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Sample records for random sample telephone

  1. Stratified random sampling plan for an irrigation customer telephone survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W.; Davis, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes the procedures used to design and select a sample for a telephone survey of individuals who use electricity in irrigating agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The survey is intended to gather information on the irrigated agricultural sector that will be useful for conservation assessment, load forecasting, rate design, and other regional power planning activities.

  2. Randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedt, J Todd; Cuddihy, Leisha; Swanson, Leslie M; Pickett, Scott; Aikens, James; Chervin, Ronald D

    2013-03-01

    To compare the efficacy of telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to an information pamphlet control on sleep and daytime functioning at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Randomized controlled parallel trial. N/A. Thirty individuals with chronic insomnia (27 women, age 39.1 ± 14.4 years, insomnia duration 8.7 ± 10.7 years). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) delivered in up to eight weekly telephone sessions (CBTI-Phone, n = 15) versus an information pamphlet control (IPC, n = 15). Sleep/wake diary, sleep-related questionnaires (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 16-item Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep), and daytime symptom assessments (fatigue, depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Linear mixed models indicated that sleep/wake diary sleep efficiency and total sleep time improved significantly at posttreatment in both groups and remained stable at 12-wk follow-up. More CBTI-Phone than IPC patients showed posttreatment improvements in unhelpful sleep-related cognitions (P Phone patients and small to moderate (Cohen d = -0.1-0.6) for IPC patients. All CBTI-Phone patients completed posttreatment and 12-wk follow-up assessments, but three IPC patients discontinued the study. The findings provide preliminary support for telephone-delivered CBTI in the treatment of chronic insomnia. Future larger-scale studies with more diverse samples are warranted. Some individuals with insomnia may also benefit from pamphlet-delivered CBTI with brief telephone support. Arnedt JT; Cuddihy L; Swanson LM; Pickett S; Aikens J; Chervin RD. Randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(3):353-362.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Telephone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedt, J. Todd; Cuddihy, Leisha; Swanson, Leslie M.; Pickett, Scott; Aikens, James; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to an information pamphlet control on sleep and daytime functioning at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Design: Randomized controlled parallel trial. Setting: N/A. Participants: Thirty individuals with chronic insomnia (27 women, age 39.1 ± 14.4 years, insomnia duration 8.7 ± 10.7 years). Interventions: Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) delivered in up to eight weekly telephone sessions (CBTI-Phone, n = 15) versus an information pamphlet control (IPC, n = 15). Measurements and Results: Sleep/wake diary, sleep-related questionnaires (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 16-item Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep), and daytime symptom assessments (fatigue, depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Linear mixed models indicated that sleep/wake diary sleep efficiency and total sleep time improved significantly at posttreatment in both groups and remained stable at 12-wk follow-up. More CBTI-Phone than IPC patients showed posttreatment improvements in unhelpful sleep-related cognitions (P Phone patients and small to moderate (Cohen d = -0.1–0.6) for IPC patients. All CBTI-Phone patients completed posttreatment and 12-wk follow-up assessments, but three IPC patients discontinued the study. Conclusions: The findings provide preliminary support for telephone-delivered CBTI in the treatment of chronic insomnia. Future larger-scale studies with more diverse samples are warranted. Some individuals with insomnia may also benefit from pamphlet-delivered CBTI with brief telephone support. Citation: Arnedt JT; Cuddihy L; Swanson LM; Pickett S; Aikens J; Chervin RD. Randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(3):353-362. PMID:23450712

  4. Reintegration the Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Afghanistan service members. The goal is to build spouses’ resilience to cope with reintegration challenges, help them serve as a support system for... reintegration difficulties; strategies to support the returning service member; and cues to alert spouses when to seek mental health services for the...available on request) Spouse Telephone Support (STS). In May 2010, Public Law 111-163 Caregivers and Veterans Omnibus Health Services Act of 2010

  5. Randomized trial of telephone versus in-person delivery of a brief psychosocial intervention in post-stroke depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkness, Catherine J; Cain, Kevin C; Becker, Kyra J; Tirschwell, David L; Buzaitis, Ann M; Weisman, Pamela L; McKenzie, Sylvia; Teri, Linda; Kohen, Ruth; Veith, Richard C; Mitchell, Pamela H

    2017-10-10

    A psychosocial behavioral intervention delivered in-person by advanced practice nurses has been shown effective in substantially reducing post-stroke depression (PSD). This follow-up trial compared the effectiveness of a shortened intervention delivered by either telephone or in-person to usual care. To our knowledge, this is the first of current behavioral therapy trials to expand the protocol in a new clinical sample. 100 people with Geriatric Depression Scores ≥ 11 were randomized within 4 months of stroke to usual care (N = 28), telephone intervention (N = 37), or in-person intervention (N = 35). Primary outcome was response [percent reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS)] and remission (HDRS score psychosocial intervention for PSD delivered by telephone or in-person did not reduce depression significantly more than usual care. However, the comparable effectiveness of telephone and in-person follow-up for treatment of depression found is important given greater accessibility by telephone and mandated post-hospital follow-up for comprehensive stroke centers. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://register.clinicaltrials.gov , unique identifier: NCT01133106, Registered 5/26/2010.

  6. An advance letter did not increase the response rates in a telephone survey: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Renee N; Reid, Alison; Driscoll, Timothy R; Glass, Deborah C; Benke, Geza; Fritschi, Lin

    2013-12-01

    To test the impact of an advance letter on response and cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey, given previous inconsistent results. Within the context of a larger telephone survey, 1,000 Australian households were randomly selected to take part in this trial. Half were randomly allocated to receive an advance letter, whereas the remainder did not receive any advance communication. Response and cooperation rates were compared between the two groups. A total of 244 interviews were completed, 134 of which were with households that had been sent an advance letter. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant difference in response between those who had received a letter and those who had not (26.8% vs. 22.0%, respectively). In addition, there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of either cooperation (78.4% vs. 79.7%) or response rate (56.3% vs. 57.9%), and no clear differences emerged in terms of the demographic characteristics of the two groups. An advance letter was not seen to be effective in increasing response or cooperation rates in a nationwide telephone survey. Researchers should consider alternative methods of increasing participation in telephone surveys. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized clinical trial of a telephone depression intervention to reduce employee presenteeism and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Adler, David A; Rogers, William H; Chang, Hong; Greenhill, Annabel; Cymerman, Elina; Azocar, Francisca

    2015-06-01

    The study tested an intervention aimed at improving work functioning among middle-aged and older adults with depression and work limitations. A randomized clinical trial allocated an initial sample of 431 eligible employed adults (age ≥45) to a work-focused intervention (WFI) or usual care. Inclusion criteria were depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and at-work limitations indicated by a productivity loss score ≥5% on the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). Study sites included 19 employers and five related organizations. Telephone-based counseling provided three integrated modalities: care coordination, cognitive-behavioral therapy strategy development, and work coaching and modification. Effectiveness (change in productivity loss scores from preintervention to four months postintervention) was tested with mixed models adjusted for confounders. Secondary outcomes included change in WLQ work performance scales, self-reported absences, and depression. Of 1,227 eligible employees (7% of screened), 431 (35%) enrolled and 380 completed the study (12% attrition). At-work productivity loss improved 44% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, pcentered, value-based care, the WFI could be an important resource.

  8. The Effects of a Multilingual Telephone Quitline for Asian Smokers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sharon E.; Wong, Shiushing; Gamst, Anthony C.; Tedeschi, Gary J.; Reyes-Nocon, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    Background Although telephone counseling services (quitlines) have become a popular behavioral intervention for smoking cessation in the United States, such services are scarce for Asian immigrants with limited English proficiency. In this study, we tested the effects of telephone counseling for smoking cessation in Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-speaking smokers. Methods A culturally tailored counseling protocol was developed in English and translated into Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese. We conducted a single randomized trial embedded in the California quitline service. Smokers who called the quitline’s Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese telephone lines between August 2, 2004, and April 4, 2008, were recruited to the trial. Subjects (N = 2277) were stratified by language and randomly assigned to telephone counseling (self-help materials and up to six counseling sessions; n = 1124 subjects) or self-help (self-help materials only; n = 1153 subjects) groups: 729 Chinese subjects (counseling = 359, self-help = 370), 848 Korean subjects (counseling = 422, self-help = 426), and 700 Vietnamese subjects (counseling = 343, self-help = 357). The primary outcome was 6-month prolonged abstinence. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to estimate prolonged abstinence rates for all subjects and for each language group. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results In the intention-to-treat analysis, counseling increased the 6-month prolonged abstinence rate among all smokers compared with self-help (counseling vs self-help, 16.4% vs 8.0%, difference = 8.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.7% to 11.1%, P Counseling also increased the 6-month prolonged abstinence rate for each language group compared with self-help (counseling vs self-help, Chinese, 14.8% vs 6.0%, difference = 8.8%, 95% CI = 4.4% to 13.2%, P counseling was effective for Chinese-, Korean-, and Vietnamese-speaking smokers. This protocol should be incorporated into existing quitlines, with possible extension to

  9. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for subthreshold depression and presenteeism in workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshi A Furukawa

    Full Text Available Subthreshold depression is highly prevalent in the general population and causes great loss to society especially in the form of reduced productivity while at work (presenteeism. We developed a highly-structured manualized eight-session cognitive-behavioral program with a focus on subthreshold depression in the workplace and to be administered via telephone by trained psychotherapists (tCBT.We conducted a parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial of tCBT in addition to the pre-existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP versus EAP alone among workers with subthreshold depression at a large manufacturing company in Japan. The primary outcomes were depression severity as measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and presenteeism as measured with World Health Organization Health and Work Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ. In the course of the trial the follow-up period was shortened in order to increase acceptability of the study.The planned sample size was 108 per arm but the trial was stopped early due to low accrual. Altogether 118 subjects were randomized to tCBT+EAP (n = 58 and to EAP alone (n = 60. The BDI-II scores fell from the mean of 17.3 at baseline to 11.0 in the intervention group and to 15.7 in the control group after 4 months (p<0.001, Effect size = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.05. However, there was no statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative presenteeism (p = 0.44, ES = 0.15, -0.21 to 0.52, and p = 0.50, ES = 0.02, -0.34 to 0.39, respectively.Remote CBT, including tCBT, may provide easy access to quality-assured effective psychotherapy for people in the work force who present with subthreshold depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in longer terms. The study was funded by Sekisui Chemicals Co. Ltd.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00885014.

  10. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Subthreshold Depression and Presenteeism in Workplace: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshi A.; Horikoshi, Masaru; Kawakami, Norito; Kadota, Masayo; Sasaki, Megumi; Sekiya, Yuki; Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kashimura, Masami; Asano, Kenichi; Terashima, Hitomi; Iwasa, Kazunori; Nagasaku, Minoru; Grothaus, Louis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Subthreshold depression is highly prevalent in the general population and causes great loss to society especially in the form of reduced productivity while at work (presenteeism). We developed a highly-structured manualized eight-session cognitive-behavioral program with a focus on subthreshold depression in the workplace and to be administered via telephone by trained psychotherapists (tCBT). Methods We conducted a parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial of tCBT in addition to the pre-existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) versus EAP alone among workers with subthreshold depression at a large manufacturing company in Japan. The primary outcomes were depression severity as measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and presenteeism as measured with World Health Organization Health and Work Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ). In the course of the trial the follow-up period was shortened in order to increase acceptability of the study. Results The planned sample size was 108 per arm but the trial was stopped early due to low accrual. Altogether 118 subjects were randomized to tCBT+EAP (n = 58) and to EAP alone (n = 60). The BDI-II scores fell from the mean of 17.3 at baseline to 11.0 in the intervention group and to 15.7 in the control group after 4 months (p<0.001, Effect size = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.05). However, there was no statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative presenteeism (p = 0.44, ES = 0.15, −0.21 to 0.52, and p = 0.50, ES = 0.02, −0.34 to 0.39, respectively). Conclusion Remote CBT, including tCBT, may provide easy access to quality-assured effective psychotherapy for people in the work force who present with subthreshold depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in longer terms. The study was funded by Sekisui Chemicals Co. Ltd. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00885014 PMID:22532849

  11. A randomized controlled trial of telephone peer support's influence on breastfeeding duration in adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meglio, G Di; McDermott, M P; Klein, J D

    2010-02-01

    Adolescent mothers breastfeed less often and for a shorter duration than adult mothers. This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effect of telephone peer support on breastfeeding duration among adolescents. Five adolescents who had previously breastfed were trained to provide peer support. Seventy-eight breastfeeding mothers were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received telephone calls from the peer support persons (n = 38) or to a control group that did not receive support (n = 40). An independent interviewer telephoned all new mothers weekly to document feeding patterns. Peer support persons, subjects, and the interviewer were all blinded to the research hypothesis and to group assignment. The primary outcome variable was "any breastfeeding" duration, i.e., the age at complete breastfeeding cessation. A secondary outcome variable was exclusive breastfeeding, i.e., the age at first introduction of any supplement. "Any breastfeeding" duration did not differ significantly between the groups (median 75 days in the intervention group vs. 35 days in the control group, p = 0.26). Among the 13 intervention and 11 control mothers who were exclusively breastfeeding at the time of hospital discharge, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding was increased in the intervention group (median 35 days vs. 10 days, p = 0.004). This study did not demonstrate a significant effect of peer support on "any breastfeeding" duration. In contrast, exclusive breastfeeding duration appeared to be extended by peer support. This latter finding would benefit from confirmation in future studies. However, unless better methods are developed for retaining peers, this is likely to be a labor-intensive approach to extending exclusive breastfeeding duration among adolescent mothers.

  12. The Effect of Telephone Support on Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Postpartum depression is a common disorder. Systematic reviews emphasized the need to conduct more trials about interventions to prevent postpartum depression. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postpartum telephone support on maternal depression. Methods:366 postpartum women with no history of known depression were randomly assigned into control (244 subjects and intervention (122 subjects groups. The control group received only routine postpartum care. In the intervention group, telephone support was provided twice in the first week and once a week during the second to sixth week of postpartum by a trained midwife in addition to the routine care. In order to meet their unpredicted needs, the mothers could contact the consultant 24 hours a day. Postpartum depression was assessed using the self-administered Edinburgh Depression Scale at 60 to 65 days of postpartum. Mothers with scores of 13 and above were considered to have depression. Logistic regression and Student’s t-test were used for the data analysis. Results:There was no significant difference regarding frequency of depression between the intervention and control groups (29.9% vs. 31.6%; Odds ratio 0.91, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.49. Mean of depression score was not significantly different between the groups [9.2 (6.1 vs. 10.4 (5.8; mean difference -1.19, 95%CI -2.5 to 0.13]. Conclusion:This study did not provide evidence to show that telephone support of a midwife during postpartum period have a preventive effect on postpartum depression.

  13. Randomized trial of an uncertainty self-management telephone intervention for patients awaiting liver transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Donald E; Hendrix, Cristina C; Steinhauser, Karen E; Stechuchak, Karen M; Porter, Laura S; Hudson, Julie; Olsen, Maren K; Muir, Andrew; Lowman, Sarah; DiMartini, Andrea; Salonen, Laurel Williams; Tulsky, James A

    2017-03-01

    We tested an uncertainty self-management telephone intervention (SMI) with patients awaiting liver transplant and their caregivers. Participants were recruited from four transplant centers and completed questionnaires at baseline, 10, and 12 weeks from baseline (generally two and four weeks after intervention delivery, respectively). Dyads were randomized to either SMI (n=56) or liver disease education (LDE; n=59), both of which involved six weekly telephone sessions. SMI participants were taught coping skills and uncertainty management strategies while LDE participants learned about liver function and how to stay healthy. Outcomes included illness uncertainty, uncertainty management, depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, and quality of life. General linear models were used to test for group differences. No differences were found between the SMI and LDE groups for study outcomes. This trial offers insight regarding design for future interventions that may allow greater flexibility in length of delivery beyond our study's 12-week timeframe. Our study was designed for the time constraints of today's clinical practice setting. This trial is a beginning point to address the unmet needs of these patients and their caregivers as they wait for transplants that could save their lives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Telephone-Based Support on Postpartum Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourieh Shamshiri Milani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postpartum depression (PPD is one public health issue that affects both maternal and child health. This research studies the effect of health volunteers’ telephonebased support on decreasing PPD. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial evaluated 203 women who had uncomplicated deliveries. The women completed the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS, 10 to 15 days after childbirth in order to be assessed for pre-trial depression scores. The cut-off point for depression was considered to be a score of >10. We randomly assigned 54 eligible mothers (n=27 per group with mild and moderate depression to the intervention and control groups. In both groups, mothers received routine postpartum care. The intervention group additionally received telephone support from health volunteers. A questionnaire was used to gather demographic and obstetric information. By the end of the 6th week, mothers completed the EPDS to be reassessed for depression after intervention. Data were analyzed using the chi-square, Fisher’s exact, t- and paired t tests. Results: The mean depression scores before intervention (10 to 15 days after childbirth in the intervention and control groups did not significantly differ (P=0.682. Depression scores of the intervention and control groups showed a significant difference after 6 weeks (P=0.035. In addition, there was a significant decrease in depression for the intervention and control groups (P=0.045. Conclusion: Health volunteer telephone-based support effectively decreased PPD and may be beneficial to women with symptoms of mild and moderate PPD (Registration number: IRCT201202159027N1.

  15. Randomized trial of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy versus cognitive behavioral therapy for smoking cessation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Bush, Terry; Zbikowski, Susan M; Mercer, Laina D; Heffner, Jaimee L

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized trial of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Participants were 121 uninsured South Carolina State Quitline callers who were adult smokers (at least 10 cigarettes/day) and who wanted to quit within the next 30 days. Participants were randomized to 5 sessions of either ACT or CBT telephone counseling and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). ACT participants completed more calls than CBT participants (M = 3.25 in ACT vs. 2.23 in CBT; p = .001). Regarding satisfaction, 100% of ACT participants reported their treatment was useful for quitting smoking (vs. 87% for CBT; p = .03), and 97% of ACT participants would recommend their treatment to a friend (vs. 83% for CBT; p = .06). On the primary outcome of intent-to-treat 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months postrandomization, the quit rates were 31% in ACT versus 22% in CBT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7-3.4). Among participants depressed at baseline (n = 47), the quit rates were 33% in ACT versus 13% in CBT (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.6). Consistent with ACT's theory, among participants scoring low on acceptance of cravings at baseline (n = 57), the quit rates were 37% in ACT versus 10% in CBT (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.3-22.0). ACT is feasible to deliver by phone, is highly acceptable to quitline callers, and shows highly promising quit rates compared with standard CBT quitline counseling. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Randomized Trial of Telephone-Delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy Versus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Terry; Zbikowski, Susan M.; Mercer, Laina D.; Heffner, Jaimee L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a pilot randomized trial of telephone-delivered acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Method: Participants were 121 uninsured South Carolina State Quitline callers who were adult smokers (at least 10 cigarettes/day) and who wanted to quit within the next 30 days. Participants were randomized to 5 sessions of either ACT or CBT telephone counseling and were offered 2 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). Results: ACT participants completed more calls than CBT participants (M = 3.25 in ACT vs. 2.23 in CBT; p = .001). Regarding satisfaction, 100% of ACT participants reported their treatment was useful for quitting smoking (vs. 87% for CBT; p = .03), and 97% of ACT participants would recommend their treatment to a friend (vs. 83% for CBT; p = .06). On the primary outcome of intent-to-treat 30-day point prevalence abstinence at 6 months postrandomization, the quit rates were 31% in ACT versus 22% in CBT (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7–3.4). Among participants depressed at baseline (n = 47), the quit rates were 33% in ACT versus 13% in CBT (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0–1.6). Consistent with ACT’s theory, among participants scoring low on acceptance of cravings at baseline (n = 57), the quit rates were 37% in ACT versus 10% in CBT (OR = 5.3, 95% CI = 1.3–22.0). Conclusions: ACT is feasible to deliver by phone, is highly acceptable to quitline callers, and shows highly promising quit rates compared with standard CBT quitline counseling. As results were limited by the pilot design (e.g., small sample), a full-scale efficacy trial is now needed. PMID:24935757

  17. Recruiting to Clinical Trials on the Telephone - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Informed consent is an essential element of clinical research. Obtaining consent, however, may be challenging. The use of the telephone for giving information and obtaining consent may be practical but little formal research has been done. METHODS: We examined the use of the telephone...

  18. A telephone-based intervention to promote physical activity during smoking cessation: a randomized controlled proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Uma S; Patterson, Freda; Rodriguez, Daniel; Collins, Bradley N

    2017-06-01

    Smoking and physical inactivity contribute to disproportionate disease burden among underserved adults. Telephone-based interventions (quitlines) are becoming the standard care for addressing smoking. There is increasing interest to determine whether quitlines can be utilized to administer interventions for other unhealthy behaviors. This study aims to examine the proof-of-concept and potential efficacy of a telephone-based behavioral counseling intervention to boost daily low-to-moderate physical activity among low-income, physically inactive smokers. Participants (N = 101) were randomized to receive 4 weeks of counseling prior to their smoking quit day that included either standard smoking cessation counseling (control) or the Step-up to Quit (SUTQ) intervention. SUTQ promoted daily walking to foster physical activity as a primary smoking urge management strategy and facilitate incremental increases in daily steps with the goal of achieving 7500 steps/day by the quit day in week 4. Exploratory structural equation modeling tested SUTQ effects on six measures of low-to-moderate physical activity (primary outcome) and smoking cue reactivity (secondary outcome) simultaneously in a single multivariate model with controlling variables. The sample was 51 % female and 77 % African-American, with a mean age of 42.1 years (SD = 10.9). Compared to the control condition, SUTQ intervention was associated with greater physical activity at week 4 (b = 0.51, z = 1.71, p = 0.08), with between-group differences sustained at follow-up. At week 4, the SUTQ group had higher 7-day mean steps/day (M = 7,207.25, SD = 4,276.03) than controls (M = 3,947.03, SD = 3,655.03) (t = 3.35; p 7500 steps/day goal (49% vs. 11 %, c2 = 10.78; p < .01), a difference that was sustained at 1-month follow-up (X2 = 9.04, p < .01) Effects of SUTQ treatment on cue reactivity were in the hypothesized direction but not significant (b = -0.29; z = -1.09, p = 0.27). To our knowledge, this

  19. Remote treatment of panic disorder: a randomized trial of internet-based cognitive behavior therapy supplemented with telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlbring, Per; Bohman, Susanna; Brunt, Sara; Buhrman, Monica; Westling, Bengt E; Ekselius, Lisa; Andersson, Gerhard

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluated a 10-week Internet-based bibliotherapy self-help program with short weekly telephone calls for people suffering from panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. After the authors confirmed the diagnosis by administering the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV by telephone, 60 participants were randomly assigned to either a wait-listed control group or a multimodal treatment package based on cognitive behavior therapy plus minimal therapist contact via e-mail. A 10-minute telephone call was made each week to support each participant. Total mean time spent on each participant during the 10 weeks was 3.9 hours. The participants were required to send in homework assignments before receiving the next treatment module. Analyses were conducted on an intention-to-treat basis, which included all randomly assigned participants. From pretreatment to posttreatment, all treated participants improved significantly on all measured dimensions (bodily interpretations, maladaptive cognitions, avoidance, general anxiety and depression levels, and quality of life). Treatment gains on self-report measures were maintained at the 9-month follow-up. A blind telephone interview after the end of treatment revealed that 77% of the treated patients no longer fulfilled the criteria for panic disorder, whereas all of the wait-listed subjects still suffered from it. This study provides evidence to support the use of treatment distributed via the Internet with the addition of short weekly telephone calls to treat panic disorder. Replication should be made to compare self-help and telephone treatment based on cognitive behavior methods with nonspecific interventions.

  20. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure. Optimal 1-Mean is. Approximation of Centroid (Inaba et al). S = random sample of size O(1/ ); Centroid of S is a (1+ )-approx centroid of P with constant probability.

  1. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  2. The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Cindy-Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses. Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1 develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2 advance our

  3. Patients' general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines : Results from a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, Marcel Jan; Van Geffen, Erica C G; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2015-01-01

    Assess effects of pharmacists' counseling by telephone on patients' satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. Methods: A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included when

  4. Patients’ general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines: results from a cluster randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, M.J.; Geffen, E.C.G. van; Heerdink, E.R.; Dijk, L. van; Bouvy, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess effects of pharmacists’ counseling by telephone on patients’ satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. Methods: A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included

  5. The effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Jenny; Eriksson, Mats; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hagberg, Lars; Hoddinott, Pat; Flacking, Renée

    2013-05-10

    Although breast milk has numerous benefits for infants' development, with greater effects in those born preterm (at breastfeeding duration than mothers of term infants. One of the explanations proposed is the difficulties in the transition from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to the home environment. A person-centred proactive telephone support intervention after discharge from NICU is expected to promote mothers' sense of trust in their own capacity and thereby facilitate breastfeeding. A multicentre randomized controlled trial has been designed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of person-centred proactive telephone support on breastfeeding outcomes for mothers of preterm infants. Participating mothers will be randomized to either an intervention group or control group. In the intervention group person-centred proactive telephone support will be provided, in which the support team phones the mother daily for up to 14 days after hospital discharge. In the control group, mothers are offered a person-centred reactive support where mothers can phone the breastfeeding support team up to day 14 after hospital discharge. The intervention group will also be offered the same reactive telephone support as the control group. A stratified block randomization will be used; group allocation will be by high or low socioeconomic status and by NICU. Recruitment will be performed continuously until 1116 mothers (I: 558 C: 558) have been included. proportion of mothers exclusively breastfeeding at eight weeks after discharge. proportion of breastfeeding (exclusive, partial, none and method of feeding), mothers satisfaction with breastfeeding, attachment, stress and quality of life in mothers/partners at eight weeks after hospital discharge and at six months postnatal age. Data will be collected by researchers blind to group allocation for the primary outcome. A qualitative evaluation of experiences of receiving/providing the intervention will also be

  6. Cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome in adults: face to face versus telephone treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Mary; Andiappan, Manoharan; Chalder, Trudie

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has shown that face to face cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is an effective treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME). However, some patients are unable to travel to the hospital for a number of reasons. The aim of this study was to assess whether face to face CBT was more effective than telephone CBT (with face to face assessment and discharge appointment) for patients with CFS. Patients aged 18-65 were recruited from consecutive referrals to the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Research and Treatment Unit at The South London and Maudsley NHS Trust in London. Participants were randomly allocated to either face to face CBT or telephone CBT by a departmental administrator. Blinding of participants and care givers was inappropriate for this trial. A parallel-groups randomised controlled trial was used to compare the two treatments. The primary outcomes were physical functioning and fatigue. Significant improvements in the primary outcomes of physical functioning and fatigue occurred and were maintained to one year follow-up after discharge from treatment. Improvements in social adjustment and global outcome were noted and patient satisfaction was similar in both groups. Results from this study indicate that telephone CBT with two face to face appointments is a mild to moderately effective treatment for CFS and may be offered to patients where face to face treatment is not a viable option. Despite these encouraging conclusions, dropout was relatively high and therapists should be aware of this potential problem.

  7. K-Median: Random Sampling Procedure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. K-Median: Random Sampling Procedure. Sample a set of 1/ + 1 points from P. Let Q = first 1/ points, p = last point. Let T = Avg. 1-Median cost of P, c=1-Median. Let B1 = B(c,T/ 2), B2 = B(p, T). Let P' = points in B1.

  8. Selection bias from sampling frames: telephone directory and electoral roll compared with door-to-door population census: results from the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W; Mitchell, P; Attebo, K; Leeder, S

    1997-04-01

    Many Australian public health research studies use the telephone directory or the electoral roll as a sampling frame from which to draw study subjects. The sociodemographic, disease-state and risk-factor characteristics of subjects who could be recruited using only the telephone directory or only the electoral roll sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of subjects who would have been missed using only these sampling frames, respectively. In the first phase of the Blue Mountains Eye Study we interviewed and examined 2557 people aged 49 and over living in a defined postcode area, recruited from a door-to-door census. This represented a participation rate of 80.9 per cent and a response rate of 87.9 per cent. The telephone directory was searched for each subject's telephone number and the electoral roll was searched for each subject. Subject characteristics for those who were present in each of these sampling frames were compared with the characteristics of those subjects not included in the sampling frames. The telephone directory listed 2102 (82.2 per cent) of the subjects, and 115 (4.5 per cent) had no telephone connected. The electoral roll contained 2156 (84.3 per cent) of the subjects, and 141 subjects (5.5 per cent) could not be found in either the electoral roll or the telephone directory. Younger subjects, subjects who did not own their own homes and subjects born outside of Australia were significantly less likely to be included in either of these sampling frames. The telephone directory was also more likely to exclude subjects with higher occupational prestige, while the electoral roll was more likely to exclude unmarried persons and males. Researchers using the telephone directory and electoral roll to select subjects for study should be aware of the potential selection bias these sampling frames incur and need to take care when generalising their findings to the wider community.

  9. Telephone Smoking-Cessation Counseling for Smokers in Mental Health Clinics: A Patient-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Erin S; Smelson, David A; Gillespie, Colleen C; Elbel, Brian; Poole, Senaida; Hagedorn, Hildi J; Kalman, David; Krebs, Paul; Fang, Yixin; Wang, Binhuan; Sherman, Scott E

    2016-04-01

    People with a mental health diagnosis have high rates of tobacco use and encounter limited availability of tobacco treatment targeted to their needs. This study compared the effectiveness of a specialized telephone smoking-cessation intervention developed for mental health patients with standard state quit-line counseling. RCT. The study was conducted at six Veterans Health Administration facilities in the Northeast U.S. Participants were 577 mental health clinic patients referred by their providers for smoking-cessation treatment. From 2010 to 2012, the study implemented a telephone program that included patient referral from a mental health provider, mailed cessation medications, and telephone counseling. Participants were randomized to receive a specialized multisession telephone counseling protocol (n=270) or transfer to their state's quit-line for counseling (n=307). Participants completed telephone surveys at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. The study's primary outcome was self-reported 30-day abstinence at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were self-reported 30-day abstinence, counseling satisfaction and counseling content at 2 months, and self-reported use of cessation treatment and quit attempts at 6 months. Logistic regression was used to compare treatment groups on outcomes, controlling for baseline cigarettes per day and site. Inverse probability weighting and multiple imputation were used to handle missing abstinence outcomes. Data were analyzed in 2014-2015. At 6 months, participants in the specialized counseling arm were more likely to report 30-day abstinence (26% vs 18%, OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.24, 2.11). There was no significant group difference in abstinence at 2 months (18% vs 14%, OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.49, 3.49). Participants in the specialized arm were more likely to be assisted with developing a quit plan; receive follow-up calls after quitting; and receive counseling on several domains, including motivation, confidence, smoking triggers, coping with urges

  10. Can you ask that over the telephone? Conducting sensitive or controversial research using random-digit dialing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, H; Bridget Busch, N; DiNitto, D

    2006-03-01

    Social science, medical, and legal researchers often study sensitive or controversial topics and behaviors. This research raises methodological and ethical issues. Using examples from the literature and a recent statewide telephone prevalence survey on sexual assault, we focus on the relative merits of various survey methods, especially those employing new technologies; developing instrumentation that includes explicit behavioral questions; obtaining an appropriate sample in a cost efficient way; gaining informed consent and inquiring about sensitive topics while protecting participants from harm or retraumatization; presenting findings in a way that does not further stigmatize participants; and responding to the media.

  11. A randomized trial of face-to-face counselling versus telephone counselling versus bibliotherapy for occupational stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilfedder, Catherine; Power, Kevin; Karatzias, Thanos; McCafferty, Aileen; Niven, Karen; Chouliara, Zoë; Galloway, Lisa; Sharp, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness and acceptability of three interventions for occupational stress. A total of 90 National Health Service employees were randomized to face-to-face counselling or telephone counselling or bibliotherapy. Outcomes were assessed at post-intervention and 4-month follow-up. Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) were used to evaluate intervention outcomes. An intention-to-treat analyses was performed. Repeated measures analysis revealed significant time effects on all measures with the exception of CORE Risk. No significant group effects were detected on all outcome measures. No time by group significant interaction effects were detected on any of the outcome measures with the exception of CORE Functioning and GHQ total. With regard to acceptability of interventions, participants expressed a preference for face-to-face counselling over the other two modalities. Overall, it was concluded that the three intervention groups are equally effective. Given that bibliotherapy is the least costly of the three, results from the present study might be considered in relation to a stepped care approach to occupational stress management with bibliotherapy as the first line of intervention, followed by telephone and face-to-face counselling as required.

  12. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  13. The Effects of Survey Administration on Disclosure Rates to Sensitive Items Among Men: A Comparison of an Internet Panel Sample with a RDD Telephone Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M; Mahmood, Sehar

    2010-11-01

    Research using Internet surveys is an emerging field, yet research on the legitimacy of using Internet studies, particularly those targeting sensitive topics, remains under-investigated. The current study builds on the existing literature by exploring the demographic differences between Internet panel and RDD telephone survey samples, as well as differences in responses with regard to experiences of intimate partner violence perpetration and victimization, alcohol and substance use/abuse, PTSD symptomatology, and social support. Analyses indicated that after controlling for demographic differences, there were few differences between the samples in their disclosure of sensitive information, and that the online sample was more socially isolated than the phone sample. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for using Internet samples in research on sensitive topics.

  14. Sampling and coverage issues of telephone surveys used for collecting health information in Australia: results from a face-to-face survey from 1999 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grande Eleonora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the trend of "mobile only" households, and households that have a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the telephone directory, and to describe these groups by various socio-demographic and health indicators. Method Representative face-to-face population health surveys of South Australians, aged 15 years and over, were conducted in 1999, 2004, 2006, 2007 and 2008 (n = 14285, response rates = 51.9% to 70.6%. Self-reported information on mobile phone ownership and usage (1999 to 2008 and listings in White Pages telephone directory (2006 to 2008, and landline telephone connection and listings in the White Pages (1999 to 2008, was provided by participants. Additional information was collected on self-reported health conditions and health-related risk behaviours. Results Mobile only households have been steadily increasing from 1.4% in 1999 to 8.7% in 2008. In terms of sampling frame for telephone surveys, 68.7% of South Australian households in 2008 had at least a mobile phone or landline telephone listed in the White Pages (73.8% in 2006; 71.5% in 2007. The proportion of mobile only households was highest among young people, unemployed, people who were separated, divorced or never married, low income households, low SES areas, rural areas, current smokers, current asthma or people in the normal weight range. The proportion with landlines or mobiles telephone numbers listed in the White Pages telephone directory was highest among older people, married or in a defacto relationship or widowed, low SES areas, rural areas, people classified as overweight, or those diagnosed with arthritis or osteoporosis. Conclusion The rate of mobile only households has been increasing in Australia and is following worldwide trends, but has not reached the high levels seen internationally (12% to 52%. In general, the impact of mobile telephones on current sampling frames (exclusion or non-listing of mobile only households or not

  15. Tailored telephone counselling to increase participation of underusers in a population-based colorectal cancer-screening programme with faecal occult blood test: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, B; Broc, G; Sauleau, E A; Gendre, I; Gana, K; Perrin, P

    2017-02-01

    Despite the involvement of general practitioners, the mailing of several recall letters and of the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) kit, the uptake remains insufficient in the French colorectal cancer-screening programme. Some studies have demonstrated a greater efficacy of tailored telephone counselling over usual care, untailored invitation mailing and FOBT kit mailing. We evaluated the feasibility and the effectiveness of telephone counselling on participation in the population-based FOBT colorectal cancer-screening programme implemented in Alsace (France). Underusers were randomized into a control group with untailored invitation and FOBT kit mailing (n=19,756) and two intervention groups for either a computer-assisted telephone interview (n=9367), system for tailored promotion of colorectal cancer screening, or a telephone-based motivational interview (n=9374). Only 5691 (19.9%) people were actually counseled, so that there was no difference in participation between the intervention groups taken together (13.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [13.5-14.4]) and the control group (13.9%, 95% CI [13.4-14.4]) (P=1.0) in intent-to-treat analysis. However, in per-protocol analysis, participation was significantly higher in the two intervention groups than in the control group (12.9%, 95% CI [12.6-13.2]) (Pcounselling and untailored invitation and FOBT kit mailing on participation of underusers in an organized population-based colorectal cancer screening programme. A greater efficacy of telephone counselling, around twice that of invitation and FOBT kit mailing, was observed only in people who could actually be counseled, without difference between computer-assisted telephone interview and motivational interview. However, technical failures hampered telephone counselling, so that there was no difference in intent-to-treat analysis. The rate of technical success of telephone interviews should be evaluated, and enhanced if insufficient, before implementation of telephone

  16. Telephone-Delivered Behavioral Skills Intervention for African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egede, Leonard E; Williams, Joni S; Voronca, Delia C; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Lynch, Cheryl P

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes disproportionately affects African Americans and is associated with poorer outcomes. Self-management is important for glycemic control; however, evidence in African Americans is limited. To assess the efficacy of a combined telephone-delivered education and behavioral skills intervention (TBSI) in reducing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in African Americans with type 2 diabetes, using a factorial design. This is a four-year randomized clinical trial, using a 2 x 2 factorial design.: Participants: African American adults ≥18 years) with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes (HbA1c ≥9%) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) knowledge only, 2) skills only, 3) combined knowledge and skills (TBSI), or 4) control group. All participants received 12 telephone-delivered 30-min intervention sessions specific to their assigned group. Participants were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome was HbA1c at 12 months post-randomization in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. Two hundred fifty-five participants were randomly assigned to the four groups. Based on the ITT population after multiple imputation, the analysis of covariance with baseline HbA1c as the covariate showed that HbA1c at 12 months for the intervention groups did not differ significantly from that of the control group (knowledge: 0.49, p = 0.123; skills: 0.23, p = 0.456; combined: 0.48, p = 0.105). Absolute change from baseline at 12 months for all treatment arms was 0.6. Longitudinal mixed effects analysis showed that, on average, there was a significant decline in HbA1c over time for all treatment groups (-0.07, p different from that of the control group (knowledge: 0.06, p = 0.052; skills: 0.02, p = 0.448; combined: 0.05, p = 0.062). Results from per-protocol populations were similar. For African Americans with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes, combined education and skills training did not achieve greater reductions in glycemic

  17. Telephone and in-person cognitive behavioral therapy for major depression after traumatic brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Jesse R; Bombardier, Charles H; Vannoy, Steven; Dyer, Joshua; Ludman, Evette; Dikmen, Sureyya; Marshall, Kenneth; Barber, Jason; Temkin, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is a lack of evidence regarding effective treatment approaches. We conducted a choice-stratified randomized controlled trial in 100 adults with MDD within 10 years of complicated mild to severe TBI to test the effectiveness of brief cognitive behavioral therapy administered over the telephone (CBT-T) (n = 40) or in-person (CBT-IP) (n = 18), compared with usual care (UC) (n = 42). Participants were recruited from clinical and community settings throughout the United States. The main outcomes were change in depression severity on the clinician-rated 17 item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the patient-reported Symptom Checklist-20 (SCL-20) over 16 weeks. There was no significant difference between the combined CBT and UC groups over 16 weeks on the HAMD-17 (treatment effect = 1.2, 95% CI: -1.5-4.0; p = 0.37) and a nonsignificant trend favoring CBT on the SCL-20 (treatment effect = 0.28, 95% CI: -0.03-0.59; p = 0.074). In follow-up comparisons, the CBT-T group had significantly more improvement on the SCL-20 than the UC group (treatment effect = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.01-0.70; p = 0.043) and completers of eight or more CBT sessions had significantly improved SCL-20 scores compared with the UC group (treatment effect = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.10-0.76; p = 0.011). CBT participants reported significantly more symptom improvement (p = 0.010) and greater satisfaction with depression care (p CBT are acceptable and feasible in persons with TBI. Although further research is warranted, telephone CBT holds particular promise for enhancing access and adherence to effective depression treatment.

  18. Comparing Inpatient Satisfaction Collected via a Web-Based Questionnaire Self-Completion and Through a Telephone Interview: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sarah F; Lapidus, Nathanael; Cosnes, Jacques; Tiret, Emmanuel; Fonquernie, Laurent; Cabane, Jean; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Surgers, Laure; Beaussier, Marc; Valleron, Alain-Jacques; Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2017-08-23

    Assessing the satisfaction of patients about the health care they have received is relatively common nowadays. In France, the satisfaction questionnaire, I-Satis, is deployed in each institution admitting inpatients. Internet self-completion and telephone interview are the two modes of administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction that have never been compared in a multicenter randomized experiment involving a substantial number of patients. The objective of this study was to compare two modes of survey administration for collecting inpatient satisfaction: Internet self-completion and telephone interview. In the multicenter SENTIPAT (acronym for the concept of sentinel patients, ie, patients who would voluntarily report their health evolution on a dedicated website) randomized controlled trial, patients who were discharged from the hospital to home and had an Internet connection at home were enrolled between February 2013 and September 2014. They were randomized to either self-complete a set of questionnaires using a dedicated website or to provide answers to the same questionnaires administered during a telephone interview. As recommended by French authorities, the analysis of I-Satis satisfaction questionnaire involved all inpatients with a length of stay (LOS), including at least two nights. Participation rates, questionnaire consistency (measured using Cronbach alpha coefficient), and satisfaction scores were compared in the two groups. A total of 1680 eligible patients were randomized to the Internet group (n=840) or the telephone group (n=840). The analysis of I-Satis concerned 392 and 389 patients fulfilling the minimum LOS required in the Internet and telephone group, respectively. There were 39.3% (154/392) and 88.4% (344/389) responders in the Internet and telephone group, respectively (PCronbach alpha estimate=.89; 95% CI 0.86-0.91) than in the telephone group (Cronbach alpha estimate=.84; 95% CI 0.79-0.87). The mean global satisfaction score was

  19. GSAMPLE: Stata module to draw a random sample

    OpenAIRE

    Jann, Ben

    2006-01-01

    gsample draws a random sample from the data in memory. Simple random sampling (SRS) is supported, as well as unequal probability sampling (UPS), of which sampling with probabilities proportional to size (PPS) is a special case. Both methods, SRS and UPS/PPS, provide sampling with replacement and sampling without replacement. Furthermore, stratified sampling and cluster sampling is supported.

  20. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  1. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. An internet-based self-management program with telephone support for adolescents with arthritis: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Jennifer N; McGrath, Patrick J; Hodnett, Ellen D; Feldman, Brian M; Duffy, Ciaran M; Huber, Adam M; Tucker, Lori B; Hetherington, C Ross; Tse, Shirley M L; Spiegel, Lynn R; Campillo, Sarah; Gill, Navreet K; White, Meghan E

    2010-09-01

    To determine the feasibility of a 12-week Internet-based self-management program of disease-specific information, self-management strategies, and social support with telephone support for youth with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) and their parents, aimed at reducing physical and emotional symptoms and improving health-related quality of life (HRQOL). A nonblind pilot randomized controlled trial (NCT01011179) was conducted to test the feasibility of the "Teens Taking Charge: Managing Arthritis Online" Internet intervention across 4 tertiary-level centers in Canada. Participants were 46 adolescents with JIA, ages 12 to 18 years, and 1 parent for each participant, who were randomized to the control arm (n = 24) or the Internet intervention (n = 22). The 2 groups were comparable on demographic and disease-related variables and treatment expectation at baseline. Attrition rates were 18.1% and 20.8%, respectively, from experimental and control groups. Ninety-one percent of participants randomized to the experimental group completed all 12 online modules and weekly phone calls with a coach in an average of 14.7 weeks (SD 2.1). The control group completed 90% of weekly attention-control phone calls. The Internet treatment was rated as acceptable by all youth and their parents. In posttreatment the experimental group had significantly higher knowledge (p < 0.001, effect size 1.32) and lower average weekly pain intensity (p = 0.03, effect size 0.78). There were no significant group differences in HRQOL, self-efficacy, adherence, and stress posttreatment. Findings support the feasibility (acceptability, compliance, and user satisfaction) and initial efficacy of Internet delivery of a self-management program for improving disease-specific knowledge and reducing pain in youth with JIA.

  3. Age differences in reaction time and attention in a national telephone sample of adults: education, sex, and task complexity matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Patricia A; Lachman, Margie E

    2008-09-01

    This study demonstrated effects of age, education, and sex on complex reaction time in a large national sample (N = 3,616) with a wide range in age (32-85) and education. Participants completed speeded auditory tasks (from the MIDUS [Midlife in the U.S.] Stop and Go Switch Task) by telephone. Complexity ranged from a simple repeated task to an alternating task that involved central executive processes including attention switching and inhibitory control. Increased complexity was associated with slower responses in older adults, those with lower education, and women, even after controlling for differences in health status. Higher levels of education were associated with greater central executive efficiency across adulthood: Overall, adults with college degrees performed on complex tasks like less educated individuals who were 10 years younger, up to age 75. These findings suggest that advanced education can moderate age differences on complex speeded tasks that require central executive processes, at least up to the point in old age at which biological declines predominate. The approach demonstrates the utility of combining laboratory paradigms with survey methods to enable the study of larger, more diverse and representative samples across the lifespan.

  4. A pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy for preoperative bariatric surgery patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Stephanie E.; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Du, Chau; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Parikh, Sagar V.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychosocial interventions can improve eating behaviours and psychosocial functioning in bariatric surgery candidates. However, those that involve face-to-face sessions are problematic for individuals with severe obesity due to mobility issues and practical barriers. Objective To examine the efficacy of a pre-operative telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention versus standard pre-operative care for improving eating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. Methods Preoperative bariatric surgery patients (N = 47) were randomly assigned to receive standard preoperative care (n = 24) or 6 sessions of Tele-CBT (n = 23). Results Retention was 74.5% at post-intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that the Tele-CBT group reported significant improvements on the Binge Eating Scale (BES), t (22) = 2.81, p = .01, Emotional Eating Scale (EES), t (22) = 3.44, p = .002, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), t (22) = 2.71, p = .01, whereas the standard care control group actually reported significant increases on the EES, t (23) = 4.86, p bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:26990279

  5. A pilot randomized controlled trial of telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy for preoperative bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassin, Stephanie E; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Du, Chau; Wnuk, Susan; Hawa, Raed; Parikh, Sagar V

    2016-05-01

    Psychosocial interventions can improve eating behaviours and psychosocial functioning in bariatric surgery candidates. However, those that involve face-to-face sessions are problematic for individuals with severe obesity due to mobility issues and practical barriers. To examine the efficacy of a pre-operative telephone-based cognitive behavioural therapy (Tele-CBT) intervention versus standard pre-operative care for improving eating psychopathology and psychosocial functioning. Preoperative bariatric surgery patients (N = 47) were randomly assigned to receive standard preoperative care (n = 24) or 6 sessions of Tele-CBT (n = 23). Retention was 74.5% at post-intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that the Tele-CBT group reported significant improvements on the Binge Eating Scale (BES), t (22) = 2.81, p = .01, Emotional Eating Scale (EES), t (22) = 3.44, p = .002, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), t (22) = 2.71, p = .01, whereas the standard care control group actually reported significant increases on the EES, t (23) = 4.86, p bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, whi...

