring patterns and periodic self-similar structures a randomly acting variation appears to be present. The main goal of this work is to elucidate whether these variations are irrelevant or related to the particular functionality of a surface or if they are just a result of stimulus- environmental interaction and genetical predisposition. The...

  8. Effects of remedies made in patient setup process on residual setup errors and margins in head and neck cancer radiotherapy based on 2D image guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanen, Mika; Laaksomaa, Marko; Tulijoki, Tapio; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Hyödynmaa, Simo

    2015-01-01

    Patient setup errors were aimed to be reduced in radiotherapy (RT) of head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. Some remedies in patient setup procedure were proposed for this purpose. RT of H&N cancer has challenges due to patient rotation and flexible anatomy. Residual position errors occurring in treatment situation and required setup margins were estimated for relevant bony landmarks after the remedies made in setup process and compared with previous results. The formation process for thermoplastic masks was improved. Also image matching was harmonized to the vertebrae in the middle of the target and a 5 mm threshold was introduced for immediate correction of systematic errors of the landmarks. After the remedies, residual position errors of bony landmarks were retrospectively determined from 748 orthogonal X-ray images of 40 H&N cancer patients. The landmarks were the vertebrae C1-2, C5-7, the occiput bone and the mandible. The errors include contributions from patient rotation, flexible anatomy and inter-observer variation in image matching. Setup margins (3D) were calculated with the Van Herk formula. Systematic residual errors of the landmarks were reduced maximally by 49.8% (p ≤ 0.05) and the margins by 3.1 mm after the remedies. With daily image guidance the setup margins of the landmarks were within 4.4 mm, but larger margins of 6.4 mm were required for the mandible. Remarkable decrease in the residual errors of the bony landmarks and setup margins were achieved through the remedies made in the setup process. The importance of quality assurance of the setup process was demonstrated.

  9. Non-random expression of ribosomal DNA units in a grasshopper showing high intragenomic variation for the ITS2 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Estévez, M; Ruiz-Ruano, F J; Cabrero, J; Bakkali, M; Perfectti, F; López-León, M D; Camacho, J P M

    2015-06-01

    We analyse intragenomic variation of the ITS2 internal transcribed spacer of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans, by means of tagged PCR 454 amplicon sequencing performed on both genomic DNA (gDNA) and RNA-derived complementary DNA (cDNA), using part of the ITS2 flanking coding regions (5.8S and 28S rDNA) as an internal control for sequencing errors. Six different ITS2 haplotypes (i.e. variants for at least one nucleotide in the complete ITS2 sequence) were found in a single population, one of them (Hap4) being specific to a supernumerary (B) chromosome. The analysis of both gDNA and cDNA from the same individuals provided an estimate of the expression efficiency of the different haplotypes. We found random expression (i.e. about similar recovery in gDNA and cDNA) for three haplotypes (Hap1, Hap2 and Hap5), but significant underexpression for three others (Hap3, Hap4 and Hap6). Hap4 was the most extremely underexpressed and, remarkably, it showed the lowest sequence conservation for the flanking 5.8-28S coding regions in the gDNA reads but the highest conservation (100%) in the cDNA ones, suggesting the preferential expression of mutation-free rDNA units carrying this ITS2 haplotype. These results indicate that the ITS2 region of rDNA is far from complete homogenization in this species, and that the different rDNA units are not expressed at random, with some of them being severely downregulated. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Setup optimization toward accurate ageing studies of gas filled detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: a.abuhoza@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); National Center for Mathematics and Physics, KACST, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    An infrastructure has been set up at the GSI detector laboratory to study the influence of construction materials on the ageing properties of gas filled detectors, such as multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC), gas electron multiplier (GEM). Optimization of an ageing setup was performed by observing the variation of the normalized gain obtained using two identical MWPCs. An accuracy in the relative gain measurement below 1% has been achieved by monitoring environmental conditions and by systematic improvements of the measuring equipment. Ageing test of fiberglass G11 has been performed.

  11. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, K.; Yamanaka, A.; Teramoto, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Hosoyama, K.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  12. Braneworld setup and embedding in teleparallel gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behboodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the setup of a five-dimensional braneworld scenario in teleparallel gravity. Both cases of Minkowski and Friedmann–Robertson–Walker branes embedded in anti-de Sitter bulk are studied and the effective 4D action were studied. 4-dimensional local Lorentz invariance is found to be recovered in both cases. However, due to different junction conditions, the equations governing the 4D cosmological evolution differ from general relativistic case. Using the results of Ref. [13], we consider a simple inflationary scenario in this setup. The inflation parameters are found to be modified compared to general relativistic case.

  13. Optymisation of equipment setup processes in enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast equipment setup in a machine on production line is the key precondition to increase the fl exibility of the production. Methodology of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die is an example which allows reducing the time of setup practically to the minimum. The article presents the theoretical bases and required rules as well as case study conducted in one of chosen enterprises. This paper also answers the question if SMED methodology is applicable in metallurgical sector, presenting the example of shortening the time between the production of various metallurgical products manufactured in the machine for continuous casting of steel (COS in Polish.

  14. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ruwali

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  15. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up: a portal imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tienhoven, G; Lanson, J H; Crabeels, D; Heukelom, S; Mijnheer, B J

    1991-12-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In five patients, multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within one fraction about 1 mm (1 SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1 SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3 mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and the central lung distance. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. The EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this.

  16. Android Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Machine (VM) Setup on Linux Ken F Yu Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Android emulator using an Android VM on an x86 host computer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS ELIDe, Android, VM, virtual machine 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Select < filesystem > type ..................................................................................................10 Fig. 19 Answer <yes> to

  17. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure ...

  18. ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Dan

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  19. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ruwali; A. Yamanaka; Y. Teramoto; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama

    2009-01-01

    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experim...

  20. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  1. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-11-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 48Ca+242Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  2. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deangelis@iaps.inaf.it; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  3. Distributed Drives Monitoring and Control: A Laboratory Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Sreejeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory setup of distributed drives system comprising a three-phase induction motor (IM drive and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive is modeled, designed, and developed for the monitoring and control of the individual drives. The integrated operation of IM and PMSM drives system has been analyzed under different operating conditions, and their performance has been monitored through supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system. The necessary SCADA graphical user interface (GUI has also been created for the display of drive parameters. The performances of IM and PMSM under parametric variations are predicted through sensitivity analysis. An integrated operation of the drives is demonstrated through experimental and simulation results.

  4. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanian F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferial Fanian,1,2 Sophie Mac-Mary,3 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Rafat Messikh,1,2 Jean-Paul Ortonne,4 Jean-Marie Sainthillier,3 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Alexandre Guichard,1,2 Kamran Hejazi Kenari,1,2 Philippe Humbert1,2,5,61Center for Studies and Research on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 2Clinical Investigation Center, CIC-BT 506, CHRU Besançon, France; 3SKINEXIGENCE, University Hospital of Jean Minjoz, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of L'archet, Nice, France; 5University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 6INSERM 1098, Structure Fédérative de Recherche, Besançon, FranceBackground: Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments.Methods: This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5. The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment.Results: For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0

  5. Cone beam computed tomography guidance for setup of patients receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Cho, John; Vallis, Katherine A; Sharpe, Michael B; Lee, Grace; Blackburn, Helen; Nageeti, Tahani; McGibney, Carol; Jaffray, David A

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the role of cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance for setup error reduction and soft tissue visualization in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Twenty patients were recruited for the delivery of radiotherapy to the postoperative cavity (3850 cGy in 10 fractions over 5 days) using an APBI technique. Cone-beam CT data sets were acquired after an initial skin-mark setup and before treatment delivery. These were registered online using the ipsilateral lung and external contours. Corrections were executed for translations exceeding 3 mm. The random and systematic errors associated with setup using skin-marks and setup using CBCT guidance were calculated and compared. A total of 315 CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic errors for the skin-mark setup were 2.7, 1.7, and 2.4 mm in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. These were reduced to 0.8, 0.7, and 0.8 mm when CBCT guidance was used. The random errors were reduced from 2.4, 2.2, and 2.9 mm for skin-marks to 1.5, 1.5, and 1.6 mm for CBCT guidance in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. A skin-mark setup for APBI patients is sufficient for current planning target volume margins for the population of patients studied here. Online CBCT guidance minimizes the occurrence of large random deviations, which may have a greater impact for the accelerated fractionation schedule used in APBI. It is also likely to permit a reduction in planning target volume margins and provide skin-line visualization and dosimetric evaluation of cardiac and lung volumes.

  6. Composite Inflation Setup and Glueball Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We explore the paradigm according to which inflation is driven by a four-dimensional strongly coupled dynamics coupled non-minimally to gravity. We start by introducing the general setup, both in the metric and Palatini formulation, for generic models of composite inflation. We then analyze......-minimally to gravity. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve successful inflation with the confining scale of the underlying Yang-Mills theory naturally of the order of the grand unified energy scale. We also argue that within the metric formulation models of composite inflation lead to a more consistent...

  7. Improved mortar set-up technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za Close Rage Reference Device (Prismatic Mirror) • Problems with aiming posts • Description of the Prismatic Mirror • Prismatic Mirror set-up • Passing adjustment bearings and paralleling • Mortar lay • First shot and small.... Prismatic Mirror (Close Rage Reference Device) Slide 16 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Prismatic Mirror (Close Rage Reference Device) Slide 17 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za C2A1 Bearing Scale (Close Rage Reference...

  8. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  9. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40Ca+ and 88Sr+ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40Ca+ is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10-15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40Ca+ ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  10. Test setup for DEPMOSFET matrices for XEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Schanz, T.; Santangelo, A.; Wilms, J.; Treis, J.; Herrmann, S.; Strüder, L.; Lechner, P.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Barret, D.

    2006-06-01

    The DEPMOSFET (Depleted p-channel MOSFET) is an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) for the XEUS Wide Field Imager (WFI), which is developed and produced by the MPI semiconductor laboratory in Munich (HLL). The current prototype detector consists of a hybrid where a 64 x 64 pixel matrix with 75 μm x 75 μm pixel size each is mounted together with CMOS SWITCHER II ICs for row-selection and a CAMEX 64 ASIC for readout. First measurements for this device have shown the high energy resolution and quantum efficiency as well as the potential for fast readout. For fast timing studies on XEUS an instrument is needed which is able to deal with count rates up to 10 6 photons s -1 with 10 μs time resolution. At the Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, we have built a setup to investigate the timing performance of the current prototype detector and to study the capability of the DEPMOSFET detector to handle high count rates. In this paper we present the Data Acquisition System and the future plans for this setup.

  11. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    P B Rshikesan; Pailoor Subramanya; Deepeshwar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT) for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yog...

  12. SU-E-J-21: Setup Variability of Colorectal Cancer Patients Treated in the Prone Position and Dosimetric Comparison with the Supine Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, A; Foster, J; Chu, W; Karotki, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre/Odette Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many cancer centers treat colorectal patients in the prone position on a belly board to minimize dose to the small bowel. That may potentially Result in patient setup instability with corresponding impact on dose delivery accuracy for highly conformal techniques such as IMRT/VMAT. Two aims of this work are 1) to investigate setup accuracy of rectum patients treated in the prone position on a belly board using CBCT and 2) to evaluate dosimetric impact on bladder and small bowel of treating rectum patients in supine vs. prone position. Methods: For the setup accuracy study, 10 patients were selected. Weekly CBCTs were acquired and matched to bone. The CBCT-determined shifts were recorded. For the dosimetric study, 7 prone-setup patients and 7 supine-setup patients were randomly selected from our clinical database. Various clinically relevant dose volume histogram values were recorded for the small bowel and bladder. Results: The CBCT-determined rotational shifts had a wide variation. For the dataset acquired at the time of this writing, the ranges of rotational setup errors for pitch, roll, and yaw were [−3.6° 4.7°], [−4.3° 3.2°], and [−1.4° 1.4°]. For the dosimetric study: the small bowel V(45Gy) and mean dose for the prone position was 5.6±12.1% and 18.4±6.2Gy (ranges indicate standard deviations); for the supine position the corresponding dose values were 12.9±15.8% and 24.7±8.8Gy. For the bladder, the V(30Gy) and mean dose for prone position were 68.7±12.7% and 38.4±3.3Gy; for supine position these dose values were 77.1±13.7% and 40.7±3.1Gy. Conclusion: There is evidence of significant rotational instability in the prone position. The OAR dosimetry study indicates that there are some patients that may still benefit from the prone position, though many patients can be safely treated supine.

  13. Random within-herd variation in financial performance and time to financial steady-state following management changes in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    The manager of a dairy herd and the affiliated consultants constantly need to judge whether financial performance of the production system is satisfactory and whether financial performance relates to real (systematic) effects of changes in management. This is no easy task because the dairy herd...... is a very complex system. Thus, it is difficult to obtain empirical data that allows a valid estimation of the random (within-herd) variation in financial performance corrected for management changes. Thus, simulation seems to be the only option. This study suggests that much caution must be recommended...... when claming effect of changes in herd management because the link between management changes (cause) and effect (measured as improvement of gross margin per cow year) is extensively blurred by a large within-herd variation in available real life accounting data and differences between herds in time...

  14. Run charts revisited: a simulation study of run chart rules for detection of non-random variation in health care processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhøj, Jacob; Olesen, Anne Vingaard

    2014-01-01

    A run chart is a line graph of a measure plotted over time with the median as a horizontal line. The main purpose of the run chart is to identify process improvement or degradation, which may be detected by statistical tests for non-random patterns in the data sequence. We studied the sensitivity to shifts and linear drifts in simulated processes using the shift, crossings and trend rules for detecting non-random variation in run charts. The shift and crossings rules are effective in detecting shifts and drifts in process centre over time while keeping the false signal rate constant around 5% and independent of the number of data points in the chart. The trend rule is virtually useless for detection of linear drift over time, the purpose it was intended for.

  15. The TwinEBIS setup: Machine description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Mertzig, R. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pitters, J. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shornikov, A. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Wenander, F., E-mail: fredrik.wenander@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    TwinEBIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) recently made operational at CERN. The device is similar in construction to the REXEBIS charge breeder operating at the ISOLDE facility. After relocation of the solenoid from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory (MSL) Stockholm, TwinEBIS was commissioned at CERN and serves as a test bench dedicated to manipulation of low-energy highly charged ions. In this paper we give an overview of the setup and present advanced numerical simulations of the electron optics. In addition, the alignment procedure of the solenoid magnetic field is described and measurement results are presented. Results from cathode investigations, electron beam tests and ion extraction modulation are presented in a follow-up paper.

  16. A non-random variation of monthly average temperatures and precipitation quantities in Romania during the period 2009-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad D. MIRCOV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within this study we reflect non-randomness in the series of data concerning monthly average temperature and precipitation values registered in Romania during the period 2009-2012. We identified the slow increase in the monthly average temperature with 0.040C/months and a low decrease of average precipitation quantity with 0.29 mm/month. We also revealed that monthly average temperature and precipitation quantities series of data exposed behaviour close to Brown noise. The complex nature of the climate system and the unpredictability of weather are also reflected.

  17. On the sum of squared η-μ random variates with application to the performance of wireless communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2013-06-01

    The probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed squared η-μ variates, applicable to the output statistics of maximal ratio combining (MRC) receiver operating over η-μ fading channels that includes the Hoyt and the Nakagami-m models as special cases, is presented in closed-form in terms of the Fox\\'s H function. Further analysis, particularly on the bit error rate via PDF-based approach, is also represented in closed form in terms of the extended Fox\\'s H function (H). The proposed new analytical results complement previous results and are illustrated by extensive numerical and Monte Carlo simulation results. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  19. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanoy, S.; Avvakumov, K.; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Blazczak, Z.; Janas, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the "north-east" region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as 136Xe on 208Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  20. The vls antigenic variation systems of Lyme disease Borrelia: eluding host immunity through both random, segmental gene conversion and framework heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Spirochetes that cause Lyme borreliosis (also called Lyme disease) possess the vls locus, encoding an elaborate antigenic variation system. This locus contains the expression site vlsE as well as a contiguous array of vls silent cassettes, which contain variations of the central cassette region of vlsE. The locus is present on one of the many linear plasmids in the organism, e.g. plasmid lp28-1 in the strain B. burgdorferi B31. Changes in the sequence of vlsE occur continuously during mammalian infection and consist of random, segmental, unidirectional recombination events between the silent cassettes and the cassette region of vlsE. These gene conversion events do not occur during in vitro culture or the tick portion of the infection cycle of Borrelia burgdorferi or the other related Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease. The mechanism of recombination is largely unknown, but requires the RuvAB Holliday junction branch migrase. Other features of the vls locus also appear to be required, including cis locations of vlsE and the silent cassettes and high G+C content and GC skew. The vls system is required for long-term survival of Lyme Borrelia in infected mammals and represents an important mechanism of immune evasion. In addition to sequence variation, immune selection also results in significant heterogeneity in the sequence of the surface lipoprotein VlsE. Despite antigenic variation, VlsE generates a robust antibody response, and both full length VlsE and the C6 peptide (corresponding to invariant region 6) are widely used in immunodiagnostic tests for Lyme disease. PMID:26104445

  1. Sleep quality and body composition variations in obese male adults after 14 weeks of yoga intervention: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P B Rshikesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a big challenge all over the world. It is associated with many noncommunicable diseases. Yoga known to be add-on treatment may be effective for obesity control. Aim: To assess the effect of integrated approach of yoga therapy (IAYT for body composition and quality of sleep in adult obese male. Subjects and Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 14 weeks on obese male of urban setting. Eighty individuals were randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga group (n = 40; age; 40.03 ± 8.74 years, body mass index [BMI] 28.7 ± 2.35 kg/m2 and control group (age; 42.20 ± 12.06 years, BMI 27.70 ± 2.05 kg/m2. The IAYT was imparted to yoga group for 1½ hour for 5 days in a week for 14 weeks. The control group continued their regular activities. The body composition by InBody R20 and sleep quality by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI were assessed. Statistical analysis was done for within and between groups using SPSS version 21. The correlation analysis was done on the difference in pre-post values. Results: The results showed that weight (P = 0.004, BMI (P = 0.008, bone mass (P = 0.017, obesity degree (P = 0.005, and mineral mass (P = 0.046 were improved in yoga group and no change in control group (P > 0.05. The global score of PSQI improved (P = 0.017 in yoga group alone. Conclusion: The results indicate the beneficial effects of IAYT on body composition and sleep quality in obese males. The yoga practice may reduce obesity with the improvement in quality of life.

  2. Pressure support improves oxygenation and lung protection compared to pressure-controlled ventilation and is further improved by random variation of pressure support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Güldner, Andreas; Kasper, Michael; Schubert, René; Carvalho, Nadja C; Beda, Alessandro; Dassow, Constanze; Uhlig, Stefan; Koch, Thea; Pelosi, Paolo; Gama de Abreu, Marcelo

    2011-04-01

    To explore whether 1) conventional pressure support ventilation improves lung function and attenuates the pulmonary inflammatory response compared to pressure-controlled ventilation and 2) random variation of pressure support levels (noisy pressure support ventilation) adds further beneficial effects to pressure support ventilation. Three-arm, randomized, experimental study. University hospital research facility. Twenty-four juvenile pigs. Acute lung injury was induced by surfactant depletion. Animals were randomly assigned to 6 hrs of mechanical ventilation (n = 8 per group) with either 1) pressure-controlled ventilation, 2) pressure support ventilation, or 3) noisy pressure support ventilation. During noisy pressure support ventilation, the pressure support varied randomly, with values following a normal distribution. In all groups, the driving pressures were set to achieve a mean tidal volume of 6 mL/kg. At the end of experiments, animals were killed and lungs extracted for histologic and biochemical analysis. Respiratory, gas-exchange, and hemodynamics variables were assessed hourly. The diffuse alveolar damage and the inflammatory response of lungs were quantified. Pressure support ventilation and noisy pressure support ventilation improved gas exchange and were associated with reduced histologic damage and interleukin-6 concentrations in lung tissue compared to pressure-controlled ventilation. Noisy pressure support ventilation further improved gas exchange and decreased the inspiratory effort while reducing alveolar edema and inflammatory infiltration compared to pressure support ventilation. In this model of acute lung injury, pressure support ventilation and noisy pressure support ventilation attenuated pulmonary inflammatory response and improved gas exchange as compared to pressure-controlled ventilation. Noisy pressure support ventilation further improved gas exchange, reduced the inspiratory effort, and attenuated alveolar edema and inflammatory

  3. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Flick, A. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico); Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A., E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  4. A new setup for the underground study of capture reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Bemmerer, D; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Campajola, L; Cocconi, P; Corvisiero, P; Cruz, J; D'Onofrio, A; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Gialanella, L; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, G; Loiano, A; Imbriani, G; Jesus, A P; Junker, M; Musico, P; Ordine, A; Parodi, F; Parolin, M; Pinto, J V; Prati, P; Ribeiro, J P; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Rossi-Alvarez, C; Rottura, A; Schuemann, F; Somorjai, E; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A; Zavatarelli, S

    2002-01-01

    For the study of astrophysically relevant capture reactions in the underground laboratory LUNA a new setup of high sensitivity has been implemented. The setup includes a windowless gas target, a 4 pi BGO summing crystal, and beam calorimeters. The setup has been recently used to measure the d(p,gamma) sup 3 He cross-section for the first time within its solar Gamow peak, i.e. down to 2.5 keV c.m. energy. The features of the optimized setup are described.

  5. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Garden, Adam S; Lo, Justin; Ang, K Kian; Ahamad, Anesa; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Chambers, Mark S; Zhu, X Ronald; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei

    2006-04-01

    To analyze three-dimensional setup uncertainties for multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in head-and-neck region. In-room computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using a CT-on-rails system for 14 patients. Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla. Translational shifts of 3 ROIs were calculated relative to the marked isocenter on the immobilization mask. The shifts for all 3 ROIs were highly correlated. However, noticeable differences on the order of 2-6 mm existed between any 2 ROIs, indicating the flexibility and/or rotational effect in the head-and-neck region. The palatine process of the maxilla had the smallest right-left shifts because of the tight lateral fit in the face mask, but the largest superior-inferior movement because of in-plane rotation and variations in jaw positions. The neck region (C6) had the largest right-left shifts. The positioning mouthpiece was found effective in reducing variations in the superior-inferior direction. There was no statistically significant improvement for using the S-board (8 out of 14 patients) vs. the short face mask. We found variability in setup corrections for different regions of head-and-neck anatomy. These relative positional variations should be considered when making setup corrections or designing treatment margins.

  6. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  7. The Tracking Study: description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Jennifer A; Jeffery, Robert W; Crow, Scott J; Brelje, Kerrin L; Pacanowski, Carly R; Gavin, Kara L; Smolenski, Derek J

    2015-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (wi-fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This study was successful in recruiting adult male and female participants and is positioned to enhance the standard of care with regard to weight tracking recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Causes of variation in BCG vaccine efficacy: examining evidence from the BCG REVAC cluster randomized trial to explore the masking and the blocking hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Mauricio L; Pilger, Daniel; Pereira, Susan M; Genser, Bernd; Cruz, Alvaro A; Cunha, Sergio S; Sant'Anna, Clemax; Hijjar, Miguel A; Ichihara, Maria Y; Rodrigues, Laura C

    2014-06-24

    BCG protection varies and in some places (nearest the equator) is low or absent. Understanding this variation can inform the efforts to develop new vaccines against tuberculosis. Two main hypotheses are used to explain this variation: under masking, new vaccines are unlikely to increase protection; under blocking new vaccines have a greater potential to be effective when BCG is not. We conducted a cluster randomized trial to explored the masking and blocking hypotheses by studying BCG vaccine efficacy of neonatal vaccination and when administered for the first or a second (revaccination) time at school age in two sites (Manaus close and Salvador further south from the equator). Seven hundred and sixty three state schools were matched on socio economic characteristics of the neighborhood and 239,934 children were randomized to vaccine (BCG vaccination at school age) or control group. Protection by first BCG vaccination at school age was high in Salvador (34%, 95% CI 7-53%, p=0.017) but low in Manaus (8%, 95% CI t0 39-40%, p=0.686). For revaccination at school age, protection was modest in Salvador (19%, 95% CI 3-33%, p=0.022) and absent in Manaus (1%, 95% CI to 27-23%, p=0.932). Vaccine efficacy for neonatal vaccination was similar in Salvador (40%, 95% CI 22-54%, pBCG efficacy was marked when vaccine was given at school age but absent at birth, which points towards blocking as the dominant mechanism. New tuberculosis vaccines that overcome or by pass this blocking effect could confer protection in situations where BCG is not protective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multifunctional Polymeric Scaffolds for Enhancement of PARACEST Contrast Sensitivity and Performance: The Effects of Random Copolymer Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunkou; Zhao, Piyu; Kiefer, Garry E.; Sherry, A. Dean

    2010-01-01

    A DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N’,N“,N’”-tetraacetic acid) tetraamide ligand having a single acrylamide side-chain (M1) was copolymerized with either 2-methylacrylic acid (MAA), 2-(acryloylamino)-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) or N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) to create a series of linear random copolymers using classical free radical chain polymerization chemistry. The metal ion binding properties of hydrolyzed M1 were investigated by pH potentiometry and the europium (III) complexes of the resulting heteropolymers were evaluated as PARACEST imaging agents. All polymeric agents were found to possess similar intermediate-to-slow water exchange and CEST characteristics as the parent EuDOTA-tetraamide monomer. Consistent with basic multiplexing principles, the highest molecular weight polymer, Eu-DMAA 3.1, also showed the highest CEST sensitivity with a detection limit of 20 ± 2 μM. The second arylamide component gave polymers with widely different chemical characteristics and CEST properties. In particular, the Eu-DNIPAM 4.0 and Eu-DMAA 4.1 polymers displayed different solubility characteristics as a function of pH or temperature which, in turn, affected the water exchange and CEST properties of the corresponding agents. It was concluded that introduction of hydrophobic groups into the polymer backbone reduces solvent accessibility to the Eu3+ component, effectively slowing water exchange between the inner-sphere water coordination position at each Eu3+ center with bulk water. The CEST properties of the heteropolymers when dissolved in plasma suggest that the more hydrophobic characteristics of these polymers could be advantageous for in vivo applications. PMID:20838469

  10. Evaluation of Rotational Errors in Treatment Setup of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Minsong; Lasley, Foster D.; Das, Indra J.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Slessinger, Eric D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Cardenes, Higinia R., E-mail: hcardene@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of rotational setup errors in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of liver tumors and to investigate whether translational shifts can compensate for rotation. Methods and Materials: The positioning accuracy in 20 patients with liver malignancies treated with SBRT was reevaluated offline by matching the patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans (n=75) to the planning CT scans and adjusting the 3 rotational angles (pitch, roll, and yaw). Systematic and random setup errors were calculated. The dosimetric changes caused by rotational setup errors were quantified for both simulated and observed patient rotations. Dose distributions recalculated on the rotated CT scans were compared with the original planned doses. Translational corrections were simulated based on manual translational registration of the rotated images to the original CT scans. The correction efficacy was evaluated by comparing the recalculated plans with the original plans. Results: The systematic rotational setup errors were -0.06 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.68 Degree-Sign , -0.29 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.62 Degree-Sign , and -0.24 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.61 Degree-Sign ; the random setup errors were 0.80 Degree-Sign , 1.05 Degree-Sign , and 0.61 Degree-Sign for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Analysis of CBCT images showed that 56.0%, 14.7%, and 1.3% of treated fractions had rotational errors of >1 Degree-Sign , >2 Degree-Sign , and >3 Degree-Sign , respectively, in any one of the rotational axes. Rotational simulations demonstrated that the reduction of gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage was <2% when rotation was <3 Degree-Sign . Recalculated plans using actual patient roll motions showed similar reduction (<2%) in GTV coverage. Translational corrections improved the GTV coverage to within 3% of the original values. For organs at risk (OAR), the dosimetric impact varied case by case. Conclusion: Actual rotational setup errors in SBRT for liver

  11. Reproducibility of patient setup by surface image registration system in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballarè Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproducibility of patient setup for radiotherapy is based on various methods including external markers, X-rays with planar or computerized image acquisition, and, more recently, surface matching imaging. We analyzed the setup reproducibility of 16 patients affected by prostate cancer who underwent conformal radiotherapy with curative intent by using a surface image registration system. Methods We analyzed the setup reproducibility of 16 patients affected by prostate cancer candidates for conformal radiotherapy by using a surface image registration system. At the initial setup, EPID images were compared with DRRs and a reference 3D surface image was obtained by the AlignRT system (Vision RT, London, UK. Surface images were acquired prior to every subsequent setup procedure. EPID acquisition was repeated when errors > 5 mm were reported. Results The mean random and systematic errors were 1.2 ± 2.3 mm and 0.3 ± 3.0 mm along the X axis, 0.0 ± 1.4 mm and 0.5 ± 2.0 mm along the Y axis, and 2.0 ± 1.8 mm and -0.7 ± 2.4 mm along the Z axis respectively. The positioning error detected by AlignRT along the 3 axes X, Y, and Z exceeded the value of 5 mm in 14.1%, 2.0%, and 5.1% measurements and the value of 3 mm in 36.9%, 13.6% and 27.8% measurements, respectively. Correlation factors calculated by linear regression between the errors measured by AlignRT and EPID ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.85 and SD of 0.13. The setup measurements by surface imaging are highly reproducible and correlate with the setup errors detected by EPID. Conclusion Surface image registration system appears to be a simple, fast, non-invasive, and reproducible method to analyze the set-up alignment in 3DCRT of prostate cancer patients.

  12. A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices from room to cryogenic temperatures is presented. The setup allows testing microwave devices at variable temperatures ranging from 300 to 77 K. Frequency doubler (94/188 GHz) has been cooled to 77 K and peak efficiency of 32...

  13. Fault tolerant control - a residual based set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    A new set-up for fault tolerant control (FTC) for stable systems is presented in this paper. The new set-up is based on a simple implementation of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. This implementation of the YJBK parameterization will allow a direct and simple reconfigurati...

  14. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES IN MID FORMAT CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pivnicka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU, the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and

  15. Concept and validation of a fully automated photocatalytic test setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Tom; Hauchecorne, Birger; Smits, Marianne; Verbruggen, Sammy W; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-04-01

    Photocatalytic activity can be studied by several methods, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. To study photocatalytic activity in an easy, user-friendly, and realistic way, a completely new setup has been built. The setup is modularly constructed around Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy at the heart of it, resulting in great versatility. Complementary software has been written for automatic control of the setup and for processing the generated data. Two pollutants, oil and n-octane, are tested to validate the performance of the setup. These validation experiments confirm the usefulness and added value of the setup in general and of the FTIR detection methodology as well. It becomes clear that a system of online measurements with good repeatability, accuracy, and user-friendliness has been created.

  16. SU-E-J-15: A Patient-Centered Scheme to Mitigate Impacts of Treatment Setup Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tian, Z; Gu, X; Jia, X; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Current Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is plan-centered. At each treatment fraction, we position the patient to match the setup in treatment plan. Inaccurate setup can compromise delivered dose distribution, and hence leading to suboptimal treatments. Moreover, current setup approach via couch shift under image guidance can correct translational errors, while rotational and deformation errors are hard to address. To overcome these problems, we propose in this abstract a patient-centered scheme to mitigate impacts of treatment setup errors. Methods: In the patient-centered scheme, we first position the patient on the couch approximately matching the planned-setup. Our Supercomputing Online Replanning Environment (SCORE) is then employed to design an optimal treatment plan based on the daily patient geometry. It hence mitigates the impacts of treatment setup error and reduces the requirements on setup accuracy. We have conducted simulations studies in 10 head-and-neck (HN) patients to investigate the feasibility of this scheme. Rotational and deformation setup errors were simulated. Specifically, 1, 3, 5, 7 degrees of rotations were put on pitch, roll, and yaw directions; deformation errors were simulated by splitting neck movements into four basic types: rotation, lateral bending, flexion and extension. Setup variation ranges are based on observed numbers in previous studies. Dosimetric impacts of our scheme were evaluated on PTVs and OARs in comparison with original plan dose with original geometry and original plan recalculated dose with new setup geometries. Results: With conventional plan-centered approach, setup error could lead to significant PTV D99 decrease (−0.25∼+32.42%) and contralateral-parotid Dmean increase (−35.09∼+42.90%). The patientcentered approach is effective in mitigating such impacts to 0∼+0.20% and −0.03∼+5.01%, respectively. Computation time is <128 s. Conclusion: Patient-centered scheme is proposed to

  17. Stochastic developmental variation, an epigenetic source of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... strong evidence from experiments with genetically identical organisms performed in narrowly standardized laboratory set-ups that SDV is a source of phenotypic variation in its own right aside from genetic variation and environmental variation. It is obviouslymediated bymolecular and higher-order epigeneticmechanisms.

  18. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2011-02-15

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is {approx}4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  19. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  20. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  1. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present a four point bending setup suitable for high precision characterization of piezoresistance in semiconductors. The compact setup has a total size of 635 cm3. Thermal stability is ensured by an aluminum housing wherein the actual four point bending fixture is located. The four point...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  2. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  3. Randomized two-way cross-over bioequivalence study of two amoxicillin formulations and inter-ethnicity pharmacokinetic variation in healthy Malay volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Kai Bin; Loh, Gabriel Onn Kit; Tan, Yvonne Tze Fung; Peh, Kok Khiang

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop a new deproteinization method to extract amoxicillin from human plasma and evaluate the inter-ethnic variation of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics in healthy Malay volunteers. A single-dose, randomized, fasting, two-period, two-treatment, two-sequence crossover, open-label bioequivalence study was conducted in 18 healthy Malay adult male volunteers, with one week washout period. The drug concentration in the sample was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (UV-vis HPLC). The mean (standard deviation) pharmacokinetic parameter results of Moxilen® were: peak concentration (Cmax ), 6.72 (1.56) µg/mL; area under the concentration-time graph (AUC0-8 ), 17.79 (4.29) µg/mL h; AUC0-∞ , 18.84 (4.62) µg/mL h. Those of YSP Amoxicillin® capsule were: Cmax , 6.69 (1.44) µg/mL; AUC0-8 , 18.69 (3.78) µg/mL h; AUC00-∞ , 19.95 (3.81) µg/mL h. The 90% confidence intervals for the logarithmic transformed Cmax , AUC0-8 and AUC0-∞ of Moxilen® vs YSP Amoxicillin® capsule was between 0.80 and 1.25. Both Cmax and AUC met the predetermined criteria for assuming bioequivalence. Both formulations were well tolerated. The results showed significant inter-ethnicity variation in pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin. The Cmax and AUC of amoxicillin in Malay population were slightly lower compared with other populations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM. Methods and materials Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT of the head and neck (n = 31, chest (n = 72, abdomen (n = 15, and pelvis (n = 30 were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV. In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. Results The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. Conclusion In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended.

  5. A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Li, Jun

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system is presented. Simulated/experimental results are given. Combined with sub-page based data format, the system is simple and robust.

  6. The COMPASS Setup for Physics with Hadron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, Ph.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, Ana Sofia; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rousse, J.Y.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This article describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.

