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Sample records for random sample telephone

  1. Brief telephone interventions for problem gambling: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Max; Hodgins, David C; Bellringer, Maria; Vandal, Alain C; Palmer Du Preez, Katie; Landon, Jason; Sullivan, Sean; Rodda, Simone; Feigin, Valery

    2018-05-01

    Problem gambling is a significant public health issue world-wide. There is substantial investment in publicly funded intervention services, but limited evaluation of effectiveness. This study investigated three brief telephone interventions to determine whether they were more effective than standard helpline treatment in helping people to reduce gambling. Randomized clinical trial. National gambling helpline in New Zealand. A total of 462 adults with problem gambling. INTERVENTIONS AND COMPARATOR: (1) Single motivational interview (MI), (2) single motivational interview plus cognitive-behavioural self-help workbook (MI + W) and (3) single motivational interview plus workbook plus four booster follow-up telephone interviews (MI + W + B). Comparator was helpline standard care [treatment as usual (TAU)]. Blinded follow-up was at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes were days gambled, dollars lost per day and treatment goal success. There were no differences across treatment arms, although participants showed large reductions in gambling during the 12-month follow-up period [mean reduction of 5.5 days, confidence interval (CI) = 4.8, 6.2; NZ$38 lost ($32, $44; 80.6%), improved (77.2%, 84.0%)]. Subgroup analysis revealed improved days gambled and dollars lost for MI + W + B over MI or MI + W for a goal of reduction of gambling (versus quitting) and improvement in dollars lost by ethnicity, gambling severity and psychological distress (all P gambling severity than TAU or MI at 12 months and also better for those with higher psychological distress and lower self-efficacy to MI (all P gambling in New Zealand, brief telephone interventions are associated with changes in days gambling and dollars lost similar to more intensive interventions, suggesting that more treatment is not necessarily better than less. Some client subgroups, in particular those with greater problem severity and greater distress, achieve better outcomes when they receive more

  2. Randomized Controlled Trial of Telephone-Delivered Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedt, J. Todd; Cuddihy, Leisha; Swanson, Leslie M.; Pickett, Scott; Aikens, James; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare the efficacy of telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia to an information pamphlet control on sleep and daytime functioning at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Design: Randomized controlled parallel trial. Setting: N/A. Participants: Thirty individuals with chronic insomnia (27 women, age 39.1 ± 14.4 years, insomnia duration 8.7 ± 10.7 years). Interventions: Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) delivered in up to eight weekly telephone sessions (CBTI-Phone, n = 15) versus an information pamphlet control (IPC, n = 15). Measurements and Results: Sleep/wake diary, sleep-related questionnaires (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, 16-item Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep), and daytime symptom assessments (fatigue, depression, anxiety, and quality of life) were completed at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 12-wk follow-up. Linear mixed models indicated that sleep/wake diary sleep efficiency and total sleep time improved significantly at posttreatment in both groups and remained stable at 12-wk follow-up. More CBTI-Phone than IPC patients showed posttreatment improvements in unhelpful sleep-related cognitions (P insomnia at follow-up (P insomnia. Future larger-scale studies with more diverse samples are warranted. Some individuals with insomnia may also benefit from pamphlet-delivered CBTI with brief telephone support. Citation: Arnedt JT; Cuddihy L; Swanson LM; Pickett S; Aikens J; Chervin RD. Randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for chronic insomnia. SLEEP 2013;36(3):353-362. PMID:23450712

  3. Independent random sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Martino, Luca; Míguez, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the li...

  4. True random number generation from mobile telephone photo based on chaotic cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Liang; Liao Xiaofeng; Xiao Di; Xiang Tao; Zhou Qing; Duan Shukai

    2009-01-01

    A cheap, convenient and universal TRNG based on mobile telephone photo for producing random bit sequence is proposed. To settle the problem of sequential pixels and comparability, three chaos-based approaches are applied to post-process the generated binary image. The random numbers produced by three users are tested using US NIST RNG statistical test software. The experimental results indicate that the Arnold cat map is the fastest way to generate a random bit sequence and can be accepted on general PC. The 'MASK' algorithm also performs well. Finally, comparing with the TRNG of Hu et al. [Hu Y, Liao X, Wong KW, Zhou Q. A true random number generator based on mouse movement and chaotic cryptography. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007. doi: 10.1016/j.chaos.2007.10.022] which is presented by Hu et al., many merits of the proposed TRNG in this paper has been found.

  5. A randomized clinical trial of a telephone depression intervention to reduce employee presenteeism and absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Debra; Adler, David A; Rogers, William H; Chang, Hong; Greenhill, Annabel; Cymerman, Elina; Azocar, Francisca

    2015-06-01

    The study tested an intervention aimed at improving work functioning among middle-aged and older adults with depression and work limitations. A randomized clinical trial allocated an initial sample of 431 eligible employed adults (age ≥45) to a work-focused intervention (WFI) or usual care. Inclusion criteria were depression as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and at-work limitations indicated by a productivity loss score ≥5% on the Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ). Study sites included 19 employers and five related organizations. Telephone-based counseling provided three integrated modalities: care coordination, cognitive-behavioral therapy strategy development, and work coaching and modification. Effectiveness (change in productivity loss scores from preintervention to four months postintervention) was tested with mixed models adjusted for confounders. Secondary outcomes included change in WLQ work performance scales, self-reported absences, and depression. Of 1,227 eligible employees (7% of screened), 431 (35%) enrolled and 380 completed the study (12% attrition). At-work productivity loss improved 44% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). WFI group scores on the four WLQ scales improved 44% to 47%, significantly better than in usual care (p<.001 for each scale). Absence days declined by 53% in the WFI group versus 13% in usual care (difference in change, p<.001). Mean PHQ-9 depression symptom severity scores declined 51% for WFI versus 26% for usual care (difference in change, p<.001). The WFI was more effective than usual care at four-month follow-up. Given increasing efforts to provide more patient-centered, value-based care, the WFI could be an important resource.