  7. A randomized controlled trial of telephone-mentoring with home-based walking preceding rehabilitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron-Tucker HL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Laura Cameron-Tucker,1 Richard Wood-Baker,1 Lyn Joseph,1 Julia A Walters,1 Natalie Schüz,2 E Haydn Walters1 1Centre of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Aging, School of Medicine, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Purpose: With the limited reach of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR and low levels of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a need exists to increase daily exercise. This study evaluated telephone health-mentoring targeting home-based walking (tele-rehab compared to usual waiting time (usual care followed by group PR. Patients and methods: People with COPD were randomized to tele-rehab (intervention or usual care (controls. Tele-rehab delivered by trained nurse health-mentors supported participants’ home-based walking over 8–12 weeks. PR, delivered to both groups simultaneously, included 8 weeks of once-weekly education and self-management skills, with separate supervised exercise. Data were collected at three time-points: baseline (TP1, before (TP2, and after (TP3 PR. The primary outcome was change in physical capacity measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD with two tests performed at each time-point. Secondary outcomes included changes in self-reported home-based walking, health-related quality of life, and health behaviors. Results: Of 65 recruits, 25 withdrew before completing PR. Forty attended a median of 6 (4 education sessions. Seventeen attended supervised exercise (5±2 sessions. Between TP1 and TP2, there was a statistically significant increase in the median 6MWD of 12 (39.1 m in controls, but no change in the tele-rehab group. There were no significant changes in 6MWD between other time-points or groups, or significant change in any secondary outcomes. Participants attending supervised exercise showed a nonsignificant improvement in 6MWD, 12.3 (71 m, while others showed no change, 0 (33 m

  8. Telephone Service

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN exchange switches will be updated on Thursday 2 June between 7.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be affected and possibly even disrupted during this operation. 

  9. The effectiveness of telephone counselling and internet- and text-message-based support for smoking cessation: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise S; Dalum, Peter; Bech, Mickael; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2016-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling, reactive telephone counselling and an internet- and text-message-based intervention with a self-help booklet for smoking cessation. A randomized controlled trial with equal allocation to four conditions: (1) proactive telephone counselling (n = 452), (2) reactive telephone counselling (n = 453), (3) internet- and text-message-based intervention (n = 453) and (4) self-help booklet (control) (n = 452). Denmark. Smokers who had participated previously in two national health surveys were invited. Eligibility criteria were daily cigarette smoking, age ≥ 16 years, having a mobile phone and e-mail address. Primary outcome was prolonged abstinence to 12 months from the end of the intervention period. At 12-month follow-up, higher prolonged abstinence was found in the proactive telephone counselling group compared with the booklet group [7.3 versus 3.6%, odds ratio (OR) = 2.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-4.0]. There was no clear evidence of a difference in prolonged abstinence between the reactive telephone counselling group or the internet-based smoking cessation program and the booklet group: 1.8 versus 3.6%, OR = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.6-1.2 and 5.3 versus 3.6%, OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 0.8-3.0, respectively. In the proactive telephone counselling group, the cost per additional 12-month quitter compared with the booklet group was £644. Proactive telephone counselling was more effective than a self-help booklet in achieving prolonged abstinence for 12 months. No clear evidence of an effect of reactive telephone counselling or the internet- and text-message-based intervention was found compared with the self-help booklet. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Telephone and In-Person Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Major Depression after Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Vannoy, Steven; Dyer, Joshua; Ludman, Evette; Dikmen, Sureyya; Marshall, Kenneth; Barber, Jason; Temkin, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, there is a lack of evidence regarding effective treatment approaches. We conducted a choice-stratified randomized controlled trial in 100 adults with MDD within 10 years of complicated mild to severe TBI to test the effectiveness of brief cognitive behavioral therapy administered over the telephone (CBT-T) (n=40) or in-person (CBT-IP) (n=18), compared with usual care (UC) (n=42). Participants were recruited from clinical and community settings throughout the United States. The main outcomes were change in depression severity on the clinician-rated 17 item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) and the patient-reported Symptom Checklist-20 (SCL-20) over 16 weeks. There was no significant difference between the combined CBT and UC groups over 16 weeks on the HAMD-17 (treatment effect=1.2, 95% CI: −1.5–4.0; p=0.37) and a nonsignificant trend favoring CBT on the SCL-20 (treatment effect=0.28, 95% CI: −0.03–0.59; p=0.074). In follow-up comparisons, the CBT-T group had significantly more improvement on the SCL-20 than the UC group (treatment effect=0.36, 95% CI: 0.01–0.70; p=0.043) and completers of eight or more CBT sessions had significantly improved SCL-20 scores compared with the UC group (treatment effect=0.43, 95% CI: 0.10–0.76; p=0.011). CBT participants reported significantly more symptom improvement (p=0.010) and greater satisfaction with depression care (pdepression treatment. PMID:25072405

  11. The Effect of Tailored Web-Based Feedback and Optional Telephone Coaching on Health Improvements: A Randomized Intervention Among Employees in the Transport Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenhill, Madeleine; Grotta, Alessandra; Pasquali, Elena; Bakkman, Linda; Bellocco, Rino; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2016-08-11

    Lifestyle-related health problems are an important health concern in the transport service industry. Web- and telephone-based interventions could be suitable for this target group requiring tailored approaches. To evaluate the effect of tailored Web-based health feedback and optional telephone coaching to improve lifestyle factors (body mass index-BMI, dietary intake, physical activity, stress, sleep, tobacco and alcohol consumption, disease history, self-perceived health, and motivation to change health habits), in comparison to no health feedback or telephone coaching. Overall, 3,876 employees in the Swedish transport services were emailed a Web-based questionnaire. They were randomized into: control group (group A, 498 of 1238 answered, 40.23%), or intervention Web (group B, 482 of 1305 answered, 36.93%), or intervention Web + telephone (group C, 493 of 1333 answered, 36.98%). All groups received an identical questionnaire, only the interventions differed. Group B received tailored Web-based health feedback, and group C received tailored Web-based health feedback + optional telephone coaching if the participants' reported health habits did not meet the national guidelines, or if they expressed motivation to change health habits. The Web-based feedback was fully automated. Telephone coaching was performed by trained health counselors. Nine months later, all participants received a follow-up questionnaire and intervention Web + telephone. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, analysis of variance, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Overall, 981 of 1473 (66.60%) employees participated at baseline (men: 66.7%, mean age: 44 years, mean BMI: 26.4 kg/m(2)) and follow-up. No significant differences were found in reported health habits between the 3 groups over time. However, significant changes were found in motivation to change. The intervention groups reported higher motivation to improve dietary habits (144 of 301 participants, 47

  12. Evaluation of the telephone intervention in the promotion of diabetes self-care: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bárbara Sgarbi Morgan; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Torres, Heloisa de Carvalho

    2016-08-29

    to evaluate the effectiveness of the telephone intervention for promoting self-care related to physical activity and following a diet plan in users with diabetes, compared to conventional monitoring of users over a six-month period. this was a randomized clinical trial, which included 210 users with diabetes, linked to eight Primary Health Units of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The experimental group (104 members) received six telephone interventions over the six-month monitoring; the control group (106 members) received conventional monitoring. To evaluate the self-care practices related to physical activity and following a healthy eating plan, in both groups, the self-care questionnaire was applied before the intervention and at three and six months after its start. the mean effect of self-care scores in the experimental group was 1.03 to 1.78 higher than the control group, with progressive and significant improvement (pautocuidado relacionado à atividade física e ao seguimento de um plano alimentar, em usuários com diabetes, quando comparada ao acompanhamento convencional dos usuários, durante o período de seis meses. trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado, no qual participaram 210 usuários com diabetes, vinculados a oito Unidades Básicas de Saúde de Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. O grupo-experimental (104 usuários) recebeu seis intervenções telefônicas em seis meses de acompanhamento; o grupo-controle (106 usuários) recebeu acompanhamento convencional. Para avaliar as práticas de autocuidado, relacionada à atividade física e ao seguimento do plano alimentar saudável, em ambos os grupos, aplicou-se o questionário de autocuidado antes das intervenções, três e seis meses após o seu início. o efeito médio dos escores de autocuidado no grupo-experimental a pontuação foi de 1,03 a 1,78 maior do que o grupo-controle, apresentando melhora progressiva e significativa (valor-pautocuidado em diabetes. O registro clínico obteve identificador

  13. Is telephone counselling a useful addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement therapy in helping patients to stop smoking? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, R D; Pipe, A; Dafoe, W A

    1999-06-01

    The authors evaluated the incremental efficacy of telephone counselling by a nurse in addition to physician advice and nicotine replacement therapy in helping patients to stop smoking. The trial was conducted at the University of Ottawa Heart Institute. A total of 396 volunteers who smoked 15 or more cigarettes daily were randomly assigned to either of 2 groups: usual care (control group) and usual care plus telephone counselling (intervention group); the groups were stratified by sex and degree of nicotine dependence. Usual care involved the receipt of physician advice on 3 occasions, self-help materials and 12 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy. Telephone counselling was provided by a nurse at 2, 6 and 13 weeks after the target quit date. Point-prevalent quit rates were determined at 52 weeks after the target quit date. The point-prevalent quit rates at 52 weeks did not differ significantly between the control and intervention groups (24.1% v. 23.4% respectively). The quit rates did not differ significantly at the secondary measurement points of 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Brief physician assistance, along with nicotine replacement therapy, can help well-motivated smokers to quit. Three additional sessions of telephone counselling by a nurse were ineffective in increasing quit rates. This form of assistance may be useful in the absence of physician advice or when self-selected by patients.

  14. Patients' general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines: Results from a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Marcel Jan; Van Geffen, Erica C G; Heerdink, Eibert R; Van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2015-06-01

    Assess effects of pharmacists' counseling by telephone on patients' satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included when starting with antidepressants, bisphosphonates, RAS-inhibitors or statins. The intervention comprised counseling by telephone to address barriers to adherent behavior. It was supported by an interview protocol. Controls received usual care. Outcomes were effects on beliefs about medication, satisfaction with information and counseling. Data was collected with a questionnaire. Responses of 211 patients in nine pharmacies were analyzed. More intervention arm patients were satisfied with counseling (adj. OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.3, 3.6)). Patients with counseling were significantly more satisfied with information on 4 items, had less concerns and less frequently had a 'skeptical' attitude towards medication (adj. OR 0.5 (0.3-0.9)). Effects on most outcomes were more pronounced in men than in women. Telephone counseling by pharmacists improved satisfaction with counseling and satisfaction with information on some items. It had a small effect on beliefs about medicines. Pharmacists can use counseling by telephone, but more research is needed to find out which patients benefit most. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized study of telephonic care support in populations at risk for musculoskeletal preference-sensitive surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veroff David R

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of elective surgeries varies dramatically by geography in the United States. For many of these surgeries, there is not clear evidence of their relative merits over alternate treatment choices and there are significant tradeoffs in short- and long-term risks and benefits of selecting one treatment option over another. Conditions and symptoms for which there is this lack of a single clear evidence-based treatment choice present great opportunities for patient and provider collaboration on decision making; back pain and joint osteoarthritis are two such ailments. A number of decision aids are in active use to encourage this shared decision-making process. Decision aids have been assessed in formal studies that demonstrate increases in patient knowledge, increases in patient-provider engagement, and reduction in surgery rates. These studies have not widely demonstrated the added benefit of health coaching in support of shared decision making nor have they commonly provided strong evidence of cost reductions. In order to add to this evidence base, we undertook a comparative study testing the relative impact on health utilization and costs of active outreach through interactive voice response technology to encourage health coaching in support of shared decision making in comparison to mailed outreach or no outreach. This study focused on individuals with back pain or joint pain. Methods We conducted four waves of stratified randomized comparisons for individuals with risk for back, hip, or knee surgery who did not have claims-based evidence of one or more of five chronic conditions and were eligible for population care management services within three large regional health plans in the United States. An interactive voice response (IVR form of outreach that included the capability for individuals to directly connect with health coaches telephonically, known as AutoDialog®, was compared to a control (mailed outreach or

  16. Effectiveness of telephone-based follow-up support delivered in combination with a multi-component smoking cessation intervention in family practice: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Sophia; McDonald, Paul W; Pipe, Andrew L; Letherdale, Scott T; Reid, Robert D; Brown, K Stephen

    2013-06-01

    To determine whether telephone-based smoking cessation follow-up counseling (FC), when delivered as part of a multi-component intervention program is associated with increased rates of follow-up support and smoking abstinence. A cluster randomized controlled-trial was conducted within family medicine practices in Ontario, Canada. Consecutive adult patients who smoked were enrolled at two time points, the baseline period (2009) and the post-intervention period (2009-2011). Smoking abstinence was determined by telephone interview 4 months following enrollment. Both groups implemented a multi-component intervention program. Practices randomized to the FC group could also refer patients to a follow-up support program which involved 5 telephone contacts over a 2-month period. Eight practices, 130 providers, and 928 eligible patients participated in the study. No statistically significant difference in 7-day point-prevalence abstinence was observed between intervention groups. There was a significant increase in referral to follow-up in both intervention groups. Significantly higher rates of smoking abstinence [25.7% vs. 11.3%; adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1, 8.6), p<0.05] were documented among the twenty-nine percent of FC participants who were referred to the follow-up support program compared to the MC group. Access to external follow-up support did not increase rates at which follow-up support was delivered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of a telephone follow-up intervention on illness perception and lifestyle after myocardial infarction in China: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; You, Li-ming; Liu, Bai-ling; Jin, Shang-yi; Zhou, Jing-jing; Lin, Chun-xi; Li, Qing; Gu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle modification is an integral component of cardiac secondary prevention, while it has been confirmed that myocardial infarction (MI) patients' health-related behaviors are heavily influenced by their illness perception. To evaluate the effect of a telephone follow-up intervention for improving MI patients' illness perception and lifestyle. A randomized controlled trial, longitudinal research design was employed. Cardiac care units in four major general hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Inclusion criteria were being diagnosed with an initial acute MI, being able to communicate orally in Mandarin or Cantonese and read in Chinese, and living in Guangzhou. Exclusion criteria were with continuing uncontrolled arrhythmias or heart failure, being illiteracy, or with a history of major psychiatric illness, exercise-induced asthma, uncontrolled diabetes, or evidence of dementia. 124 patients admitted with the first acute MI were randomized to receive either routine care or routine care plus a telephone follow-up intervention, which consist of a pre-discharge education and three telephone follow-up instructions. Data were collected before discharge, at the 6th and the 12th week after discharge from hospital, respectively. At the 6th and the 12th week after discharge, patients in the intervention group had significantly positive perceptions about symptoms of MI (mean difference 3.27, 95% confidence interval 2.48-4.07, plifestyle after MI. It could be incorporated into current hospital treatment regimens for MI to improve patients' quality of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...

  19. Telephone-Delivered Exercise Advice and Behavior Change Support by Physical Therapists for People with Knee Osteoarthritis: Protocol for the Telecare Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinman, Rana S; Lawford, Belinda J; Campbell, Penny K; Briggs, Andrew M; Gale, Janette; Bills, Caroline; French, Simon D; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Harris, Anthony; Bunker, Stephen J; Delany, Clare M; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-05-01

    Exercise and physical activity are a core component of knee osteoarthritis (OA) care, yet access to physical therapists is limited for many people. Telephone service delivery models may increase access. Determine the effectiveness of incorporating exercise advice and behavior change support by physical therapists into an existing Australian nurse-led musculoskeletal telephone service for adults with knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with nested qualitative studies. Community, Australia-wide. One hundred seventy-five people ≥45 years of age with knee symptoms consistent with a clinical diagnosis of knee OA. Eight musculoskeletal physical therapists will provide exercise advice and support. Random allocation to receive existing care or exercise advice in addition to existing care. Existing care is a minimum of one phone call from a nurse for advice on OA self-management. Exercise advice involves 5-10 calls over 6 months from a physical therapist trained in behavior change support to prescribe, monitor, and progress a strengthening exercise program and physical activity plan. Outcomes will be measured at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are knee pain and physical function. Secondary outcomes include other measures of knee pain, self-efficacy, physical activity and its mediators, kinesiophobia, health service usage, work productivity, participant-perceived change, and satisfaction. Additional measures include adherence, adverse events, therapeutic alliance, satisfaction with telephone-delivered therapy, and expectation of outcome. Semi-structured interviews with participants with knee OA and therapists will be conducted. Physical therapists cannot be blinded. This study will determine if incorporating exercise advice and behavior change support by physical therapists into a nurse-led musculoskeletal telephone service improves outcomes for people with knee OA. Findings will inform development and implementation of telerehabilitation services.

  20. A telephone- and text-message based telemedical care concept for patients with mental health disorders--study protocol for a randomized, controlled study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Neeltje; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Freyberger, Harald J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang

    2011-02-17

    As in other countries worldwide, the prevalence of mental disorders in Germany is high. Although numerically a dense network of in- and outpatient psychiatric health services exists, the availability in rural and remote regions is insufficient.In rural regions, telemedical concepts can be a chance to unburden and complement the existing healthcare system. Telemedical concepts consisting of video or telephone consulting show first positive results, but there are only a few studies with a randomized controlled design.To improve the treatment of patients with mental disorders in rural regions, we developed a telemedical care concept based on telephone contacts and text-messages. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the telemedical interventions on psychopathological outcomes, e. g. anxiety, depressive symptoms, and somatisation. Secondary objective of the study is the analysis of intervention effects on the frequency of medical contacts with healthcare services. Furthermore, the frequency of patients' crises and the frequency and kind of interventions, initiated by the project nurses will be evaluated. We will also evaluate the acceptance of the telemedical care concept by the patients. In this paper we describe a three-armed, randomized, controlled study. All participants are recruited from psychiatric day hospitals. The inclusion criteria are a specialist-diagnosed depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder or a somatoform disorder and eligibility to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria are ongoing outpatient psychotherapy, planned interval treatment at the day clinic and expected recurrent suicidality and self-injuring behaviour.The interventions consist of regular patient-individual telephone consultations or telephone consultations with complementing text-messages on the patients' mobile phone. The interventions will be conducted during a time period of 6 months. This study is registered in the German Clinical Trials

  1. A telephone- and text-message based telemedical care concept for patients with mental health disorders - study protocol for a randomized, controlled study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freyberger Harald J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in other countries worldwide, the prevalence of mental disorders in Germany is high. Although numerically a dense network of in- and outpatient psychiatric health services exists, the availability in rural and remote regions is insufficient. In rural regions, telemedical concepts can be a chance to unburden and complement the existing healthcare system. Telemedical concepts consisting of video or telephone consulting show first positive results, but there are only a few studies with a randomized controlled design. To improve the treatment of patients with mental disorders in rural regions, we developed a telemedical care concept based on telephone contacts and text-messages. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of the telemedical interventions on psychopathological outcomes, e. g. anxiety, depressive symptoms, and somatisation. Secondary objective of the study is the analysis of intervention effects on the frequency of medical contacts with healthcare services. Furthermore, the frequency of patients' crises and the frequency and kind of interventions, initiated by the project nurses will be evaluated. We will also evaluate the acceptance of the telemedical care concept by the patients. Methods/Design In this paper we describe a three-armed, randomized, controlled study. All participants are recruited from psychiatric day hospitals. The inclusion criteria are a specialist-diagnosed depression, anxiety disorder, adjustment disorder or a somatoform disorder and eligibility to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria are ongoing outpatient psychotherapy, planned interval treatment at the day clinic and expected recurrent suicidality and self-injuring behaviour. The interventions consist of regular patient-individual telephone consultations or telephone consultations with complementing text-messages on the patients' mobile phone. The interventions will be conducted during a time period of 6 months

  2. The effectiveness of proactive telephone support provided to breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ericson, Jenny; Eriksson, Mats; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Hagberg, Lars; Hoddinott, Pat; Flacking, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although breast milk has numerous benefits for infants' development, with greater effects in those born preterm (at < 37 gestational weeks), mothers of preterm infants have shorter breastfeeding duration than mothers of term infants. One of the explanations proposed is the difficulties in the transition from a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) to the home environment. A person-centred proactive telephone support intervention after discharge from NICU is expected to promote mo...

  3. Comparison of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) and standard telephone usage for consultations on Length of Stay in the ED. A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur

    2017-07-19

    Consultation, the process of an Emergency Physician seeking an opinion from other specialties, occurs frequently in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) usage for medical consultations on Emergency Department Length of Stay (ED LOS) and consult time. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the ED using allocation concealment over three months. Consultations requested in the ED were allocated into two groups: consultations requested via the secure messaging application and consultations requested by telephone as verbal. A total of 439 consultations requested in the ED were assessed for eligibility and 345 were included in the final analysis: 173 consultations were conducted using secure messaging application and 172 consultations were conducted using standard telephone communications. The median ED LOS was 240 minutes (IQR:230-270, 95% CI:240 to 255.2) for patients in the secure messaging application group and 277 minutes (IQR:270-287.8, 95% CI:277 to 279) for patients in the telephone group. The median total ED LOS was significantly lower among consults conducted using Secure messaging application relative to consults conducted by telephone (median dif: -30, 95%CI:-37to-25, p<0.0001). The median consult time was 158 minutes (IQR:133 to 177.25, 95% CI:150 to 169) for patients in the Secure messaging application group and 170 minutes (IQR:165 to 188.5, 95% CI:170-171) for patients in the Telephone group (median dif: -12, 95%CI:-19 to-7,p<0.0001). Consultations completed without ED arrival was 61.8% in the secure messaging group and 33.1% in the Telephone group (dif: 28.7, 95% CI:48.3 to 66, p<0.001). Use of secure messaging application for consultations in the ED reduces the total ED LOS and consultation time. Consultation with secure messaging application eliminated more than half of in-person ED consultation visits.

  4. Six-month outcomes from living well with diabetes: A randomized trial of a telephone-delivered weight loss and physical activity intervention to improve glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, E G; Reeves, M M; Winkler, E; Healy, G N; Dunstan, D W; Owen, N; Marshal, A M; Wilkie, K C

    2013-10-01

    Intensive lifestyle intervention trials in type 2 diabetes contribute evidence on what can be achieved under optimal conditions, but are less informative for translation in applied settings. Living Well with Diabetes is a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention designed for real-world delivery. This study is a randomized controlled trial of telephone counseling (n = 151) versus usual care (n = 151); 6-month primary outcomes of weight, physical activity, HbA1c; secondary diet outcomes; analysis was by adjusted generalized linear models. Relative to usual care, telephone counseling participants had small but significantly better weight loss [-1.12 % of initial body weight; 95 % confidence interval (CI) -1.92, -0.33 %]; physical activity [relative rate (RR) = 1.30; 95 % CI, 1.08, 1.57]; energy intake reduction (-0.63 MJ/day; 95 % CI, -1.01, -0.25); and diet quality (3.72 points; 95 % CI, 1.77, 5.68), with no intervention effect for HbA1c (RR = 0.99; 95 % CI, 0.96, 1.01). Results are discussed in light of challenges to intervention delivery.

  5. Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara M.; Buchhave, Preben; K. George, William

    2014-01-01

    with high data rate and low inherent bias, respectively, while residence time weighting provides non-biased estimates regardless of setting. The free-running processor was also tested and compared to residence time weighting using actual LDA measurements in a turbulent round jet. Power spectra from...... of alternative methods attempting to produce correct power spectra have been invented andtested. The objective of the current study is to create a simple computer generated signal for baseline testing of residence time weighting and some of the most commonly proposed algorithms (or algorithms which most...... modernalgorithms ultimately are based on), sample-and-hold and the direct spectral estimator without residence time weighting, and compare how they perform in relation to power spectra based on the equidistantly sampled reference signal. The computer generated signal is a Poisson process with a sample rate...

  6. The Nurse-Led Telephone Follow-Up on Medication and Dietary Adherence among Patients after Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saeed Najafi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adherence to dietary and medication regimen plays an important role in successful treatment and reduces the negative complications and severity of the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of nurse-led telephone follow-up on the level of adherence to dietary and medication regimen among patients after Myocardial Infarction (MI. Methods: This non-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 100 elderly patients with MI who had referred to the cardiovascular clinics in Shiraz. Participants were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups using balanced block randomization method. The intervention group received a nurse-led telephone follow-up. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Morisky’s 8-item medication adherence questionnaire, and dietary adherence questionnaire before and three months after the intervention. Data analysis was done by the SPSS statistical software (version 21, using paired t-test for intra-group and Chi-square and t-test for between groups comparisons. Significance level was set at0.05. However, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in this regard after the intervention (P<0.05. The mean differences of dietary and medication adherence scores between pre- and post-tests were significantly different between the two groups. Independent t-test showed these differences (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of the present study confirmed the positive effects of nurse-led telephone follow-up as a method of tele-nursing on improvement of adherence to dietary and medication regimen in the patients with MI.

  7. Random constraint sampling and duality for convex optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Haskell, William B.; Pengqian, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We are interested in solving convex optimization problems with large numbers of constraints. Randomized algorithms, such as random constraint sampling, have been very successful in giving nearly optimal solutions to such problems. In this paper, we combine random constraint sampling with the classical primal-dual algorithm for convex optimization problems with large numbers of constraints, and we give a convergence rate analysis. We then report numerical experiments that verify the effectiven...

  8. Evaluation of a Nurse-Led Educational Telephone Intervention to Support Self-Management of Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Randomized Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billington, Julia; Coster, Samantha; Murrells, Trevor; Norman, Ian

    2015-08-01

    This randomized, two armed feasibility study in a UK General Practice Surgery investigated the feasibility of introducing a nurse-led educational telephone intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to reinforce their understanding and use of their self-management plan. 73 patients were randomly allocated to a control group which received standard care including a self-management plan or an intervention group which received in addition, two scheduled telephone calls over six weeks from a practice nurse. Calls were tailored to the needs of the patient, but provided education about the use of their plan to manage exacerbations, use of health services and emergency medication. The primary endpoint to be tested was the impact of symptoms assessed by the COPD Assessment Tool (CAT) at baseline and 12 weeks. Secondary endpoints were self-reported exacerbations, emergency visits and service satisfaction. Follow-up CAT data was available for 69 of the 73 randomized patients. CAT scores in the intervention group decreased significantly showing improvement between time 1 and 2 (Time 1 = 15.56 vs 12.44 at Time 2, Mean difference: 3.12, CI 1.52 -4.72, p improve patients' health and well-being.

  9. The Nurse-Led Telephone Follow-Up on Medication and Dietary Adherence among Patients after Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Seyed Saeed; Shaabani, Maryam; Momennassab, Marzieh; Aghasadeghi, Kamran

    2016-07-01

    Adherence to dietary and medication regimen plays an important role in successful treatment and reduces the negative complications and severity of the disease. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of nurse-led telephone follow-up on the level of adherence to dietary and medication regimen among patients after Myocardial Infarction (MI). This non-blinded randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 100 elderly patients with MI who had referred to the cardiovascular clinics in Shiraz. Participants were selected and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups using balanced block randomization method. The intervention group received a nurse-led telephone follow-up. The data were collected using a demographic questionnaire, Morisky's 8-item medication adherence questionnaire, and dietary adherence questionnaire before and three months after the intervention. Data analysis was done by the SPSS statistical software (version 21), using paired t-test for intra-group and Chi-square and t-test for between groups comparisons. Significance level was set at0.05). However, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in this regard after the intervention (Ptele-nursing on improvement of adherence to dietary and medication regimen in the patients with MI. IRCT201409148505N8.

  10. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavior therapy compared with befriending for treating depression and anxiety in older adults with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen; Dunt, David; Ames, David; Fearn, Marcia; You, Emily Chuanmei; Bhar, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    COPD is an umbrella term to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in people with COPD is high, although these comorbidities are often undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated. There is a need to identify efficacious treatments for depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for the treatment of anxiety and depression has a strong evidence base. There has been some success delivering this treatment over the telephone in limited studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of both telephone-administered CBT and befriending on outcomes for patients with diagnosed COPD who have at least mild levels of depression and/or anxiety. The protocol described in this paper is of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing eight sessions of telephone CBT to an active social control, referred to as befriending. Primary outcome measures will include depression and anxiety symptoms, and secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, self-efficacy, and COPD symptom severity. Participants' satisfaction with the intervention and therapeutic alliance will also be assessed. Measures will be taken pre- and postdelivery of the intervention and again at 8 weeks following the intervention. People with COPD often have limitations to their mobility because of their breathlessness. They are often already attending many medical appointments and could be reluctant to attend for face-to-face psychological treatment. The results of this study should identify the relative efficacy of CBT delivered over the telephone to this population, which, if successful, may be a cost-effective and more palatable alternative to face-to-face treatment of depression or anxiety for this population.

  11. Random number datasets generated from statistical analysis of randomly sampled GSM recharge cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Oguntunde, Pelumi E; Ugwoke, Paulinus O

    2017-02-01

    In this article, a random number of datasets was generated from random samples of used GSM (Global Systems for Mobile Communications) recharge cards. Statistical analyses were performed to refine the raw data to random number datasets arranged in table. A detailed description of the method and relevant tests of randomness were also discussed.

  12. Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, C. M.; Buchhave, P.; K. George, W.

    . Residence time weighting provides non-biased estimates regardless of setting. The free-running processor was also tested and compared to residence time weighting using actual LDA measurements in a turbulent round jet. Power spectra from measurements on the jet centerline and the outer part of the jet...... sine waves. The primary signal and the corresponding power spectrum are shown in Figure 1. The conventional spectrum shows multiple erroneous mixing frequencies and the peak values are too low. The residence time weighted spectrum is correct. The sample-and-hold spectrum has lower power than...... the correct spectrum, and the f -2-filtering effect appearing for low data densities is evident (Adrian and Yao 1987). The remaining tests also show that sample-and-hold and the free-running processor perform well only under very particular circumstances with high data rate and low inherent bias, respectively...

  13. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  14. Assessment of a Standardized Pre-Operative Telephone Checklist Designed to Avoid Late Cancellation of Ambulatory Surgery: The AMBUPROG Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gaucher

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a standardized pre-operative telephone checklist on the rate of late cancellations of ambulatory surgery (AMBUPROG trial.Multicenter, two-arm, parallel-group, open-label randomized controlled trial.11 university hospital ambulatory surgery units in Paris, France.Patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery and able to be reached by telephone.A 7-item checklist designed to prevent late cancellation, available in five languages and two versions (for children and adults, was administered between 7 and 3 days before the planned date of surgery, by an automated phone system or a research assistant. The control group received standard management alone.Rate of cancellation on the day of surgery or the day before.The study population comprised 3900 patients enrolled between November 2012 and September 2013: 1950 patients were randomized to the checklist arm and 1950 patients to the control arm. The checklist was administered to 68.8% of patients in the intervention arm, 1002 by the automated phone system and 340 by a research assistant. The rate of late cancellation did not differ significantly between the checklist and control arms (109 (5.6% vs. 113 (5.8%, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.91 [0.65-1.29], (p = 0.57. Checklist administration revealed that 355 patients (28.0% had not undergone tests ordered by the surgeon or anesthetist, and that 254 patients (20.0% still had questions concerning the fasting state.A standardized pre-operative telephone checklist did not avoid late cancellations of ambulatory surgery but enabled us to identify several frequent causes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01732159.

  15. SOME SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STRATEGIES USING MULTIPLE RANDOM STARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Sundaram

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an attempt is made to extend linear systematic sampling using multiple random starts due to Gautschi(1957for various types of systematic sampling schemes available in literature, namely(i  Balanced Systematic Sampling (BSS of  Sethi (1965 and (ii Modified Systematic Sampling (MSS of Singh, Jindal, and Garg  (1968. Further, the proposed methods were compared with Yates corrected estimator developed with reference to Gautschi’s Linear systematic sampling (LSS with two random starts using appropriate super population models with the  help of R package for statistical computing.

  16. TELEPHONIC ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Irwin; Cosby, Richard S.

    1964-01-01

    Telephonic electrocardiography is a new and useful adjunct to the diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. It has already demonstrated its great value both in clinical practice and in hospital teaching. It has, however, many other possible roles, for example, in more efficient monitoring after operations on the heart, or in the office monitoring of seriously ill patients with infarction or Adams-Stokes attacks. The availability of increased data in cardiac cases leads automatically to a better understanding of cardiac disease. PMID:14165874

  17. Efficient sampling of complex network with modified random walk strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunya; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Mi; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    We present two novel random walk strategies, choosing seed node (CSN) random walk and no-retracing (NR) random walk. Different from the classical random walk sampling, the CSN and NR strategies focus on the influences of the seed node choice and path overlap, respectively. Three random walk samplings are applied in the Erdös-Rényi (ER), Barabási-Albert (BA), Watts-Strogatz (WS), and the weighted USAir networks, respectively. Then, the major properties of sampled subnets, such as sampling efficiency, degree distributions, average degree and average clustering coefficient, are studied. The similar conclusions can be reached with these three random walk strategies. Firstly, the networks with small scales and simple structures are conducive to the sampling. Secondly, the average degree and the average clustering coefficient of the sampled subnet tend to the corresponding values of original networks with limited steps. And thirdly, all the degree distributions of the subnets are slightly biased to the high degree side. However, the NR strategy performs better for the average clustering coefficient of the subnet. In the real weighted USAir networks, some obvious characters like the larger clustering coefficient and the fluctuation of degree distribution are reproduced well by these random walk strategies.

  18. Back to the future – feasibility of recruitment and retention to patient education and telephone follow-up after hip fracture: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langford DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dolores P Langford,1,2 Lena Fleig,3–5 Kristin C Brown,3,4 Nancy J Cho,1,2 Maeve Frost,1 Monique Ledoyen,1 Jayne Lehn,1 Kostas Panagiotopoulos,1,6 Nina Sharpe,1 Maureen C Ashe3,4 1Vancouver Coastal Health, 2Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 3Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 4Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Freie Universität Berlin, Health Psychology, Berlin, Germany; 6Department of Orthopaedics, The University of British Columbia (UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objectives: Our primary aim of this pilot study was to test feasibility of the planned design, the interventions (education plus telephone coaching, and the outcome measures, and to facilitate a power calculation for a future randomized controlled trial to improve adherence to recovery goals following hip fracture.Design: This is a parallel 1:1 randomized controlled feasibility study.Setting: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Vancouver, BC, Canada.Participants: Participants were community-dwelling adults over 60 years of age with a recent hip fracture. They were recruited and assessed in hospital, and then randomized after hospital discharge to the intervention or control group by a web-based randomization service. Treatment allocation was concealed to the investigators, measurement team, and data entry assistants and analysts. Participants and the research physiotherapist were aware of treatment allocation.Intervention: Intervention included usual care for hip fracture plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using a patient-centered educational manual and four videos, and up to five postdischarge telephone calls from a physiotherapist to provide recovery coaching. The control group received usual care plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using the educational manual and videos.Measurement: Our primary outcome was feasibility, specifically recruitment

  19. Spatial Random Sampling: A Structure-Preserving Data Sketching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mostafa; Atia, George K.

    2017-09-01

    Random column sampling is not guaranteed to yield data sketches that preserve the underlying structures of the data and may not sample sufficiently from less-populated data clusters. Also, adaptive sampling can often provide accurate low rank approximations, yet may fall short of producing descriptive data sketches, especially when the cluster centers are linearly dependent. Motivated by that, this paper introduces a novel randomized column sampling tool dubbed Spatial Random Sampling (SRS), in which data points are sampled based on their proximity to randomly sampled points on the unit sphere. The most compelling feature of SRS is that the corresponding probability of sampling from a given data cluster is proportional to the surface area the cluster occupies on the unit sphere, independently from the size of the cluster population. Although it is fully randomized, SRS is shown to provide descriptive and balanced data representations. The proposed idea addresses a pressing need in data science and holds potential to inspire many novel approaches for analysis of big data.

  20. Methods for sample size determination in cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutterford, Clare; Copas, Andrew; Eldridge, Sandra

    2015-06-01

    The use of cluster randomized trials (CRTs) is increasing, along with the variety in their design and analysis. The simplest approach for their sample size calculation is to calculate the sample size assuming individual randomization and inflate this by a design effect to account for randomization by cluster. The assumptions of a simple design effect may not always be met; alternative or more complicated approaches are required. We summarise a wide range of sample size methods available for cluster randomized trials. For those familiar with sample size calculations for individually randomized trials but with less experience in the clustered case, this manuscript provides formulae for a wide range of scenarios with associated explanation and recommendations. For those with more experience, comprehensive summaries are provided that allow quick identification of methods for a given design, outcome and analysis method. We present first those methods applicable to the simplest two-arm, parallel group, completely randomized design followed by methods that incorporate deviations from this design such as: variability in cluster sizes; attrition; non-compliance; or the inclusion of baseline covariates or repeated measures. The paper concludes with methods for alternative designs. There is a large amount of methodology available for sample size calculations in CRTs. This paper gives the most comprehensive description of published methodology for sample size calculation and provides an important resource for those designing these trials. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  1. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheleau Carissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.

  2. Randomized Trial of a Peer-Led, Telephone-Based Empowerment Intervention for Persons With Chronic Spinal Cord Injury Improves Health Self-Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Bethlyn Vergo; Brody, Miriam; Everhart-Skeels, Sarah; Pernigotti, Diana; Burnett, Sam; Zazula, Judi; Green, Christa; Hasiotis, Stathis; Belliveau, Timothy; Seetharama, Subramani; Rosenblum, David; Jette, Alan

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of "My Care My Call" (MCMC), a peer-led, telephone-based health self-management intervention in adults with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. General community. Convenience sample of adults with SCI (N=84; mean time post-SCI, 9.9y; mean age, 46y; 73.8% men; 44% with paraplegia; 58% white). Trained peer health coaches applied the person-centered health self-management intervention with 42 experimental subjects over 6 months on a tapered call schedule. The 42 control subjects received usual care. Both groups received the MCMC Resource Guide. Primary outcome-health self-management as measured by the Patient Activation Measure (PAM). Secondary outcomes-global ratings of service/resource use, health-related quality of life, and quality of primary care. Intervention participants averaged 12 calls over 6 months (averaging 21.8min each), with distinct variation. At 6 months, intervention participants reported a significantly greater change in PAM scores (6mo: estimate, 7.029; 95% confidence interval, .1018-13.956; P=.0468) compared with controls, with a trend toward significance at 4 months. At 6 months, intervention participants reported a significantly greater decrease in social/role activity limitations (estimate, -.443; P=.0389), greater life satisfaction (estimate, 1.0091; P=.0522), greater services/resources awareness (estimate, 1.678; P=.0253), greater overall service use (estimate, 1.069; P=.0240), and a greater number of services used (estimate, 1.542; P=.0077). Subgroups most impacted by MCMC on PAM change scores included the following: high social support, white persons, men, 1 to 6 years postinjury, and tetraplegic. This trial demonstrates that the MCMC peer-led, health self-management intervention achieved a positive impact on self-management to prevent secondary conditions in adults with SCI. These results warrant a larger, multisite trial of its efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Copyright

  3. Random sampling for a mental health survey in a deprived multi-ethnic area of Berlin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, Adrian P; Aichberger, Marion C; Kliewe, Thomas; Ignatyev, Yuriy; Yayla, Seda; Heimann, Hannah; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam; Busch, Markus; Rapp, Michael; Heinz, Andreas; Ströhle, Andreas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the response to random sampling for a mental health survey in a deprived multi-ethnic area of Berlin, Germany, with a large Turkish-speaking population. A random list from the registration office with 1,000 persons stratified by age and gender was retrieved from the population registry and these persons were contacted using a three-stage design including written information, telephone calls and personal contact at home. A female bilingual interviewer contacted persons with Turkish names. Of the persons on the list, 202 were not living in the area, one was deceased, 502 did not respond. Of the 295 responders, 152 explicitly refused(51.5%) to participate. We retained a sample of 143 participants(48.5%) representing the rate of multi-ethnicity in the area (52.1% migrants in the sample vs. 53.5% in the population). Turkish migrants were over-represented(28.9% in the sample vs. 18.6% in the population). Polish migrants (2.1 vs. 5.3% in the population) and persons from the former Yugoslavia (1.4 vs. 4.8% in the population)were under-represented. Bilingual contact procedures can improve the response rates of the most common migrant populations to random sampling if migrants of the same origin gate the contact. High non-contact and non-response rates for migrant and non-migrant populations in deprived urban areas remain a challenge for obtaining representative random samples.

  4. SOME SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STRATEGIES USING MULTIPLE RANDOM STARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath Sundaram; Ammani Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to extend linear systematic sampling using multiple random starts due to Gautschi(1957)for various types of systematic sampling schemes available in literature, namely(i)  Balanced Systematic Sampling (BSS) of  Sethi (1965) and (ii) Modified Systematic Sampling (MSS) of Singh, Jindal, and Garg  (1968). Further, the proposed methods were compared with Yates corrected estimator developed with reference to Gautschi’s Linear systematic samplin...

  5. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2007-09-28

    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e{sup n{sup 2}}). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n{sup 2}). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.

  6. Outcomes and Lessons Learned From a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Health Care Utilization During the First Year After Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation: Telephone Counseling Versus Usual Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackelprang, Jessica L; Hoffman, Jeanne M; Garbaccio, Chris; Bombardier, Charles H

    2016-10-01

    To describe the outcomes and lessons learned from a trial of telephone counseling (TC) to reduce medical complications and health care utilization and to improve psychosocial outcomes during the first year after spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Single-site, single-blind, randomized (1:1) controlled trial comparing usual care plus TC with usual care (UC). Two inpatient rehabilitation programs. Adult patients (N=168) discharged between 2007 and 2010. The TC group (n=85, 51%) received up to eleven 30- to 45-minute scheduled telephone calls to provide education, resources, and support. The UC group (n=83, 49%) received indicated referrals and treatment. The primary outcome was a composite of self-reported health care utilization and medical complications. Secondary outcomes were depression severity, current health state, subjective health, and community participation. No significant differences were observed between TC and UC groups in the primary or secondary psychosocial outcomes. This study had a number of strengths, but included potential design weaknesses. Intervention studies would benefit from prescreening participants to identify those with treatable problems, those at high risk for poor outcomes, or those with intentions to change target behaviors. Interventions focused on treatment goals and designed to work in collaboration with the participant's medical care system may lead to improved outcomes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Coaching by Telephone Intervention for Veterans and Care Team Engagement (ACTIVATE): A study protocol for a Hybrid Type I effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Eugene Z; Damschroder, Laura J; Gierisch, Jennifer; Olsen, Maren; Fagerlin, Angela; Sanders, Linda; Sparks, Jordan; Turner, Marsha; May, Carrie; McCant, Felicia; Curry, David; White-Clark, Courtney; Juntilla, Karen

    2017-04-01

    A large proportion of deaths and many illnesses can be attributed to three modifiable risk factors: tobacco use, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. Health risk assessments (HRAs) are widely available online but have not been consistently used in healthcare systems to activate patients to participate in prevention programs aimed at improving lifestyle behaviors. The goal of this study is to test whether adding telephone-based coaching to use of a comprehensive HRA increases at-risk patients' activation and enrollment into a prevention program compared to HRA use alone. Participants were randomized to either complete an HRA alone or in conjunction with a telephone coaching intervention. To be eligible Veterans had to have at least one modifiable risk factor (current smoker, overweight/obese, or physically inactive). The primary outcome is enrollment and participation in a prevention program by 6months. Secondary outcomes include change in a Patient Activation Measure and Framingham Risk Score. This study is the first to test a web-based health risk assessment coupled with a health coaching intervention within a large healthcare system. Results from this study will help the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implement its national plan to include comprehensive health risk assessments as a tool to engage Veterans in prevention. The results will also inform health systems outside VHA who seek to implement Medicare's advisement that health risk assessment become a mandatory component of care under the Affordable Care Act. © 2016.

  8. Randomized Trial Comparing Telephone Versus In-Person Weight Loss Counseling on Body Composition and Circulating Biomarkers in Women Treated for Breast Cancer: The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition (LEAN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Maura; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Sanft, Tara; Chagpar, Anees B; Zhou, Yang; Playdon, Mary; Li, Fangyong; Irwin, Melinda L

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. The gold standard approach to weight loss is in-person counseling, but telephone counseling may be more feasible. We examined the effect of in-person versus telephone weight loss counseling versus usual care on 6-month changes in body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers. One hundred breast cancer survivors with a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to in-person counseling (n = 33), telephone counseling (n = 34), or usual care (UC) (n = 33). In-person and telephone counseling included 11 30-minute counseling sessions over 6 months. These focused on reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavioral therapy. Body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 6 months. The mean age of participants was 59 ± 7.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 33.1 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), and the mean time from diagnosis was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. Fifty-one percent of the participants had stage I breast cancer. Average 6-month weight loss was 6.4%, 5.4%, and 2.0% for in-person, telephone, and UC groups, respectively (P = .004, P = .009, and P = .46 comparing in-person with UC, telephone with UC, and in-person with telephone, respectively). A significant 30% decrease in C-reactive protein levels was observed among women randomly assigned to the combined weight loss intervention groups compared with a 1% decrease among women randomly assigned to UC (P = .05). Both in-person and telephone counseling were effective weight loss strategies, with favorable effects on C-reactive protein levels. Our findings may help guide the incorporation of weight loss counseling into breast cancer treatment and care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  9. Sequential time interleaved random equivalent sampling for repetitive signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yijiu; Liu, Jingjing

    2016-12-01

    Compressed sensing (CS) based sampling techniques exhibit many advantages over other existing approaches for sparse signal spectrum sensing; they are also incorporated into non-uniform sampling signal reconstruction to improve the efficiency, such as random equivalent sampling (RES). However, in CS based RES, only one sample of each acquisition is considered in the signal reconstruction stage, and it will result in more acquisition runs and longer sampling time. In this paper, a sampling sequence is taken in each RES acquisition run, and the corresponding block measurement matrix is constructed using a Whittaker-Shannon interpolation formula. All the block matrices are combined into an equivalent measurement matrix with respect to all sampling sequences. We implemented the proposed approach with a multi-cores analog-to-digital converter (ADC), whose ADC cores are time interleaved. A prototype realization of this proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling method has been developed. It is able to capture an analog waveform at an equivalent sampling rate of 40 GHz while sampled at 1 GHz physically. Experiments indicate that, for a sparse signal, the proposed CS based sequential random equivalent sampling exhibits high efficiency.

  10. Optimum allocation in multivariate stratified random sampling: Stochastic matrix optimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Garcia, Jose A.; Ramos-Quiroga, Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    The allocation problem for multivariate stratified random sampling as a problem of stochastic matrix integer mathematical programming is considered. With these aims the asymptotic normality of sample covariance matrices for each strata is established. Some alternative approaches are suggested for its solution. An example is solved by applying the proposed techniques.