  7. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...... in a practical multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. The capacity simulation accuracy is shown to be a valid measure to determine the test area size....

  8. A new setup for neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negret, A.; Borcea, C.; Drohe, J.C.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Wynants, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Borcea, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    An upgraded detection setup for neutron scattering measurements was recently completed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement - Belgium). A 200 m flight path is used. Eight HPGe detectors are placed at 110 and 150 degrees with respect to the neutron beam and are read-out by fast digitizers. The neutron flux is monitored by a {sup 235}U fission chamber. The first inelastic scattering measurement with the new setup was performed for natural Iron. (authors)

  9. The setup and care of a patient in Buck's traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T

    1999-01-01

    Buck's traction is certainly one of the more common traction setups seen in orthopaedic patient care today. However, just because it is common doesn't mean we can take it for granted. Specific setup techniques as well as patient evaluation methods must be understood if the traction is to accomplish its task. The goal of this article is to go through some of the basics in techniques and perhaps explain why this traction is so commonly used.

  10. Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ARL-TR-8244 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation...and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions by Laurel C Sadler and Somiya Metu Computational and Information Sciences...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM

  11. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  12. Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.

    2016-06-01

    Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of

  13. Heuristic Relative Entropy Principles with Complex Measures: Large-Degree Asymptotics of a Family of Multi-variate Normal Random Polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiessling, Michael Karl-Heinz

    2017-10-01

    Let z\\in C, let σ ^2>0 be a variance, and for N\\in N define the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) := {1/σ } \\int _R\\ (x^2+z^2) e^{-{1/2σ^2 x^2}}{√{2π }}/dx \\quad if N=1, {1/σ } \\int _{R^N} \\prod \\prod \\limits _{1≤ k1. These are expected values of the polynomials P_N^{}(z)=\\prod _{1≤ n≤ N}(X_n^2+z^2) whose 2 N zeros ± i X_k^{}_{k=1,\\ldots ,N} are generated by N identically distributed multi-variate mean-zero normal random variables {X_k}N_{k=1} with co-variance {Cov}_N^{}(X_k,X_l)=(1+σ ^2-1/N)δ _{k,l}+σ ^2-1/N(1-δ _{k,l}). The E_N^{}(z;σ ) are polynomials in z^2, explicitly computable for arbitrary N, yet a list of the first three E_N^{}(z;σ ) shows that the expressions become unwieldy already for moderate N—unless σ = 1, in which case E_N^{}(z;1) = (1+z^2)^N for all z\\in C and N\\in N. (Incidentally, commonly available computer algebra evaluates the integrals E_N^{}(z;σ ) only for N up to a dozen, due to memory constraints). Asymptotic evaluations are needed for the large- N regime. For general complex z these have traditionally been limited to analytic expansion techniques; several rigorous results are proved for complex z near 0. Yet if z\\in R one can also compute this "infinite-degree" limit with the help of the familiar relative entropy principle for probability measures; a rigorous proof of this fact is supplied. Computer algebra-generated evidence is presented in support of a conjecture that a generalization of the relative entropy principle to signed or complex measures governs the N→ ∞ asymptotics of the regime iz\\in R. Potential generalizations, in particular to point vortex ensembles and the prescribed Gauss curvature problem, and to random matrix ensembles, are emphasized.

  14. Anxiety in children during occlusal ART restorations in primary molars placed in school environment and hospital dental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, N M; Sakeenabi, B

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anxiety in children during occlusal atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) in the primary molars of children; and compare the anxiety for ART procedure performed in school environment and in hospital dental setup. A randomized controlled trial where one dentist placed 120 ART restorations in 60 five- to seven year-olds who had bilateral matched pairs of occlusal carious primary molars. A split-mouth design was used to place restorations in school and in hospital dental setup, which were assigned randomly to contralateral sides. Anxiety was evaluated by Modified Venhem score and the heart rate of the children at five fixed moments during dental treatment. At the entrance of the children into the treatment room, statistically significant difference between treatment in school environment and treatment in hospital dental setup for venham score and heart rate could be found (P = 0.023 and P = 0.037 respectively). At the start of the treatment procedure higher venham score and heart rate was observed in children treated in hospital dental setup in comparison with the children treated in school environment, finding was statistically significant (P = 0.011 and P = 0.029 respectively). During all other three points of treatment, the Venham scores of the children treated in school were lower than those of the children treated in hospital dental setup but statistically not significant (P > 0.05). Positive co-relation between Venham scores and Heart rate was established. No statistically significant relation could be established between boys and girls. Overall anxiety in children for ART treatment was found to be less and the procedure was well accepted irrespective of environment where treatment was performed Hospital dental setup by itself made children anxious during entrance and starting of the treatment when compared to children treated in school environment.

  15. Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.

  16. Measurement Uncertainty Investigation in the Multi-probe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Szini, Istvan Janos; Foegelle, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway to standardize over the air (OTA) testing of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals in COST IC1004, 3GPP RAN4 and CTIA. Due to the ability to reproduce realistic radio propagation environments inside the anechoic chamber and evaluate end user...... metrics in real world scenarios, the multi-probe based method has attracted huge interest from both industry and academia. This contribution attempts to identify some of the measurement uncertainties of the practical multi-probe setups and provide some guidance to establish the multi-probe anechoic...... chamber setup. This contribution presents the results of uncertainty measurements carried out in three practical multi-probe setups. Some sources of measurement errors, i.e. cable effect, cable termination, etc. are identified based on the measurement results....

  17. Estimation of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favoritоv V.N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time is shown. It was foreseen to make alteration in educational-training process with the purpose of optimization of their functional preparedness. 11 youths were plugged in research, calendar age 14 - 15 years. For determination of level of their functional preparedness the computer program "SVSM" was applied. It is set that at the beginning of setup time of 18,18% of all respondent functional preparedness is characterized by a "middle" level, 27,27% - below the "average", 54,54% - "above" the average. At the end of setup time among sportsmen representatives prevailed with the level of functional preparedness "above" average - 63,63%, with level "high" - 27,27%, sportsmen with level below the average were not observed. Efficiency of the offered system of trainings employments for optimization of functional preparedness of young handballers is well-proven.

  18. Motivating ergonomic computer workstation setup: sometimes training is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.

  19. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Jungbecker, N; Walter, M; Gries, T; Leonhardt, S

    2010-02-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared.

  20. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  1. First results from the HDMS experiment in the final setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Dietz, A.; Heusser, G.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Mazza, D.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-02-01

    The Heidelberg dark matter search (HDMS) is an experiment designed for the search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. It is using a special configuration of Ge detectors, to efficiently reduce the background in the low-energy region below 100 keV. After one year of running the HDMS detector prototype in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, the inner crystal of the detector has been replaced with a HPGe crystal of enriched 73Ge. The final setup started data taking in Gran Sasso in August 2000. The performance and the first results of the measurement with the final setup are discussed.

  2. Goal-directed fluid restriction using stroke volume variation and cardiac index during one-lung ventilation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Shu, Shu-Hua; Wang, Di; Chai, Xiao-Qing; Xie, Yan-Hu; Zhou, Wei-De

    2017-09-01

    Goal-directed therapy confers a strong prognosis in patients undergoing major cardiac or noncardiac surgery. The present study investigated whether intraoperative goal-directed fluid restriction (GDFR) using stroke volume variation (SVV) and cardiac index could improve oxygenation and postoperative outcome in patients undergoing one-lung ventilation (OLV). A Total of 168 patients scheduled for elective thoracoscopic lobectomy under OLV were randomized into the GDFR protocol (group G) or conventional fluid therapy groups (group C). Patients in group C underwent conventional fluid therapy based on mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), and urine volume, whereas those in group G received GDFR protocol associated with the SVV from 10-13% and the cardiac index was controlled at a minimum of 2.5 L/min/m2. The primary outcome variable was PaO2/FiO2. The secondary outcomes were other pulmonary variables and lung mechanics, inflammatory response, the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications, and the length of hospital stay. During surgery, the PaO2/FiO2 ratio in group G was more than that of group C at 30 and 60 min after OLV, 10 min after re-expansion, and the end of the operation (259±29 vs. 314±34; 253±30 vs. 308±35; 341±34 vs. 394±39; 349±35 vs. 401±39, respectively, all Pmechanics with the initiation of OLV. The incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications such as acute lung injury and pneumonia, and the length of hospital stay were decreased by GDFR protocol as compared to conventional fluid therapy (all P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the concentration of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The GDFR protocol based on SVV and cardiac index applied in patients undergoing OLV improves intraoperative pulmonary oxygenation. It can also reduce the postoperative complications and length of hospital stay. However, the

  3. Comparison of Channel Emulation Techniques in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two different techniques for channel emulation in multiprobe anechoic chamber based setups, which is a candidate solution for the standardization of MIMO OTA performance testing of mobile devices. The comparison is performed via simulations of the field distribution, temporal...

  4. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component...

  5. View of the WA10 set-up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The WA10 experiment by the Geneva-Lausanne Collaboration was set-up in the H5 beam (unseparated, up to 50 GeV/c) to study K+-p --> K0pi+-p and other reactions of similar topology, and the energy dependence of resonance production.

  6. 3D channel emulation in a multi-probe setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Kyösti, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    A technique to emulate 3D geometry-based channel models in a multiprobe over the air test setup is presented. The proposed technique provides a general emulation framework for any spherical incoming power spectrum. The emulation method results in two optimization objectives, which are both convex...

  7. 3D Channel Model Emulation in a MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Sun, Fan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new channel reconstruction technique for 3D geometry-based channels in a multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup. The proposed method provides a general channel reconstruction framework for any spherical power spectrum. The channel reconstruction is formed as convex optimization...

  8. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of mathematical models for pile setup prediction, the Skov-Denver model and the newly developed rate-based model, have been established from all the dynamic and static testing data, including restrikes of the production piles, restrikes, st...

  9. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  10. Fast Source Routed Connection Setup - Proposal for a RSVP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Lataretu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern networks are expecting fast and efficient setup procedures for their connections. Strict time limits are requested for signaling in the normal operational mode and also for the recovery/restoration mode. As a possible solution, I proposed a method for fast source routed connection setup that takes advantage of the existing distributed processing potential in order to minimize the dependency of setup time on the path length. Two alternatives for the parallel setup are presented: sequential synchronization in the intermediate nodes and final synchronization in the egress node. The expected time reduction is considerable. The proposal is in general terms, using abstract messages instead of a specific signaling protocol. In the meantime, RSVP is established as the state of the art signaling protocol. The research community is still looking for ways to increase its speed and efficiency. In this context, I'm proposing an implementation of the mentioned method based on the current RSVP standard and I'm comparing it with a recent similar proposal.

  11. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coincidence setup for energetic e -solid/gas interaction. 2. Design, fabrication and development of ... photodiode detector to look through a 5 mm hole situated on the end cap of the detector. In the present configuration, one of the five .... The distance between front and back plates is 21 mm. These relatively wide slit widths.

  12. The setup of a mobile mobility panel for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Veenstra, Sander; Thomas, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the setup of the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel project, in which GPS-enabled mobile phones (smartphones) are used as a passive multiple-week and multiple-year travel behaviour data collection tool. The data collection methodology used in the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel comprised

  13. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a new electron-recoil ion/photon coincidence setup for investigating some of the electron induced collision processes, such as electron bremsstrahlung, electron backscattering, innershell excitation and multiple ionization of target atoms/molecules in bombardment of electrons having energies from 2.0 keV ...

  14. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisi, E.A., E-mail: elisabettaalessandra.durisi@unito.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Visca, L. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Corsi, J. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dughera, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferrarese, W. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N. [Fondazione Centro per la Conservazione ed il Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale”, Piazza della Repubblica, 10078 Venaria Reale, Torino (Italy); Grazzi, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); and others

    2013-10-21

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field. -- Highlights: A full characterization of the present INES imaging set-up was carried out. Two CCD cameras and two scintillators (ZnS/{sup 6}LiF) of different thicknesses were tested. Linearity, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution were determined. Radiographies of steep wedges were performed using the highest dynamic range setup. Tomography of a bronze cube was performed using the best spatial resolution setup.

  15. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  16. Refinement of treatment setup and target localization accuracy using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography for stereotactic body radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiheng; Nelson, John W; Yoo, Sua; Wu, Q Jackie; Kirkpatrick, John P; Marks, Lawrence B; Yin, Fang-Fang

    2009-02-01

    To quantitatively compare two-dimensional (2D) orthogonal kV with three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam CT (CBCT) for target localization; and to assess intrafraction motion with kV images in patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). A total of 50 patients with 58 lesions received 178 fractions of SBRT. After clinical setup using in-room lasers and skin/cradle marks placed at simulation, patients were imaged and repositioned according to orthogonal kV/MV registration of bony landmarks to digitally reconstructed radiographs from the planning CT. A subsequent CBCT was registered to the planning CT using soft tissue information, and the resultant "residual error" was measured and corrected before treatment. Posttreatment 2D kV and/or 3D CBCT images were compared with pretreatment images to determine any intrafractional position changes. Absolute averages, statistical means, standard deviations, and root mean square (RMS) values of observed setup error were calculated. After initial setup to external marks with laser guidance, 2D kV images revealed vector mean setup deviations of 0.67 cm (RMS). Cone-beam CT detected residual setup deviations of 0.41 cm (RMS). Posttreatment imaging demonstrated intrafractional variations of 0.15 cm (RMS). The individual shifts in three standard orthogonal planes showed no obvious directional biases. After localization based on superficial markings in patients undergoing SBRT, orthogonal kV imaging detects setup variations of approximately 3 to 4 mm in each direction. Cone-beam CT detects residual setup variations of approximately 2 to 3 mm.

  17. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  18. Search for hybrid baryons with CLAS12 experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Lucille [Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    It is crucial to study the meson electroproduction in the kinematic region dominated by the formation of resonances. CLAS12 setup in Hall B at Jefferson Lab is particularly suitable for this task, since it is able to detect scattered electrons at low polar angles thanks to the Forward Tagger (FT) component. The process that we propose to study is ep → e'K+Λ, where the electron beam will be provided by the CEBAF accelerator with energies of 6.6, 8.8, and 11 GeV. This thesis work describes the setup and calibration of the FT calorimeter and the studies related to the search of hybrid baryons through the measurement of the K+ Λ electroproduction cross section.

  19. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  20. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  1. Entwicklung eines Computerprogramms zur Durchführung elektronischer Setups

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Es wird ein selbst entwickeltes Programm für Personalcomputer zur Simulation eines kieferorthopädischen Setups vorgestellt. Das Programm arbeitet mit einem Beispieldatensatz, der mikroskopisch gewonnen wurde. Mit dem Programm "VirtSet" lassen sich Zähne unabhängig voneinander positionieren, da sie sich auf eigene Koordinatensysteme beziehen. Die Ausrichtungen dieser Koordinatensysteme entsprechen den zahnärztlichen Richtungsbezeichnungen. Das Programm bietet eine halbautomatische Positionier...

  2. Cryogenic actuator testing for the SAFARI ground calibration setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Eggens, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Detrain, A.; Smit, H.; Dieleman, P.

    2012-09-01

    For the on-ground calibration setup of the SAFARI instrument cryogenic mechanisms are being developed at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, including a filter wheel, XYZ-scanner and a flipmirror mechanism. Due to the extremely low background radiation requirement of the SAFARI instrument, all of these mechanisms will have to perform their work at 4.5 Kelvin and low-dissipative cryogenic actuators are required to drive these mechanisms. In this paper, the performance of stepper motors, piezoelectric actuators and brushless DC-motors as cryogenic actuators are compared. We tested stepper motor mechanical performance and electrical dissipation at 4K. The actuator requirements, test setup and test results are presented. Furthermore, design considerations and early performance tests of the flipmirror mechanism are discussed. This flipmirror features a 102 x 72 mm aluminum mirror that can be rotated 45°. A Phytron stepper motor with reduction gearbox has been chosen to drive the flipmirror. Testing showed that this motor has a dissipation of 49mW at 4K with a torque of 60Nmm at 100rpm. Thermal modeling of the flipmirror mechanism predicts that with proper thermal strapping the peak temperature of the flipmirror after a single action will be within the background level requirements of the SAFARI instrument. Early tests confirm this result. For low-duty cycle operations commercial stepper motors appear suitable as actuators for test equipment in the SAFARI on ground calibration setup.

  3. Present status of the South Pole acoustic test setup (SPATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi, D.; Boeser, S.; Fischer, J.H.; Heller, R.; Krieger, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Sulanke, K.H. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C.; Hundertmark, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Descamps, F. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Hallgren, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Price, B.; Vandenbroucke, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Acoustic detection in ice is a promising method to investigate the low flux of ultra high energy neutrinos (E>10{sup 18} eV). Due to the long predicted attenuation length of acoustic waves generated by neutrino-induced cascades, a volume of several km{sup 3}, as available in the polar ice cap, may be equipped with sparse sensors. In order to study in-situ the absorption, the refraction of sound and the background noise, the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), consisting of 21 pairs of sensors and transmitters organized in 3 strings, has been developed. Low temperature tests simulating the harsh South Pole environment and long range tests in an ice-covered lake have been undertaken. The results obtained demonstrate the robustness of the setup and allow a first estimate of the expected performance. A simulation showing the capability of the system concerning refraction and absorptivity of the ice is presented, together with the first results of the installed setup, which is planned to be deployed in the austral summer season 2006-2007. (orig.)

  4. Balancing selection, random genetic drift, and genetic variation at the major histocompatibility complex in two wild populations of guppies (Poecilia reticulata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oosterhout, Cock; Joyce, Domino A; Cummings, Stephen M; Blais, Jonatan; Barson, Nicola J; Ramnarine, Indar W; Mohammed, Ryan S; Persad, Nadia; Cable, Joanne

    2006-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is rapidly increasing, but there are still enigmatic questions remaining, particularly regarding the maintenance of high levels of MHC polymorphisms in small, isolated populations. Here, we analyze the genetic variation at eight microsatellite loci and sequence variation at exon 2 of the MHC class IIB (DAB) genes in two wild populations of the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata. We compare the genetic variation of a small (Ne, 100) and relatively isolated upland population to that of its much larger (Ne approximately 2400) downstream counterpart. As predicted, microsatellite diversity in the upland population is significantly lower and highly differentiated from the population further downstream. Surprisingly, however, these guppy populations are not differentiated by MHC genetic variation and show very similar levels of allelic richness. Computer simulations indicate that the observed level of genetic variation can be maintained with overdominant selection acting at three DAB loci. The selection coefficients differ dramatically between the upland (s > or = 0.2) and lowland (s guppies in the upland habitat, which has resulted in high levels of MHC diversity being maintained in this population despite considerable genetic drift.

  5. A robust optimisation approach accounting for the effect of fractionation on setup uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew; Aitkenhead, Adam; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J; MacKay, Ranald I

    2017-10-04

    Proton plans are subject to a number of uncertainties which must be accounted for to ensure that they are delivered safely. Misalignment resulting from residual errors in daily patient positioning can result in both a displacement and distortion of dose distributions. This can be particularly important for intensity modulated proton therapy treatments where the accurate alignment of highly modulated fields may be required to deliver the intended treatment. A number of methods to generate plans that are robust to these uncertainties exist. These include robust optimisation approaches which account for the effect of uncertainties on the dose distribution within the optimisation process. However, robustness to uncertainty comes at the cost of plan quality. For this reason, it is important that the uncertainties considered are realistic. Existing approaches to robust optimisation have neglected the role of fractionated treatment deliveries in reducing the uncertainties that result from random setup errors. Here, a method of robust optimisation which accounts for this effect is presented and is evaluated using a 2D planning environment. The optimisation algorithm considers the dose in the estimated upper and lower bounds of the dose distribution under the effect of setup and range errors. A comparison with plans robustly optimised without consideration of the effect of fractionation and conventionally optimised plans is presented. Fractionation incorporated robust optimisation demonstrates a reduced sensitivity to uncertainty compared to conventionally optimised plans and a reduced integral dose compared to robustly optimised plans.

  6. A robust optimisation approach accounting for the effect of fractionation on setup uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew; Aitkenhead, Adam; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J.; MacKay, Ranald I.

    2017-10-01

    Proton plans are subject to a number of uncertainties which must be accounted for to ensure that they are delivered safely. Misalignment resulting from residual errors in daily patient positioning can result in both a displacement and distortion of dose distributions. This can be particularly important for intensity modulated proton therapy treatments where the accurate alignment of highly modulated fields may be required to deliver the intended treatment. A number of methods to generate plans that are robust to these uncertainties exist. These include robust optimisation approaches which account for the effect of uncertainties on the dose distribution within the optimisation process. However, robustness to uncertainty comes at the cost of plan quality. For this reason, it is important that the uncertainties considered are realistic. Existing approaches to robust optimisation have neglected the role of fractionated treatment deliveries in reducing the uncertainties that result from random setup errors. Here, a method of robust optimisation which accounts for this effect is presented and is evaluated using a 2D planning environment. The optimisation algorithm considers the dose in the estimated upper and lower bounds of the dose distribution under the effect of setup and range errors. A comparison with plans robustly optimised without consideration of the effect of fractionation and conventionally optimised plans is presented. Fractionation incorporated robust optimisation demonstrates a reduced sensitivity to uncertainty compared to conventionally optimised plans and a reduced integral dose compared to robustly optimised plans.

  7. Setup error and motion during deep inspiration breath-hold breast radiotherapy measured with continuous portal imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Christina Maria; Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Fledelius, Walther

    2016-01-01

    ). At every third treatment fraction, continuous portal images were acquired. The time-resolved chest wall position during treatment was compared with the planned position to determine the inter-fraction setup errors and the intra-fraction motion of the chest wall. RESULTS: The DIBH compliance was 95% during...... both recruitment periods. A tendency of smaller inter-fraction setup errors and intra-fraction motion was observed for group 2 (medial marker block position). However, apart from a significantly reduced inter-field random shift (σ = 1.7 mm vs. σ = 0.9 mm, p = 0.005), no statistically significant...... differences between the groups were found. In a combined analysis, the group mean inter-fraction setup error was M = - 0.1 mm, with random and systematic errors of σ = 1.7 mm and Σ = 1.4 mm. The group mean inter-field shift was M = 0.0 (σ = 1.3 mm and Σ = 1.1 mm) and the group mean standard deviation...

  8. Implementing and Characterizing a Video Reflectometry Set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita; Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Vázquez-Montiel José, Sergio; Delgado-Atencio, A.

    2008-04-01

    Video reflectometry is a technique to obtain information of the optical parameters of biological tissues from the study of the lateral distribution of the light in combination with the use of a theoretical model for light tissue interaction. One of its main advantages is that either in vitro or in vivo measurements are performed with no need of physical contact. The video reflectometry experimental set-up used in this work consist of an He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 35 mW) as a point light source, a CCD camera (Sony, XC-ST70) to record the lateral distribution Rd(r) of the light backscattered by the phantoms samples and five neutral density filters to allow a proper measurement of the light distribution. Six pictures of the tissue are taken with each neutral filter, and loaded and processed by a MathCAD(R) program script developed by us to obtain the lateral distribution Rd(r). The preparation and experimentation of tissue phantoms are described when agar gels are used as the matrix. Intralipid and India ink are used as the scattering and absorber centers, respectively. During the characterization of this experimental set-up, regarding the repeatability of measurements, highly scattering media such as samples of commercial milk and a cylindrical volume of Teflon were used. Experimental results are discussed and compared with Farrell's theoretical formulation of lateral distribution Rd(r) for semiinfinite media. The experimental array implemented in combination with our MathCAD(R) code provides an adequate tool to record the lateral distribution of light in phantoms with optical properties similar to human tissues. The standard deviation of the lateral distribution is negligible for practical applications of this technique. We found acceptable results between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements performed with the set-up presented.

  9. Automated quality control system for LC-SRM setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2013-12-16

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is emerging as a standard tool for high-throughput protein quantification. For reliable and reproducible SRM protein quantification it is essential that system performance is stable. We present here a quality control workflow that is based on repeated analysis of a standard sample to allow insight into the stability of the key properties of a SRM setup. This is supported by automated software to monitor system performance and display information like signal intensities and retention time stability over time, and alert upon deviations from expected metrics. Utilising the software to evaluate 407 repeated injections of a standard sample during half a year, outliers in relative peptide signal intensities and relative peptide fragment ratios are identified, indicating the need for instrument maintenance. We therefore believe that the software could be a vital and powerful tool for any lab regularly performing SRM, increasing the reliability and quality of the SRM platform. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is becoming established as a standard technique for accurate protein quantification. However, to achieve the required quantification reproducibility of the liquid chromatography (LC)-SRM setup, system performance needs to be monitored over time. Here we introduce a workflow with associated software to enable automated monitoring of LC-SRM setups. We believe that usage of the presented concepts will further strengthen the role of SRM as a reliable tool for protein quantification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    infrastructure": parties have registered public keys, no single registration authority needs to be fully trusted, and no single piece of information has to be globally trusted and available. In addition, unlike known protocols in the CRS model, the proposed protocols guarantee some basic level of security even...... allow for UC protocols. We answer this question in the affirmative: we propose alternative and relaxed set-up assumptions and show that they suffice for reproducing the general feasibility results for UC protocols in the CRS model. These alternative assumptions have the flavor of a "public-key...

  11. Automated assembly of micro mechanical parts in a Microfactory setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2006-01-01

    Many micro products in use today are manufactured using semi-automatic assembly. Handling, assembly and transport of the parts are especially labour intense processes. Automation of these processes holds a large potential, especially if flexible, modular microfactories can be developed. This paper...... focuses on the issues that have to be taken into consideration in order to go from a semi-automatic production into an automated microfactory. The application in this study is a switch consisting of 7 parts. The development of a microfactory setup to take care of the automated assembly of the switch...

  12. Seeing the unseen: diagnosing acromegaly in a dental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Maitin, Nitin; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-09-03

    Acromegaly is a rare metabolic condition in adults caused due to over secretion of growth hormone mostly due to pituitary gland adenomas.Disproportionate skeletal, tissue and organ growth are characteristic of acromegaly but the changes may be so insidious that most of the times go unnoticed by the patient and family. Craniofacial soft tissue and skeletal changes including mandibular prognathism and disturbed occlusion are typical manifestations of the disease process. Dental professionals may be the first healthcare providers to be visited by these patients and thereby prove instrumental in early diagnosis. Here we report the diagnosis of a case of acromegaly in a dental setup.

  13. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: Set-Up and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    During the research period focus was placed upon set-up, installment, and operation of the IEC. While procurement of specific components was difficult, the IEC was on several occasions demonstrated to be practical and safe during operation. Over the course of the summer several different grids were tested and various modes were obtained. While hard data was not produced, the IEC did something more important, which was to become established here at Marshall and pave the way for future IEC systems to be built.

  14. Interfacing of high temperature Z-meter setup using python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashutosh; Sisodia, Shashank; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we interface high temperature Z-meter setup to automize the whole measurement process. A program is built on open source programming language `Python' which convert the manual measurement process into fully automated process without any cost addition. Using this program, simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient (α), thermal conductivity (κ) and electrical resistivity (ρ), are performed and using all three, figure-of-merit (ZT) is calculated. Developed program is verified by performing measurement over p-type Bi0.36Sb1.45Te3 sample and the data obtained are found to be in good agreement with the reported data.

  15. Estimating Discrete Power Angular Spectra in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    The letter discusses over-the-air (OTA) testing for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on estimating discrete power angular spectrum modeled at the receiver (Rx) side in the test zone. Two techniques based on a uniform circular array (UCA) are proposed to obtain...... accurate direction-of-arrival estimates as well as power estimates of the impinging signals in the test zone. Simulation results match well with the target, as expected. Measurement results based on a virtual UCA in a practical 3-D multiprobe setup further support the simulation results. Possible reasons...... for the deviations between simulations and measurements are also investigated....

  16. Gain in student understanding of the role of random variation in evolution following teaching intervention based on luria-delbruck experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Rachel L; Burns, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Undergraduate students in introductory biology classes are typically saddled with pre-existing popular beliefs that impede their ability to learn about biological evolution. One of the most common misconceptions about evolution is that the environment causes advantageous mutations, rather than the correct view that mutations occur randomly and the environment only selects for mutants with advantageous traits. In this study, a significant gain in student understanding of the role of randomness in evolution was observed after students participated in an inquiry-based pedagogical intervention based on the Luria-Delbruck experiment. Questionnaires with isomorphic questions regarding environmental selection among random mutants were administered to study participants (N = 82) in five separate sections of a sophomore-level microbiology class before and after the teaching intervention. Demographic data on each participant was also collected, in a way that preserved anonymity. Repeated measures analysis showed that post-test scores were significantly higher than pre-test scores with regard to the questions about evolution (F(1, 77) = 25.913, p evolution had no significant effect on gain in understanding of this concept. This study indicates that conducting and discussing an experiment about phage resistance in E. coli may improve student understanding of the role of stochastic events in evolution more broadly, as post-test answers showed that students were able to apply the lesson of the Luria-Delbruck experiment to other organisms subjected to other kinds of selection.

  17. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika, E-mail: kuehnle@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  18. Improvements of the optical detection setup of COLLAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of rare isotopes it is crucial to keep the background of the measurements low. Using photomultiplier tubes for those measurements, the dark count rate should be as low as possible and the signal gain high. Therefore, it is important to use the right type of photomultiplier tubes for the purpose of single photon detection with a low signal rate. Thus, I tested several different types of photomultiplier tubes for their dark count rates and noise to signal separation. The results have identified the most suitable type of photomultiplier tubes, but further measuring for verification might be necessary. Therefore, it is very important to keep the photomultiplier tubes shut from light. Exposing the photocathode to light implies life-long damage and increased background for several days. So far, when dismounting one of these photomultiplier tubes from the setup, a big cage around the optical detection setup was covered into black sheets to keep it as dark as possible inside. Still, th...

  19. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Jääskeläinen, S; Lecoeur, Gérard; Leutz, H; Loos, R; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a Hybrid Photomultiplier Tube especially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the Lead Tungstate crystals that will be a...

  20. A simple DPSS laser setup and experiments for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Antje; Kircher, Sandra; Setzler, Dominik; Gerharz, Miriam; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Advanced optical concepts are often thought to be out of reach when it comes to an experimental demonstration for undergraduates and secondary school students. This is not always true. Here, we discuss the use of a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser based on Nd:YVO4/KTP hybrid crystals, being also at the heart of many green laser pointers, to educate students on multiple modern optical concepts and applications thereof. This concerns not only nonlinear optics, e.g. second harmonic generation, but also laser physics and electromagnetic wave phenomena that occur if light interacts with matter. In this contribution we primarily describe the setup of the simple Nd:YVO4/KTP solid state laser system using hybrid crystals. The setup is integrated into our lab for undergraduates and school students. We show that various experiments on the topics mentioned above can be performed with affordable equipment while investigating some basic laser characteristics. By studying the influence of different surface roughness from various materials on the appearance of laser speckles, students get to know a modern laser application. Furthermore, we describe an experiment on the optical data transfer in free space optical communication: an additional experiment with a high motivational nature.

  1. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  2. Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Fadda, M; Castiglione, A; Ciccone, G; De Francesco, A; Fedele, D; Guggino, A; Parasiliti Caprino, M; Ferrara, S; Vezio Boggio, M; Mengozzi, G; Ghigo, E; Maccario, M; Broglio, F

    2015-12-01

    Food-induced thermogenesis is generally reported to be higher in the morning, although contrasting results exist because of differences in experimental settings related to the preceding fasting, exercise, sleeping and dieting. To definitively answer to this issue, we compared the calorimetric and metabolic responses to identical meals consumed at 0800 hours and at 2000 hours by healthy volunteers, after standardized diet, physical activity, duration of fast and resting. Twenty subjects (age range 20-35 years, body mass index=19-26 kg m(-)(2)) were enrolled to a randomized cross-over trial. They randomly received the same standard meal in the morning and, 7 days after, in the evening, or vice versa. A 30-min basal calorimetry was performed; a further 60-min calorimetry was done 120-min after the beginning of the meal. Blood samples were drawn every 30-min for 180-min. General linear models, adjusted for period and carry-over, were used to evaluate the 'morning effect', that is, the difference of morning delta (after-meal minus fasting values) minus evening delta (after-meal minus fasting values) of the variables. Fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) did not change from morning to evening; after-meal RMR values were significantly higher after the morning meal (1916; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1792, 2041 vs 1756; 1648, 1863 kcal; Pmetabolic pattern of healthy individuals. The timing of meals should probably be considered when nutritional recommendations are given.

  3. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  4. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  5. An unconventional set-up for fluxless brazing of aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to successfully braze aluminium alloy assemblies without the use of oxide-removing fluxes, an evironment with very low contaminant level is mandatory. This is mostly achieved by using a vacuum furnace. Brazing under inert gas of sufficient purity is also possible. The method reported upon here makes use of a stainless steel bag which can enter a traditional air furnace. The bag is evacuated, giving a well distributed mechanical pressure on the parts to join. The intrinsic handicap of poor vacuum is compensated by regular inert gas flushing, even at high temperatures. The set-up works rather well, and the idea is believed to yield a valuable strategic and economic option, for the realization of special equipment as well as for prototyping work. We intend to use the principle for the CMS Preshower cooling screens.

  6. Magnet Test Setup of the CMS Tracker ready for installation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The pieces of the Tracker that will be operated in the forthcoming Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) have been transported inside the dummy tracker support tube to the CMS experimental hall (Point 5, Cessy). The operation took place during the night of 12th May, covering the ~15km distance in about three hours. The transport was monitored for shocks, temperature and humidity with the help of the CERN TS-IC section. The Tracker setup comprises segments of the Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB), the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) and Tracker EndCaps (TEC) detectors. It represents roughly 1% of the final CMS Tracker. Installation into the solenoid is foreseen to take place on Wednesday 17th May.

  7. MULTI SENSOR AND PLATFORMS SETUPS FOR VARIOUS AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To combine various sensors to get a system for specific use became popular within the last 10 years. Metric mid format cameras meanwhile reach the 100 MPix and entered the mapping market to compete with the big format sensors. Beside that also other sensors as SLR Cameras provide high resolution and enter the aerial surveying market for orthophoto production or monitoring applications. Flexibility, purchase-costs, size and weight are common aspects to design multi-sensor systems. Some sensors are useful for mapping while others are part of environmental monitoring systems. Beside classical surveying aircrafts also UL Airplanes, Para/Trikes or UAVs make use of multi sensor systems. Many of them are customer specific while other already are frequently used in the market. This paper aims to show some setup, their application, what are the results and what are the pros and cons of them are.

  8. The new cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baechler, S; Cauwels, P; Dierick, M; Jolie, J; Materna, T; Mondelaers, W

    2002-01-01

    A new cold neutron tomography set-up is operational at the neutron spallation source SINQ of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The detection system is based on a sup 6 LiF/ZnS:Ag conversion screen and a CCD camera. Several tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the tomography system, such as homogeneity, reproducibility, L/D-ratio and spatial resolution. The high flux and the good efficiency of the detector lead to very short exposure times. Thus, a typical set of tomography scans can be performed in only 20 min. Then, 3D computed tomography objects were calculated using the filtered back-projection reconstruction method. Initial results of various samples show that cold neutron tomography can be a useful tool for industry, geology and dentistry. Furthermore, suitable applications can be found in the field of archaeology.