  6. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for subthreshold depression and presenteeism in workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshi A; Horikoshi, Masaru; Kawakami, Norito; Kadota, Masayo; Sasaki, Megumi; Sekiya, Yuki; Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kashimura, Masami; Asano, Kenichi; Terashima, Hitomi; Iwasa, Kazunori; Nagasaku, Minoru; Grothaus, Louis C

    2012-01-01

    Subthreshold depression is highly prevalent in the general population and causes great loss to society especially in the form of reduced productivity while at work (presenteeism). We developed a highly-structured manualized eight-session cognitive-behavioral program with a focus on subthreshold depression in the workplace and to be administered via telephone by trained psychotherapists (tCBT). We conducted a parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial of tCBT in addition to the pre-existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) versus EAP alone among workers with subthreshold depression at a large manufacturing company in Japan. The primary outcomes were depression severity as measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and presenteeism as measured with World Health Organization Health and Work Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ). In the course of the trial the follow-up period was shortened in order to increase acceptability of the study. The planned sample size was 108 per arm but the trial was stopped early due to low accrual. Altogether 118 subjects were randomized to tCBT+EAP (n = 58) and to EAP alone (n = 60). The BDI-II scores fell from the mean of 17.3 at baseline to 11.0 in the intervention group and to 15.7 in the control group after 4 months (p<0.001, Effect size = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.05). However, there was no statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative presenteeism (p = 0.44, ES = 0.15, -0.21 to 0.52, and p = 0.50, ES = 0.02, -0.34 to 0.39, respectively). Remote CBT, including tCBT, may provide easy access to quality-assured effective psychotherapy for people in the work force who present with subthreshold depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in longer terms. The study was funded by Sekisui Chemicals Co. Ltd. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00885014.

  7. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for subthreshold depression and presenteeism in workplace: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshi A Furukawa

    Full Text Available Subthreshold depression is highly prevalent in the general population and causes great loss to society especially in the form of reduced productivity while at work (presenteeism. We developed a highly-structured manualized eight-session cognitive-behavioral program with a focus on subthreshold depression in the workplace and to be administered via telephone by trained psychotherapists (tCBT.We conducted a parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial of tCBT in addition to the pre-existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP versus EAP alone among workers with subthreshold depression at a large manufacturing company in Japan. The primary outcomes were depression severity as measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II and presenteeism as measured with World Health Organization Health and Work Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ. In the course of the trial the follow-up period was shortened in order to increase acceptability of the study.The planned sample size was 108 per arm but the trial was stopped early due to low accrual. Altogether 118 subjects were randomized to tCBT+EAP (n = 58 and to EAP alone (n = 60. The BDI-II scores fell from the mean of 17.3 at baseline to 11.0 in the intervention group and to 15.7 in the control group after 4 months (p<0.001, Effect size = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.05. However, there was no statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative presenteeism (p = 0.44, ES = 0.15, -0.21 to 0.52, and p = 0.50, ES = 0.02, -0.34 to 0.39, respectively.Remote CBT, including tCBT, may provide easy access to quality-assured effective psychotherapy for people in the work force who present with subthreshold depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in longer terms. The study was funded by Sekisui Chemicals Co. Ltd.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00885014.

  8. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Subthreshold Depression and Presenteeism in Workplace: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Toshi A.; Horikoshi, Masaru; Kawakami, Norito; Kadota, Masayo; Sasaki, Megumi; Sekiya, Yuki; Hosogoshi, Hiroki; Kashimura, Masami; Asano, Kenichi; Terashima, Hitomi; Iwasa, Kazunori; Nagasaku, Minoru; Grothaus, Louis C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Subthreshold depression is highly prevalent in the general population and causes great loss to society especially in the form of reduced productivity while at work (presenteeism). We developed a highly-structured manualized eight-session cognitive-behavioral program with a focus on subthreshold depression in the workplace and to be administered via telephone by trained psychotherapists (tCBT). Methods We conducted a parallel-group, non-blinded randomized controlled trial of tCBT in addition to the pre-existing Employee Assistance Program (EAP) versus EAP alone among workers with subthreshold depression at a large manufacturing company in Japan. The primary outcomes were depression severity as measured with Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and presenteeism as measured with World Health Organization Health and Work Productivity Questionnaire (HPQ). In the course of the trial the follow-up period was shortened in order to increase acceptability of the study. Results The planned sample size was 108 per arm but the trial was stopped early due to low accrual. Altogether 118 subjects were randomized to tCBT+EAP (n = 58) and to EAP alone (n = 60). The BDI-II scores fell from the mean of 17.3 at baseline to 11.0 in the intervention group and to 15.7 in the control group after 4 months (p<0.001, Effect size = 0.69, 95%CI: 0.32 to 1.05). However, there was no statistically significant decrease in absolute and relative presenteeism (p = 0.44, ES = 0.15, −0.21 to 0.52, and p = 0.50, ES = 0.02, −0.34 to 0.39, respectively). Conclusion Remote CBT, including tCBT, may provide easy access to quality-assured effective psychotherapy for people in the work force who present with subthreshold depression. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this approach in longer terms. The study was funded by Sekisui Chemicals Co. Ltd. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00885014 PMID:22532849

  9. Recruiting to Clinical Trials on the Telephone - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kim Thestrup; Kjærgaard, Jesper; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Informed consent is an essential element of clinical research. Obtaining consent, however, may be challenging. The use of the telephone for giving information and obtaining consent may be practical but little formal research has been done. METHODS: We examined the use of the telephone...

  10. "Push as hard as you can" instruction for telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Roth, Dominik; Havel, Christof; Eisenburger, Philip; Heidinger, Benedikt; Chwojka, Christof Constantin; Novosad, Heinz; Sterz, Fritz; Herkner, Harald; Schreiber, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    The medical priority dispatch system (MPDS®) assists lay rescuers in protocol-driven telephone-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Our aim was to clarify which CPR instruction leads to sufficient compression depth. This was an investigator-blinded, randomized, parallel group, simulation study to investigate 10 min of chest compressions after the instruction "push down firmly 5 cm" vs. "push as hard as you can." Primary outcome was defined as compression depth. Secondary outcomes were participants exertion measured by Borg scale, provider's systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and quality values measured by the skill-reporting program of the Resusci(®) Anne Simulator manikin. For the analysis of the primary outcome, we used a linear random intercept model to allow for the repeated measurements with the intervention as a covariate. Thirteen participants were allocated to control and intervention. One participant (intervention) dropped out after min 7 because of exhaustion. Primary outcome showed a mean compression depth of 44.1 mm, with an inter-individual standard deviation (SDb) of 13.0 mm and an intra-individual standard deviation (SDw) of 6.7 mm for the control group vs. 46.1 mm and a SDb of 9.0 mm and SDw of 10.3 mm for the intervention group (difference: 1.9; 95% confidence interval -6.9 to 10.8; p = 0.66). Secondary outcomes showed no difference for exhaustion and CPR-quality values. There is no difference in compression depth, quality of CPR, or physical strain on lay rescuers using the initial instruction "push as hard as you can" vs. the standard MPDS(®) instruction "push down firmly 5 cm." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematic versus random sampling in stereological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The sampling that takes place at all levels of an experimental design must be random if the estimate is to be unbiased in a statistical sense. There are two fundamental ways by which one can make a random sample of the sections and positions to be probed on the sections. Using a card-sampling analogy, one can pick any card at all out of a deck of cards. This is referred to as independent random sampling because the sampling of any one card is made without reference to the position of the other cards. The other approach to obtaining a random sample would be to pick a card within a set number of cards and others at equal intervals within the deck. Systematic sampling along one axis of many biological structures is more efficient than random sampling, because most biological structures are not randomly organized. This article discusses the merits of systematic versus random sampling in stereological studies.