  11. Performance of Random Effects Model Estimators under Complex Sampling Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yue; Stokes, Lynne; Harris, Ian; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we consider estimation of parameters of random effects models from samples collected via complex multistage designs. Incorporation of sampling weights is one way to reduce estimation bias due to unequal probabilities of selection. Several weighting methods have been proposed in the literature for estimating the parameters of…

  12. The influence of wearing schemes and supportive telephone calls on adherence in accelerometry measurement: results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Berg N

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Neeltje van den Berg,1,2 Sabina Ulbricht,2,3 Thea Schwaneberg,1,2 Kerstin Weitmann,1,2 Franziska Weymar,1–3 Stefan Groß,2,4 Marcus Dörr,2,4 Wolfgang Hoffmann1,2 1Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, 2German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK, Partner Site Greifswald, 3Institute of Social Medicine and Prevention, University Medicine Greifswald, 4Department of Internal Medicine B, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany Background: Physical activity (PA can be assessed by accelerometer monitors. However, a high adherence to wearing this device is essential to obtain valid data. In this study, the influence of different wearing schemes and additional supportive phone calls (SPCs on adherence was examined. Methods: A randomized study with four groups was conducted in the context of a health examination program among participants aged 40–75 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases. Participants were recruited in different settings (general medical practices, job center, and health insurance. The participants were asked to wear an accelerometer for 7 consecutive days according to the wearing scheme “day and night” or “day only” and received or did not receive SPCs. Full adherence was defined as a total wearing time of 98 hours (between 8 am and 10 pm during 7 days. A generalized linear model was used to calculate the difference between the maximum possible and the observed adherence. Results: Adherence could be assessed for 249 participants (mean age: 56.40 years; standard deviation [SD] 9.83, 40% males. The mean wearing time was 84.04 hours (SD 20.75. Participants with the wearing scheme day and night were significantly more adherent than participants with the wearing scheme day only (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.63; P=0.005. SPCs had no additional effect on adherence (IRR 0.80; P=0.168. Conclusion: To assess PA, the wearing scheme day and night provides the best possible

  13. Nurse-led telephone-based follow-up of secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome: One-year results from the randomized controlled NAILED-ACS trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Huber

    Full Text Available Secondary prevention after acute coronary syndrome (ACS could reduce morbidity and mortality, but guideline targets are seldom reached. We hypothesized that nurse-led telephone-based intervention would increase adherence.The NAILED ACS trial is a prospective, controlled, randomized trial. Patients admitted for ACS at Östersund hospital, Sweden, were randomized to usual follow-up by a general practitioner or a nurse-led intervention. The intervention comprised telephone follow-up after 1 month and then yearly with lifestyle counselling and titration of medications until reaching target values for LDL-C (<2.5 mmol/L and blood pressure (BP; <140/90 mmHg or set targets were deemed unachievable. This is a 12-month exploratory analysis of the intervention.A total of 768 patients (396 intervention, 372 control completed the 12-month follow-up. After titration at the 1-month follow-up, mean LDL-C was 0.38 mmol/L (95% CI 0.28 to 0.48, p<0.05, mean systolic BP 7 mmHg (95% CI 4.5 to 9.2, p<0.05, and mean diastolic BP 4 mmHg (95% CI 2.4 to 4.1, p<0.05 lower in the intervention group. Target values for LDL-C and systolic BP were met by 94.1% and 91.9% of intervention patients and 68.4% and 65.6% of controls (p<0.05. At 12 months, mean LDL was 0.3 mmol/L (95% CI 0.1 to 0.4, p <0.05, systolic BP 1.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0 to 4.1, p = 0.24, and mean diastolic BP 2.1 mmHg (95% CI 0.6 to 3.6, p <0.05 lower in the intervention group. Target values for LDL-C and systolic BP were met in 77.7% and 68.9% of intervention patients and 63.2% and 63.7% of controls (p<0.05 and p = 0.125.Nurse-led telephone-based secondary prevention was significantly more efficient at improving LDL-C and diastolic BP levels than usual care. The effect of the intervention declined between 1 and 12 months. Further evaluation of the persistence to the intervention is needed.

  14. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; Bream, Kent D W; Barg, Frances K; Branas, Charles C

    2014-04-10

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method using geographical information system (GIS) software and global positioning system (GPS) technology for application in a health survey in a rural region of Guatemala, as well as a qualitative study of the enumeration process. This method offers an alternative sampling technique that could reduce opportunities for bias in household selection compared to cluster methods. However, its use is subject to issues surrounding survey preparation, technological limitations and in-the-field household selection. Application of this method in remote areas will raise challenges surrounding the boundary delineation process, use and translation of satellite imagery between GIS and GPS, and household selection at each survey point in varying field conditions. This method favors household selection in denser urban areas and in new residential developments. Random spatial sampling methodology can be used to survey a random sample of population in a remote region of a developing nation. Although this method should be further validated and compared with more established methods to determine its utility in social survey applications, it shows promise for use in developing nations with resource-challenged environments where detailed geographic and human census data are less available.

  15. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  16. Tecla: a telephone- and text-message based telemedical concept for patients with severe mental health disorders--study protocol for a controlled, randomized, study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentzel, Ulrike; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Strobel, Lara; Penndorf, Peter; Langosch, Jens; Freyberger, Harald J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; van den Berg, Neeltje

    2015-11-04

    Severe mental disorders like psychotic disorders including schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders have a 12-month-prevalence of 2.6, bipolar disorders of 1.5% in Germany. The relapse risk is high; so many patients need intensive monitoring and lifelong treatment. A high medication adherence is essential for a successful treatment. But in practice, medication adherence is low and decreases over time. Telemedical care concepts might improve treatment and bridge gaps between in- and outpatient treatment. A telemedical care concept based on regular telephone calls and short text messages was developed. The primary objective is to assess whether regular telephone calls and text messages can improve the medication adherence of patients. Secondary objectives are the reduction of rehospitalization rates, the improvement of quality of life and of the severity of symptoms. The Tecla study (Post stationary telemedical care of patients with severe psychiatric disorders) is a two-armed prospective randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention group receive in addition to usual care regular telephone calls every 2 weeks and weekly text messages on patient-individual topics during a 6 months period. Patients in the control group receive only regular care. Inclusion criteria are a physician-diagnosed bipolar disorder, schizoaffective disorder or schizophrenia and a signed informed consent. Exclusion criteria are planned inpatient treatments within the next 6 months and being non-reachable by phone. After 3 and 6 months both groups receive follow up assessments. The primary objective of this study is the medication adherence that is measured with the Medication Adherence Report Scale, German version (MARS-D). The MARS-D is a self-report with five items. Adherent behaviour is mostly overestimated using self-reports. The strength of the MARS-D is to detect non-adherent behaviour. The original Medication Adherence Report Scale in English language (MARS-5) was

  17. A Perioperative Smoking Cessation Intervention With Varenicline, Counseling, and Fax Referral to a Telephone Quitline Versus a Brief Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jean; Abrishami, Amir; Riazi, Sheila; Siddiqui, Naveed; You-Ten, Eric; Korman, Jennifer; Islam, Sazzadul; Chen, Xin; Andrawes, Maged S M; Selby, Peter; Wong, David T; Chung, Frances

    2017-08-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative interventions to quit smoking with varenicline has not been compared with brief interventions. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of a comprehensive smoking cessation program versus a brief intervention for smoking cessation. In this prospective, multicenter study, 296 patients were randomized to participate in a smoking cessation program (one 10- to 15-minute counseling session, pharmacotherapy with varenicline, an educational pamphlet, and a fax referral to a telephone quitline); or brief advice and self-referral to a telephone quitline. The primary outcome was the 7-day point prevalence (PP) abstinence at 12 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes included abstinence at 1, 3, and 6 months. Multivariable generalized linear regression was used to identify independent variables related to abstinence. The 7-day PP abstinence for the smoking cessation program versus brief advice group was 42.4% vs 26.2% (relative risk [RR], 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.25; P = .003) at 12 months. The 7-day PP abstinence at 1, 3, and 6 months was higher in the smoking cessation group versus the brief advice group: 45.7% vs 25.5% (RR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.29-2.49; P smoking cessation group predicted abstinence at 12 months (RR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.12-2.21; P = .0087). A perioperative smoking cessation program with counseling, pharmacotherapy with varenicline, an educational pamphlet, and a fax referral to a quitline increased abstinence from smoking 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery versus a brief intervention.

  18. [Effects of a voice metronome on compression rate and depth in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 3-armed, randomized, simulation trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Roth, Dominik; Krammel, Mario; Laggner, Roberta; Schriefl, Christoph; Kienbacher, Calvin; Lorenzo Hartmann, Alexander; Novosad, Heinz; Constantin Chwojka, Christof; Havel, Christoph; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect on compression rate and depth of a conventional metronome and a voice metronome in simulated telephone-assisted, protocol-driven bystander Cardiopulmonary resucitation (CPR) compared to standard instruction. Thirty-six lay volunteers performed 10 minutes of compression-only CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 3-arm study on a manikin. Participants were randomized either to standard instruction ("push down firmly, 5 cm"), a regular metronome pacing 110 beats per minute (bpm), or a voice metronome continuously prompting "deep-deepdeep- deeper" at 110 bpm. The primary outcome was deviation from the ideal chest compression target range (50 mm compression depth x 100 compressions per minute x 10 minutes = 50 m). Secondary outcomes were CPR quality measures (compression and leaning depth, rate, no-flow times) and participants' related physiological response (heart rate, blood pressure and nine hole peg test and borg scales score). We used a linear regression model to calculate effects. The mean (SD) deviation from the ideal target range (50 m) was -11 (9) m in the standard group, -20 (11) m in the conventional metronome group (adjusted difference [95%, CI], 9.0 [1.2-17.5 m], P=.03), and -18 (9) m in the voice metronome group (adjusted difference, 7.2 [-0.9-15.3] m, P=.08). Secondary outcomes (CPR quality measures and physiological response of participants to CPR performance) showed no significant differences. Compared to standard instruction, the conventional metronome showed a significant negative effect on the chest compression target range. The voice metronome showed a non-significant negative effect and therefore cannot be recommended for regular use in telephone-assisted CPR.

  19. Random sampling and validation of covariance matrices of resonance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik, Lucijan; Zerovnik, Gašper

    2017-09-01

    Analytically exact methods for random sampling of arbitrary correlated parameters are presented. Emphasis is given on one hand on the possible inconsistencies in the covariance data, concentrating on the positive semi-definiteness and consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters, and on the other hand on optimization of the implementation of the methods itself. The methods have been applied in the program ENDSAM, written in the Fortran language, which from a file from a nuclear data library of a chosen isotope in ENDF-6 format produces an arbitrary number of new files in ENDF-6 format which contain values of random samples of resonance parameters (in accordance with corresponding covariance matrices) in places of original values. The source code for the program ENDSAM is available from the OECD/NEA Data Bank. The program works in the following steps: reads resonance parameters and their covariance data from nuclear data library, checks whether the covariance data is consistent, and produces random samples of resonance parameters. The code has been validated with both realistic and artificial data to show that the produced samples are statistically consistent. Additionally, the code was used to validate covariance data in existing nuclear data libraries. A list of inconsistencies, observed in covariance data of resonance parameters in ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0 is presented. For now, the work has been limited to resonance parameters, however the methods presented are general and can in principle be extended to sampling and validation of any nuclear data.

  20. Generalized and synthetic regression estimators for randomized branch sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. R. Affleck; Timothy G. Gregoire

    2015-01-01

    In felled-tree studies, ratio and regression estimators are commonly used to convert more readily measured branch characteristics to dry crown mass estimates. In some cases, data from multiple trees are pooled to form these estimates. This research evaluates the utility of both tactics in the estimation of crown biomass following randomized branch sampling (...

  1. Effective sampling of random surfaces by baby universe surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambjørn, J.; Białas, P.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Burda, Z.; Petersson, B.

    1994-01-01

    We propose a new, very efficient algorithm for sampling of random surfaces in the Monte Carlo simulations, based on so-called baby universe surgery, i.e. cutting and pasting of baby universe. It drastically reduces slowing down as compared to the standard local flip algorithm, thereby allowing

  2. Living well after breast cancer randomized controlled trial protocol: evaluating a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention versus usual care in women following treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Marina M; Terranova, Caroline O; Erickson, Jane M; Job, Jennifer R; Brookes, Denise S K; McCarthy, Nicole; Hickman, Ingrid J; Lawler, Sheleigh P; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Janda, Monika; Veerman, J Lennert; Ware, Robert S; Prins, Johannes B; Vos, Theo; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-28

    Obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet quality have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality as well as treatment-related side-effects in breast cancer survivors. Weight loss intervention trials in breast cancer survivors have shown that weight loss is safe and achievable; however, few studies have examined the benefits of such interventions on a broad range of outcomes and few have examined factors important to translation (e.g. feasible delivery method for scaling up, assessment of sustained changes, cost-effectiveness). The Living Well after Breast Cancer randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (versus usual care) on weight change and a range of secondary outcomes including cost-effectiveness. Women (18-75 years; body mass index 25-45 kg/m(2)) diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the previous 2 years are recruited from public and private hospitals and through the state-based cancer registry (target n = 156). Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized 1:1 to either a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (targeting diet and physical activity) or usual care. Data are collected at baseline, 6-months (mid-intervention), 12-months (end-of-intervention) and 18-months (maintenance). The primary outcome is change in weight at 12-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in body composition, bone mineral density, cardio-metabolic and cancer-related biomarkers, metabolic health and chronic disease risk, physical function, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, menopausal symptoms, body image, fear of cancer recurrence) and behaviors (dietary intake, physical activity, sitting time). Data collected at 18-months will be used to assess whether outcomes achieved at end-of-intervention are sustained six months after intervention completion. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed, as will mediators and moderators of

  3. Random sampling and validation of covariance matrices of resonance parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plevnik Lucijan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytically exact methods for random sampling of arbitrary correlated parameters are presented. Emphasis is given on one hand on the possible inconsistencies in the covariance data, concentrating on the positive semi-definiteness and consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters, and on the other hand on optimization of the implementation of the methods itself. The methods have been applied in the program ENDSAM, written in the Fortran language, which from a file from a nuclear data library of a chosen isotope in ENDF-6 format produces an arbitrary number of new files in ENDF-6 format which contain values of random samples of resonance parameters (in accordance with corresponding covariance matrices in places of original values. The source code for the program ENDSAM is available from the OECD/NEA Data Bank. The program works in the following steps: reads resonance parameters and their covariance data from nuclear data library, checks whether the covariance data is consistent, and produces random samples of resonance parameters. The code has been validated with both realistic and artificial data to show that the produced samples are statistically consistent. Additionally, the code was used to validate covariance data in existing nuclear data libraries. A list of inconsistencies, observed in covariance data of resonance parameters in ENDF-VII.1, JEFF-3.2 and JENDL-4.0 is presented. For now, the work has been limited to resonance parameters, however the methods presented are general and can in principle be extended to sampling and validation of any nuclear data.

  4. Protocol for a randomized controlled dismantling study of a brief telephonic psychological intervention applied to non-professional caregivers with symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando L; Torres, Ángela; Díaz, Olga; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Hermida, Elisabet

    2015-11-23

    Although depression is a common problem in caregivers and there are effective cognitive-behavioral interventions for its prevention, the ability of caregivers to attend these treatments is often limited by logistics. Furthermore, the efficacy of the components of these interventions is unknown. The objectives of this study are to (a) evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent depression with all its components (cognitive and behavioral) and only with behavioral activation, and to (b) analyze the mediators of the change in depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to dismantle the components of a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Caregivers with elevated depressive symptoms will be randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an intervention with only the behavioral activation component, or a usual care control group. Each condition will consist of approximately 60 participants. The two interventions will consist of five sessions lasting 90 min each, applied to groups of about 5 participants at a time via conference call. Trained interviewers, blind to the experimental conditions, will conduct the assessments at the pre-treatment, post-treatment and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. This study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent depression in caregivers with elevated depressive symptoms administered via conference call, and on the impact of the behavioral activation component on the overall efficacy of the program. If we find favorable results, it would mean that we have developed a program of prevention of depression of higher clinical utility and efficacy than those currently available, which would make it possible for a large number of caregivers to have access to such resources. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02292394. Registered 6 November 2014.

  5. Sampling Polymorphs of Ionic Solids using Random Superlattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Vladan

    2016-02-19

    Polymorphism offers rich and virtually unexplored space for discovering novel functional materials. To harness this potential approaches capable of both exploring the space of polymorphs and assessing their realizability are needed. One such approach devised for partially ionic solids is presented. The structure prediction part is carried out by performing local density functional theory relaxations on a large set of random supperlattices (RSLs) with atoms distributed randomly over different planes in a way that favors cation-anion coordination. Applying the RSL sampling on MgO, ZnO, and SnO_{2} reveals that the resulting probability of occurrence of a given structure offers a measure of its realizability explaining fully the experimentally observed, metastable polymorphs in these three systems.

  6. Analysis of a global random stratified sample of nurse legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D C; Fernández-Fernández, M P; González-Jurado, M A; Beneit-Montesinos, J V

    2015-06-01

    To identify, compare and contrast the major component parts of heterogeneous stratified sample of nursing legislation. Nursing legislation varies from one jurisdiction to another. Up until now no research exists into whether the variations of such legislation are random or if variations are related to a set of key attributes. This mixed method study used a random stratified sample of legislation to map through documentary analysis the content of 14 nursing acts and then explored, using quantitative techniques, whether the material contained relates to a number of key attributes. These attributes include: legal tradition of the jurisdiction; model of regulation; administrative approach; area of the world; and the economic status of the jurisdiction. Twelve component parts of nursing legislation were identified. These were remarkably similar irrespective of attributes of interest. However, not all component parts were specified in the same level of detail and the manner by which the elements were addressed did vary. A number of potential relationships between the structure of the legislation and the key attributes of interest were identified. This study generated a comprehensive and integrated map of a global sample of nursing legislation. It provides a set of descriptors to be used to undertake further quantitative work and provides an important policy tool to facilitate dialogue between regulatory bodies. At the individual nurse level it offers insights that can help nurses pursue recognition of credentials across jurisdictions. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  7. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  8. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  9. Randomly Sampled-Data Control Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kuoruey

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to solve the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) problem with random time sampling. Such a sampling scheme may arise from imperfect instrumentation as in the case of sampling jitter. It can also model the stochastic information exchange among decentralized controllers to name just a few. A practical suboptimal controller is proposed with the nice property of mean square stability. The proposed controller is suboptimal in the sense that the control structure is limited to be linear. Because of i. i. d. assumption, this does not seem unreasonable. Once the control structure is fixed, the stochastic discrete optimal control problem is transformed into an equivalent deterministic optimal control problem with dynamics described by the matrix difference equation. The N-horizon control problem is solved using the Lagrange's multiplier method. The infinite horizon control problem is formulated as a classical minimization problem. Assuming existence of solution to the minimization problem, the total system is shown to be mean square stable under certain observability conditions. Computer simulations are performed to illustrate these conditions.

  10. A Table-Based Random Sampling Simulation for Bioluminescence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a popular simulation of photon propagation in turbid media, the main problem of Monte Carlo (MC method is its cumbersome computation. In this work a table-based random sampling simulation (TBRS is proposed. The key idea of TBRS is to simplify multisteps of scattering to a single-step process, through randomly table querying, thus greatly reducing the computing complexity of the conventional MC algorithm and expediting the computation. The TBRS simulation is a fast algorithm of the conventional MC simulation of photon propagation. It retained the merits of flexibility and accuracy of conventional MC method and adapted well to complex geometric media and various source shapes. Both MC simulations were conducted in a homogeneous medium in our work. Also, we present a reconstructing approach to estimate the position of the fluorescent source based on the trial-and-error theory as a validation of the TBRS algorithm. Good agreement is found between the conventional MC simulation and the TBRS simulation.

  11. Comparing Patients' Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Berengere; Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-06-24

    Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients' health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients' opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Our primary objective was to compare patients' opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients' impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (PInternet requires patients' active participation and those planning surveys in the domain explored in this study should anticipate a lower

  12. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  13. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair Martha

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. Methods A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP that matched Australian electoral records were approached. Results The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. Conclusion The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  14. Maximising response rates in household telephone surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Joanne; Sinclair, Martha; Leder, Karin

    2008-11-03

    Epidemiological and other studies that require participants to respond by completing a questionnaire face the growing threat of non-response. Response rates to household telephone surveys are diminishing because of changes in telecommunications, marketing and culture. Accordingly, updated information is required about the rate of telephone listing in directories and optimal strategies to maximise survey participation. A total of 3426 households in Sydney, Australia were approached to participate in a computer assisted telephone interview (CATI) regarding their domestic (recycled and/or drinking) water usage. Only randomly selected households in the suburb and postcode of interest with a telephone number listed in the Electronic White Pages (EWP) that matched Australian electoral records were approached. The CATI response rate for eligible households contacted by telephone was 39%. The rate of matching of electoral and EWP records, a measure of telephone directory coverage, was 55%. The use of a combination of approaches, such as an advance letter, interviewer training, establishment of researcher credentials, increasing call attempts and targeted call times, remains a good strategy to maximise telephone response rates. However, by way of preparation for future technological changes, reduced telephone number listings and people's increasing resistance to unwanted phone calls, alternatives to telephone surveys, such as internet-based approaches, should be investigated.

  15. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and physical exercise - Effects studied by automated telephone assessments in mental ill-health patients; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Catharina; Andersson, Claes; Forsell, Yvonne; Öjehagen, Agneta; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    Mental ill-health has become a large health problem and it is important for caregivers to provide effective treatment alternatives. REGASSA is a randomized controlled study performed in primary care to study the effects of 12 weeks of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise (PE) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with mild-to-moderate mental ill-health. The present study aimed to examine the results of these treatment alternatives on psychological functioning, stress, and sleep disturbances. The study comprised 879 patients with mental ill-health taking part in the REGASSA study. Data were collected by Interactive Voice Response (IVR), a computerized, automated telephone technique. The treatments were compared at baseline, twice during treatment, at the end of treatment and at three follow-ups after treatment. Measures used were the Outcome Questionnaire-45, the short versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. Linear mixed models showed that the patients in ICBT and PE had better results than in TAU on psychological functioning and sleep disturbances, p effect sizes. On stress there were no differences; all groups made improvements. Women had stronger effects than men. More patients recovered on psychological functioning (OQ-45) in ICBT and PE than in TAU. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and PE proved to be effective treatment alternatives for patients with mild-to-moderate mental ill-health in improving psychological functioning, stress, and sleep disturbances and could be useful alternatives in primary care. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and physical exercise proved to be effective treatment alternatives for mental ill-health patients in primary care. Automated techniques (Interactive Voice Response) could be useful for following treatment course in large groups of patients in the health care. It is important to use measures that capture different

  16. Effects of telephone-based peer support in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus receiving integrated care: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Juliana C N; Sui, Yi; Oldenburg, Brian; Zhang, Yuying; Chung, Harriet H Y; Goggins, William; Au, Shimen; Brown, Nicola; Ozaki, Risa; Wong, Rebecca Y M; Ko, Gary T C; Fisher, Ed

    2014-06-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), team management using protocols with regular feedback improves clinical outcomes, although suboptimal self-management and psychological distress remain significant challenges. To investigate if frequent contacts through a telephone-based peer support program (Peer Support, Empowerment, and Remote Communication Linked by Information Technology [PEARL]) would improve cardiometabolic risk and health outcomes by enhancing psychological well-being and self-care in patients receiving integrated care implemented through a web-based multicomponent quality improvement program (JADE [Joint Asia Diabetes Evaluation]). Between 2009 and 2010, 628 of 2766 Hong Kong Chinese patients with T2DM from 3 publicly funded hospital-based diabetes centers were randomized to the JADE + PEARL (n = 312) or JADE (n = 316) groups, with comprehensive assessment at 0 and 12 months. Thirty-three motivated patients with well-controlled T2DM received 32 hours of training (four 8-hour workshops) to become peer supporters, with 10 patients assigned to each. Peer supporters called their peers at least 12 times, guided by a checklist. Changes in hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level (primary), proportions of patients with attained treatment targets (HbA(1c) pressure pressure, 136 [19] mm Hg; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 2.89 [0.82] mmol/L; 17.4% cardiovascular-renal complications; and 34.9% insulin treated). After a mean (SD) follow-up period of 414 (55) days, 5 patients had died, 144 had at least 1 hospitalization, and 586 had repeated comprehensive assessments. On intention-to-treat analysis, both groups had similar reductions in HbA(1c) (JADE + PEARL, 0.30% [95% CI, 0.12%-0.47%], vs JADE, 0.29% [95% CI, 0.12%-0.47%] [P = .97]) and improvements in treatment targets and psychological-behavioral measures. In the JADE + PEARL group, 90% of patients maintained contacts with their peer supporters, with a median of 20 calls per patient

  17. A comparison of methods for representing sparsely sampled random quantities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente Jose; Swiler, Laura Painton; Urbina, Angel; Mullins, Joshua

    2013-09-01

    This report discusses the treatment of uncertainties stemming from relatively few samples of random quantities. The importance of this topic extends beyond experimental data uncertainty to situations involving uncertainty in model calibration, validation, and prediction. With very sparse data samples it is not practical to have a goal of accurately estimating the underlying probability density function (PDF). Rather, a pragmatic goal is that the uncertainty representation should be conservative so as to bound a specified percentile range of the actual PDF, say the range between 0.025 and .975 percentiles, with reasonable reliability. A second, opposing objective is that the representation not be overly conservative; that it minimally over-estimate the desired percentile range of the actual PDF. The presence of the two opposing objectives makes the sparse-data uncertainty representation problem interesting and difficult. In this report, five uncertainty representation techniques are characterized for their performance on twenty-one test problems (over thousands of trials for each problem) according to these two opposing objectives and other performance measures. Two of the methods, statistical Tolerance Intervals and a kernel density approach specifically developed for handling sparse data, exhibit significantly better overall performance than the others.

  18. Reintegration: The Role of Spouse Telephone Battlemind

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    treating a service member or veteran . Spouses can have a dramatic effect on the reintegration of the family after deployment and can be a major support...Physical Health in a Sample of Spouses of OEF/OIF Service Members .......... 37 Easing Reintegration : Telephone Support Groups for Spouses of...68 Reintegration : The Role of Spouse Telephone BATTLEMIND Pilot Project

  19. Randomized trial of the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face treatment program on daily function compared to a telephone-based treatment program in patients with generalized osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuperus, N; Hoogeboom, T J; Kersten, C C; den Broeder, A A; Vlieland, T P M Vliet; van den Ende, C H M

    2015-08-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face self-management treatment program with a telephone-based program on daily function in patients with generalized osteoarthritis (GOA). A pragmatic single-blind randomized clinical superiority trial involving 147 patients clinically diagnosed with GOA, randomly allocated to either a 6 week non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face treatment program comprising seven group sessions or a 6 week telephone-based treatment program comprising two group sessions combined with four telephone contacts. Both programs aimed to improve daily function and to enhance self-management to control the disease. The programs critically differed in mode of delivery and intensity. Daily function (primary outcome) and secondary outcomes were assessed at baseline, 6, 26 and 52 weeks. Data were analyzed using linear or logistic multilevel regression models corrected for baseline, sex and group-wise treatment. No differences in effectiveness between both treatment programs were observed on the primary outcome (group difference (95% CI): -0.03 (-0.14, 0.07)) or on secondary outcome measures, except for a larger improvement in pain in the face-to-face treatment group (group difference (95% CI): 1.61 (0.01, 3.21)). Within groups, significant improvements were observed on several domains, especially in the face-to-face group. However, these benefits are relatively small and unlikely to be of clinical importance. We found no differences in treatment effect between patients with GOA who followed a non-pharmacological multidisciplinary face-to-face self-management program and those who received a telephone-delivered program. Besides, our findings demonstrated limited benefits of a self-management program for individuals with GOA. Dutch Trial Register trial number: NTR2137. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Telephoning in English

    CERN Document Server

    Naterop, B Jean

    1994-01-01

    Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.

  1. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  2. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  3. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  4. A telephone between us

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Mette Simonsen

    2014-01-01

    ’ mediated telephone conversations, the study identifies four main enablers/disablers for talk on Tværs (the host, the telephone, time and distance) and explores the conditions for listener access to the phone-in as shaped by these factors. Additionally, the article critically questions these conditions...

  5. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP telephones) that are effective as of October 1, 2014. A detailed listing of key efficiency criteria are available at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=phones.pr_crit_phones

  7. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  8. Taking ACTION to reduce pain: ACTION study rationale, design and protocol of a randomized trial of a proactive telephone-based coaching intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhimani, Rozina H; Cross, Lee J S; Taylor, Brent C; Meis, Laura A; Fu, Steven S; Allen, Kelli D; Krein, Sarah L; Do, Tam; Kerns, Robert D; Burgess, Diana J

    2017-01-13

    Rates of chronic pain are rising sharply in the United States and worldwide. Presently, there is evidence of racial disparities in pain treatment and treatment outcomes in the United States but few interventions designed to address these disparities. There is growing consensus that chronic musculoskeletal pain is best addressed by a biopsychosocial approach that acknowledges the role of psychological and environmental factors, some of which differ by race. The primary aim of this randomized controlled trial is to test the effectiveness of a non-pharmacological, self-regulatory intervention, administered proactively by telephone, at improving pain outcomes and increasing walking among African American patients with hip, back and knee pain. Participants assigned to the intervention will receive a telephone counselor delivered pedometer-mediated walking intervention that incorporates action planning and motivational interviewing. The intervention will consist of 6 telephone counseling sessions over an 8-10 week period. Participants randomly assigned to Usual Care will receive an informational brochure and a pedometer. The primary outcome is chronic pain-related physical functioning, assessed at 6 months, by the revised Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire, a measure recommended by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical Trials (IMMPACT). We will also examine whether the intervention improves other IMMPACT-recommended domains (pain intensity, emotional functioning, and ratings of overall improvement). Secondary objectives include examining whether the intervention reduces health care service utilization and use of opioid analgesics and whether key contributors to racial/ethnic disparities targeted by the intervention mediate improvement in chronic pain outcomes Measures will be assessed by mail and phone surveys at baseline, three months, and six months. Data analysis of primary aims will follow intent-to-treat methodology. We

  9. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavior therapy compared with befriending for treating depression and anxiety in older adults with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1 David Dunt,2 David Ames,3 Marcia Fearn,3 Emily (Chuanmei You,1 Sunil Bhar41Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Department of Psychological Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, AustraliaBackground: COPD is an umbrella term to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in people with COPD is high, although these comorbidities are often undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated. There is a need to identify efficacious treatments for depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for the treatment of anxiety and depression has a strong evidence base. There has been some success delivering this treatment over the telephone in limited studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of both telephone-administered CBT and befriending on outcomes for patients with diagnosed COPD who have at least mild levels of depression and/or anxiety.Methods: The protocol described in this paper is of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing eight sessions of telephone CBT to an active social control, referred to as befriending. Primary outcome measures will include depression and anxiety symptoms, and secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, self-efficacy, and COPD symptom severity. Participants’ satisfaction with the intervention and therapeutic alliance will also be assessed. Measures will be taken pre- and postdelivery of the intervention and again at 8 weeks following the intervention.Conclusion: People with COPD often have limitations to their mobility because of their breathlessness. They are often already attending many medical appointments and could be reluctant to attend for

  10. Comparing Patients’ Opinions on the Hospital Discharge Process Collected With a Self-Reported Questionnaire Completed Via the Internet or Through a Telephone Survey: An Ancillary Study of the SENTIPAT Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrat, Fabrice; Hejblum, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Background Hospital discharge, a critical stage in the hospital-to-home transition of patient care, is a complex process with potential dysfunctions having an impact on patients’ health on their return home. No study has yet reported the feasibility and usefulness of an information system that would directly collect and transmit, via the Internet, volunteer patients’ opinions on their satisfaction concerning the organization of hospital discharge. Objective Our primary objective was to compare patients’ opinions on the discharge process collected with 2 different methods: self-questionnaire completed on a dedicated website versus a telephone interview. The secondary goal was to estimate patient satisfaction. Methods We created a questionnaire to examine hospital discharge according to 3 dimensions: discharge logistics organization, preplanned posthospital continuity-of-care organization, and patients’ impressions at the time of discharge. A satisfaction score (between 0 and 1) for each of those dimensions and an associated total score were calculated. Taking advantage of the randomized SENTIPAT trial that questioned patients recruited at hospital discharge about the evolution of their health after returning home and randomly assigned them to complete a self-questionnaire directly online or during a telephone interview, we conducted an ancillary study comparing satisfaction with the organization of hospital discharge for these 2 patient groups. The questionnaire was proposed to 1141 patients included in the trial who were hospitalized for ≥2 days, among whom 867 eligible patients had access to the Internet at home and were randomized to the Internet or telephone group. Results Of the 1141 patients included, 755 (66.17%) completed the questionnaire. The response rates for the Internet (39.1%, 168/430) and telephone groups (87.2%, 381/437) differed significantly (Pdischarge logistics organization, P=.12 for preplanned posthospital continuity

  11. VT Telephone Exchange Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The UtilityTelecom_EXCHANGE represents Vermont Telephone Exchange boundaries as defined by the VT Public Service Board. The original data was...

  12. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  13. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health

  14. Sample size calculations for 3-level cluster randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Moerbeek, M.; Achterberg, T. van; Pelzer, B.J.; Borm, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background The first applications of cluster randomized trials with three instead of two levels are beginning to appear in health research, for instance, in trials where different strategies to implement best-practice guidelines are compared. In such trials, the strategy is implemented in health

  15. Improved estimator of finite population mean using auxiliary attribute in stratified random sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Hemant K.; Sharma, Prayas; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    The present study discuss the problem of estimating the finite population mean using auxiliary attribute in stratified random sampling. In this paper taking the advantage of point bi-serial correlation between the study variable and auxiliary attribute, we have improved the estimation of population mean in stratified random sampling. The expressions for Bias and Mean square error have been derived under stratified random sampling. In addition, an empirical study has been carried out to examin...

  16. A Family of Estimators of a Sensitive Variable Using Auxiliary Information in Stratified Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mushtaq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a combined general family of estimators is proposed for estimating finite population mean of a sensitive variable in stratified random sampling with non-sensitive auxiliary variable based on randomized response technique. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expression of bias and mean square error (MSE up to the first-order approximations are derived. Theoretical and empirical results through a simulation study show that the proposed class of estimators is more efficient than the existing estimators, i.e., usual stratified random sample mean estimator, Sousa et al (2014 ratio and regression estimator of the sensitive variable in stratified sampling.

  17. Computer Corner: A Note on Pascal's Triangle and Simple Random Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Tommy

    1989-01-01

    Describes the algorithm used to select a simple random sample of certain size without having to list all possible samples and a justification based on Pascal's triangle. Provides testing results by various computers. (YP)

  18. Psychotherapeutic intervention by telephone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mozer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erika Mozer1,2, Bethany Franklin1,3, Jon Rose11Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2PGSP Stanford PsyD Consortium Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3Pacific Graduate School of Psychology Palo Alto, California, USAAbstract: Psychotherapy conducted over the telephone has received increasing amounts of empirical attention given practical advantages that side-step treatment barriers encountered in traditional office-based care. The utility and efficacy of telephone therapy appears generalizable across diverse clinical populations seeking care in community-based hospital settings. Treatment barriers common to older adults suggest that telephone therapy may be an efficient and effective mental health resource for this population. This paper describes empirical studies of telehealth interventions and case examples with psychotherapy conducted via telephone on the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of the Palo Alto Veterans’ Administration. Telephone therapy as appears to be a viable intervention with the aging population.Keywords: telehealth, rural mental health, psychotherapy, healthcare delivery, telecare

  19. Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1(J-DOIT1, a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakane Naoki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM. To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach. The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1 is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. Methods For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Forty-three groups (clusters, formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups or control arm (21 clusters between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There

  20. Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1(J-DOIT1), a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach. The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. Methods For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. Results Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in

  1. Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1), a nationwide cluster randomized trial of type 2 diabetes prevention by telephone-delivered lifestyle support for high-risk subjects detected at health checkups: rationale, design, and recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakane, Naoki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sano, Yoshiko; Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Okazaki, Kentaro; Sato, Juichi; Suzuki, Sadao; Morita, Satoshi; Izumi, Kazuo; Kato, Masayuki; Ishizuka, Naoki; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Kuzuya, Hideshi

    2013-01-29

    Lifestyle modifications are considered the most effective means of delaying or preventing the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). To contain the growing population of T2DM, it is critical to clarify effective and efficient settings for intervention and modalities for intervention delivery with a wide population reach.The Japan Diabetes Outcome Intervention Trial-1 (J-DOIT1) is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test whether goal-focused lifestyle coaching delivered by telephone can prevent the development of T2DM in high-risk individuals in a real-world setting. This paper describes the study design and recruitment of the study subjects. For the recruitment of study subjects and their follow-up annually over 3 years, we employed health checkups conducted annually at communities and worksites. Health care divisions recruited from communities and companies across Japan formed groups as a cluster randomization unit. Candidates for the study, aged 20-65 years with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) of 5.6-6.9 mmol/l, were recruited from each group using health checkups results in 2006. Goal-focused lifestyle support is delivered by healthcare providers via telephone over a one-year period. Study subjects will be followed-up for three years by annual health checkups. Primary outcome is the development of diabetes defined as FPG≥7.0 mmol/l on annual health checkup or based on self-report, which is confirmed by referring to medical cards. Forty-three groups (clusters), formed from 17 health care divisions, were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (22 groups) or control arm (21 clusters) between March 2007 and February 2008. A total of 2840 participants, 1336 from the intervention and 1504 from the control arm, were recruited. Consent rate was about 20%, with no difference between the intervention and control arms. There were no differences in cluster size and characteristics of cluster between the groups. There were no differences in individual characteristics

  2. Exponential ratio-product type estimators under second order approximation in stratified random sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajesh; Sharma, Prayas; Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-01-01

    Singh et al (20009) introduced a family of exponential ratio and product type estimators in stratified random sampling. Under stratified random sampling without replacement scheme, the expressions of bias and mean square error (MSE) of Singh et al (2009) and some other estimators, up to the first- and second-order approximations are derived. Also, the theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example.

  3. Query-Based Sampling: Can we do Better than Random?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigelaar, A.S.; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2010-01-01

    Many servers on the web offer content that is only accessible via a search interface. These are part of the deep web. Using conventional crawling to index the content of these remote servers is impossible without some form of cooperation. Query-based sampling provides an alternative to crawling

  4. Telephone-based, cognitive-behavioral therapy for African American dementia caregivers with depression: initial findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glueckauf, Robert L; Davis, W Shuford; Willis, Floyd; Sharma, Dinesh; Gustafson, David J; Hayes, Jocelyn; Stutzman, Mary; Proctor, James; Kazmer, Michelle M; Murray, Leticia; Shipman, Judith; McIntyre, Vera; Wesley, Lonnie; Schettini, Gabriel; Xu, Jian; Parfitt, Francine; Graff-Radford, Neill; Baxter, Cynthia; Burnett, Kathleen; Noël, La Tonya; Haire, Kambria; Springer, Jane

    2012-05-01

    Discuss initial findings of a randomized clinical trial comparing the effects of telephone-based and face-to-face (f-to-f) cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) on changes in caregiver (CG) burden, assistance support, depression, and health status for African American (AA) CGs with depression. Pilot study using a prepost, two-group design with 14 enrolled and randomized participants. Subjective Burden subscale of the Caregiver Appraisal Inventory, Assistance Support subscale of the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, Physical Symptoms subscale of the Caregiver Health and Health Behavior Inventory and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Prepost improvements were found on 11 completers across all measures for both telephone and f-to-f CBT. Moderate and similar effects sizes for CG subjective burden and assistance support were found for both the telephone and f-to-f groups. Effect sizes for physical symptoms and depression varied from low to moderate, respectively, with a trend toward smaller improvements in f-to-f CBT than in telephone CBT. Qualitative analysis highlighted CGs' perceptions of the active ingredients of treatment and provided indirect support for similar gains in emotional and psychosocial functioning across the two treatment modalities. Both telephone-based and f-to-f CBT showed improvements in depression, subjective burden, and assistance support in dementia AA CGs. Replication with a larger sample size (N = 106) is currently in progress. Study limitations and future directions for research are also addressed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column and dimini......When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  6. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-08-12

    Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support via helplines and in other settings to help smokers quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for studies of telephone counselling, using search terms including 'hotlines' or 'quitline' or 'helpline'. Date of the most recent search: May 2013. randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. One author identified and data extracted trials, and a second author checked them. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio for abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We selected the strictest measure of abstinence, using biochemically validated rates where available. We considered participants lost to follow-up to be continuing smokers. Where trials had more than one arm with a less intensive intervention we used only the most similar intervention without the telephone component as the control group in the primary analysis. We assessed statistical heterogeneity amongst subgroups of clinically comparable studies using the I² statistic. We considered trials recruiting callers to quitlines separately from studies recruiting in other settings. Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. We used a meta-regression to investigate the effect of differences in planned number of calls, selection for motivation, and the nature of the control condition (self help only, minimal intervention, pharmacotherapy) in the group of studies recruiting in non-quitline settings. Seventy-seven trials met the inclusion criteria. Some trials were judged to be at risk of bias in some domains but overall we did not judge the results to be at high risk of bias. Among

  7. Parameter Estimation in Stratified Cluster Sampling under Randomized Response Models for Sensitive Question Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xiangke; Gao, Ge; Fan, Yubo; Wang, Mian

    2016-01-01

    Randomized response is a research method to get accurate answers to sensitive questions in structured sample survey. Simple random sampling is widely used in surveys of sensitive questions but hard to apply on large targeted populations. On the other side, more sophisticated sampling regimes and corresponding formulas are seldom employed to sensitive question surveys. In this work, we developed a series of formulas for parameter estimation in cluster sampling and stratified cluster sampling under two kinds of randomized response models by using classic sampling theories and total probability formulas. The performances of the sampling methods and formulas in the survey of premarital sex and cheating on exams at Soochow University were also provided. The reliability of the survey methods and formulas for sensitive question survey was found to be high.

  8. Parameter Estimation in Stratified Cluster Sampling under Randomized Response Models for Sensitive Question Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangke Pu

    Full Text Available Randomized response is a research method to get accurate answers to sensitive questions in structured sample survey. Simple random sampling is widely used in surveys of sensitive questions but hard to apply on large targeted populations. On the other side, more sophisticated sampling regimes and corresponding formulas are seldom employed to sensitive question surveys. In this work, we developed a series of formulas for parameter estimation in cluster sampling and stratified cluster sampling under two kinds of randomized response models by using classic sampling theories and total probability formulas. The performances of the sampling methods and formulas in the survey of premarital sex and cheating on exams at Soochow University were also provided. The reliability of the survey methods and formulas for sensitive question survey was found to be high.

  9. A Unified Approach to Power Calculation and Sample Size Determination for Random Regression Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2007-01-01

    The underlying statistical models for multiple regression analysis are typically attributed to two types of modeling: fixed and random. The procedures for calculating power and sample size under the fixed regression models are well known. However, the literature on random regression models is limited and has been confined to the case of all…

  10. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  11. A Family of Estimators of a Sensitive Variable Using Auxiliary Information in Stratified Random Sampling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nadia Mushtaq; Noor Ul Amin; Muhammad Hanif

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a combined general family of estimators is proposed for estimating finite population mean of a sensitive variable in stratified random sampling with non-sensitive auxiliary variable...

  12. Operating Room Telephone Microbial Flora

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Jason; Shinn, Antoinette M; Bivens, Ava

    2005-01-01

    ...) could be found on telephones in the Operating Room (OR). A total of 26 cultures were taken from telephones within 14 operating rooms and two sub-sterile rooms at a large, teaching, medical center...

  13. Testing survey methodology to measure patients' experiences and views of the emergency and urgent care system: telephone versus postal survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholl Jon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To address three methodological challenges when attempting to measure patients' experiences and views of a system of inter-related health services rather than a single service: the feasibility of a population survey for identifying system users, the optimal recall period for system use, and the mode of administration which is most feasible and representative in the context of routine measurement of system performance. Methods Postal survey of a random sample of 900 members of the general population and market research telephone survey of quota sample of 1000 members of the general population. Results Response rates to the postal and market research telephone population surveys were 51% (457 out of 893 receiving the questionnaire and 9% (1014 out of 11924 contactable telephone numbers respectively. Both surveys were able to identify users of the system in the previous three months: 22% (99/457 of postal and 15% (151/1000 of telephone survey respondents. For both surveys, recall of event occurrence reduced by a half after four weeks. The telephone survey more accurately estimated use of individual services within the system than the postal survey. Experiences and views of events remained reasonably stable over the three month recall time period for both modes of administration. Even though the response rate was lower, the telephone survey was more representative of the population, was faster and cheaper to undertake, and had fewer missing values. Conclusions It is possible to identify users of a health care system using a population survey. A recall period of three months can be used to estimate experiences and views but one month is more accurate for estimating use of the system. A quota sample market research telephone survey gives a low response rate yet is more representative and accurate than a postal survey of a random sample of the population.

  14. A New Estimator For Population Mean Using Two Auxiliary Variables in Stratified random Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Rajesh; Malik, Sachin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we suggest an estimator using two auxiliary variables in stratified random sampling. The propose estimator has an improvement over mean per unit estimator as well as some other considered estimators. Expressions for bias and MSE of the estimator are derived up to first degree of approximation. Moreover, these theoretical findings are supported by a numerical example with original data. Key words: Study variable, auxiliary variable, stratified random sampling, bias and mean squa...

  15. Conflict-cost based random sampling design for parallel MRI with low rank constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wan; Zhou, Yihang; Lyu, Jingyuan; Ying, Leslie

    2015-05-01

    In compressed sensing MRI, it is very important to design sampling pattern for random sampling. For example, SAKE (simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation) is a parallel MRI reconstruction method using random undersampling. It formulates image reconstruction as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. Variable density (VD) Poisson discs are typically adopted for 2D random sampling. The basic concept of Poisson disc generation is to guarantee samples are neither too close to nor too far away from each other. However, it is difficult to meet such a condition especially in the high density region. Therefore the sampling becomes inefficient. In this paper, we present an improved random sampling pattern for SAKE reconstruction. The pattern is generated based on a conflict cost with a probability model. The conflict cost measures how many dense samples already assigned are around a target location, while the probability model adopts the generalized Gaussian distribution which includes uniform and Gaussian-like distributions as special cases. Our method preferentially assigns a sample to a k-space location with the least conflict cost on the circle of the highest probability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed random pattern, we compare the performance of SAKEs using both VD Poisson discs and the proposed pattern. Experimental results for brain data show that the proposed pattern yields lower normalized mean square error (NMSE) than VD Poisson discs.

  16. Misrepresenting random sampling? A systematic review of research papers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R

    2003-11-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical limitations of the use of random sampling and probability theory in the production of a significance level (or P-value) in nursing research. Potential alternatives, in the form of randomization tests, are proposed. Research papers in nursing, medicine and psychology frequently misrepresent their statistical findings, as the P-values reported assume random sampling. In this systematic review of studies published between January 1995 and June 2002 in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, 89 (68%) studies broke this assumption because they used convenience samples or entire populations. As a result, some of the findings may be questionable. The key ideas of random sampling and probability theory for statistical testing (for generating a P-value) are outlined. The result of a systematic review of research papers published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing is then presented, showing how frequently random sampling appears to have been misrepresented. Useful alternative techniques that might overcome these limitations are then discussed. REVIEW LIMITATIONS: This review is limited in scope because it is applied to one journal, and so the findings cannot be generalized to other nursing journals or to nursing research in general. However, it is possible that other nursing journals are also publishing research articles based on the misrepresentation of random sampling. The review is also limited because in several of the articles the sampling method was not completely clearly stated, and in this circumstance a judgment has been made as to the sampling method employed, based on the indications given by author(s). Quantitative researchers in nursing should be very careful that the statistical techniques they use are appropriate for the design and sampling methods of their studies. If the techniques they employ are not appropriate, they run the risk of misinterpreting findings by using inappropriate, unrepresentative and biased samples.