  9. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed based...... on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as material, and different mold temperatures were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the basis...

  10. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup: calibrations and lake test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C [University Stockholm, Fysikum, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Descamps, F [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fischer, J [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hallgren, A [University Uppsala, Department of Radiation Sciences, Box 535, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Heller, R [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S [University Stockholm, Fysikum, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Krieger, K [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Nahnhauer, R [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Pohl, M [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Price, P B [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sulanke, K [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Vandenbroucke, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    In order to detect the small neutrino fluxes expected at ultra-high energies, large volumes of materials have to be instrumented with inexpensive but sensitive acoustic sensors. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) will be installed in the Antarctic ice during the polar season 2006/2007 after which the collected data will be used to reveal the acoustic properties of the South Polar ice cap. The developed piezoceramic based ultrasound sensors and transmitters that are part of this system have been extensively studied during calibration measurements in water, using a commercial hydrophone as reference. Also, a SPATS system test was accomplished in Lake Tornetraesk, Abisko (Sweden). This allowed verification of the DAQ system, transmitter range and sensor performance. Here the results of the calibrations and the Abisko lake measurements are reported.

  11. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup: calibrations and lake test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böser, S.; Bohm, C.; Descamps, F.; Fischer, J.; Hallgren, A.; Heller, R.; Hundertmark, S.; Krieger, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Price, P. B.; Sulanke, K.; Vandenbroucke, J.

    2007-09-01

    In order to detect the small neutrino fluxes expected at ultra-high energies, large volumes of materials have to be instrumented with inexpensive but sensitive acoustic sensors. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) will be installed in the Antarctic ice during the polar season 2006/2007 after which the collected data will be used to reveal the acoustic properties of the South Polar ice cap. The developed piezoceramic based ultrasound sensors and transmitters that are part of this system have been extensively studied during calibration measurements in water, using a commercial hydrophone as reference. Also, a SPATS system test was accomplished in Lake Torneträsk, Abisko (Sweden). This allowed verification of the DAQ system, transmitter range and sensor performance. Here the results of the calibrations and the Abisko lake measurements are reported.

  12. SU-F-I-03: Correction of Intra-Fractional Set-Up Errors and Target Coverage Based On Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Cervical Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, JY [Cancer Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China); Hong, DL [The First Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the patient set-up error and interfraction target coverage in cervical cancer using image-guided adaptive radiotherapy (IGART) with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods: Twenty cervical cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) were randomly selected. All patients were matched to the isocenter using laser with the skin markers. Three dimensional CBCT projections were acquired by the Varian Truebeam treatment system. Set-up errors were evaluated by radiation oncologists, after CBCT correction. The clinical target volume (CTV) was delineated on each CBCT, and the planning target volume (PTV) coverage of each CBCT-CTVs was analyzed. Results: A total of 152 CBCT scans were acquired from twenty cervical cancer patients, the mean set-up errors in the longitudinal, vertical, and lateral direction were 3.57, 2.74 and 2.5mm respectively, without CBCT corrections. After corrections, these were decreased to 1.83, 1.44 and 0.97mm. For the target coverage, CBCT-CTV coverage without CBCT correction was 94% (143/152), and 98% (149/152) with correction. Conclusion: Use of CBCT verfication to measure patient setup errors could be applied to improve the treatment accuracy. In addition, the set-up error corrections significantly improve the CTV coverage for cervical cancer patients.

  13. A comparative study of health status and quality of life of elderly people living in old age homes and within family setup in Raigad District, Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Amonkar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The traditional concept of family in India to provide support to the elderly is changing soon with disintegration of joint families. In this scenario the concept of old age homes (OAHs is gaining momentum and the number of people seeking OAH care is rapidly increasing. However, not much is known about the quality of life (QOL of Indian elderly staying in the OAH setup. Objectives: To assess and compare the Health status, Quality of Life and Depression in elderly people living in OAHs & within family using WHOQOL –OLD questionnaire & Geriatric Depression Scale Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in elderly aged above 60 years of age. After taking a written consent and matching for age and sex & socioeconomic status, 60 elderly from OAHs & 120 elderly living within family setup were selected randomly. The WHOQOL-OLD standard questionnaire & GDS were used to assess quality of life & depression in elderly. Result: The QOL of elderly in domains of autonomy, past present & future activities, social participation and intimacy was better in family setup (60.62, 70.62, 66.14 and 58.43 as compared to OAHs (51.35, 62.91, 59.47and 41.16 (p<0.05. There was statistically significant difference in mean geriatric depression scores of both the group (3.96 within family setup and 5.76 in OAH's. Conclusion: Quality of life of elderly within family setup was better as compared to elderly in OAHs.

  14. Competencies Setup for Nuclear Regulatory Staff in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingish, Panupong; Siripirom, Lopchai; Nakkaew, Pongpan; Manuwong, Theerapatt; Wongsamarn, Vichian [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-05-15

    Competencies setup for regulatory bodies oversee a research reactor and nuclear power reactors in Thailand, concentrating on staff development in areas of review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, authorization, and development of regulations and guides. The regulatory body in Thailand is the Bureau of Nuclear Safety Regulation (BNSR) which belongs to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). The BNSR is divided into 4 groups according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These groups are the nuclear safety administration group, nuclear safety technical support group, nuclear safety assessment and licensing group, and the nuclear installations inspection group. Each group is divided into senior and junior positions. The competencies model was used for implementation of staff qualification, career planning and professional progression by BNSR. Competencies are related to knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform their job. A key issue is obtaining competencies for the regulatory bodies. The systematic approach to training (SAT) has been used in several countries for improvement regulator performance. The SAT contains 5 steps, including analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation, to achieve competencies. The SAT provides a logical progression from the identification of competencies required to perform a job to the design, development and implementation of training using the competencies model. In the first step, BNSR performs an operating analysis of training needs assessment (TNA) by using gap analysis technique, as suggested by IAEA. Individual regulatory bodies address the gap using appropriate training program, after comparing the actual and desired competency profiles to determine the gap. This paper examines competencies setup for regulatory staff of BNSR as a result of gaps analysis to establish a scheme for design characteristics of regulatory staff and training courses, thereby enhancing the regulatory

  15. Examining Crowding Using a Real Three-Dimensional Experimental Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt Lisa Valentina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of impaired recognition of peripherally presented visual targets, when flanked by similar stimuli, is referred to as crowding. Studies in a two-dimensional space have shown that lateral distances are critical: the extent of crowding depends on eccentricity of the target stimulus and on the spacing between target and flanking stimuli. The question of whether also distances in depth affect crowding was until now usually investigated using virtual depth. However, virtual and real depth differ, for example with respect to the accommodation-vergence alignment and to effects of blur. Thus, we made an attempt to study crowding in real depth. In our experimental setup, real depth is implemented by two screens, observed via a semi-transparent mirror. Thus, moving the two screens along the line of sight allows simultaneous stimulus presentation with real depth differences. In a first validation study with 18 participants, a fixation cross was fixed in a depth of 190 cm. Single and flanked Landolt rings were presented in 2° of eccentricity in the same depth as fixation, or in front of (170 cm, or behind (215 cm the fixation depth. Results concerning recognition performance show a similar extent of crowding for flanked targets presented in front of, or behind the fixation depth, and flanked targets in the fixation depth. But, concerning reaction time, the difference between isolated and flanked targets was reduced in defocused depths compared to the fixation depth. That is, reaction time toward flanked targets in the fixation depth was higher than in front of, or behind the fixation depth. With the experimental setup, crowding successfully was induced in different real depths. In further studies, the influence of target and flankers in divergent depths on crowding will be investigated.

  16. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Abu-Jarad, F; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt gamma-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt gamma-rays. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  17. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  18. Introduction to heat transfer test setup for the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; Harms, Thomas M.; von Backström, Theodor W.

    2017-06-01

    The Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) receiver is a novel external tubular metallic central receiver concept. The SCRAP receiver is designed to increase an air-receivers solar-thermal performance. This is aimed to be achieved by enhancing heat transfer to the pressurized air-stream within the absorber assemblies (spikes) by utilizing an internally finned tube geometry. The fin shape is defined to create rectangular ducts as passages for the air flow, therewith a high heat transfer coefficient. The spikes are arranged in such a way that they trap incoming concentrated radiation (reduce reflection losses) and minimize thermal radiation losses from the receiver to ambient. In previous work, the modeling of a SCRAP receiver was discussed on. This included the modeling of the internal air flow and heat transfer within a spike, analysis of the optical characteristics of a SCRAP receiver and the impingement heat transfer capabilities in the spike tip (exposed to the highest flux). Further, analysis of the thermal interaction of spikes with one another and with ambient (convective and radiative heat loss) permitted drawing of first conclusions of the receiver performance potential. To validate the models predicting the pressurized air flow and heat transfer within a spike, an experimental test setup was designed, constructed and built at the heat transfer laboratories at Stellenbosch University. This work introduces the design of the test setup and will discuss preliminary results obtained during its commissioning. From first analysis the predictions made for the pressure drop within the internally finned section appear adequate. The heat transfer behavior will require further detailed analysis to develop sufficient confidence to allow for conclusions. Initial results, however, show good general agreement between measured and simulated data.

  19. Application of flat panel digital imaging for improvement of ocular melanoma patient set-up in proton beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daftari, Inder K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, H1033, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)], E-mail: daftari@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Essert, Timothy [Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Phillips, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, 1600 Divisadero Street, H1033, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    2009-01-11

    In order to reduce the dose to surrounding critical tissues and also minimize the probability of recurrence of the tumor the placement of radiation fields relative to patient anatomy is very essential in proton beam therapy of ocular tumors. To achieve this objective, patient setup and field placement have been verified before treatment by analyzing the portal images obtained with Polaroid film-camera system. The Polaroid films are becoming expensive and obsolete, making new methods of verifying the patient treatment position essential. The objective of this study was to implement an orthogonal flat panel digital imaging (FPDI) system as a tool to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on the UC Davis cyclotron proton beam therapy line and to use the system for patient setup verification. The image quality of the system is sufficient to see an air hole with a diameter of 0.5 mm at a depth of 9 mm, in a 10 cm Lucite phantom. The subject contrast of the FPDI system varied from 16% to 29% by varying the size of the air hole in the phantom from 1 to 5 mm and changing the depth from 9 to 15 mm. The subject contrast for 0.5 mm air hole was 11%. The comparison of the setup variations as measured from Polaroid port films and FPDI was 0.1{+-}0.7 mm in the X-direction, 0.2{+-}0.2 mm in the Y-direction and 0.04{+-}0.1 mm in Z-direction, respectively. The day-to-day positional variations in-patient set-ups were studied for 30 patients using the FPDI system. The patient position set-up on first day of treatment [defined by the X, Y, Z coordinates of the chair and head holder] was registered as the reference image. The comparison of day-to-day patient position with reference image indicated net translation along the three orthogonal axes as 0.3{+-}1.88 mm in right-left direction, -0.3{+-}1.78 in superior-inferior direction and -0.6{+-}2.8 mm in anterior-posterior direction. The image quality of the FPDI system was sufficient to clearly reveal the radio-opaque markers on the

  20. Application of flat panel digital imaging for improvement of ocular melanoma patient set-up in proton beam therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Essert, Timothy; Phillips, Theodore L.

    2009-01-01

    In order to reduce the dose to surrounding critical tissues and also minimize the probability of recurrence of the tumor the placement of radiation fields relative to patient anatomy is very essential in proton beam therapy of ocular tumors. To achieve this objective, patient setup and field placement have been verified before treatment by analyzing the portal images obtained with Polaroid film-camera system. The Polaroid films are becoming expensive and obsolete, making new methods of verifying the patient treatment position essential. The objective of this study was to implement an orthogonal flat panel digital imaging (FPDI) system as a tool to image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) on the UC Davis cyclotron proton beam therapy line and to use the system for patient setup verification. The image quality of the system is sufficient to see an air hole with a diameter of 0.5 mm at a depth of 9 mm, in a 10 cm Lucite phantom. The subject contrast of the FPDI system varied from 16% to 29% by varying the size of the air hole in the phantom from 1 to 5 mm and changing the depth from 9 to 15 mm. The subject contrast for 0.5 mm air hole was 11%. The comparison of the setup variations as measured from Polaroid port films and FPDI was 0.1±0.7 mm in the X-direction, 0.2±0.2 mm in the Y-direction and 0.04±0.1 mm in Z-direction, respectively. The day-to-day positional variations in-patient set-ups were studied for 30 patients using the FPDI system. The patient position set-up on first day of treatment [defined by the X, Y, Z coordinates of the chair and head holder] was registered as the reference image. The comparison of day-to-day patient position with reference image indicated net translation along the three orthogonal axes as 0.3±1.88 mm in right-left direction, -0.3±1.78 in superior-inferior direction and -0.6±2.8 mm in anterior-posterior direction. The image quality of the FPDI system was sufficient to clearly reveal the radio-opaque markers on the digital image. In

  1. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  2. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria eRuffini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT on ANS activity through changes of High Frequency, a heart rate variability index indicating the parasympathetic activity, in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group.Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults, both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in 3 groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920.Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 minutes.Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency rate (p<0.001, and decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency rate (p<0.01; results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p<0.001 and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p<0.05. Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing parasympathetic function and decreasing sympathetic activity, compared to sham therapy and control group.

  3. Variations of high frequency parameter of heart rate variability following osteopathic manipulative treatment in healthy subjects compared to control group and sham therapy: randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, Nuria; D'Alessandro, Giandomenico; Mariani, Nicolò; Pollastrelli, Alberto; Cardinali, Lucia; Cerritelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Context: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicates how heart rate changes in response to inner and external stimuli. HRV is linked to health status and it is an indirect marker of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) function. Objective: To investigate the influence of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) on cardiac autonomic modulation in healthy subjects, compared with sham therapy and control group. Methods: Sixty-six healthy subjects, both male and female, were included in the present 3-armed randomized placebo controlled within subject cross-over single blinded study. Participants were asymptomatic adults (26.7 ± 8.4 y, 51% male, BMI 18.5 ± 4.8), both smokers and non-smokers and not on medications. At enrollment subjects were randomized in three groups: A, B, C. Standardized structural evaluation followed by a patient need-based osteopathic treatment was performed in the first session of group A and in the second session of group B. Standardized evaluation followed by a protocoled sham treatment was provided in the second session of group A and in the first session of group B. No intervention was performed in the two sessions of group C, acting as a time-control. The trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01908920. Main Outcomes Measures: HRV was calculated from electrocardiography before, during and after the intervention, for a total amount time of 25 min and considering frequency domain as well as linear and non-linear methods as outcome measures. Results: OMT engendered a statistically significant increase of parasympathetic activity, as shown by High Frequency power (p < 0.001), expressed in normalized and absolute unit, and possibly decrease of sympathetic activity, as revealed by Low Frequency power (p < 0.01); results also showed a reduction of Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio (p < 0.001) and Detrended fluctuation scaling exponent (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Findings suggested that OMT can influence ANS activity increasing

  4. New Results on the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Wireless Communication Systems over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Kucur, Oğuz

    2012-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to the output statistics of maximal ratio combining (MRC) receiver operating over Nakagami-m fading channels or in other words to the statistical analysis of the scenario where the sum of squared Nakagami-m distributions are user-of-interest, is presented in closed-form in terms of well-known Meijer's G function and easily computable Fox's \\={H} function for integer valued and non-integer valued diversity orders (i.e., m fading parameter of Nakagami fading environment), respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer's G function and Fox's \\={H} function for integer valued diversity orders, and extended Fox's \\={H} function ($\\hat{H}$) for non-integer valued diversity orders. The proposed results complement previous elegant results that are either...

  5. On the Sum of Gamma Random Variates With Application to the Performance of Maximal Ratio Combining over Nakagami-m Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2012-09-08

    The probability distribution function (PDF) and cumulative density function of the sum of L independent but not necessarily identically distributed gamma variates, applicable to maximal ratio combining receiver outputs or in other words applicable to the performance analysis of diversity combining receivers operating over Nakagami-m fading channels, is presented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer valued fading parameters and non-integer valued fading parameters, respectively. Further analysis, particularly on bit error rate via PDF-based approach, too is represented in closed form in terms of Meijer G-function and Fox H-bar-function for integer-order fading parameters, and extended Fox H-bar-function (H-hat) for non-integer-order fading parameters. The proposed results complement previous results that are either evolved in closed-form, or expressed in terms of infinite sums or higher order derivatives of the fading parameter m.

  6. High-resolution arrays reveal burden of copy number variations on Parkinson disease genes associated with increased disease risk in random cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Megha N; Veerappa, Avinash M; Seshachalam, Keshava B; Ramachandra, Nallur B

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurological disease responsible for a considerable rate of mortality and morbidity in the society. Since the symptoms of the disease appear much later than the actual onset of neuron degeneration, a majority of cases remain undiagnosed until the manifestation of the symptoms. In order to investigate the existence of such susceptibility in the population, we analyzed Copy Number Variation (CNV) influences on PD genes in 1715 individuals from 12 different populations. Overall, 16 CNV-PD genes, 3 known to be causal and 13 associated, were found to be significantly enriched. PARK2, was under heavy burden with ~1% of the population containing CNV in the exonic region. The impact of these genes on the genome and disease pathway was analyzed using several genome analysis tools. Protein interaction network of CNV-PD genes revealed a complex interaction of molecules forming a major hub by the α-Synuclein, whose direct interactors, LRRK2, PARK2 and ATP13A2 are under CNV influence. We hypothesize that CNVs may not be the initiating event in the pathogenesis of PD and remain latent until additional secondary hits are acquired and also propose novel genes that may fall under the PD pathway which contribute in pathogenesis.

  7. Variations of petrophysical properties and spectral induced polarization in response to drainage and imbibition: a study on a correlated random tube network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maineult, Alexis; Jougnot, Damien; Revil, André

    2018-02-01

    We implement a procedure to simulate the drainage and imbibition in random, 2-D, square networks. We compute the resistivity index, the relative permeability and the characteristic lengths of a correlated network at various saturation states, under the assumption that the surface conductivity can be neglected. These parameters exhibit a hysteretic behaviour. Then, we calculate the spectral induced polarization (SIP) response of the medium, under the assumption that the electrical impedance of each tube follows a local Warburg conductivity model, with identical DC conductivity and chargeability for all the tubes. We evidence that the shape of the SIP spectra depends on the saturation state. The analysis of the evolution of the macroscopic Cole-Cole parameters of the spectra in function of the saturation also behaves hysteretically, except for the Cole-Cole exponent. We also observe a power-law relationship between the macroscopic DC conductivity and time constant and the relative permeability. We also show that the frequency peak of the phase spectra is directly related to the characteristic length and to the relative permeability, underlining the potential interest of SIP measurements for the estimation of the permeability of unsaturated media.

  8. CLOCK gene variation is associated with incidence of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in type-2 diabetic subjects: dietary modulation in the PREDIMED randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corella, Dolores; Asensio, Eva M; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, José V; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Castañer, Olga; Arós, Fernando; Lapetra, José; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Azorín, Carolina; Fiol, Miquel; Espino, Javier Díez; Díaz-López, Andrés; Fitó, Montserrat; Ros, Emilio; Ordovás, José M

    2016-01-07

    Circadian rhythms regulate key biological processes influencing metabolic pathways. Disregulation is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Circadian rhythms are generated by a transcriptional autoregulatory feedback loop involving core clock genes. CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput), one of those core genes, is known to regulate glucose metabolism in rodent models. Cross-sectional studies in humans have reported associations between this locus and obesity, plasma glucose, hypertension and T2D prevalence, supporting its role in cardiovascular risk. However, no longitudinal study has investigated the association between CLOCK gene variation and T2D or CVD incidence. Moreover, although in a previous work we detected a gene-diet interaction between the CLOCK-rs4580704 (C > G) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and monounsaturated (MUFA) intake on insulin resistance, no interventional study has analyzed gene-diet interactions on T2D or CVD outcomes. We analyzed the association between the CLOCK-rs4580704 SNP and incidence of T2D and CVD longitudinally in 7098 PREDIMED trial (ISRCTN35739639) participants after a median 4.8-year follow-up. We also examined modulation by Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention (high in MUFA) on these associations. We observed a significant association between the CLOCK-rs4580704 SNP and T2D incidence in n = 3671 non-T2D PREDIMED participants, with variant allele (G) carriers showing decreased incidence (dominant model) compared with CC homozygotes (HR: 0.69; 95 % CI 0.54-0.87; P = 0.002). This protection was more significant in the MedDiet intervention group (HR: 0.58; 95 % CI 0.43-0.78; P CLOCK-rs4580704 SNP and T2D status on stroke. Thus, only in T2D subjects was CLOCK-rs4580704 SNP associated with stroke risk, G-carriers having decreased risk (HR: 0.61; 95 % CI 0.40-0.94; P = 0.024 versus CC) in the multivariable-adjusted model. In agreement with our previous results showing a

  9. A setup for the precision measurement of multianode photomultiplier efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaksley, C.; Gorodetzky, P.

    2014-11-01

    In many applications, such as the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence method, the number of photons incident on the detector must be known. This requires a precise knowledge of the absolute efficiency of the photodetectors used. We present an experimental setup for measuring the single photoelectron gain and efficiency of multi-anode photomultipliers with a total uncertainty on the order of a few percent. This precision is obtained by using a comparison to a NIST calibrated photodiode, and the presented method can be applied to both vacuum photomultiplier tubes and other photodetectors. This work is motivated by the need to calibrate the focal surface of the EUSO-Balloon instrument, which is a technical pathfinder for the future JEM-EUSO mission. A complete discussion of photomultiplier calibration is presented and the efficiency measurement technique is discussed in detail. A set of example results are shown in order to illustrate the key points of the method.

  10. A setup for the precision measurement of multianode photomultiplier efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaksley, C., E-mail: blaksley@in2p3.fr; Gorodetzky, P., E-mail: philippe.gorodetzky@cern.ch

    2014-11-11

    In many applications, such as the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence method, the number of photons incident on the detector must be known. This requires a precise knowledge of the absolute efficiency of the photodetectors used. We present an experimental setup for measuring the single photoelectron gain and efficiency of multi-anode photomultipliers with a total uncertainty on the order of a few percent. This precision is obtained by using a comparison to a NIST calibrated photodiode, and the presented method can be applied to both vacuum photomultiplier tubes and other photodetectors. This work is motivated by the need to calibrate the focal surface of the EUSO-Balloon instrument, which is a technical pathfinder for the future JEM-EUSO mission. A complete discussion of photomultiplier calibration is presented and the efficiency measurement technique is discussed in detail. A set of example results are shown in order to illustrate the key points of the method.

  11. Developing a beta source based setup for pixel sensor characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Schouwenberg, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to provide mono-energetic minimum ionizing electrons from a $^{90}$Sr source using a magnetic monochromator, and thus provide a useful tool for in-lab sensor characterization. The monochromator is calibrated using a setup, with a heavy inorganic scintillator and a PMT, which has been calibrated with a $^{22}$Na gamma source. The average energy of the electrons as a function of the current in the monochromator coil is found to be $1.38\\pm0.01$ keV/mA, taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the signal of the PMT. For integration into the pixel sensor test bench, scintillator-counters (a plastic scintillator connected to a PMT) are used. Their response to the electron energies is observed to follow a saturation curve, which leads to a more identical response for high energetic electrons. A preliminary pixel sensor test bench has been set up and properties such as voltage and discriminator settings have been studied as well as count rates for coincidence cou...

  12. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  13. Setup tuning using Lambda and anti-Lambda particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, A

    2013-01-01

    In order to check the general geometry of the DIRAC experiment, we use the $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles that decay in our setup into $p\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^+\\bar{p}$. The Lambda mass is very well determined [1] and comparing the value reconstructed in our data with the published one we can be condent that our geometrical description is correct. The main factors that can influence the value of the Lambda mass are: the position of the Aluminum membrane and the opening angle of the two downstream arms, they will be discussed in this note in section 3. The width of the Lambda mass distribution is another tool that we use to evaluate the resolution of the momentum reconstruction of the particles. There are several factors that can contribute to the momentum reconstruction resolution. The most important are: the multiple scattering in the Aluminum membrane and in the Drift Chambers (DC), the resolution of the DC planes, the alignment of the DC downstream and the multiple scattering in the upstream detectors. ...

  14. The mechanical and thermal setup of the GLORIA spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesch, C.; Sartorius, C.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gulde, T.; Heger, S.; Kretschmer, E.; Maucher, G.; Nordmeyer, H.; Barthel, J.; Ebersoldt, A.; Graf, F.; Hase, F.; Kleinert, A.; Neubert, T.; Schillings, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    The novel airborne Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures infrared emission of atmospheric trace constituents. GLORIA comprises a cooled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, which is operated in unpressurized aircraft compartments at ambient temperature. The whole spectrometer is pointed by the gimbal towards the atmospheric target. In order to reach the required sensitivity for atmospheric emission measurements, the spectrometer optics needs to operate at a temperature below 220 K. A lightweight and compact design is mandatory due to limited space and high agility requirements. The cooled optical system needs to withstand high pressure and temperature gradients, humidity, and vibrations. A new cooling system based on carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen combined with high-performance insulation has been developed to meet the mechanical, thermal, and logistical demands. The challenging mechanical and spatial requirements lead to the development of a novel rigid linear slide design in order to achieve the large optical path difference for high spectral resolution. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal setup of GLORIA and presents the performance results on two different research aircrafts.

  15. P300-based brain computer interface experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Carolina; Garcia, Eliana; Posada, Alejandro; Torres, Robinson

    2009-01-01

    A Brain-Computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that enables the generation of a control signal from brain signals such as sensorymotor rhythms and evoked potentials; therefore, it constitutes a novel communication option for people with severe motor disabilities (such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients). This paper presents the development of a P300-based BCI. This prototype uses a homemade six-channel electroencephalograph for the acquisition of the signals, and a visual stimulation matrix; since this matrix contains letters of the alphabet as well as images associated to them, it permits word-writing and the elaboration of messages with the images. To process the signals the software BCI2000 and MATLAB 7.0 were used. The latter was used to program three linear translation algorithms (Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, Lineal Discriminant Analysis and Least Squares) to convert the brain signals into communication signals. These algorithms had a classification accuracy of 90.73 %, 95.75 % and 89.45 % respectively, when using raw data; and of 90.78%, 49.48 % and 53.9 %, when data was previously common-average filtered. The experimental setup was tested in ten healthy volunteers; 5 of them got a 100% success, 1 a 90% success, 2 an around 70% success and 2 a 50% success, in the online free-spelling tests.

  16. Setup of Galvanic Sensors for the Monitoring of Gilded Bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Goidanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (Rp, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, cannot be applied to gilded bronzes, as it may not be possible to interpret the results obtained due to the bimetallic nature of the studied material. The measurement of the macrocouple current generated by the gold/bronze galvanic couple can be used as an indicator of degradation processes. Nevertheless, this measurement cannot be performed directly on the original artifacts due to the systematic presence of short-circuits between the two metals. In the present work the use of galvanic sensors is proposed as a possible solution for the monitoring of gilded bronze artefacts. The sensors have been designed to simulate real gilded bronze surfaces in terms of composition and stratigraphy and have proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for the in situ monitoring of the rates of deterioration of gilded bronze surfaces and to test new conservation treatments. Their set-up and application is reported and their performances discussed.

  17. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  18. A Low Cost Approach to Large Smart Shelf Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGA, D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years showed a growing interest in the use of RFID technology in applications like distribution and storage of goods, supply chain and inventory. This paper analyses the current smart shelf solutions and presents the experience of developing an automatic reading system for smart shelves. The proposed system addresses the problem of reading RFID tags from items placed on multiple shelves. It allows the use of standard low cost readers and tags and uses a single antenna that can be positioned in specific locations at repeatable positions. The system proposes an alternative to the approaches with multiple antennas placed in fixed position inside the shelf or around the shelves, offering a lower cost solution by means of dedicated electromechanical devices able to carry the antenna and the reader to the locations of interest along a rail system. Moreover, antenna position can be controlled for three axis of movement allowing for extra flexibility and complete coverage of the shelves. The proposed setup is a fully wireless one. It contains a standard reader, electromechanical positioning actuators and wireless communication and control hardware offering power from integrated batteries.

  19. Simulation of the $\\beta$ setup of the SSD group

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Jared

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to first implement a simulation in GEANT4 of the setup used by the SSD group to conduct measurements of the response of silicon detectors to ionizing radiation. This simulation was then compared to theoretical results on energy deposition in silicon sensors of varying thickness by ionizing radiation, as well as measurements of the energy deposition distribution taken using the apparatus being simulated. Simulation was also used to calibrate the trigger, estimating that a peak trigger signal of 1V corresponds to an energy deposited of 0.744 MeV. It was found that for the most probable value (MPV) of the energy deposition distribution, simulation coincides with theory within 5%, but the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) is underestimated by 15%. Measurements were conducted on a 280$\\mu$m sensor and compared to simulation. The MPV was 10% lower in observation than simulation, and the FWHM was 10-15% higher.

  20. Development of a Low Cost MQL Setup for Turning Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Sumaiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of MQL application on the tool wear, surface roughness and chip formation in turning Aluminum alloy 6061 is investigated. Experiments were carried out by plain turning of an Aluminum bar with varying depth of cut, cutting speeds (spindle speed and cutting environments (Dry, Wet and MQL. A newly designed, cost efficient and portable MQL setup was developed for this study. For each experimental trial, five passes were carried out in order to promote the formation of tool wear. After each pass, the tool surface was examined under a microscope and the surface roughness was measured using a stylus based surface tester. The extent of tool wear from each pass is measured by using ImageJ software. Chips were collected after the five passes and were physically examined. The newly designed MQL delivery system was successful in delivering a fine mist of lubricant at the cutting point. MQL lubrication provided lower surface roughness and tool wear values compared to wet and dry conditions due to effective temperature reduction and improved lubrication penetration of cutting zones, as well as better chip flushing. Chip formed under MQL conditions had reduced chip thickness due to reduced temperatures. MQL was found to have the greatest positive impact on tool wear and surface roughness parameters based on ANOVA results.

  1. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, Y. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Berdermann, J. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Bissok, M. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bohm, C. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Boeser, S.; Bothe, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Carson, M. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Descamps, F., E-mail: Freija.Descamps@icecube.wisc.edu [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinen, D. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Helbing, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Heller, R. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Karg, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Krieger, K. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Laihem, K.; Meures, T. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2012-08-11

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  2. Status of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Descamps, F [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fischer, J [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hallgren, A [Uppsala University, Lagerhyddsvagen, Uppsala (Sweden); Heller, R [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Krieger, K [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Nahnhauer, R [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Pohl, M [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Price, B [University of Berkeley, California (United States); Sulanke, K [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Vandenbroucke, J [University of Berkeley, California (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Due to the low flux of ultra-high energetic neutrinos induced in interactions of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background, very large instrumented volumes and new registration techniques are necessary for their detection. The south polar ice offers the unique opportunity to implement existing Cherenkov techniques as well as registration of radio and acoustic waves from the neutrino interaction. A simulation of a {approx} 120 km{sup 3} hybrid optical/radio/acoustic detector showed that event rates of {approx} 10 per year can be achieved. In this simulation the ultrasonic parameters of antarctic ice regarding absorption, scattering and environmental noise pose the key uncertainty. To evaluate the acoustic properties in-situ, the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been created. An array of custom-made ultrasonic sensors and transmitters will be deployed on three strings in the upper 400 m of the holes of the IceCube experiment. The status of the experiment and a first evaluation of its performance are presented here.

  3. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  4. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croese, Elsemiek; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Marshall, Ian P G; Spormann, Alfred M; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2 synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design (large versus small) including electrode material and flow path and in carbon source provided at the cathode (bicarbonate or acetate). A hydrogenase gene-based DNA microarray (Hydrogenase Chip) was used to analyze hydrogenase genes present in the three large setups. The small setups showed dominant groups of Firmicutes and two of the large setups showed dominant groups of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The third large setup received acetate but no sulfate (no sulfur source). In this setup an almost pure culture of a Promicromonospora sp. developed. Most of the hydrogenase genes detected were coding for bidirectional Hox-type hydrogenases, which have shown to be involved in cytoplasmatic H2 production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Setup Time Reduction On Solder Paste Printing Machine – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Dhake

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing envisages the reduction of the seven deadly wastes referred to as MUDA. Setup time forms a major component of the equipment downtime. It leads to lower machine utilization and restricts the output and product variety. This necessitates the requirement for quick setups. Single Minute Exchange of Die philosophy (a lean manufacturing tool here after referred as “SMED” is one of the important tool which aims at quick setups driving smaller lot sizes, lower production costs, improve productivity in terms of increased output, increased utilization of machine and labor hours, make additional capacity available (often at bottleneck resources, reduce scrap and rework, and increase flexibility[3]. This paper focuses on the application of Single Minute Exchange of Die[1] and Quick Changeover Philosophy[2] for reducing setup time on Solder Past Printing Machine (bottleneck machine in a electronic speedo-cluster manufacturing company. The four step SMED philosophy was adopted to effect reduction in setup time. The initial step was gathering information about the present setup times and its proportion to the total productive time. A detailed video based time study of setup activities was done to classify them into external and internal setup activities in terms of their need (i.e. preparation, replacement or adjustment, time taken and the way these could be reduced, simplified or eliminated. The improvements effected were of three categories viz., mechanical, procedural and organizational. The paper concludes by comparing the present and proposed (implemented methods of setup procedures.

  6. Multi-Block Enhancement for Lagrangian Dendritic Mesh setup in Altair5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Rodney W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15

    Initial mesh setup for an ASC mUlti-physics code at LANL is done using Altair5. Altair5 assumes that the final mesh is composed of logical structured mesh blocks linked together at mesh boundaries to form, ultimately, an unstructured mesh. Within these blocks, meshes may have dendrites, that is, local regions where two zones share common edges (in two-dimensions, or faces in three-dimensions) with a single zone. In many cases, contiguous subsets of the initial set of blocks may have the same material assigned to them, but without smoothing the mesh would form a computationally challenging initial mesh. Some of these blocks may also have zones with nodes on domain boundaries. This paper reports on the implementation of multiblock smoothing in Altair5, which allows for dendrites and for moving boundary nodes. Dendritic nodes are constrained to be located at the average of their neighbor nodes while boundary nodes are constrained to move along the boundary geometry. Two fundamentally different smoothing methods were implemented. First, a variational principle is presented that balances zonal size and distortion via a user selected weighting with constraints imposed using penalty methods for dendritic nodes and Lagrange multipliers for boundary nodes. Second, the Laplace-Beltrami smoother is presented. This is a general elliptic smoother which can easily be modified to give Laplacian and Winslow-Crowley mesh smoothing. Results are shown for several test meshes of interest.