  12. Effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling for smoking cessation in parents: Study protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bricker Jonathan B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is the world's fourth most common risk factor for disease, the leading preventable cause of death, and it is associated with tremendous social costs. In the Netherlands, the smoking prevalence rate is high. A total of 27.7% of the population over age 15 years smokes. In addition to the direct advantages of smoking cessation for the smoker, parents who quit smoking may also decrease their children's risk of smoking initiation. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of proactive telephone counselling to increase smoking cessation rates among smoking parents. A total of 512 smoking parents will be proactively recruited through their children's primary schools and randomly assigned to either proactive telephone counselling or a control condition. Proactive telephone counselling will consist of up to seven counsellor-initiated telephone calls (based on cognitive-behavioural skill building and Motivational Interviewing, distributed over a period of three months. Three supplementary brochures will also be provided. In the control condition, parents will receive a standard brochure to aid smoking cessation. Assessments will take place at baseline, three months after start of the intervention (post-measurement, and twelve months after start of the intervention (follow-up measurement. Primary outcome measures will include sustained abstinence between post-measurement and follow-up measurement and 7-day point prevalence abstinence and 24-hours point prevalence abstinence at both post- and follow-up measurement. Several secondary outcome measures will also be included (e.g., smoking intensity, smoking policies at home. In addition, we will evaluate smoking-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes towards smoking, social norms, self-efficacy, intention to smoke in 9-12 year old children of smoking parents. Discussion This study protocol describes the design of a randomized

  13. A Bayesian Justification for Random Sampling in Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Meeden

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the usual Bayesian approach to survey sampling the sampling design, plays a minimal role, at best. Although a close relationship between exchangeable prior distributions and simple random sampling has been noted; how to formally integrate simple random sampling into the Bayesian paradigm is not clear. Recently it has been argued that the sampling design can be thought of as part of a Bayesian's prior distribution. We will show here that under this scenario simple random sample can be given a Bayesian justification in survey sampling.

  14. The effect of telephone-based interpersonal psychotherapy for the treatment of postpartum depression: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Cindy-Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial data indicate potential health consequences of untreated postpartum depression (PPD on the mother, infant, and family. Studies have evaluated interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT as treatment for PPD; however, the results are questionable due to methodological limitations. A comprehensive review of maternal treatment preferences suggests that mothers favor ‘talking therapy’ as a form of PPD treatment. Unfortunately, IPT is not widely available, especially in rural and remote areas. To improve access to care, telepsychiatry has been introduced, including the provision of therapy via the telephone. Methods/Design The purpose of this randomized controlled trial is to evaluate the effect of telephone-based IPT on the treatment of PPD. Stratification is based on self-reported history of depression and province. The target sample is 240 women. Currently, women from across Canada between 2 and 24 weeks postpartum are able to either self-identify as depressed and refer themselves to the trial or they may be referred by a health professional based on a score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS. Following contact by the trial coordinator, a detailed study explanation is provided. Women who fulfill the eligibility criteria (including a positive diagnostic assessment for major depression and consent to participate are randomized to either the control group (standard postpartum care or intervention group (standard postpartum care plus 12 telephone-based IPT sessions within 12 to 16 weeks, provided by trained nurses. Blinded research nurses telephone participants at 12, 24, and 36 weeks post-randomization to assess for PPD and other outcomes including depressive symptomatology, anxiety, couple adjustment, attachment, and health service utilization. Results from this ongoing trial will: (1 develop the body of knowledge concerning the effect of telephone-based IPT as a treatment option for PPD; (2 advance our

  15. Patients’ general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines: results from a cluster randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, M.J.; Geffen, E.C.G. van; Heerdink, E.R.; Dijk, L. van; Bouvy, M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess effects of pharmacists’ counseling by telephone on patients’ satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. Methods: A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included

  16. Patients' general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines : Results from a cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, Marcel Jan; Van Geffen, Erica C G; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2015-01-01

    Assess effects of pharmacists' counseling by telephone on patients' satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. Methods: A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included when

  17. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. k-Means: Random Sampling Procedure. Optimal 1-Mean is. Approximation of Centroid (Inaba et al). S = random sample of size O(1/ ); Centroid of S is a (1+ )-approx centroid of P with constant probability.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a telephone-based smoking cessation intervention in the lung cancer screening setting: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn L; Hagerman, Charlotte J; Luta, George; Bellini, Paula G; Stanton, Cassandra; Abrams, David B; Kramer, Jenna A; Anderson, Eric; Regis, Shawn; McKee, Andrea; McKee, Brady; Niaura, Ray; Harper, Harry; Ramsaier, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Incorporating effective smoking cessation interventions into lung cancer screening (LCS) programs will be essential to realizing the full benefit of screening. We conducted a pilot randomized trial to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a telephone-counseling (TC) smoking cessation intervention vs. usual care (UC) in the LCS setting. In collaboration with 3 geographically diverse LCS programs, we enrolled current smokers (61.5% participation rate) who were: registered to undergo LCS, 50-77 years old, and had a 20+ pack-year smoking history. Eligibility was not based on readiness to quit. Participants completed pre-LCS (T0) and post-LCS (T1) telephone assessments, were randomized to TC (N=46) vs. UC (N=46), and completed a final 3-month telephone assessment (T2). Both study arms received a list of evidence-based cessation resources. TC participants also received up to 6 brief counseling calls with a trained cessation counselor. Counseling calls incorporated motivational interviewing and utilized the screening result as a motivator for quitting. The outcome was biochemically verified 7-day point prevalence cessation at 3-months post-randomization. Participants (56.5% female) were 60.2 (SD=5.4) years old and reported 47.1 (SD=22.2) pack years; 30% were ready to stop smoking in the next 30 days. TC participants completed an average of 4.4 (SD=2.3) sessions. Using intent-to-treat analyses, biochemically verified quit rates were 17.4% (TC) vs. 4.3% (UC), p<.05. This study provides preliminary evidence that telephone-based cessation counseling is feasible and efficacious in the LCS setting. As millions of current smokers are now eligible for lung cancer screening, this setting represents an important opportunity to exert a large public health impact on cessation among smokers who are at very high risk for multiple tobacco-related diseases. If this evidence-based, brief, and scalable intervention is replicated, TC could help to improve the overall cost