  17. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Grande, Eleonora; Chittleborough, Catherine R; Campostrini, Stefano; Taylor, Anne W

    2016-04-18

    Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually), included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013). Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013) and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB) of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013): directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD) sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Telephone (landline and mobile) coverage in South Australia is very high (97%). Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4%), rising from 89.7% in 2006 to 96.3% in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431% over the eight year period from 5.2% in 2006 to 27.6% in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of -0.077) in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a mental health condition for both telephone samples. Current

  18. Bias of health estimates obtained from chronic disease and risk factor surveillance systems using telephone population surveys in Australia: results from a representative face-to-face survey in Australia from 2010 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Dal Grande

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Emerging communication technologies have had an impact on population-based telephone surveys worldwide. Our objective was to examine the potential biases of health estimates in South Australia, a state of Australia, obtained via current landline telephone survey methodologies and to report on the impact of mobile-only household on household surveys. Methods Data from an annual multi-stage, systematic, clustered area, face-to-face population survey, Health Omnibus Survey (approximately 3000 interviews annually, included questions about telephone ownership to assess the population that were non-contactable by current telephone sampling methods (2006 to 2013. Univariable analyses (2010 to 2013 and trend analyses were conducted for sociodemographic and health indicator variables in relation to telephone status. Relative coverage biases (RCB of two hypothetical telephone samples was undertaken by examining the prevalence estimates of health status and health risk behaviours (2010 to 2013: directory-listed numbers, consisting mainly of landline telephone numbers and a small proportion of mobile telephone numbers; and a random digit dialling (RDD sample of landline telephone numbers which excludes mobile-only households. Results Telephone (landline and mobile coverage in South Australia is very high (97 %. Mobile telephone ownership increased slightly (7.4 %, rising from 89.7 % in 2006 to 96.3 % in 2013; mobile-only households increased by 431 % over the eight year period from 5.2 % in 2006 to 27.6 % in 2013. Only half of the households have either a mobile or landline number listed in the telephone directory. There were small differences in the prevalence estimates for current asthma, arthritis, diabetes and obesity between the hypothetical telephone samples and the overall sample. However, prevalence estimate for diabetes was slightly underestimated (RCB value of −0.077 in 2013. Mixed RCB results were found for having a

  19. Comparison of kriging interpolation precision between grid sampling scheme and simple random sampling scheme for precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Houlong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sampling methods are important factors that can potentially limit the accuracy of predictions of spatial distribution patterns. A 10 ha tobacco-planted field was selected to compared the accuracy in predicting the spatial distribution of soil properties by using ordinary kriging and cross validation methods between grid sampling and simple random sampling scheme (SRS. To achieve this objective, we collected soil samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm in March 2012. Sample numbers of grid sampling and SRS were both 115 points each. Accuracies of spatial interpolation using the two sampling schemes were then evaluated based on validation samples (36 points and deviations of the estimates. The results suggested that soil pH and nitrate-N (NO3-N had low variation, whereas all other soil properties exhibited medium variation. Soil pH, organic matter (OM, total nitrogen (TN, cation exchange capacity (CEC, total phosphorus (TP and available phosphorus (AP matched the spherical model, whereas the remaining variables fit an exponential model with both sampling methods. The interpolation error of soil pH, TP, and AP was the lowest in SRS. The errors of interpolation for OM, CEC, TN, available potassium (AK and total potassium (TK were the lowest for grid sampling. The interpolation precisions of the soil NO3-N showed no significant differences between the two sampling schemes. Considering our data on interpolation precision and the importance of minerals for cultivation of flue-cured tobacco, the grid-sampling scheme should be used in tobacco-planted fields to determine the spatial distribution of soil properties. The grid-sampling method can be applied in a practical and cost-effective manner to facilitate soil sampling in tobacco-planted field.

  20. Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether low-intensity radiofrequency radiation damages the blood-brain barrier has long been debated, but little or no consideration has been given to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether long-term and/or short-term use of wireless telephones was associated with changes in the serum transthyretin level, indicating altered transthyretin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, possibly reflecting an effect of radiation. Methods One thousand subjects, 500 of each sex aged 18–65 years, were randomly recruited using the population registry. Data on wireless telephone use were assessed by a postal questionnaire and blood samples were analyzed for serum transthyretin concentrations determined by standard immunonephelometric techniques on a BN Prospec® instrument. Results The response rate was 31.4%. Logistic regression of dichotomized TTR serum levels with a cut-point of 0.31 g/l on wireless telephone use yielded increased odds ratios that were statistically not significant. Linear regression of time since first use overall and on the day that blood was withdrawn gave different results for males and females: for men significantly higher serum concentrations of TTR were seen the longer an analogue telephone or a mobile and cordless desktop telephone combined had been used, and in contrast, significantly lower serum levels were seen the longer an UMTS telephone had been used. Adjustment for fractions of use of the different telephone types did not modify the effect for cumulative use or years since first use for mobile telephone and DECT, combined. For women, linear regression gave a significant association for short-term use of mobile and cordless telephones combined, indicating that the sooner blood was withdrawn after the most recent telephone call, the higher the expected transthyretin concentration. Conclusion In this hypothesis-generating descriptive study time since first

  1. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Bette; Brotherton Julia ML; Shellard David; Donovan Basil; Saville Marion; Kaldor John M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell) phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. ...

  2. Combining Text Messaging and Telephone Counseling to Increase Varenicline Adherence and Smoking Abstinence Among Cigarette Smokers Living with HIV: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tuo-Yen; Krebs, Paul; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Wong, Selena; Sherman, Scott; Gonzalez, Mirelis; Urbina, Antonio; Cleland, Charles M; Shelley, Donna

    2017-07-01

    Smoking represents an important health risk for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Low adherence to smoking cessation pharmacotherapy may limit treatment effectiveness. In this study, 158 participants recruited from three HIV care centers in New York City were randomized to receive 12-weeks of varenicline (Chantix) either alone as standard care (SC) or in combination with text message (TM) support or TM plus cell phone-delivered adherence-focused motivational and behavioral therapy (ABT). Generalized linear mixed-effect models found a significant decline in varenicline adherence from week 1-12 across treatment groups. At 12-weeks, the probability of smoking abstinence was significantly higher in SC+TM+ABT than in SC. The study demonstrates the feasibility of delivering adherence-focused interventions to PLHIV who smoke. Findings suggest intensive behavioral support is an important component of an effective smoking cessation intervention for this population, and a focus on improving adherence self-efficacy may lead to more consistent adherence and higher smoking abstinence.

  3. Calculating sample sizes for cluster randomized trials: we can keep it simple and efficient !

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breukelen, Gerard J.P.; Candel, Math J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Simple guidelines for efficient sample sizes in cluster randomized trials with unknown intraclass correlation and varying cluster sizes. Methods: A simple equation is given for the optimal number of clusters and sample size per cluster. Here, optimal means maximizing power for a given

  4. Telephone-Based Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Mindy; Sanna, Rashel S; Adams, Sara R; Goler, Nancy C; Brown, Susan D; Neugebauer, Romain S; Ferrara, Assiamira; Wiley, Deanne M; Bellamy, David J; Schmittdiel, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Many Americans continue to smoke, increasing their risk of disease and premature death. Both telephone-based counseling and in-person tobacco cessation classes may improve access for smokers seeking convenient support to quit. Little research has assessed whether such programs are effective in real-world clinical populations. Retrospective cohort study comparing wellness coaching participants with two groups of controls. Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system. Two hundred forty-one patients who participated in telephonic tobacco cessation coaching from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, and two control groups: propensity-score-matched controls, and controls who participated in a tobacco cessation class during the same period. Wellness coaching participants received an average of two motivational interviewing-based coaching sessions that engaged the patient, evoked their reason to consider quitting, and helped them establish a quit plan. Self-reported quitting of tobacco and fills of tobacco cessation medications within 12 months of follow-up. Logistic regressions adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and primary language. After adjusting for confounders, tobacco quit rates were higher among coaching participants vs. matched controls (31% vs. 23%, p Coaching participants and class attendees filled tobacco-cessation prescriptions at a higher rate (47% for both) than matched controls (6%, p coaching was as effective as in-person classes and was associated with higher rates of quitting compared to no treatment. The telephonic modality may increase convenience and scalability for health care systems looking to reduce tobacco use and improve health.

  5. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  6. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  7. Effectiveness of a mHealth Lifestyle Program With Telephone Support (TXT2BFiT) to Prevent Unhealthy Weight Gain in Young Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partridge, Stephanie R; McGeechan, Kevin; Hebden, Lana; Balestracci, Kate; Wong, Annette Ty; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth; Harris, Mark F; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Bauman, Adrian; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-06-15

    Weight gained in young adulthood often persists throughout later life with associated chronic disease risk. Despite this, current population prevention strategies are not specifically designed for young adults. We designed and assessed the efficacy of an mHealth prevention program, TXT2BFiT, in preventing excess weight gain and improving dietary and physical activity behaviors in young adults at increased risk of obesity and unhealthy lifestyle choices. A two-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Subjects and analyzing researchers were blinded. A total of 250 18- to 35-year-olds with a high risk of weight gain, a body mass index (BMI) of 23.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2) with at least 2 kg of weight gain in the previous 12 months, or a BMI of 25.0 to 31.9 kg/m(2) were randomized to the intervention or control group. In the 12-week intervention period, the intervention group received 8 text messages weekly based on the transtheoretical model of behavior change, 1 email weekly, 5 personalized coaching calls, a diet booklet, and access to resources and mobile phone apps on a website. Control group participants received only 4 text messages and printed dietary and physical activity guidelines. Measured body weight and height were collected at baseline and at 12 weeks. Outcomes were assessed via online surveys at baseline and at 12 weeks, including self-reported weight and dietary and physical activity measures. A total of 214 participants-110 intervention and 104 control-completed the 12-week intervention period. A total of 10 participants out of 250 (4.0%)-10 intervention and 0 control-dropped out, and 26 participants (10.4%)-5 intervention and 21 control-did not complete postintervention online surveys. Adherence to coaching calls and delivery of text messages was over 90%. At 12 weeks, the intervention group were 2.2 kg (95% CI 0.8-3.6) lighter than controls (P=.005). Intervention participants consumed more vegetables (P=.009), fewer sugary soft drinks

  8. Economic evaluation of a weight control program with e-mail and telephone counseling among overweight employees: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wier, Marieke F; Dekkers, J Caroline; Bosmans, Judith E; Heymans, Martijn W; Hendriksen, Ingrid Jm; Pronk, Nicolaas P; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2012-09-11

    Distance lifestyle counseling for weight control is a promising public health intervention in the work setting. Information about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking, but necessary to make informed implementation decisions. The purpose of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of a six-month program with lifestyle counseling aimed at weight reduction in an overweight working population with a two-year time horizon from a societal perspective. A randomized controlled trial comparing a program with two modes of intervention delivery against self-help. 1386 Employees from seven companies participated (67% male, mean age 43 (SD 8.6) years, mean BMI 29.6 (SD 3.5) kg/m2). All groups received self-directed lifestyle brochures. The two intervention groups additionally received a workbook-based program with phone counseling (phone; n=462) or a web-based program with e-mail counseling (internet; n=464). Body weight was measured at baseline and 24 months after baseline. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D) was assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. Resource use was measured with six-monthly diaries and valued with Dutch standard costs. Missing data were multiply imputed. Uncertainty around differences in costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated by applying non-parametric bootstrapping techniques and graphically plotting the results in cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. At two years the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €1009/kg weight loss in the phone group and €16/kg weight loss in the internet group. The cost-utility analysis resulted in €245,243/quality adjusted life year (QALY) and €1337/QALY, respectively. The results from a complete-case analysis were slightly more favorable. However, there was considerable uncertainty around all outcomes. Neither intervention mode was proven to be cost-effective compared to self-help.

  9. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  10. Economic evaluation of a weight control program with e-mail and telephone counseling among overweight employees: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Wier Marieke F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distance lifestyle counseling for weight control is a promising public health intervention in the work setting. Information about the cost-effectiveness of such interventions is lacking, but necessary to make informed implementation decisions. The purpose of this study was to perform an economic evaluation of a six-month program with lifestyle counseling aimed at weight reduction in an overweight working population with a two-year time horizon from a societal perspective. Methods A randomized controlled trial comparing a program with two modes of intervention delivery against self-help. 1386 Employees from seven companies participated (67% male, mean age 43 (SD 8.6 years, mean BMI 29.6 (SD 3.5 kg/m2. All groups received self-directed lifestyle brochures. The two intervention groups additionally received a workbook-based program with phone counseling (phone; n=462 or a web-based program with e-mail counseling (internet; n=464. Body weight was measured at baseline and 24 months after baseline. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D was assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. Resource use was measured with six-monthly diaries and valued with Dutch standard costs. Missing data were multiply imputed. Uncertainty around differences in costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios was estimated by applying non-parametric bootstrapping techniques and graphically plotting the results in cost-effectiveness planes and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Results At two years the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was €1009/kg weight loss in the phone group and €16/kg weight loss in the internet group. The cost-utility analysis resulted in €245,243/quality adjusted life year (QALY and €1337/QALY, respectively. The results from a complete-case analysis were slightly more favorable. However, there was considerable uncertainty around all outcomes. Conclusions Neither intervention mode was proven to be cost

  11. Stratified random sampling for estimating billing accuracy in health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhakulsomsiri, Jirachai; Parthanadee, Parthana

    2008-03-01

    This paper presents a stratified random sampling plan for estimating accuracy of bill processing performance for the health care bills submitted to third party payers in health care systems. Bill processing accuracy is estimated with two measures: percent accuracy and total dollar accuracy. Difficulties in constructing a sampling plan arise when the population strata structure is unknown, and when the two measures require different sampling schemes. To efficiently utilize sample resource, the sampling plan is designed to effectively estimate both measures from the same sample. The sampling plan features a simple but efficient strata construction method, called rectangular method, and two accuracy estimation methods, one for each measure. The sampling plan is tested on actual populations from an insurance company. Accuracy estimates obtained are then used to compare the rectangular method to other potential clustering methods for strata construction, and compare the accuracy estimation methods to other eligible methods. Computational study results show effectiveness of the proposed sampling plan.

  12. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  13. [COOP/WONCA: Reliability and validity of the test administered by telephone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The COOP/WONCA test was initially proposed as a self-report in which the answers were supported by drawings illustrating the state investigated. Subsequent studies have confirmed its usefulness as a mere verbal self-report face-to-face administered. No data have been found about its useful when administered by telephone interview. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the COOP / WONCA test to measure Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) administered by telephone and compare them with those obtained in other forms of prior administration. Cross-sectional study on a random. City of Madrid. Random sample of 802 adult subjects, representative of the adult population in Madrid, obtained by stratification from the population census. Questionnaire COOP/WONCA with 9 ítems included in a broader battery, administered by telephone interview. The unrestricted factor analysis points to the unifactoriality of the scale, which measures a single latent construct (HRQOL), showing high internal consistency, not significantly different from those found by face-to-face administration, ruling out the existence of biases in the phone modality. The COOP/WONCA test appears as a reliable and valid measure of HRQOL and telephonic administration allows to assume no changes in the results, which can reduce costs in population studies, increasing efficiency without loss of quality in the information collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Random Walks on Directed Networks: Inference and Respondent-driven Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Malmros, Jens; Britton, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a method often used to estimate population properties (e.g. sexual risk behavior) in hard-to-reach populations. It combines an effective modified snowball sampling methodology with an estimation procedure that yields unbiased population estimates under the assumption that the sampling process behaves like a random walk on the social network of the population. Current RDS estimation methodology assumes that the social network is undirected, i.e. that all edges are reciprocal. However, empirical social networks in general also have non-reciprocated edges. To account for this fact, we develop a new estimation method for RDS in the presence of directed edges on the basis of random walks on directed networks. We distinguish directed and undirected edges and consider the possibility that the random walk returns to its current position in two steps through an undirected edge. We derive estimators of the selection probabilities of individuals as a function of the number of outgoing...

  15. Feasibility Study of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Telephone-Delivered Problem Solving-Occupational Therapy Intervention to Reduce Participation Restrictions in Rural Breast Cancer Survivors Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T.; Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. Methods A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem Solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n=15) and Usual Care (n=16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Results Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. Conclusion This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. PMID:20821373

  16. Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered problem-solving-occupational therapy intervention to reduce participation restrictions in rural breast cancer survivors undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem-solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n = 15) and usual care (n = 16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life, and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Effects of a Telephone- and Web-based Coping Skills Training Program Compared to an Education Program for Survivors of Critical Illness and Their Family Members: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Christopher E; Hough, Catherine L; Carson, Shannon S; White, Douglas B; Kahn, Jeremy M; Olsen, Maren K; Jones, Derek M; Somers, Tamara J; Kelleher, Sarah A; Porter, Laura S

    2017-09-05

    Many survivors of critical illness and their family members experience significant psychological distress after discharge. To compare effects of a coping skills training (CST) program with an education program on patient and family psychological distress. In this 5-center clinical trial, adult patients who received mechanical ventilation >48 hours and one family member of each patient were randomized to six weekly CST telephone sessions plus access to a study website or a critical illness education program. The primary outcome was the patient Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes included 3- and 6-month HADS subscales and the Impact of Events Scale-Revised. Among the 175 patients randomized to CST (n=86) or education (n=89), there was no significant difference between CST and education in either 3-month HADS scores (difference 1.3 [95% CI: -0.9, 3.4], p=0.24) or secondary patient and family outcomes. In pre-specified analyses, among patients with high baseline distress (n=60), CST recipients had greater improvement in 6-month HADS score (difference -4.6, [95% CI: -8.6, -0.6], p=0.02) than education. Among patients ventilated >7 days (n=47), education recipients had greater improvement in 3-month HADS score (difference -4.0 [95% CI: -8.1,-0.05] p=0.047) than CST. CST did not improve psychological distress symptoms compared to an education program. However, CST improved symptoms of distress at 6 months among patients with high baseline distress while the education program improved distress at 3 months among those ventilated for >7 days. Future efforts to address psychological distress among critical illness survivors should target high-risk populations. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT0198325.

  18. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  19. Estimation of Sensitive Proportion by Randomized Response Data in Successive Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of estimation for binomial proportions of sensitive or stigmatizing attributes in the population of interest. Randomized response techniques are suggested for protecting the privacy of respondents and reducing the response bias while eliciting information on sensitive attributes. In many sensitive question surveys, the same population is often sampled repeatedly on each occasion. In this paper, we apply successive sampling scheme to improve the estimation of the sensitive proportion on current occasion.

  20. Random sampling of elementary flux modes in large-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniel; Soons, Zita; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel

    2012-09-15

    The description of a metabolic network in terms of elementary (flux) modes (EMs) provides an important framework for metabolic pathway analysis. However, their application to large networks has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion in the number of modes. In this work, we develop a method for generating random samples of EMs without computing the whole set. Our algorithm is an adaptation of the canonical basis approach, where we add an additional filtering step which, at each iteration, selects a random subset of the new combinations of modes. In order to obtain an unbiased sample, all candidates are assigned the same probability of getting selected. This approach avoids the exponential growth of the number of modes during computation, thus generating a random sample of the complete set of EMs within reasonable time. We generated samples of different sizes for a metabolic network of Escherichia coli, and observed that they preserve several properties of the full EM set. It is also shown that EM sampling can be used for rational strain design. A well distributed sample, that is representative of the complete set of EMs, should be suitable to most EM-based methods for analysis and optimization of metabolic networks. Source code for a cross-platform implementation in Python is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/emsampler. dmachado@deb.uminho.pt Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  1. Power and sample size calculations for Mendelian randomization studies using one genetic instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Guy; Cowling, Benjamin J; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-08-01

    Mendelian randomization, which is instrumental variable analysis using genetic variants as instruments, is an increasingly popular method of making causal inferences from observational studies. In order to design efficient Mendelian randomization studies, it is essential to calculate the sample sizes required. We present formulas for calculating the power of a Mendelian randomization study using one genetic instrument to detect an effect of a given size, and the minimum sample size required to detect effects for given levels of significance and power, using asymptotic statistical theory. We apply the formulas to some example data and compare the results with those from simulation methods. Power and sample size calculations using these formulas should be more straightforward to carry out than simulation approaches. These formulas make explicit that the sample size needed for Mendelian randomization study is inversely proportional to the square of the correlation between the genetic instrument and the exposure and proportional to the residual variance of the outcome after removing the effect of the exposure, as well as inversely proportional to the square of the effect size.

  2. Sampling versus Random Binning for Multiple Descriptions of a Bandlimited Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mashiach, Adam; Østergaard, Jan; Zamir, Ram

    2013-01-01

    Random binning is an efficient, yet complex, coding technique for the symmetric L-description source coding problem. We propose an alternative approach, that uses the quantized samples of a bandlimited source as "descriptions". By the Nyquist condition, the source can be reconstructed if enough s...

  3. Recidivism among Child Sexual Abusers: Initial Results of a 13-Year Longitudinal Random Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Steven; Marsh, Robert

    2009-01-01

    In the initial analysis of data from a random sample of all those charged with child sexual abuse in Idaho over a 13-year period, only one predictive variable was found that related to recidivism of those convicted. Variables such as ethnicity, relationship, gender, and age differences did not show a significant or even large association with…

  4. HABITAT ASSESSMENT USING A RANDOM PROBABILITY BASED SAMPLING DESIGN: ESCAMBIA RIVER DELTA, FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa M., Darrin D. Dantin and Steve Jordan. In press. Habitat Assessment Using a Random Probability Based Sampling Design: Escambia River Delta, Florida (Abstract). To be presented at the SWS/GERS Fall Joint Society Meeting: Communication and Collaboration: Coastal Systems...

  5. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  6. Flexible sampling large-scale social networks by self-adjustable random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Ke; Zhu, Jonathan J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Online social networks (OSNs) have become an increasingly attractive gold mine for academic and commercial researchers. However, research on OSNs faces a number of difficult challenges. One bottleneck lies in the massive quantity and often unavailability of OSN population data. Sampling perhaps becomes the only feasible solution to the problems. How to draw samples that can represent the underlying OSNs has remained a formidable task because of a number of conceptual and methodological reasons. Especially, most of the empirically-driven studies on network sampling are confined to simulated data or sub-graph data, which are fundamentally different from real and complete-graph OSNs. In the current study, we propose a flexible sampling method, called Self-Adjustable Random Walk (SARW), and test it against with the population data of a real large-scale OSN. We evaluate the strengths of the sampling method in comparison with four prevailing methods, including uniform, breadth-first search (BFS), random walk (RW), and revised RW (i.e., MHRW) sampling. We try to mix both induced-edge and external-edge information of sampled nodes together in the same sampling process. Our results show that the SARW sampling method has been able to generate unbiased samples of OSNs with maximal precision and minimal cost. The study is helpful for the practice of OSN research by providing a highly needed sampling tools, for the methodological development of large-scale network sampling by comparative evaluations of existing sampling methods, and for the theoretical understanding of human networks by highlighting discrepancies and contradictions between existing knowledge/assumptions of large-scale real OSN data.

  7. Sample size calculations for micro-randomized trials in mHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Peng; Klasnja, Predrag; Tewari, Ambuj; Murphy, Susan A

    2016-05-30

    The use and development of mobile interventions are experiencing rapid growth. In "just-in-time" mobile interventions, treatments are provided via a mobile device, and they are intended to help an individual make healthy decisions 'in the moment,' and thus have a proximal, near future impact. Currently, the development of mobile interventions is proceeding at a much faster pace than that of associated data science methods. A first step toward developing data-based methods is to provide an experimental design for testing the proximal effects of these just-in-time treatments. In this paper, we propose a 'micro-randomized' trial design for this purpose. In a micro-randomized trial, treatments are sequentially randomized throughout the conduct of the study, with the result that each participant may be randomized at the 100s or 1000s of occasions at which a treatment might be provided. Further, we develop a test statistic for assessing the proximal effect of a treatment as well as an associated sample size calculator. We conduct simulation evaluations of the sample size calculator in various settings. Rules of thumb that might be used in designing a micro-randomized trial are discussed. This work is motivated by our collaboration on the HeartSteps mobile application designed to increase physical activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    somatization symptoms (OR = 6.28, 95% CI = 1.39-28.46). CONCLUSIONS: Unskilled manual workers, the unemployed, and, to a lesser extent, the low-grade self-employed showed an increased level of mental distress. Activities to promote mental health in the Danish population should be directed toward these groups.......PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  9. Assessment of proteinuria by using protein: creatinine index in random urine sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Dilshad Ahmed; Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood; Qureshil, Ayaz Hussain; Halim, Abdul; Ahmad, Mumtaz; Afzal, Saeed

    2005-10-01

    To assess the quantitative measurement of proteinuria by using random urine protein:creatinine index/ratio in comparison with 24 hours urinary protein excretion in patients of renal diseases having normal glomerular filtration rate. One hundred and thirty patients, 94 males and 36 females, with an age range of 5 to 60 years; having proteinuria of more than 150 mg/day were included in this study. Qualitative urinary protein estimation was done on random urine specimen by dipstick. Quantitative measurement of protein in the random and 24 hours urine specimens were carried out by a method based on the formation of a red complex of protein with pyrogallal red in acid medium on Micro lab 200 (Merck). Estimation of creatinine was done on Selectra -2 (Merck) by Jaffe's reaction. The urine protein:creatinine index and ratio were calculated by dividing the urine protein concentration (mg/L) by urine creatinine concentration (mmol/L) multilplied by 10 and mg/mg respectively. The protein:creatinine index and ratio of more than 140 and 0.18 respectively in a random urine sample indicated pathological proteinuria. An excellent correlation (r=0.96) was found between random urine protein:creatinine index/ratio and standard 24 hours urinary protein excretion in these patients (pprotein:creatinine index in random urine is a convenient, quick and reliable method of estimation of proteinuria as compared to 24 hours of urinary protein excretion for diagnosis and monitoring of renal diseases in our medical setup.

  10. Generalized essential energy space random walks to more effectively accelerate solute sampling in aqueous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Zheng, Lianqing; Yang, Wei

    2012-01-28

    Molecular dynamics sampling can be enhanced via the promoting of potential energy fluctuations, for instance, based on a Hamiltonian modified with the addition of a potential-energy-dependent biasing term. To overcome the diffusion sampling issue, which reveals the fact that enlargement of event-irrelevant energy fluctuations may abolish sampling efficiency, the essential energy space random walk (EESRW) approach was proposed earlier. To more effectively accelerate the sampling of solute conformations in aqueous environment, in the current work, we generalized the EESRW method to a two-dimension-EESRW (2D-EESRW) strategy. Specifically, the essential internal energy component of a focused region and the essential interaction energy component between the focused region and the environmental region are employed to define the two-dimensional essential energy space. This proposal is motivated by the general observation that in different conformational events, the two essential energy components have distinctive interplays. Model studies on the alanine dipeptide and the aspartate-arginine peptide demonstrate sampling improvement over the original one-dimension-EESRW strategy; with the same biasing level, the present generalization allows more effective acceleration of the sampling of conformational transitions in aqueous solution. The 2D-EESRW generalization is readily extended to higher dimension schemes and employed in more advanced enhanced-sampling schemes, such as the recent orthogonal space random walk method. © 2012 American Institute of Physics

  11. Multilayer pixel super-resolution lensless in-line holographic microscope with random sample movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Feng, Shaodong; Wu, Jigang

    2017-10-06

    We report a multilayer lensless in-line holographic microscope (LIHM) with improved imaging resolution by using the pixel super-resolution technique and random sample movement. In our imaging system, a laser beam illuminated the sample and a CMOS imaging sensor located behind the sample recorded the in-line hologram for image reconstruction. During the imaging process, the sample was moved by hand randomly and the in-line holograms were acquired sequentially. Then the sample image was reconstructed from an enhanced-resolution hologram obtained from multiple low-resolution in-line holograms by applying the pixel super-resolution (PSR) technique. We studied the resolution enhancement effects by using the U.S. Air Force (USAF) target as the sample in numerical simulation and experiment. We also showed that multilayer pixel super-resolution images can be obtained by imaging a triple-layer sample made with the filamentous algae on the middle layer and microspheres with diameter of 2 μm on the top and bottom layers. Our pixel super-resolution LIHM provides a compact and low-cost solution for microscopic imaging and is promising for many biomedical applications.

  12. The Efficacy of Internet-Based Mindfulness Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Training With Telephone Support in the Enhancement of Mental Health Among College Students and Young Working Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie Ws; Chio, Floria Hn; Chan, Amy Ty; Lui, Wacy Ws; Wu, Ellery Ky

    2017-03-22

    College students and working adults are particularly vulnerable to stress and other mental health problems, and mental health promotion and prevention are needed to promote their mental health. In recent decades, mindfulness-based training has demonstrated to be efficacious in treating physical and psychological conditions. The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) in comparison with the well-established Internet-based cognitive-behavioral training program (iCBT) in promoting mental health among college students and young working adults. This study was a 2-arm, unblinded, randomized controlled trial comparing iMIND with iCBT. Participants were recruited online and offline via mass emails, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, announcement and leaflets in primary care clinics, and social networking sites. Eligible participants were randomized into either the iMIND (n=604) or the iCBT (n=651) condition. Participants received 8 Web-based sessions with information and exercises related to mindfulness or cognitive-behavioral principles. Telephone or email support was provided by trained first tier supporters who were supervised by the study's research team. Primary outcomes included mental and physical health-related measures, which were self-assessed online at preprogram, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up. Among the 1255 study participants, 213 and 127 completed the post- and 3-month follow-up assessment, respectively. Missing data were treated using restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Both iMIND (n=604) and iCBT (n=651) were efficacious in improving mental health, psychological distress, life satisfaction, sleep disturbance, and energy level. Both Internet-based mental health programs showed potential in improving the mental health from pre- to postassessment, and such improvement was sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The high attrition rate in this study suggests the need for refinement

  13. Randomized controlled trials 5: Determining the sample size and power for clinical trials and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Performing well-powered randomized controlled trials is of fundamental importance in clinical research. The goal of sample size calculations is to assure that statistical power is acceptable while maintaining a small probability of a type I error. This chapter overviews the fundamentals of sample size calculation for standard types of outcomes for two-group studies. It considers (1) the problems of determining the size of the treatment effect that the studies will be designed to detect, (2) the modifications to sample size calculations to account for loss to follow-up and nonadherence, (3) the options when initial calculations indicate that the feasible sample size is insufficient to provide adequate power, and (4) the implication of using multiple primary endpoints. Sample size estimates for longitudinal cohort studies must take account of confounding by baseline factors.

  14. Characterization of Electron Microscopes with Binary Pseudo-random Multilayer Test Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V Yashchuk; R Conley; E Anderson; S Barber; N Bouet; W McKinney; P Takacs; D Voronov

    2011-12-31

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1] and [2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  15. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V., E-mail: VVYashchuk@lbl.gov [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Conley, Raymond [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Anderson, Erik H. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Barber, Samuel K. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bouet, Nathalie [NSLS-II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); McKinney, Wayne R. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Takacs, Peter Z. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Voronov, Dmitriy L. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi{sub 2}/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  16. Accounting for Sampling Error in Genetic Eigenvalues Using Random Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Blows, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of genetic variance in multivariate phenotypes is characterized by the empirical spectral distribution of the eigenvalues of the genetic covariance matrix. Empirical estimates of genetic eigenvalues from random effects linear models are known to be overdispersed by sampling error, where large eigenvalues are biased upward, and small eigenvalues are biased downward. The overdispersion of the leading eigenvalues of sample covariance matrices have been demonstrated to conform to the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution. Here we show that genetic eigenvalues estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) in a multivariate random effects model with an unconstrained genetic covariance structure will also conform to the TW distribution after empirical scaling and centering. However, where estimation procedures using either REML or MCMC impose boundary constraints, the resulting genetic eigenvalues tend not be TW distributed. We show how using confidence intervals from sampling distributions of genetic eigenvalues without reference to the TW distribution is insufficient protection against mistaking sampling error as genetic variance, particularly when eigenvalues are small. By scaling such sampling distributions to the appropriate TW distribution, the critical value of the TW statistic can be used to determine if the magnitude of a genetic eigenvalue exceeds the sampling error for each eigenvalue in the spectral distribution of a given genetic covariance matrix. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. On analysis-based two-step interpolation methods for randomly sampled seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengliang; Gao, Jinghuai; Chen, Wenchao

    2013-02-01

    Interpolating the missing traces of regularly or irregularly sampled seismic record is an exceedingly important issue in the geophysical community. Many modern acquisition and reconstruction methods are designed to exploit the transform domain sparsity of the few randomly recorded but informative seismic data using thresholding techniques. In this paper, to regularize randomly sampled seismic data, we introduce two accelerated, analysis-based two-step interpolation algorithms, the analysis-based FISTA (fast iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm) and the FPOCS (fast projection onto convex sets) algorithm from the IST (iterative shrinkage-thresholding) algorithm and the POCS (projection onto convex sets) algorithm. A MATLAB package is developed for the implementation of these thresholding-related interpolation methods. Based on this package, we compare the reconstruction performance of these algorithms, using synthetic and real seismic data. Combined with several thresholding strategies, the accelerated convergence of the proposed methods is also highlighted.

  18. Hemodynamic and glucometabolic factors fail to predict renal function in a random population sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, M.; Nielsen, M.; Olesen, Thomas Bastholm

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether baseline hemodynamic and/or glucometabolic risk factors could predict renal function at follow-up, independently of baseline serum creatinine, in survivors from a random population sample. Design and method: We examined associations between baseline serum creatinine...... indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-2B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-2S), and insulin resistance (HOMA-2IR)), traditional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, smoking status, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, total serum cholesterol), and later renal function determined as serum cystatin C in 238 men...... and 7 women aged 38 to 49 years at the time of inclusion, using multivariable linear regression analysis (p-entry 0.05, p-removal 0.20). Study subjects came from a random population based sample and were included 1974-1992, whilst the follow-up with cystatin C measurement was performed 2002...

  19. An inversion method based on random sampling for real-time MEG neuroimaging

    CERN Document Server

    Pascarella, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    The MagnetoEncephaloGraphy (MEG) has gained great interest in neurorehabilitation training due to its high temporal resolution. The challenge is to localize the active regions of the brain in a fast and accurate way. In this paper we use an inversion method based on random spatial sampling to solve the real-time MEG inverse problem. Several numerical tests on synthetic but realistic data show that the method takes just a few hundredths of a second on a laptop to produce an accurate map of the electric activity inside the brain. Moreover, it requires very little memory storage. For this reasons the random sampling method is particularly attractive in real-time MEG applications.

  20. Modified Exponential Type Estimator for Population Mean Using Auxiliary Variables in Stratified Random Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Özel, Gamze

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a new exponential type estimator is developed in the stratified random sampling for the population mean using auxiliary variable information. In order to evaluate efficiency of the introduced estimator, we first review some estimators and study the optimum property of the suggested strategy. To judge the merits of the suggested class of estimators over others under the optimal condition, simulation study and real data applications are conducted. The results show that the introduc...

  1. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community

    OpenAIRE

    Ubheeram, J.; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective. The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Methods. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Results. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial gro...

  2. Control Capacity and A Random Sampling Method in Exploring Controllability of Complex Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Tao; Barab?si, Albert-L?szl?

    2013-01-01

    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. Thi...

  3. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  4. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  5. Determining optimal sample sizes for multi-stage randomized clinical trials using value of information methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew; Kowgier, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Traditional sample size calculations for randomized clinical trials depend on somewhat arbitrarily chosen factors, such as Type I and II errors. An effectiveness trial (otherwise known as a pragmatic trial or management trial) is essentially an effort to inform decision-making, i.e., should treatment be adopted over standard? Taking a societal perspective and using Bayesian decision theory, Willan and Pinto (Stat. Med. 2005; 24:1791-1806 and Stat. Med. 2006; 25:720) show how to determine the sample size that maximizes the expected net gain, i.e., the difference between the cost of doing the trial and the value of the information gained from the results. These methods are extended to include multi-stage adaptive designs, with a solution given for a two-stage design. The methods are applied to two examples. As demonstrated by the two examples, substantial increases in the expected net gain (ENG) can be realized by using multi-stage adaptive designs based on expected value of information methods. In addition, the expected sample size and total cost may be reduced. Exact solutions have been provided for the two-stage design. Solutions for higher-order designs may prove to be prohibitively complex and approximate solutions may be required. The use of multi-stage adaptive designs for randomized clinical trials based on expected value of sample information methods leads to substantial gains in the ENG and reductions in the expected sample size and total cost.

  6. Sample size calculations for pilot randomized trials: a confidence interval approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocks, Kim; Torgerson, David J

    2013-02-01

    To describe a method using confidence intervals (CIs) to estimate the sample size for a pilot randomized trial. Using one-sided CIs and the estimated effect size that would be sought in a large trial, we calculated the sample size needed for pilot trials. Using an 80% one-sided CI, we estimated that a pilot trial should have at least 9% of the sample size of the main planned trial. Using the estimated effect size difference for the main trial and using a one-sided CI, this allows us to calculate a sample size for a pilot trial, which will make its results more useful than at present. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Kimi; Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2011-01-27

    Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC) during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to common practice (CP). We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951). Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working mothers; therefore, implementation is not indicated. The cost

  8. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Poppel Mireille NM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to common practice (CP. Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951. Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working

  9. Mobile.net: Mobile Telephone Text Messages to Encourage Adherence to Medication and to Follow up With People With Psychosis: Methods and Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Two-Armed Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Välimäki, Maritta; Hätönen, Heli; Adams, Clive E

    2012-08-02

    Schizophrenia is a high-cost, chronic, serious mental illness. There is a clear need to improve treatments and expand access to care for persons with schizophrenia, but simple, tailored interventions are missing. To evaluate the impact of tailored mobile telephone text messages to encourage adherence to medication and to follow up with people with psychosis at 12 months. Mobile.Net is a pragmatic randomized trial with inpatient psychiatric wards allocated to two parallel arms. The trial will include 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospital wards providing inpatient care in Finland. The participants will be adult patients aged 18-65 years, of either sex, with antipsychotic medication (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification 2011) on discharge from a psychiatric hospital, who have a mobile phone, are able to use the Finnish language, and are able to give written informed consent to participate in the study. The intervention group will receive semiautomatic system (short message service [SMS]) messages after they have been discharged from the psychiatric hospital. Patients will choose the form, content, timing, and frequency of the SMS messages related to their medication, keeping appointments, and other daily care. SMS messages will continue to the end of the study period (12 months) or until participants no longer want to receive the messages. Patients will be encouraged to contact researchers if they feel that they need to adjust the message in any way. At all times, both groups will receive usual care at the discretion of their team (psychiatry and nursing). The primary outcomes are service use and healthy days by 12 months based on routine data (admission to a psychiatric hospital, time to next hospitalization, time in hospital during this year, and healthy days). The secondary outcomes are service use, coercive measures, medication, adverse events, satisfaction with care, the intervention, and the trial, social functioning, and economic factors. Data will be

  10. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Karbasi, Amin; Crawford, Forrest W

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V, E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W ⊆ V and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios.

  11. Nicotine therapy sampling to induce quit attempts among smokers unmotivated to quit: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Matthew J; Hughes, John R; Gray, Kevin M; Wahlquist, Amy E; Saladin, Michael E; Alberg, Anthony J

    2011-11-28

    Rates of smoking cessation have not changed in a decade, accentuating the need for novel approaches to prompt quit attempts. Within a nationwide randomized clinical trial (N = 849) to induce further quit attempts and cessation, smokers currently unmotivated to quit were randomized to a practice quit attempt (PQA) alone or to nicotine replacement therapy (hereafter referred to as nicotine therapy), sampling within the context of a PQA. Following a 6-week intervention period, participants were followed up for 6 months to assess outcomes. The PQA intervention was designed to increase motivation, confidence, and coping skills. The combination of a PQA plus nicotine therapy sampling added samples of nicotine lozenges to enhance attitudes toward pharmacotherapy and to promote the use of additional cessation resources. Primary outcomes included the incidence of any ever occurring self-defined quit attempt and 24-hour quit attempt. Secondary measures included 7-day point prevalence abstinence at any time during the study (ie, floating abstinence) and at the final follow-up assessment. Compared with PQA intervention, nicotine therapy sampling was associated with a significantly higher incidence of any quit attempt (49% vs 40%; relative risk [RR], 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) and any 24-hour quit attempt (43% vs 34%; 1.3; 1.1-1.5). Nicotine therapy sampling was marginally more likely to promote floating abstinence (19% vs 15%; RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7); 6-month point prevalence abstinence rates were no different between groups (16% vs 14%; 1.2; 0.9-1.6). Nicotine therapy sampling during a PQA represents a novel strategy to motivate smokers to make a quit attempt. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00706979.

  12. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  13. ESTIMATION OF FINITE POPULATION MEAN USING RANDOM NON–RESPONSE IN SURVEY SAMPLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housila P. Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consider the problem of estimating the population mean under three different situations of random non–response envisaged by Singh et al (2000. Some ratio and product type estimators have been proposed and their properties are studied under an assumption that the number of sampling units on which information can not be obtained owing to random non–response follows some distribution. The suggested estimators are compared with the usual ratio and product estimators. An empirical study is carried out to show the performance of the suggested estimators over usual unbiased estimator, ratio and product estimators. A generalized version of the proposed ratio and product estimators is also given.

  14. Chi-Squared Test of Fit and Sample Size-A Comparison between a Random Sample Approach and a Chi-Square Value Adjustment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergh, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.

  15. Randomized controlled trial on timing and number of sampling for bile aspiration cytology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Ebata, Tomoki; Igami, Tsuyoshi; Sugawara, Gen; Kato, Katsuyuki; Shimoyama, Yoshie; Nagino, Masato

    2014-06-01

    The issue on timing and number of bile sampling for exfoliative bile cytology is still unsettled. A total of 100 patients with cholangiocarcinoma undergoing resection after external biliary drainage were randomized into two groups: a 2-day group where bile was sampled five times per day for 2 days; and a 10-day group where bile was sampled once per day for 10 days (registered University Hospital Medical Information Network/ID 000005983). The outcome of 87 patients who underwent laparotomy was analyzed, 44 in the 2-day group and 43 in the 10-day group. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between the two groups. Positivity after one sampling session was significantly lower in the 2-day group than in the 10-day group (17.0 ± 3.7% vs. 20.7 ± 3.5%, P = 0.034). However, cumulative positivity curves were similar and overlapped each other between both groups. The final cumulative positivity by the 10th sampling session was 52.3% in the 2-day group and 51.2% in the 10-day group. We observed a small increase in cumulative positivity after the 5th or 6th session in both groups. Bile cytology positivity is unlikely to be affected by sample time. © 2013 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  16. New challenges for telephone survey research in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Angela M; Remington, Patrick L

    2007-01-01

    Telephone surveys are critical for examining cross-sectional characteristics of population subgroups, tracking trends in prevalence of conditions and risk behaviors over time, identifying risk factors associated with multiple health conditions, and assessing the effects of interventions. Technology has aided telephone research through advances such as computer-assisted telephone interviewing. However, technology such as answering machines and caller ID has contributed to declines in response rates and has increased costs of conducting telephone surveys. The exponential increase in cell phone utilization presents a challenge to the tradition of random digit dial (RDD) surveys of households. Because telephone surveys are used by other industries such as marketing and public opinion polling, the marketplace may help drive innovation and adaptation. Cell phones have made telephone communication an even greater part of the everyday culture and could make potential telephone survey respondents even more accessible to public health researchers.

  17. Estimating the Size of a Large Network and its Communities from a Random Sample

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Lin; Crawford, Forrest W

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V;E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that correctly estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhausti...

  18. Studies on spectral analysis of randomly sampled signals: Application to laser velocimetry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sree, David

    1992-01-01

    Spectral analysis is very useful in determining the frequency characteristics of many turbulent flows, for example, vortex flows, tail buffeting, and other pulsating flows. It is also used for obtaining turbulence spectra from which the time and length scales associated with the turbulence structure can be estimated. These estimates, in turn, can be helpful for validation of theoretical/numerical flow turbulence models. Laser velocimetry (LV) is being extensively used in the experimental investigation of different types of flows, because of its inherent advantages; nonintrusive probing, high frequency response, no calibration requirements, etc. Typically, the output of an individual realization laser velocimeter is a set of randomly sampled velocity data. Spectral analysis of such data requires special techniques to obtain reliable estimates of correlation and power spectral density functions that describe the flow characteristics. FORTRAN codes for obtaining the autocorrelation and power spectral density estimates using the correlation-based slotting technique were developed. Extensive studies have been conducted on simulated first-order spectrum and sine signals to improve the spectral estimates. A first-order spectrum was chosen because it represents the characteristics of a typical one-dimensional turbulence spectrum. Digital prefiltering techniques, to improve the spectral estimates from randomly sampled data were applied. Studies show that the spectral estimates can be increased up to about five times the mean sampling rate.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Liao, Yan-Hui; Qi, Chang; He, Hao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Bao; Billieux, Joël

    2016-11-17

    Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current study we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PSU and to screen suitable predictors for PSU among Chinese undergraduates in the framework of the stress-coping theory. A sample of 1062 undergraduate smartphone users was recruited by means of the stratified cluster random sampling strategy between April and May 2015. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire was used to identify PSU. We evaluated five candidate risk factors for PSU by using logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic characteristics and specific features of smartphone use. The prevalence of PSU among Chinese undergraduates was estimated to be 21.3%. The risk factors for PSU were majoring in the humanities, high monthly income from the family (≥1500 RMB), serious emotional symptoms, high perceived stress, and perfectionism-related factors (high doubts about actions, high parental expectations). PSU among undergraduates appears to be ubiquitous and thus constitutes a public health issue in Mainland China. Although further longitudinal studies are required to test whether PSU is a transient phenomenon or a chronic and progressive condition, our study successfully identified socio-demographic and psychological risk factors for PSU. These results, obtained from a random and thus representative sample of undergraduates, opens up new avenues in terms of prevention and regulation policies.

  20. Protein/creatinine ratio on random urine samples for prediction of proteinuria in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudsari, F Vahid; Ayati, S; Ayatollahi, H; Shakeri, M T

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate Protein/Creatinine ratio on random urine samples for prediction of proteinuria in preeclampsia. This study was performed on 150 pregnant women who were hospitalized as preeclampsia in Ghaem Hospital during 2006. At first, a 24-hours urine sample was collected for each patient to determine protein/creatinine ratio. Then, 24-hours urine collection was analyzed for the evaluation of proteinuria. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. A total of 150 patients entered the study. There was a significant relation between the 24-hours urine protein and protein/creatinine ratio (r = 0.659, P < 0.001). Since the measurement of protein/creatinine ratio is more accurate, reliable, and cost-effective, it can be replaced by the method of measurement the 24-hours urine protein.

  1. Interpreters: telephonic, in-person interpretation and bilingual providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Kristen L; Wiener, Ethan; Roosevelt, Genie; Bajaj, Lalit; Hampers, Louis C

    2010-03-01

    Language barriers affect health care interactions. Large, randomized studies of the relative efficacy of interpreter modalities have not been conducted. To compare the efficacy of telephonic and in-person medical interpretation to visits with verified bilingual physicians. This was a prospective, randomized trial. The setting was an urban pediatric emergency department at which approximately 20% of visits are by families with limited English proficiency. The participants were families who responded affirmatively when asked at triage if they would prefer to communicate in Spanish. Randomization of each visit was to (1) remote telephonic interpretation via a double handset in the examination room, (2) an in-person emergency department-dedicated medical interpreter, or (3) a verified bilingual physician. Interviews were conducted after each visit. The primary outcome was a blinded determination of concordance between the caregivers' description of their child's diagnosis with the physician's stated discharge diagnosis. Secondary outcomes were qualitative measures of effectiveness of communication and satisfaction. Verified bilingual providers were the gold standard for noninferiority comparisons. A total of 1201 families were enrolled: 407 were randomly assigned to telephonic interpretation and 377 to in-person interpretation, and 417 were interviewed by a bilingual physician. Concordance between the diagnosis in the medical record and diagnosis reported by the family was not different between the 3 groups (telephonic: 95.1%; in-person: 95.5%; bilingual: 95.4%). The in-person-interpreter cohort scored the quality and satisfaction with their visit worse than both the bilingual and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual-provider cohort were less satisfied with their language service than those in the in-person and telephonic cohorts (P bilingual provider as a gold standard, noninferiority was demonstrated for both interpreter modalities (telephonic and in-person) for quality

  2. Benefits and Challenges of Conducting Psychotherapy by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Gretchen A; Ingram, Cobi W; Danhauer, Suzanne C

    2011-12-01

    Telephone-delivered psychotherapy has increased utility as a method of service delivery in the current world, where a number of barriers, including economic hardships and limited access to care, may prevent people from receiving the treatment they need. This method of service provision is practical and has the potential to reach large numbers of underserved people in a cost-effective manner. The aim of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art of telephone-delivered psychotherapy and to identify improvements and possible solutions to challenges. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate high client acceptance and positive outcomes with this method of delivering psychotherapy. Nonetheless, psychotherapists wishing to deliver psychotherapy by telephone face a number of challenges, including a lack of control over the environment, potential compromises of privacy and confidentiality, developing therapeutic alliance without face-to-face contact, ethical and legal issues in providing psychotherapy by telephone, handling crisis situations at a distance, and psychotherapist adjustment to conducting psychotherapy in an alternative manner. There remains a need for further research, including direct comparisons of face-to-face psychotherapy with telephone-delivered psychotherapy and feasibility of telephone delivery of psychotherapies other than cognitive behavioral therapy.