  7. Determination of a setup correction function to obtain adsorption kinetic data at stagnation point flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Maria F; Nejadnik, M Reza; Baylon-Cardiel, Javier L; Giacomelli, Carla E; Garcia, Carlos D

    2010-06-01

    This paper is the first report on the characterization of the hydrodynamic conditions in a flow cell designed to study adsorption processes by spectroscopic ellipsometry. The resulting cell enables combining the advantages of in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry with stagnation point flow conditions. An additional advantage is that the proposed cell features a fixed position of the "inlet tube" with respect to the substrate, thus facilitating the alignment of multiple substrates. Theoretical calculations were performed by computational fluid dynamics and compared with experimental data (adsorption kinetics) obtained for the adsorption of polyethylene glycol to silica under a variety of experimental conditions. Additionally, a simple methodology to correct experimental data for errors associated with the size of the measured spot and for variations of mass transfer in the vicinity of the stagnation point is herein introduced. The proposed correction method would allow researchers to reasonably estimate the adsorption kinetics at the stagnation point and quantitatively compare their results, even when using different experimental setups. The applicability of the proposed correction function was verified by evaluating the kinetics of protein adsorption under different experimental conditions. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, M [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Baroni, G [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Spadea, M F [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tagaste, B [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Garibaldi, C [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Cambria, R [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R [Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Pedotti, A [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  9. Digital Image Correlation accuracy: influence of kind of speckle and recording setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaneau A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Image Correlation (DIC is a popular optical technique which allows the measurement of displacement and strain fields on an object surface showing a random speckle pattern. To use its extension to 3D cases (called Digital Volume Correlation, DVC, it is often necessary to include particles in the material in order to have a sufficient contrast. However, as these particles are more rigid than the material, it is not sure that the correlation technique is able to follow exactly strains on the speckle pattern made of powder. As the digital recording process by CCD camera and correlation algorithms are the same between 2D and 3D cases, this study is then conducted in 2D cases in order to show the influence of the powder in the speckle pattern on the evaluation of displacement by DIC linked to the choice of the type of interpolation, of CCD cameras and lighting. In displacement tests, only the recording setup seems to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. For strain experiments, powder has an effect on strain measurements over 10%.

  10. The possibility to use 'energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ket, and polyethylene shielding. 2. Experimental set-up. The 'energy plus transmutation' set-up was designed for transmutation studies in high-energy neutron fluxes. It consists of a cylindrical lead target (diameter 84 mm, length 480 mm) surrounded by a sub-critical uranium blanket. The target and blanket are divided into ...

  11. Remote monitoring of implantable pacemakers: in-office setup significantly improves successful data transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiushui; Apostolakos, Christina; Vo, Thuy Hong; Shaw, Richard E; Shields, Korey; Banki, Nader M; Zuckermann, Douglas W; Flint, Alexander C; Hongo, Richard H; Goldschlager, Nora F

    2013-10-01

    Remote wireless follow-up of implanted pacemakers (PM) has become an attractive method of follow-up. Although wireless PM follow-up has several advantages compared with transtelephonic and office-based follow-up, its utility depends on successful transmission. Initial in-office setup of wireless PM will improve transmission rate as compared with home setup. A total of 202 consecutive patients from 2 medical centers were included in this retrospective study. Patients in the home setup group (N = 101) had traditional home setup of wireless PM, whereas patients in the in-office group (N = 101) had setup of PMs by allied health professionals during the postoperative office visit. Successful transmission was defined as successful initial wireless transmission of PM data by 2 months postimplant. Of the 101 patients in the home setup group, 22 (22%) patients had successful transmission. Of the 101 patients in the in-office group, 92 (91%) patients had successful transmission (P transmission (odds ratio: 114.5; 95% confidence interval: 32.1-408.4; P data transmission, initial home setup of the wireless monitoring device was frequently unsuccessful. In-office PM setup was associated with a significantly higher rate of successful transmission. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C. G.; Larsen, B. H.; Andresen, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding...

  13. Design of excitation signals for active system monitoring in a performance assessment setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how the excitation signal should be chosen for a active performance setup. The signal is used in a setup where the main purpose is to detect whether a parameter change of the controller has changed the global performance significantly. The signal has to be able to excite t...

  14. Performance of velocity vector estimation using an improved dynamic beamforming setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    Estimation of velocity vectors using transverse spatial modulation has previously been presented. Initially, the velocity estimation was improved using an approximated dynamic beamformer setup instead of a static combined with a new velocity estimation scheme.(1) A new beamformer setup for dynami...

  15. On SIP Session setup delay for VoIP services over correlated fading channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam S.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the session setup delay of the session initiation protocol (SIP) is studied. The transmissions on both the forward and reverse channel are assumed to experience Markovian errors. The session setup delay is evaluated for different transport protocols, and with the use of the radio l...

  16. Wall heat transfer coefficient in a molten salt bubble column: testing the experimental setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available reactors that are highly exothermic or endothermic. This paper presents the design and operation of experimental setup used for measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in molten salt media. The experimental setup was operated with tap water, heat...

  17. Advanced Test Method of Solid Oxide Cells in a Plug-Flow Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of two electrolysis tests of solid oxide cells [Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-YSZ-lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ] tested in a plug-flow setup. An extensively instrumented cell test setup was used, and the tests involved measurements of the cell...

  18. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    dimensions of the over-the-air (OTA) setups for the performance evaluation of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) BSs in anechoic chambers with multiple probes. Setup dimension is the major cost factor in the test systems and is thus the key issue to be investigated. The purpose is to determine...

  19. The Residual Setup Errors of Different IGRT Alignment Procedures for Head and Neck IMRT and the Resulting Dosimetric Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graff, Pierre [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Radiation-Oncology, Alexis Vautrin Cancer Center, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy (France); Doctoral School BioSE (EA4360), Nancy (France); Kirby, Neil [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Weinberg, Vivian [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Department of Biostatistics, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S. [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Lambert, Louise [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Radiation-Oncology, Montreal University Centre, Montreal (Canada); Pouliot, Jean, E-mail: jpouliot@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation-Oncology, Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. Results: The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Conclusions: Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid

  20. The residual setup errors of different IGRT alignment procedures for head and neck IMRT and the resulting dosimetric impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Pierre; Kirby, Neil; Weinberg, Vivian; Chen, Josephine; Yom, Sue S; Lambert, Louise; Pouliot, Jean

    2013-05-01

    To assess residual setup errors during head and neck radiation therapy and the resulting consequences for the delivered dose for various patient alignment procedures. Megavoltage cone beam computed tomography (MVCBCT) scans from 11 head and neck patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy were used to assess setup errors. Each MVCBCT scan was registered to its reference planning kVCT, with seven different alignment procedures: automatic alignment and manual registration to 6 separate bony landmarks (sphenoid, left/right maxillary sinuses, mandible, cervical 1 [C1]-C2, and C7-thoracic 1 [T1] vertebrae). Shifts in the different alignments were compared with each other to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences. Then, the dose distribution was recalculated on 3 MVCBCT images per patient for every alignment procedure. The resulting dose-volume histograms for targets and organs at risk (OARs) were compared to those from the planning kVCTs. The registration procedures produced statistically significant global differences in patient alignment and actual dose distribution, calling for a need for standardization of patient positioning. Vertically, the automatic, sphenoid, and maxillary sinuses alignments mainly generated posterior shifts and resulted in mean increases in maximal dose to OARs of >3% of the planned dose. The suggested choice of C1-C2 as a reference landmark appears valid, combining both OAR sparing and target coverage. Assuming this choice, relevant margins to apply around volumes of interest at the time of planning to take into account for the relative mobility of other regions are discussed. Use of different alignment procedures for treating head and neck patients produced variations in patient setup and dose distribution. With concern for standardizing practice, C1-C2 reference alignment with relevant margins around planning volumes seems to be a valid option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. A modified transmission tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) setup provides access to opaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Richter, Marc; Knebel, Detlef; Jähnke, Torsten; Jankowski, Tilo; Stock, Erik; Deckert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy enables chemical characterization of surfaces at highest spatial resolution. This so-called tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be employed for a variety of samples where a label-free characterization or identification of constituents on the nanometer scale is pursued. Present TERS setup geometries are always a compromise for specific dedicated applications and show different advantages and disadvantages: Transmission back-reflection setups, when using immersion objectives with a high numerical aperture, intrinsically provide the highest collection efficiency but cannot be applied for opaque samples. Those samples demand upright setups, at the cost of lower collection efficiency, even though very efficient systems using a parabolic mirror for illumination and collection have been demonstrated. In this contribution it is demonstrated that the incorporation of a dichroic mirror to a transmission TERS setup provides easy access to opaque samples without further modification of the setup.

  2. Designing of monitoring setup for vibration signature analysis of steam turbine driven high capacity rotary screw compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyne, T.; Vinod, J. [Birla VXL Ltd., Porbandar (India)

    1997-12-31

    Tracking the behaviour by signature analysis of machines like Screw Compressor having large number of auxiliaries, high power transmissions, variation of process gas properties, changes of load condition, fluctuating revolutions is truly a challenging job. These unavoidable process conditions often disturb the whole setup and there is every possibility to miss important and relevant information. Standards for overall monitoring as well as for peak-amplitudes responsible for root cause identification are not always available because these machines are `custom designed` and manufacturer`s standards are of paramount importance to consider. The health of these machines cannot be assessed by simply comparing with the international standards unlike most common machines such as fans, pumps, motors etc. with minimum number of auxiliaries. There may also be limitations in the features of the instruments used for the purpose. In this presentation, an attempt has been made to setup a monitoring approach for screw compressor which will help the industries initially setting base-line data to implement vibration analysis based off-line predictive maintenance programme either with the help of an analyser or with a latest software. (orig.) 3 refs.

  3. Comparison of six electromyography acquisition setups on hand movement classification tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano; Tagliapietra, Luca; Cognolato, Matteo; Reggiani, Monica; Müller, Henning; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-01-01

    Hand prostheses controlled by surface electromyography are promising due to the non-invasive approach and the control capabilities offered by machine learning. Nevertheless, dexterous prostheses are still scarcely spread due to control difficulties, low robustness and often prohibitive costs. Several sEMG acquisition setups are now available, ranging in terms of costs between a few hundred and several thousand dollars. The objective of this paper is the relative comparison of six acquisition setups on an identical hand movement classification task, in order to help the researchers to choose the proper acquisition setup for their requirements. The acquisition setups are based on four different sEMG electrodes (including Otto Bock, Delsys Trigno, Cometa Wave + Dormo ECG and two Thalmic Myo armbands) and they were used to record more than 50 hand movements from intact subjects with a standardized acquisition protocol. The relative performance of the six sEMG acquisition setups is compared on 41 identical hand movements with a standardized feature extraction and data analysis pipeline aimed at performing hand movement classification. Comparable classification results are obtained with three acquisition setups including the Delsys Trigno, the Cometa Wave and the affordable setup composed of two Myo armbands. The results suggest that practical sEMG tests can be performed even when costs are relevant (e.g. in small laboratories, developing countries or use by children). All the presented datasets can be used for offline tests and their quality can easily be compared as the data sets are publicly available.

  4. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    in the optical system, enabling minimal exposure times and high-temporal resolution capabilities. The setup uses a customized engineered diffuser to transmit a constant radiance within a limited angular range such that radiant intensity is maximized while fulfilling the lighting criteria for optimal beam......This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where...... attenuation caused by refractive index gradients by an order of magnitude compared to previous high-temporal resolution setups....

  5. 350 keV accelerator-based neutron transmission setup at KFUPM for hydrogen detection

    CERN Document Server

    Naqvi, A; Maslehuddin, M; Kidwai, S; Nassar, R

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup has been developed to determine hydrogen contents of bulk samples using fast neutron transmission technique. Neutrons with 3 MeV energy were produced via D(d, n) reaction. The neutrons transmitted through the sample were detected by a NE213 scintillation detector. Preliminary tests of the setup were carried out using soil samples with different moisture contents. In addition to experimental study, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to generate calibration curve of the experimental setup. Finally, experimental tests results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. A good agreement has been obtained between the simulation results and experimental results.

  6. An economic production model for time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model for time dependent demand with multiple productions and rework setups. Production is demand dependent and greater than the demand rate. Production facility produces items in m production setups and one rework setup (m, 1 policy. The major reason of reverse logistic and green supply chain is rework, so it reduces the cost of production and other ecological problems. Most of the researchers developed a rework model without deteriorating items. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is shown to describe the model.

  7. A versatile setup using femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yujie, E-mail: styojm@physics.tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sokolov, Alexei V. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The setup uses a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator source and a folded 4f pulse shaper, in which the pulse shaping is carried out through conventional optical elements and does not require a spatial light modulator. Our setup is simple in alignment, and can be easily switched between the collinear single-beam and the noncollinear two-beam configurations. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and reflected signals, respectively.

  8. Building and commissioning of a setup to study ageing phenomena in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: aabuhoza@kacst.edu.sa [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    In high-rate heavy-ion experiments, gaseous detectors encounter big challenges in terms of degradation of their performance due to a phenomenon called ageing. A setup for high precision ageing studies has been constructed and commissioned at the GSI detector laboratory. The setup as well as the gas system have been carefully optimized to reach a high sensitivity for ageing effects. Two different materials have been examined for their influence on gaseous detectors: RTV-3145 and Gerband 705. The details of the construction of the ageing test setup and the test results will be presented.

  9. SU-E-CAMPUS-T-01: Analysis of the Precision of Patient Set-Up, and Fidelity of the Delivered Dose Distribution in Proton Therapy of Ocular Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trofimov, A; Carpenter, K; Shih, HA [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify daily set-up variations in fractionated proton therapy of ocular melanomas, and to assess the effect on the fidelity of delivered distribution to the plan. Methods: In a typical five-fraction course, daily set-up is achieved by matching the position of fiducial markers in orthogonal radiographs to the images generated by treatment planning program. A patient maintains the required gaze direction voluntarily, without the aid of fixation devices. Confirmation radiographs are acquired to assess intrafractional changes. For this study, daily radiographs were analyzed to determine the daily iso-center position and apparent gaze direction, which were then transferred to the planning system to calculate the dose delivered in individual fractions, and accumulated dose for the entire course. Dose-volume metrics were compared between the planned and accumulated distributions for the tumor and organs at risk, for representative cases that varied by location within the ocular globe. Results: The analysis of the first set of cases (3 posterior, 3 transequatorial and 4 anterior tumors) revealed varying dose deviation patterns, depending on the tumor location. For anterior and posterior tumors, the largest dose increases were observed in the lens and ciliary body, while for the equatorial tumors, macula, optic nerve and disk, were most often affected. The iso-center position error was below 1.3 mm (95%-confidence interval), and the standard deviation of daily polar and azimuthal gaze set-up were 1.5 and 3 degrees, respectively. Conclusion: We quantified interfractional and intrafractional set-up variation, and estimated their effect on the delivered dose for representative cases. Current safety margins are sufficient to maintain the target coverage, however, the dose delivered to critical structures often deviates from the plan. The ongoing analysis will further explore the patterns of dose deviation, and may help to identify particular treatment scenarios

  10. Influence of contrast-enhanced ultrasound administration setups on microbubble enhancement: a focus on pediatric applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael R; Bhagat, Nishi; Back, Susan J; Poznick, Laura; Forsberg, Flemming; Darge, Kassa; Eisenbrey, John R

    2017-09-11

    In pediatrics, contrast-enhanced ultrasound offers high-quality imaging with an excellent safety profile. To investigate the effects of varying intravenous administration setups on in vitro enhancement and concentration of two commercially available ultrasound contrast agents, taking into consideration potential pediatric applications. We quantified in vitro enhancement using a flow phantom (ATS Laboratories, Bridgeport, CT) and Acuson S3000 ultrasound system (Siemens Healthineers, Mountain View, CA) with a 9L4 probe in Cadence pulse sequencing mode. We determined microbubble concentration with an LSRII flow cytometer (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA). We investigated Optison (GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ) and Lumason (Bracco, Geneva, Switzerland) ultrasound contrast agents. The ultrasound (US) contrast agent was injected via a 1 mL syringe and flushed with 5 mL of saline through a 22-gauge diffusion catheter (BD Medical, Franklin Lakes, NJ) with the following variations: in-line injection through a 3-way stopcock with and without a neutral displacement connector (ICU Medical, San Clemente, CA), perpendicular through a 3-way stopcock with and without a connector, and without a 3-way stopcock. We also conducted injections through a 22-gauge standard angiocatheter. Injection through the connector and perpendicular injection via the 3-way stopcock resulted in significant decreases in enhancement for both ultrasound contrast agents (P0.24) nor use of a pediatric diffusion catheter (P>0.28) affected the enhancement. Ultrasound contrast agent enhancement depends on the administration route, although some effects appear to be specific to the ultrasound contrast agent used. To avoid loss of enhancement, neutral displacement connectors and perpendicular injection should be avoided.

  11. Experiencing variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Berge, Maria; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes towards a better understanding of learning dynamics in doctoral supervision by analysing how learning opportunities are created in the interaction between supervisors and PhD students, using the notion of experiencing variation as a key to learning. Empirically, we have bas...... were discussed, created more complex patterns of variation. Both PhD students and supervisors can learn from this. Understanding of this mechanism that creates learning opportunities can help supervisors develop their competences in supervisory pedagogy....

  12. Integrated Diagnostic/Prognostic Experimental Setup for Capacitor Degradation and Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes the experiments and setups for studying diagnosis and prognosis of electrolytic capacitors in DC-DC power converters. Electrolytic capacitors and...

  13. Pragmatic setup for bioparticle responses by dielectrophoresis for resource limited environment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Anuar Md; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Kayani, Aminuddin Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Various dielectrophoretic responses of bioparticles, including cell-chain, spinning, rotation and clustering, are of high interest in the field due to their benefit into application for biomedical and clinical implementation potential. Numerous attempts using sophisticated equipment setup have been studied to perform those dielectrophoretic responses, however, for development into resource limited environment application, such as portable, sustainable and environmental friendly diagnostic tools, establishment of pragmatic setup using standard, non-sophisticated and low-cost equipment is of important task. Here we show the advantages in the judicious design optimization of tip microelectrode, also with selection of suspending medium and optimization of electric signal configuration in establishing setup that can promote the aforementioned dielectrophoretic responses within standard equipments, i.e. pragmatic setup.

  14. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Gustav K H; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  15. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H.; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  16. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  17. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a c...

  18. Design of an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, Mårten; Yuen, Katarina; Goude, Anders; Lalander, Emilia; Leijon, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A hydro-kinetic energy project has been underway in Sweden since 2000, and an in-stream prototype setup for experiments at a site in a Swedish river is now in progress. The system comprises a vertical axis turbine and a directly driven permanent magnet generator. Methods and choices used in designing the system are described here. The turbine and generator are evaluated based on measurements and CFD simulations of conditions at the site for the experimental setup.

  19. Method and apparatus for checking the stability of a setup for making reflection type holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, H. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for checking the stability of a setup for recording reflection-type (white light) holograms. Two sets of interference fringes are simultaneously obtained, one giving information about coherence and stability of the setup alone and the other demonstrating coherence of the entire system, including the holographic recording plate. Special emphasis is given to the stability of the plate, due to the fact that any minute vibration might severely degrade or completely destroy the recording.

  20. PREDICTING SEQUENCE DEPENDENT SET-UP TIMES FOR MULTISTATION MACHINES (A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Reinecke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The set-up time for jobs on some multi-station machines , such as manually configured colour printers, are sequence dependent. Many techniques exist for fmding a sequence in which to process the jobs to reduce total set-up time significantly. They all require an estimate ofthe set-up time for each job given the set-up ofthe previous job. In practice predicting set-up times for scheduling purposes may become prohibitively time consuming. In this article a practical technique is presented that estimates the set-up time for ajob on a multi-station machine, such as a manually configured printer. An application in a corrugated cardboard box factory, where the technique is in use as part of a computerised scheduling system, is discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die opsteltyd vir take op sommige veelstasie masjiene, soos handgekonfigureerde kleurdrukkers, is . volgorde afhanklik. Vele tegnieke bestaan om die volgorde te bepaal waarin take geprosesseer moet word om opsteltyd beduidend te verminder. Al die tegnieke vereis die opsteltyd van die volgende taak, gegewe die opsteltyd van die voorgaande taak. In die praktyk mag raming van opsteltye vir skeduleringsdoeleindes onhanteerbaar lank neem. In hierdie artikel word 'n praktiese tegniek beskryf wat die opsteltyd beraarn vir vir 'n taak op 'nveelstasie masjien, soos 'n handgekonfigureerde drukpers. 'n Toepassing in 'n riffelkartondoos fabriek , waar die tegniek toegepas word as deel van 'n gerekenariseerde skeduleringsisteem, word bespreek.

  1. Assessment of the setup dependence of detector response functions for mega-voltage linear accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Christopher; Simon, Tom; Simon, Bill; Dempsey, James F.; Kahler, Darren; Palta, Jatinder R.; Liu Chihray; Yan Guanghua [Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); NRE, 202 Nuclear Science Building, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118300, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 and Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Sun Nuclear Inc., 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); ViewRay Inc., 2 Thermo Fisher Way, Oakwood Village, Ohio 44146 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Accurate modeling of beam profiles is important for precise treatment planning dosimetry. Calculated beam profiles need to precisely replicate profiles measured during machine commissioning. Finite detector size introduces perturbations into the measured profiles, which, in turn, impact the resulting modeled profiles. The authors investigate a method for extracting the unperturbed beam profiles from those measured during linear accelerator commissioning. Methods: In-plane and cross-plane data were collected for an Elekta Synergy linac at 6 MV using ionization chambers of volume 0.01, 0.04, 0.13, and 0.65 cm{sup 3} and a diode of surface area 0.64 mm{sup 2}. The detectors were orientated with the stem perpendicular to the beam and pointing away from the gantry. Profiles were measured for a 10x10 cm{sup 2} field at depths ranging from 0.8 to 25.0 cm and SSDs from 90 to 110 cm. Shaping parameters of a Gaussian response function were obtained relative to the Edge detector. The Gaussian function was deconvolved from the measured ionization chamber data. The Edge detector profile was taken as an approximation to the true profile, to which deconvolved data were compared. Data were also collected with CC13 and Edge detectors for additional fields and energies on an Elekta Synergy, Varian Trilogy, and Siemens Oncor linear accelerator and response functions obtained. Response functions were compared as a function of depth, SSD, and detector scan direction. Variations in the shaping parameter were introduced and the effect on the resulting deconvolution profiles assessed. Results: Up to 10% setup dependence in the Gaussian shaping parameter occurred, for each detector for a particular plane. This translated to less than a {+-}0.7 mm variation in the 80%-20% penumbral width. For large volume ionization chambers such as the FC65 Farmer type, where the cavity length to diameter ratio is far from 1, the scan direction produced up to a 40% difference in the shaping

  2. Variational analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rockafellar, R Tyrrell

    1998-01-01

    From its origins in the minimization of integral functionals, the notion of 'variations' has evolved greatly in connection with applications in optimization, equilibrium, and control. It refers not only to constrained movement away from a point, but also to modes of perturbation and approximation that are best describable by 'set convergence', variational convergence of functions and the like. This book develops a unified framework and, in finite dimension, provides a detailed exposition of variational geometry and subdifferential calculus in their current forms beyond classical and convex analysis. Also covered are set-convergence, set-valued mappings, epi-convergence, duality, maximal monotone mappings, second-order subderivatives, measurable selections and normal integrands. The changes in this 3rd printing mainly concern various typographical corrections, and reference omissions that came to light in the previous printings. Many of these reached the authors' notice through their own re-reading, that of th...

  3. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  4. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  5. Enhanced wavefront reconstruction by random phase modulation with a phase diffuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival F; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2011-01-01

    propagation in free space. The presentation of this technique is carried out using two setups. In the first setup, a diffuser plate is placed at the image plane of a metallic test object. The benefit of randomizing the phase of the object wave is the enhanced intensity recording due to high dynamic range...... of the diffusely scattered beam. The use of demagnification optics will also allow the investigations of relatively large objects. In the second setup, a transparent object is illuminated using a wavefront with random phase and constant amplitude by positioning the phase diffuser close to the object. The benefit...

  6. Field Observations and Model Predictions of Wave Transformation, Setup, Runup, and Turbulence on a Macro-tidal Beach, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J.; Shin, S.; Jun, K.; Shim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Surf-zone wave dynamics are one of important driving forces in coastal morphology by inducing beach erosions and sediment transports in inter-tidal shallow water areas, due to active wave breaking, energetic turbulence and violent near-bed velocities. Morphological beach changes are also considerably associated with other surf-zone hydro-dynamics such as nearshore wave transformation, water levels, wave run-up, set-up and coastal currents. In earlier studies, the COBRAS model (a RANS model, developed by Lin and Liu of Cornell University) has been used to investigate such beach processes with reasonable success, mostly, in wave dominant micro-tidal environments. The model solves the RANS equations using VOF method and k-epsilon closure scheme. Recently, intensive field experiments were carried out at a macro-tide environment (i.e. the Mallipo sand beach located in the west coast of Korea, having a large inter-tidal range of 7 m to investigate the complicated surf zone hydro-dynamics under interactions of coastal waves, strong tidal currents, and nearshore bathymetries. The field observation data are used to evaluate the capability of the RANS model to predict the cross-shore variations of free surface, wave set-up, wave run-up, and velocities on the Mallipo Beach. Since the dataset of water surface elevations includes both waves and tides, the COBRAS model was tried to simulate waves accompanied with tidal currents. The measured water surface elevation data were divided into wave and tidal components, in order to be used as inputs of the model. Comparisons of the measurements and the predictions show (1) performance of the model for the wave transformation, wave set-up, and wave run-up on the macro-tidal beach, (2) predictive capability for the turbulence closure scheme in the surf and swash zones, and (3) overall skills to predict under-tows and tidal currents. Acknowledgement This work was supported by the KORDI (Grant PE98572, PE98573 and PM56300). This work was

  7. SU-F-T-519: Is Geometry Based Setup Sufficient for All of the Head and Neck Treatment Cases?: A Feasibility Study Towards the Dose Based Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Xu, H; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compares the geometric-based setup (GBS) which is currently used in the clinic to a novel concept of dose-based setup (DBS) of head and neck (H&N) patients using cone beam CT (CBCT) of the day; and evaluates the clinical advantages. Methods: Ten H&N patients who underwent re-simulation and re-plan due to noticeable anatomic changes during the course of the treatments were retrospectively reviewed on dosimetric changes in the assumption of no plan modification was performed. RayStation planning system (RaySearch Laboratories AB, Sweden) was used to match (ROI fusion module) between prescribed isodoseline (IDL) in the CBCT imported along with ROIs from re-planned CT and the IDL of original plan (Dose-based setup: DBS). Then, the CBCT plan based on daily setup using the GBS (previously used for a patient) and the DBS CBCT plan recalculated in RayStation compared against the original CT-sim plan. Results: Most of patients’ tumor coverage and OAR doses got generally worsen when the CBCT plans were compared with original CT-sim plan with GBS. However, when DBS intervened, the OAR dose and tumor coverage was better than the GBS. For example, one of patients’ daily average doses of right parotid and oral cavity increased to 26% and 36%, respectively from the original plan to the GBS planning. However, it only increased by 13% and 24%, respectively with DBS. GTV D95 coverage also decreased by 16% with GBS, but only 2% decreased with DBS. Conclusion: DBS method is superior to GBS to prevent any abrupt dose changes to OARs as well as PTV/CTV or GTV at least for some H&N cases. Since it is not known when the DBS is beneficial to the GBS, a system which enables the on-line DBS may be helpful for better treatment of H&N.

  8. Multimodal optical setup based on spectrometer and cameras combination for biological tissue characterization with spatially modulated illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Daniel; Abookasis, David

    2017-04-01

    The application of optical techniques as tools for biomedical research has generated substantial interest for the ability of such methodologies to simultaneously measure biochemical and morphological parameters of tissue. Ongoing optimization of optical techniques may introduce such tools as alternative or complementary to conventional methodologies. The common approach shared by current optical techniques lies in the independent acquisition of tissue's optical properties (i.e., absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) from reflected or transmitted light. Such optical parameters, in turn, provide detailed information regarding both the concentrations of clinically relevant chromophores and macroscopic structural variations in tissue. We couple a noncontact optical setup with a simple analysis algorithm to obtain absorption and scattering coefficients of biological samples under test. Technically, a portable picoprojector projects serial sinusoidal patterns at low and high spatial frequencies, while a spectrometer and two independent CCD cameras simultaneously acquire the reflected diffuse light through a single spectrometer and two separate CCD cameras having different bandpass filters at nonisosbestic and isosbestic wavelengths in front of each. This configuration fills the gaps in each other's capabilities for acquiring optical properties of tissue at high spectral and spatial resolution. Experiments were performed on both tissue-mimicking phantoms as well as hands of healthy human volunteers to quantify their optical properties as proof of concept for the present technique. In a separate experiment, we derived the optical properties of the hand skin from the measured diffuse reflectance, based on a recently developed camera model. Additionally, oxygen saturation levels of tissue measured by the system were found to agree well with reference values. Taken together, the present results demonstrate the potential of this integrated setup for diagnostic and

  9. After retrospective evaluation of the SETUP rate change during the treatment of head and neck cancer patient with Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Young; Kim, Seung Jun; Hwang, Cheol Hwan; Son, Jong Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Retrospective evaluation of setup changes using the corrected position during helical tomotherapy. Head and neck cancer patients were randomly sampled and summarized into 3 groups: Group 1(32) Brain, Group 2 2(28)Maxillar, Nasal cavity, Group 3 (35) Nasopharynx(NPX), Tongue, Tonsil, and Oropharynx(OPX). In 3 groups, the statistical tests based on repeated measurements among 30 times of the duration of treatment by applying X, Y, Z axis errors, roll, weight changes, and vectors as variables. The statistical test results showed that there was no difference between x-axis (p = 0.458) and y-axis (p=0.986) and in roll (p = 0.037), weight change (p <0.001), and the vector (p <0.001). In addition, the pattern between the three groups based on the fraction revealed no difference in x-axis (p = 0.430) and roll (p = 0.299) but a difference in y-axis (.023), weight change (p = 0.001), and vector (p = 0.028). The results of the retrospective evaluation found the change in the group 3 with respect Y, Z, weight, and vector and a larger random error during the treatment including low neck.

  10. Development of a fatigue testing setup for dielectric elastomer membrane actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Rizzello, G.; Seelecke, S.

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE's) represent a transduction technology with high potential in many fields, including industries, due to their low weight, flexibility, and small energy consumption. For industrial applications, it is of fundamental importance to quantify the lifetime of DE technology, in terms of electrical and mechanical fatigue, when operating in realistic environmental conditions. This work contributes toward this direction, by presenting the development of an experimental setup which permits systematic fatigue testing of DE membranes. The setup permits to apply both mechanical and electrical stimuli to several membranes simultaneously, while measuring at the same time their mechanical (force, deformation) and electrical response (capacitance, resistance). In its final state, the setup will allow to test up to 15 DE membranes at the same time for several thousands of cycles. Control of the modules, monitoring of the actuators, and data acquisition are realized on a cRio FPGA-system running with LabVIEW. The setup is located in a climate chamber, in order to investigate the fatigue mechanisms at different environmental conditions, i.e., in terms of temperature and humidity. The setup consists of two main parts, namely a fatigue group and a measurement group. The fatigue group stays permanently in the climate chamber, while the measurement group is assembled to the fatigue group and allows to perform measurements at 20°C.

  11. Performance improvement of keV Neutrons-based PGNAA setups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Abdelmonem, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Misned, Ghada [Girls Education College, Riyadh Girls Colleges, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, Hanan [Girls Education College, Riyadh Girls Colleges, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-12-15

    The performance of keV neutrons based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setups have been observed to improve by enclosing its neutron source inside the moderator. The keV neutrons were produced via {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and {sup 3}H(p,n) reactions. For the two PGNAA setups, the maximum intensity of the prompt {gamma}-ray yield was observed for a 5 cm long moderator with the neutron source positioned at a distance of 0.5 cm from the moderator-end facing the sample. Due to enclosing the source inside the moderator, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and {sup 3}H(p,n) reaction based PGNAA setups have increased by a factor of three as compared to that achieved from these setups with the source outside the moderator. This study provides a theoretical basis for the measurement of performance of {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and the {sup 3}H(p,n) reaction based PGNAA setups.

  12. A compact multi-chamber setup for degradation and lifetime studies of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A controlled atmosphere setup designed for long-term degradation studies of organic solar cells under illumination is presented. The setup was designed with ease-of-use and compactness in mind and allows for multiple solar cells distributed on four glass substrates to be studied in four different...... chambers with temperature and atmosphere control. The four chambers are situated at close proximity in the setup thereby allowing the solar cells to be subjected to as uniform an illumination distribution as possible for the given solar simulator employed. The cell substrates serve as the front window...... and present a tight seal. Hence no illumination correction needs to be performed due to transmission and reflection losses as otherwise seen with test chambers employing a window as a seal. The solar cells in each chamber are continuously and individually electrically monitored under biased conditions...

  13. An in-line shearography setup based on circular polarization gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Pascal; Piron, Pierre; Renotte, Yvon; Habraken, Serge

    2013-09-01

    The shearing amount defines the resolution of a speckle shearing interferometer and the shearing direction defines the sensitivity direction of the setup. The properties of circular (cycloid) holographic polarization gratings recorded in liquid crystal polymers can be used to build a new multi-shearing direction and amount shearography setup. The polarization states of the diffracted beams offer an easy way to produce phase shifts and thus to compute the phase contained in the shearograms. The theoretical bases of such a device are highlighted and an original compact and full in-line setup is proposed. First experimental results of delamination detection and flaw detection by shearography are presented. A discussion on the importance of the grating recording and the polarization orientation points out the best working requirements.

  14. A dedicated AMS setup for medium mass isotopes at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, M.; Altenkirch, R.; Feuerstein, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Hackenberg, G.; Herb, S.; Bhandari, P.; Heinze, S.; Stolz, A.; Dewald, A.

    2017-09-01

    AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, e.g. of 53Mn and 60Fe, are gaining interest in various fields of operation, especially geoscience. Therefore a dedicated AMS setup has been built at the Cologne 10 MV FN tandem accelerator. This setup is designed to obtain a sufficient suppression of the stable isobars at energies around 100 MeV. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the new setup and the first in-beam tests of its individual components. The isobar suppression is done with (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils with an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) and a time of flight (ToF) system, as well as a (dE/dx),E gas ionization detector. Furthermore, the upgraded ion source and its negative ion yield measurement for MnO- are presented.

  15. Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model for three type imperfect items with rework and learning in setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindum Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect quality Items are unavoidable in an Inventory system due to imperfect productionprocess, natural disasters, damages, or many other reasons. The setup cost and production cycletime can be related in terms of process deterioration and learning and forgetting effects. Learningreduces production run length and setup cost, whereas deterioration and forgetting increases both.Keeping these facts in mind, this paper investigates an Economic Production Quantity (EPQ modelwith imperfect quality items with varying set-up costs. Mathematical model and solution proceduresare developed with major insight to its charecteristics. Numerical example and sensitivity analysisare provided to illustrate and analyze the model performance. It is observed that our model has asignificant impacts on the optimal lot size and optimal profit of the model.