  19. Parenting program versus telephone support for Mexican parents of children with acquired brain injury: A blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, Clara; Catroppa, Cathy; Hearps, Stephen J C; Yáñez-Téllez, Guillermina; Prieto-Corona, Belén; de León, Miguel A; García, Antonio; Sandoval-Lira, Lucero; Anderson, Vicki

    2017-09-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) during childhood typically causes behavior problems in the child and high levels of stress in the family. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a parenting intervention in improving behavior and self-regulation in Mexican children with ABI compared to telephone support; (2) to investigate the effectiveness and feasibility of a parenting intervention in improving parenting skills, parent self-efficacy and decreasing parental stress in parents of children with ABI compared to telephone support. Our secondary aims are (1) to explore the impact that parent characteristics have on the intervention outcomes; (2) to investigate if changes are maintained 3 months after the intervention. The research design is a blind randomized controlled trial (RCT). Eligible participants include children with a diagnosis of ABI, between 6 and 12 years of age, and their parents. Sixty-six children and their parents will be randomly allocated to either a parenting program group or telephone support group. The parenting program involves six face-to-face weekly group sessions of 2.5 h each. Participants in the control group receive an information sheet with behavioral strategies, and six weekly phone calls, in which strategies to improve academic skills are provided. Children and their parents are evaluated by blind assessors before the intervention, immediately after the intervention and 3-months post-intervention. This study will be the first to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of a parenting program for Mexican parents of children with ABI. ACTRN12617000360314.

  20. Telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers: a single-blinded randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok T

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy Kwok,1,2 Bel Wong,2 Isaac Ip,2 Kenny Chui,2 Daniel Young,2 Florence Ho2 1Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region; 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region Purpose: Many family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD are unable to participate in community center-based caregiver support services because of logistical constraints. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a telephone-delivered psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers of PWD in alleviating caregiver burden and enhancing caregiving self-efficacy. Subjects and methods: In a single-blinded randomized controlled trial, 38 family caregivers of PWD were randomly allocated into an intervention group or a control group. The intervention group received psychoeducation from a registered social worker over the phone for 12 sessions. Caregivers in the control group were given a DVD containing educational information about dementia caregiving. Outcomes of the intervention were measured by the Chinese versions of the Zarit Burden Interview and the Revised Scale for Caregiving Self-efficacy. Mann–Whitney U tests were used to compare the differences between the intervention and control groups. Results: The level of burden of caregivers in the intervention group reduced significantly compared with caregivers in the control group. Caregivers in the intervention group also reported significantly more gain in self-efficacy in obtaining respite than the control group. Conclusion: A structured telephone intervention can benefit dementia caregivers in terms of self-efficacy and caregiving burden. The limitations of the research and recommendations for intervention are discussed. Keywords: telephone intervention, psychoeducation, dementia caregivers

  1. Telephone Coaching to Enhance a Home-Based Physical Activity Program for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennell, Kim L; Campbell, Penny K; Egerton, Thorlene; Metcalf, Ben; Kasza, Jessica; Forbes, Andrew; Bills, Caroline; Gale, Janette; Harris, Anthony; Kolt, Gregory S; Bunker, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Brand, Caroline A; Hinman, Rana S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether simultaneous telephone coaching improves the clinical effectiveness of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program for knee osteoarthritis (OA). A total of 168 inactive adults ages ≥50 years with knee pain on a numeric rating scale ≥4 (NRS; range 0-10) and knee OA were recruited from the community and randomly assigned to a physiotherapy (PT) and coaching group (n = 84) or PT-only (n = 84) group. All participants received five 30-minute consultations with a physiotherapist over 6 months for education, home exercise, and physical activity advice. PT+coaching participants also received 6-12 telephone coaching sessions by clinicians trained in behavioral-change support for exercise and physical activity. Primary outcomes were pain (NRS) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC; score range 0-68]) at 6 months. Secondary outcomes were these same measures at 12 and 18 months, as well as physical activity, exercise adherence, other pain and function measures, and quality of life. Analyses were intent-to-treat with multiple imputation for missing data. A total of 142 (85%), 136 (81%), and 128 (76%) participants completed 6-, 12-, and 18-month measurements, respectively. The change in NRS pain (mean difference 0.4 unit [95% confidence interval (95% CI) -0.4, 1.3]) and in WOMAC function (1.8 [95% CI -1.9, 5.5]) did not differ between groups at 6 months, with both groups showing clinically relevant improvements. Some secondary outcomes related to physical activity and exercise behavior favored PT+coaching at 6 months but generally not at 12 or 18 months. There were no between-group differences in most other outcomes. The addition of simultaneous telephone coaching did not augment the pain and function benefits of a physiotherapist-prescribed home-based physical activity program. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  2. Sampling problems for randomly broken sticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huillet, Thierry [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modelisation, CNRS-UMR 8089 et Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 5 mail Gay-Lussac, 95031, Neuville sur Oise (France)

    2003-04-11

    Consider the random partitioning model of a population (represented by a stick of length 1) into n species (fragments) with identically distributed random weights (sizes). Upon ranking the fragments' weights according to ascending sizes, let S{sub m:n} be the size of the mth smallest fragment. Assume that some observer is sampling such populations as follows: drop at random k points (the sample size) onto this stick and record the corresponding numbers of visited fragments. We shall investigate the following sampling problems: (1) what is the sample size if the sampling is carried out until the first visit of the smallest fragment (size S{sub 1:n})? (2) For a given sample size, have all the fragments of the stick been visited at least once or not? This question is related to Feller's random coupon collector problem. (3) In what order are new fragments being discovered and what is the random number of samples separating the discovery of consecutive new fragments until exhaustion of the list? For this problem, the distribution of the size-biased permutation of the species' weights, as the sequence of their weights in their order of appearance is needed and studied.