  3. LOD score exclusion analyses for candidate QTLs using random population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Wen

    2003-11-01

    While extensive analyses have been conducted to test for, no formal analyses have been conducted to test against, the importance of candidate genes as putative QTLs using random population samples. Previously, we developed an LOD score exclusion mapping approach for candidate genes for complex diseases. Here, we extend this LOD score approach for exclusion analyses of candidate genes for quantitative traits. Under this approach, specific genetic effects (as reflected by heritability) and inheritance models at candidate QTLs can be analyzed and if an LOD score is < or = -2.0, the locus can be excluded from having a heritability larger than that specified. Simulations show that this approach has high power to exclude a candidate gene from having moderate genetic effects if it is not a QTL and is robust to population admixture. Our exclusion analysis complements association analysis for candidate genes as putative QTLs in random population samples. The approach is applied to test the importance of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene as a potential QTL underlying the variation of bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis.

  4. A Combined Weighting Method Based on Hybrid of Interval Evidence Fusion and Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of system and lack of expertise, epistemic uncertainties may present in the experts’ judgment on the importance of certain indices during group decision-making. A novel combination weighting method is proposed to solve the index weighting problem when various uncertainties are present in expert comments. Based on the idea of evidence theory, various types of uncertain evaluation information are uniformly expressed through interval evidence structures. Similarity matrix between interval evidences is constructed, and expert’s information is fused. Comment grades are quantified using the interval number, and cumulative probability function for evaluating the importance of indices is constructed based on the fused information. Finally, index weights are obtained by Monte Carlo random sampling. The method can process expert’s information with varying degrees of uncertainties, which possesses good compatibility. Difficulty in effectively fusing high-conflict group decision-making information and large information loss after fusion is avertible. Original expert judgments are retained rather objectively throughout the processing procedure. Cumulative probability function constructing and random sampling processes do not require any human intervention or judgment. It can be implemented by computer programs easily, thus having an apparent advantage in evaluation practices of fairly huge index systems.

  5. A descriptive analysis of a representative sample of pediatric randomized controlled trials published in 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Denise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs are the gold standard for trials assessing the effects of therapeutic interventions; therefore it is important to understand how they are conducted. Our objectives were to provide an overview of a representative sample of pediatric RCTs published in 2007 and assess the validity of their results. Methods We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using a pediatric filter and randomly selected 300 RCTs published in 2007. We extracted data on trial characteristics; outcomes; methodological quality; reporting; and registration and protocol characteristics. Trial registration and protocol availability were determined for each study based on the publication, an Internet search and an author survey. Results Most studies (83% were efficacy trials, 40% evaluated drugs, and 30% were placebo-controlled. Primary outcomes were specified in 41%; 43% reported on adverse events. At least one statistically significant outcome was reported in 77% of trials; 63% favored the treatment group. Trial registration was declared in 12% of publications and 23% were found through an Internet search. Risk of bias (ROB was high in 59% of trials, unclear in 33%, and low in 8%. Registered trials were more likely to have low ROB than non-registered trials (16% vs. 5%; p = 0.008. Effect sizes tended to be larger for trials at high vs. low ROB (0.28, 95% CI 0.21,0.35 vs. 0.16, 95% CI 0.07,0.25. Among survey respondents (50% response rate, the most common reason for trial registration was a publication requirement and for non-registration, a lack of familiarity with the process. Conclusions More than half of this random sample of pediatric RCTs published in 2007 was at high ROB and three quarters of trials were not registered. There is an urgent need to improve the design, conduct, and reporting of child health research.

  6. The relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to elicit blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, M; Godin, G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to trigger blood donation. A sample of 3454 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: phone only (n = 1176), email only (n = 1091) and phone + email (n = 1187). There was a higher proportion of donors who registered to give blood in the phone + email condition (18·45%) compared to the other two conditions (phone: 15·73%, P email: 13·20%; P email conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0·16), suggesting equivalent efficacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Burden of acute gastrointestinal illness in Denmark 2009: a population-based telephone survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, L.; Korsgaard, Helle; Ethelberg, S.

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted in Denmark throughout 2009 to determine the incidence of acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI). Using the Danish population register, a random population sample stratified by gender and age groups was selected and mobile or landline phone numbers...... found. Representative numbers of interviews were performed by gender, age group and month. A recently proposed international case definition of AGI, including cases with diarrhoea and/or vomiting in a 4-week recall period, was used. A total of 1853 individuals were included and 206 (11·1%) fulfilled...

  8. Physical abuse of older adults in nursing homes: a random sample survey of adults with an elderly family member in a nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiamberg, Lawrence B; Oehmke, James; Zhang, Zhenmei; Barboza, Gia E; Griffore, Robert J; Von Heydrich, Levente; Post, Lori A; Weatherill, Robin P; Mastin, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Few empirical studies have focused on elder abuse in nursing home settings. The present study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of staff physical abuse among elderly individuals receiving nursing home care in Michigan. A random sample of 452 adults with elderly relatives, older than 65 years, and in nursing home care completed a telephone survey regarding elder abuse and neglect experienced by this elder family member in the care setting. Some 24.3% of respondents reported at least one incident of physical abuse by nursing home staff. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the importance of various risk factors in nursing home abuse. Limitations in activities of daily living (ADLs), older adult behavioral difficulties, and previous victimization by nonstaff perpetrators were associated with a greater likelihood of physical abuse. Interventions that address these risk factors may be effective in reducing older adult physical abuse in nursing homes. Attention to the contextual or ecological character of nursing home abuse is essential, particularly in light of the findings of this study.

  9. Inflammatory Biomarkers and Risk of Schizophrenia: A 2-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Borges, Maria Carolina; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Bowden, Jack; Davey Smith, George

    2017-12-01

    Positive associations between inflammatory biomarkers and risk of psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, have been reported in observational studies. However, conventional observational studies are prone to bias, such as reverse causation and residual confounding, thus limiting our understanding of the effect (if any) of inflammatory biomarkers on schizophrenia risk. To evaluate whether inflammatory biomarkers have an effect on the risk of developing schizophrenia. Two-sample mendelian randomization study using genetic variants associated with inflammatory biomarkers as instrumental variables to improve inference. Summary association results from large consortia of candidate gene or genome-wide association studies, including several epidemiologic studies with different designs, were used. Gene-inflammatory biomarker associations were estimated in pooled samples ranging from 1645 to more than 80 000 individuals, while gene-schizophrenia associations were estimated in more than 30 000 cases and more than 45 000 ancestry-matched controls. In most studies included in the consortia, participants were of European ancestry, and the prevalence of men was approximately 50%. All studies were conducted in adults, with a wide age range (18 to 80 years). Genetically elevated circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and soluble interleukin-6 receptor (sIL-6R). Risk of developing schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorders were included as cases. Given that many studies contributed to the analyses, different diagnostic procedures were used. The pooled odds ratio estimate using 18 CRP genetic instruments was 0.90 (random effects 95% CI, 0.84-0.97; P = .005) per 2-fold increment in CRP levels; consistent results were obtained using different mendelian randomization methods and a more conservative set of instruments. The odds ratio for sIL-6R was 1.06 (95% CI, 1.01-1.12; P = .02

  10. Telephone switchboard closure | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 4 p.m. on Friday, 19 December, instead of the usual time of 6 p.m., to allow time for closing all systems properly before the annual closure. Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will stop. All other phone services will run as usual.

  11. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  12. Validation of the 2008 Landsat Burned Area Ecv Product for North America Using Stratified Random Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, N. M.; Mladinich, C. S.; Caldwell, M. K.; Beal, Y. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is generating a suite of Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) products, as defined by the Global Climate Observing System, from the Landsat data archive. Validation protocols for these products are being established, incorporating the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Land Product Validation Subgroup's best practice guidelines and validation hierarchy stages. The sampling design and accuracy measures follow the methodology developed by the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative Fire Disturbance (fire_cci) project (Padilla and others, 2014). A rigorous validation was performed on the 2008 Burned Area ECV (BAECV) prototype product, using a stratified random sample of 48 Thiessen scene areas overlaying Landsat path/rows distributed across several terrestrial biomes throughout North America. The validation reference data consisted of fourteen sample sites acquired from the fire_cci project and the remaining new samples sites generated from a densification of the stratified sampling for North America. The reference burned area polygons were generated using the ABAMS (Automatic Burned Area Mapping) software (Bastarrika and others, 2011; Izagirre, 2014). Accuracy results will be presented indicating strengths and weaknesses of the BAECV algorithm.Bastarrika, A., Chuvieco, E., and Martín, M.P., 2011, Mapping burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ data with a two-phase algorithm: Balancing omission and commission errors: Remote Sensing of Environment, v. 115, no. 4, p. 1003-1012.Izagirre, A.B., 2014, Automatic Burned Area Mapping Software (ABAMS), Preliminary Documentation, Version 10 v4,: Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, University of Basque Country, p. 27.Padilla, M., Chuvieco, E., Hantson, S., Theis, R., and Sandow, C., 2014, D2.1 - Product Validation Plan: UAH - University of Alcalá de Henares (Spain), 37 p.

  13. Conic sampling: an efficient method for solving linear and quadratic programming by randomly linking constraints within the interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serang, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Linear programming (LP) problems are commonly used in analysis and resource allocation, frequently surfacing as approximations to more difficult problems. Existing approaches to LP have been dominated by a small group of methods, and randomized algorithms have not enjoyed popularity in practice. This paper introduces a novel randomized method of solving LP problems by moving along the facets and within the interior of the polytope along rays randomly sampled from the polyhedral cones defined by the bounding constraints. This conic sampling method is then applied to randomly sampled LPs, and its runtime performance is shown to compare favorably to the simplex and primal affine-scaling algorithms, especially on polytopes with certain characteristics. The conic sampling method is then adapted and applied to solve a certain quadratic program, which compute a projection onto a polytope; the proposed method is shown to outperform the proprietary software Mathematica on large, sparse QP problems constructed from mass spectometry-based proteomics.

  14. Improvement of sampling strategies for randomly distributed hotspots in soil applying a computerized simulation considering the concept of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Pick, Denis; Einax, Jürgen W

    2012-02-01

    The pollution of soil and environment as a result of human activity is a major problem. Nowadays, the determination of local contaminations is of interest for environmental remediation. These hotspots can have various toxic effects on plants, animals, humans, and the whole ecological system. However, economical and juridical consequences are also possible, e.g., high costs for remediation measures. In this study three sampling strategies (simple random sampling, stratified sampling, and systematic sampling) were applied on randomly distributed hotspot contaminations to prove their efficiency in term of finding hotspots. The results were used for the validation of a computerized simulation. This application can simulate the contamination on a field, the sampling pattern, and a virtual sampling. A constant hit rate showed that none of the sampling patterns could reach better results than others. Furthermore, the uncertainty associated with the results is described by confidence intervals. It is to be considered that the uncertainty during sampling is enormous and will decrease slightly, even the number of samples applied was increased to an unreasonable amount. It is hardly possible to identify the exact number of randomly distributed hotspot contaminations by statistical sampling. But a range of possible results could be calculated. Depending on various parameters such as shape and size of the area, number of hotspots, and sample quantity, optimal sampling strategies could be derived. Furthermore, an estimation of bias arising from sampling methodology is possible. The developed computerized simulation is an innovative tool for optimizing sampling strategies in terrestrial compartments for hotspot distributions.

  15. RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm for material-informatics: application to photovoltaic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Omer; Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2017-06-06

    An important aspect of chemoinformatics and material-informatics is the usage of machine learning algorithms to build Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. The RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is a predictive modeling tool widely used in the image processing field for cleaning datasets from noise. RANSAC could be used as a "one stop shop" algorithm for developing and validating QSAR models, performing outlier removal, descriptors selection, model development and predictions for test set samples using applicability domain. For "future" predictions (i.e., for samples not included in the original test set) RANSAC provides a statistical estimate for the probability of obtaining reliable predictions, i.e., predictions within a pre-defined number of standard deviations from the true values. In this work we describe the first application of RNASAC in material informatics, focusing on the analysis of solar cells. We demonstrate that for three datasets representing different metal oxide (MO) based solar cell libraries RANSAC-derived models select descriptors previously shown to correlate with key photovoltaic properties and lead to good predictive statistics for these properties. These models were subsequently used to predict the properties of virtual solar cells libraries highlighting interesting dependencies of PV properties on MO compositions.

  16. Effects of an Introductory Letter on Response Rates to a Teen/Parent Telephone Health Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I.; Mayer, Joni A.; Clapp, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The authors conducted a pilot study in preparation for a larger investigation that will rely on telephone surveys to assess select health behaviors of teens and their parents, with a focus on indoor tanning. This study used a randomized design to assess the impact of a presurvey letter on response rates to a telephone survey, as well as prevalence…

  17. Sample size and power for a stratified doubly randomized preference design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Briana; Esserman, Denise A

    2016-11-21

    The two-stage (or doubly) randomized preference trial design is an important tool for researchers seeking to disentangle the role of patient treatment preference on treatment response through estimation of selection and preference effects. Up until now, these designs have been limited by their assumption of equal preference rates and effect sizes across the entire study population. We propose a stratified two-stage randomized trial design that addresses this limitation. We begin by deriving stratified test statistics for the treatment, preference, and selection effects. Next, we develop a sample size formula for the number of patients required to detect each effect. The properties of the model and the efficiency of the design are established using a series of simulation studies. We demonstrate the applicability of the design using a study of Hepatitis C treatment modality, specialty clinic versus mobile medical clinic. In this example, a stratified preference design (stratified by alcohol/drug use) may more closely capture the true distribution of patient preferences and allow for a more efficient design than a design which ignores these differences (unstratified version). © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Notes on interval estimation of the generalized odds ratio under stratified random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2013-05-01

    It is not rare to encounter the patient response on the ordinal scale in a randomized clinical trial (RCT). Under the assumption that the generalized odds ratio (GOR) is homogeneous across strata, we consider four asymptotic interval estimators for the GOR under stratified random sampling. These include the interval estimator using the weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach with the logarithmic transformation (WLSL), the interval estimator using the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type of estimator with the logarithmic transformation (MHL), the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the MH weights (FTMH) and the interval estimator using Fieller's theorem with the WLS weights (FTWLS). We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these interval estimators by calculating the coverage probability and the average length. To study the bias of these interval estimators, we also calculate and compare the noncoverage probabilities in the two tails of the resulting confidence intervals. We find that WLSL and MHL can generally perform well, while FTMH and FTWLS can lose either precision or accuracy. We further find that MHL is likely the least biased. Finally, we use the data taken from a study of smoking status and breathing test among workers in certain industrial plants in Houston, Texas, during 1974 to 1975 to illustrate the use of these interval estimators.

  19. Control capacity and a random sampling method in exploring controllability of complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tao; Barabási, Albert-László

    2013-01-01

    Controlling complex systems is a fundamental challenge of network science. Recent advances indicate that control over the system can be achieved through a minimum driver node set (MDS). The existence of multiple MDS's suggests that nodes do not participate in control equally, prompting us to quantify their participations. Here we introduce control capacity quantifying the likelihood that a node is a driver node. To efficiently measure this quantity, we develop a random sampling algorithm. This algorithm not only provides a statistical estimate of the control capacity, but also bridges the gap between multiple microscopic control configurations and macroscopic properties of the network under control. We demonstrate that the possibility of being a driver node decreases with a node's in-degree and is independent of its out-degree. Given the inherent multiplicity of MDS's, our findings offer tools to explore control in various complex systems.

  20. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Attention Bias Modification in a Racially Diverse, Socially Anxious, Alcohol Dependent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Magee, Joshua C.; Wells, Tony T.; Beard, Courtney; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attention biases may be an important treatment target for both alcohol dependence and social anxiety. This is the first ABM trial to investigate two (vs. one) targets of attention bias within a sample with co-occurring symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol dependence. Additionally, we used trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) to capture the phenomena of attention bias in a more ecologically valid, dynamic way compared to traditional attention bias scores. Method Adult participants (N=86; 41% Female; 52% African American; 40% White) with elevated social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an 8-session training condition in this 2 (Social Anxiety ABM vs. Social Anxiety Control) by 2 (Alcohol ABM vs. Alcohol Control) design. Symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol dependence, and attention bias were assessed across time. Results Multilevel models estimated the trajectories for each measure within individuals, and tested whether these trajectories differed according to the randomized training conditions. Across time, there were significant or trending decreases in all attention TL-BS parameters (but not traditional attention bias scores) and most symptom measures. However, there were not significant differences in the trajectories of change between any ABM and control conditions for any symptom measures. Conclusions These findings add to previous evidence questioning the robustness of ABM and point to the need to extend the effects of ABM to samples that are racially diverse and/or have co-occurring psychopathology. The results also illustrate the potential importance of calculating trial-level attention bias scores rather than only including traditional bias scores. PMID:27591918

  2. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  3. Cost-effectiveness of telephonic disease management in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brad; Hughes-Cromwick, Paul F; Forkner, Emma; Galbreath, Autumn Dawn

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a telephonic disease management (DM) intervention in heart failure (HF). Randomized controlled trial of telephonic DM among 1069 community-dwelling patients with systolic HF (SHF) and diastolic HF performed between 1999 and 2003. The enrollment period was 18 months per subject. Bootstrap-resampled incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were computed and compared across groups. Direct medical costs were obtained from a medical record review that collected records from 92% of patients; 66% of records requested were obtained. Disease management produced statistically significant survival advantages among all patients (17.4 days, P = .04), among patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III/IV symptoms (47.7 days, P = .02), and among patients with SHF (24.2 days, P = .01). Analyses of direct medical and intervention costs showed no cost savings associated with the intervention. For all patients and considering all-cause medical care, the ICER was $146 870 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained, while for patients with NYHA class III/IV symptoms and patients with SHF, the ICERs were $67 784 and $95 721 per QALY gained, respectively. Costs per QALY gained were $101 120 for all patients, $72 501 for patients with SHF, and $41 348 for patients with NYHA class III/IV symptoms. The intervention was effective but costly to implement and did not reduce utilization. It may not be cost-effective in other broadly representative samples of patients. However, with program cost reductions and proper targeting, this program may produce life-span increases at costs that are less than $100 000 per QALY gained.

  4. Measuring health behaviors and landline telephones: potential coverage bias in a low-income, rural population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebl, Fatma; Poppell, Carolyn E; Zhan, Min; Dwyer, Diane M; Hopkins, Annette B; Groves, Carmela; Reed, Faye; Devadason, C; Steinberger, Eileen K

    2009-01-01

    Population-based landline telephone surveys are potentially biased due to inclusion of only people with landline telephones. This article examined the degree of telephone coverage bias in a low-income population. The Charles County Cancer Survey (CCCS) was conducted to evaluate cancer screening practices and risk behaviors among low-income, rural residents of Charles County, Maryland. We conducted face-to-face interviews with 502 residents aged 18 years and older. We compared the prevalence of health behaviors and cancer screening tests for those with and without landline telephones. We calculated the difference between whole sample estimates and estimates for only those respondents with landline telephones to quantify the magnitude of telephone coverage bias. Of 499 respondents who gave information on telephone use, 80 (16%) did not have landline telephones. We found differences between those with and without landline telephones for race/ethnicity, health-care access, insurance coverage, and several types of cancer screening. The absolute coverage bias ranged up to 6.5 percentage points. Simulation scenarios showed the magnitude of telephone coverage bias decreases as the percent of the population with landline telephone coverage increases, and as landline telephone coverage increases, the estimates from a landline telephone survey would approximate the estimates from a face-to-face survey. Our findings highlighted the need for targeted face-to-face surveys to supplement telephone surveys to more fully characterize hard-to-reach subpopulations. Our findings also indicated that landline telephone-based surveys continue to offer a cost-effective method for conducting large-scale population studies in support of policy and public health decision-making.

  5. Random Photon Absorption Model Elucidates How Early Gain Control in Fly Photoreceptors Arises from Quantal Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Yu; Juusola, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Many diurnal photoreceptors encode vast real-world light changes effectively, but how this performance originates from photon sampling is unclear. A 4-module biophysically-realistic fly photoreceptor model, in which information capture is limited by the number of its sampling units (microvilli) and their photon-hit recovery time (refractoriness), can accurately simulate real recordings and their information content. However, sublinear summation in quantum bump production (quantum-gain-nonlinearity) may also cause adaptation by reducing the bump/photon gain when multiple photons hit the same microvillus simultaneously. Here, we use a Random Photon Absorption Model (RandPAM), which is the 1st module of the 4-module fly photoreceptor model, to quantify the contribution of quantum-gain-nonlinearity in light adaptation. We show how quantum-gain-nonlinearity already results from photon sampling alone. In the extreme case, when two or more simultaneous photon-hits reduce to a single sublinear value, quantum-gain-nonlinearity is preset before the phototransduction reactions adapt the quantum bump waveform. However, the contribution of quantum-gain-nonlinearity in light adaptation depends upon the likelihood of multi-photon-hits, which is strictly determined by the number of microvilli and light intensity. Specifically, its contribution to light-adaptation is marginal (≤ 1%) in fly photoreceptors with many thousands of microvilli, because the probability of simultaneous multi-photon-hits on any one microvillus is low even during daylight conditions. However, in cells with fewer sampling units, the impact of quantum-gain-nonlinearity increases with brightening light. PMID:27445779

  6. Notes on interval estimation of the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2012-07-01

    We have developed four asymptotic interval estimators in closed forms for the gamma correlation under stratified random sampling, including the confidence interval based on the most commonly used weighted-least-squares (WLS) approach (CIWLS), the confidence interval calculated from the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) type estimator with the Fisher-type transformation (CIMHT), the confidence interval using the fundamental idea of Fieller's Theorem (CIFT) and the confidence interval derived from a monotonic function of the WLS estimator of Agresti's α with the logarithmic transformation (MWLSLR). To evaluate the finite-sample performance of these four interval estimators and note the possible loss of accuracy in application of both Wald's confidence interval and MWLSLR using pooled data without accounting for stratification, we employ Monte Carlo simulation. We use the data taken from a general social survey studying the association between the income level and job satisfaction with strata formed by genders in black Americans published elsewhere to illustrate the practical use of these interval estimators. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Predictive value of testing random urine sample to detect microalbuminuria in diabetic subjects during outpatient visit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhanick, B; Berrut, G; Chameau, A M; Hallar, M; Bled, F; Chevet, B; Vergely, J; Rohmer, V; Fressinaud, P; Marre, M

    1992-01-01

    The predictive value of random urine sample during outpatient visit to predict persistent microalbuminuria was studied in 76 Type 1, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, 61 Type 2, non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects, and 72 Type 2, insulin-treated diabetic subjects. Seventy-six patients attended outpatient clinic during morning, and 133 during afternoon. Microalbuminuria was suspected if Urinary Albumin Excretion (UAE) exceeded 20 mg/l. All patients were hospitalized within 6 months following outpatient visit, and persistent microalbuminuria was assessed then if UAE was between 30 and 300 mg/24 h on 2-3 occasions in 3 urines samples. Of these 209 subjects eighty-three were also screened with Microbumintest (Ames-Bayer), a semi-quantitative method. Among the 209 subjects, 71 were positive both for microalbuminuria during outpatient visit and a persistent microalbuminuria during hospitalization: sensitivity 91.0%, specificity 83.2%, concordance 86.1%, and positive predictive value 76.3% (chi-squared test: 191; p less than 10(-4)). Data were not different for subjects examined on morning, or on afternoon. Among the 83 subjects also screened with Microbumintest, 22 displayed both a positive reaction and a persistent microalbuminuria: sensitivity 76%, specificity 81%, concordance 80%, and positive predictive value 69% (chi-squared test: 126; p less than 10(-4)). Both types of screening appeared equally effective during outpatient visit. Hence, a persistent microalbuminuria can be predicted during an outpatient visit in a diabetic clinic.

  8. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubheeram, J; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S D

    2017-03-01

    The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial growth and absence of potential pathogen (p hand samples, bacterial growth was noted in 155 (91.2%), which included 91 (53.5%) heavy growth, 53 (31.2%) moderate growth and 11 (6.47%) scanty growth. The presence of enteric bacteria was associated with long nails (49.4% vs 29.2%; p = 0.007; OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.25-4.44) while finger rings were associated with higher bacterial load (p = 0.003). Coliforms was significantly higher among women who had a lower hand hygiene awareness score, washed their hands at lower frequency (59.0% vs 32.8%; p = 0.003; OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.41-6.13) and used common soap as compared to antiseptic soaps (69.7% vs 30.3%, p = 0.000; OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.67-10.12). Level of hand hygiene awareness among the participants was satisfactory but not the compliance of hand washing practice, especially among the elders.

  9. Association between stalking victimisation and psychiatric morbidity in a random community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Rosemary; Pathé, Michele; Mullen, Paul E

    2005-11-01

    No studies have assessed psychopathology among victims of stalking who have not sought specialist help. To examine the associations between stalking victimisation and psychiatric morbidity in a representative community sample. A random community sample (n=1844) completed surveys examining the experience of harassment and current mental health. The 28-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) and the Impact of Event Scale were used to assess symptomatology in those reporting brief harassment (n=196) or protracted stalking (n=236) and a matched control group reporting no harassment (n=432). Rates of caseness on the GHQ-28 were higher among stalking victims (36.4%) than among controls (19.3%) and victims of brief harassment (21.9%). Psychiatric morbidity did not differ according to the recency of victimisation, with 34.1% of victims meeting caseness criteria 1 year after stalking had ended. In a significant minority of victims, stalking victimisation is associated with psychiatric morbidity that may persist long after it has ceased. Recognition of the immediate and long-term impacts of stalking is necessary to assist victims and help alleviate distress and long-term disability.

  10. Telephoning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Kay

    1994-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  11. Random sample community-based health surveys: does the effort to reach participants matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuna, Juan M

    2014-12-15

    Conducting health surveys with community-based random samples are essential to capture an otherwise unreachable population, but these surveys can be biased if the effort to reach participants is insufficient. This study determines the desirable amount of effort to minimise such bias. A household-based health survey with random sampling and face-to-face interviews. Up to 11 visits, organised by canvassing rounds, were made to obtain an interview. Single-family homes in an underserved and understudied population in North Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of a probabilistic sample of 2200 household addresses, 30 corresponded to empty lots, 74 were abandoned houses, 625 households declined to participate and 265 could not be reached and interviewed within 11 attempts. Analyses were performed on the 1206 remaining households. Each household was asked if any of their members had been told by a doctor that they had high blood pressure, heart disease including heart attack, cancer, diabetes, anxiety/ depression, obesity or asthma. Responses to these questions were analysed by the number of visit attempts needed to obtain the interview. Return per visit fell below 10% after four attempts, below 5% after six attempts and below 2% after eight attempts. As the effort increased, household size decreased, while household income and the percentage of interviewees active and employed increased; proportion of the seven health conditions decreased, four of which did so significantly: heart disease 20.4-9.2%, high blood pressure 63.5-58.1%, anxiety/depression 24.4-9.2% and obesity 21.8-12.6%. Beyond the fifth attempt, however, cumulative percentages varied by less than 1% and precision varied by less than 0.1%. In spite of the early and steep drop, sustaining at least five attempts to reach participants is necessary to reduce selection bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. WORK ON TELEPHONE NETWORK LEP SITE

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The telephone service will make modifications on the LEP network the 12th December 2000 from 5.30pm. This will cause disturbances on telephone connections on the whole LEP area. For more information please call 160026.

  13. Handedness and Preferred Ear for Telephoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Stephen M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship between handedness and preferred ear for telephoning in 140 college students. Increased degree of sinistrality was associated with increased tendency to use left ear for telephoning. Found tendency to pick up telephone receiver with preferred hand and hold earpiece to ipsilateral ear. Results may relate to reports of reduced…

  14. Sample-to-sample fluctuations of power spectrum of a random motion in a periodic Sinai model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, David S.; Iorio, Antonio; Marinari, Enzo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2016-09-01

    The Sinai model of a tracer diffusing in a quenched Brownian potential is a much-studied problem exhibiting a logarithmically slow anomalous diffusion due to the growth of energy barriers with the system size. However, if the potential is random but periodic, the regime of anomalous diffusion crosses over to one of normal diffusion once a tracer has diffused over a few periods of the system. Here we consider a system in which the potential is given by a Brownian bridge on a finite interval (0 ,L ) and then periodically repeated over the whole real line and study the power spectrum S (f ) of the diffusive process x (t ) in such a potential. We show that for most of realizations of x (t ) in a given realization of the potential, the low-frequency behavior is S (f ) ˜A /f2 , i.e., the same as for standard Brownian motion, and the amplitude A is a disorder-dependent random variable with a finite support. Focusing on the statistical properties of this random variable, we determine the moments of A of arbitrary, negative, or positive order k and demonstrate that they exhibit a multifractal dependence on k and a rather unusual dependence on the temperature and on the periodicity L , which are supported by atypical realizations of the periodic disorder. We finally show that the distribution of A has a log-normal left tail and exhibits an essential singularity close to the right edge of the support, which is related to the Lifshitz singularity. Our findings are based both on analytic results and on extensive numerical simulations of the process x (t ) .

  15. Internet and Telephone Treatment for smoking cessation: mediators and moderators of short-term abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Amanda L; Papandonatos, George D; Cobb, Caroline O; Cobb, Nathan K; Niaura, Raymond S; Abrams, David B; Tinkelman, David G

    2015-03-01

    This study examined mediators and moderators of short-term treatment effectiveness from the iQUITT Study (Quit Using Internet and Telephone Treatment), a 3-arm randomized trial that compared an interactive smoking cessation Web site with an online social network (enhanced Internet) alone and in conjunction with proactive telephone counseling (enhanced Internet plus phone) to a static Internet comparison condition (basic Internet). The analytic sample was N = 1,236 participants with complete 3-month data on all mediating variables. The primary outcome was 30-day point prevalence abstinence (ppa) at 3 months. Recognizing the importance of temporal precedence in mediation analyses, we also present findings for 6-month outcomes. Purported mediators were treatment utilization and changes in psychosocial constructs. Proposed moderators included baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial variables. Mediation analyses examined the extent to which between-arm differences in 30-day ppa could be attributed to differential Web site utilization, telephone counseling, and associated changes in smoking self-efficacy and social support for quitting. Effect modification analyses fitted interactions between treatment and prespecified moderators on abstinence. Significant mediators of 30-day ppa were changes in smoking temptations, quitting confidence, and positive and negative partner support, which were strongly associated with increased Web site utilization. The addition of telephone counseling to an enhanced Web site further improved abstinence rates, partly via an association with increased quitting confidence. Baseline smoking rate was the only significant moderator. Increased treatment utilization and associated changes in several psychosocial measures yielded higher abstinence rates. Findings validate the importance of treatment utilization, smoking self-efficacy, and social support to promote abstinence. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf

  16. Random Model Sampling: Making Craig Interpolation Work When It Should Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marat Akhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious problems when doing program analyses is dealing with function calls. While function inlining is the traditional approach to this problem, it nonetheless suffers from the increase in analysis complexity due to the state space explosion. Craig interpolation has been successfully used in recent years in the context of bounded model checking to do function summarization which allows one to replace the complete function body with its succinct summary and, therefore, reduce the complexity. Unfortunately this technique can be applied only to a pair of unsatisfiable formulae.In this work-in-progress paper we present an approach to function summarization based on Craig interpolation that overcomes its limitation by using random model sampling. It captures interesting input/output relations, strengthening satisfiable formulae into unsatisfiable ones and thus allowing the use of Craig interpolation. Preliminary experiments show the applicability of this approach; in our future work we plan to do a full evaluation on real-world examples.

  17. Discriminative motif discovery via simulated evolution and random under-sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    Full Text Available Conserved motifs in biological sequences are closely related to their structure and functions. Recently, discriminative motif discovery methods have attracted more and more attention. However, little attention has been devoted to the data imbalance problem, which is one of the main reasons affecting the performance of the discriminative models. In this article, a simulated evolution method is applied to solve the multi-class imbalance problem at the stage of data preprocessing, and at the stage of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs training, a random under-sampling method is introduced for the imbalance between the positive and negative datasets. It is shown that, in the task of discovering targeting motifs of nine subcellular compartments, the motifs found by our method are more conserved than the methods without considering data imbalance problem and recover the most known targeting motifs from Minimotif Miner and InterPro. Meanwhile, we use the found motifs to predict protein subcellular localization and achieve higher prediction precision and recall for the minority classes.

  18. Neurofeedback Against Binge Eating: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Female Subclinical Threshold Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Brain-directed treatment techniques, such as neurofeedback, have recently been proposed as adjuncts in the treatment of eating disorders to improve therapeutic outcomes. In line with this recommendation, a cue exposure EEG-neurofeedback protocol was developed. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the specific efficacy of neurofeedback to reduce subjective binge eating in a female subthreshold sample. A total of 75 subjects were randomized to EEG-neurofeedback, mental imagery with a comparable treatment set-up or a waitlist group. At post-treatment, only EEG-neurofeedback led to a reduced frequency of binge eating (p = .015, g = 0.65). The effects remained stable to a 3-month follow-up. EEG-neurofeedback further showed particular beneficial effects on perceived stress and dietary self-efficacy. Differences in outcomes did not arise from divergent treatment expectations. Because EEG-neurofeedback showed a specific efficacy, it may be a promising brain-directed approach that should be tested as a treatment adjunct in clinical groups with binge eating. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  19. A coupled well-balanced and random sampling scheme for computing bubble oscillations*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a finite volume scheme to study the oscillations of a spherical bubble of gas in a liquid phase. Spherical symmetry implies a geometric source term in the Euler equations. Our scheme satisfies the well-balanced property. It is based on the VFRoe approach. In order to avoid spurious pressure oscillations, the well-balanced approach is coupled with an ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian technique at the interface and a random sampling remap. Nous proposons un schéma de volumes finis pour étudier les oscillations d’une bulle sphérique de gaz dans l’eau. La symétrie sphérique fait apparaitre un terme source géométrique dans les équations d’Euler. Notre schéma est basé sur une approche VFRoe et préserve les états stationnaires. Pour éviter les oscillations de pression, l’approche well-balanced est couplée avec une approche ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian, et une étape de projection basée sur un échantillonage aléatoire.

  20. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, Dave [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NETHERLANDS; Diks, Cees G H [UNIV OF AMSTERDAM

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  1. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  2. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  3. The effect of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected pregnant women in Thailand: an embedded mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  5. An enquiry into the prospects of mobile telephone for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the prospects of mobile telephone in dissemination of agricultural information in Ondo state, Nigeria. A multistage sampling technique was used for the study, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse results. The study revealed that the majority (85%) of the ...

  6. Experiments with central-limit properties of spatial samples from locally covariant random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, T.H.; Smith, T.E.

    1992-01-01

    When spatial samples are statistically dependent, the classical estimator of sample-mean standard deviation is well known to be inconsistent. For locally dependent samples, however, consistent estimators of sample-mean standard deviation can be constructed. The present paper investigates the sampling properties of one such estimator, designated as the tau estimator of sample-mean standard deviation. In particular, the asymptotic normality properties of standardized sample means based on tau estimators are studied in terms of computer experiments with simulated sample-mean distributions. The effects of both sample size and dependency levels among samples are examined for various value of tau (denoting the size of the spatial kernel for the estimator). The results suggest that even for small degrees of spatial dependency, the tau estimator exhibits significantly stronger normality properties than does the classical estimator of standardized sample means. ?? 1992.

  7. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO HISTAMINE IN A RANDOM-POPULATION SAMPLE OF ADULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIJCKEN, B; SCHOUTEN, JP; WEISS, ST; ROSNER, B; DEVRIES, K; VANDERLENDE, R

    1993-01-01

    Long-term variability of bronchial responsiveness has been studied in a random population sample of adults. During a follow-up period of 18 yr, 2,216 subjects contributed 5,012 observations to the analyses. Each subject could have as many as seven observations. Bronchial responsiveness was assessed

  8. Albumin to creatinine ratio in a random urine sample: Correlation with severity of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady S. Moiety

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Random urine ACR may be a reliable method for prediction and assessment of severity of preeclampsia. Using the estimated cut-off may add to the predictive value of such a simple quick test.

  9. Evaluation of a Class of Simple and Effective Uncertainty Methods for Sparse Samples of Random Variables and Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonney, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schroeder, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    When very few samples of a random quantity are available from a source distribution of unknown shape, it is usually not possible to accurately infer the exact distribution from which the data samples come. Under-estimation of important quantities such as response variance and failure probabilities can result. For many engineering purposes, including design and risk analysis, we attempt to avoid under-estimation with a strategy to conservatively estimate (bound) these types of quantities -- without being overly conservative -- when only a few samples of a random quantity are available from model predictions or replicate experiments. This report examines a class of related sparse-data uncertainty representation and inference approaches that are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective. Tradeoffs between the methods' conservatism, reliability, and risk versus number of data samples (cost) are quantified with multi-attribute metrics use d to assess method performance for conservative estimation of two representative quantities: central 95% of response; and 10-4 probability of exceeding a response threshold in a tail of the distribution. Each method's performance is characterized with 10,000 random trials on a large number of diverse and challenging distributions. The best method and number of samples to use in a given circumstance depends on the uncertainty quantity to be estimated, the PDF character, and the desired reliability of bounding the true value. On the basis of this large data base and study, a strategy is proposed for selecting the method and number of samples for attaining reasonable credibility levels in bounding these types of quantities when sparse samples of random variables or functions are available from experiments or simulations.

  10. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  11. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 3 December. During this time, the fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at all times. Mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected by this work. For further details please contact Netops@cern.ch.

  12. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on the 10th of July from 8 p.m. to midnight. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services, audioconference services, and GSM calls made via the 333 prefix may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. For more details about this maintenance, please contact the telephone switchboard at 76111 or by email. Telecom Section IT/CS

  13. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 10 July from 8 p.m. to midnight. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services, audioconference services and GSM calls made via the 333 prefix may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at all times. For more details about this maintenance work, please call the telephone switchboard on 76111 or send an e-mail. Telecom SectionIT/CS

  14. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 3 December. During this time, the fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at all times. Mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected by this work. For further details please contact mailto:Netops@cern.ch.

  15. Telephone intervention with family caregivers of stroke survivors after rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Joan S; Elliott, Timothy R; Weaver, Michael; Bartolucci, Alfred A; Giger, Joyce Newman

    2002-08-01

    Social problem-solving therapy shows promise as an intervention to improve the well-being of family caregivers. There is some evidence that training in problem solving may be effectively delivered by telephone. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of social problem-solving telephone partnerships on primary family caregiver outcomes after stroke survivors are discharged home from a rehabilitation facility. Using a randomized 3-group repeated-measures experimental design, 74 stroke survivors with an admitting diagnosis of ischemic stroke and their primary family caregivers were entered into the study. The intervention consisted of an initial 3-hour home visit between a trained nurse and the family caregiver within 1 week after discharge to begin problem-solving skill training. This initial session was followed by weekly (the first month) and biweekly (the second and third month) telephone contacts. Compared with the sham intervention and control groups, family caregivers who participated in the social problem-solving telephone partnership intervention group had better problem-solving skills; greater caregiver preparedness; less depression; and significant improvement in measures of vitality, social functioning, mental health, and role limitations related to emotional problems. There were no significant differences among the groups in caregiver burden. Satisfaction with healthcare services decreased over time in the control group while remaining comparable in the intervention and sham intervention groups. These results indicate that problem-solving training may be useful for family caregivers of stroke survivors after discharge from rehabilitative facilities.

  16. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  17. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 20 November. Fixed-line telephone and audioconference services may be disrupted while the work is being carried out. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be contactable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. For further details about the maintenance work, please contact the telephone switchboard on 76111 or by email to standard.telephone@cern.ch. Telecom Section IT/CS

  18. Beyond Random Walk and Metropolis-Hastings Samplers: Why You Should Not Backtrack for Unbiased Graph Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Eun, Do Young

    2012-01-01

    Graph sampling via crawling has been actively considered as a generic and important tool for collecting uniform node samples so as to consistently estimate and uncover various characteristics of complex networks. The so-called simple random walk with re-weighting (SRW-rw) and Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm have been popular in the literature for such unbiased graph sampling. However, an unavoidable downside of their core random walks -- slow diffusion over the space, can cause poor estimation accuracy. In this paper, we propose non-backtracking random walk with re-weighting (NBRW-rw) and MH algorithm with delayed acceptance (MHDA) which are theoretically guaranteed to achieve, at almost no additional cost, not only unbiased graph sampling but also higher efficiency (smaller asymptotic variance of the resulting unbiased estimators) than the SRW-rw and the MH algorithm, respectively. In particular, a remarkable feature of the MHDA is its applicability for any non-uniform node sampling like the MH algorithm,...

  19. Identifying the origin of groundwater samples in a multi-layer aquifer system with Random Forest classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudron, Paul; Alonso-Sarría, Francisco; García-Aróstegui, José Luís; Cánovas-García, Fulgencio; Martínez-Vicente, David; Moreno-Brotóns, Jesús

    2013-08-01

    Accurate identification of the origin of groundwater samples is not always possible in complex multilayered aquifers. This poses a major difficulty for a reliable interpretation of geochemical results. The problem is especially severe when the information on the tubewells design is hard to obtain. This paper shows a supervised classification method based on the Random Forest (RF) machine learning technique to identify the layer from where groundwater samples were extracted. The classification rules were based on the major ion composition of the samples. We applied this method to the Campo de Cartagena multi-layer aquifer system, in southeastern Spain. A large amount of hydrogeochemical data was available, but only a limited fraction of the sampled tubewells included a reliable determination of the borehole design and, consequently, of the aquifer layer being exploited. Added difficulty was the very similar compositions of water samples extracted from different aquifer layers. Moreover, not all groundwater samples included the same geochemical variables. Despite of the difficulty of such a background, the Random Forest classification reached accuracies over 90%. These results were much better than the Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Decision Trees (CART) supervised classification methods. From a total of 1549 samples, 805 proceeded from one unique identified aquifer, 409 proceeded from a possible blend of waters from several aquifers and 335 were of unknown origin. Only 468 of the 805 unique-aquifer samples included all the chemical variables needed to calibrate and validate the models. Finally, 107 of the groundwater samples of unknown origin could be classified. Most unclassified samples did not feature a complete dataset. The uncertainty on the identification of training samples was taken in account to enhance the model. Most of the samples that could not be identified had an incomplete dataset.

  20. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    algorithm were evaluated. The resulting maps were validated on 777 soil profiles situated in a grid covering Denmark. The experiments showed that the results obtained with Jacobsen’s map were more accurate than the results obtained with the CEC map, despite a nominally coarser scale of 1:2,000,000 vs. 1...... of European Communities (CEC, 1985) respectively, both using the FAO 1974 classification. Furthermore, the effects of implementing soil-landscape relationships, using area proportional sampling instead of per polygon sampling, and replacing the default C5.0 classification tree algorithm with a random forest......:1,000,000. This finding is probably related to the fact that Jacobsen’s map was more detailed with a larger number of polygons, soil map units and soil types, despite its coarser scale. The results showed that the implementation of soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and the random forest...

  1. Is web interviewing a good alternative to telephone interviewing? Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Web interviewing is becoming increasingly popular worldwide, because it has several advantages over telephone interviewing such as lower costs and shorter fieldwork periods. However, there are also concerns about data quality of web surveys. The aim of this study was to compare the International Tobacco Control (ITC Netherlands web and telephone samples on demographic and smoking related variables to assess differences in data quality. Methods Wave 1 of the ITC Netherlands Survey was completed by 1,668 web respondents and 404 telephone respondents of 18 years and older. The two surveys were conducted in parallel among adults who reported smoking at least monthly and had smoked at least 100 cigarettes over their lifetime. Results Both the web and telephone survey had a cooperation rate of 78%. Web respondents with a fixed line telephone were significantly more often married, had a lower educational level, and were older than web respondents without a fixed line telephone. Telephone respondents with internet access were significantly more often married, had a higher educational level, and were younger than telephone respondents without internet. Web respondents were significantly less often married and lower educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Telephone respondents were significantly less often married and higher educated than the Dutch population of smokers. Web respondents used the "don't know" options more often than telephone respondents. Telephone respondents were somewhat more negative about smoking, had less intention to quit smoking, and had more self efficacy for quitting. The known association between educational level and self efficacy was present only in the web survey. Conclusions Differences between the web and telephone sample were present, but the differences were small and not consistently favourable for either web or telephone interviewing. Our study findings suggested sometimes a better data

  2. Evaluation of the benefits of binaural hearing on the telephone for children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jace; Schafer, Erin; Mills, Emily; John, Andrew; Hudson, Mary; Anderson, Solange

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of published studies examining how children with hearing loss understand speech over the telephone. Previous studies on adults with hearing aids have suggested that adults with bilateral hearing aids experience significant difficulty recognizing speech on the telephone when listening with one ear, but the provision of telephone input to both ears substantially improved speech understanding. The objectives of this study were to measure speech recognition in quiet and in noise for a group of older children with hearing loss over the telephone and to evaluate the effects of binaural hearing (e.g., DuoPhone) on speech recognition over the telephone. A cross-sectional, repeated-measures design was used in this study. A total of 14 children, ages 6-14 yr, participated in the study. Participants were obtained using convenience sampling from a nonprofit clinic population. Speech recognition in quiet and in noise with binaural versus monaural telephone input was compared in pediatric participants. Monosyllabic word recognition was assessed in quiet and classroom noise set at 50 dBA in conditions with monaural and binaural (DuoPhone) telephone input. The children's speech recognition in quiet and in noise was significantly better with binaural telephone input relative to monaural telephone input. To obtain optimal performance on the telephone, the following considerations may apply: (1) use of amplification with binaural streaming capabilities (e.g., DuoPhone), (2) counseling of family and children on how to best use the telephone, (3) provision of telecoil with microphone attenuation for improved signal-to-noise ratio, and (4) use of probe tube measures to verify the appropriateness of the telephone programs. American Academy of Audiology.

  3. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  4. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow-up ...

  6. Telephone Operators' Resistance to British Colonial Administration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to write the history of yet another form of resistance to colonial rule in British Africa with a focus on telephone operators in the erstwhile Cameroons Province. The pith and kernel of the paper therefore is to show how telephone operators resisted the colonial administration. This typology of resistance is yet to ...

  7. Upgrade of the CERN telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between 8.00 p.m. and 10.00 p.m. on Monday 9 October. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this time. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  8. 47 CFR 15.214 - Cordless telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cordless telephones. (a) For equipment authorization, a single application form, FCC Form 731, may be filed... protection against unintentional access to the public switched telephone network by the base unit and... network shall occur only if the code transmitted by the handset matches code set in the base unit...

  9. Finite-sample corrected generalized estimating equation of population average treatment effects in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-04-01

    Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.