  16. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  17. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahé, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Plaçais, B.; Fève, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  18. Minimizing SIP Session Re-Setup Delay over Wireless Link in 3G Handover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Bongkyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay in transmitting SIP messages over the wireless link for session resetup at handover is still major bottleneck for interactive multimedia service. In this paper, a proxy agent-based scheme is proposed to minimize the SIP session setup delay over a wireless link in 3G inter-subnet handover scenarios. This scheme is based on the two characteristics. One is that the major factor of SIP session re-setup delay is generally caused by the retransmissions in the unreliable wireless links, and the other is that most of the fields in request messages as well as response messages are duplicated when a set of SIP messages are exchanged during session re-setup procedure. In this scheme, no change is required in the SIP message processing except for the proxy agents in both BS and MH.

  19. Mathematical Model of the Electronuclear Set-Up on the Beam of the JINR Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Kumawat, H; Lobanova, V A

    2004-01-01

    On the base of the Monte Carlo code CASCADE, developed at JINR, a mathematical model of the deep-subcritical set-up with uranium blanket used in experiments underway at JINR using a 0.6-4 GeV proton beam, is created. The neutron spectra, yields and energies of generated particles are calculated and compared for several modifications of the set-up. The influence of paraffin and graphite moderators on the characteristics of particles escaping lead target is studied. The modelled set-up can be considered as a first step to experiments with the designed at JINR U-Pu ADS SAD with heat power of several tens of kW.

  20. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, Alexander R.; Thurn, Jan; Zuber, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  1. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-15

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced {sup 11}C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  2. Development of group setup strategies for makespan minimization in PCB assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, I.O.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Balancing setup effort and actual production time is an important issue in medium-variety, medium-volume printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. By grouping batches of similar PCB types to be processed with a common machine setup, the total time required for setting up the component feeders...... in the magazine of the placement machine can be reduced. On the other hand, the assembly times per PCB increase, since it is no longer possible to optimise the feeder locations in the magazine for each PCB type individually. In order to balance the savings in setup time and the increase in assembly time...... and to minimise the global makespan, we propose efficient grouping procedures which include machine-specific algorithms for fine-tuning the machine operations for a group of PCBs. Hence, the actual placement times are reflected much more accurately, compared with conventional grouping procedures which merely...

  3. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Petrucci, Alessia [University of Florence, Department of Radiation Oncology, Florence (Italy); Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Tibor [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie bestand darin, den Einfluss verschiedener Herangehensweisen bei der Einstellung einer

  4. First measurements at the DAPHINE phi-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Egger, J P; Gartner, B; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M A; King, R; Lauss, B; Petrascu, C; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DAPHINE e sup + e sup - collider was investigated using the first-stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy.

  5. Design of a setup for {sup 252}Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hei, Daqian [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Zhuang, Haocheng [Xi’an Middle School of Shanxi Province, Xi’an 710000 (China); Jia, Wenbao, E-mail: jiawenbao@163.com [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China); Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 252}Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg {sup 252}Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  6. Setup time reduction in a CNC production facility through redesign of jigs and fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pei Xian; Prakash, Joshua; Lai, Koon Chun

    2017-11-01

    In CNC manufacturing, jigs and fixtures function to arrange workpiece in a definite position or prevent misalignment during machining operations. The case study of this research is conducted in company `X', where a high demand product `Y' `consists of three machining steps, with the first step as the bottleneck. The setup time for first step of product `Y' was studied carefully and analyzed to identify underlying problems. Few suggestions were proposed in order to simplify or eliminate the bottleneck setup procedure, involving the redesigning of jigs and fixtures to eliminate multiple leveling and alignment procedure. Three recommendations for future research are proposed in the last section.

  7. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated...... temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow...

  8. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small......OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...

  9. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe technologies facilitating the set-up of automated assembly solutions which have been developed in the context of the IntellAct project (2011–2014). Tedious procedures are currently still required to establish such robot solutions. This hinders especially the automation...... of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  10. Equilibrium Customer Strategies in the Queue with Threshold Policy and Setup Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the equilibrium behavior of customers in the M/M/1 queue with N policy and setup times. The server is shut down once the system is empty and begins an exponential setup time to start service again when the number of customers in the system accumulates the threshold N  (N≥1. We consider the equilibrium threshold strategies for fully observable case and mixed strategies for fully unobservable case, respectively. We get various performance measures of the system and investigate some numerical examples of system size, social benefit, and expected cost function per unit time for the two different cases under equilibrium customer strategies.

  11. The application of random phase filter in the image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiujuan; Zhong, Mei; Shao, Zhufeng

    2016-03-01

    We define one kind of new correlation, i.e. random phase correlation, which based on the Random Fourier Transform (RFT). An optical pattern recognition system, random phase filtering, is given according to random phase correlation. Furthermore its electro-optical setup is given for the application in image recognition. By the numerical simulation on computer, when the, we have found the proposed random phase filter can recognize the small change of object image and has higher recognition capability comparing of other three conventional correlators, the classical marched filter, the phase-only filter and the pure phase correlator.

  12. High-resolution continuous-flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) continuous-flow measurements and provide metrics defining the performance of the setup during a major ice core measurement campaign (Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution; RICE). We also use the metrics to compare alternate systems. Our setup is the first continuous-flow laser spectroscopy system that is using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research, LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze water samples from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotope Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to (1) enable measurements on several water standards, (2) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time and (3) reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the continuous-flow analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The custom setups provide a shorter response time (~ 54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~ 62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the custom setups have a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the custom and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the custom 2013 setup the precision after integration times of 103 s is 0.060 and 0.070 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. The corresponding σAllan values for the custom 2014 setup are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043 ‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042 ‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the custom setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The

  13. Development of a New Downscale Setup for Wheel-Rail Contact Experiments under Impact Loading Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Petrov, R.H.; Sietsma, J.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new downscale test rig is developed for investigating the contact between the wheel and rail under impact-like loading conditions. This paper presents the development process of the setup, including review and synthesis of the potential experimental techniques, followed by scalability, mechanical

  14. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results...

  15. Experimental Evaluation of MIMO Terminals with User Influence in OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    channel models in a practical 3D multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup. A terminal mock-up, operating at 2.55 GHz, together with a realistic user phantom was used, and channel models with different spatial and polarization profiles, DUT with different operation modes and orientation angles were tested....

  16. Setup and performance of RHIC for the 2008 run with deuteron-gold collisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner,C.; Abreu, N.P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bai, M.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    This year (2008) deuterons and gold ions were collided in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the first time since 2003. The setup and performance of the collider for the 2008 run is reviewed with a focus on improvements that have led to an order of magnitude increase in luminosity over that achieved in the 2003 run.

  17. Estimating Setup of Piles Driven into Louisiana Clayey Soils : Tech Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or freeze...

  18. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years : that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or free...

  19. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow...

  20. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. Tania Guha Prosenjit Ghosh. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 623-638 ...

  1. Classifying and modeling setups and cleanings in lot sizing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, Bryndis; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Much attention in the lot sizing and scheduling literature has been focused on reducing the number and size of setups. Cleanings, in contrast, remain a key cost driver in large parts of the process industries such as the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Here, quality and safety considerations lead

  2. Development of a Penning trap based set-up for precision tests of the standard model.

    CERN Document Server

    Delauré, Bavo

    This work has presented the development and realization of the WITCH set-up, which is designed to measure the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions originating in nuclear -decay. The spectral shape reveals the angular correlation between the neutrino and the -particle, which is sensitive to the nature of the weak interaction, i.e. possible scalar or tensor type contributions. In order to allow detection of the low energy recoil ions, the set-up is equipped with a Penning trap which is in principle able to confine ions of each element in a scattering free environment. This storage device for the radioactive source is coupled to a retardation spectrometer, which performs the energy analysis of the recoil ions and has a solid angle acceptance of almost 2. The setup is installed at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At present, the set-up installation is close to completion and commissioning of the apparatus has started. A first experiment with a radioactive beam is planned for the second half of 2004. In order to c...

  3. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where...

  4. GRAPhEME: a setup to measure (n, xn γ) reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Greg; Bacquias, A.; Capdevielle, O.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A. [Nat. Inst. Of Phys. And Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Drohe, J.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Nyman, M. [EU/ JRC-IRMM, Geel (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Most of nuclear reactor developments are using evaluated data base for numerical simulations. However, the considered databases present still large uncertainties and disagreements. To improve their level of precision, new measurements are needed, in particular for (n, xn) reactions, which are of great importance as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. The IPHC group started an experimental program to measure (n, xn gamma) reaction cross sections using prompt gamma spectroscopy and neutron energy determination by time of flight. Measurements of (n, xn gamma) cross section have been performed for {sup 235,238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup nat,182,183,184,186}W, {sup nat}Zr. The experimental setup is installed at the neutron beam at GELINA (Geel, Belgium). The setup has recently been upgraded with the addition of a highly segmented 36 pixels planar HPGe detector. Significant efforts have been made to reduce radiation background and electromagnetic perturbations. The setup is equipped with a high rate digital acquisition system. The analysis of the segmented detector data requires a specific procedure to account for cross signals between pixels. An overall attention is paid to the precision of the measurement. The setup characteristic and the analysis procedure will be presented along with the acquisition and analysis challenges. Examples of results and their impact on models will be discussed. (authors)

  5. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  6. Automated extraction of DNA and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Stangegaard, Michael

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler mounted with the TeMagS magnetic separation device. The methods were validated for accredited, forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen Mag...

  7. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, Elsemiek; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Marshall, Ian P.G.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  8. View of the WA3 set-up from upstream the beam entering the hydrogen target.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Amsterdam-CERN-Cracow-Munich-Oxford-Rutherford (ACCMOR)Collaboration set-up this experiment in the H1 beam of West Hall to study a variety of exclusive hadron reactions over a wide kinematic range up to 100 GeV/c incident momentum.

  9. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F A

    2002-01-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has bee...

  10. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-jarad, F

    2002-10-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the calculations.

  11. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  12. Controlling Mechatronic Set-up Using Real-time Linux and CTC ++

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.; Stramigioli, S.

    2002-01-01

    The development of control software for mechatronic systems is presented by means of a case study: a 2 DOF mechanical rotational set-up usable as a camera-positioning device. The control software is generated using the code generation facility of 20-SIM, thus guaranteeing the generated code being

  13. A Demonstration Setup to Simulate Detection of Planets outside the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan, W.; Ketpichainarong, W.; Laosinchai, P.; Panijpan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a simple demonstration setup to simulate an extrasolar planet and its star revolving around the system's centre of mass. Periodic dimming of light from the star by the transiting planet and the star's orbital revolution simulate the two major ways of deducing the presence of an exoplanet near a distant star. Apart from being a…

  14. A setup for measuring characteristics of microwave electric vacuum devices with open resonance structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Ruban, A. I.; Vorob’ev, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    A new modification of the universal experimental setup for measuring electrodynamic characteristics of microwave generators with open resonance structures of the orotron–diffraction-radiation-generator type is described. To expand the functional capabilities and the electronic frequency-tuning ra...

  15. Recreating Riser Slugging Flow Based on an Economic Lab-sized Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    As a kind of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions, due to its limitation of production rate, periodic overload processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergent shutdown. This work studies the emulation of the riser slugg...... slug model, besides extensive experimental tests. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this simple setup can recreate the key features of slugging flow phenomenon reasonably precise, and it serves as a good platform for further slug control study.......As a kind of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions, due to its limitation of production rate, periodic overload processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergent shutdown. This work studies the emulation of the riser...... slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production, by constructing an economical lab-sized setup in the university campus. Firstly, the construction and used components for the lab setup are illustrated; then, the constructed setup is validated by checking the consistency with some existing typical riser...

  16. Investigation of self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes using beam on elastic foundation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self healing of asphalt mixes is known for more than four decades. However, it is a complex phenomenon which depends on the duration of the rest period, temperature, crack size, etc. In order to quantify the self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes, a test setup was proposed in this research using an

  17. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  18. Setup and Performance of the RHIC Injector Accelerators for the 2005 Run with Copper Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Chris J; Alessi, James; Benjamin, John; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph M; Brown, Kevin A; Carlson, Charles; De Long, Joseph; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Marr, Gregory J; Morris, John; Roser, Thomas; Severino, Freddy; Smith, Kevin T; Steski, Dannie; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Zaltsman, Alex; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Copper ions for the 2005 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of this chain of accelerators will be reviewed.

  19. Evolutionary algorithms for scheduling a flowshop manufacturing cell with sequence dependent family setups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franca, PM; Gupta, JND; Mendes, AS; Moscato, P; Veltink, KJ

    This paper considers the problem of scheduling part families and jobs within each part family in a flowshop manufacturing cell with sequence dependent family setups times where it is desired to minimize the makespan while processing parts (jobs) in each family together. Two evolutionary algorithms-a

  20. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  1. HW/SW Design Space Exploration on the Production Cell Setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Welch, P.H.; Roebbers, H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Barnes, F.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and compares five CSP based and two CSP related process-oriented motion control system implementations that are made for our Production Cell demonstration setup. Five implementations are software-based and two are FPGA hardware-based. All implementations were originally made

  2. Tools and Setups for Experiments with AC and Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several…

  3. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croesea, E.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Marshall, I.P.G.; Spormann, A.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Geelhoed, J.S.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2 synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  4. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...

  5. Optimal sensor placement for multi-setup modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Maes, Kristof; De Roeck, Guido; Reynders, Edwin; Papadimitriou, Costas; Lombaert, Geert

    2017-08-01

    Modal tests on large structures are often performed in multiple setups for practical reasons. Several sensors are kept fixed as reference sensors over all setups, while the other, so called roving sensors, are moved from one setup to another. This paper develops an optimal sensor placement strategy for multi-setup modal identification, which simultaneously optimizes the locations of the reference sensors and roving sensors. As an optimality criterion, the Information Entropy is adopted, which is a scalar measure of uncertainty in the Bayesian framework. The focus in the application goes to repetitive structures where modes typically occur in clusters, with closely spaced natural frequencies and similar wavelengths. The proposed strategy is illustrated for selecting optimal positions of uni-axial sensors for a repetitive frame structure. The influence of the number of reference sensors and two strategies for positioning roving sensors, i.e. a cluster and a uniform distribution of roving sensors, are investigated. The number of reference sensors is found to be preferably equal to or larger than the number of modes to be identified. In this case, the information content, as quantified by the Information Entropy, is not very sensitive to the roving sensor strategy. If less reference sensors are used, it is highly preferred to distribute the roving sensors uniformly over the structure instead of clustering them. The proposed strategy has been validated by an experimental modal test on a floor of an office building of KU Leuven, which has a nearly repetitive structural layout. The results show how optimally locating sensors allows extracting more information from the data. Though the focus is on applications involving repetitive structures, the proposed strategy can be applied to multi-setup modal identification of any large structure.

  6. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia; Poulsen, Per; Parikh, Parag

    2016-03-01

    In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often implanted near tumors and used for patient positioning and respiratory gating purposes. These markers are then used to manually align the patients by matching the markers in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction to those in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is 1.3+/- 1.0 mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution A (8 patients, 40 fractions), the DP algorithm increased the delivery accuracy (96+/- 6% versus 91+/- 11% , p  manual setup using kV fluoroscopy. For non-gated patients from Institution B (6 patients, 16 fractions), the DP algorithm performed similarly (1.5+/- 0.8 mm versus 1.6+/- 0.9 mm, p  =  0.48) compared to the manual setup matching the fiducial markers in the CBCT to the mean position. Our proposed automated patient setup algorithm only takes 1-2 s to run, requires no user intervention, and performs as well as or better than the current clinical setup.

  7. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy on setup errors during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozdemir, Yurday [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare shifts by group. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation of couch shifts between groups. Mean prostate shifts and standard deviations (SD) were calculated and pooled to obtain mean or group systematic error (M), SD of systematic error (Σ), and SD of random error (σ). No significant differences were observed in prostate shifts in any direction between the groups. Shifts on CBCT were all less than setup margins. A significant positive correlation was observed between prostate volume and the z-direction prostate shift (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), regardless of ADT group, but not between volume and x- or y-direction shifts (r = 0.04, p = 0.7; r = 0.03, p = 0.7). Random and systematic errors for all patient cohorts and ADT groups were similar. Hormone therapy given concurrently with RT was not found to significantly impact setup errors. Prostate volume was significantly correlated with shifts in the anterior-posterior direction only. (orig.) [German] Ziel war zu untersuchen, ob Konfigurationsfehler bei der externen Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms durch die Kombination aus Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) und RT beeinflusst werden. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 175 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelten Patienten

  8. Variation-aware advanced CMOS devices and SRAM

    CERN Document Server

    Shin, Changhwan

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary issues in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) device design, describing how to overcome process-induced random variations such as line-edge-roughness, random-dopant-fluctuation, and work-function variation, and the applications of novel CMOS devices to cache memory (or Static Random Access Memory, SRAM). The author places emphasis on the physical understanding of process-induced random variation as well as the introduction of novel CMOS device structures and their application to SRAM. The book outlines the technical predicament facing state-of-the-art CMOS technology development, due to the effect of ever-increasing process-induced random/intrinsic variation in transistor performance at the sub-30-nm technology nodes. Therefore, the physical understanding of process-induced random/intrinsic variations and the technical solutions to address these issues plays a key role in new CMOS technology development. This book aims to provide the reade...

  9. Set-up and first operation of a plasma oven for treatment of low level radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtrodt Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental device for plasma treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste was built and tested in several design variations. The laboratory device is designed with the intention to study the general effects and difficulties in a plasma incineration set-up for the further future development of a larger scale pilot plant. The key part of the device consists of a novel microwave plasma torch driven by 200 W electric power, and operating at atmospheric pressure. It is a specific design characteristic of the torch that a high peak temperature can be reached with a low power input compared to other plasma torches. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the effect of the plasma on materials typical for operational low-level wastes. In some preliminary cold tests the behavior of stable volatile species e. g., caesium was investigated by TXRF measurements of material collected from the oven walls and the filtered off-gas. The results help in improving and scaling up the existing design and in understanding the effects for a pilot plant, especially for the off-gas collection and treatment.

  10. Actual target coverage after setup verification using surgical clips compared with external skin markers in postoperative breast cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Salm, Anke; Murrer, Lars; Steenbakkers, Inge; Houben, Ruud; Boersma, Liesbeth J

    After changing from offline setup verification to online setup verification using external skin markers in breast cancer patients, we noticed an increase in localized acute skin toxicity beneath the markers. Also, in vivo 3-dimensional dose measurements showed deviations between the delivered and the planned dose distributions; therefore, we investigated the accuracy of setup verification using surgical clips in the tumor bed, with a focus on target coverage of whole breast and tumor bed. Orthogonal kilovoltage images were acquired before every fraction in 35 breast cancer patients, deriving an online 3-dimensional setup error by matching on external skin markers. In retrospect, a rematch was performed using surgical clips. For 155 fractions (ie, 5-6 fractions/patient), a cone beam computed tomography (CT) scan was available. Analysis concerned: (1) visibility of the clips, (2) migration of the clips, (3) comparison of setup errors according to both match methods, and (4) comparison of target coverage by recalculating the dose on the online setup-corrected cone beam CT scan with the patient setup according to both match methods. External validation of the surgical clip-based online setup verification was performed in 23 patients by analyzing kilovoltage images of 100 fractions, obtained after treatment. All types of surgical clips could be visualized. The clip to center-of-mass distance decreased on average by 2 mm (standard deviation, 1) over the course of treatment. Setup differences between match methods were on average validation in 23 patients showed reassuring setup errors verification using surgical clips results in comparable setup corrections and target volume coverage as verification using skin markers. By omitting skin markers acute skin toxicity beneath the markers is prevented. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calculation errors of Set-up in patients with tumor location of prostate. Exploratory study; Calculo de errores de Set-up en pacientes con localizacion tumoral de prostata. Estudio exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis Gil, S.; Robayna Duque, B. E.; Jimenez Sosa, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Gonzalez Martin, A. E.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    The calculation of SM is done from errors in positioning (set-up). These errors are calculated from movements in 3D of the patient. This paper is an exploratory study of 20 patients with tumor location of prostate in which errors of set-up for two protocols of work are evaluated. (Author)

  12. Integrated trimodal SSEP experimental setup for visual, auditory and tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Rafał; Spustek, Tomasz; Zieleniewska, Magdalena; Duszyk, Anna; Rogowski, Piotr; Suffczyński, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), the brain responses to repetitive stimulation, are commonly used in both clinical practice and scientific research. Particular brain mechanisms underlying SSEPs in different modalities (i.e. visual, auditory and tactile) are very complex and still not completely understood. Each response has distinct resonant frequencies and exhibits a particular brain topography. Moreover, the topography can be frequency-dependent, as in case of auditory potentials. However, to study each modality separately and also to investigate multisensory interactions through multimodal experiments, a proper experimental setup appears to be of critical importance. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a novel SSEP experimental setup providing a repetitive stimulation in three different modalities (visual, tactile and auditory) with a precise control of stimuli parameters. Results from a pilot study with a stimulation in a particular modality and in two modalities simultaneously prove the feasibility of the device to study SSEP phenomenon. Approach. We developed a setup of three separate stimulators that allows for a precise generation of repetitive stimuli. Besides sequential stimulation in a particular modality, parallel stimulation in up to three different modalities can be delivered. Stimulus in each modality is characterized by a stimulation frequency and a waveform (sine or square wave). We also present a novel methodology for the analysis of SSEPs. Main results. Apart from constructing the experimental setup, we conducted a pilot study with both sequential and simultaneous stimulation paradigms. EEG signals recorded during this study were analyzed with advanced methodology based on spatial filtering and adaptive approximation, followed by statistical evaluation. Significance. We developed a novel experimental setup for performing SSEP experiments. In this sense our study continues the ongoing research in this field. On the

  13. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo: public virtual reality setup for asymmetric collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  14. Estimation of random bending strain using a scanning laser vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, R. N.; Xu, Y.; Bao, W.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented which were obtained from vibration measurements at discrete locations on a randomly excited structure to estimate the power spectral density of bending strain. The technique is intended to be applied using a scanning laser vibrometer to allow a non-contacting measurement of random bending strain over the surface of a structure. The experimental setup is described along with the data analysis procedure. The results presented here indicate that the method is practical and can lead to reliable estimates.

  15. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  16. A containerless levitation setup for liquid processing in a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Meng; Yin, Da-Chuan; Li, Hai-Sheng; Geng, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Wei-Hong; Shang, Peng; Wakayama, Nobuko I

    2008-09-01

    Containerless processing of materials is considered beneficial for obtaining high quality products due to the elimination of the detrimental effects coming from the contact with container walls. Many containerless processing methods are realized by levitation techniques. This paper describes a containerless levitation setup that utilized the magnetization force generated in a gradient magnetic field. It comprises a levitation unit, a temperature control unit, and a real-time observation unit. Known volume of liquid diamagnetic samples can be levitated in the levitation chamber, the temperature of which is controlled using the temperature control unit. The evolution of the levitated sample is observed in real time using the observation unit. With this setup, containerless processing of liquid such as crystal growth from solution can be realized in a well-controlled manner. Since the levitation is achieved using a superconducting magnet, experiments requiring long duration time such as protein crystallization and simulation of space environment for living system can be easily succeeded.

  17. A simple and reliable setup for monitoring corrosion rate of steel rebars in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation.

  18. First measurements at the DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsburger, M. [Fribourg Univ., Fribourg (Switzerland). Inst. de Physiqe, Bd. de Perolles; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Petrascu, C.; Iliescu, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of High Energy Physics; Egger, J.-P. [Neuchatel Univ., Neuchatel, (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Gartner, B.; Zmeskal, J.; King, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien, (Austria). Inst. for Medium Energy Physics; Guaraldo, C.; Lauss, B [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    1999-07-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X-rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DA{phi}NE e{sup +} e{sup -} collider was investigated using the first stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy.

  19. Versatile setup for optical spectroscopy under high pressure and low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michaël K.; Levallois, Julien; Akrap, Ana; Teyssier, Jérémie; Kuzmenko, Alexey B.; Lévy-Bertrand, Florence; Tediosi, Riccardo; Brandt, Mehdi; Lerch, Philippe; van der Marel, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    We present an optical setup for spectroscopic measurements in the infrared and of Raman shift under high pressure and at low temperature. Using a membrane-driven diamond anvil cell, the pressure can be tuned in situ up to 20 GPa and the temperatures ranges from room temperature down to 18 K in transmission mode and 13 K in reflection mode. In transmission, the setup is entirely working under vacuum to reduce the water absorption features and obtain a higher spectral stability. Since the infrared throughput obtained with a thermal source is limited, the use of a synchrotron source allowed to enhance the performance, as illustrated with results obtained with various materials. The analysis of the reflectivity is adapted so that it benefits from ambient pressure data and produces quantitative optical conductivity curves that can be easily compared to the results at ambient pressure.

  20. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  1. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  2. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  3. Development of a TOF SIMS setup at the Zagreb heavy ion microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadić, Tonči [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bogdanović Radović, Iva, E-mail: iva@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Siketić, Zdravko; Cosic, Donny Domagoj; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) setup for MeV SIMS application, which is constructed and installed at the heavy ion microbeam facility at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The TOF-SIMS setup is developed for high sensitivity molecular imaging using a heavy ion microbeam that focuses ion beams (from C to I) with sub-micron resolution. Dedicated pulse processing electronics for MeV SIMS application have been developed, enabling microbeam-scanning control, incoming ion microbeam pulsing and molecular mapping. The first results showing measured MeV SIMS spectra as well as molecular maps for samples of interest are presented and discussed.

  4. High Speed Stereovision Setup for Position and Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles Leaving a Centrifugal Spreader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hijazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 3D imaging technique using a high speed binocular stereovision system was developed in combination with corresponding image processing algorithms for accurate determination of the parameters of particles leaving the spinning disks of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders. Validation of the stereo-matching algorithm using a virtual 3D stereovision simulator indicated an error of less than 2 pixels for 90% of the particles. The setup was validated using the cylindrical spread pattern of an experimental spreader. A 2D correlation coefficient of 90% and a Relative Error of 27% was found between the experimental results and the (simulated spread pattern obtained with the developed setup. In combination with a ballistic flight model, the developed image acquisition and processing algorithms can enable fast determination and evaluation of the spread pattern which can be used as a tool for spreader design and precise machine calibration.

  5. RCT: Module 2.10, Access Control and Work Area Setup, Course 8776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course presents information on radiological work permits (RWPs), various types of postings used in radiological areas, radiological area setups, access controls, and releases of material from radiological areas. All of these are fundamental duties of RCTs. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  6. Experimental Testing of the HI Mass Reconstruction Procedure at Lis Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondtatyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, V. G.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Mkaza, N.

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the heavy ion masses in the time-of-flight spectrometry is known to be a complicated task due to distortions both in timing and measuring of the ions energy using PIN diodes. Original procedure which takes into account simultaneously pulse height defect (PHD) and plasma delay for unbiased mass reconstruction was tested in series of experiments at the LIS setup using degrader foils.

  7. New education system for construction of optical holography setup - Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  8. Elbow arthroscopy: a new setup to avoid visual paradox and improve triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Apurv; Pydah, Satya Kanth V; Webb, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for various conditions. Conventional arthroscopy with the patient in the prone or lateral position where the screen is placed on the opposite side makes it difficult to interpret the image, results in visual paradox, and is associated with difficult triangulation. We present a modified setup for the operating room to help eliminate these problems and improve triangulation.

  9. Channel Verification Results for the SCME models in a Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; S. Ashta, Jagjit

    2013-01-01

    MIMO OTA testing methodologies are being intensively investigated by CTIA and 3GPP, where various MIMO test methods have been proposed which vary widely in how they emulate the propagation channels. Inter-lab/inter-technique OTA performance comparison testing for MIMO devices is ongoing in CTIA, ...... correlation, spatial correlation and cross polarization ratio, can be accurcately reproduced in a multi-probe anechoic chamber based MIMO OTA setup....

  10. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  11. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index

    OpenAIRE

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. Findings In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to faci...

  12. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of single DNA hairpins in a dual-trap optical tweezers setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellari, M. Ribezzi; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2011-03-01

    We use two counter propagating laser beams to create a dual trap optical tweezers setup which is free from cross interference between the beams and provides great instrumental stability. This setup works by direct measurement of light momentum, separately for each trap, and is based on the Minitweezers design [1]. The dual trap setup has many applications: it can be used to study the force-dependent unfolding kinetics of single molecules and to address fundamental problems in nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems [2]. Recent progress in statistical physics has shown the importance of considering large energy deviations in the beahvior of systems that are driven out-of-equilibrium by time-dependent forces. Prominent examples are nonequilibrium work relations (e.g. the Jarzynski equality [3]) and fluctuation theorems. By repeated measurement of the irreversible work the Jarzynski equality allows us to recover the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states, AF, by taking exponential averages of the work W done by the external agent on the system, e-βΔF = transformations. This implies that mechanical work must be measured in the proper reference that is solidary with the thermal bath for these relations to hold. We have carried out repeated mechanical unfolding/folding cycles on short (20 bp) DNA hairpins and measured work distributions in the dual-trap setup along this process. Our aim is to check under which experimental conditions we can discern the non-invariance property of fluctuation relations thereby establishing the correct operative definition of the work in our setting. This study may help to identify and quantify potential violations of the fluctuation relations.

  13. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellereau, E.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  14. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, F.; Bednarz, T.; Jelen, U.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  15. Parallel patterns determination in solving cyclic flow shop problem with setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the new idea of blocks for the cyclic flow shop problem with setup times, using multiple patterns with different sizes determined for each machine constituting optimal schedule of cities for the traveling salesman problem (TSP. We propose to take advantage of the Intel Xeon Phi parallel computing environment during so-called ’blocks’ determination basing on patterns, in effect significantly improving the quality of obtained results.

  16. In vitro measurement of ambient pressure changes using a realistic clinical setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In vitro measurement of ambient pressure changes using a realistic clinical setup Klaus Scheldrup Andersen and Jørgen Arendt Jensen Motivation and objective: Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the local blood pressure have been made. In the last decade independent experiments...... correspondence with results by Shi et al 1999 and Adam et al 2005 who both used a receiver separated from the emitting single element transducer....

  17. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellereau E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  18. Optical setup for two-colour experiments at the low density matter beamline of FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Paola; Demidovich, Alexander; Plekan, Oksana; Di Fraia, Michele; Cucini, Riccardo; Callegari, Carlo; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Sigalotti, Paolo; Ivanov, Rosen; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Fava, Claudio; De Ninno, Giovanni; Coreno, Marcello; Grazioli, Cesare; Feifel, Raimund; Squibb, Richard J.; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Prince, Kevin C.

    2017-11-01

    The low density matter beamline of the free electron laser facility FERMI is dedicated to the study of atomic, molecular and cluster systems, and here we describe the optical setup available for two-colour experiments. Samples can be exposed to ultrashort pulses from a Ti:Sapphire source (fundamental, or second or third harmonic), and ultrashort light pulses of FERMI in the EUV/soft x-ray region with a well-defined temporal delay, and negligible jitter (space.

  19. Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    published in non peer-reviewed journals : Final Report: Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass...enhancement of lasers brightness and fine spectral filtering. However, further increase of size of holographic optical elements , which are required for high...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for Public Release

  20. Implementing a perpetual anesthesia setup standardized for the trauma room in a level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Amanda C; Ford, Mary B

    2013-02-01

    The trauma room in a level I trauma center is a dynamic environment that provides little room for error. Significant variability can exist if anesthesia providers set up the room differently. Standardization provides a system that is consistent, reliable, and cost-effective. This study examines the process of creating and implementing a standardized anesthesia setup in the trauma room of a level I trauma center. As a result of this study, the medication cart and airway setups have been standardized. Providers are encouraged to only draw up medications that will be immediately used and to ensure that prefilled syringes have been incorporated into the pharmacy formulary. Using the EZ Endo prestyleted endotracheal tube (ETT) vs a regular ETT with stylet has yielded an annual cost savings of $2,673. Ensuring that items such as an esophageal temperature probe, humidifier, and nasogastric tube are available but unopened has provided a savings of $1,989.25 per year. The reservoir bag has been changed to a latex-free bag, and 3 central line kits including an arterial line kit are routinely stocked. An ultrasound machine dedicated for central line access, GlideScope, rapid fluid infuser, and Airtraq laryngoscope have all been incorporated into the permanent setup in the trauma room.

  1. Comparison of 2 plating techniques for lateral clavicle fractures, using a new standardized biomechanical testing setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Cyrill; Majewski, Martin; Nowakowski, Andrej M

    2017-09-08

    Conservative treatment of lateral clavicle fractures (Neer type II) often ends with unsatisfactory results for patients. Operative treatment is thus gaining acceptance. A retrospective study found success using a double plate technique for these injuries. For the current study, a standardized testing setup was developed to compare the mechanical properties of single versus double plate technique for lateral clavicle fractures. Six synthetic bones were tested for each technique. Neer type IIB fractures were created using computer-aided design (CAD). Fatigue testing was carried out with a cantilever bending test. Parameters measured were cycles undergone, failure load and stiffness at the point of failure. The standardized testing setup was able to provide reproducible failures. The double plate technique lasted about 16,000 more cycles and withstood an additional 22.4 N on average. The new modified standardized testing setup produced reproducible fixation failures for both clavicle fracture fixation techniques. The double plate technique seems to be mechanically superior to the single plate technique.

  2. Wastewater treatment in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different media (setup stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Razik A. Zidan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment through horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF constructed wetlands (CWs using three different treatment media (gravel, pieces of plastic pipes, and shredded tire rubber chips were investigated in Samaha village, Dakahliya, Egypt. The study focused on the wetland setup stage during the first months of its operation (setup stage. In this stage media porosity, bacterial biofilm, and plant roots growth were in progress and it was prior to the operational steady state stage. Objectives of this paper are to study the change in media porosity of HSSF wetland cells in order to estimate duration of wetland setup stage, and to evaluate the use of different bed media on biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS treatment. The results showed that after 180 days of operation, the wetland cells had reached steady porosity and had started stable treatment. Also performance of plastic media bed in pollutants reduction was better than gravel and rubber beds and gravel media was in advanced than rubber media.

  3. A total internal reflection-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy setup with pulsed diode laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Lukas; Hoffmann-Jacobsen, Kerstin

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measures fluctuations in a (sub-)femtoliter volume to analyze the diffusive behavior of fluorescent particles. This highly sensitive method has proven to be useful for the analysis of dynamic biological systems as well as in chemistry, physics, and material sciences. It is routinely performed with commercial fluorescence microscopes, which provide a confined observation volume by the confocal technique. The evanescent wave of total internal reflectance (TIR) is used in home-built systems to permit a surface sensitive FCS analysis. We present a combined confocal and TIR-FCS setup which uses economic low-power pulsed diode lasers for excitation. Excitation and detection are coupled to time-correlated photon counting hardware. This allows simultaneous fluorescence lifetime and FCS measurements in a surface-sensitive mode. Moreover, the setup supports fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy at surfaces. The excitation can be easily switched between TIR and epi-illumination to compare the surface properties with those in liquid bulk. The capabilities of the presented setup are demonstrated by measuring the diffusion coefficients of a free dye molecule, a labeled polyethylene glycol, and a fluorescent nanoparticle in confocal as well as in TIR-FCS.