  3. An unbiased estimator of the variance of simple random sampling using mixed random-systematic sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Systematic sampling is a commonly used technique due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. The drawback of this simplicity is that it is not possible to estimate the design variance without bias. There are several ways to circumvent this problem. One method is to suppose that the variable of interest has a random order in the population, so the sample variance of simple random sampling without replacement is used. By means of a mixed random - systematic sample, an unbiased estimator o...

  4. Telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy for adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized controlled non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-12-01

    Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information-Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Telephone Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents With Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Non-inferiority Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Cynthia M.; Mataix-Cols, David; Lovell, Karina; Krebs, Georgina; Lang, Katie; Byford, Sarah; Heyman, Isobel

    2014-01-01

    Objective Many adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) do not have access to evidence-based treatment. A randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in a specialist OCD clinic to evaluate the effectiveness of telephone cognitive-behavioral therapy (TCBT) for adolescents with OCD compared to standard clinic-based, face-to-face CBT. Method Seventy-two adolescents, aged 11 through 18 years with primary OCD, and their parents were randomized to receive specialist TCBT or CBT. The intervention provided differed only in the method of treatment delivery. All participants received up to 14 sessions of CBT, incorporating exposure with response prevention (E/RP), provided by experienced therapists. The primary outcome measure was the Children’s Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Blind assessor ratings were obtained at midtreatment, posttreatment, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that TCBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT at posttreatment, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, there were no significant between-group differences on the CY-BOCS, but the confidence intervals exceeded the non-inferiority threshold. All secondary measures confirmed non-inferiority at all assessment points. Improvements made during treatment were maintained through to 12-month follow-up. Participants in each condition reported high levels of satisfaction with the intervention received. Conclusion TCBT is an effective treatment and is not inferior to standard clinic-based CBT, at least in the midterm. This approach provides a means of making a specialized treatment more accessible to many adolescents with OCD. Clinical trial registration information–Evaluation of telephone-administered cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); http://www.controlled-trials.com; ISRCTN27070832. PMID:25457928

  6. Improving Standard Poststratification Techniques For Random-Digit-Dialing Telephone Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Battaglia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Random-digit-dialing surveys in the United States such as the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS typically poststratify on age, gender and race/ethnicity using control totals from an appropriate source such as the 2000 Census, the Current Population Survey, or the American Community Survey. Using logistic regression and interaction detection software we identified key "main effect" socio-demographic variables and important two-factor interactions associated with several health risk factor outcomes measured in the BRFSS, one of the largest annual RDD surveys in the United States. A procedure was developed to construct control totals, which were consistent with estimates of age, gender, and race/ethnicity obtained from a commercial source and distributions of other demographic variables from the Current Population Survey. Raking was used to incorporate main effects and two-factor interaction margins into the weighting of the BRFSS survey data. The resulting risk factor estimates were then compared with those based on the current BRFSS weighting methodology and mean squared error estimates were developed. The research demonstrates that by identifying socio-demographic variables associated with key outcome variables and including these variables in the weighting methodology, nonresponse bias can be substantially reduced.

  7. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Regina M.; Willemsen, Marc C.; Smit, Filip; Cuijpers, Pim; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  8. Effectiveness of a mood management component as an adjunct to a telephone counselling smoking cessation intervention for smokers with a past major depression: A pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, R.; Willemsen, M.C.; Smit, H.F.E.; Cuijpers, P.; Schippers, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess whether the addition of a mood management component to telephone counselling produces higher abstinence rates in smokers with past major depression and helps to prevent recurrence of depressive symptoms. Design Pragmatic randomized controlled trial with two conditions, with follow-up

  9. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Telephone Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN exchange switches will be updated on Thursday 2 June between 7.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be affected and possibly even disrupted during this operation. 

  11. Generation and Analysis of Constrained Random Sampling Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Random sampling is a technique for signal acquisition which is gaining popularity in practical signal processing systems. Nowadays, event-driven analog-to-digital converters make random sampling feasible in practical applications. A process of random sampling is defined by a sampling pattern, which...... indicates signal sampling points in time. Practical random sampling patterns are constrained by ADC characteristics and application requirements. In this paper, we introduce statistical methods which evaluate random sampling pattern generators with emphasis on practical applications. Furthermore, we propose...... algorithm generates random sampling patterns dedicated for event-driven-ADCs better than existed sampling pattern generators. Finally, implementation issues of random sampling patterns are discussed....

  12. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  13. Effectiveness of individually tailored smoking cessation advice letters as an adjunct to telephone counselling and generic self-help materials: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Stephen; Gilbert, Hazel

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of individually tailored smoking cessation advice letters as an adjunct to telephone counselling and generic self-help materials. Randomized controlled trial. The UK Quitline. A total of 1508 current smokers and recent ex-smokers. The control group received usual care (telephone counselling and an information pack sent through the post). The intervention group received in addition a computer-generated individually tailored advice letter. All outcomes were assessed at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure was self-reported prolonged abstinence for at least 3 months. Secondary outcomes were self-reported prolonged abstinence for at least 1 month and 7-day and 24-hour point-prevalence abstinence. For the sample as a whole, quit rates did not differ significantly between the two conditions. However, among the majority (n = 1164) who were smokers at baseline, quit rates were consistently higher in the intervention group: prolonged abstinence for 3 months, 12.2% versus 9.0% [odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.96-2.04, P = 0.080); prolonged abstinence for 1 month, 16.4% versus 11.3% (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.09-2.15, P = 0.013); 7-day point-prevalence abstinence, 18.9% versus 12.7% (OR = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.15-2.19, P = 0.004); 24-hour point-prevalence abstinence, 20.9% versus 15.4% (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.07-1.96, P = 0.015). The results for the smokers are encouraging in showing a small but useful effect of the tailored letter on quit rate. Versions of the tailoring program could be used on the web and in general practices, pharmacies and primary care trusts.