  10. Web-Based and Telephone Surveys to Assess Public Perception Toward the National Health Insurance in Taiwan: A Comparison of Cost and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Elise Chia-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have examined the impact of global budget payment systems of health insurance on patient access to medical care. In order to monitor the population’s accessibility to health services, a series of survey are often used to understand public perceptions of the health care provider. Taiwan implemented the single-payer National Health Insurance in 1995 and has been conducting a series of surveys to monitor public perception of the NHI after adopting a global budget payment system in 2002. Although telephone surveys are commonly used in obtaining public opinions on various public health issues, limitations such as higher cost and influence of interviewers do raise some concerns. Web-based surveys, one of the alternative methods, may be free from these problems. Objective Our aim was to examine the difference of sociodemographic characteristics, satisfaction of NHI and NHI-contracted health care providers, attitude toward NHI-related issues, behavior in seeking medical advice and self-reported health status between those who completed Web-based surveys and those reached by telephone. Methods This study compared the demographic factors of participants who took either a Web-based survey (1313 participants) or random digit dialing telephone survey (2411 participants) that contained identical questions. Results Compared to telephone survey respondents, Web-based respondents tended to be younger (Psurvey respondents reported greater satisfaction with NHI services. Web-based surveys were also shown to provide a lower average cost per sample (US$0.71) compared to telephone surveys (US$3.98). Conclusions Web-based surveys provide a low-cost alternative method for the polling of public attitudes toward NHI-related issues. Despite general similarities between the two polling methods with regard to responses, respondents to telephone surveys reported a stronger agreement with regard to satisfaction with NHI services and a more positive self

  11. Automated Tests for Telephone Telepathy Using Mobile Phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Rupert; Smart, Pamela; Avraamides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    To carry out automated experiments on mobile phones to test for telepathy in connection with telephone calls. Subjects, aged from 10 to 83, registered online with the names and mobile telephone numbers of three or two senders. A computer selected a sender at random, and asked him to call the subject via the computer. The computer then asked the subject to guess the caller׳s name, and connected the caller and the subject after receiving the guess. A test consisted of six trials. The effects of subjects׳ sex and age and the effects of time delays on guesses. The proportion of correct guesses of the caller׳s name, compared with the 33.3% or 50% mean chance expectations. In 2080 trials with three callers there were 869 hits (41.8%), above the 33.3% chance level (P telepathy can be carried out using mobile phones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Securing image information using double random phase encoding and parallel compressive sensing with updated sampling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiqiang; Xiao, Di; Wang, Yong; Xiang, Tao; Zhou, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Recently, a new kind of image encryption approach using compressive sensing (CS) and double random phase encoding has received much attention due to the advantages such as compressibility and robustness. However, this approach is found to be vulnerable to chosen plaintext attack (CPA) if the CS measurement matrix is re-used. Therefore, designing an efficient measurement matrix updating mechanism that ensures resistance to CPA is of practical significance. In this paper, we provide a novel solution to update the CS measurement matrix by altering the secret sparse basis with the help of counter mode operation. Particularly, the secret sparse basis is implemented by a reality-preserving fractional cosine transform matrix. Compared with the conventional CS-based cryptosystem that totally generates all the random entries of measurement matrix, our scheme owns efficiency superiority while guaranteeing resistance to CPA. Experimental and analysis results show that the proposed scheme has a good security performance and has robustness against noise and occlusion.

  13. Alcohol and marijuana use in adolescents' daily lives: a random sample of experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R; Csikszentmihalyi, M; Freeman, M

    1984-07-01

    High school students filled out reports on their experiences at random times during their daily lives, including 48 occasions when they were using alcohol or marijuana. Alcohol use was reported primarily in the context of Friday and Saturday night social gatherings and was associated with a happy and gregarious subjective state. Marijuana use was reported across a wider range of situations and was associated with an average state that differed much less from ordinary experience.

  14. Stemflow estimation in a redwood forest using model-based stratified random sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Model-based stratified sampling is illustrated by a case study of stemflow volume in a redwood forest. The approach is actually a model-assisted sampling design in which auxiliary information (tree diameter) is utilized in the design of stratum boundaries to optimize the efficiency of a regression or ratio estimator. The auxiliary information is utilized in both the...

  15. Random or systematic sampling to detect a localised microbial contamination within a batch of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.; Reij, M.W.; Boer, E.P.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are known to be distributed heterogeneously in food products that are solid, semi-solid or powdered, like for instance peanut butter, cereals, or powdered milk. This complicates effective detection of the pathogens by sampling. Two-class sampling plans, which are deployed

  16. Multistage point relascope and randomized branch sampling for downed coarse woody debris estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine

    2002-01-01

    New sampling methods have recently been introduced that allow estimation of downed coarse woody debris using an angle gauge, or relascope. The theory behind these methods is based on sampling straight pieces of downed coarse woody debris. When pieces deviate from this ideal situation, auxillary methods must be employed. We describe a two-stage procedure where the...

  17. Comparing the Effects of Education Using Telephone Follow-Up and Smartphone-Based Social Networking Follow-Up on Self-Management Behaviors among Patients with Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Sharifian, Sanaz; Nasr Isfahani, Mehdi; Haghani, Hamid

    2018-02-16

    The use of social networks in healthcare is a new area of research. Little is known about the benefits of this method in the management of the physical conditions of patients. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of self-management education using telephone follow-up and mobile phone-based social networking on self-management behaviors among patients with hypertension. This randomized clinical trial was conducted with 100 patients who were selected using a convenience sampling method. They were randomly allocated to four groups as (i) control, (ii) self-management training without follow-up, (iii) telephone follow-up and (iv) smartphone-based social networking follow up. The hypertension self-management behavior questionnaire was used for data collection before and six weeks after the study. The patients had statistically significant differences in terms of self-management (p<0.001). Those patients who underwent self-management education training (with and without follow-up) had statistically significant differences from those in the control group in terms of self-management behaviors (p<0.001). There was no statistical significant difference between the telephone follow-up and the smartphone follow-up groups. Self-management education using telephone follow-up and/or smartphone-based social networking follow up influenced self-management behaviors among patients with hypertension. Impact statement: Since the time of receiving information by patients is short when they are discharged from the hospital, telephone follow-up or smartphone-based social networking follow up can improve patients' self-management behaviors.

  18. Random sampling technique for ultra-fast computations of molecular opacities for exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Opacities of molecules in exoplanet atmospheres rely on increasingly detailed line-lists for these molecules. The line lists available today contain for many species up to several billions of lines. Computation of the spectral line profile created by pressure and temperature broadening, the Voigt profile, of all of these lines is becoming a computational challenge. Aims: We aim to create a method to compute the Voigt profile in a way that automatically focusses the computation time into the strongest lines, while still maintaining the continuum contribution of the high number of weaker lines. Methods: Here, we outline a statistical line sampling technique that samples the Voigt profile quickly and with high accuracy. The number of samples is adjusted to the strength of the line and the local spectral line density. This automatically provides high accuracy line shapes for strong lines or lines that are spectrally isolated. The line sampling technique automatically preserves the integrated line opacity for all lines, thereby also providing the continuum opacity created by the large number of weak lines at very low computational cost. Results: The line sampling technique is tested for accuracy when computing line spectra and correlated-k tables. Extremely fast computations ( 3.5 × 105 lines per second per core on a standard current day desktop computer) with high accuracy (≤1% almost everywhere) are obtained. A detailed recipe on how to perform the computations is given.

  19. Hybrid random walk-linear discriminant analysis method for unwrapping quantitative phase microscopy images of biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Diane N. H.; Teitell, Michael A.; Reed, Jason; Zangle, Thomas A.

    2015-11-01

    Standard algorithms for phase unwrapping often fail for interferometric quantitative phase imaging (QPI) of biological samples due to the variable morphology of these samples and the requirement to image at low light intensities to avoid phototoxicity. We describe a new algorithm combining random walk-based image segmentation with linear discriminant analysis (LDA)-based feature detection, using assumptions about the morphology of biological samples to account for phase ambiguities when standard methods have failed. We present three versions of our method: first, a method for LDA image segmentation based on a manually compiled training dataset; second, a method using a random walker (RW) algorithm informed by the assumed properties of a biological phase image; and third, an algorithm which combines LDA-based edge detection with an efficient RW algorithm. We show that the combination of LDA plus the RW algorithm gives the best overall performance with little speed penalty compared to LDA alone, and that this algorithm can be further optimized using a genetic algorithm to yield superior performance for phase unwrapping of QPI data from biological samples.

  20. Use of protein: creatinine ratio in a random spot urine sample for predicting significant proteinuria in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, B K; Adhikari, S; Gyawali, P; Shrestha, R; Poudel, B; Khanal, M

    2010-06-01

    Present study was undertaken during a period of 6 months (September 2008-February 2009) to see an correlation of 24 hours urine protein estimation with random spot protein-creatinine (P:C) ratio among a diabetic patients. The study comprised of 144 patients aged 30-70 years, recruited from Kantipur hospital, Kathmandu. The 24-hr urine sample was collected, followed by spot random urine sample. Both samples were analyzed for protein and creatinine excretion. An informed consent was taken from all participants. Sixteen inadequately collected urine samples as defined by (predicted creatinine--measured creatinine)/predicted creatinine > 0.2 were excluded from analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation between the spot urine P:C ratio and 24-hr total protein were performed by the Statistical Package for Social Service. At the P:C ratio cutoff of 0.15 and reference method (24-hr urine protein) cutoff of 150 mg/day, the correlation coefficient was found to be 0.892 (p urine collection but the cutoff should be carefully selected for different patients group under different laboratory procedures and settings.

  1. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 20 November. Fixed-line telephone and audioconference services may be disrupted while the work is being carried out. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. For further details about the maintenance work, please contact the telephone switchboard on 76111 or by email. Telecom Section - IT/CS

  2. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C

    2016-05-17

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences.

  3. THE RHETORICAL USE OF RANDOM SAMPLING: CRAFTING AND COMMUNICATING THE PUBLIC IMAGE OF POLLS AS A SCIENCE (1935-1948).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusinchi, Dominic

    2017-03-01

    The scientific pollsters (Archibald Crossley, George H. Gallup, and Elmo Roper) emerged onto the American news media scene in 1935. Much of what they did in the following years (1935-1948) was to promote both the political and scientific legitimacy of their enterprise. They sought to be recognized as the sole legitimate producers of public opinion. In this essay I examine the, mostly overlooked, rhetorical work deployed by the pollsters to publicize the scientific credentials of their polling activities, and the central role the concept of sampling has had in that pursuit. First, they distanced themselves from the failed straw poll by claiming that their sampling methodology based on quotas was informed by science. Second, although in practice they did not use random sampling, they relied on it rhetorically to derive the symbolic benefits of being associated with the "laws of probability." © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Multivariate Multi-Objective Allocation in Stratified Random Sampling: A Game Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Yousaf Shad; Hussain, Ijaz; Shoukry, Alaa Mohamd

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of multivariate multi-objective allocation where no or limited information is available within the stratum variance. Results show that a game theoretic approach (based on weighted goal programming) can be applied to sample size allocation problems. We use simulation technique to determine payoff matrix and to solve a minimax game.

  5. The effect of dead time on randomly sampled power spectral estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    consider both the effect on the measured spectrum of a finite sampling time, i.e., a finite time during which the signal is acquired, and a finite dead time, that is a time in which the signal processor is busy evaluating a data point and therefore unable to measure a subsequent data point arriving within...... the dead time delay....

  6. Phase microscopy of technical and biological samples through random phase modulation with a difuser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almoro, Percival; Pedrini, Giancarlo; Gundu, Phanindra Narayan

    2010-01-01

    A technique for phase microscopy using a phase diffuser and a reconstruction algorithm is proposed. A magnified specimen wavefront is projected on the diffuser plane that modulates the wavefront into a speckle field. The speckle patterns at axially displaced planes are sampled and used in an iter...

  7. Inefficiencies and vulnerabilities of telephone-based communication between U. S. poison control centers and emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Mollie R; Crouch, Barbara; Gesteland, Per; Wyckoff, Anastasia; Allen, Todd; Muthukutty, Anusha; Palmer, Robin; Peelay, Jitsupa; Repko, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Poison control centers (PCCs) and emergency departments (EDs) rely upon telephone communication to collaborate. PCCs and EDs each create electronic records for the same patient during the course of collaboration, but those electronic records are not shared. The purpose of this study was to describe the current, telephone based process of PCC-ED communication as the basis for potential process improvement. This study was conducted at one PCC and two tertiary care EDs. We developed workflow diagrams to depict clinician descriptions of the current process, descriptions obtained through interviews of key informants. We also analyzed transcripts of phone calls between emergency departments and the poison control center, corresponding to a random sample of 120 PCC cases occurring January 1-December 31, 2011. Collaboration between the ED and PCC takes place during multiple telephone calls, and the process is unsupported by shared documentation. The process occurs in three phases: notification, collaborative care, and ongoing consultation. In the ED, multiple care providers may communicate with the PCC, but only one ED care provider communicates with the poison control center specialist at a time. Handoffs occur for both ED and PCC. Collaborative care planning is common and most cases involve some type of request for information, whether vital signs, laboratory results, or verification that a treatment was administered. We found evidence of inefficiencies and safety vulnerabilities, including the inability of PCC specialists to reach ED care providers, telephone calls routed through multiple ED staff members in an attempt to reach the appropriate care provider, and exchange of clinical information with non-clinical staff. In 55% of cases, the patient was discharged prior to any synchronous telephone communication between the ED care provider and a PCC specialist. Ambiguous communication of information was observed in 22% of cases. In 12% of cases, a PCC specialist was

  8. The Telephone: An Invention with Many Fathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenni, Paolo (CNR-FST-IMSS, Florence, Italy)

    2008-10-01

    The names of A.G. Bell, A. Meucci, P.Reis, E. Gray, just to mention the most important ones, are all connected with the invention of the telephone. Today, the Italian inventor A. Meucci is recognized as being the first to propose a working prototype of the electric telephone. However, for a series of reasons his strenuous efforts were not rewarded. I will not repeat here the endless and complex disputes about the 'real father' of the telephone. From an historical point of view it is more interesting to understand why so many individuals from different backgrounds conceived of a similar apparatus and why most of these devices were simply forgotten or just remained laboratory curiosities. The case of the development of the telephone is an emblematic and useful example for better understanding the intricate factors which are involved in the birth of an invention and reasons for its success and failure.

  9. The shape of telephone cord blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yong; Yu, Senjiang; Jiang, Hongyuan; He, Linghui

    2017-01-01

    Formation of telephone cord blisters as a result of buckling delamination is widely observed in many compressed film-substrate systems. Here we report a universal morphological feature of such blisters characterized by their sequential sectional profiles exhibiting a butterfly shape using atomic force microscopy. Two kinds of buckle morphologies, light and heavy telephone cord blisters, are observed and differentiated by measurable geometrical parameters. Based on the Föppl-von Kármán plate theory, the observed three-dimensional features of the telephone cord blister are predicted by the proposed approximate analytical model and simulation. The latter further replicates growth and coalescence of the telephone cord into complex buckling delamination patterns observed in the experiment.

  10. 16 CFR 1012.7 - Telephone conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agency have a legitimate right to receive information and to present their views regarding Agency... conversations are not utilized to circumvent the provisions of this part. (b) Two basic rules apply to telephone...

  11. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  12. Random Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Fitness and House-of-Cards Mutations: Sampling Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2017-07-01

    We first revisit the multi-allelic mutation-fitness balance problem, especially when mutations obey a house of cards condition, where the discrete-time deterministic evolutionary dynamics of the allelic frequencies derives from a Shahshahani potential. We then consider multi-allelic Wright-Fisher stochastic models whose deviation to neutrality is from the Shahshahani mutation/selection potential. We next focus on the weak selection, weak mutation cases and, making use of a Gamma calculus, we compute the normalizing partition functions of the invariant probability densities appearing in their Wright-Fisher diffusive approximations. Using these results, generalized Ewens sampling formulae (ESF) from the equilibrium distributions are derived. We start treating the ESF in the mixed mutation/selection potential case and then we restrict ourselves to the ESF in the simpler house-of-cards mutations only situation. We also address some issues concerning sampling problems from infinitely-many alleles weak limits.

  13. Dual to Ratio-Cum-Product Estimator in Simple and Stratified Random Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Yunusa Olufadi

    2013-01-01

    New estimators for estimating the finite population mean using two auxiliary variables under simple and stratified sampling design is proposed. Their properties (e.g., mean square error) are studied to the first order of approximation. More so, some estimators are shown to be a particular member of this estimator. Furthermore, comparison of the proposed estimator with the usual unbiased estimator and other estimators considered in this paper reveals interesting results. These results are fur...

  14. The psychometric properties of the AUDIT: a survey from a random sample of elderly Swedish adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källmén, Håkan; Wennberg, Peter; Ramstedt, Mats; Hallgren, Mats

    2014-07-01

    Increasing alcohol consumption and related harms have been reported among the elderly population of Europe. Consequently, it is important to monitor patterns of alcohol use, and to use a valid and reliable tool when screening for risky consumption in this age group. The aim was to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly Swedish adults, and to compare the results with the general Swedish population. Another aim was to calculate the level of alcohol consumption (AUDIT-C) to be used for comparison in future studies. The questionnaire was sent to 1459 Swedish adults aged 79-80 years with a response rate of 73.3%. Internal consistency reliability, were assessed using Cronbach alpha, and confirmatory factor analysis assessed construct validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in elderly population as compared to a Swedish general population sample. The results showed that AUDIT was more reliable and valid among the Swedish general population sample than among the elderly and that Item 1 and 4 in AUDIT was less reliable and valid among the elderly. While the AUDIT showed acceptable psychometric properties in the general population sample, it's performance was of less quality among the elderly respondents. Further psychometric assessments of the AUDIT in elderly populations are required before it is implemented more widely.

  15. Re-Victimization Patterns in a National Longitudinal Sample of Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Ormrod, Richard K.; Turner, Heather A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To understand to the degree to which a broad variety of victimizations, including child maltreatment, conventional crime, peer, and sexual victimizations, persist for children from 1 year to the next. Design: A national sample of 1467 children aged 2-17 recruited through random digit dialing and assessed via telephone interviews (with…

  16. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/CS

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and 2 a.m. on 26 August.   Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work.

  18. Telephoning a nursing department: callers' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, G

    1996-05-08

    This preliminary, exploratory study examined the level of satisfaction of patients and relatives with the telephone communication skills of nurses. Results indicate that callers experienced several difficulties, particularly with regards to knowing who they were speaking to, being treated as an individual rather than just another caller, having their calls dealt with efficiently, or redirected correctly. It is suggested that nurse educators include training in telephone use in courses on communication skills.

  19. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and midnight on the 29th of July in order to apply the latest software patches. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS/CS

  20. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and midnight on the 21st of February in order to apply the latest software patches. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. CS Group

  1. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Document Server

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and 2h00 on the 16 November. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS

  2. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8h30 and 17h30 on Saturday 9 May. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS/CS

  3. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  4. Effect of the Mediterranean diet on heart failure biomarkers: a randomized sample from the PREDIMED trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Estruch, Ramón; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Arós, Fernando; Vila, Joan; Corella, Dolores; Díaz, Oscar; Sáez, Guillermo; de la Torre, Rafael; Mitjavila, María-Teresa; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa-María; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina; Fiol, Miquel; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Ros, Emilio; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Covas, María-Isabel

    2014-05-01

    Scarce data are available on the effect of the traditional Mediterranean diet (TMD) on heart failure biomarkers. We assessed the effect of TMD on biomarkers related to heart failure in a high cardiovascular disease risk population. A total of 930 subjects at high cardiovascular risk (420 men and 510 women) were recruited in the framework of a multicentre, randomized, controlled, parallel-group clinical trial directed at testing the efficacy of the TMD on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (The PREDIMED Study). Participants were assigned to a low-fat diet (control, n = 310) or one of two TMDs [TMD + virgin olive oil (VOO) or TMD + nuts]. Depending on group assignment, participants received free provision of extra-virgin olive oil, mixed nuts, or small non-food gifts. After 1 year of intervention, both TMDs decreased plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, with changes reaching significance vs. control group (P cardiovascular disease (CVD) who improved their diet toward a TMD pattern reduced their N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide compared with those assigned to a low-fat diet. The same was found for in vivo oxidized low-density lipoprotein and lipoprotein(a) plasma concentrations after the TMD + VOO diet. From our results TMD could be a useful tool to mitigate against risk factors for heart failure. From our results TMD could modify markers of heart failure towards a more protective mode. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2014 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. A pilot study of potential brain donor satisfaction and attitudes towards telephone assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Helen; Hayes, Gillian M; Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Nurock, Shirley; Hanbury, Dave; Francis, Paul T

    2017-12-01

    Test the feasibility of assessing cognition, psychiatric symptoms and daily living skills of potential brain donors by telephone and compare satisfaction and attitudes across telephone and face-to-face assessment. Data were collected from 108 healthy participants from the Brains for Dementia Research cohort. Purposive sampling was used to assess feasibility and a randomised control trial design compared satisfaction and attitudes towards telephone and face-to-face assessment. Non-parametric tests were conducted to compare groups, and logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between satisfaction and participant characteristics. Of the 80 participants offered telephone assessment, 67 (83.8%) agreed, 2 (2.5%) had a significant hearing impairment, 4 (5.0%) had potential memory problems and 7 (8.7%) declined. On average, telephone assessments lasted 38 min and duration was negatively associated with Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-Modified scores (p = 0.001) and positively associated with age (p = 0.040), Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores (p = 0.019), Geriatric Depression Scale (p = 0.035) and Global Deterioration Scale (p = 0.022). Satisfaction was high in respect to organisational and personal aspects; ratings did not differ significantly across telephone and face-to-face assessment groups and were not related to socio-demographic characteristics. Participants undergoing telephone assessment were significantly more likely to hold positive attitudes towards this mode of assessment. Telephone assessment is feasible, time-efficient and acceptable to healthy, potential brain donors. When used with other assessment modes and within the context of established contact, telephone assessment offers greater flexibility to researchers and participants and represents an effective mechanism for overcoming the challenges of growing, ageing cohorts and uncertain resources. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016

  6. It is important that they care - older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Inger K; Nokkoudenmäki, Mai-Britt; Zukancic, Selma; Sundler, Annelie J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing at primary healthcare centres. Telephone advice nursing is expanding worldwide, and the older population is increasing. Little is known about older persons' experiences of telephone advice nursing provided by primary healthcare. This study has a descriptive design with a qualitative inductive approach. Data were collected via interviews with a purposive sample of 10 older persons in 2014. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The older persons' experiences were described in two themes: the patient-friendly aspects of telephone advice nursing and the patient-unfriendly aspects of telephone advice nursing. The themes can be understood as two sides of the same coin; the differences point to both the advantages and disadvantages of the service and are further illuminated through seven subthemes. This study contributes to increased awareness of the advantages and disadvantages of the telephone advice nursing system as experienced by older persons. To be the focus of attention during calls was highlighted as important; and clear communication was deemed crucial. When the communication between the nurse and the older persons was perceived as good and the perspective of the caller was the focus, an experience of safety and satisfaction was described. Older persons had great confidence in the telephone nurses' competence and perceived their ability to access the service as mostly good, even if it was sometimes difficult to use the service. The communicative competence of telephone nurses is essential when providing telephone advice nursing to older persons. In addition, a person-centred approach is important to provide optimal care in telephone advice nursing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sequential sampling model for multiattribute choice alternatives with random attention time and processing order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Oswald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A sequential sampling model for multiattribute binary choice options, called multiattribute attention switching (MAAS) model, assumes a separate sampling process for each attribute. During the deliberation process attention switches from one attribute consideration to the next. The order in which attributes are considered as well for how long each attribute is considered-the attention time-influences the predicted choice probabilities and choice response times. Several probability distributions for the attention time with different variances are investigated. Depending on the time and order schedule the model predicts a rich choice probability/choice response time pattern including preference reversals and fast errors. Furthermore, the difference between finite and infinite decision horizons for the attribute considered last is investigated. For the former case the model predicts a probability p 0 > 0 of not deciding within the available time. The underlying stochastic process for each attribute is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process approximated by a discrete birth-death process. All predictions are also true for the widely applied Wiener process.

  8. Sequential sampling model for multiattribute choice alternatives with random attention time and processing order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele eDiederich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A sequential sampling model for multiattribute binary choice options, called Multiattribute attention switching (MAAS model, assumes a separate sampling process for each attribute. During the deliberation process attention switches from one attribute consideration to the next. The order in which attributes are considered as well for how long each attribute is considered - the attention time - influences the predicted choice probabilities and choice response times. Several probability distributions for the attention time including deterministic, Poisson, binomial, geometric, and uniform with different variances are investigated. Depending on the time and order schedule the model predicts a rich choice probability/choice response time pattern including preference reversals and fast errors. Furthermore, the difference between a finite and infinite decision horizons for the attribute considered last is investigated. For the former case the model predicts a probability $p_0> 0$ of not deciding within the available time. The underlying stochastic process for each attribute is an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process approximated by a discrete birth-death process. All predictions are also true for the widely applied Wiener process.

  9. Incorporating covariance estimation uncertainty in spatial sampling design for prediction with trans-Gaussian random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter eSpöck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spock and Pilz [38], demonstratedthat the spatial sampling design problem forthe Bayesian linear kriging predictor can betransformed to an equivalent experimentaldesign problem for a linear regression modelwith stochastic regression coefficients anduncorrelated errors. The stochastic regressioncoefficients derive from the polar spectralapproximation of the residual process. Thus,standard optimal convex experimental designtheory can be used to calculate optimal spatialsampling designs. The design functionals ̈considered in Spock and Pilz [38] did nottake into account the fact that kriging isactually a plug-in predictor which uses theestimated covariance function. The resultingoptimal designs were close to space-fillingconfigurations, because the design criteriondid not consider the uncertainty of thecovariance function.In this paper we also assume that thecovariance function is estimated, e.g., byrestricted maximum likelihood (REML. Wethen develop a design criterion that fully takesaccount of the covariance uncertainty. Theresulting designs are less regular and space-filling compared to those ignoring covarianceuncertainty. The new designs, however, alsorequire some closely spaced samples in orderto improve the estimate of the covariancefunction. We also relax the assumption ofGaussian observations and assume that thedata is transformed to Gaussianity by meansof the Box-Cox transformation. The resultingprediction method is known as trans-Gaussiankriging. We apply the Smith and Zhu [37]approach to this kriging method and show thatresulting optimal designs also depend on theavailable data. We illustrate our results witha data set of monthly rainfall measurementsfrom Upper Austria.

  10. Generalized SAMPLE SIZE Determination Formulas for Investigating Contextual Effects by a Three-Level Random Intercept Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral and psychological researchers have shown strong interests in investigating contextual effects (i.e., the influences of combinations of individual- and group-level predictors on individual-level outcomes). The present research provides generalized formulas for determining the sample size needed in investigating contextual effects according to the desired level of statistical power as well as width of confidence interval. These formulas are derived within a three-level random intercept model that includes one predictor/contextual variable at each level to simultaneously cover various kinds of contextual effects that researchers can show interest. The relative influences of indices included in the formulas on the standard errors of contextual effects estimates are investigated with the aim of further simplifying sample size determination procedures. In addition, simulation studies are performed to investigate finite sample behavior of calculated statistical power, showing that estimated sample sizes based on derived formulas can be both positively and negatively biased due to complex effects of unreliability of contextual variables, multicollinearity, and violation of assumption regarding the known variances. Thus, it is advisable to compare estimated sample sizes under various specifications of indices and to evaluate its potential bias, as illustrated in the example.

  11. Comparison of Detrusor Muscle Sampling Rate in Monopolar and Bipolar Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumor: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Jeremy Yuen-Chun; Chan, Eddie Shu-Yin; Yip, Siu-Ying; Tam, Ho-Man; Chiu, Peter Ka-Fung; Yee, Chi-Hang; Wong, Hon-Ming; Chan, Chi-Kwok; Hou, Simon See-Ming; Ng, Chi-Fai

    2017-05-01

    Our aim was to investigate the detrusor muscle sampling rate after monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). This was a single-center, prospective, randomized, phase III trial on monopolar versus bipolar TURBT. Baseline patient characteristics, disease characteristics and perioperative outcomes were compared, with the primary outcome being the detrusor muscle sampling rate in the TURBT specimen. Multivariate logistic regression analyses on detrusor muscle sampling were performed. From May 2012 to December 2015, a total of 160 patients with similar baseline characteristics were randomized to receive monopolar or bipolar TURBT. Fewer patients in the bipolar TURBT group required postoperative irrigation than patients in the monopolar TURBT group (18.7 vs. 43%; p = 0.001). In the whole cohort, no significant difference in the detrusor muscle sampling rates was observed between the bipolar and monopolar TURBT groups (77.3 vs. 63.3%; p = 0.057). In patients with urothelial carcinoma, bipolar TURBT achieved a higher detrusor muscle sampling rate than monopolar TURBT (84.6 vs. 67.7%; p = 0.025). On multivariate analyses, bipolar TURBT (odds ratio [OR] 2.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-4.81; p = 0.042) and larger tumor size (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.08; p = 0.022) were significantly associated with detrusor muscle sampling in the whole cohort. In addition, bipolar TURBT (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.10-7.53; p = 0.031), larger tumor size (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10; p = 0.035), and female sex (OR 3.25, 95% CI 1.10-9.59; p = 0.033) were significantly associated with detrusor muscle sampling in patients with urothelial carcinoma. There was a trend towards a superior detrusor muscle sampling rate after bipolar TURBT. Further studies are needed to determine its implications on disease recurrence and progression.

  12. Determining optimal sample sizes for multistage adaptive randomized clinical trials from an industry perspective using value of information methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Maggie H; Willan, Andrew R

    2013-02-01

    Most often, sample size determinations for randomized clinical trials are based on frequentist approaches that depend on somewhat arbitrarily chosen factors, such as type I and II error probabilities and the smallest clinically important difference. As an alternative, many authors have proposed decision-theoretic (full Bayesian) approaches, often referred to as value of information methods that attempt to determine the sample size that maximizes the difference between the trial's expected utility and its expected cost, referred to as the expected net gain. Taking an industry perspective, Willan proposes a solution in which the trial's utility is the increase in expected profit. Furthermore, Willan and Kowgier, taking a societal perspective, show that multistage designs can increase expected net gain. The purpose of this article is to determine the optimal sample size using value of information methods for industry-based, multistage adaptive randomized clinical trials, and to demonstrate the increase in expected net gain realized. At the end of each stage, the trial's sponsor must decide between three actions: continue to the next stage, stop the trial and seek regulatory approval, or stop the trial and abandon the drug. A model for expected total profit is proposed that includes consideration of per-patient profit, disease incidence, time horizon, trial duration, market share, and the relationship between trial results and probability of regulatory approval. The proposed method is extended to include multistage designs with a solution provided for a two-stage design. An example is given. Significant increases in the expected net gain are realized by using multistage designs. The complexity of the solutions increases with the number of stages, although far simpler near-optimal solutions exist. The method relies on the central limit theorem, assuming that the sample size is sufficiently large so that the relevant statistics are normally distributed. From a value of

  13. Uncertainty Of Stream Nutrient Transport Estimates Using Random Sampling Of Storm Events From High Resolution Water Quality And Discharge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholefield, P. A.; Arnscheidt, J.; Jordan, P.; Beven, K.; Heathwaite, L.

    2007-12-01

    The uncertainties associated with stream nutrient transport estimates are frequently overlooked and the sampling strategy is rarely if ever investigated. Indeed, the impact of sampling strategy and estimation method on the bias and precision of stream phosphorus (P) transport calculations is little understood despite the use of such values in the calibration and testing of models of phosphorus transport. The objectives of this research were to investigate the variability and uncertainty in the estimates of total phosphorus transfers at an intensively monitored agricultural catchment. The Oona Water which is located in the Irish border region, is part of a long term monitoring program focusing on water quality. The Oona Water is a rural river catchment with grassland agriculture and scattered dwelling houses and has been monitored for total phosphorus (TP) at 10 min resolution for several years (Jordan et al, 2007). Concurrent sensitive measurements of discharge are also collected. The water quality and discharge data were provided at 1 hour resolution (averaged) and this meant that a robust estimate of the annual flow weighted concentration could be obtained by simple interpolation between points. A two-strata approach (Kronvang and Bruhn, 1996) was used to estimate flow weighted concentrations using randomly sampled storm events from the 400 identified within the time series and also base flow concentrations. Using a random stratified sampling approach for the selection of events, a series ranging from 10 through to the full 400 were used, each time generating a flow weighted mean using a load-discharge relationship identified through log-log regression and monte-carlo simulation. These values were then compared to the observed total phosphorus concentration for the catchment. Analysis of these results show the impact of sampling strategy, the inherent bias in any estimate of phosphorus concentrations and the uncertainty associated with such estimates. The

  14. Global Stratigraphy of Venus: Analysis of a Random Sample of Thirty-Six Test Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W., III

    1995-01-01

    The age relations between 36 impact craters with dark paraboloids and other geologic units and structures at these localities have been studied through photogeologic analysis of Magellan SAR images of the surface of Venus. Geologic settings in all 36 sites, about 1000 x 1000 km each, could be characterized using only 10 different terrain units and six types of structures. These units and structures form a major stratigraphic and geologic sequence (from oldest to youngest): (1) tessera terrain; (2) densely fractured terrains associated with coronae and in the form of remnants among plains; (3) fractured and ridged plains and ridge belts; (4) plains with wrinkle ridges; (5) ridges associated with coronae annulae and ridges of arachnoid annulae which are contemporary with wrinkle ridges of the ridged plains; (6) smooth and lobate plains; (7) fractures of coronae annulae, and fractures not related to coronae annulae, which disrupt ridged and smooth plains; (8) rift-associated fractures; and (9) craters with associated dark paraboloids, which represent the youngest 1O% of the Venus impact crater population (Campbell et al.), and are on top of all volcanic and tectonic units except the youngest episodes of rift-associated fracturing and volcanism; surficial streaks and patches are approximately contemporary with dark-paraboloid craters. Mapping of such units and structures in 36 randomly distributed large regions (each approximately 10(exp 6) sq km) shows evidence for a distinctive regional and global stratigraphic and geologic sequence. On the basis of this sequence we have developed a model that illustrates several major themes in the history of Venus. Most of the history of Venus (that of its first 80% or so) is not preserved in the surface geomorphological record. The major deformation associated with tessera formation in the period sometime between 0.5-1.0 b.y. ago (Ivanov and Basilevsky) is the earliest event detected. In the terminal stages of tessera fon

  15. Use of pornography in a random sample of Norwegian heterosexual couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneback, Kristian; Traeen, Bente; Månsson, Sven-Axel

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the use of pornography in couple relationships to enhance the sex-life. The study contained a representative sample of 398 heterosexual couples aged 22-67 years. Data collection was carried out by self-administered postal questionnaires. The majority (77%) of the couples did not report any kind of pornography use to enhance the sex-life. In 15% of the couples, both had used pornography; in 3% of the couples, only the female partner had used pornography; and, in 5% of the couples, only the male partner had used pornography for this purpose. Based on the results of a discriminant function analysis, it is suggested that couples where one or both used pornography had a more permissive erotic climate compared to the couples who did not use pornography. In couples where only one partner used pornography, we found more problems related to arousal (male) and negative (female) self-perception. These findings could be of importance for clinicians who work with couples.

  16. Adults' Knowledge of Child Development in Alberta, Canada: Comparing the Level of Knowledge of Adults in Two Samples in 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Vinturache, Angela; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Breitkreuz, Rhonda; Bukutu, Cecilia; Gibbard, Ben; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Parents and non-parental adults who interact with children influence child development. This study evaluates the knowledge of child development in two large and diverse samples of adults from Alberta in 2007 and 2013. Telephone interviews were completed by two random samples (1,443 in 2007; 1,451 in 2013). Participants were asked when specific…

  17. Estimating screening-mammography receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves from stratified random samples of screening mammograms: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Richard M; Pesce, Lorenzo L; Jiang, Yulei

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate stratified random sampling (SRS) of screening mammograms by (1) Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) assessment categories, and (2) the presence of breast cancer in mammograms, for estimation of screening-mammography receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in retrospective observer studies. We compared observer study case sets constructed by (1) random sampling (RS); (2) SRS with proportional allocation (SRS-P) with BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases accounting for 90.6% of all noncancer cases; (3) SRS with disproportional allocation (SRS-D) with BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases accounting for 10%-80%; and (4) SRS-D and multiple imputation (SRS-D + MI) with missing BI-RADS 1 and 2 noncancer cases imputed to recover the 90.6% proportion. Monte Carlo simulated case sets were drawn from a large case population modeled after published Digital Mammography Imaging Screening Trial data. We compared the bias, root-mean-square error, and coverage of 95% confidence intervals of area under the ROC curve (AUC) estimates from the sampling methods (200-2000 cases, of which 25% were cancer cases) versus from the large case population. AUC estimates were unbiased from RS, SRS-P, and SRS-D + MI, but biased from SRS-D. AUC estimates from SRS-P and SRS-D + MI had 10% smaller root-mean-square error than RS. Both SRS-P and SRS-D + MI can be used to obtain unbiased and 10% more efficient estimate of screening-mammography ROC curves. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A middle class image of society : A study of undercoverage and nonresponse bias in a telephone survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Henk; Rispens, S

    We studied undercoverage and nonresponse in a telephone survey among the population of the City of Groningen, the Netherlands. The original sample, drawn from the municipal population register, contained 7000 individuals. For 37 percent of them, the telephone company was unable to produce a valid

  19. Dúplex telefónico - Duplex telephonic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos López, Pascual

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Only 19 years after a timid introduction of telephony in Spain and seven years before the founding of the National Telephonic Company of Spain, Pascual Salmerón Gómez records his two patents: "Duplex telephonic" and "Simultaneous duplex telephonic with telegraph machines". Two high technical complexity patents, registered in 1917 in the town of Arucas, province of Gran Canaria analyzed to our readers.Nephew of the inventor of the "Float Salmerón," José Salmerón Rojas and brother of Gerónimo Gómez Salmerón, inventor of "Cerealémetro" and owner of the theater Borras and with which we ended the saga Salmerón.

  20. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling (self-HPV is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab.A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA. After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET. HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic.HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7-70.2 detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6-64.4 by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1-62.9 by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34, and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56. Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+ were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5-79.8 for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5-93.9 for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0-89.0 for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%. Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab.Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN: 43310942.

  1. Potential use of telephone-based survey for non-communicable disease surveillance in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, H M M; Weerasinghe, N P; Weerarathna, T P; Hemantha, A; Amarathunga, A

    2017-12-29

    Telephone survey (TS) has been a popular tool for conducting health surveys, particularly in developed countries. However, the feasibility, and reliability of TS are not adequately explored in Sri Lanka. The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of telephone-based survey in estimating the prevalence of common non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Sri Lanka. We carried out an observational cross-sectional study using telephone interview method in Galle district, Sri Lanka. The study participants were selected randomly from the residents living in the households with fixed land telephone lines. The prevalence of the main NCDs was estimated using descriptive statistics. Overall, 975 telephone numbers belonging to six main areas of Galle district were called, and 48% agreed to participate in the study. Of the non-respondents, 22% actively declined to participate. Data on NCDs were gathered from 1470 individuals. The most common self-reported NCD was hypertension (17.%), followed by diabetes (16.3%) and dyslipidaemia (15.6%). Smoking was exclusively seen in males (7.4%), and regular alcohol use was significantly more common in males (19.2%) than females (0.4%, P Sri Lankan setting. Overall prevalence of main NCDs in this study showed a comparable prevalence to studies used face to face interview method. This study supports the potential use of telephone-based survey to assess heath related information in Sri Lanka.

  2. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  3. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  4. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  5. Enhancing positive parent-child interactions and family functioning in a poverty sample: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Mariana; Pereira, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the attachment-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a randomized controlled trial with poor families of toddlers screened for professional's concerns about the child's caregiving environment. The VIPP-SD is an evidence-based intervention, but has not yet been tested in the context of poverty. The sample included 43 families with 1- to 4-year-old children: mean age at the pretest was 29 months and 51% were boys. At the pretest and posttest, mother-child interactions were observed at home, and mothers reported on family functioning. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in enhancing positive parent-child interactions and positive family relations in a severely deprived context. Results are discussed in terms of implications for support services provided to such poor families in order to reduce intergenerational risk transmission.

  6. Rationale, Design, Samples, and Baseline Sun Protection in a Randomized Trial on a Skin Cancer Prevention Intervention in Resort Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Beck, Larry; Cutter, Gary R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during recreation is a risk factor for skin cancer. A trial evaluating an intervention to promote advanced sun protection (sunscreen pre-application/reapplication; protective hats and clothing; use of shade) during vacations. Materials and Methods Adult visitors to hotels/resorts with outdoor recreation (i.e., vacationers) participated in a group-randomized pretest-posttest controlled quasi-experimental design in 2012–14. Hotels/resorts were pair-matched and randomly assigned to the intervention or untreated control group. Sun protection (e.g., clothing, hats, shade and sunscreen) was measured in cross-sectional samples by observation and a face-to-face intercept survey during two-day visits. Results Initially, 41 hotel/resorts (11%) participated but 4 dropped out before posttest. Hotel/resorts were diverse (employees=30 to 900; latitude=24o 78′ N to 50o 52′ N; elevation=2 ft. to 9,726 ft. above sea level), and had a variety of outdoor venues (beaches/pools, court/lawn games, golf courses, common areas, and chairlifts). At pretest, 4,347 vacationers were observed and 3,531 surveyed. More females were surveyed (61%) than observed (50%). Vacationers were mostly 35–60 years old, highly educated (college education = 68%) and non-Hispanic white (93%), with high-risk skin types (22%). Vacationers reported covering 60% of their skin with clothing. Also, 40% of vacationers used shade; 60% applied sunscreen; and 42% had been sunburned. Conclusions The trial faced challenges recruiting resorts but result show that the large, multi-state sample of vacationers were at high risk for solar UV exposure. PMID:26593781

  7. Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis: A two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-01-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. In this exploratory study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causality of well-established associations between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis use. Two-sample MR was employed to estimate bi-directional causal effects between four addictive substances: nicotine (smoking initiation and cigarettes smoked per day), caffeine (cups of coffee per day), alcohol (units per week), and cannabis (initiation). Based on existing genome-wide association results we selected genetic variants associated with the exposure measure as an instrument to estimate causal effects. Where possible we applied sensitivity analyses (MR-Egger and weighted median) more robust to horizontal pleiotropy. Most MR tests did not reveal causal associations. There was some weak evidence for a causal positive effect of genetically instrumented alcohol use on smoking initiation and of cigarettes per day on caffeine use, but these did not hold up with the sensitivity analyses. There was also some suggestive evidence for a positive effect of alcohol use on caffeine use (only with MR-Egger) and smoking initiation on cannabis initiation (only with weighted median). None of the suggestive causal associations survived corrections for multiple testing. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and cannabis use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  9. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  10. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bette; Brotherton, Julia M L; Shellard, David; Donovan, Basil; Saville, Marion; Kaldor, John M

    2011-11-24

    Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell) phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls) the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34) and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29). Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  11. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis on G...

  12. Program Needs Assessment: The Telephone Survey Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishler, Carol

    This guidebook explains how to conduct a telephone survey that will gather the information necessary for new program needs assessment in the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education system. The guidebook is based on pilot assessments conducted by Fox Valley Technical College. The guidebook contains five sections: (1) introduction--why…

  13. Work on the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    TELECOM Service

    2006-01-01

    Corrective maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be carried out on 13th March 2006, resulting in service interruptions across the west area of the Meyrin site between 9.00 p.m. and 11.00 p.m. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service Tel.: 76111 GSM: 160101

  14. The telephone in family.practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-02-26

    Feb 26, 1983 ... In a time-and-motion study in family practice it was found that 35,8% of all patient contact was per tele- phone. The study further revealed that 12,3% of total practice time was spent on the telephone, stressing its importance as a useful tool.in family practice. The study supports others which suggest that 'tele-.

  15. Power in telephone-advice nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Vesa

    2010-03-01

    Power is a central aspect of nursing, especially in telephone-advice nursing, where nurses assess callers' medical problems and decide what measures that need to be taken. This article presents a framework for understanding how power operates in social interaction between nurses and callers in telephone-advice nursing in primary care in Sweden. Power is analysed as the result of nurses and callers being oriented to five social structures that are relevant to their actions in this context, namely the organization of telephone-advice nursing, the social stock of medical knowledge, the professional division of labour between nurses and doctors, structures of social interaction and structures of emotions. While structural constraints govern some actions to a high degree, calls take place in an organizational free room that give nurses more leeway for acting more creatively. The discussion focuses on the introduction of new technologies of control, for instance computerized decision support systems and audio recording of calls, and on how they reduce the free room. Empirical data consist of 276 audio-recorded telephone calls to 13 nurses at six primary-care centres and of qualitative interviews with 18 nurses.

  16. The Invention of the Communication Engine 'Telephone'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Kooij, B.J.G.

    2016-01-01

    This case study is a historic analysis of the developments that resulted in the electric telephone. It is a story about human communication. Long distance communication that had already developed with the electrical telegraph system created by Samuel Morse in America and Cooke & Wheatstone in

  17. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges - erratum

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The next maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22nd of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  18. Peer support telephone calls for improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy; Caramlau, Isabela O; Lindenmeyer, Antje; Williams, Susan M

    2008-10-08

    Peer support telephone calls have been used for a wide range of health-related concerns. However, little is known about their effects. To assess the effects of peer support telephone calls in terms of physical (e.g. blood pressure), psychological (e.g. depressive symptoms), and behavioural health outcomes (e.g. uptake of mammography) and other outcomes. We searched: The Cochrane Library databases (CENTRAL, DARE, CDSR) (issue 4 2007); MEDLINE (OVID) (January 1966 to December 2007); EMBASE (OVID) (January 1985 to December 2007); CINAHL (Athens) (January 1966 to December 2007), trials registers and reference lists of articles, with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials of peer support interventions delivered by telephone call. Two review authors independently extracted data. We present results narratively and in tabular format. Meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity between studies. We included seven studies involving 2492 participants.Peer support telephone calls were associated with an increase in mammography screening, with 49% of women in the intervention group and 34% of women in the control group receiving a mammogram since the start of the intervention (P peer telephone support calls were found to maintain mammography screening uptake for baseline adherent women (P = 0.029).Peer support telephone calls for post myocardial infarction patients were associated at six months with a change in diet in the intervention and usual care groups of 54% and 44% respectively (P = 0.03). In another study for post myocardial infarction patients there were no significant differences between groups for self-efficacy, health status and mental health outcomes.Peer support telephone calls were associated with greater continuation of breastfeeding in mothers at 3 months post partum (P = 0.01).Peer support telephone calls were associated with reduced depressive symptoms in mothers with postnatal depression (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS

  19. High Field In Vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (Drug Administration (FDA). Alternately, carboxylic/amide carbons are coupled to protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.

  20. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  1. Prevalence and severity of asthma and related symptoms in 6- to 7-year-old schoolchildren of Rio de Janeiro using of the ISAAC questionnaire by telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Solange Oliveira Rodrigues; Kuschnir, Fabio Chigres; Solé, Dirceu; e Silva, Martha Andrade Vilela; da Silva, Rosanna Iozzi; Caetano, Silvana; Carneiro, Alcides José de Carvalho; dos Santos, Lucia Helena; de Carvalho, Marina Maria Baltazar; da Cunha, Antonio Jose Ledo Alves

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the prevalence and severity of asthma and its association with sex in 6- to 7-year-old schoolchildren from the city of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), obtained by a telephone survey. A cross-sectional study using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Written Questionnaire for Asthma adapted and validated by telephone interviews was conducted. The random sample was recruited systematically, without replacement, taking into account the proportion of school classes and students in each regional coordination of the Municipal Secretariat of Education, which supplied the students' telephone numbers. The data were collected by a polling company from May to July 2010. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were compared using the difference in proportions test suitable for large samples to analyze the association between asthma and sex. In total, 3216 interviews from parents/caregivers of children were analyzed; 51.4% of the children were males. Mothers were the primary respondents (71.9%). The prevalence rates of "wheezing ever" and "wheezing in the last 12 months" were 52.2% and 20.9%, respectively, and were significantly higher among boys (PR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03-1.18 and PR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.10-1.45). The same pattern was observed for "asthma ever" (PR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85) and for "severe asthma" (PR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.11-1.82). The prevalence of asthma was high among RJ's students. Most of the indicators of the disease were more prevalent among boys. Our results were similar to those observed in other Brazilian and international centers using the traditional ISAAC protocol. The use of this method can be an alternative for epidemiological studies of childhood asthma especially in areas where the telephone coverage is high.