  4. A proposal simulated annealing algorithm for proportional parallel flow shops with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of minimizing makespan on two parallel flow shops with proportional processing and setup times. The setup times are separated and sequence-independent. The parallel flow shop scheduling problem is a specific case of well-known hybrid flow shop, characterized by a multistage production system with more than one machine working in parallel at each stage. This situation is very common in various kinds of companies like chemical, electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical and food industries. This work aimed to propose six Simulated Annealing algorithms, their perturbation schemes and an algorithm for initial sequence generation. This study can be classified as “applied research” regarding the nature, “exploratory” about the objectives and “experimental” as to procedures, besides the “quantitative” approach. The proposed algorithms were effective regarding the solution and computationally efficient. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the schemes in terms of makespan. It’s suggested the use of PS4 scheme, which moves a subsequence of jobs, for providing the best percentage of success. It was also found that there is a significant difference between the results of the algorithms for each value of the proportionality factor of the processing and setup times of flow shops.

  5. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  6. PENURUNAN WAKTU SET-UP UNTUK PENINGKATAN EFEKTIFITAS PADA PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Hendri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. X bergerak dalam industri manufuktur yang memproduksi komponen otomotif yang  salah satu prosesnya adalah pembuatan bearing. Saat ini, persaingan dalam dunia bisnis semakin ketat. Situasi ini membuat organisasi untuk memperbaiki diri dengan penurunan waktu set-up supaya dapat menghilangkan pemborosan sehingga peningkatan efektifitas dapat dicapai. Untuk melakukan penurunan waktu set-up dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED. SMED adalah salah satu metoda improvement dari Lean Manufacturing yang digunakan untuk mempercepat waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan setup pergantian dari memproduksi satu jenis produk ke model produk lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui waktu Set up, serta mengetahui cara memperbaiki dan menurunkan waktu set up. Setelah dilakukan penelitian diketahui total waktu set up atau change over serta dilakukan perbaikan pada tiga titik yakni memindakan enam aktivitas internal menjadi aktivitas eksernal yang aktivitasnya dipersingkat, mengganti cara kerja setting/pengencangan baut dari cara manual ke alat bantu pengencangan dengan bantuan tekanan udara (pneumatic, dan mengganti cara kerja setting/penyetelan manual menjadi penyetelan dengan mengunakan block gauge. Secara keseluruhan terjadi penurunan waktu set up yang signifikan. Dengan demikian terjadi peningkatan efektifitas dengan menghilangkan pemborosan waktu set up sehinga terjadi peningkatan jumlah produksi per jam.

  7. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderisio, Francesco; Lombardi, Maria; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects.

  8. How gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom skiing. 3D kinematical measurements were performed over two runs on the same slope in a WC slalom competition with two different gate setups: 1) open gates (OG) and 2) open gates with a delayed gate (DG). Using the arithmetic mean of the skis' turn radii (R(AMS)) the slalom turns were divided into 1) initiation phase (R(AMS) > 15 m) and steering phase (R(AMS) skiing (all p < .05). In both gate setups the highest F and the highest energy dissipation were present in the steering phase, whereas the correlation between R(AMS) and energy dissipation was low (OG: r = .364 and DG: r = .214, both p < .001). In summary, compared with plain open gates, an additional delayed gate prolonged the turn radii and decreased energy dissipation in the beginning of the initiation phase, despite the fact that the relative frequency of occurrence of the highest energy dissipation was higher in DG.

  9. Investigation of the energy dependence of breakdown properties with a DC spark setup

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Anita; Calatroni, S

    2009-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is a site independent feasibility study aiming at the development of a realistic technology at an affordable cost for a future linear electron-positron collider. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is one of the collaborators for the CLIC study.The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) positioned at CERN provides testing of this technology, including the testing of the proposed radio-frequency (RF) structures in a two-beam concept to produce the necessary accelerating electric field as high as 100 MV/m to reach the goal of a nominal total energy of 3 TeV. One problem at such high accelerating fields is electrical discharges, i.e. sparks, damaging the inside of the RF structures as well as deflecting the trajectories of accelerated particles. A Direct Current (DC) spark test setup is in use at CERN to aid the understanding of electrical discharges under vacuum conditions, also called vacuum arcs. In contrast to the more complex CTF3 setup, the DC spark setup is si...

  10. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alderisio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects.

  11. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  12. Flexibility and utility of pre-processing methods in converting STXM setups for ptychography - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, Catherine [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Ptychography is an advanced diffraction based imaging technique that can achieve resolution of 5nm and below. It is done by scanning a sample through a beam of focused x-rays using discrete yet overlapping scan steps. Scattering data is collected on a CCD camera, and the phase of the scattered light is reconstructed with sophisticated iterative algorithms. Because the experimental setup is similar, ptychography setups can be created by retrofitting existing STXM beam lines with new hardware. The other challenge comes in the reconstruction of the collected scattering images. Scattering data must be adjusted and packaged with experimental parameters to calibrate the reconstruction software. The necessary pre-processing of data prior to reconstruction is unique to each beamline setup, and even the optical alignments used on that particular day. Pre-processing software must be developed to be flexible and efficient in order to allow experiments appropriate control and freedom in the analysis of their hard-won data. This paper will describe the implementation of pre-processing software which successfully connects data collection steps to reconstruction steps, letting the user accomplish accurate and reliable ptychography.

  13. Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition setup for fast synthesis of graphene patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chentao; Zhang, Jianhuan; Lin, Kun; Huang, Yuanqing

    2017-05-01

    An automatic setup based on the laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition method has been developed for the rapid synthesis of graphene patterns. The key components of this setup include a laser beam control and focusing unit, a laser spot monitoring unit, and a vacuum and flow control unit. A laser beam with precision control of laser power is focused on the surface of a nickel foil substrate by the laser beam control and focusing unit for localized heating. A rapid heating and cooling process at the localized region is induced by the relative movement between the focalized laser spot and the nickel foil substrate, which causes the decomposing of gaseous hydrocarbon and the out-diffusing of excess carbon atoms to form graphene patterns on the laser scanning path. All the fabrication parameters that affect the quality and number of graphene layers, such as laser power, laser spot size, laser scanning speed, pressure of vacuum chamber, and flow rates of gases, can be precisely controlled and monitored during the preparation of graphene patterns. A simulation of temperature distribution was carried out via the finite element method, providing a scientific guidance for the regulation of temperature distribution during experiments. A multi-layer graphene ribbon with few defects was synthesized to verify its performance of the rapid growth of high-quality graphene patterns. Furthermore, this setup has potential applications in other laser-based graphene synthesis and processing.

  14. An experimental setup for studying the core-excited atoms and molecules by electron impact using energy analysed electron-ion coincidence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Prajapati, S.; Singh, B.; Singh, B. K.; Shanker, R.

    2017-07-01

    Operation and performance of an apparatus for studying the decay dynamics relevant to core-hole decay processes in atoms and molecules excited by energetic electrons using an energy analysed electron-ion coincidence technique are described in some detail. The setup consists of a time- and position sensitive double-field linear TOF mass spectrometer coupled with a dual MCP detector and a single-pass CMA to select the energy of detected electrons. Details of different components involved in the setup are presented and discussed. To demonstrate the performance and capability of the apparatus, we present some typical results extracted from the TOF argon ion-mass spectra observed in coincidence with 18-energy selected electrons emitted from interaction of a continuous beam of 3.5 keV electrons with a dilute gaseous target of argon atoms. Specifically, the variation of relative correlation probability for the final ion-charge states Ar1+ to Ar4+ produced in the considered collision reactions as a function of energy of emitted electrons is determined and discussed.

  15. Numerical study of a confocal ultrasonic setup for creation of cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.lafond@inserm.fr; Chavrier, Françoise; Prieur, Fabrice [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafon, Cyril [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Caviskills SAS, Vaulx-En-Velin, F-69120 (France)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic cavitation is used for various therapeutic applications such as local enhancement of drug delivery, histotripsy or hyperthermia. One of the utmost important parameter for cavitation creation is the rarefaction pressure. The typical magnitude of the rarefaction pressure required to initiate cavitation from gas dissolved in tissue is beyond the range of the megapascal. Because nonlinear effects need to be taken into account, a numerical simulator based on the Westervelt equation was used to study the pressure waveform and the acoustic field generated by a setup for creation of cavitation consisting of two high intensity focused ultrasound transducers mounted confocally. At constant acoustic power, simulations with only one and both transducers from the confocal setup showed that the distortion of the pressure waveform due to the combined effects of nonlinearity and diffraction is less pronounced when both confocal transducers are used. Consequently, the confocal setup generates a greater peak negative pressure at focus which is more favorable for cavitation initiation. Comparison between the confocal setup and a single transducer with the same total emitting surface puts in evidence the role of the spatial separation of the two beams. Furthermore, it has been previously shown that the location of the peak negative pressure created by a single transducer shifts from focus towards the transducers in the presence of nonlinear effects. The simulator was used to study a configuration where the acoustical axes of transducers intersect on the peak negative pressure instead of the geometrical focus. For a representative confocal setup, namely moderate nonlinear effects, a 2% increase of the peak negative pressure and 8% decrease of the peak positive pressure resulted from this configuration. These differences tend to increase by increasing nonlinear effects. Although the optimal position of the transducers varies with the nonlinear regimen, the intersection point

  16. High-resolution continuous flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) continuous flow measurements. It is the first continuous flow laser spectroscopy system that is using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research - LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze sample from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotopic Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to: (1) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time (2) enable measurements on several water standards, and (3) to reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The modified setup provides a shorter response time (~54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the modified setup has a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the modified WVISS and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the 2013 modified setup the precision after integration times of 103 s are 0.060 and 0.070‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For the WVISS setup the corresponding σAllan values are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the modified setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The σAllan values for δ18O of 0.30 and 0.18‰ for the modified (2013) and WVISS setup, respectively after averaging times of 104 s (2.78 h). The Isotopic Water Analyzer (IWA)-modified WVISS setup used during the

  17. A Pareto-Based Adaptive Variable Neighborhood Search for Biobjective Hybrid Flow Shop Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Setup Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixin Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different from most researches focused on the single objective hybrid flowshop scheduling (HFS problem, this paper investigates a biobjective HFS problem with sequence dependent setup time. The two objectives are the minimization of total weighted tardiness and the total setup time. To efficiently solve this problem, a Pareto-based adaptive biobjective variable neighborhood search (PABOVNS is developed. In the proposed PABOVNS, a solution is denoted as a sequence of all jobs and a decoding procedure is presented to obtain the corresponding complete schedule. In addition, the proposed PABOVNS has three major features that can guarantee a good balance of exploration and exploitation. First, an adaptive selection strategy of neighborhoods is proposed to automatically select the most promising neighborhood instead of the sequential selection strategy of canonical VNS. Second, a two phase multiobjective local search based on neighborhood search and path relinking is designed for each selected neighborhood. Third, an external archive with diversity maintenance is adopted to store the nondominated solutions and at the same time provide initial solutions for the local search. Computational results based on randomly generated instances show that the PABOVNS is efficient and even superior to some other powerful multiobjective algorithms in the literature.

  18. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  19. Residual set-up errors and margins in on-line image-guided prostate localization in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Muren, Ludvig; Høyer, Morten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Image-guided on-line correction of the target position allows radiotherapy of prostate cancer with narrow set-up margins. The present study investigated the residual set-up error after on-line prostate localization and its impact on margins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate...... localization based on two orthogonal X-ray images of gold markers implanted in the prostate was performed with an on-board imager at four treatment sessions for 90 patients. The set-up error in the sagittal plane residual after couch adjustment was evaluated on lateral verification portal images. RESULTS......: The set-up error was less than 3.0mm in 92% of the cases in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction and in 95% of the cases in the cranio-caudal (CC) direction. The set-up error was dominated by internal prostate motion taking place during the set-up procedure. Set-up margins were calculated using two...

  20. A Simulation Study on Patient Setup Errors in External Beam Radiotherapy Using an Anthropomorphic 4D Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Samadi Miandoab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Patient set-up optimization is required in radiotherapy to fill the accuracy gap between personalized treatment planning and uncertainties in the irradiation set-up. In this study, we aimed to develop a new method based on neural network to estimate patient geometrical setup using 4-dimensional (4D XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods To access 4D modeling of motion of dynamic organs, a phantom employs non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso method with spline-based model to generate 4D computed tomography (CT images. First, to generate all the possible roto-translation positions, the 4D CT images were imported to Medical Image Data Examiner (AMIDE. Then, for automatic, real time verification of geometrical setup, an artificial neural network (ANN was proposed to estimate patient displacement, using training sets. Moreover, three external motion markers were synchronized with a patient couch position as reference points. In addition, the technique was validated through simulated activities by using reference 4D CT data acquired from five patients. Results The results indicated that patient geometrical set-up is highly depended on the comprehensiveness of training set. By using ANN model, the average patient setup error in XCAT phantom was reduced from 17.26 mm to 0.50 mm. In addition, in the five real patients, these average errors were decreased from 18.26 mm to 1.48 mm various breathing phases ranging from inhalation to exhalation were taken into account for patient setup. Uncertainty error assessment and different setup errors were obtained from each respiration phase. Conclusion This study proposed a new method for alignment of patient setup error using ANN model. Additionally, our correlation model (ANN could estimate true patient position with less error.

  1. Validation of a non-uniform meshing algorithm for the 3D-FDTD method by means of a two-wire crosstalk experimental set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Esteban Jiménez-Mejía

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm used to automatically mesh a 3D computational domain in order to solve electromagnetic interaction scenarios by means of the Finite-Difference Time-Domain -FDTD-  Method. The proposed algorithm has been formulated in a general mathematical form, where convenient spacing functions can be defined for the problem space discretization, allowing the inclusion of small sized objects in the FDTD method and the calculation of detailed variations of the electromagnetic field at specified regions of the computation domain. The results obtained by using the FDTD method with the proposed algorithm have been contrasted not only with a typical uniform mesh algorithm, but also with experimental measurements for a two-wire crosstalk set-up, leading to excellent agreement between theoretical and experimental waveforms. A discussion about the advantages of the non-uniform mesh over the uniform one is also presented.

  2. BioPhotonics workstation: A versatile setup for simultaneous optical manipulation, heat stress, and intracellular pH measurements of a live yeast cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Thomas; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    -6)-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, succinimidyl ester, at 435 and 485 nm wavelengths, while the permeability is indicated by the fluorescence of propidium iodide. We present images mapping the pHi and permeability of the cell at different temperatures and with enough spatial resolution to localize...... for fast temperature variations while trapping. Using this modified BWS setup, we investigated the internal pH (pHi) response and membrane integrity of an optically trapped Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell at 5 mW subject to increasing temperatures. The pHi of the cell is obtained from the emission of 5-(and...... these attributes within the cell. The combined capability of optical trapping, fluorescence microscopy and temperature regulation offers a versatile tool for biological research....

  3. Sensitivity testing of the model set-up used for calculation of photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCP) under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-02-01

    Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) is a method to rank VOC, relative to other VOC, according to their ability to produce ground level ozone. To obtain POCP values valid under European conditions, a critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed using the IVL photochemical trajectory model. The critical analysis has concentrated on three VOC (ethene, n-butane and o-xylene) and has analysed the effect on their POCP values when different model parameters were varied. The three species were chosen because of their different degradation mechanisms in the atmosphere and thus their different abilities to produce ozone. The model parameters which have been tested include background emissions, initial concentrations, dry deposition velocities, the features of the added point source and meteorological parameters. The critical analysis shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC have a critical impact on the POCP values. The hour of the day for the point source emission also shows a large influence on the POCP values. Other model parameters which have been studied have not shown such large influence on the POCP values. Based on the critical analysis a model set-up for calculation of POCP is defined. The variations in POCP values due to changes in the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC are so large that they can not be disregarded in the calculation of POCP. It is recommended to calculate POCP ranges based on the extremes in POCP values instead of calculating site specific POCP values. Four individual emission scenarios which produced the extremes in POCP values in the analysis have been selected for future calculation of POCP ranges. The scenarios are constructed based on the emissions in Europe and the resulting POCP ranges are thus intended to be applicable within Europe 67 refs, 61 figs, 16 tabs

  4. Setup of a Parameterized FE Model for the Die Roll Prediction in Fine Blanking using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanke, J.; Trauth, D.; Feuerhack, A.; Klocke, F.

    2017-09-01

    Die roll is a morphological feature of fine blanked sheared edges. The die roll reduces the functional part of the sheared edge. To compensate for the die roll thicker sheet metal strips and secondary machining must be used. However, in order to avoid this, the influence of various fine blanking process parameters on the die roll has been experimentally and numerically studied, but there is still a lack of knowledge on the effects of some factors and especially factor interactions on the die roll. Recent changes in the field of artificial intelligence motivate the hybrid use of the finite element method and artificial neural networks to account for these non-considered parameters. Therefore, a set of simulations using a validated finite element model of fine blanking is firstly used to train an artificial neural network. Then the artificial neural network is trained with thousands of experimental trials. Thus, the objective of this contribution is to develop an artificial neural network that reliably predicts the die roll. Therefore, in this contribution, the setup of a fully parameterized 2D FE model is presented that will be used for batch training of an artificial neural network. The FE model enables an automatic variation of the edge radii of blank punch and die plate, the counter and blank holder force, the sheet metal thickness and part diameter, V-ring height and position, cutting velocity as well as material parameters covered by the Hensel-Spittel model for 16MnCr5 (1.7131, AISI/SAE 5115). The FE model is validated using experimental trails. The results of this contribution is a FE model suitable to perform 9.623 simulations and to pass the simulated die roll width and height automatically to an artificial neural network.

  5. Characterization of nonstationary random processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paez, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Current methods for shock test specification and shock testing treat the shock environment as a deterministic source. The present study proposes to treat shock sources as nonstationary random processes. A model for a realistic nonstationary random process shock source is specified, and the effect of variation of parameters in the shock source is shown. A method for estimating the parameters of the random process is established, and some numerical examples show that the method yields reasonable results. The use of this model in shock testing is discussed.

  6. An improved miniature mixed-mode delamination setup for in situ microscopic interface failure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluri, M.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Precise characterization of interface delamination in miniature interface structures is an ongoing challenge with the advent of miniaturization and multi-functionality in the electronics industry. Accurate numerical prediction of the interface behaviour is necessary to minimize delamination failures. Successful prediction requires (i) accurate determination of the interface properties like the critical energy release rate (CERR) over the full range of mode mixities and (ii) simultaneous in situ microscopic visualization of the delamination mechanism. These requirements were recently addressed by the development of the miniature mixed-mode bending (MMMB) setup (Kolluri et al 2009 Int. J. Fract.). In this paper an improved MMMB setup is presented, which overcomes the main limitations of the original design. Specifically, the improved design (i) can access a significantly larger range of interface systems due to its increased limits of maximum accessible load and stroke in all mode mixities, (ii) has significantly higher accuracy in load-displacement measurement due to its reduced clearance at the connectors, which is particularly relevant for miniature samples, and (iii) has a high reproducibility due to a newly added setup alignment tool. The measurement concept is validated on (industrially relevant) copper lead frame-moulding compound epoxy interface structures. The load-displacement curves and corresponding CERR values obtained from experiments over the full range of mode mixities are discussed in relation to the delamination mechanism observed during real-time in situ visualization. Specifically, the measured increase in the CERR towards mode II is related to a more discrete or jerky crack growth behaviour observed in the mode II dominant tests. Finally, the potential of the methodology for interface parameter characterization is illustrated.

  7. Ion mass and energy selective hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-06-01

    For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam ion source. Such ion sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of ions with different ion masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic energy. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of ion mass and ion kinetic energy in the region of hyperthermal energies (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This ion energy region is of increasing interest not only for ion-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit ion optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen ions (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both ion species, the kinetic energy is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal energies. At the sample position, ion current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the ion beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal ions on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.

  8. Establishment of a novel in vitro test setup for electric and magnetic stimulation of human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, P C; Jonitz-Heincke, A; Su, Y; Souffrant, R; Hansmann, D; Ewald, H; Krüger, A; Mittelmeier, W; Bader, R

    2014-11-01

    When large defects occur, bone regeneration can be supported by bone grafting and biophysical stimuli like electric and magnetic stimulation (EMS). Clinically established EMS modes are external coils and surgical implants like an electroinductive screw system, which combines a magnetic and electric field, e.g., for the treatment of avascular bone necrosis or pseudarthrosis. For optimization of this implant system, an in vitro test setup was designed to investigate effects of EMS on human osteoblasts on different 3D scaffolds (based on calcium phosphate and collagen). Prior to the cell experiments, numerical simulations of the setup, as well as experimental validation, via measurements of the electric parameters induced by EMS were conducted. Human osteoblasts (3 × 10(5) cells) were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultivated. After 24 h, screw implants (Stryker ASNIS III s-series) were centered in the scaffolds, and EMS was applied (3 × 45 min per day at 20 Hz) for 3 days. Cell viability and collagen type 1 (Col1) synthesis were determined subsequently. Numerical simulation and validation showed an adequate distribution of the electric field within the scaffolds. Experimental measurements of the electric potential revealed only minimal deviation from the simulation. Cell response to stimulation varied with scaffold material and mode of stimulation. EMS-stimulated cells exhibited a significant decrease of metabolic activity in particular on collagen scaffolds. In contrast, the Col1/metabolic activity ratio was significantly increased on collagen and non-sintered calcium phosphate scaffolds after 3 days. Exclusive magnetic stimulation showed similar but nonsignificant tendencies in metabolic activity and Col1 synthesis. The cell tests demonstrate that the new test setup is a valuable tool for in vitro testing and parameter optimization of the clinically used electroinductive screw system. It combines magnetic and electric stimulation, allowing in vitro investigations

  9. X-ray phase scanning setup for non-destructive testing using Talbot-Lau interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, S.; Nonoguchi, M.; Kato, K.; Kageyama, M.; Koike, T.; Kuribayashi, M.; Momose, A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray grating interferometry has a great potential for X-ray phase imaging over conventional X-ray absorption imaging which does not provide significant contrast for weakly absorbing objects and soft biological tissues. X-ray Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometers which are composed of transmission gratings and measure the differential X-ray phase shifts have gained popularity because they operate with polychromatic beams. In X-ray radiography, especially for nondestructive testing in industrial applications, the feasibility of continuous sample scanning is not yet completely revealed. A scanning setup is frequently advantageous when compared to a direct 2D static image acquisition in terms of field of view, exposure time, illuminating radiation, etc. This paper demonstrates an efficient scanning setup for grating-based Xray phase imaging using laboratory-based X-ray source. An apparatus consisting of an X-ray source that emits X-rays vertically, optical gratings and a photon-counting detector was used with which continuously moving objects across the field of view as that of conveyor belt system can be imaged. The imaging performance of phase scanner was tested by scanning a long continuous moving sample at a speed of 5 mm/s and absorption, differential-phase and visibility images were generated by processing non-uniform moire movie with our specially designed phase measurement algorithm. A brief discussion on the feasibility of phase scanner with scanning setup approach including X-ray phase imaging performance is reported. The successful results suggest a breakthrough for scanning objects those are moving continuously on conveyor belt system non-destructively using the scheme of X-ray phase imaging.

  10. Characterization of the high-frequency squeal on a laboratory brake setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Oliviero; Massi, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on high-frequency brake squeal noise conducted on an appropriately designed experimental rig, called laboratory brake. Brake squeal is one of the major issues in the design process of an automotive brake and the development of a robust procedure for a "squeal-free" design is still under investigation. The high-frequency squeal is the most frequent noise generated by automotive brakes and is characterized by a wavelength of the "squealing mode" comparable to the length of the brake pad. The proposed "laboratory brake" is a good compromise between simple test rigs, such as the beam-on-disc, and the experimental setups that use real brakes. The beam-on-disc setup is a useful tool to understand the mechanism leading to the instability, but it does not simulate appropriately a real brake. On the other hand, real brakes are too complex for fundamental investigation and for efficient modeling. The experimental analysis shows a strong correlation between the length of the pad, the dynamic behavior of the system, and the squealing deformed shape. Moreover, depending on the length of the pad compared with the wavelength of the disc mode, three different kind of squeal instability may occur during experiments: the sine mode squeal, the cosine mode squeal and the rotating squeal. The latter is characterized by nodal diameters rotating during a squeal cycle. A linear reduced model, able to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the experimental setup, is used to predict the squeal occurrence. However, such linear model is not able to predict the rotating squeal characteristic that seems to be caused by nonlinear interactions due to the contact between the disc and the caliper.

  11. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  12. Initial verification of an induction heating set-up for injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Molding of thin and long parts by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of embedded induction heating for the improvement of the filling of thin long parts. The object...... selected for the investigation is a thin spiral. For the complete molding of the component, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this propose a new injection molding set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The temperature was measured...

  13. On Probe Weighting for MIMO OTA testing in Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Nuutinen, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The multi-probe anechoic chamber method is promising for OTA testing. The reason can be attributed to its potential for enabling evaluating MIMO terminals in realistic environments. The focus of the paper is on investigating how to create desired spatial channel models with the multi-probe anechoic...... chamber setups. Simulation results have shown that with the discussed methods, the number of probes and probe power weights determine to which level the spatial characteristics of the target channel models can be accurately approximated. With the optimized weights, better agreement is achieved for all...

  14. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static...

  15. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are useful tools to study blood-brain barrier function as well as drug permeation from the systemic circulation to the brain parenchyma. However, a large number of the available in vitro models fail to reflect the tightness of the in vivo blood-brain...... barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  16. An innovative experimental setup for Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Olivieri, Giorgio; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) is a powerful methodology to nonintrusively monitor surface flows. Its use has been beneficial to the development of rating curves in riverine environments and to map geomorphic features in natural waterways. Typical LSPIV experimental setups rely on the use of mast-mounted cameras for the acquisition of natural stream reaches. Such cameras are installed on stream banks and are angled with respect to the water surface to capture large scale fields of view. Despite its promise and the simplicity of the setup, the practical implementation of LSPIV is affected by several challenges, including the acquisition of ground reference points for image calibration and time-consuming and highly user-assisted procedures to orthorectify images. In this work, we perform LSPIV studies on stream sections in the Aniene and Tiber basins, Italy. To alleviate the limitations of traditional LSPIV implementations, we propose an improved video acquisition setup comprising a telescopic, an inexpensive GoPro Hero 3 video camera, and a system of two lasers. The setup allows for maintaining the camera axis perpendicular to the water surface, thus mitigating uncertainties related to image orthorectification. Further, the mast encases a laser system for remote image calibration, thus allowing for nonintrusively calibrating videos without acquiring ground reference points. We conduct measurements on two different water bodies to outline the performance of the methodology in case of varying flow regimes, illumination conditions, and distribution of surface tracers. Specifically, the Aniene river is characterized by high surface flow velocity, the presence of abundant, homogeneously distributed ripples and water reflections, and a meagre number of buoyant tracers. On the other hand, the Tiber river presents lower surface flows, isolated reflections, and several floating objects. Videos are processed through image-based analyses to correct for lens

  17. 60 GHz antenna measurement setup using a VNA without external frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2014-01-01

    and phase, 0.06 dB and 6 degrees peak-to-peak deviations over 4 hours. A PNF measurement of a 25 dBi Standard Gain Horn was carried out and the results were compared to those from the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Facility with a good agreement in the validity region. Uncertainty investigations regarding...... cable flexing effects at 60 GHz have shown that these introduce an uncertainty of about 0.02 dB (1 sigma) around the main beam region indicating a very good performance of the PNF setup....

  18. Calibration of wavefront distortion in light modulator setup by Fourier analysis of multi-beam interference

    CERN Document Server

    Leszczyński, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to calibrate wavefront distortion of the spatial light modulator setup by registering far field images of several gaussian beams diffracted off the modulator. The Fourier transform of resulting interference images reveals phase differences between typically 5 movable points on the modulator. Repeating this measurement yields wavefront surface. Next, the amplitude efficiency is calibrated be registering near field image. As a verification we produced a superposition of 7th and 8th Bessel beams with different phase velocities and observed their interference.

  19. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experimental setup at CERN-ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolios, T. E.; Al Suradi, H. H.; Billowes, J.; Budinčević, I.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Le Blanc, F.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Mason, P. J. R.; Neyens, G.; Papuga, J.; Procter, T. J.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Simpson, G. S.; Smith, A. J.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Verney, D.; Walker, P. M.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wood, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The CRIS setup at CERN-ISOLDE is a laser spectroscopy experiment dedicated to the high-resolution study of the spin, hyperfine structure and isotope shift of radioactive nuclei with low production rates (a few per second). It combines the Doppler-free resolution of the in-flight collinear geometry with the high detection efficiency of resonant ionisation. A recent commissioning campaign has demonstrated a 1% experimental efficiency, and as low as a 0.001% non-resonant ionisation. The current status of the experiment and its recent achievements with beams of francium isotopes are reported. The first identified systematic effects are discussed.

  20. Optomechanically induced transparency in a membrane-in-the-middle setup at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, M.; Biancofiore, C.; Bawaj, M.; Molinelli, C.; Galassi, M.; Natali, R.; Tombesi, P.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a room temperature cavity optomechanics setup formed by a thin semitransparent membrane within a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Due to destructive interference, a weak probe field is completely reflected by the cavity when the pump beam is resonant with the motional red sideband of the cavity. Under this condition we infer a significant slowing down of light of hundreds of microseconds, which is easily tuned by shifting the membrane along the cavity axis. We also observe the associated phenomenon of electromagnetically induced amplification which occurs due to constructive interference when the pump is resonant with the blue sideband.

  1. Resolving octant degeneracy at LBL experiment by combining Daya Bay reactor setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2014-03-01

    Long baseline Experiment(LBL) have promised to be a very powerful experimental setup to study various issues related to Neutrinos. Some ongoing and planned LBL and medium baseline experiments are- T2K, MINOS, NOvA, LBNE, LBNO etc. But, the long baseline experiments are crippled due to presence of some parameter degeneracies, like the Octant -degeneracy. In this work, we first show the presence of Octant degeneracy in LBL experiments and then combine it with Daya Bay Reactor experiment at different values of CP violation phase. We show that the Octant degeneracy in LBNE can be resolved completely with this proposal.

  2. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize...... the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is [Formula: see text] mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution...

  3. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmüller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤ 100 \\upmu Bq kg^{-1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  4. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  5. Set-up and Test Procedure for Suction Installation and Uninstallation of Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna

    This technical report describes the set-up and the test procedures for installation and uninstallation of medium-scale model of bucket foundation that can be performed in the geotechnical part of laboratory in Aalborg University. The installation of bucket foundation can be tested with the use...... of suction under the bucket lid or by applying additional force through the hydraulic piston, forcing the bucket to penetrate into the soil. Tests for uninstallation are performed also with the use of water pressure, as a reverse process to the suction installation. Both installation and uninstallation tests...

  6. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  7. Impact of defective items on (Q, r, L inventory model involving controllable setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Bor-Ren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Ouyang et al. [10] proposed a (Q, r, L inventory model with defective items in an arrival lot. The purpose of this study is to generalize Ouyang et al.’s [10] model by allowing setup cost (A as a decision variable in conjunction with order quantity (Q, reorder point (r and lead time (L. In this study, we first assume that the lead time demand follows a normal distribution, and then relax this assumption by only assuming that the first two moments of the lead time demand are given. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed.

  8. A comparison of interfraction setup error, patient comfort, and therapist acceptance for 2 different prostate radiation therapy immobilization devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pei Ping Pang, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The CIS demonstrated stability and reproducibility in prostate treatment setup comparable to LI. The CIS device had no impact on patient comfort; however, RTs indicated a preference for LI over the CIS mainly because of its weight and bulkiness.

  9. Vortex-Concept for Radioactivity Release Prevention at NPP: Development of Computational Model of Lab-Scale Experimental Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana; Sung, Yim Man; Park, Jin Soo; Sung Hyung Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The experimental validation of the vortex-like air curtain concept and use of an appropriate CFD modelling approach for analyzing the problem becomes crucial. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed to validate the proposed concept and CFD modeling approach as a part of validation process. In this study, a computational model of this lab-scale experiment setup is developed using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. The computational results will be compared with experimental data for validation purposes in future, when experimental data is available. 1) A computation model of a lab-scale experimental setup, designed to validate the concept of artificial vortex-like airflow generation for application to radioactivity dispersion prevention in the event of severe accident, was developed. 2) The mesh sensitivity study was performed and a mesh of about 2 million cells was found to be sufficient for this setup.

  10. Solid-phase microextraction set-up for the analysis of liver volatolome to detect livestock exposure to micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Jihéne; Ratel, Jérémy; Abouelkaram, Said; Mercier, Frédéric; Travel, Angelique; Baéza, Elisabeth; Jondreville, Catherine; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Dubreil, Estelle; Mompelat, Sophie; Verdon, Eric; Inthavong, Chanthadary; Guérin, Thierry; Rutledge, Douglas N; Engel, Erwan

    2017-05-12

    Starting from a critical analysis of a first "proof of concept" study on the utility of the liver volatolome for detecting livestock exposure to environmental micropollutants (Berge et al., 2011), the primary aim of this paper is to improve extraction conditions so as to obtain more representative extracts by using an extraction temperature closer to livestock physiological conditions while minimizing analytical variability and maximizing Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) abundancies. Levers related to extraction conditions and sample preparation were assessed in the light of both abundance and coefficient of variation of 22 candidate VOC markers identified in earlier volatolomic studies. Starting with a CAR/PDMS fiber and a 30min extraction, the reduction of SPME temperature to 40°C resulted in a significant decrease in the area of 14 candidate VOC markers (p<0.05), mainly carbonyls and alcohols but also a reduction in the coefficient of variation for 17 of them. In order to restore VOC abundances and to minimize variability, two approaches dealing with sample preparation were investigated. By increasing sample defrosting time at 4°C from 0 to 24h yielded higher abundances and lower variabilities for 15 and 13 compounds, respectively. Lastly, by using additives favouring the release of VOCs (1.2g of NaCl) the sensitivity of the analysis was improved with a significant increase in VOC abundances of more than 50% for 13 out of the 22 candidate markers. The modified SPME parameters significantly enhanced the abundances while decreasing the analytical variability for most candidate VOC markers. The second step was to validate the ability of the revised SPME protocol to discriminate intentionally contaminated broiler chickens from controls, under case/control animal testing conditions. After verification of the contamination levels of the animals by national reference laboratories, data analysis by a multivariate chemometric method (Common Components and Specific

  11. Two-and Three-Dimensional Laboratory Studies of Wave Breaking, Dissipation, Setup, and Runup on Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    very large storm waves, and most include fringing coral reefs. Waves undergo significant transformation as they shoal and break on fringing reefs and...continuously varied using the " snake principle" to produce waves at angles approaching 85 deg from normal. However, only shore-normal waves, i.e...setup on the reef, which is consistent with previous results. Gourlay (1996b) observed similar trends in setup measured during tests of coral reef

  12. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  13. ILS Heuristics for the Single-Machine Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Family Setup Times to Minimize Total Tardiness

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar Jacob, Vinícius; Arroyo, José Elias C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a single-machine scheduling problem with sequence-dependent family setup times. In this problem the jobs are classified into families according to their similarity characteristics. Setup times are required on each occasion when the machine switches from processing jobs in one family to jobs in another family. The performance measure to be minimized is the total tardiness with respect to the given due dates of the jobs. The problem is classified as $\\mathcal{N}\\mathcal{P}$...