  14. A random sampling procedure for anisotropic distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrajan, P.S.; Sethulakshmi, P.; Raghavendran, C.P.; Bhatia, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    A procedure is described for sampling the scattering angle of neutrons as per specified angular distribution data. The cosine of the scattering angle is written as a double Legendre expansion in the incident neutron energy and a random number. The coefficients of the expansion are given for C, N, O, Si, Ca, Fe and Pb and these elements are of interest in dosimetry and shielding. (author)

  15. A randomized controlled trial of telephone-mentoring with home-based walking preceding rehabilitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron-Tucker HL

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Laura Cameron-Tucker,1 Richard Wood-Baker,1 Lyn Joseph,1 Julia A Walters,1 Natalie Schüz,2 E Haydn Walters1 1Centre of Research Excellence for Chronic Respiratory Disease and Lung Aging, School of Medicine, 2School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia Purpose: With the limited reach of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR and low levels of daily physical activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, a need exists to increase daily exercise. This study evaluated telephone health-mentoring targeting home-based walking (tele-rehab compared to usual waiting time (usual care followed by group PR. Patients and methods: People with COPD were randomized to tele-rehab (intervention or usual care (controls. Tele-rehab delivered by trained nurse health-mentors supported participants’ home-based walking over 8–12 weeks. PR, delivered to both groups simultaneously, included 8 weeks of once-weekly education and self-management skills, with separate supervised exercise. Data were collected at three time-points: baseline (TP1, before (TP2, and after (TP3 PR. The primary outcome was change in physical capacity measured by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD with two tests performed at each time-point. Secondary outcomes included changes in self-reported home-based walking, health-related quality of life, and health behaviors. Results: Of 65 recruits, 25 withdrew before completing PR. Forty attended a median of 6 (4 education sessions. Seventeen attended supervised exercise (5±2 sessions. Between TP1 and TP2, there was a statistically significant increase in the median 6MWD of 12 (39.1 m in controls, but no change in the tele-rehab group. There were no significant changes in 6MWD between other time-points or groups, or significant change in any secondary outcomes. Participants attending supervised exercise showed a nonsignificant improvement in 6MWD, 12.3 (71 m, while others showed no change, 0 (33 m

  16. The Diabetes Telephone Study: Design and challenges of a pragmatic cluster randomized trial to improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alyce S; Bayliss, Elizabeth A; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Altschuler, Andrea; Dyer, Wendy; Neugebauer, Romain; Jaffe, Marc; Young, Joseph D; Kim, Eileen; Grant, Richard W

    2016-06-01

    Challenges to effective pharmacologic management of symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy include the limited effectiveness of available medicines, frequent side effects, and the need for ongoing symptom assessment and treatment titration for maximal effectiveness. We present here the rationale and implementation challenges of the Diabetes Telephone Study, a randomized trial designed to improve medication treatment, titration, and quality of life among patients with symptomatic diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We implemented a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial to test the effectiveness of an automated interactive voice response tool designed to provide physicians with real-time patient-reported data about responses to newly prescribed diabetic peripheral neuropathy medicines. A total of 1834 primary care physicians treating patients in the diabetes registry at Kaiser Permanente Northern California were randomized into the intervention or control arm. In September 2014, we began identification and recruitment of patients assigned to physicians in the intervention group who receive three brief interactive calls every 2 months after a medication is prescribed to alleviate diabetic peripheral neuropathy symptoms. These calls provide patients with the opportunity to report on symptoms, side effects, self-titration of medication dose and overall satisfaction with treatment. We plan to compare changes in self-reported quality of life between the intervention group and patients in the control group who receive three non-interactive automated educational phone calls. Successful implementation of this clinical trial required robust stakeholder engagement to help tailor the intervention and to address pragmatic concerns such as provider time constraints. As of 27 October 2015, we had screened 2078 patients, 1447 of whom were eligible for participation. We consented and enrolled 1206 or 83% of those eligible. Among those enrolled, 53% are women and the mean age

  17. Systematic random sampling of the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArt, Darragh G; Wasson, Gillian R; McKerr, George; Saetzler, Kurt; Reed, Matt; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2009-07-01

    The comet assay is a technique used to quantify DNA damage and repair at a cellular level. In the assay, cells are embedded in agarose and the cellular content is stripped away leaving only the DNA trapped in an agarose cavity which can then be electrophoresed. The damaged DNA can enter the agarose and migrate while the undamaged DNA cannot and is retained. DNA damage is measured as the proportion of the migratory 'tail' DNA compared to the total DNA in the cell. The fundamental basis of these arbitrary values is obtained in the comet acquisition phase using fluorescence microscopy with a stoichiometric stain in tandem with image analysis software. Current methods deployed in such an acquisition are expected to be both objectively and randomly obtained. In this paper we examine the 'randomness' of the acquisition phase and suggest an alternative method that offers both objective and unbiased comet selection. In order to achieve this, we have adopted a survey sampling approach widely used in stereology, which offers a method of systematic random sampling (SRS). This is desirable as it offers an impartial and reproducible method of comet analysis that can be used both manually or automated. By making use of an unbiased sampling frame and using microscope verniers, we are able to increase the precision of estimates of DNA damage. Results obtained from a multiple-user pooled variation experiment showed that the SRS technique attained a lower variability than that of the traditional approach. The analysis of a single user with repetition experiment showed greater individual variances while not being detrimental to overall averages. This would suggest that the SRS method offers a better reflection of DNA damage for a given slide and also offers better user reproducibility.

  18. BWIP-RANDOM-SAMPLING, Random Sample Generation for Nuclear Waste Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, B.