  2. Utilities:Other:Telephone Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS unit with...

  3. Economic evaluation of the differential benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; So, Ching; Chau, June; Law, Antony Kwan Pui; Tam, Stanley Ku Fu; McGhee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    home visits and telephone calls are two often used approaches in transitional care, but their differential economic effects are unknown. to examine the differential economic benefits of home visits with telephone calls and telephone calls only in transitional discharge support. cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomised controlled trial (RCT). patients discharged from medical units randomly assigned to control (control, N = 210), home visits with calls (home, N = 196) and calls only (call, N = 204). cost-effectiveness analyses were conducted from the societal perspective comparing monetary benefits and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. the home arm was less costly but less effective at 28 days and was dominating (less costly and more effective) at 84 days. The call arm was dominating at both 28 and 84 days. The incremental QALY for the home arm was -0.0002/0.0008 (28/84 days), and the call arm was 0.0022/0.0104 (28/84 days). When the three groups were compared, the call arm had a higher probability being cost-effective at 84 days but not at 28 days (home: 53%, call: 35% (28 days) versus home: 22%, call: 73% (84 days)) measuring against the NICE threshold of £20,000. the original RCT showed that the bundled intervention involving home visits and calls was more effective than calls only in the reduction of hospital readmissions. This study adds a cost perspective to inform policymakers that both home visits and calls only are cost-effective for transitional care support, but calls only have a higher chance of being cost-effective for a sustained period after intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  4. 26. Effectiveness of telephone follow up in managing patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Taiyem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, labeled as the greatest healthcare challenge according to the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation. This complex disease requires the involvement of multidisciplinary teams to reduce the risk and impact of long-term diabetes complications through intensive monitoring, education and lifestyle modifications with a great emphasis on promoting self-care. A brief and cost-effective interventions to improve diabetes self care management are needed. This study evaluated the effect of “educational” telephone intervention delivered by nurse specialist on glycemic control “Glyclated hemoglobin A1c”, and diabetes self-care management for patients with type 2 diabetes followed-up by a nurse-led cardiovascular disease management program of a tertiary hospital within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This quantitative descriptive and qauzi-experimental study was conducted over three months, included 60 adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Participants within the intervention group received usual care and six educational phone calls promoting them to improve their diabetic self-care activities. Patients within the control arm continued to receive their usual care only. The telephone follow-up intervention increased frequency of exercise and foot care, improved diet and adherence to anti-diabetes medication. Modest improvement was detected on the glycemic control and home glucose monitoring. As a conclusion, the study indicated positive effect of the intervention on glycemic control and self-care management. Multi-centers and longitudinal studies with larger sample size are recommended for future studies.

  5. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  6. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S

    2006-01-01

    Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure than for the non-exposed teen

  7. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Intentions to Use Recommended Skills While Experiencing Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian

    2017-11-29

    Empathic engagement with distressed others can lead to elevated symptoms of psychological distress and functional impairment, which preclude helping professionals' delivery of optimal patient care. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. This study examined the relationship between functional impairment and intentions to use recommended support skills in a representative national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers. Participants completed an online survey including measures of functional impairment and intentions to use recommended telephone crisis support skills with callers reporting suicidal ideation, symptoms of depression, and anxiety. As a group, participants who experienced greater functional impairment during the past month reported significantly lower intentions to use recommended support skills with callers than those who reported lower functional impairment. Future research is needed to clarify the extent to which results generalize to telephone crisis support workers from other organizations. Results warrant further research to (a) identify determinants of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment, and (b) for the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment through developing and/or modifying existing service strategies to optimize workers' psychological well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  8. Association of macronutrient intake patterns with being overweight in a population-based random sample of men in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, N; Ferrières, J; Dallongeville, J; Simon, C; Ducimetière, P; Amouyel, P; Arveiler, D; Ruidavets, J-B

    2009-04-01

    Diet is considered an important modifiable factor in the overweight. The role of macronutrients in obesity has been examined in general in selected populations, but the results of these studies are mixed, depending on the potential confounders and adjustments for other macronutrients. For this reason, we examined the association between macronutrient intake patterns and being overweight in a population-based representative sample of middle-aged (55.1+/-6.1 years) men (n=966), using various adjustment modalities. The study subjects kept 3-day food-intake records, and the standard cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were also measured. Carbohydrate intake was negatively associated and fat intake was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) and WC in regression models adjusted for energy intake and other factors, including age, smoking and physical activity. However, with mutual adjustments for other energy-yielding nutrients, the negative association of carbohydrate intake with WC remained significant, whereas the associations between fat intake and measures of obesity did not. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of carbohydrate intake were 0.50 (0.25-0.97) for obesity (BMI>29.9) and 0.41 (0.23-0.73) for abdominal obesity (WC>101.9 cm). Consistent negative associations between carbohydrate intake and BMI and WC were seen in this random representative sample of the general male population. The associations between fat intake and these measures of being overweight were attenuated on adjusting for carbohydrate intake. Thus, the balance of carbohydrate-to-fat intake is an important element in obesity in a general male population, and should be highlighted in dietary guidelines.

  9. Efficacy and experiences of telephone counselling for informal carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Sabine; Hayder-Beichel, Daniela; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Meyer, Gabriele; Langer, Gero

    2014-09-01

    integrated quantitative RCT data with the qualitative data. Nine RCTs and two qualitative studies were included. Six studies investigated telephone counselling without additional intervention, one study combined telephone counselling with video sessions, and two studies combined it with video sessions and a workbook. All quantitative studies had a high risk of bias in terms of blinding of participants and outcome assessment. Most studies provided no information about random sequence generation and allocation concealment. The quality of the qualitative studies ('thin descriptions') was assessed as moderate. Meta-analyses indicated a reduction of depressive symptoms for telephone counselling without additional intervention (three trials, 163 participants: standardised mean different (SMD) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.63, P value 0.04; moderate quality evidence). The estimated effects on other outcomes (burden, distress, anxiety, quality of life, self-efficacy, satisfaction and social support) were uncertain and differences could not be excluded (burden: four trials, 165 participants: SMD 0.45, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.90, P value 0.05; moderate quality evidence; support: two trials, 67 participants: SMD 0.25, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.73, P value 0.32; low quality evidence). None of the quantitative studies included reported adverse effects or harm due to telephone counselling. Three analytical themes (barriers and facilitators for successful implementation of telephone counselling, counsellor's emotional attitude and content of telephone counselling) and 16 descriptive themes that present the carers' needs for telephone counselling were identified in the thematic synthesis. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data shows potential for improvement. For example, no RCT reported that the counsellor provided 24-hour availability or that there was debriefing of the counsellor. Also, the qualitative studies covered a limited range of ways of performing telephone counselling

  10. The role of personal and social characteristics on acceptance of new telephone banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Agha Alikhani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For over two decades, telephone banking has steadily become a useful feature and all banks have tried to provide this feature as part of their services. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to study the role of personal and social characteristics on acceptance of new telephone banking services. The proposed study designs two questionnaires and distributes them among 384 randomly selected people who use telephone banking in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study examines various hypotheses and the results of our survey indicate that there were some positive and meaningful relationships between perception usefulness and users’ attitude, perception and ease of use, perception and intention to use as well as perception and intention to use. In addition, the study has detected a negative and meaningful relationship between personal risk and intention to use and perception of personal time and intention to use among mobile users.

  11. Assessing causality in associations between cannabis use and schizophrenia risk: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, S H; Jones, H J; Burgess, S; Bowden, J; Davey Smith, G; Zammit, S; Munafò, M R

    2017-04-01

    Observational associations between cannabis and schizophrenia are well documented, but ascertaining causation is more challenging. We used Mendelian randomization (MR), utilizing publicly available data as a method for ascertaining causation from observational data. We performed bi-directional two-sample MR using summary-level genome-wide data from the International Cannabis Consortium (ICC) and the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cannabis initiation (p schizophrenia (p cannabis initiation on risk of schizophrenia [odds ratio (OR) 1.04 per doubling odds of cannabis initiation, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.07, p = 0.019]. There was strong evidence consistent with a causal effect of schizophrenia risk on likelihood of cannabis initiation (OR 1.10 per doubling of the odds of schizophrenia, 95% CI 1.05-1.14, p = 2.64 × 10-5). Findings were as predicted for the negative control (height: OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.90) but weaker than predicted for the positive control (years in education: OR 0.99, 95% CI 0.97-1.00, p = 0.066) analyses. Our results provide some that cannabis initiation increases the risk of schizophrenia, although the size of the causal estimate is small. We find stronger evidence that schizophrenia risk predicts cannabis initiation, possibly as genetic instruments for schizophrenia are stronger than for cannabis initiation.

  12. Multiple-image authentication with a cascaded multilevel architecture based on amplitude field random sampling and phase information multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Pan, Xuemei; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2015-04-10

    A multiple-image authentication method with a cascaded multilevel architecture in the Fresnel domain is proposed, in which a synthetic encoded complex amplitude is first fabricated, and its real amplitude component is generated by iterative amplitude encoding, random sampling, and space multiplexing for the low-level certification images, while the phase component of the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is constructed by iterative phase information encoding and multiplexing for the high-level certification images. Then the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is iteratively encoded into two phase-type ciphertexts located in two different transform planes. During high-level authentication, when the two phase-type ciphertexts and the high-level decryption key are presented to the system and then the Fresnel transform is carried out, a meaningful image with good quality and a high correlation coefficient with the original certification image can be recovered in the output plane. Similar to the procedure of high-level authentication, in the case of low-level authentication with the aid of a low-level decryption key, no significant or meaningful information is retrieved, but it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the output image and the corresponding original certification image. Therefore, the method realizes different levels of accessibility to the original certification image for different authority levels with the same cascaded multilevel architecture.

  13. Mental health impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake on the Miami Haitian population: A random-sample survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Acuna, Juan M; Castro, Grettel; de la Vega, Pura Rodríguez; Vaiva, Guillaume; Shultz, James; Neria, Yuval; De La Rosa, Mario

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the mental health consequences of the January 2010 Haiti earthquake on Haitians living in Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2-3 years following the event. A random-sample household survey was conducted from October 2011 through December 2012 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Haitian participants (N = 421) were assessed for their earthquake exposure and its impact on family, friends, and household finances; and for symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, and major depression; using standardized screening measures and thresholds. Exposure was considered as "direct" if the interviewee was in Haiti during the earthquake. Exposure was classified as "indirect" if the interviewee was not in Haiti during the earthquake but (1) family members or close friends were victims of the earthquake, and/or (2) family members were hosted in the respondent's household, and/or (3) assets or jobs were lost because of the earthquake. Interviewees who did not qualify for either direct or indirect exposure were designated as "lower" exposure. Eight percent of respondents qualified for direct exposure, and 63% qualified for indirect exposure. Among those with direct exposure, 19% exceeded threshold for PTSD, 36% for anxiety, and 45% for depression. Corresponding percentages were 9%, 22% and 24% for respondents with indirect exposure, and 6%, 14%, and 10% for those with lower exposure. A majority of Miami Haitians were directly or indirectly exposed to the earthquake. Mental health distress among them remains considerable two to three years post-earthquake.

  14. Mental Health Impact of Hosting Disaster Refugees: Analyses from a Random Sample Survey Among Haitians Living in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Lacoste, Jérôme; Gokalsing, Erick; Shultz, James M; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Acuna, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the mental health of families hosting disaster refugees are lacking. This study compares participants in households that hosted 2010 Haitian earthquake disaster refugees with their nonhost counterparts. A random sample survey was conducted from October 2011 through December 2012 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Haitian participants were assessed regarding their 2010 earthquake exposure and impact on family and friends and whether they hosted earthquake refugees. Using standardized scores and thresholds, they were evaluated for symptoms of three common mental disorders (CMDs): posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants who hosted refugees (n = 51) had significantly higher percentages of scores beyond thresholds for MDD than those who did not host refugees (n = 365) and for at least one CMD, after adjusting for participants' earthquake exposures and effects on family and friends. Hosting refugees from a natural disaster appears to elevate the risk for MDD and possibly other CMDs, independent of risks posed by exposure to the disaster itself. Families hosting refugees deserve special attention.

  15. Randomization modeling to ascertain clustering patterns of human papillomavirus types detected in cervicovaginal samples in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy David Querec

    Full Text Available Detection of multiple human papillomavirus (HPV types in the genital tract is common. Associations among HPV types may impact HPV vaccination modeling and type replacement. The objectives were to determine the distribution of concurrent HPV type infections in cervicovaginal samples and examine type-specific associations. We analyzed HPV genotyping results from 32,245 cervicovaginal specimens collected from women aged 11 to 83 years in the United States from 2001 through 2011. Statistical power was enhanced by combining 6 separate studies. Expected concurrent infection frequencies from a series of permutation models, each with increasing fidelity to the real data, were compared with the observed data. Statistics were computed based on the distributional properties of the randomized data. Concurrent detection occurred more than expected with 0 or ≥3 HPV types and less than expected with 1 and 2 types. Some women bear a disproportionate burden of the HPV type prevalence. Type associations were observed that exceeded multiple hypothesis corrected significance. Multiple HPV types were detected more frequently than expected by chance and associations among particular HPV types were detected. However vaccine-targeted types were not specifically affected, supporting the expectation that current bivalent/quadrivalent HPV vaccination will not result in type replacement with other high-risk types.

  16. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  17. Work on the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Corrective maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be carried out on 23 September 2004, resulting in interruptions of service across the whole CERN site between 6:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. and from 7:00 p.m. onwards. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service Tel.: 76111 GSM: 160026- 163610 Calls between GSM mobile phones will not be affected.

  18. Changes on the CERN telephone network

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The continuation of ours tasks to update the network is scheduled as follows: Date Change type Affected area June 11 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest Update of switch N2 Meyrin Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 18:30 to 00:00 hrs on the above mentioned dates. In case of problem, please send us your remarks by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  19. [Acupuncture and moxibustion for peripheral facial palsy at different stages: multi-central large-sample randomized controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Yan; Liu, Li-an; Zhao, Ling; Hu, Ka-ming; Wu, Xi; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Gui-ping; Mang, Ling-ling; Qi, Qi-hua

    2011-04-01

    To explore the best intervention time of acupuncture and moxibustion for peripheral facial palsy (Bell's palsy) and the clinical advantage program of selective treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion. Multi-central large-sample randomized controlled trial was carried out. Nine hundreds cases of Bell's palsy were randomized into 5 treatment groups, named selective filiform needle group (group A), selective acupuncture + moxibustion group (group B), selective acupuncture + electroacupuncture (group C), selective acupuncture + line-up needling on muscle region of meridian group (group D) and non-selective filiform needle group (group E). Four sessions of treatment were required in each group. Separately, during the enrollment, after 4 sessions of treatment, in 1 month and 3 months of follow-up after treatment, House-Brackmann Scale, Facial Disability Index Scale and Degree of Facial Nerve Paralysis (NFNP) were adopted for efficacy assessment. And the efficacy systematic analysis was provided in view of the intervention time and nerve localization of disease separately. The curative rates of intervention in acute stage and resting stage were 50.1% (223/445) and 52.1% (162/311), which were superior to recovery stage (25.9%, 35/135) separately. There were no statistical significant differences in efficacy in comparison among 5 treatment programs at the same stage (all P > 0.05). The efficacy of intervention of group A and group E in acute stage was superior to that in recovery stage (both P < 0.01). The difference was significant statistically between the efficacy on the localization above chorda tympani nerve and that on the localization below the nerve in group D (P < 0.01). The efficacy on the localization below chorda tympani nerve was superior to the localization above the nerve. The best intervention time for the treatment of Bell's palsy is in acute stage and resting stage, meaning 1 to 3 weeks after occurrence. All of the 5 treatment programs are advantageous

  20. 24 CFR 3285.906 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.906... Installation Instructions § 3285.906 Telephone and cable TV. It is recommended that the installation instructions explain that telephone and cable TV wiring should be installed in accordance with requirements of...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.704 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.704....704 Telephone and cable TV. Refer to § 3285.906 for considerations pertinent to installation of telephone and cable TV. ...

  2. Possible effects of botswana's telephone number change on design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This change not only affects all telephone subscribers but also the design of telephone call charging systems and billing software. The design of call charging systems is based on the structure of the national and international telephone numbering scheme in a country. A change in this structure therefore affects the design of ...

  3. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay for telephone services.

  4. The telephone in family practice | Furman | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a time-and-motion study in family practice it was found that 35,8% of all patient contact was per telephone. The study further revealed that 12,3% of total practice time was spent on the telephone, stressing its importance as a useful tool. in family practice. The study supports others which suggest that 'telephone medicine' ...

  5. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and nonloan...

  6. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  7. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  8. 47 CFR 32.2351 - Public telephone terminal equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or premises wiring. These costs as well as the cost of replacing a public telephone shall be charged... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public telephone terminal equipment. 32.2351....2351 Public telephone terminal equipment. (a) This account shall include the original cost of coinless...

  9. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thais Marques; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2017-02-06

    to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283) with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p educativa por telefone na adesão das mulheres com periodicidade inadequada ao exame colpocitológico. estudo quase-experimental, com amostra constituída por 524 mulheres selecionadas conforme os critérios de inclusão: estar na faixa etária entre 25 e 64 anos, ter iniciado atividade sexual, estar com a periodicidade do exame inadequada e possuir telefone móvel ou fixo. As mulheres foram divididas em dois grupos para aplicação da intervenção comportamental e educativa por telefone. Utilizou-se um roteiro de intervenção segundo os preceitos da Entrevista Motivacional. ao comparar antes e depois das intervenções comportamental e educativa constatou-se que houve uma mudança estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,0283) no aumento do conhecimento das mulheres que participaram da intervenção educativa; não houve mudança comprovada na atitude das mulheres de nenhum dos grupos e houve um aumento da adesão ao exame colpocitológico nos dois grupos (p

  10. Applying technology to the treatment of cannabis use disorder: comparing telephone versus Internet delivery using data from two completed trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Sally E; Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Technology-based interventions such as those delivered by telephone or online may assist in removing significant barriers to treatment seeking for cannabis use disorder. Little research, however, has addressed differing technology-based treatments regarding their comparative effectiveness, and how user profiles may affect compliance and treatment satisfaction. This study addressed this issue by examining these factors in online (N=225) versus telephone (N=160) delivered interventions for cannabis use, using data obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials conducted by the current authors. Several differences emerged including stronger treatment effects (medium to large effect sizes in the telephone study versus small effect sizes in the Web study) and lower dropout in the telephone intervention (38% vs. 46%). Additionally, around half of the telephone study participants sought concurrent treatment, compared with 2% of participants in the Web study. Demographics and predictors of treatment engagement, retention and satisfaction also varied between the studies. Findings indicate that both telephone and Web-based treatments can be effective in assisting cannabis users to quit or reduce their use; however, participant characteristics may have important implications for treatment preference and outcome, with those who elect telephone-based treatment experiencing stronger outcomes. Thus, participant preference may shape study populations, adherence, and outcome. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differentiating intraprofessional attitudes toward paradigms in health care delivery among chiropractic factions: results from a randomly sampled survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background As health care has increased in complexity and health care teams have been offered as a solution, so too is there an increased need for stronger interprofessional collaboration. However the intraprofessional factions that exist within every profession challenge interprofessional communication through contrary paradigms. As a contender in the conservative spinal health care market, factions within chiropractic that result in unorthodox practice behaviours may compromise interprofessional relations and that profession’s progress toward institutionalization. The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the professional stratification among Canadian chiropractic practitioners and evaluate the practice perceptions of those factions. Methods A stratified random sample of 740 Canadian chiropractors was surveyed to determine faction membership and how professional stratification could be related to views that could be considered unorthodox to current evidence-based care and guidelines. Stratification in practice behaviours is a stated concern of mainstream medicine when considering interprofessional referrals. Results Of 740 deliverable questionnaires, 503 were returned for a response rate of 68%. Less than 20% of chiropractors (18.8%) were aligned with a predefined unorthodox perspective of the conditions they treat. Prediction models suggest that unorthodox perceptions of health practice related to treatment choices, x-ray use and vaccinations were strongly associated with unorthodox group membership (X2 =13.4, p = 0.0002). Conclusion Chiropractors holding unorthodox views may be identified based on response to specific beliefs that appear to align with unorthodox health practices. Despite continued concerns by mainstream medicine, only a minority of the profession has retained a perspective in contrast to current scientific paradigms. Understanding the profession’s factions is important to the anticipation of care delivery when considering

  12. A telephone intervention for dementia caregivers: background, design, and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremont, Geoffrey; Davis, Jennifer; Papandonatos, George D; Grover, Christine; Ott, Brian R; Fortinsky, Richard H; Gozalo, Pedro; Bishop, Duane S

    2013-11-01

    Family caregivers of individuals with dementia are at heightened risk for emotional and mental health problems. Many caregivers do not seek assistance or become isolated in their caregiving role. Multi-component interventions have demonstrated efficacy for reducing emotional distress and burden, although these approaches are potentially costly and are not widely accessible. In response to these issues, we developed the Family Intervention: Telephone Tracking - Caregiver (FITT-C), which is an entirely telephone-based psychosocial intervention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design, methodology, and baseline data for the trial. This study uses a randomized controlled trial design to examine the efficacy of the FITT-C to reduce depressive symptoms and burden in distressed dementia caregivers. All participants (n=250) received a packet of educational materials and were randomly assigned to receive 6 months of the FITT-C intervention or non-directive telephone support. The FITT-C intervention was designed to reduce distress in caregivers and is based on the McMaster Model of Family Functioning, transition theory, and Lazarus and Folkman's Stress and Coping Models. The primary dependent variables were depressive symptoms (Centers for Epidemiological Studies - Depression) and burden (Zarit Burden Interview, Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist - Reaction). Secondary outcome measures included family functioning, self-efficacy, and health-related quality of life. Results of the study will provide important data about the efficacy of a telephone-based approach to reduce distress in dementia caregivers. © 2013.

  13. Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Eunice; Alayli-Goebbels, Adrienne; Webel-Edgar, Lori; Muir, Sarah; Manson, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation. PMID:28462318

  14. Maintenance of the telephone exchange in building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In order to secure the power supply of the telephone exchange in Building 40, maintenance work will be done on 18th December from 7.30 am to 8 am. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services in Building 39 and 40 will be interrupted. The fixed telephone services in other CERN buildings will not be affected by this maintenance. The mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected. For more details, please send your questions to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch Telecom Services IT/CS

  15. Validation of multi-stage telephone-based identification of cognitive impairment and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui Helena

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many types of research on dementia and cognitive impairment require large sample sizes. Detailed in-person assessment using batteries of neuropyschologic testing is expensive. This study evaluates whether a brief telephone cognitive assessment strategy can reliably classify cognitive status when compared to an in-person "gold-standard" clinical assessment. Methods The gold standard assessment of cognitive status was conducted at the University of Southern California Alzheimer Disease Research Center (USC ADRC. It involved an examination of patients with a memory complaint by a neurologist or psychiatrist specializing in cognitive disorders and administration of a battery of neuropsychologic tests. The method being evaluated was a multi-staged assessment using the Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status-modified (TICSm with patients and the Telephone Dementia Questionnaire (TDQ with a proxy. Elderly male and female patients who had received the gold standard in-person assessment were asked to also undergo the telephone assessment. The unweighted kappa statistic was calculated to compare the gold standard and the multistage telephone assessment methods. Sensitivity for classification with dementia and specificity for classification as normal were also calculated. Results Of 50 patients who underwent the gold standard assessment and were referred for telephone assessment, 38 (76% completed the TICS. The mean age was 78.1 years and 26 (68% were female. When comparing the gold standard assessment and the telephone method for classifying subjects as having dementia or no dementia, the sensitivity of the telephone method was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.36, 1.00, the specificity was 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.89,1.00. Kappa was 0.89 (95% confidence interval 0.69, 1.000. Considering a gold-standard assessment of age-associated memory impairment as cognitive impairment, the sensitivity of the telephone approach is 0.38 (95

  16. The effects of mobile telephoning on driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookhuis, K A; de Vries, G; de Waard, D

    1991-08-01

    The effects of telephoning while driving were studied in three different traffic conditions, i.e. in light traffic on a quiet motorway, in heavy traffic on a four-lane ring-road, and in city traffic. Twelve subjects, unfamiliar with mobile telephones, drove an instrumented vehicle for one hour each day during three weeks and while in each of the three traffic conditions, had to operate the mobile telephone for a short while. To ensure a fixed "heavy traffic load" in the second condition, the subjects were instructed to follow another instrumented vehicle (at a safe distance). The results showed a significant effect of telephoning while driving as opposed to normal driving (i.e., not involving telephone conversation), on the effort subjectively measured by an effort scale and objectively measured by heartrate indices and on some of the measured parameters of driving performance. One half of the subjects had to operate the telephone manually, the other half performed the telephone task with a handsfree mobile telephone set. The subjects who operated the handsfree telephone showed better control over the test vehicle than the subjects who operated the handheld telephone, as measured by the steering wheel movements. Also, a clear improvement over time in the course of the 15 test days was found for some of the measurements. As a consequence of the results, some advice concerning mobile telephoning can be given to authorities, manufacturers, and users.

  17. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. "Just a telephone call away": transforming the nursing profession with telecare and telephone nursing triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Edtrina L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the Institute of Medicine's recommendations, the National Prevention Council Action Plan, the medical home model, and the nursing standards that drive quality for telephone nursing triage. These guidelines require reconceptualizing nursing roles, a commitment to lifelong learning, continued competence, and transformational leadership as demonstrated in a best practice case study. Given the changing climate of the healthcare system, telephone nurses are capable of improving healthcare delivery in the twenty-first century. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Telephone interviews and online questionnaires can be used to improve neurodevelopmental follow-up rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samantha; Seaton, Sarah E; Manktelow, Bradley N; Smith, Lucy K; Field, David; Draper, Elizabeth S; Marlow, Neil; Boyle, Elaine M

    2014-04-08

    Maximising response rates to neurodevelopmental follow-up is a key challenge for paediatric researchers. We have investigated the use of telephone interviews and online questionnaires to improve response rates, reduce non-response bias, maintain data completeness and produce unbiased outcomes compared with postal questionnaires when assessing neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years. A prospective cohort study of babies born ≥32 weeks gestation. Neurodevelopmental outcomes were assessed at 2 years of age using a parent questionnaire completed via post, telephone or online. Relative Risks with 95% confidence intervals (RR; 95% CI) were calculated to identify participant characteristics associated with non-response and questionnaire response mode (postal vs. telephone/online). The proportion of missing data and prevalence of adverse outcomes was compared between response modes using generalized linear models. Offering telephone/online questionnaires increased the study response rate from 55% to 60%. Telephone/online responders were more likely to be non-white (RR 1.6; [95% CI 1.1, 2.4]), non-English speaking (1.6; [1.0, 2.6]) or have a multiple birth (1.6; [1.1, 2.3]) than postal responders. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes between those who responded via post vs. telephone/online (1.1; [0.9, 1.4]). Where parents attempted all questionnaire sections, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing data between response modes. Where there is sufficient technology and resources, offering telephone interviews and online questionnaires can enhance response rates and improve sample representation to neurodevelopmental follow-up, whilst maintaining data completeness and unbiased outcomes.

  20. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  1. From Planning to Implementation: An Examination of Changes in the Research Design, Sample Size, and Precision of Group Randomized Trials Launched by the Institute of Education Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spybrook, Jessaca; Puente, Anne Cullen; Lininger, Monica

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the research design, sample size, and precision between the planning phase and implementation phase of group randomized trials (GRTs) funded by the Institute of Education Sciences. Thirty-eight GRTs funded between 2002 and 2006 were examined. Three studies revealed changes in the experimental design. Ten studies…

  2. Evaluating effectiveness of down-sampling for stratified designs and unbalanced prevalence in Random Forest models of tree species distributions in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracy S. Frescino

    2012-01-01

    Random Forests is frequently used to model species distributions over large geographic areas. Complications arise when data used to train the models have been collected in stratified designs that involve different sampling intensity per stratum. The modeling process is further complicated if some of the target species are relatively rare on the landscape leading to an...

  3. Patterns of Signs That Telephone Crisis Support Workers Associate with Suicide Risk in Telephone Crisis Line Callers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Hunt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Signs of suicide are commonly used in suicide intervention training to assist the identification of those at imminent risk for suicide. Signs of suicide may be particularly important to telephone crisis-line workers (TCWs, who have little background information to identify the presence of suicidality if the caller is unable or unwilling to express suicidal intent. Although signs of suicide are argued to be only meaningful as a pattern, there is a paucity of research that has examined whether TCWs use patterns of signs to decide whether a caller might be suicidal, and whether these are influenced by caller characteristics such as gender. The current study explored both possibilities. Data were collected using an online self-report survey in a Australian sample of 137 TCWs. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered three patterns of suicide signs that TCWs may use to identify if a caller might be at risk for suicide (mood, hopelessness, and anger, which were qualitatively different for male and female callers. These findings suggest that TCWs may recognise specific patterns of signs to identify suicide risk, which appear to be influenced to some extent by the callers’ inferred gender. Implications for the training of telephone crisis workers and others including mental-health and medical professionals, as well as and future research in suicide prevention are discussed.

  4. Patterns of Signs That Telephone Crisis Support Workers Associate with Suicide Risk in Telephone Crisis Line Callers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-30

    Signs of suicide are commonly used in suicide intervention training to assist the identification of those at imminent risk for suicide. Signs of suicide may be particularly important to telephone crisis-line workers (TCWs), who have little background information to identify the presence of suicidality if the caller is unable or unwilling to express suicidal intent. Although signs of suicide are argued to be only meaningful as a pattern, there is a paucity of research that has examined whether TCWs use patterns of signs to decide whether a caller might be suicidal, and whether these are influenced by caller characteristics such as gender. The current study explored both possibilities. Data were collected using an online self-report survey in a Australian sample of 137 TCWs. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered three patterns of suicide signs that TCWs may use to identify if a caller might be at risk for suicide (mood, hopelessness, and anger), which were qualitatively different for male and female callers. These findings suggest that TCWs may recognise specific patterns of signs to identify suicide risk, which appear to be influenced to some extent by the callers' inferred gender. Implications for the training of telephone crisis workers and others including mental-health and medical professionals, as well as and future research in suicide prevention are discussed.

  5. Changes in prevalence of, and risk factors for, lameness in random samples of English sheep flocks: 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Joanne R; Kaler, Jasmeet; Ferguson, Eamonn; KilBride, Amy L; Green, Laura E

    2015-11-01

    The aims of this study were to update the prevalence of lameness in sheep in England and identify novel risk factors. A total of 1260 sheep farmers responded to a postal survey. The survey captured detailed information on the period prevalence of lameness from May 2012-April 2013 and the prevalence and farmer naming of lesions attributable to interdigital dermatitis (ID), severe footrot (SFR), contagious ovine digital dermatitis (CODD) and shelly hoof (SH), management and treatment of lameness, and farm and flock details. The global mean period prevalence of lameness fell between 2004 and 2013 from 10.6% to 4.9% and the geometric mean period prevalence of lameness fell from 5.4% (95% CL: 4.7%-6.0%) to 3.5% (95% CI: 3.3%-3.7%). In 2013, more farmers were using vaccination and antibiotic treatment for ID and SFR and fewer farmers were using foot trimming as a routine or therapeutic treatment than in 2004. Two over-dispersed Poisson regression models were developed with the outcome the period prevalence of lameness, one investigated associations with farmer estimates of prevalence of the four foot lesions and one investigated associations with management practices to control and treat lameness and footrot. A prevalence of ID>10%, SFR>2.5% and CODD>2.5% were associated with a higher prevalence of lameness compared with those lesions being absent, however, the prevalence of SH was not associated with a change in risk of lameness. A key novel management risk associated with higher prevalence of lameness was the rate of feet bleeding/100 ewes trimmed/year. In addition, vaccination of ewes once per year and selecting breeding replacements from never-lame ewes were associated with a decreased risk of lameness. Other factors associated with a lower risk of lameness for the first time in a random sample of farmers and a full risk model were: recognising lameness in sheep at locomotion score 1 compared with higher scores, treatment of the first lame sheep in a group compared

  6. Nutritional status and falls in community-dwelling older people: a longitudinal study of a population-based random sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Ming-Hung; Guo, How-Ran

    2014-01-01

    Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET). SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2) in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey. At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation= 9.1) years, and 467 participants were "not well-nourished," which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42) for "not well-nourished," 1.57 (1.30, 1.90) for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04) for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98) for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72) for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58) for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91) for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living. Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly.

  7. Quality of life of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode: development and use of a telephone questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubé Eve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative consequences of acute otitis media (AOM on the quality of life (QOL of children and their families need to be measured to assess benefits of preventive interventions. Methods A new questionnaire was specifically designed for use in telephone surveys. A random sample of Canadian families was selected using random-digit dialling. Caregivers of children 6-59 months of age who experienced at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months were interviewed. Multidimensional severity and global QOL scores were measured both for affected children and their caregivers. Internal consistency of scores was assessed using standard tests. Results Of the 502 eligible caregivers who completed the survey, 161 (32% reported at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months and these cases were included in the analysis. Average severity was 2.6 for children and 2.4 for caregivers on a 1 to 4 scale (maximum severity. Cronbach alpha values were 0.78 and 0.81 for the severity score of children and caregivers respectively. Average QOL was 3.4 for children and 3.5 for caregivers on a 1 to 5 scale (best QOL. There was moderate to high correlation between severity and QOL scores, and between these scores and duration of AOM episodes. Conclusions The questionnaire was easy to use during telephone interviews and results suggest good reliability and validity of the different scores to measure AOM severity and QOL of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode.

  8. Testing a Model of Functional Impairment in Telephone Crisis Support Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that helping professionals experience functional impairment related to elevated symptoms of psychological distress as a result of frequent empathic engagement with distressed others. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of factors contributing to functional impairment in telephone crisis support workers. A national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers completed an online survey including measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of general psychological distress and suicidal ideation, intentions to seek help for symptoms, and functional impairment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of emotion regulation, general psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and intentions to seek help for ideation on functional impairment. These results warrant the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' impairment through service selection, training, supervision, and professional development strategies. Future research replicating and extending this model will further inform the modification and/or development of strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  9. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  10. Effects of telephone versus face-to-face interview modes on reports of alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, T K; Midanik, L T; Rogers, J D

    2000-02-01

    In order to assess the effects of survey modality on alcohol consumption estimates, data from two surveys using different interview modes (face-to-face and telephone) were compared on several alcohol measures. Face-to-face survey data were drawn from the 1990 National Alcohol Survey, while the telephone data came from the 1990 Warning Labels Survey. Both surveys used a probability sampling of the US adult general population in the 48 contiguous states. Measures of alcohol use derived from an identical "graduated frequencies" series included estimates of any drinking in the past 12 months, overall volume, and heavy (5+) drinking days. Abstention rates did not differ by survey mode, nor did distributions of alcohol consumption by volume and reported frequency of drinking five or more drinks in a day. Multiple regression models including demographic-mode interaction terms were used to examine how mode effects might differ across demographic subgroups. Lower income respondents were under-represented in the telephone sample, and were associated with lower reports of volume and 5+ days, compared to respondents in the face-to-face mode. The results suggest that although there are few differences in alcohol consumption estimates by interview mode, telephone samples may need to be supplemented or estimates adjusted by income level in order to attain equivalent results.

  11. Telephone speech comprehension with use of the nucleus cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, N L; Waltzman, S B; Shapiro, W H

    1989-08-01

    The reported telephone usage by cochlear implant recipients has become a major issue of controversy. Although patients and clinicians report good communication skills via the telephone, no standardized tests have been used and no quantifiable results have been reported. In an effort to determine the extent to which our better-performing patients can use the telephone, we established a clinical protocol to assess their ability to recognize speech, taking into consideration the problems inherent in telephone testing. Eight cochlear implant recipients were administered the NU-6 Monosyllabic Word Test and the City University of New York Topic Related Sentences under the following listening conditions: soundfield in a soundproof suite and via telephone within the hospital, locally, and long-distance. Twenty-three percent of the patients implanted at New York University Medical Center demonstrated a significant degree of telephone communication ability.

  12. Stages of change of the readiness to quit smoking among a random sample of minority Arab male smokers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Hayek, Samah; Sheikh Muhammad, Ahmad; Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Osman, Amira; Thrasher, James F; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra

    2015-07-16

    Despite advanced smoking prevention and cessation policies in many countries, the prevalence of cigarette smoking among indigenous and some ethnic minorities continues to be high. This study examined the stages of change (SOC) of the readiness to quit smoking among Arab men in Israel shortly after new regulations of free-of-charge smoking cessation workshops and subsidized medications were introduced through primary health care clinics. We conducted a countrywide study in Israel between 2012-2013. Participants, 735 current smokers; 18-64 years old; were recruited from a stratified random sample and interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire in Arabic. We used ordered regression to examine the contribution of socio-economic position (SEP), health status, psychosocial attributes, smoking-related factors, and physician advice to the SOC of the readiness to quit smoking (pre-contemplation, contemplation and preparation). Of the current smokers, 61.8% were at the pre-contemplation stage, 23.8% were at the contemplation stage, and only 14.4% were at the preparation stage. In the multinomial analysis, factors significantly (P stage compared to pre-contemplation stage included [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI)]: chronic morbidity [0.52, (0.31-0.88)], social support [1.35, (1.07-1.70)], duration of smoking for 11-21 years [1.94, (1.07-3.50)], three or more previous attempts to quit [2.27, (1.26-4.01)], knowledge about smoking hazards [1.75, (1.29-2.35)], positive attitudes toward smoking prevention [1.44, (1.14-1.82)], and physician advice to quit smoking [1.88, (1.19-2.97)]. The factors significantly (P stage compared to pre-contemplation stage were [OR, (95 % CI)]: chronic morbidity [0.36, (0.20-0.67)], anxiety [1.07, (1.01-1.13)], social support [1.34, (1.01-1.78)], duration of smoking 5 years or less [2.93, (1.14-7.52)], three or more previous attempts to quit [3.16, (1.60-6.26)], knowledge about smoking hazards [1.57, (1.10-2.21)], and

  13. The Accuracy of Pass/Fail Decisions in Random and Difficulty-Balanced Domain-Sampling Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnipke, Deborah L.

    A common practice in some certification fields (e.g., information technology) is to draw items from an item pool randomly and apply a common passing score, regardless of the items administered. Because these tests are commonly used, it is important to determine how accurate the pass/fail decisions are for such tests and whether fairly small,…

  14. The Effect of Telephone Counseling and Education on Breast Cancer Screening in Family Caregivers of Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiriani, Khadijeh; Motevasselian, Monireh; Farnia, Farahnaz; Shiryazdi, Seyed Mostafa; Khodayarian, Mahsa

    2017-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy among females. Family history is a key risk factor for breast cancer. Breast cancer screening practices are vital in patients with family history of breast cancer. Telephone counseling and education may be appropriate for improved breast cancer screening. This study was done to determine family caregiver patients' knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening and also to assess the effect of telephone counseling and education on mammography screening. This study was a community-based trial. The participants of the study were 90 caregivers who were randomly divided into an experimental group, telephone counseling and education, and a control group. The intervention group received counseling and education phone calls. A three-section questionnaire was responded and filled out through telephone interviews with the participants. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18, using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results showed that 88.9% of the participants did not know when to do breast self-exam (BSE). Mammography was performed by the participants before and after the telephone counseling in intervention group (Ppatients was low. Telephone counseling and educating may provide a suitable technique for earlier detection of breast cancer in family caregivers of breast cancer patients and it can influence the decision making regarding mammography screening among 40-year-old or older women. Trial Registration Number: 2017052316870N3.

  15. Mobile telephones, distracted attention, and pedestrian safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Jack; Hecht, Peter; Wener, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Driver distraction is a major cause of traffic accidents, with mobile telephones as a key source of distraction. In two studies, we examined distraction of pedestrians associated with mobile phone use. The first had 60 participants walk along a prescribed route, with half of them conversing on a mobile phone, and the other half holding the phone awaiting a potential call, which never came. Comparison of the performance of the groups in recalling objects planted along the route revealed that pedestrians conversing recalled fewer objects than did those not conversing. The second study had three observers record pedestrian behavior of mobile phone users, i-pod users, and pedestrians with neither one at three crosswalks. Mobile phone users crossed unsafely into oncoming traffic significantly more than did either of the other groups. For pedestrians as with drivers, cognitive distraction from mobile phone use reduces situation awareness, increases unsafe behavior, putting pedestrians at greater risk for accidents, and crime victimization.

  16. Telephone operator change: your questions answered

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be changing mobile telephone operators on 24 June. As the community prepares for the summer switchover, everyone has questions. What brought on the change? Why are we losing our old phone numbers? What kind of improvements will we see? "Just as with every contract at CERN, we issue calls for tenders every few years to ensure we are still receiving the best possible service," explains Tony Cass, from the Communication Systems group within the IT department. "As we came to the end of our contract with Sunrise, we put out a call for tenders, which was won by Swisscom. Not only is their pricing more competitive, they will also be providing better service conditions." The scope of these new service conditions is multifaceted: there will be improvements to the redundancy and reliability of the network as well as modern 4G network coverage in the LHC tunnel. "People will also see their mobile phone bills decrease," says Tony. "This will esp...

  17. Patient confidentiality and telephone consultations: time for a password.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, D K; Car, J

    2006-12-01

    Although telephone consultations are widely used in the delivery of healthcare, they are vulnerable to breaches of patient confidentiality. Current guidelines on telephone consultations do not address adequately the issue of confidentiality. In this paper, we propose a solution to the a password system to control access to patient information. Authorised persons will be offered the option of selecting a password which they will use to validate their request for information over the telephone. This simple yet stringent method of access control should improve security while allowing the continuing evolution of telephone consultations.

  18. 47 CFR 36.374 - Telephone operator services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the central office, private branch exchange, teletypewriter exchange, and at public telephone stations..., REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1 Operating Expenses and Taxes...

  19. Cognitive-behavioral therapy in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use: effect of telephone-administered vs. face-to-face treatment – A secondary analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalapatapu, Raj K.; Ho, Joyce; Cai, Xuan; Vinogradov, Sophia; Batki, Steven L.; Mohr, David C.

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a larger study compared adherence to telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy (T-CBT) vs. face-to-face CBT and depression outcomes in depressed primary care patients with co-occurring problematic alcohol use. To our knowledge, T-CBT has never been directly compared to face-to-face CBT in such a sample of primary care patients. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to face-to-face CBT or T-CBT for depression. Participants receiving T-CBT (n = 50) and...

  20. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  1. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations

    OpenAIRE

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential, intervention or treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level DTR, the intervention or treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including based on aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that comprise it. Cluster-randomized sequentia...

  2. Approximating the variance of estimated means for systematic random sampling, illustrated with data of the French Soil Monitoring Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Saby, N.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In France like in many other countries, the soil is monitored at the locations of a regular, square grid thus forming a systematic sample (SY). This sampling design leads to good spatial coverage, enhancing the precision of design-based estimates of spatial means and totals. Design-based

  3. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (G894T) gene polymorphism in a random sample of the Egyptian population: comparison with myocardial infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gad, Mohamed Z; Abdel Rahman, Mohamed F; Hashad, Ingy M; Abdel-Maksoud, Sahar M; Farag, Nabil M; Abou-Aisha, Khaled

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to detect endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) Glu298Asp gene variants in a random sample of the Egyptian population, compare it with those from other populations, and attempt to correlate these variants with serum levels of nitric oxide (NO). The association of eNOS genotypes or serum NO levels with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was also examined. One hundred one unrelated healthy subjects and 104 unrelated AMI patients were recruited randomly from the 57357 Hospital and intensive care units of El Demerdash Hospital and National Heart Institute, Cairo, Egypt. eNOS genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Serum NO was determined spectrophotometrically. The genotype distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism determined for our sample was 58.42% GG (wild type), 33.66% GT, and 7.92% TT genotypes while allele frequencies were 75.25% and 24.75% for G and T alleles, respectively. No significant association between serum NO and specific eNOS genotype could be detected. No significant correlation between eNOS genotype distribution or allele frequencies and the incidence of AMI was observed. The present study demonstrated the predominance of the homozygous genotype GG over the heterozygous GT and homozygous TT in random samples of Egyptian population. It also showed the lack of association between eNOS genotypes and mean serum levels of NO, as well as the incidence of AMI.

  4. Determinants of male reproductive health disorders: the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittert Gary

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between reproductive health disorders and lifestyle factors in middle-aged and older men is not clear. The aim of this study is to describe lifestyle and biomedical associations as possible causes of erectile dysfunction (ED, prostate disease (PD, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and perceived symptoms of androgen deficiency (pAD in a representative population of middle-aged and older men, using the Men in Australia Telephone Survey (MATeS. Methods A representative sample (n = 5990 of men aged 40+ years, stratified by age and State, was contacted by random selection of households, with an individual response rate of 78%. All men participated in a 20-minute computer-assisted telephone interview exploring general and reproductive health. Associations between male reproductive health disorders and lifestyle and biomedical factors were analysed using multivariate logistic regression (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]. Variables studied included age, body mass index, waist circumference, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, co-morbid disease and medication use for hypertension, high cholesterol and symptoms of depression. Results Controlling for age and a range of lifestyle and co-morbid exposures, sedentary lifestyle and being underweight was associated with an increased likelihood of ED (1.4 [1.1-1.8]; 2.9 [1.5-5.8], respectively and pAD (1.3 [1.1-1.7]; 2.7 [1.4-5.0], respectively. Diabetes and cardiovascular disease were both associated with ED, with hypertension strongly associated with LUTS and pAD. Current smoking (inverse association and depressive symptomatology were the only variables independently associated with PD. All reproductive disorders showed consistent associations with depression (measured either by depressive symptomatology or medication use in both age-adjusted and multivariate analyses. Conclusion A range of lifestyle factors, more often associated with chronic disease, were

  5. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  6. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  7. Role of telephone monitoring in patients with chronic heart failure: theory and practical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Host JF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Farroni Host, Ayesha Hasan Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Wexner Medical Center at the Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: With the aging of the world's population and the rise of chronic illness such as heart failure (HF, the economic burden, number of hospitalizations, and penalties imposed for failure to meet hospital readmission expectations will continue to rise, thus increasing pressure on clinicians to utilize successful HF monitoring interventions to improve these measures. Telephone monitoring in patients with chronic HF utilizes a proactive approach in the care of such patients, and for this review is grouped into three categories, ie, structured telephone support, telemonitoring, and remote implantable device monitoring. Earlier studies on structured telephone support and telemonitoring suggested a clear benefit on mortality and HF admissions, although several recent large, randomized controlled studies have been neutral. Optimizing medical therapy requires an accurate assessment of volume status by the clinician; therefore, symptom report and weight monitoring alone are often challenging in the identification of true HF decompensation because they are not very sensitive markers. The use of remote monitoring technology for follow-up of patients with implantable devices, including implantable cardiac defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices, can aid in identifying HF decompensation. Self-care or self-management is an essential component of a chronic illness such as HF, and it is important for such patients to be engaged in their health care to best utilize the telephone monitoring intervention. System design, adequate staffing, patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence are important for success of the telemonitoring system. Telephone monitoring seems to be an effective approach in the chronic HF population. In the future, large-scale telemonitoring programs may come into place as

  8. Children's experiences with chat support and telephone support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukkink, R.G.; Hermanns, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: In line with the wider trend of offering support via the Internet, many counseling and referral services for children have introduced online chat, often in addition to a traditional telephone service. Methods: A comparative study was conducted between the telephone service and the

  9. 76 FR 60765 - Mail or Telephone Order Merchandise Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ..., not telephone dial-up. \\19\\ U.S. Census Bureau, E-Stats, 2007 E-Commerce Multi-Sector Report, May 28... Mail-Order Houses--Total and E-Commerce Sales by Merchandise Line: 2006-2007. Second, consumer... buyers access the Internet (e.g., dial-up telephone modem, cable, or wireless); (2) allow sellers to...

  10. Design and implementation of telephone dialer based on Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zilong; Lei, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Introduces a system design scheme of the telephone dialer based on Arduino, including the design principle, hardware and software design and the experimental results in this paper. The scheme is based on the dual tone multi frequency (DTMF) dialing mode, using the Arduino UNO as the main controller, the serial port send out the telephone number to be dialed, speaker synthesize the voice.