  14. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  15. Design Of A Novel Online Experiment Setup For PID Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Kaçar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an internet based remote access experiment setup was developed for induction direct current motor speed control with PID controller which can be used as a support material in engineering education. The experiment setup is wireless and communicates with the remote server using transfer control protocol/internet protocol through a wireless ADSL modem. Users can perform the experiments as real time accessing the web pages in the remote server by using any computer which has internet connection. By means of interactively-designed web pages, users can monitor the speed change executing alterations of the PID controller parameter and motor reference speed. Also users can save the measured values on their own computers. In addition to this, with the support of a webcam, the running of the experimental set can be monitored on the web page. Additionally, for the experimental set, preparing the peripheral units card, the interaction was expanded between the user and the experimental set. Relatively to this, the user can monitor the ambient temperature of the experimental set’s current place on the web page and can make his/her own message write on LCD of the experimental set and can enlighten it if he/she wants.

  16. Experimental setup for evaluating an adaptive user interface for teleoperation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Peetha, Srikanth; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Cremer, Sven; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    A vital part of human interactions with a machine is the control interface, which single-handedly could define the user satisfaction and the efficiency of performing a task. This paper elaborates the implementation of an experimental setup to study an adaptive algorithm that can help the user better tele-operate the robot. The formulation of the adaptive interface and associate learning algorithms are general enough to apply when the mapping between the user controls and the robot actuators is complex and/or ambiguous. The method uses a genetic algorithm to find the optimal parameters that produce the input-output mapping for teleoperation control. In this paper, we describe the experimental setup and associated results that was used to validate the adaptive interface to a differential drive robot from two different input devices; a joystick, and a Myo gesture control armband. Results show that after the learning phase, the interface converges to an intuitive mapping that can help even inexperienced users drive the system to a goal location.

  17. Six dimensional X-ray Tensor Tomography with a compact laboratory setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y.; Wieczorek, M.; Schaff, F.; Seyyedi, S.; Prade, F.; Pfeiffer, F.; Lasser, T.

    2016-09-01

    Attenuation based X-ray micro computed tomography (XCT) provides three-dimensional images with micrometer resolution. However, there is a trade-off between the smallest size of the structures that can be resolved and the measurable sample size. In this letter, we present an imaging method using a compact laboratory setup that reveals information about micrometer-sized structures within samples that are several orders of magnitudes larger. We combine the anisotropic dark-field signal obtained in a grating interferometer and advanced tomographic reconstruction methods to reconstruct a six dimensional scattering tensor at every spatial location in three dimensions. The scattering tensor, thus obtained, encodes information about the orientation of micron-sized structures such as fibres in composite materials or dentinal tubules in human teeth. The sparse acquisition schemes presented in this letter enable the measurement of the full scattering tensor at every spatial location and can be easily incorporated in a practical, commercially feasible laboratory setup using conventional X-ray tubes, thus allowing for widespread industrial applications.

  18. A Noninvasive Body Setup Method for Radiotherapy by Using a Multimodal Image Fusion Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Chen, Yunxia; Wang, Chenchen; Cai, Jing; Chu, Kaiyue; Jin, Jianhua; Ge, Yun; Huang, Xiaolin; Guan, Yue; Li, Weifeng

    2017-12-01

    To minimize the mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system for tumor location by a noninvasive patient setup method. The method, based on a point set registration, proposes a shift for patient positioning by integrating information of the computed tomography scans and that of optical surface landmarks. An evaluation of the method included 3 areas: (1) a validation on a phantom by estimating 100 known mismatch errors between patient surface and immobilization system. (2) Five patients with pelvic tumors were considered. The tumor location errors of the method were measured using the difference between the proposal shift of cone-beam computed tomography and that of our method. (3) The collected setup data from the evaluation of patients were compared with the published performance data of other 2 similar systems. The phantom verification results showed that the method was capable of estimating mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system in a precision of <0.22 mm. For the pelvic tumor, the method had an average tumor location error of 1.303, 2.602, and 1.684 mm in left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The performance comparison with other 2 similar systems suggested that the method had a better positioning accuracy for pelvic tumor location. By effectively decreasing an interfraction uncertainty source (mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system) in radiotherapy, the method can improve patient positioning precision for pelvic tumor.

  19. Development of an advanced electropolishing setup for multicell high gradient niobium cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Éozénou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproducible operation at high performances of superconducting cavities is required for linear accelerators. High beta elliptical cavities are thus of concern and, to achieve required performances for such resonators, surface preparation including electropolishing is recommended. We have designed and operate a setup for electropolishing in the vertical position of multicell cavities in order to: (i obtain high yield with large elliptical cavities for Superconducting Linac (SPL or European Spallation Source projects; (ii develop a reference installation demonstrating that this process is appropriate for the large scale treatment of cavities in industry. The setup described here is the first one able to electropolish vertically multicell cavities with circulating acid and high safety standards. This equipment makes it possible to use a wide range of parameters such as voltage, acid flow rate, temperature, and nitrogen injection with an R&D purpose in mind. Optimization is studied using modeling with COMSOL software for different cavities. As examples, we present some results for the 704 MHz high-beta SPL cavity and the 1300 MHz International Linear Collider cavity and show the influence of cathode shape on both acid flow and electric field distribution during the process. Importance of the size of the cavity and first results achieved on single-cell and nine-cell cavities will be discussed.

  20. Seminar | Development of a PET Cyclotron Based Irradiation Setup for Proton Radiobiology | 25 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Sharif Hasan Mahmoud Ghithan, a Palestinian postdoctoral researcher at the Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particle Physics (Portugal), will discuss the development of an out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinarily produces radioisotopes for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The speaker will also discuss possible future use of the results of this research for CERN’s new LEIR biomedical facility. The seminar will be proposed in the framework of a meeting of the CERN Medical Applications Study Group.   25 June, 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. Room 13-2-005 ABSTRACT: In this new irradiation setup, the current from a 20 mm thick aluminum transmission foil is read out by homemade transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setu...

  1. A new mechatronic set-up and technique for investigation of firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    Since ancient times, mankind has manifested interest in the development and improvement of weapons, either for military or hunting purposes. Today, in competition with these legal practices, the number of those who commit crimes by non-compliance with the regime of weapons and ammunition has increased exponentially. This is why the technology and methods employed in the area of judicial ballistics, requires constant research and continuous learning. The present paper advances a new experimental set-up and its corresponding methodology, meant to measure the force deployed by the firing pin. The new experimental set-up and procedure consists of a mechatronic structure, based on a piezoelectric force transducer, which allows to measure, in-situ, the force produced by the firing pin when it is deployed. The obtained information can further be used to establish a correspondence between this force and the imprint left on the firing cap. This correspondence furthers the possibility of elaborating a model that would permit ballistic experts to correctly identify a smoothbore weapon.

  2. A dedicated AMS setup for 53Mn/60Fe at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, M.; Dewald, A.; Feuerstein, C.; Altenkirch, R.; Stolz, A.; Heinze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Following demands for AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, especially for 53Mn and 60Fe, we started to build a dedicated AMS setup at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator. This accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 10 MV can be reliably operated at a terminal voltage of 9.5 MV which corresponds to energies of 93-102 MeV for 60Fe or 53Mn beams using the 9+ or 10+ charge state. These charge states can be obtained by foil stripping with efficiencies of 30% and 20%, respectively. Energies around 100 MeV are sufficient to effectively suppress the stable isobars 60Ni and 53Cr by (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils and dispersive elements like electrostatic analyzers and time of flight (TOF) systems as well as (dE/dx)E ion detectors. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the AMS setup and discuss details and expected features.

  3. Complex magnetic susceptibility setup for spectroscopy in the extremely low-frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, B W M; Bakelaar, I A; Klokkenburg, M; Erné, B H

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive balanced differential transformer was built to measure complex initial parallel magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.01-1000 Hz range. The alternating magnetic field can be chosen sufficiently weak that the magnetic structure of the samples is only slightly perturbed and the low frequencies make it possible to study the rotational dynamics of large magnetic colloidal particles or aggregates dispersed in a liquid. The distinguishing features of the setup are the novel multilayered cylindrical coils with a large sample volume and a large number of secondary turns (55 000) to measure induced voltages with a good signal-to-noise ratio, the use of a dual channel function generator to provide an ac current to the primary coils and an amplitude- and phase-adjusted compensation voltage to the dual phase differential lock-in amplifier, and the measurement of several vector quantities at each frequency. We present the electrical impedance characteristics of the coils, and we demonstrate the performance of the setup by measurement on magnetic colloidal dispersions covering a wide range of characteristic relaxation frequencies and magnetic susceptibilities, from chi approximately -10(-5) for pure water to chi>1 for concentrated ferrofluids.

  4. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-06-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan.

  5. Ocular MR imaging: evaluation of different coil setups in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Eigner, Katharina; Warmuth, Carsten; Taupitz, Matthias; Bertelmann, Eckart; Hamm, Bernd; Asbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Small loop surface coils are generally recommended for ocular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, but the optimal coil setup has not been systematically investigated. In this phantom study, we investigated which coil setup of those coils available for our MR imaging system provides the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ocular MR imaging at 1.5 tesla. Using a phantom to simulate the eyeball and the orbital fat, we employed loop surface coils of 4- and 6-cm diameter and a multi-channel head coil to obtain images using a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence and then measured the SNR for each coil and coil combination. Use of the 6-cm loop coil alone yielded the highest mean SNR (27.5). Even in superficial regions (mesial and temporal), the SNR was higher using the 6-cm loop coil (33.6 and 45.5) than the 4-cm loop coil (28.0 and 33.8). Additional use of the head coil reduced the mean SNR to 10.4. This quantitative analysis suggests that use of a 6-cm loop surface coil offers the best results in ocular MR imaging. Combinations of loop coils or additional use of a head coil cannot be recommended because higher noise degrades image quality.

  6. Neutron moderation in a bulk sample and its effects on PGNAA setup geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A.; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Maselehuddin, M.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Raashid, M

    2003-06-01

    In a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup, the neutron moderation in the bulk sample also plays a key role. This can even dominate the thermalization effects of the external moderator in some cases. In order to study the neutron moderation effect in the bulk sample, moderators with two different sizes of the sample were tested at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA facility. In these tests, the thermal neutron relative intensity and prompt gamma ray yield from the two moderators were measured using nuclear track detectors (NTDs) and NaI detector, respectively. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, the measured intensity of thermal neutron inside the large sample cavity due to the external moderator was smaller than that from the smaller sample cavity. Due to its larger size, additional thermalization of neutrons will take place in the larger sample. In spite of smaller thermal neutron yield from the external moderator at the large sample location, higher yield of the prompt gamma ray was observed as compared to that from the smaller sample. This confirms the significance of neutron moderation effects in the bulk sample and can thereby affect the PGNAA geometry size. This allows larger samples in conjunction with smaller moderators in the PGNAA setup.

  7. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D' Onofrio, A. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V. [Vector Group, Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  8. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  9. Design of an inexpensive integrating sphere student laboratory setup for the optical characterization of light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B.; Leyre, Sven; Bauwens, Eva; Van den Abeele, Toon; Hanselaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an inexpensive integrating sphere setup is presented, enabling students to perform optical characterization of light sources with reasonable accuracy, in a student laboratory context. Instead of using an expensive sphere with magnesium oxide or barium sulfate coating, a cheap polystyrene sphere is employed. In combination with a low-cost USB spectroradiometer, the system enables the direct measurement of the spectral radiant power of a light source. In addition to the radiant power, the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, and distinctive colorimetric quantities (colour coordinates, colour temperature, and colour rendering index) can be determined. Besides a description of the equipment used, the experimental measurement procedure and some typical measurement results are presented. A comparison between the data and the results obtained with scientific metrology instrumentation indicates reasonable accuracy. As a result, it can be concluded that the purpose of the presented experiments, being that students become acquainted with applications of radiometry and photometry, and with data collection and data analysis as in a professional context, is fully achieved with the described test setup.

  10. A flexible setup for angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, M., E-mail: mspanier@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, C.; Grötzsch, D.; Kramer, F.; Mantouvalou, I.; Malzer, W.; Kanngießer, B. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lubeck, J.; Weser, J.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is one of the standard tools for the analysis of stratified materials and is widely applied for the investigation of electronics and coatings. The composition and thickness of the layers can be determined quantitatively and non-destructively. Recent work showed that these capabilities can be extended towards retrieving stratigraphic information like concentration depth profiles using angle-resolved XRF (ARXRF). This paper introduces an experimental sample chamber which was developed as a multi-purpose tool enabling different measurement geometries suited for transmission measurements, conventional XRF, ARXRF, etc. The chamber was specifically designed for attaching all kinds of laboratory X-ray sources for the soft and hard X-ray ranges as well as various detection systems. In detail, a setup for ARXRF using an X-ray tube with a polycapillary X-ray lens as source is presented. For such a type of setup, both the spectral and lateral characterizations of the radiation field are crucial for quantitative ARXRF measurements. The characterization is validated with the help of a stratified validation sample.

  11. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesch, Aleš; Alves, Luis Nero; Wilfert, Otakar; Ribeiro, Carlos Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) the optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) approach was proposed as a suitable driving technique able to overcome light-emitting diode's (LED) non-linear characteristic. This concept is analogous to an electrical digital-to-analog converter (EDAC). In other words, digital bits are binary weighted to represent an analog signal. The method supports elementary on-off based modulations able to exploit the essence of LED's non-linear characteristic allowing simultaneous lighting and communication. In the ODAC concept the reconstruction error does not simply rely upon the converter bit depth as in case of EDAC. It rather depends on communication system set-up and geometrical relation between emitter and receiver as well. The paper describes simulation results presenting the ODAC's error performance taking into account: the optical channel, the LED's half power angle (HPA) and the receiver field of view (FOV). The set-up under consideration examines indoor conditions for a square room with 4 m length and 3 m height, operating with one dominant wavelength (blue) and having walls with a reflection coefficient of 0.8. The achieved results reveal that reconstruction error increases for higher data rates as a result of interference due to multipath propagation.

  12. Design of the plasma grid for a short pulse negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, C.; Li, D.; Chen, D.; Zhao, P.; Xu, Q.; Liao, Z.

    2017-08-01

    An experimental setup of a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen ion source has been developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The setup without cesium oven and an extraction system had been completed and the plasma was ignited in the driver successfully in 2014. An extraction system with small area (5540 mm2) for short pulse (˜ 4 s) was designed to extract the negative hydrogen ions. Generally, the plasma grid temperature is controlled to reach 150 °C by the cooling channels inside the grid. But another method that we could use the PG current to raise the temperature is being considered only for the short pulse condition. An experiment was introduced to prove the feasibility of this method. A magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid is required to reduce the electron temperature and suppress the co-extraction electrons. The filter field homogeneity has been studied in detail by finite element method. There have been significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity by means of the grid geometry optimization.

  13. Long-term electromagnetic exposure of developing neuronal networks: A flexible experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Stefan; Daus, Andreas W; Erbes, Christian; Goldhammer, Michael; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are considered one of the most promising targets of research to assess potential electromagnetic field induced effects on neuronal functionality. A few exposure studies revealed there is currently no evidence of any adverse health effects caused by weak electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless, some published results are inconsistent. Particularly, doubts have been raised regarding possible athermal biological effects in the young brain during neuronal development. Therefore, we developed and characterized a flexible experimental setup based on a transverse electromagnetic waveguide, allowing controlled, reproducible exposure of developing neuronal networks in vitro. Measurement of S-parameters confirmed very good performance of the Stripline in the band of 800-1000 MHz. Simulations suggested a flexible positioning of cell culture dishes throughout a large exposure area, as specific absorption rate values were quite independent of their position (361.7 ± 11.4 mW/kg) at 1 W, 900 MHz. During exposure, thermal drift inside cellular medium did not exceed 0.1 K. Embryonic rat cortical neurons were cultivated on microelectrode array chips to non-invasively assess electrophysiological properties of electrogenic networks. Measurements were taken for several weeks, which attest to the experimental setup being a reliable system for long-term studies on developing neuronal tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A distributed multicast label switched path setup scheme to solve the multi-destination reservation collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) appears as a promising candidate to implement the control plane for next-generation optical networks. In GMPLS-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, existing resource reservation protocol (RSVP) may fail to setup a multicast Label Switched Path (LSP) with high probability, since multiple destinations in one multicast session may reserve different wavelengths and result in reservation collision at branch nodes. In this work, we extend the existing GMPLS RSVP signaling protocol and propose an efficient scheme to set up optical multicast LSP and avoid wavelength resources collision, called Last-hop Label Set (LLS) scheme, by introducing a new object called Last-hop Label Set object in Resv message. Once the setup of a multicast LSP fails caused by wavelength reservation collision at a branch node, the branch node can re-reserves a new wavelength according to the Last-hop Label Set object within Resv messages. The numerical results indicate that the proposed LLS scheme offers lower blocking probability compared to the existing GMPLS signaling scheme.

  15. Control system for RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xm_wang@hust.edu.cn; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Lige; Yue, Haikun; Chen, Dezhi; Zuo, Chen

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The CompactRIO system is reliable and could achieve high-speed data collection. • The queue and event software structure allows the control code to be flexible. • TCP/IP performs better than shared variable method for mass data transmission. • The method for lowering the peak RF reflected power has been discussed and given. - Abstract: An experimental setup of RF-driven negative ion source has been built at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The control system for this setup is responsible for RF loading, gas feeding, filament heating, filament DC bias, data collection and Langmuir probe triggering during plasma production. To research influences on the plasma ignition of gas puff and RF power loading, the control system should be of flexible operating sequence, high-speed data collection and reliable data transmission. The general control unit (GCU) adopts a CompactRIO system, which performs high-speed data collection for gas pressure and RF power. The host control program adopts a queue and event structure for flexible operation, and TCP/IP method is applied for mass data transmission. The development of the host control program is described in detail. The test results of the shared variable and TCP/IP methods are presented, as well as data showing the advantages of the TCP/IP method. The experiment results with two different sequences of plasma production are given and discussed here.

  16. High current table-top setup for femtosecond gas electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the Coulomb broadening and deliver femtosecond electron pulses on a gas target. The velocity mismatch can be compensated using laser pulses with a tilted intensity front to excite the sample. The temporal resolution of the setup was determined with a streak camera to be better than 400 fs for pulses with up to half a million electrons and a kinetic energy of 90 keV. The high charge per pulse, combined with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, results in an average beam current that is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than previously demonstrated.

  17. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-04-26

    Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to facilitate calculation of a water quality index based on dynamic weight factors, which will help users to compute the water quality index in cases where some parameters are missing from the datasets. A dataset containing 735 water samples of drinking water quality in different parts of the country was used to show the performance of this software using different criteria parameters. The software proved to be an efficient tool to facilitate the setup of water quality indices based on flexible use of variables and water quality databases.

  18. Using paraxial approximation to describe the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, Panagiotis

    2017-08-01

    The mathematical formulation for the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system is given here. The equations describing a lidar system from the emitted laser beam to the projection of the telescope aperture on the final receiving unit (i.e., photomultiplier or photodiode) are presented, based on paraxial approximation and geometric optics approach. The receiving optical setup includes a telescope, a collimating lens, an interference filter and the ensemble objective eyepiece. The set of the derived equations interconnects major parameters of the optical components (e.g., focal lengths, diameters, angles of incidence), revealing their association with the distance of full overlap of the system. These equations may used complementarily with an optical design software, for the preliminary design of a system or can be used as a quick check up tool of an existing lidar system. The evaluation of the formulation on a real system is performed with ray-tracing simulations, revealing an overall good performance with relative differences of the order of 5 % mainly attributed to the limitations of the thin lens approximation.

  19. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  20. ARCADE: Description of the project and setup of the Lidar/AMT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARCADE (Atmospheric Research for Climate and Astroparticle DEtection project is a 3 years project funded by MIUR, that aims to study the aerosol attenuation of UV light in atmosphere using multiple instruments and techniques, as those commonly used in the cosmic rays community: elastic Lidar, Raman Lidar, side-scattering measurements using a distant laser source. All measurements will be acquired on the same air mass at the same time, in a semi-desertic site near Lamar, Colorado (U.S.. For each instrument, multiple analysis techniques will be tested: the target is a better comprehension of the systematics and limits of applicability of each method. The system is composed by a Lidar (elastic+Raman, fully designed and built within this project, and by the Atmospheric Monitoring Telescope (AMT, a telescope for the detection of UV light owned by the Colorado School of Mines. The setup of the two instruments is described in detail here. The project is presently in its third year: the Lidar system has been tested at the University of L'Aquila in February 2014 before shipment to the U.S., and the AMT has been recently reinstalled and tested in Lamar (May 2014. In June/July 2014 the ARCADE group will work out the final setup of the Lidar+AMT system in Lamar and will begin data acquisition.

  1. Automated ethernet-based test setup for long wave infrared camera analysis and algorithm evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeler, Torsten; Ohliger, Kevin; Lawrenz, Sönke; Hussmann, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we consider a new way for automated camera calibration and specification. The proposed setup is optimized for working with uncooled long wave infrared (thermal) cameras, while the concept itself is not restricted to those cameras. Every component of the setup like black body source, climate chamber, remote power switch, and the camera itself is connected to a network via Ethernet and a Windows XP workstation is controlling all components by the use of the TCL - script language. Beside the job of communicating with the components the script tool is also capable to run Matlab code via the matlab kernel. Data exchange during the measurement is possible and offers a variety of different advantages from drastically reduction of the amount of data to enormous speedup of the measuring procedure due to data analysis during measurement. A parameter based software framework is presented to create generic test cases, where modification to the test scenario does not require any programming skills. In the second part of the paper the measurement results of a self developed GigE-Vision thermal camera are presented and correction algorithms, providing high quality image output, are shown. These algorithms are fully implemented in the FPGA of the camera to provide real time processing while maintaining GigE-Vision as standard transmission protocol as an interface to arbitrary software tools. Artefacts taken into account are spatial noise, defective pixel and offset drift due to self heating after power on.

  2. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  3. Diagnostic setup for investigation of plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Olaf, E-mail: o.neubauer@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Czymek, Guntram; Denner, Peter [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Effenberg, Florian [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Krämer-Flecken, Andreas; Liang, Yunfeng; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Offermanns, Guido; Rack, Michael; Samm, Ulrich [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Schweer, Bernd [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas – Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Terra, Alexis [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We are investigating plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. • Steady state operation and island divertor are unique. • We are developing diagnostics for divertor plasma and plasma facing surfaces. • A multi-purpose fast manipulator allows for exposure of probes and samples. • Versatile endoscopes allow for local divertor spectroscopy from IR to UV. - Abstract: Wendelstein 7-X being the most advanced stellarator is currently prepared for commissioning at Greifswald. Forschungszentrum Jülich is preparing a research programme in the field of plasma wall interactions (PWI) by developing a dedicated set of diagnostic systems. The specific interest at Wendelstein 7-X is to understand PWI processes in presence of a 3D plasma boundary of an island divertor. Furthermore, for the first time steady state plasma at high density and low temperature in the divertor region will be available. Since PWI only could be understood in conjunction with the edge plasma properties the aim of the setup is to observe both the edge plasma as well as surface processes. For optimum combination of different diagnostic methods the edge diagnostic systems are aligned toroidally along one out of five magnetic islands. Main systems are a multipurpose fast probe manipulator, two gas boxes in opposite divertor modules together with two endoscopes each observing the divertor regions, a poloidal correlation reflectometer, a dispersion interferometer in the divertor, and VUV and X-ray spectroscopy in the plasma core. The concept of the diagnostic setup is presented in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of setup accuracy for NSCLC patients; studying the impact of different types of cone-beam CT matches based on whole thorax, columna vertebralis, and GTV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, W.; Baker, M.; Hedman, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    on the various CBCT matches, setups using 2D kV planar imaging or setups using skin markers only (non-IGRT). Material and methods. Setup images from 16 NSCLC patients with weekly CBCT and daily 2D kV planar imaging were analyzed retrospectively. The CBCT matches were based on the columna vertebralis (CV...

  5. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  7. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  8. The design of cluster randomized crossover trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietbergen, C.; Moerbeek, M.

    2011-01-01

    The inefficiency induced by between-cluster variation in cluster randomized (CR) trials can be reduced by implementing a crossover (CO) design. In a simple CO trial, each subject receives each treatment in random order. A powerful characteristic of this design is that each subject serves as its own

  9. Clinical Evaluation of a Laser Surface Scanning System in 120 Patients for Improving Daily Setup Accuracy in Fractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Torsten, E-mail: t.moser@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor; Uhl, Matthias; Schubert, Kai; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical suitability of a specific optical surface imaging system to detect setup errors in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The setup correction accuracy of a 3-dimensional laser imaging system was analyzed for 6 different tumor locations with 20 patients each. For each patient, the setup corrections of the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a TomoTherapy unit (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI) were compared with those of the laser system for the first 10 fractions. For the laser system, the reference surface either was obtained from the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) surface structure delineated on the planning computed tomography images or was acquired with the system itself at the first fraction after the MVCT-based setup correction. Data analysis was performed for both reference types. Results: By use of the DICOM reference image, systematic shifts between 3 and 9 mm were found, depending on the tumor location. For the optical reference, no clinically relevant systematic shifts were found. MVCT-based setup corrections were detected with high accuracy, and only small movements were observed during treatment. Conclusions: Using a reference image acquired with the laser system itself after MVCT-based setup correction appears more reliable than importing the DICOM reference surface. After generation of the optical reference, the laser system may be used to derive setup corrections over a certain number of fractions, but additional radiologic imaging may still be necessary on a regular basis (eg, weekly) or if the corrections of the optical system appear implausibly large. Nevertheless, such a combined application may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient.

  10. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel; Joblin, Christine

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 108 molecules in the case of coronene (C24H12). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  11. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogues: the AROMA setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Papanastasiou, Dimitris; Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel; Joblin, Christine

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interests and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2x10(8) molecules in the case of coronene (C24H12). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  12. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experimental setup at CERN-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Cocolios, T E; Procter, T J; Rothe, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Stroke, H H; Rossel, R E; Heylen, H; Franchoo, S; Marsh, B A; Verney, D; Papuga, J; Strashnov, I; Billowes, J; de Groote, R P; Le Blanc, F; Simpson, G S; Fedosseev, V N; Lynch, K M; Wood, R T; Budincevic, I; Mason, P J R; Wendt, K D A; Flanagan, K T; De Schepper, S; Rajabali, M M; Al Suradi, H H; Walker, P M; Smith, A J

    2013-01-01

    The CRIS setup at CERN-ISOLDE is a laser spectroscopy experiment dedicated to the high-resolution study of the spin, hyperfine structure and isotope shift of radioactive nuclei with low production rates (a few per second). It combines the Doppler-free resolution of the in-flight collinear geometry with the high detection efficiency of resonant ionisation. A recent commissioning campaign has demonstrated a 1\\% experimental efficiency, and as low as a 0.001\\% non-resonant ionisation. The current status of the experiment and its recent achievements with beams of francium isotopes are reported. The first identified systematic effects are discussed. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Polarization-modulation setup for ultrafast infrared anisotropy experiments to study liquid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tros, Martijn; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-06-01

    An infrared pump-probe setup using rapid polarization modulation has been developed to perform time-resolved vibrational anisotropy measurements. A photo-elastic modulator is used as a rapidly switchable half-wave plate, enabling the measurement of transient absorptions for parallel and perpendicular polarizations of the pump and probe pulses on a shot-to-shot basis. In this way, infrared intensity fluctuations are nearly completely canceled, significantly enhancing the accuracy of the transient-anisotropy measurement. The method is tested on the OD-stretch vibration of HDO in H2O, for which the signal-to-noise ratio is found to be 4 times better than with conventional methods.

  14. Test setups for the development of high voltage circuit breakers for high short circuit capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    A number of test setups and procedures are described for measuring and simulating the current and voltage conditions prevailing in short circuit breakers designed to interrupt short circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. A synthetic test circuit was successfully developed, using the principles of both voltage and current injection. A capacitance current injection procedure allows for the establishment of the influence of iron in the magnetic circuit on the prospective transient recovery voltage of the breaker. Methods for measuring the post-arc current are indicated, and developed meshed grid and tube shunts are described. Synthetic test circuits are presented which are suitable for testing the capacitive switching capabilities of breakers.

  15. Juvenile obsessive compulsive disorder in a paediatric dentistry set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Ruchi; Shigli, Anand L; Thakur, Gagan; Jain, Upendra

    2015-06-11

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety disorder comprising uncontrollable thought processes and repetitive, ritualised behaviours that one feels compelled to perform. If an individual has OCD, he/she probably realises that his/her obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviours are irrational but would still feel unable to resist them. Since a pedodontist's association with the child patient and parents is established at quite an early age, they should make good use of the opportunity to diagnose psychological disorders in child patients as well as adolescents. Prompt diagnosis in such cases would enable timely medical intervention and hence help in achieving a more cooperative dental patient to ensure instillation of a positive dental attitude. This endeavour highlights a case of a 10-year-old boy who had reported to a private dental set-up with dental problems and was concurrently diagnosed for OCD. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Synthesis of high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires with an inexpensive handcrafted electrochemical setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Ali, E-mail: at1361@aut.ac.ir, E-mail: atahery@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Institute (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Saramad, Shahyar; Setayeshi, Saeed [Amirkabir University of Technology, Faculty of Energy Engineering and Physics (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this work, high aspect ratio zinc oxide nanowires are synthesized using templated one-step electrodeposition technique. Electrodeposition of the nanowires is done using a handcrafted electronic system. Nuclear track-etched polycarbonate membrane is used as a template to form the high aspect ratio nanowires. The result of X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy shows that nanowires with a good crystallinity and an aspect ratio of more than 30 can be achieved in a suitable condition. The height of electrodeposited nanowires reaches to about 11 μm. Based on the obtained results, high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires can be formed using inexpensive electrodeposition setup with an acceptable quality.

  17. Scanning tunneling potentiometry implemented into a multi-tip setup by software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, F; Korte, S; Cherepanov, V; Voigtländer, B

    2015-12-01

    We present a multi-tip scanning tunneling potentiometry technique that can be implemented into existing multi-tip scanning tunneling microscopes without installation of additional hardware. The resulting setup allows flexible in situ contacting of samples under UHV conditions and subsequent measurement of the sample topography and local electric potential with resolution down to Å and μV, respectively. The performance of the potentiometry feedback is demonstrated by thermovoltage measurements on the Ag/Si(111)-(√3×√3)R30° surface by resolving a standing wave pattern. Subsequently, the ability to map the local transport field as a result of a lateral current through the sample surface is shown on Ag/Si(111)-(√3×√3)R30° and Si(111) - (7 × 7) surfaces.

  18. First measurement with a new setup for low-energy Coulomb excitation studies at INFN LNL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchini, M.; Hadyńska-Klȩk, K.; Nannini, A.; Valiente-Dobón, J. J.; Goasduff, A.; Testov, D.; John, P. R.; Mengoni, D.; Zielińska, M.; Bazzacco, D.; Benzoni, G.; Boso, A.; Cocconi, P.; Chiari, M.; Doherty, D. T.; Galtarossa, F.; Jaworski, G.; Komorowska, M.; Matejska-Minda, M.; Melon, B.; Menegazzo, R.; Napiorkowski, P.; Napoli, D. R.; Ottanelli, M.; Perego, A.; Ramina, L.; Rampazzo, M.; Recchia, F.; Riccetto, S.; Rosso, D.; Siciliano, M.; Sona, P.

    2017-07-01

    A new segmented particle detector, SPIDER, has been designed to be used as an ancillary device with the GALILEO γ-ray spectrometer, as well as with other multi-detector γ-ray arrays that will be available at LNL in the future (e.g. AGATA). To commission the SPIDER-GALILEO experimental setup, a multi-step Coulomb excitation experiment was carried out with a 240 MeV beam of 66Zn produced by the Tandem-XTU accelerator at INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The measured particle and γ-ray spectra are compared with the results of detailed GEANT4 simulations which used the Coulomb excitation cross sections, estimated with the computer code GOSIA, as an input. The preliminary results indicate that precise transition probabilities will be obtained which are essential for solving discrepancies reported in the literature for this nucleus.

  19. Setup for in situ X-ray diffraction studies of thin film growth by magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellmer, K; Weiss, V; Rossner, H

    2001-01-01

    A novel method is described for the in situ-investigation of nucleation and growth of thin films during magnetron sputtering. Energy dispersive X-ray diffraction with synchrotron light is used for the structural analysis during film growth. An in situ-magnetron sputtering chamber was constructed and installed at a synchrotron radiation beam line with a bending magnet. The white synchrotron light (1-70 keV) passes the sputtering chamber through Kapton windows and hits one of the substrates on a four-fold sample holder. The diffracted beam, observed under a fixed diffraction angle between 3 deg. and 10 deg., is energy analyzed by a high purity Ge-detector. The in situ-EDXRD setup is demonstrated for the growth of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering from a metallic target.

  20. Using smartphones and tablet PCs for β--spectroscopy in an educational experimental setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Sebastian; Molz, Alexander; Kuhn, Jochen

    2014-11-01

    A magnetic spectrometer is used to gather the β--spectrum of 90 Sr /Y with a focus on two aspects. (1) The intensity of β--radiation is measured by the camera sensor module of a tablet PC together with the RadioactivityCounter app and by a Geiger-Müller tube. We evaluate the quality of mobile devices as radioactive radiation detectors by using polyenergetic β--radiation as an example and by comparing the spectra measured with the two detector types. (2) For educational purposes we implement a simple experimental setup, which consists of separate devices for measuring the electron’s kinetic energy and intensity, which are available in laboratories in educational settings. Comparison of the measured β--spectra published in the literature should encourage students to think about the energy resolution power of the β--spectrometer. Theoretical considerations show the low, yet sufficient energy resolution power of this spectrometer, especially for low energy levels.

  1. Design of organic scintillators for non-standard radiation field dosimetry: experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman H, Machado R; Maximiliano, Trujillo T; Javier E, García G; Diana C, Narvaez G; Paula A, Marín M; Róbinson A, Torres V

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental setup designed for sensing the luminescent light coming from an organic plastic scintillator stimulated with ionizing radiation. This device is intended to be a part of a complete dosimeter system for characterization of small radiation fields which is the project of the doctoral thesis of the medical physicist at the Radiation Oncology facility of Hospital San Vicente Fundación in conjunction with the Universidad de Antioquia of Medellín Colombia. Some preliminary results predict a good performance of the unit, but further studies must be conducted in order to have a completed evaluation of the system. This is the first step in the development of an accuracy tool for measurement of non-standard fields in the Radiotherapy or Radiosurgery processes.