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Random samples for different distribution types are generated. Distribution types as required for performance assessment modeling of geologic nuclear waste disposal are provided. These are: - Uniform, - Log-uniform (base 10 or natural), - Normal, - Lognormal (base 10 or natural), - Exponential, - Bernoulli, - User defined continuous distribution. 2 - Method of solution: A linear congruential generator is used for uniform random numbers. A set of functions is used to transform the uniform distribution to the other distributions. Stratified, rather than random, sampling can be chosen. Truncated limits can be specified on many distributions, whose usual definition has an infinite support. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Generation of correlated random variables is not included

  19. Effects of a guided web-based smoking cessation program with telephone counseling: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehring, Michael; Haag, Max; Linde, Klaus; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Schneider, Antonius

    2014-09-24

    Preliminary findings suggest that Web-based interventions may be effective in achieving significant smoking cessation. To date, very few findings are available for primary care patients, and especially for the involvement of general practitioners. Our goal was to examine the short-term effectiveness of a fully automated Web-based coaching program in combination with accompanied telephone counseling in smoking cessation in a primary care setting. The study was an unblinded cluster-randomized trial with an observation period of 12 weeks. Individuals recruited by general practitioners randomized to the intervention group participated in a Web-based coaching program based on education, motivation, exercise guidance, daily short message service (SMS) reminding, weekly feedback through Internet, and active monitoring by general practitioners. All components of the program are fully automated. Participants in the control group received usual care and advice from their practitioner without the Web-based coaching program. The main outcome was the biochemically confirmed smoking status after 12 weeks. We recruited 168 participants (86 intervention group, 82 control group) into the study. For 51 participants from the intervention group and 70 participants from the control group, follow-up data were available both at baseline and 12 weeks. Very few patients (9.8%, 5/51) from the intervention group and from the control group (8.6%, 6/70) successfully managed smoking cessation (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.25-3.0; P=.816). Similar results were found within the intent-to-treat analysis: 5.8% (5/86) of the intervention group and 7.3% (6/82) of the control group (OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.38-4.36; P=.694). The number of smoked cigarettes per day decreased on average by 9.3 in the intervention group and by 6.6 in the control group (2.7 mean difference; 95% CI -5.33 to -0.58; P=.045). After adjustment for the baseline value, age, gender, and height, this significance decreases (mean difference 2.2; 95

  20. Patients' general satisfaction with telephone counseling by pharmacists and effects on satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines: Results from a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Marcel Jan; Van Geffen, Erica C G; Heerdink, Eibert R; Van Dijk, Liset; Bouvy, Marcel L

    2015-06-01

    Assess effects of pharmacists' counseling by telephone on patients' satisfaction with counseling, satisfaction with information and beliefs about medicines for newly prescribed medicines. A cluster randomized trial in Dutch community pharmacies. Patients ≥18 years were included when starting with antidepressants, bisphosphonates, RAS-inhibitors or statins. The intervention comprised counseling by telephone to address barriers to adherent behavior. It was supported by an interview protocol. Controls received usual care. Outcomes were effects on beliefs about medication, satisfaction with information and counseling. Data was collected with a questionnaire. Responses of 211 patients in nine pharmacies were analyzed. More intervention arm patients were satisfied with counseling (adj. OR 2.2 (95% CI 1.3, 3.6)). Patients with counseling were significantly more satisfied with information on 4 items, had less concerns and less frequently had a 'skeptical' attitude towards medication (adj. OR 0.5 (0.3-0.9)). Effects on most outcomes were more pronounced in men than in women. Telephone counseling by pharmacists improved satisfaction with counseling and satisfaction with information on some items. It had a small effect on beliefs about medicines. Pharmacists can use counseling by telephone, but more research is needed to find out which patients benefit most. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness of telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioural family intervention for preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierfeld, Frauke; Ise, Elena; Hanisch, Charlotte; Görtz-Dorten, Anja; Döpfner, Manfred

    2013-09-01

    Externalizing problem behaviour is one of the most common childhood disorders. Parent training is an effective treatment for these children and there is growing interest in the effects of parent-administered interventions with minimal therapist contact. This randomized controlled study examined the efficacy of a telephone-assisted parent-administered behavioural intervention (bibliotherapy) in families with preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour. Families were randomly assigned to a treatment group (n = 26) and an untreated waitlist control group (n = 22). The intervention comprised the reading of an 11 chapter self-help book and 11 weekly telephone consultations. Compared to the control group, the treatment group demonstrated significant decreases in parent-reported externalizing and internalizing child problem behaviour and dysfunctional parenting practices. Moreover, treated parents reported less parenting-related strains and decreases in parental depression, anxiety, and stress. The results suggest that telephone-assisted self-administered parent training is an effective alternative to more intensive forms of behavioural family intervention for preschool children with externalizing problem behaviour.

  2. Comparison of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) and standard telephone usage for consultations on Length of Stay in the ED. A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacti, Umut; Lok, Ugur

    2017-07-19

    Consultation, the process of an Emergency Physician seeking an opinion from other specialties, occurs frequently in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of secure messaging application (WhatsApp) usage for medical consultations on Emergency Department Length of Stay (ED LOS) and consult time. We conducted a prospective, randomized controlled trial in the ED using allocation concealment over three months. Consultations requested in the ED were allocated into two groups: consultations requested via the secure messaging application and consultations requested by telephone as verbal. A total of 439 consultations requested in the ED were assessed for eligibility and 345 were included in the final analysis: 173 consultations were conducted using secure messaging application and 172 consultations were conducted using standard telephone communications. The median ED LOS was 240 minutes (IQR:230-270, 95% CI:240 to 255.2) for patients in the secure messaging application group and 277 minutes (IQR:270-287.8, 95% CI:277 to 279) for patients in the telephone group. The median total ED LOS was significantly lower among consults conducted using Secure messaging application relative to consults conducted by telephone (median dif: -30, 95%CI:-37to-25, p<0.0001). The median consult time was 158 minutes (IQR:133 to 177.25, 95% CI:150 to 169) for patients in the Secure messaging application group and 170 minutes (IQR:165 to 188.5, 95% CI:170-171) for patients in the Telephone group (median dif: -12, 95%CI:-19 to-7,p<0.0001). Consultations completed without ED arrival was 61.8% in the secure messaging group and 33.1% in the Telephone group (dif: 28.7, 95% CI:48.3 to 66, p<0.001). Use of secure messaging application for consultations in the ED reduces the total ED LOS and consultation time. Consultation with secure messaging application eliminated more than half of in-person ED consultation visits.