  11. 47 CFR 73.1206 - Broadcast of telephone conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast of telephone conversations. 73.1206 Section 73.1206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1206 Broadcast of telephone...

  12. Supplemental Analysis Survey of C&P Telephone Inside Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    year period of amortization of the remaining unrecovered investment would better avoid the problems of intergenerational inequities than the current...means of safeguarding the subscriber’s premises and telephone network from atmospheric or other electrical discharges through the outside telephone

  13. 49 CFR 195.52 - Telephonic notice of certain accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telephonic notice of certain accidents. 195.52... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.52 Telephonic notice of certain accidents. (a) At the earliest practicable moment following discovery of a...

  14. 77 FR 18258 - Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Government-to-Government Telephonic Consultation Meetings AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. SUMMARY: The National Park Service announces two telephonic government- to-government...

  15. Privacy: The Reporter, the Telephone, and the Tape Recorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Sam G.; Wiessler, Joel M.

    Federal and state law provides, for the most part, little specific guidance to persons tape recording their own telephone calls for their own record-keeping purposes. In a specific case, a Pennsylvania newsman was prosecuted in 1972 on charges of wiretapping his own telephone conversations without notice to the other parties in the calls. A review…

  16. THE EFFECTS OF MOBILE TELEPHONING ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, KA; DEVRIES, G; DEWAARD, D

    The effects of telephoning while driving were studied in three different traffic conditions, i.e. in light traffic on a quiet motorway, in heavy traffic on a four-lane ring-road, and in city traffic. Twelve subjects, unfamiliar with mobile telephones, drove an instrumented vehicle for one hour each

  17. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology.......The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology....

  18. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... if it provides internal means for effective use with hearing aids that are designed to be compatible... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible...

  19. 26 CFR 49.4252-2 - Toll telephone service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subscriber for toll telephone service furnished to the hotel or its guests, but no tax attaches to any charge made by the hotel for service rendered in placing the calls for its guests. (c) Cross reference. For... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Toll telephone service. 49.4252-2 Section 49...

  20. 26 CFR 49.4252-1 - General telephone service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... total charge made to a hotel or similar subscriber for general telephone service furnished to the hotel or its guests, but no tax attaches to any charge made by the hotel for service rendered in placing... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true General telephone service. 49.4252-1 Section 49...

  1. Genetically predicted body mass index and Alzheimer's disease-related phenotypes in three large samples: Mendelian randomization analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shubhabrata; Walter, Stefan; Kauwe, John S K; Saykin, Andrew J; Bennett, David A; Larson, Eric B; Crane, Paul K; Glymour, M Maria

    2015-12-01

    Observational research shows that higher body mass index (BMI) increases Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, but it is unclear whether this association is causal. We applied genetic variants that predict BMI in Mendelian randomization analyses, an approach that is not biased by reverse causation or confounding, to evaluate whether higher BMI increases AD risk. We evaluated individual-level data from the AD Genetics Consortium (ADGC: 10,079 AD cases and 9613 controls), the Health and Retirement Study (HRS: 8403 participants with algorithm-predicted dementia status), and published associations from the Genetic and Environmental Risk for AD consortium (GERAD1: 3177 AD cases and 7277 controls). No evidence from individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms or polygenic scores indicated BMI increased AD risk. Mendelian randomization effect estimates per BMI point (95% confidence intervals) were as follows: ADGC, odds ratio (OR) = 0.95 (0.90-1.01); HRS, OR = 1.00 (0.75-1.32); GERAD1, OR = 0.96 (0.87-1.07). One subscore (cellular processes not otherwise specified) unexpectedly predicted lower AD risk. Copyright © 2015 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Family constellation seminars improve psychological functioning in a general population sample: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, Jan; Hunger, Christina; Bornhäuser, Annette; Link, Leoni; Rochon, Justine; Wild, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2013-10-01

    The study examined the efficacy of nonrecurring family constellation seminars on psychological health. We conducted a monocentric, single-blind, stratified, and balanced randomized controlled trial (RCT). After choosing their roles for participating in a family constellation seminar as either active participant (AP) or observing participant (OP), 208 adults (M = 48 years, SD = 10; 79% women) from the general population were randomly allocated to the intervention group (IG; 3-day family constellation seminar; 64 AP, 40 OP) or a wait-list control group (WLG; 64 AP, 40 OP). It was predicted that family constellation seminars would improve psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire OQ-45.2) at 2-week and 4-month follow-ups. In addition, we assessed the impact of family constellation seminars on psychological distress and motivational incongruence. The IG showed significantly improved psychological functioning (d = 0.45 at 2-week follow-up, p = .003; d = 0.46 at 4-month follow-up, p = .003). Results were confirmed for psychological distress and motivational incongruence. No adverse events were reported. This RCT provides evidence for the efficacy of family constellation in a nonclinical population. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Effects of delayed compared with early umbilical cord clamping on maternal postpartum hemorrhage and cord blood gas sampling: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ola; Hellström-Westas, Lena; Andersson, Dan; Clausen, Jesper; Domellöf, Magnus

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effect of delayed cord clamping (DCC) compared with early cord clamping (ECC) on maternal postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and umbilical cord blood gas sampling. Secondary analysis of a parallel-group, single-center, randomized controlled trial. Swedish county hospital. 382 term deliveries after a low-risk pregnancy. Deliveries were randomized to DCC (≥180 seconds, n = 193) or ECC (≤10 seconds, n = 189). Maternal blood loss was estimated by the midwife. Samples for blood gas analysis were taken from one umbilical artery and the umbilical vein, from the pulsating unclamped cord in the DCC group and from the double-clamped cord in the ECC group. Samples were classified as valid when the arterial-venous difference was -0.02 or less for pH and 0.5 kPa or more for pCO2 . Main outcome measures. PPH and proportion of valid blood gas samples. The differences between the DCC and ECC groups with regard to PPH (1.2%, p = 0.8) and severe PPH (-2.7%, p = 0.3) were small and non-significant. The proportion of valid blood gas samples was similar between the DCC (67%, n = 130) and ECC (74%, n = 139) groups, with 6% (95% confidence interval: -4%-16%, p = 0.2) fewer valid samples after DCC. Delayed cord clamping, compared with early, did not have a significant effect on maternal postpartum hemorrhage or on the proportion of valid blood gas samples. We conclude that delayed cord clamping is a feasible method from an obstetric perspective. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Sample size determination for assessing equivalence based on proportion ratio under a randomized trial with non-compliance and missing outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2008-01-15

    When a generic drug is developed, it is important to assess the equivalence of therapeutic efficacy between the new and the standard drugs. Although the number of publications on testing equivalence and its relevant sample size determination is numerous, the discussion on sample size determination for a desired power of detecting equivalence under a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with non-compliance and missing outcomes is limited. In this paper, we derive under the compound exclusion restriction model the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for the ratio of probabilities of response among compliers between two treatments in a RCT with both non-compliance and missing outcomes. Using the MLE with the logarithmic transformation, we develop an asymptotic test procedure for assessing equivalence and find that this test procedure can perform well with respect to type I error based on Monte Carlo simulation. We further develop a sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting equivalence at a nominal alpha-level. To evaluate the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula, we apply Monte Carlo simulation again to calculate the simulated power of the proposed test procedure corresponding to the resulting sample size for a desired power of 80 per cent at 0.05 level in a variety of situations. We also include a discussion on determining the optimal ratio of sample size allocation subject to a desired power to minimize a linear cost function and provide a sensitivity analysis of the sample size formula developed here under an alterative model with missing at random. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Advancing Telephone Focus Groups Method Through the Use of Webinar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Chong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telephone focus groups have been increasingly popular in public health research and evaluation. One of the main concerns of telephone focus groups is the lack of nonverbal cues among participants, which could limit group interactions and dynamics during the focus group discussion. To overcome this limitation, we supplemented telephone focus groups with webinar technology in a recent evaluation of a provincial public health program in Ontario, Canada. In this article, we share the methods used and our experiences in conducting telephone focus groups supplemented with webinar technology, including advantages and challenges. Our experience will inform other researchers who may consider using telephone focus groups with webinars in future research and evaluation.

  6. Telephone: The Old Technology that is Never Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Philip Aborisade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telephone technology is a technology that stands the test of time. Since it was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Belle, it remains the technology of all time. This article reports the major finding of a recent research, how technology transforms citizen journalism business in Nigeria. According to the research, Telephone technology has over the years emerged the major tool with which ordinary citizens in Nigeria without journalism and media background or affiliation participate in the process of news gathering, reporting and distribution. Guided by the recent use of telephone around the world by ordinary citizens to report themselves during protests through different social media outlets-Facebook, Tweeter, Youtube, the article illuminates the evergreen nature of the telephone. The article therefore concluded that the telephone technology invented in 1876 has survived the test of time. Instead of being obsolete, it blends with emerging communications technology to improve on its performance.

  7. The Significance of Mobile Telephoning in Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Dobnik

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities offered by the telephone for use in distance learning are well known, yet stili far too little used. Consultation by telephone means establishing a live contact between the two people who are communicating, and the opportunity for directly solving the problems. Furthermore, it ensures great rationalization in time­usage, since both the mentor and the student can carry out the consultation at any place which suits them; all that matters is that they are prepared for the discussion. Through the interlinking of the mobile telephone system with the Internet, the access to information on the Internet and to e-mail shifts from the computer to the mobile telephone, thus further increasing the advantages of the mobile telephone over other means of communication.

  8. Variance results for the second and third reduced sample moments in neutron multiplicity counting for randomly triggered or signal-triggered counting gates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, T. [Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: tburr@lanl.gov; Butterfield, K. [Advanced Nuclear Technology Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F600, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Neutron multiplicity counting is an established method to estimate the spontaneous fission rate, and therefore also the plutonium mass for example, in a sample that includes other neutron sources. The extent to which the sample and detector obey the 'point model' assumptions impacts the estimate's total measurement error, but, in nearly all cases, for the random error contribution, it is useful to evaluate the variances of the second and third reduced sample moments of the neutron source strength. Therefore, this paper derives exact expressions for the variances and covariances of the second and third reduced sample moments for either randomly triggered or signal-triggered non-overlapping counting gates, and compares them to the corresponding variances in simulated data. Approximate expressions are also provided for the case of overlapping counting gates. These variances and covariances are useful in figure of merit calculations to predict assay performance prior to data collection. In addition, whenever real data are available, a bootstrap method is presented as an alternate but effective way to estimate these variances.

  9. Telephonic analysis of the snoring sound spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seren, Erdal; Ilhanlı, Ilker; Bayar Muluk, Nuray; Cingi, Cemal; Hanci, Deniz

    2014-11-01

    Snoring is a sound caused by vibration of collapsed and/or unsteady airway walls of the pharynx and soft palate. We compared stored spectra of snoring sounds recorded via cell phone (CP) and a microphone placed over the head (head phone [HP]). Thirty-four snoring patients were included in this prospective study. Groups were identified by reference to body mass index (BMI) values: group 1, BMI obese patients of group 3, almost all F(max) and SSIL values were higher than those of groups 1 and 2. In particular, the CP F(max) values were elevated in such patients. The advanced technologies used in modern CPs may allow some snoring sounds in susceptible individuals to be defined as oronasal. Cell phone technology allows snoring to be evaluated in patients located in areas remote from a hospital. To explore the intensity of snoring and to postoperatively monitor the efficacy of surgery used to treat snoring, telephonic sound analysis is both new and effective and reduces the need for patient attendance at a hospital. Those experiencing severe snoring and/or who are obese should be told of what can be done to solve such problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A double-blind randomized controlled trial to study the efficacy of topiramate in a civilian sample of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Mary S L; Mari, Jair Jesus; Costa, Mariana Caddrobi Pupo; Andreoli, Sergio Baxter; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Mello, Marcelo Feijó

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study comparing topiramate to placebo. Men and women aged 18-62 years with diagnosis of PTSD according to DSM-IV were recruited from the outpatient clinic of the violence program of Federal University of São Paulo Hospital (Prove-UNIFESP), São Paulo City, between April 2006 and December 2009. Subjects were assessed for the Clinician-Administered Posttraumatic Stress Scale (CAPS), Clinical Global Impression, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). After 1-week period of washout, 35 patients were randomized to either group. The primary outcome measure was the CAPS total score changes from baseline to the endpoint. 82.35% of patients in the topiramate group exhibited improvements in PTSD symptoms. The efficacy analysis demonstrated that patients in the topiramate group exhibited significant improvements in reexperiencing symptoms: flashbacks, intrusive memories, and nightmares of the trauma (CAPS-B; P= 0.04) and in avoidance/numbing symptoms associated with the trauma, social isolation, and emotional numbing (CAPS-C; P= 0.0001). Furthermore, the experimental group demonstrated a significant difference in decrease in CAPS total score (topiramate -57.78; placebo -32.41; P= 0.0076). Mean topiramate dose was 102.94 mg/d. Topiramate was generally well tolerated. Topiramate was effective in improving reexperiencing and avoidance/numbing symptom clusters in patients with PTSD. This study supports the use of anticonvulsants for the improvement of symptoms of PTSD. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. An econometric method for estimating population parameters from non-random samples: An application to clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Rulof P; McLaren, Zoë M

    2017-09-01

    The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision. We use a generalized method of moments with instrumental variables and maximum likelihood to estimate the population prevalence of the characteristic of interest and the agents' accuracy in identifying targets. We apply this method to tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide. We use a national database of TB test data from South Africa to examine testing for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Approximately one quarter of MDR-TB cases was undiagnosed between 2004 and 2010. The official estimate of 2.5% is therefore too low, and MDR-TB prevalence is as high as 3.5%. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be between 0.5 and 1. Our approach is widely applicable because of the availability of routinely collected data and abundance of potential instruments. Using routinely collected data to monitor population prevalence can guide evidence-based policy making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Purposive versus random sampling for map validation: a case study on ecotope maps of floodplains in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knotters, M.; Brus, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of ecotope maps of five districts of main water courses in the Netherlands was assessed on the basis of independent validation samples of field observations. The overall proportion of area correctly classified, and user's and producer's accuracy for each map unit were estimated. In four

  13. Estimation of the Box Correction for Degrees of Freedom from Sample Data in Randomized Block and Split-Plot Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Huynh; Feldt, Leonard S.

    1976-01-01

    When the variance assumptions of a repeated measures ANOVA are not met, the F distribution of the mean square ratio should be adjusted by the sample estimate of the Box correction factor. An alternative is proposed which is shown by Monte Carlo methods to be less biased for a moderately large factor. (RC)

  14. Randomized controlled trial of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle sampling with or without suction for better cytological diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puri, Rajesh; Vilmann, Peter; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    ). The samples were characterized for cellularity and bloodiness, with a final cytology diagnosis established blindly. The final diagnosis was reached either by EUS-FNA if malignancy was definite, or by surgery and/or clinical follow-up of a minimum of 6 months in the cases of non-specific benign lesions...

  15. HPV self-sampling or the Pap-smear: a randomized study among cervical screening nonattenders from lower socioeconomic groups in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho-Garnier, H; Tamalet, C; Halfon, P; Leandri, F X; Le Retraite, L; Djoufelkit, K; Heid, P; Davies, P; Piana, L

    2013-12-01

    Today in France, low attendance to cervical screening by Papanicolaou cytology (Pap-smear) is a major contributor to the 3,000 new cervical cancer cases and 1,000 deaths that occur from this disease every year. Nonattenders are mostly from lower socioeconomic groups and testing of self-obtained samples for high-risk Human Papilloma virus (HPV) types has been proposed as a method to increase screening participation in these groups. In 2011, we conducted a randomized study of women aged 35-69 from very low-income populations around Marseille who had not responded to an initial invitation for a free Pap-smear. After randomization, one group received a second invitation for a free Pap-smear and the other group was offered a free self-sampling kit for HPV testing. Participation rates were significantly different between the two groups with only 2.0% of women attending for a Pap-smear while 18.3% of women returned a self-sample for HPV testing (p ≤ 0.001). The detection rate of high-grade lesions (≥CIN2) was 0.2‰ in the Pap-smear group and 1.25‰ in the self-sampling group (p = 0.01). Offering self-sampling increased participation rates while the use of HPV testing increased the detection of cervical lesions (≥CIN2) in comparison to the group of women receiving a second invitation for a Pap-smear. However, low compliance to follow-up in the self-sampling group reduces the effectiveness of this screening approach in nonattenders women and must be carefully managed. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  16. Very low birth-weight infants: parental visiting and telephoning during initial infant hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L P; York, R; Jacobsen, B; Gennaro, S; Brooten, D

    1989-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine visiting and telephoning patterns of families of very low birth-weight (VLBW) infants during their initial hospitalization and to identify factors related to visiting and telephoning. The sample of 65 VLBW infants (less than or equal to 1,500 gm) and their families was followed for 6 weeks in the special care nurseries. Mothers were the primary visitors, with the typical mother visiting the nursery twice per week. Fathers and other family members made most of their visits in the first few weeks with minimal involvement thereafter. During a typical week the number of telephone calls to the nursery from mothers ranged from one to three. Fathers and other family members made minimal calls. Significantly fewer visits were made by families in which the mother was unmarried, the mother was younger, Medicaid was the type of insurance, annual income was less than $10,000, and private transportation was unavailable. There were no significant relationships between total number of telephone calls made and maternal demographic variables.

  17. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Härter

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients' self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC in chronically ill patients.This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1 multiple conditions (chronic campaign, 2 heart failure (heart failure campaign, or 3 chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD, frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR. Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR. Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596 in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322 in the heart failure campaign, and of

  18. Telephone techniques and etiquette: a medical practice staff training tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2007-01-01

    The telephone is usually the first contact a prospective or new patient has with a medical practice. It is also the method that existing patients and others commonly use to ask questions or convey information. At the same time, a telephone that rings off the hook can be one of the biggest drains on staff time and a source of tremendous frustration. This article suggests practical techniques for managing the medical practice telephone. It provides seven never-fail strategies for saving time on the phone while remaining courteous and attentive to callers. It offers tips to help readers avoid getting caught in an endless game of telephone tag. The article highlights strategies that work particularly well when placing calls and when dealing with a busy signal or voicemail system problem in the practice. It also describes the fine points for taking accurate and complete telephone messages without turning off callers or misleading them. This article further explores practical strategies for using and not abusing the hold button and offers additional tips for telephone equipment and accessories readers may find helpful. Finally, this article suggests guidelines for using an answering machine or voicemail system and provides a 25-question quiz to help readers assess their own telephone technique.

  19. Telephone nursing in Sweden: A narrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Elenor; Röing, Marta; Björkman, Annica; Holmström, Inger K

    2017-09-01

    Telephone nursing services are expanding globally. Swedish Healthcare Direct is the largest healthcare provider in Sweden. This paper provides a comprehensive understanding of telephone nursing, as reflected by research on Swedish national telephone nursing, and discusses the findings in relation to international literature. A descriptive, mixed-studies literature review was conducted. Twenty-four articles from January 2003 to April 2015 were identified from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL, and included. The issues explored in this study are how telephone nursing is perceived by callers, telephone nurses, and managers, and what characterizes such calls. Callers value reassurance, support, respect and satisfaction and involvement in decisions can increase their adherence. The telephone nurses' perspective focused on problems and ethical dilemmas, communication, the decision support tool, and working tasks. The managers' perspective focused on nursing work goals and malpractice claims. Concerning call characteristics, authentic calls, incident reports, and threats to patient safety were considered. Telephone nursing seems safe, but gender can play a role in calls. Future research on caller access, equity, and efficiency, healthcare cost-effectiveness, distribution, and patient safety is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  1. A cluster-randomized trial of a middle school gender violence prevention program: Design, rationale, and sample characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Ciaravino, Samantha; Ripper, Lisa; Paglisotti, Taylor; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Grafals, Melanie; Van Dusen, Courtney; Miller, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed. A total of 973 male athletes (ages 11-14, grades 6-8) are participating. Athletes complete surveys at the beginning and end of sports season (Time 2), and one year later (Time 3). The primary outcome is an increase in positive bystander behaviors (i.e., intervening in peers' disrespectful or harmful behaviors); secondary outcomes are changes in recognition of what constitutes abusive behavior, intentions to intervene, and gender equitable attitudes (Time 2 and 3) as well as reduction in abuse perpetration (Time 3). Participating schools have a greater proportion of non-White students and students on free/reduced lunch compared to schools that declined participation. Participants' self-reported ethnicities are 54.5% White, 29.0% Black, 1.4% Hispanic and the remainder, multi-racial, other, or not reported. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program for middle school male athletes. Findings will add to the evidence base regarding developmentally appropriate violence prevention programs as well as the role of coaches in adolescent health promotion. Clinical Trials #: NCT02331238. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  4. Novel approach to systematic random sampling in population surveys: Lessons from the United Arab Emirates National Diabetes Study (UAEDIAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Fikri, Mahmoud; Madani, Abdulrazzag; Mairghani, Maisoon; Alawadi, Fatheya; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has risen rapidly in the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf Region. However, some prevalence estimates have not fully accounted for large migrant worker populations and have focused on minority indigenous populations. The objectives of the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study are to: (i) define the prevalence of, and risk factors for, T2DM; (ii) describe the distribution and determinants of T2DM risk factors; (iii) study health knowledge, attitudes, and (iv) identify gene-environment interactions; and (v) develop baseline data for evaluation of future intervention programs. Given the high burden of diabetes in the region and the absence of accurate data on non-UAE nationals in the UAE, a representative sample of the non-UAE nationals was essential. We used an innovative methodology in which non-UAE nationals were sampled when attending the mandatory biannual health check that is required for visa renewal. Such an approach could also be used in other countries in the region. Complete data were available for 2719 eligible non-UAE nationals (25.9% Arabs, 70.7% Asian non-Arabs, 1.1% African non-Arabs, and 2.3% Westerners). Most were men service and sales, and unskilled occupations. Most (37.4%) had completed high school and 4.1% had a postgraduate degree. This novel methodology could provide insights for epidemiological studies in the UAE and other Gulf States, particularly for expatriates. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. 75 FR 8112 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital... mobile telephones or wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras, or ] components thereof... the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless...

  6. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  7. Missing citations due to exact reference matching: Analysis of a random sample from WoS. Are publications from peripheral countries disadvantaged?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, P.

    2016-07-01

    Citation counts of scientific research contributions are one fundamental data in scientometrics. Accuracy and completeness of citation links are therefore crucial data quality issues (Moed, 2005, Ch. 13). However, despite the known flaws of reference matching algorithms, usually no attempts are made to incorporate uncertainty about citation counts into indicators. This study is a step towards that goal. Particular attention is paid to the question whether publications from countries not using basic Latin script are differently affected by missed citations. The proprietary reference matching procedure of Web of Science (WoS) is based on (near) exact agreement of cited reference data (normalized during processing) to the target papers bibliographical data. Consequently, the procedure has near-optimal precision but incomplete recall - it is known to miss some slightly inaccurate reference links (Olensky, 2015). However, there has been no attempt so far to estimate the rate of missed citations by a principled method for a random sample. For this study a simple random sample of WoS source papers was drawn and it was attempted to find all reference strings of WoS indexed documents that refer to them, in particular inexact matches. The objective is to give a statistical estimate of the proportion of missed citations and to describe the relationship of the number of found citations to the number of missed citations, i.e. the conditional error distribution. The empirical error distribution is statistically analyzed and modelled. (Author)

  8. Compliments and purchasing behavior in telephone sales interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunyon, Josh; Gossling, Valerie; Willden, Sarah; Seiter, John S

    2010-02-01

    A fitness equipment salesperson sold more add-on merchandise and earned a higher commission when complimenting customers (47 men, 41 women) than when not complimenting them during telephone interactions. Compliments did not increase the sales of fitness equipment, however.

  9. Differentiating Telephone Surveys from Telemarketing to Increase Response Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Joey; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Finds that including the statement "I'm not selling anything" in a telephone survey introduction does not significantly affect response rates. Shows that only an introduction with a university reference significantly increased response rates. (SR)

  10. A Telephone-based Physiotherapy Intervention for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesola C Odole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of a 6-week telephone based intervention on the pain intensity and physical function of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, and compared the results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. Fifty randomly selected patients with knee OA were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a clinic group (CG and a tele-physiotherapy group (TG. The CG received thrice-weekly physiotherapist administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises in the clinic for six weeks. The TG received structured telephone calls thrice-weekly at home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises. Participants’ pain intensity and physical function were assessed at baseline, two, four, and six weeks, in the clinic environment. Within group comparison showed significant improvements across baseline, and at weeks two, four, and six for both TG and CG’s pain intensity and physical function. Between-group comparison of CG and TG’s pain intensity and physical function at baseline and weeks two, four, and six showed no significant differences. This study demonstrated that a six-week course of structured telephone calls thrice-weekly to patients at their home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises for patients with knee OA (i.e., tele-physiotherapy achieved comparable results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic.   12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  11. Effect of telephone follow-up on adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesari, Maryam; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Rajab, Asadollah; Bassampour, Shiva; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2010-12-01

    To determine whether a nurse telephone follow-up service could improve the level of adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 61 patients attended a 3 day diabetes self-care program at the Iranian Diabetes Society. They were randomly assigned to one of the experimental or control groups. A telephone follow-up program was applied to the experimental group for 3 months, twice per week for the first month and weekly for the second and third months. The data-collection instruments included a data sheet to record the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level and a questionnaire. The data were collected at baseline and after 12 weeks. There were significant differences between the control and the experimental groups in their adherence to a diabetic diet, exercise, foot care, blood glucose monitoring, and medication-taking. Also, the HbA1c levels differed significantly between the two groups after 3 months. A nurse-led telephone follow-up was effective in enhancing the level of adherence to a diabetes therapeutic regimen, such that the HbA1c level decreased. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Comparing office and telephone follow-up after medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Melissa J; Rounds, Kacie M; Creinin, Mitchell D; Cansino, Catherine; Hou, Melody Y

    2016-08-01

    Compare proportion lost to follow-up, successful abortion, and staff effort in women who choose office or telephone-based follow-up evaluation for medical abortion at a teaching institution. We performed a chart review of all medical abortions provided in the first three years of service provision. Women receiving mifepristone and misoprostol could choose office follow-up with an ultrasound evaluation one to two weeks after mifepristone or telephone follow-up with a scheduled telephone interview at one week post abortion and a second telephone call at four weeks to review the results of a home urine pregnancy test. Of the 176 medical abortion patients, 105 (59.7%) chose office follow-up and 71 (40.3%) chose telephone follow-up. Office evaluation patients had higher rates of completing all required follow-up compared to telephone follow-up patients (94.3% vs 84.5%, respectively, p=.04), but proportion lost to follow-up was similar in both groups (4.8% vs 5.6%, respectively, p=1.0). Medical abortion efficacy was 94.0% and 92.5% in women who chose office and telephone follow-up, respectively. We detected two (1.2%) ongoing pregnancies, both in the office group. Staff rescheduled 15.0% of appointments in the office group. For the telephone follow-up cohort, staff made more than one phone call to 43.9% and 69.4% of women at one week and four weeks, respectively. Proportion lost to follow-up is low in women who have the option of office or telephone follow-up after medical abortion. Women who choose telephone-based evaluation compared to office follow-up may require more staff effort for rescheduling of contact, but overall outcomes are similar. Although women who choose telephone evaluation may require more rescheduling of contact as compared to office follow-up, having alternative follow-up options may decrease the proportion of women who are lost to follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Educação e monitorização por telefone de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca: ensaio clínico randomizado Educación y monitoreo por teléfono de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca: ensayo clínico randomizado Education and telephone monitoring by nurses of patients with heart failure: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B Domingues

    2011-03-01

    morbidity and mortality. However, combining intra-hospital education with telephone contact after hospital discharge has been little explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare two nursing intervention groups among patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF: the intervention group (IG received educational nursing intervention during hospitalization followed by telephone monitoring after discharge and the control group (CG received in-hospital intervention only. Outcomes were levels of HF and self-care knowledge, the frequency of visits to the emergency room, rehospitalizations and deaths in a three-month period. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. We studied adult HF patients with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF < 45% who could be contacted by telephone after discharge. HF awareness was evaluated through a standardized questionnaire that also included questions regarding self-care knowledge, which was answered during the hospitalization period and three months later. For patients in the IG group contacts were made using phone calls and final interviews were conducted in both groups at end of the study. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were assigned to the IG and 63 to the CG. Mean age (63 ± 13 years and L (around 29% were similar in the two groups. Scores for HF and self-care knowledge were similar at baseline. Three months later, both groups showed significantly improved HF awareness and self-care knowledge scores (P < 0.001. Other outcomes were similar. CONCLUSION: An in-hospital educational nursing intervention benefitted all HF patients in understanding their disease, regardless of telephone contact after discharge.

  14. Effects of Using Licensed Practical Nurses to Assist with Telephone Consultation Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiley, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    .... The study compared means of pre- and post-implementation provider overall job satisfaction, provider satisfaction with the telephone consult process, average daily hours providers spent on telephone...

  15. Including mobile-only telephone users in a statewide preventive health survey-Differences in the prevalence of health risk factors and impact on trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Bernard; Roselli, Tim; Haynes, Michele; Bon, Joshua J; Western, Mark; Clemens, Susan

    2017-09-01

    The Queensland preventive health survey is conducted annually to monitor the prevalence of behavioural risk factors in the north-east Australian state. Prompted by domestic and international trends in mobile telephone usage, the 2015 survey incorporated both mobile and landline telephone numbers from a list-based sampling frame. Estimates for landline-accessible and mobile-only respondents are compared to assess potential bias in landline-only surveys in the context of public health surveillance. Significant differences were found in subcategories of all health prevalence estimates considered (alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity) from 2015 survey results. Results from Australian and international studies that have considered mobile telephone non-coverage bias are also summarised and discussed. We find that adjusting for sampling biases of telephone surveys by weighting does not fully compensate for the differences in prevalence estimates. However, predicted trends from previous years' surveys only differ significantly for the 2015 prevalence estimates of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the inclusion of mobile telephones into standard telephones surveys is important for obtaining valid, reliable and representative data to reduce bias in health prevalence estimates. Importantly, unlike some international experiences, the addition of mobiles telephones into the Queensland preventive health survey occurred before population trends were significantly affected.

  16. Including mobile-only telephone users in a statewide preventive health survey—Differences in the prevalence of health risk factors and impact on trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Baffour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Queensland preventive health survey is conducted annually to monitor the prevalence of behavioural risk factors in the north-east Australian state. Prompted by domestic and international trends in mobile telephone usage, the 2015 survey incorporated both mobile and landline telephone numbers from a list-based sampling frame. Estimates for landline-accessible and mobile-only respondents are compared to assess potential bias in landline-only surveys in the context of public health surveillance. Significant differences were found in subcategories of all health prevalence estimates considered (alcohol consumption, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity from 2015 survey results. Results from Australian and international studies that have considered mobile telephone non-coverage bias are also summarised and discussed. We find that adjusting for sampling biases of telephone surveys by weighting does not fully compensate for the differences in prevalence estimates. However, predicted trends from previous years' surveys only differ significantly for the 2015 prevalence estimates of alcohol consumption. We conclude that the inclusion of mobile telephones into standard telephones surveys is important for obtaining valid, reliable and representative data to reduce bias in health prevalence estimates. Importantly, unlike some international experiences, the addition of mobiles telephones into the Queensland preventive health survey occurred before population trends were significantly affected.

  17. Utilities:Other:Telephone Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Other:telephone_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represent the nodes of the telephone lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The utility pipelines were collected by a Trimble GeoXT GPS...

  18. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Li Ming; Rissel, Chris; Baur, Louise A; Hayes, Alison J; Xu, Huilan; Whelan, Anna; Hua, Myna; Shaw, Miranda; Phongsavan, Philayrath

    2017-01-14

    With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI) in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT) to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT) with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a) duration of breastfeeding, b) timing of introduction of solids, c) nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d) weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e) cost-effectiveness, as well as f) feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices, physical activity and reducing children's BMI in the early

  19. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods/Design We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a duration of breastfeeding, b timing of introduction of solids, c nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e cost-effectiveness, as well as f feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. Discussion The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices

  20. The Effect of Telephone Counseling and Education on Breast Cancer Screening in Family Caregivers of Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Nasiriani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy among females. Family history is a key risk factor for breast cancer. Breast cancer screening practices are vital in patients with family history of breast cancer. Telephone counseling and education may be appropriate for improved breast cancer screening. This study was done to determine family caregiver patients’ knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening and also to assess the effect of telephone counseling and education on mammography screening. Methods: This study was a community-based trial. The participants of the study were 90 caregivers who were randomly divided into an experimental group, telephone counseling and education, and a control group. The intervention group received counseling and education phone calls. A three-section questionnaire was responded and filled out through telephone interviews with the participants. The collected data were analyzed with SPSS18, using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results showed that 88.9% of the participants did not know when to do breast self-exam (BSE. Mammography was performed by the participants before and after the telephone counseling in intervention group (P<0.00, which were 13.3% and 77.8% respectively. Moreover, the major cause of failure to participate in mammography was lack of enough knowledge in 73.3% of the participants. Conclusion: This study concluded that knowledge and practice on breast cancer screening in family caregiver of breast cancer patients was low. Telephone counseling and educating may provide a suitable technique for earlier detection of breast cancer in family caregivers of breast cancer patients and it can influence the decision making regarding mammography screening among 40-year-old or older women. Trial Registration Number: 2017052316870N3

  1. Validity of protein-osmolality versus protein-creatinine ratios in the estimation of quantitative proteinuria from random samples of urine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Bruce Z; Butani, Lavjay; Wollan, Peter; Wilson, David M; Larson, Timothy S

    2003-04-01

    Proteinuria is an important marker of kidney disease. Simple methods to determine the presence of proteinuria in a semiquantitative fashion require measurement of either a protein-creatinine or protein-osmolality ratio. Urine samples from 134 healthy infants and children and 150 children from the pediatric nephrology practice were analyzed to develop normative data for protein-osmolality ratios on random urine samples and compare protein-osmolality with protein-creatinine ratio as a predictor of 24-hour urine protein excretion. Children were grouped according to age. Three groups were established: infants (protein excretion was determined to be a protein-osmolality ratio of 0.15 mg x kg H2O/mOsm. L; for children between 2 and 8 years old, 0.14; and for children older than 8 years, 0.17 (P = not significant between age groups). The corresponding optimal cutoff value for protein-creatinine ratio for the entire group of children older than 2 years is 0.20. Area under the curve analysis of receiver operator characteristic curves showed protein-creatinine ratio was superior to protein-osmolality ratio for predicting abnormal amounts of proteinuria in children and adolescents (P protein-creatinine ratio in children, it would be appropriate to screen urine samples for proteinuria using protein-creatinine ratio rather than protein-osmolality ratio.

  2. Changes in brain volume and cognition in a randomized trial of exercise and social interaction in a community-based sample of non-demented Chinese elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, James A; Ding, Ding; Borenstein, Amy R; DeCarli, Charles; Guo, Qihao; Wu, Yougui; Zhao, Qianhua; Chu, Shugang

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to increase brain volume and improve cognition in randomized trials of non-demented elderly. Although greater social engagement was found to reduce dementia risk in observational studies, randomized trials of social interventions have not been reported. A representative sample of 120 elderly from Shanghai, China was randomized to four groups (Tai Chi, Walking, Social Interaction, No Intervention) for 40 weeks. Two MRIs were obtained, one before the intervention period, the other after. A neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline, 20 weeks, and 40 weeks. Comparison of changes in brain volumes in intervention groups with the No Intervention group were assessed by t-tests. Time-intervention group interactions for neuropsychological measures were evaluated with repeated-measures mixed models. Compared to the No Intervention group, significant increases in brain volume were seen in the Tai Chi and Social Intervention groups (p < 0.05). Improvements also were observed in several neuropsychological measures in the Tai Chi group, including the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale score (p = 0.004), the Trailmaking Test A (p = 0.002) and B (p = 0.0002), the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (p = 0.009), and verbal fluency for animals (p = 0.01). The Social Interaction group showed improvement on some, but fewer neuropsychological indices. No differences were observed between the Walking and No Intervention groups. The findings differ from previous clinical trials in showing increases in brain volume and improvements in cognition with a largely non-aerobic exercise (Tai Chi). In addition, intellectual stimulation through social interaction was associated with increases in brain volume as well as with some cognitive improvements.

  3. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  4. The influence of worksite and employee variables on employee engagement in telephonic health coaching programs: a retrospective multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmeier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed 11 determinants of health coaching program participation. A cross-sectional study design used secondary data to assess the role of six employee-level and five worksite-level variables on telephone-based coaching enrollment, active participation, and completion. Data was provided by a national provider of worksite health promotion program services for employers. A random sample of 34,291 employees from 52 companies was selected for inclusion in the study. Survey-based measures included age, gender, job type, health risk status, tobacco risk, social support, financial incentives, comprehensive communications, senior leadership support, cultural support, and comprehensive program design. Gender-stratified multivariate logistic regression models were applied using backwards elimination procedures to yield parsimonious prediction models for each of the dependent variables. Employees were more likely to enroll in coaching programs if they were older, female, and in poorer health, and if they were at worksites with fewer environmental supports for health, clear financial incentives for participation in coaching, more comprehensive communications, and more comprehensive programs. Once employees were enrolled, program completion was greater among those who were older, did not use tobacco, worked at a company with strong communications, and had fewer environmental supports for health. Both worksite-level and employee-level factors have significant influences on health coaching engagement, and there are gender differences in the strength of these predictors.

  5. In vivo photoacoustic mouse eye imaging of healing after chemical injury and automated eyeball surface estimation based on a random sample consensus algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Seungwan; Song, Hyun Beom; Kim, Jaewoo; Lee, Byung Joo; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Chulhong

    2017-03-01

    Ocular chemical damage may induce limbal vessel ischemia and neovascularization, but the pathophysiology of the disease is not completely known. To observe changes in blood vessels after alkaline burn, we monitored the anterior segment and choroidal vasculature using a photoacoustic microscope (OR-PAM). We were able to observe not only the iris blood vessels but also the choroidal vessels under the sclera, which were difficult to be observed with conventional photographs. After alkali burning, we observed neovascularization and limbal ischemia and successfully tracked changes in vasculature during the 7-day healing process. We also used the RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) method to segment the abnormally generated blood vessels in the cornea by detecting the eyeball surface and successfully visualize the distance from each PA signal to the center of the eye. We believe that photoacoustic imaging has an important potential to reveal the pathophysiology of limb ischemia and neovascularization.

  6. Access to medical care among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. A study using a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelin, E; Bernhard, G; Pflugrad, D

    1995-08-01

    To study access to medical care services, including subspecialty care, among persons with musculoskeletal conditions. In early 1993, a random sample of households in San Mateo County, California, was screened for the presence of household members with musculoskeletal conditions, and a member of each household so identified was administered a structured survey about access to medical care and other related subjects. Eighty-six percent of all persons with a musculoskeletal condition had ever seen at least one physician for the condition, but only 6.5% had ever seen a rheumatologist. Those without health insurance were only 82% as likely as those with health insurance to have ever seen a physician. Most persons with a musculoskeletal condition have seen a physician for the condition, but lack of health insurance significantly reduces the proportion who have done so.

  7. Training interventions for improving telephone consultation skills in clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaona, Alberto; Pappas, Yannis; Grewal, Rumant S; Ajaz, Mubasshir; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip

    2017-01-05

    Since 1879, the year of the first documented medical telephone consultation, the ability to consult by telephone has become an integral part of modern patient-centred healthcare systems. Nowadays, upwards of a quarter of all care consultations are conducted by telephone. Studies have quantified the impact of medical telephone consultation on clinicians' workload and detected the need for quality improvement. While doctors routinely receive training in communication and consultation skills, this does not necessarily include the specificities of telephone communication and consultation. Several studies assessed the short-term effect of interventions aimed at improving clinicians' telephone consultation skills, but there is no systematic review reporting patient-oriented outcomes or outcomes of interest to clinicians. To assess the effects of training interventions for clinicians' telephone consultation skills and patient outcomes. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other electronic databases and two trial registers up to 19 May 2016, and we handsearched references, checked citations and contacted study authors to identify additional studies and data. We considered randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies evaluating training interventions compared with any control intervention, including no intervention, for improving clinicians' telephone consultation skills with patients and their impact on patient outcomes. Two review authors independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies using standard Cochrane and EPOC guidance and the certainty of evidence using GRADE. We contacted study authors where additional information was needed. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane for data analysis. We identified one very small controlled before-after study performed in 1989: this study used a

  8. Can Smartphones Enhance Telephone-Based Cognitive Assessment (TBCA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Yiu-Cho Kwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then discuss the recent developments in tele-technology, the popularity of tele-technology among the elderly, potential benefits and challenges in using smartphones for cognitive assessment, and possible future developments in this technology. In the systematic review, eighteen TBCA instruments were identified. They were found to be valid in differentiating between people with and without dementia. TBCA was previously found to be launched on a conventional telephone platform. The advances in understanding of cognitive impairment may demand that telephones be equipped with more advanced features. Recently, the development and penetration of smartphones among the elderly has been rapid. This may allow the smartphone to enhance its TBCA applicability by overcoming the limitations of the conventional telephone, rendering the TBCA more efficient in addressing the increasing demand and complexity of cognitive assessments in the future. However, more research and technology developments are needed before smartphones can become a valid platform for TBCA.

  9. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  10. Evaluation of text telephones designed for people with impaired hearing or speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, J; Schmidt, R; Ward, C D; Pinnington, L L

    2005-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess a range of desktop text telephones and to provide comparative data to enable healthcare professionals and users to make informed choices when selecting products. Our second objective was to highlight the effect of different product features on ease of communication. We used three methods of evaluation. (1) User trials of seven desktop textphones were carried out by 28 people. (2) The same desktop textphones, along with three portable models, were appraised by two independent assessors. (3) All 10 products were discussed by groups of hearing and hearing-impaired users-112 in all. Participant ratings, user comments, and observations of sample conversations all revealed that ease of communication was greatly influenced by the type of technology employed to connect the textphone to the telephone network. Overall, conversations held on text telephones with a direct connection were more successful and produced fewer garbled messages than those made with an acoustic connection. Although individual preferences were expressed, other defining features such as the size of keyboard, display type and size of text did not have a comparable impact on communication. Future research and development could focus on the design of products that would cater simultaneously for the communication needs of hearing, deaf and speech-impaired users.

  11. Participant Retention in a Longitudinal National Telephone Survey of African American Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Cheryl L; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M; Roth, David L; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White. Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Retention at the follow-up interview. Retention rates ranged from 39%- 41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention.

  12. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  13. Impact of an educational intervention on women's knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling: a randomized controlled trial in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sossauer, Gaëtan; Zbinden, Michel; Tebeu, Pierre-Marie; Fosso, Gisèle K; Untiet, Sarah; Vassilakos, Pierre; Petignat, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group) or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group). Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV), the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the "control group" and 152 in the "intervention group") completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (pEducational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) Register ISRCTN78123709.

  14. What's in a name? The challenge of describing interventions in systematic reviews: analysis of a random sample of reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Tammy C; Walker, Marion F; Langhorne, Peter; Eames, Sally; Thomas, Emma; Glasziou, Paul

    2015-11-17

    To assess, in a sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, the completeness of intervention reporting, identify the most frequently missing elements, and assess review authors' use of and beliefs about providing intervention information. Analysis of a random sample of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological stroke interventions; online survey of review authors. The Cochrane Library and PubMed were searched for potentially eligible systematic reviews and a random sample of these assessed for eligibility until 60 (30 Cochrane, 30 non-Cochrane) eligible reviews were identified. In each review, the completeness of the intervention description in each eligible trial (n=568) was assessed by 2 independent raters using the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR) checklist. All review authors (n=46) were invited to complete a survey. Most reviews were missing intervention information for the majority of items. The most incompletely described items were: modifications, fidelity, materials, procedure and tailoring (missing from all interventions in 97%, 90%, 88%, 83% and 83% of reviews, respectively). Items that scored better, but were still incomplete for the majority of reviews, were: 'when and how much' (in 31% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 57% of reviews, adequate for some trials); intervention mode (in 22% of reviews, adequate for all trials; in 38%, adequate for some trials); and location (in 19% of reviews, adequate for all trials). Of the 33 (71%) authors who responded, 58% reported having further intervention information but not including it, and 70% tried to obtain information. Most focus on intervention reporting has been directed at trials. Poor intervention reporting in stroke systematic reviews is prevalent, compounded by poor trial reporting. Without adequate intervention descriptions, the conduct, usability and interpretation of reviews are restricted and therefore, require action by trialists

  15. Do counselor techniques predict quitting during smoking cessation treatment? A component analysis of telephone-delivered Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mercer, Laina D; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2014-10-01

    No studies to date have examined the effect of counselor techniques on smoking cessation over the course of treatment. To address this gap, we examined the degree to which the use of specific Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) counseling techniques in a given session predicted smoking cessation reported at the next session. The data came from the ACT arm of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered smoking cessation intervention. Trained raters coded 139 counseling sessions across 44 participants. The openness, awareness and activation components of the ACT model were rated for each telephone counseling session. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to estimate the predictive relationship between each component during any given telephone session and smoking cessation at the following telephone session. For every 1-unit increase in counselors' use of openness and awareness techniques there were 42% and 52% decreases in the odds of smoking at the next counseling session, respectively. However, there was no significant predictive relationship between counselors' use of activation techniques and smoking cessation. Overall, results highlight the theoretical and clinical value of examining therapists' techniques as predictors of outcome during the course of treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Self-rated worry in acute care telephone triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst-Jensen, Hejdi; Huibers, Linda; Pedersen, Kristoffer

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Telephone triage is used to assess acute illness or injury. Clinical decision making is often assisted by triage tools that lack callers' perspectives. This study analysed callers' perception of urgency, defined as degree of worry in acute care telephone calls. AIM: To explore...... emotions of feeling bothered to feeling distressed. Callers provided more contextual information when asked about their degree of worry. CONCLUSION: Callers were able to rate their degree of worry. The degree of worry scale is feasible for larger-scale studies if incorporating a patient-centred approach...

  17. Medical applications of analogue and digital telephone data links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, D W; Mable, S E; Payne, J P

    1976-07-20

    The increasing use of digital computer techniques for the analysis of signals such as the EEG, ECG, plethysmograms and cardiac output curves has led to the use of multichannel analogue frequency modulation telephone data links in the forward direction from the patient to the computer and digital links in the return direction. Single-channel analogue links are also being used for the surveillance of cardiac pacemaker patients and the television Viewphone offers the possibility of a visual contact between two centers. Examples will be given of the use of these various forms of telephone link.

  18. The Significance of Mobile Telephoning in Distance Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nadja Dobnik

    1999-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the telephone for use in distance learning are well known, yet stili far too little used. Consultation by telephone means establishing a live contact between the two people who are communicating, and the opportunity for directly solving the problems. Furthermore, it ensures great rationalization in time­usage, since both the mentor and the student can carry out the consultation at any place which suits them; all that matters is that they are prepared for the discu...

  19. Schedule for the update of CERN telephone network

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    The continuation of ours tasks to update the network is scheduled as follows: May 12 Update of switch N7: Bldg. 39 and 40 We would like to remind you that disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 18:30 to 00:00 on the above mentioned dates. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines until 12th May. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  20. Maintenance of the telephone exchange in building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In order to secure the power supply of the telephone exchange in building 40, a maintenance will be done on the 18th of December from 7.30 am to 8 am. During this intervention, the fixed telephony services in building 39 and 40 will be interrupted. The fixed telephony services in other CERN buildings won't be affected by this maintenance. The mobile telephony services (GSM) won't be affected. For more details, please send your questions to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch Telecom Services IT/CS