  2. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Photos of Prototype PMT Test Setup

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Entrance to the lab. Photo 2 - A shot of the center of the lab. Photo 3 - The back of the lab. The Dark Box: Photo 4 - A view of the outside of the Dark Box along with its dry nitrogen system. Photo 5 - A view of the inside of the Dark Box. Photo 6 - The LED holder, beam splitter (removed in this shot), and a pulsing circuit. Photo 7 - The PMT holder. Photo 8 - A possible design for a Stepper Motor controlled filter wheel. Photo 9 - Polishing area for the optical fibers. R&D Work on Stepper Motor/Motion Control: Photo 10 - The complete prototype of the Stepper Motor setup. Photo 11 - The prototype of the Main Stepper Motor Driver Board. Photo 12 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor Power Amplifer. Photo 13 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor LabPC + Interface Board.

  3. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search heuristic for lot-sizing with setup times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon; Pisinger, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework and a general purpose mixed-integer programming (MIP) solver. The framework is based on local search and an adaptive procedure which chooses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer programming solver and its...... built-in feasibility heuristics is used to search a neighborhood for improving solutions. The general reoptimization approach used for repairing solutions is specifically suited for combinatorial problems where it may be hard to otherwise design suitable repair neighborhoods. The hybrid heuristic...... framework is applied to the multi-item capacitated lot sizing problem with setup times, where experiments have been conducted on a series of instances from the literature and a newly generated extension of these. On average the presented heuristic outperforms the best heuristics from the literature...

  4. A new setup for high resolution fast X-ray reflectivity data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Milena; Buffet, Adeline; Pflaum, Kathrin; Ehnes, Anita; Ciobanu, Anca; Seeck, Oliver H

    2016-11-01

    A new method for fast x-ray reflectivity data acquisition is presented. The method is based on a fast rotating, slightly tilted sample reflecting to a stationary mounted position sensitive detector and it allows for measurements of reflectivity curves in a quarter of a second. The resolution in q-space mainly depends on the beam properties and the pixel size of the detector. Maximum qz-value of 1 Å-1 can be achieved. The time-temperature depending structure changes of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) thin films were investigated in situ by applying the fast-reflectivity setup. The results are presented in this paper as illustration of the method and proof of principle.

  5. A set-up to measure the optical attenuation length of scintillating fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Alfieri, C; Joram, C

    2015-01-01

    The optical attenuation length of a scintillating fibre characterizes the quality of light transport through the fibre. It relates directly to the quantity of detectable light at the readout end of the fibre. An optical bench has been constructed, which allows excitation of the fibre at various distances from the photodetector. Depending on the choice of the photodetector – Si-PIN photodiode or grating spectrometer – the attenuation length is measured as weighted average over the sensitivity of the photodetector or as a spectral distribution. A few examples illustrate its operation and performance. The set-up serves for fibre optimisation in the R&D phase and is expected to be used for systematic checks during the series production phase of the LHCb SciFi tracker project.

  6. Antagonistic control of microbial pathogens under iron limitations by siderophore producing bacteria in a chemostat setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fgaier, Hedia; Eberl, Hermann J

    2011-03-21

    Certain bacteria develop iron chelation mechanisms that allow them to scavenge dissolved iron from the environment and to make it unavailable to competitors. This is achieved by producing siderophores that bind the iron which is later liberated internally in the cell. Under conditions of iron limitation, siderophore producing bacteria have therefore an antagonistic growth advantage over other species. This has been observed in particular in agricultural and aquacultural systems, as well as in food microbiology. We investigate here the possibility of a probiotic biocontrol strategy to eradicate a well established, often pathogenic, non-chelating population by supplementing the system with generally regarded as safe siderophore producing bacteria. Set in a chemostat setup, our modeling and simulation studies suggest that this is indeed possible in a finite time treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Design of experimental setup for investigation of cavitation bubble collapse close to a solid wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živný Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes experimental setup for investigation of the impact load from collapsing cavitation bubble on a solid wall. A vapour bubble is generated inside a cubic chamber by local heating of water inside a thin channel in a button. The bubble collapse is initiated by a piezoelectric actuator attached to the flexible wall of the chamber. A laser diode with a linear CCD sensor are used to detect the bubble position during its buoyancy-driven rise to the upper wall of the chamber. The bubble collapse impact load is measured using a PVDF piezoelectric transducer glued to the upper wall of the chamber and recorded by high-speed CCD camera illuminated by a high-power LED diode. The pressure inside the chamber is measured by the dynamic pressure transducer. All the system components are controlled and synchronized by an oscilloscope and pulse generator using the LabView software.

  8. Global optimisation methods for poroelastic material characterisation using a clamped sample in a Kundt tube setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhuyse, Johan; Deckers, Elke; Jonckheere, Stijn; Pluymers, Bert; Desmet, Wim

    2016-02-01

    The Biot theory is commonly used for the simulation of the vibro-acoustic behaviour of poroelastic materials. However, it relies on a number of material parameters. These can be hard to characterize and require dedicated measurement setups, yielding a time-consuming and costly characterisation. This paper presents a characterisation method which is able to identify all material parameters using only an impedance tube. The method relies on the assumption that the sample is clamped within the tube, that the shear wave is excited and that the acoustic field is no longer one-dimensional. This paper numerically shows the potential of the developed method. It therefore performs a sensitivity analysis of the quantification parameters, i.e. reflection coefficients and relative pressures, and a parameter estimation using global optimisation methods. A 3-step procedure is developed and validated. It is shown that even in the presence of numerically simulated noise this procedure leads to a robust parameter estimation.

  9. Reduction In Setup Time By Single Minute Exchange Of Dies SMED Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi A. Gade

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Life is a race if you dont chase it someone is definitely chase you and will go ahead. Hence to survive in todays business world every manufacturer has to have some idea and plans for their betterment. Market scenario has nearly change after 1990s that every manufacturer must go through the global competition demand for short lead time demand for variety small lot sizes and also proliferation of OEMs. If we have to increase the frequency of delivery without compromising the quality Single Minute Exchange of Dies is the answer. Single Minute Exchange of Dies is not only apply to bottleneck machines it is to be implemented company wide and aim must be to bring all setup time to less than ten minutes in this paper some techniques basic procedure problems faced by companies are discussed and solution for them are suggested.

  10. Integrated modeling of a laboratory setup for a large deformable mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsten, Rikard; Andersen, Torben; Owner-Petersen, Mette; MacMynowski, Douglas G.

    2011-09-01

    We study a concept for a low-cost, large deformable mirror for an Extremely Large Telescope. The use of inexpensive voice-coil actuators leads to a poorly damped faceplate, with many modes within the desired control bandwidth. A control architecture, including rate and position feedback to add damping and stiness, for the faceplate has been presented in our previous papers. An innovative local control scheme which decouples adjacent actuators and suppresses low-order eigenmodes is a key feature in our controller. Here, we present an integrated model of a partially illuminated large deformable mirror in an experimental laboratory setup with a limited amount of actuators. From the model, conclusions are drawn regarding the number of actuators needed to identify the key features, such as local control performance, dynamic range, and controllability and robustness of the deformable mirror.

  11. An Attosecond Transient Absorption Spectroscopy Setup with a Water Window Attosecond source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Andrew; Yin, Yanchun; Li, Jie; Ren, Xiaoming; Wang, Yang; Wu, Yi; Chang, Zenghu

    2017-04-01

    Attosecond transient absorption, or time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy, are excellent tools that can be used to investigate fast electron dynamics for a given atomic or molecular system. Recent push for high energy long wavelength few cycle laser sources has resulted in the production of x-ray spectra that would allow the probing of electron dynamics at the carbon k-edge in molecules such as CH4 and CO2. The motion of charges can be caused by photo-dissociation and charge migration. We present here the first results from our experimental setup where we produce a broadband attosecond pulse with spectra that stretches into the water window. National Science Foundation (1068604), Army Research Oce (W911NF-14-1-0383), Air Force Oce of Scientic Research (FA9550-15-1-0037, FA9550-16-1-0013) and the DARPA PULSE program by a Grant from AMRDEC (W31P4Q1310017).

  12. Detection of ammonia released from zeolite by the quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Polidoro, J. C.; Luna, F. J.; Monte, M. B. M.; Miklós, A.; Souza-Barros, F.; Vargas, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first results obtained with a Brazilian sedimentary zeolite (hereafter called the zeolite concentrate, ZC) to reduce ammonia volatilization loss of the nitrogen nutrient in tropical farms. Preliminary laboratory tests were made with both ammonium sulfate and urea into ZC. The reported field tests obtained in rose cultivations show a significant effect of the use of urea mixed with ZC on the stem growth of the rose buds. In the laboratory tests, the observations of the retention of ammonia by ZC were done using the photoacoustic set-up described in this work. The report data were obtained at temperatures of 25 and 60°C, simulating typical tropical weather temperatures.

  13. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experimental setup at CERN-ISOLDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cocolios, T.E., E-mail: Thomas.Elias.Cocolios@cern.ch [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Al Suradi, H.H. [University of Sharja, Sharja (United Arab Emirates); Billowes, J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Budinčević, I.; Groote, R.P. de; De Schepper, S. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Fedosseev, V.N. [EN Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Flanagan, K.T. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Franchoo, S. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, F-91406 Orsay (France); Garcia Ruiz, R.F.; Heylen, H. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Le Blanc, F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay, F-91406 Orsay (France); Lynch, K.M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); ISOLDE, PH Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Marsh, B.A. [EN Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Mason, P.J.R. [Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, University of Surrey, Guilford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Neyens, G.; Papuga, J. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Procter, T.J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rajabali, M.M. [Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rossel, R.E. [EN Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); and others

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • CRIS has been performed successfully on francium isotopes at ISOLDE. • Efficiency >1% has been achieved, with background <0.001%. • The analysis shows scatter with literature values of ±0.7%. • Alpha-decay tagging of hyperfine spectrum components has been demonstrated. -- Abstract: The CRIS setup at CERN-ISOLDE is a laser spectroscopy experiment dedicated to the high-resolution study of the spin, hyperfine structure and isotope shift of radioactive nuclei with low production rates (a few per second). It combines the Doppler-free resolution of the in-flight collinear geometry with the high detection efficiency of resonant ionisation. A recent commissioning campaign has demonstrated a 1% experimental efficiency, and as low as a 0.001% non-resonant ionisation. The current status of the experiment and its recent achievements with beams of francium isotopes are reported. The first identified systematic effects are discussed.

  14. Study of CRFP Shell Structures under Dynamic Loading in Shock Tube Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Khawaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the study of the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CRFP quasi-isotropic shell structures under the influence of dynamic loading. The quasi-isotropic CRFP shell specimens are fabricated using Multipreg E720 laminates. These laminates are laid in such a way that shell structure has equal strength and mechanical properties in the two-dimensional (2D plane and hence can be regarded as quasi-isotropic. In this study, the dynamic loading is generated using shock waves in a shock tube experimental setup. The strain and pressure data is collected from the experiments. Additional tests are carried out using Material Test System (MTS for both tensile and flexural response of CRFP. Results obtained from experiments are compared with numerical simulations using ANSYS Multiphysics 14.0 finite element method (FEM package. The numerical simulation and experimental results are found to be in good agreement.

  15. Identification of PAH Isomeric Structure in Cosmic Dust Analogs: The AROMA Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabbah, Hassan; Bonnamy, Anthony; Joblin, Christine [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Papanastasiou, Dimitris [Fasmatech Science + Technology, Athens, GR (Greece); Cernicharo, Jose; Martín-Gago, Jose-Angel, E-mail: christine.joblin@irap.omp.eu [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-07-01

    We developed a new analytical experimental setup called AROMA (Astrochemistry Research of Organics with Molecular Analyzer) that combines laser desorption/ionization techniques with ion trap mass spectrometry. We report here on the ability of the apparatus to detect aromatic species in complex materials of astrophysical interest and characterize their structures. A limit of detection of 100 femto-grams has been achieved using pure polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) samples, which corresponds to 2 × 10{sup 8} molecules in the case of coronene (C{sub 24}H{sub 12}). We detected the PAH distribution in the Murchison meteorite, which is made of a complex mixture of extraterrestrial organic compounds. In addition, collision induced dissociation experiments were performed on selected species detected in Murchison, which led to the first firm identification of pyrene and its methylated derivatives in this sample.

  16. Building Critical Infrastructure resilience capacities into the Emergency Management set-up: a reference framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trucco, P.; Petrenj, B.; Kozine, Igor

    Improving the resilience capacities required to manage Critical Infrastructure (CI) disruptions includes also enhancement of current Emergency Management practices. Our approach aims to integrate CI-specific issues into the EM setup (prevention, mitigation, response, and recovery). This paper pro...... a systematic implementation of relevant capabilities and making gap analysis with regard to resilience deficits. The planning of training exercises to enhance CI resilience can also benefit from the approach....... proposes a comprehensive framework to identify, build and enhance specific capabilities, both intra- and inter-organisational, needed to manage (prepare, cope and recover from) CI disruptions. This allows emergency services to assess and explicitly address resilience improvement measures while planning...... to cope with CI disruptions. To operationalise this approach we have developed a hierarchical taxonomy that classifies system resilience capabilities at both technological and organisational level in each single organisation (CI operator or responder). Capabilities are defined as a combination of assets...

  17. Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Ji, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Over-the-air (OTA) radiated testing for multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) capable mobile terminals has been actively discussed in the standardization in recent years, where multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) method has been selected, together with the radiated two-stage (RTS) method. The supp......Over-the-air (OTA) radiated testing for multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) capable mobile terminals has been actively discussed in the standardization in recent years, where multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) method has been selected, together with the radiated two-stage (RTS) method...... available in the literature are typically limited to free space scenarios, where no user effect in the vicinity of MIMO terminal is present. There is a concern whether or not the test zone size should encompass the user phantom, together with the mobile terminal in the MPAC setup. To address this issue...

  18. An approach for a comprehensive automation of electro-optical (EO) sensor characterization setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Amit; Sharma, Jitendra; Sukheja, Anil; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Ashish; Goswami, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Space Applications Centre develops various electro-optical (EO) sensors for space borne platforms and inter-planetary missions. Sensor complexities vary for different applications and therefore performance evaluation and characterization pose different challenges. Performance optimization tasks demand repeated measurements and characterization needs to be done under different phases of testing. It is difficult to meet such requirements in case of short sensor development lifecycles or tight schedules. Activities which are amenable to automation are identified and targeted to reduce the manual intervention and to avoid delays due to errors and to speed up the overall activity. Laboratory instruments, either in-house developed or COTS, play an important role in automating the test setup as they have different types of interfaces and have their own complications. In order to make an automated test setup, software intelligence need to be built based on the instrument feedback and the other check points based on the test sequence. A complete automation needs machine intelligence and sufficient amount of traceability, so that the process can be easily verified for confidence. Overall software architecture should be such that it allows connecting various types of instruments, decision making based on output of the device under test, complete traceability and fault tolerance. In this paper authors have identified the activities that can be automated for various EO sensor categories and approaches are discussed for automation with radiometric calibration, spectral response measurement and focusing as test cases. Also, software architecture is presented which allows uniform access to instruments, back-end database and macro level automation process.

  19. The experimental set-up of the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Di Meo, P.; La Commara, M.; Manea, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nicoletto, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Soramel, F.; Strano, E.; Toniolo, N.; Torresi, D.; Tortone, G.; Anastasio, A.; Bettini, M.; Cassese, C.; Castellani, L.; Corti, D.; Costa, L.; De Fazio, B.; Galet, G.; Glodariu, T.; Grebosz, J.; Guglielmetti, A.; Molini, P.; Pontoriere, G.; Rocco, R.; Romoli, M.; Roscilli, L.; Sandoli, M.; Stroe, L.; Tessaro, M.; Zatti, P. G.

    2016-10-01

    We describe the experimental set-up of the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) in-flight facility EXOTIC consisting of: (a) two position-sensitive Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters (PPACs), dedicated to the event-by-event tracking of the produced RIBs and to time of flight measurements and (b) the new high-granularity compact telescope array EXPADES (EXotic PArticle DEtection System), designed for nuclear physics and nuclear astrophysics experiments employing low-energy light RIBs. EXPADES consists of eight ΔE -Eres telescopes arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target. Each telescope is made up of two Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs) with a thickness of 40/60 μm and 300 μm for the ΔE and Eres layer, respectively. Additionally, eight ionization chambers were constructed to be used as an alternative ΔE stage or, in conjunction with the entire DSSSD array, to build up more complex triple telescopes. New low-noise multi-channel charge-sensitive preamplifiers and spectroscopy amplifiers, associated with constant fraction discriminators, peak-and-hold and Time to Amplitude Converter circuits were developed for the electronic readout of the ΔE stage. Application Specific Integrated Circuit-based electronics was employed for the treatment of the Eres signals. An 8-channel, 12-bit multi-sampling 50 MHz Analog to Digital Converter, a Trigger Supervisor Board for handling the trigger signals of the whole experimental set-up and an ad hoc data acquisition system were also developed. The performance of the PPACs, EXPADES and of the associated electronics was obtained offline with standard α calibration sources and in-beam by measuring the scattering process for the systems 17O+58Ni and 17O+208Pb at incident energies around their respective Coulomb barriers and, successively, during the first experimental runs with the RIBs of the EXOTIC facility.

  20. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Sobhy, M. A.

    2011-11-07

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  1. A Benchmarking setup for Coupled Earthquake Cycle - Dynamic Rupture - Tsunami Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Joern; Bader, Michael; van Dinther, Ylona; Gabriel, Alice-Agnes; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Ulrich, Thomas; Uphoff, Carsten; Vater, Stefan; Wollherr, Stephanie; van Zelst, Iris

    2017-04-01

    We developed a simulation framework for coupled physics-based earthquake rupture generation with tsunami propagation and inundation on a simplified subduction zone system for the project "Advanced Simulation of Coupled Earthquake and Tsunami Events" (ASCETE, funded by the Volkswagen Foundation). Here, we present a benchmarking setup that can be used for complex rupture models. The workflow begins with a 2D seismo-thermo-mechanical earthquake cycle model representing long term deformation along a planar, shallowly dipping subduction zone interface. Slip instabilities that approximate earthquakes arise spontaneously along the subduction zone interface in this model. The absolute stress field and material properties for a single slip event are used as initial conditions for a dynamic earthquake rupture model.The rupture simulation is performed with SeisSol, which uses an ADER discontinuous Galerkin discretization scheme with an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. The seafloor displacements resulting from this rupture are transferred to the tsunami model with a simple coastal run-up profile. An adaptive mesh discretizing the shallow water equations with a Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) scheme subsequently allows for an accurate and efficient representation of the tsunami evolution and inundation at the coast. This workflow allows for evaluation of how the rupture behavior affects the hydrodynamic wave propagation and coastal inundation. We present coupled results for differing earthquake scenarios. Examples include megathrust only ruptures versus ruptures with splay fault branching off the megathrust near the surface. Coupling to the tsunami simulation component is performed either dynamically (time dependent) or statically, resulting in differing tsunami wave and inundation behavior. The simplified topographical setup allows for systematic parameter studies and reproducible physical studies.

  2. Development of Experimental Setup of Metal Rapid Prototyping Machine using Selective Laser Sintering Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. N.; Mulay, A. V.; Ahuja, B. B.

    2016-08-01

    Unlike in the traditional manufacturing processes, additive manufacturing as rapid prototyping, allows designers to produce parts that were previously considered too complex to make economically. The shift is taking place from plastic prototype to fully functional metallic parts by direct deposition of metallic powders as produced parts can be directly used for desired purpose. This work is directed towards the development of experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping machine using selective laser sintering and studies the various parameters, which plays important role in the metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique. The machine structure in mainly divided into three main categories namely, (1) Z-movement of bed and table, (2) X-Y movement arrangement for LASER movements and (3) feeder mechanism. Z-movement of bed is controlled by using lead screw, bevel gear pair and stepper motor, which will maintain the accuracy of layer thickness. X-Y movements are controlled using timing belt and stepper motors for precise movements of LASER source. Feeder mechanism is then developed to control uniformity of layer thickness metal powder. Simultaneously, the study is carried out for selection of material. Various types of metal powders can be used for metal RP as Single metal powder, mixture of two metals powder, and combination of metal and polymer powder. Conclusion leads to use of mixture of two metals powder to minimize the problems such as, balling effect and porosity. Developed System can be validated by conducting various experiments on manufactured part to check mechanical and metallurgical properties. After studying the results of these experiments, various process parameters as LASER properties (as power, speed etc.), and material properties (as grain size and structure etc.) will be optimized. This work is mainly focused on the design and development of cost effective experimental setup of metal rapid prototyping using SLS technique which will gives the feel of

  3. Versatile single-molecule multi-color excitation and detection fluorescence setup for studying biomolecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhy, M. A.; Elshenawy, M. M.; Takahashi, M.; Whitman, B. H.; Walter, N. G.; Hamdan, S. M.

    2011-11-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence imaging is at the forefront of tools applied to study biomolecular dynamics both in vitro and in vivo. The ability of the single-molecule fluorescence microscope to conduct simultaneous multi-color excitation and detection is a key experimental feature that is under continuous development. In this paper, we describe in detail the design and the construction of a sophisticated and versatile multi-color excitation and emission fluorescence instrument for studying biomolecular dynamics at the single-molecule level. The setup is novel, economical and compact, where two inverted microscopes share a laser combiner module with six individual laser sources that extend from 400 to 640 nm. Nonetheless, each microscope can independently and in a flexible manner select the combinations, sequences, and intensities of the excitation wavelengths. This high flexibility is achieved by the replacement of conventional mechanical shutters with acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The use of AOTF provides major advancement by controlling the intensities, duration, and selection of up to eight different wavelengths with microsecond alternation time in a transparent and easy manner for the end user. To our knowledge this is the first time AOTF is applied to wide-field total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy even though it has been commonly used in multi-wavelength confocal microscopy. The laser outputs from the combiner module are coupled to the microscopes by two sets of four single-mode optic fibers in order to allow for the optimization of the TIRF angle for each wavelength independently. The emission is split into two or four spectral channels to allow for the simultaneous detection of up to four different fluorophores of wide selection and using many possible excitation and photoactivation schemes. We demonstrate the performance of this new setup by conducting two-color alternating excitation single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy

  4. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  5. A randomized control trial evaluating fluorescent ink versus dark ink tattoos for breast radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, Steven J; Kirby, Anna M; Lee, Steven F; Bartlett, Freddie; Titmarsh, Kumud; Donovan, Ellen; Griffin, Clare L; Gothard, Lone; Locke, Imogen; McNair, Helen A

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this UK study was to evaluate interfraction reproducibility and body image score when using ultraviolet (UV) tattoos (not visible in ambient lighting) for external references during breast/chest wall radiotherapy and compare with conventional dark ink. In this non-blinded, single-centre, parallel group, randomized control trial, patients were allocated to receive either conventional dark ink or UV ink tattoos using computer-generated random blocks. Participant assignment was not masked. Systematic (∑) and random (σ) setup errors were determined using electronic portal images. Body image questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, 1 month and 6 months to determine the impact of tattoo type on body image. The primary end point was to determine that UV tattoo random error (σsetup) was no less accurate than with conventional dark ink tattoos, i.e. tattoos. 45 patients completed treatment (UV: n = 23, dark: n = 22). σsetup for the UV tattoo group was tattoo group compared with the dark ink group at 1 month [56% (13/23) vs 14% (3/22), respectively] and 6 months [52% (11/21) vs 38% (8/21), respectively]. UV tattoos were associated with interfraction setup reproducibility comparable with conventional dark ink. Patients reported a more favourable change in body image score up to 6 months following treatment. Advances in knowledge: This study is the first to evaluate UV tattoo external references in a randomized control trial.

  6. Boron neutron capture therapy design calculation of a 3H(p,n reaction based BSA for brain cancer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassem Elshahat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a promising technique for the treatment of malignant disease targeting organs of the human body. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to calculate optimum design parameters of an accelerator based beam shaping assembly (BSA for BNCT of brain cancer setup.Methods: Epithermal beam of neutrons were obtained through moderation of fast neutrons from 3H(p,n reaction in a high density polyethylene moderator and a graphite reflector. The dimensions of the moderator and the reflector were optimized through optimization of epithermal / fast neutron intensity ratio as a function of geometric parameters of the setup. Results: The results of our calculation showed the capability of our setup to treat the tumor within 4 cm of the head surface. The calculated peak therapeutic ratio for the setup was found to be 2.15. Conclusion: With further improvement in the polyethylene moderator design and brain phantom irradiation arrangement, the setup capabilities can be improved to reach further deep-seated tumor.

  7. The single-isocenter treatment of head and neck cancer: time gain using MLC and automatic set-up; Traitement des cancers ORL: gain de temps avec le collimateur multilames et la mise en place automatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meerleer, G.O. de; Vakaet, L.A.M.L.; Bate, M.T.; Wagter, C. de; Naeyer, B. de; Neve, W.J. de [University Hospital, Gent (Belgium). Div. of Radiotherapy (R-UZG)

    1999-05-01

    In this manuscript, we studied the difference in the treatment time required to execute a single-isocenter three-field irradiation of the head and neck, using either tray-mounted cerro-bend blocks or a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) for field shaping and automatic set-up. A total of twenty consecutive, unselected patients (16 males, four females), were eligible for this study because the dose they were to received was 44 Gy (2 Gy/fraction) to the head,neck and supraclavicular regions. Patients were randomly allocated to one of two treatment groups. The first group (n=11) was treated on a Philips SL-75 linear accelerator (SL-75), using 5 MV photons and tray-mounted cerro-bend blocks. The second group (n=9) was treated on a Philips SL-25 linear accelerator (SL-25-MLC), using 6 MV photons and a MLC. Patients of the second group were treated using the automatic set-up of the SL-25-MLC, without entering the treatment room between consecutive fields. Overall treatment time was significantly shorter on the SL-25-MLC than on the SL-75 (P<0.0001). The difference in total treatment-execution time was in the range of 157 s per treatment session. The largest difference was observed in the set-up time. There was an average of a 125 s time gain per treatment day (P<0.0001) in favour of the SL-25-MLC. Compared to tray-mounted cerro-bend blocks, a MLC and automatic set-up results in a significant time advantage when a single isocenter technique is used to treat head and neck cancer. (authors)

  8. Set-up errors and planning target volume margins in head and neck cancer radiotherapy: a clinical study of image guidance with on-line cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisi, Francesco; Palazzi, Mauro Filippo; Bracco, Francesco; Brambilla, Maria Grazia; Carbonini, Claudia; Asnaghi, Diego Dario; Monti, Angelo Filippo; Torresin, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    Set-up errors represent a source of uncertainty in head and neck (H&N) cancer radiotherapy. The present study evaluated set-up accuracy with the use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in order to establish the proper clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) margins to be adopted. Local set-up accuracy was analysed for 44 H&N cancer patients since the implementation of CBCT. An on-line correction protocol was adopted, with the first 3 scans used to correct systematic errors with a 3-mm action level. The overall mean displacement (M), the population systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors and the 3D vector length were calculated. PTV margins were calculated according to the van Herk formula (2.5Σ + 0.7σ). A total of 420 CBCT scans were analysed. A systematic correction was needed in 43% of patients. The value of M was <1 mm in all directions; the values of Σ and σ ranged over 1-1.2 and 1.4-1.9 mm, respectively. Pre-correction PTV margins were 3.48, 4.08 and 4.33 mm along the 3 axes. The PTV margins calculated after online correction were <2.5 mm in all directions. Kilovoltage CBCT is effective in evaluating set-up accuracy in H&N patients. CTV-PTV margins of 5 mm are safe and are currently adopted at our centre; however, some special situations, such as re-irradiation or the close proximity of organs at risk and high-dose regions, could benefit from daily image registration and lower (i.e., 3 mm) margins.

  9. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, R., E-mail: ruth.harding2@wales.nhs.uk [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Proton Therapy, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Short, S. C. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oncology and Clinical Research, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Loughrey, C. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  10. Genetic variation and population structure in Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    [Thomas G., Sreejayan, Joseph L. and Kuriachan P. 2001 Genetic variation and population structure in Oryza malampuzhaensis. Krish. et .... (Promega). Southern hybridization was carried out as reported earlier (Thomas et al. 2000). Results. DNA fingerprinting. A total of 33 decamer primers randomly selected from C,.

  11. Handling large variations in mechanics: Some applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MS received 11 October 2014; revised 17 February 2015; accepted 1 March 2015. Abstract. There is a need to use probability distributions with power-law decaying tails to describe the large variations exhibited by some of the physical phenomena. The Weierstrass Random Walk (WRW) shows promise for modeling such ...

  12. Reliable experimental setup to test the pressure modulation of Baerveldt Implant tubes for reducing post-operative hypotony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Ajay

    future to evaluate custom inserts and their effects on the pressure drop over 4 -- 6 weeks. The design requirements were: simulate physiological conditions [flow rate between 1.25 and 2.5 mul/min], evaluate small inner diameter tubes [50 and 75 mum] and annuli, and demonstrate reliability and repeatability. The current study was focused on benchmarking the experimental setup for the IOP range of 15 -- 20 mm Hg. Repeated experiments have been conducted using distilled water with configurations [diameter of tube, insert diameter, lengths of insert and tube, and flow rate] that produce pressure variations which include the 15 -- 20 mm Hg range. Two similar setups were assembled and evaluated for repeatability between the two. Experimental measurements of pressure drop were validated using theoretical calculations. Theory predicted a range of expected values by considering manufacturing and performance tolerances of the apparatus components: tube diameter, insert diameter, and the flow-rate and pressure [controlled by pump]. In addition, preliminary experiments evaluated the dissolution of suture samples in a balanced salt solution and in distilled water. The balanced salt solution approximates the eye's aqueous humor properties, and it was expected that the salt and acid would help to hydrolyze sutures much faster than distilled water. Suture samples in a balanced salt solution showed signs of deterioration [flaking] within 23 days, and distilled water samples showed only slight signs of deterioration after about 30 days. These preliminary studies indicate that future dissolution and flow experiments should be conducted using the balanced salt solution. Also, the absorbable sutures showed signs of bulk erosion/deterioration in a balanced salt solution after 14 days, which indicates that they may not be suitable as inserts in the implant tubes because flakes could block the tube entrance. Further long term studies should be performed in order to understand the effects of

  13. Semiparametric Bayesian Estimation of Random Coefficients Discrete Choice Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tchumtchoua, Sylvie; Dey, Dipak

    2007-01-01

    Heterogeneity in choice models is typically assumed to have a normal distribution in both Bayesian and classical setups. In this paper, we propose a semiparametric Bayesian framework for the analysis of random coefficients discrete choice models that can be applied to both individual as well as aggregate data. Heterogeneity is modeled using a Dirichlet process prior which varies with consumers characteristics through covariates. We develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for fitting such...

  14. The WITCH experiment: completion of a set-up to investigate the structure of weak interactions with a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delaure, B.; Kopecky, S.; Lindroth, A.; Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.

    2006-01-01

    The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in beta decay by determining the beta-neutrino angular correlation from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The installation period was completed and intensive commissioning of the set-up was performed already. The lay-out of the WITCH set-up and results of commissioning tests performed until now are described here, showing that the full set-up up to the spectrometer is now operational, although several efficiencies are still to be improved. Due to its feature of being able to measure the energy spectrum for recoil ions, the WITCH experiment also opens possibilities for other observables.

  15. An experimental setup for traceable measurement and calibration of liquid flow rates down to 5 nl/min.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Martin; Nestler, Bodo; Klein, Stephan; Lucas, Peter; Petter, Harm Tido; Damiani, Christian

    2015-08-01

    This work presents the improvements of an experimental setup for measuring ultra-low flow rates down to 5 nl/min. The system uses a telecentric CCD imaging system mounted on a high-precision, computer-controlled linear stage to track a moving liquid meniscus inside a glass capillary. Compared to the original setup, the lowest attainable expanded uncertainty at any flow rate has been reduced from 5.4% to 2%. In addition, the conformity with specification of three commercial micro-fluidic devices was evaluated using the new setup: one syringe pump, one implantable infusion pump and one thermal flow sensor. The flow sensor and the implantable infusion pump met the compliance criteria (coverage probability 95%). The syringe pump however, failed to meet the specifications at 5 nl/min and 10 nl/min. No assessment could be made at higher flow rates.

  16. Single machine scheduling and due date assignment with past-sequence-dependent setup time and position-dependent processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Chou-Jung; Hsu, Hua-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(4)) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(3)) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  17. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  18. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    of a superconducting cable includes the thermal insulation of the cable, the current- and coolant feed-throughs and possibly dynamic vacuum control. Since feed-throughs represent major sources of heat in-leak to the cryogenic system it is important to optimise the design and the number of these in a superconducting...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  19. Headspace-free setup of in vitro bioassays for the evaluation of volatile disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Dutt, Mriga; Escher, Beate I

    2013-11-18

    The conventional setup of in vitro bioassays in microplates does not prevent the loss of volatile compounds, which hampers the toxicological characterization of waterborne volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs). To minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals, we adapted four in vitro bioassays to a headspace-free setup using eight volatile organic compounds (four trihalomethanes, 1,1-dichloroethene, bromoethane, and two haloacetonitriles) that cover a wide range of air-water partition coefficients. The nominal effect concentrations of the test chemicals decreased by up to three orders of magnitude when the conventional setup was changed to a headspace-free setup for the bacterial cytotoxicity assay using bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The increase of apparent sensitivity correlated significantly with the air-water partition coefficient. Purge and trap GC/MS analysis revealed a reduced loss of dosed volatile compounds in the headspace free setup (78-130% of nominal concentration) compared to a substantial loss in the conventional set up (2-13% of the nominal concentration). The experimental effect concentrations converged with the headspace-free setup to the effect concentrations predicted by a QSAR model, confirming the suitability of the headspace-free approach to minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals. The analogue headspace-free design of the bacterial bioassays for genotoxicity (umuC assay) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation assay) increased the number of compounds detected as genotoxic or mutagenic from one to four and zero to two, respectively. In a bioassay with a mammalian cell line applied for detecting the induction of the Nrf-2-mediated oxidative stress response (AREc32 assay), the headspace-free setup improved the apparent sensitivity by less than one order of magnitude, presumably due to the retaining effect of the serum components in the medium, which is also reflected in the reduced aqueous concentrations of compounds. This

  20. An access to buried interfaces: the X-ray reflectivity set-up of BL9 at DELTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Michael; Lietz, Daniela; Sternemann, Christian; Shokuie, Kaveh; Evers, Florian; Tolan, Metin; Czeslik, Claus; Winter, Roland

    2008-11-01

    An X-ray reflectivity set-up to study buried interfaces at beamline BL9 of the electron storage ring DELTA is presented. The structure of solid-gas and solid-liquid interfaces can be investigated using X-rays with incident energies of about 27 keV. A detailed description of the set-up is given and its performance is demonstrated by a discussion of selected applications, i.e. protein adsorption at the solid-liquid interface and gas adsorption at the solid-gas interface at elevated pressures.