  3. Telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy targeting major depression among urban dwelling, low income people living with HIV/AIDS: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himelhoch, Seth; Medoff, Deborah; Maxfield, Jennifer; Dihmes, Sarah; Dixon, Lisa; Robinson, Charles; Potts, Wendy; Mohr, David C

    2013-10-01

    This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated a previously developed manualized telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) intervention compared to face-to-face (f2f) therapy among low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals. The primary outcome was the reduction of depressive symptoms as measured by the Hamliton rating scale for depression scale. The secondary outcome was adherence to HAART as measured by random telephone based pill counts. Outcome measures were collected by trained research assistants masked to treatment allocation. Analysis was based on intention-to-treat. Thirty-four participants met eligibility criteria and were randomly assigned to receive T-CBT (n = 16) or f2f (n = 18). There was no statistically significant difference in depression treatment outcomes comparing f2f to T-CBT. Within group evaluation demonstrated that both the T-CBT and the f2f psychotherapy groups resulted in significant reductions in depressive symptoms. Those who received the T-CBT were significantly more likely to maintain their adherence to antiretroviral medication compared to the f2f treatment. None of the participants discontinued treatment due to adverse events. T-CBT can be delivered to low-income, urban dwelling HIV infected depressed individuals resulting in significant reductions in depression symptoms and improved adherence to antiretroviral medication. Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01055158.

  4. Pre-recorded instructional audio vs. dispatchers’ conversational assistance in telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A randomized controlled simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkun, Alexei; Glotov, Maksim; Ndjamen, Herman Franklin; Alaiye, Esther; Adeleke, Temidara; Samarin, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To assess the effectiveness of the telephone chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guided by a pre-recorded instructional audio when compared with dispatcher-assisted resuscitation. METHODS: It was a prospective, blind, randomised controlled study involving 109 medical students without previous CPR training. In a standardized mannequin scenario, after the step of dispatcher-assisted cardiac arrest recognition, the participants performed compression-only resuscitation guided over the telephone by either: (1) the pre-recorded instructional audio (n=57); or (2) verbal dispatcher assistance (n=52). The simulation video records were reviewed to assess the CPR performance using a 13-item checklist. The interval from call reception to the first compression, total number and rate of compressions, total number and duration of pauses after the first compression were also recorded. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the recording-assisted and dispatcher-assisted groups based on the overall performance score (5.6±2.2 vs. 5.1±1.9, P>0.05) or individual criteria of the CPR performance checklist. The recording-assisted group demonstrated significantly shorter time interval from call receipt to the first compression (86.0±14.3 vs. 91.2±14.2 s, PCPR. Future studies are warranted to further assess feasibility of using instructional audio aid as a potential alternative to dispatcher assistance.

  5. Effectiveness of Goal-Setting Telephone Follow-Up on Health Behaviors of Patients with Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiao-Pei; Mo, Miao-Miao; Xiong, Xiao-Ni; Ou, Cui-Ling; You, Li-Ming; Chen, Shao-Xian; Zhang, Min

    2016-09-01

    Adopting healthy behaviors is critical for secondary stroke prevention, but many patients fail to follow national guidelines regarding diet, exercise, and abstinence from risk factors. Compliance often decreases with time after hospital discharge, yet few studies have examined programs promoting long-term adherence to health behaviors. Goal setting and telephone follow-up have been proven to be effective in other areas of medicine, so this study evaluated the effectiveness of a guideline-based, goal-setting telephone follow-up program for patients with ischemic stroke. This was a multicenter, assessor-blinded, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial. Ninety-one stroke patients were randomized to either a control group or an intervention group. Intervention consisted of predischarge education and 3 goal-setting follow-up sessions conducted by phone. Data were collected at baseline and during the third and sixth months after hospital discharge. Six months after discharge, patients in the intervention group exhibited significantly higher medication adherence than patients in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in physical activity, nutrition, low-salt diet adherence, blood pressure monitoring, smoking abstinence, unhealthy use of alcohol, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores between the 2 groups. Goal-setting telephone follow-up intervention for ischemic stroke patients is feasible and leads to improved medication adherence. However, the lack of group differences in other health behavior subcategories and in themRS score indicates a need for more effective intervention strategies to help patients reach guideline-recommended targets. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of a Standardized Pre-Operative Telephone Checklist Designed to Avoid Late Cancellation of Ambulatory Surgery: The AMBUPROG Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Gaucher

    Full Text Available To assess the impact of a standardized pre-operative telephone checklist on the rate of late cancellations of ambulatory surgery (AMBUPROG trial.Multicenter, two-arm, parallel-group, open-label randomized controlled trial.11 university hospital ambulatory surgery units in Paris, France.Patients scheduled for ambulatory surgery and able to be reached by telephone.A 7-item checklist designed to prevent late cancellation, available in five languages and two versions (for children and adults, was administered between 7 and 3 days before the planned date of surgery, by an automated phone system or a research assistant. The control group received standard management alone.Rate of cancellation on the day of surgery or the day before.The study population comprised 3900 patients enrolled between November 2012 and September 2013: 1950 patients were randomized to the checklist arm and 1950 patients to the control arm. The checklist was administered to 68.8% of patients in the intervention arm, 1002 by the automated phone system and 340 by a research assistant. The rate of late cancellation did not differ significantly between the checklist and control arms (109 (5.6% vs. 113 (5.8%, adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.91 [0.65-1.29], (p = 0.57. Checklist administration revealed that 355 patients (28.0% had not undergone tests ordered by the surgeon or anesthetist, and that 254 patients (20.0% still had questions concerning the fasting state.A standardized pre-operative telephone checklist did not avoid late cancellations of ambulatory surgery but enabled us to identify several frequent causes.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01732159.

  7. Effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes in survivors of colorectal cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Anna L; Chambers, Suzanne K; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Patrao, Tania A; Baade, Peter D; Lynch, Brigid M; Aitken, Joanne F; Meng, Xingqiong; Courneya, Kerry S

    2013-06-20

    Colorectal cancer survivors are at risk for poor health outcomes because of unhealthy lifestyles, but few studies have developed translatable health behavior change interventions. This study aimed to determine the effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes among colorectal cancer survivors. In this two-group randomized controlled trial, 410 colorectal cancer survivors were randomly assigned to the health coaching intervention (11 theory-based telephone-delivered health coaching sessions delivered over 6 months focusing on physical activity, weight management, dietary habits, alcohol, and smoking) or usual care. Assessment of primary (ie, physical activity [Godin Leisure Time Index], health-related quality of life [HRQoL; Short Form-36], and cancer-related fatigue [Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Scale]) and secondary outcomes (ie, body mass index [kg/m(2)], diet and alcohol intake [Food Frequency Questionnaire], and smoking) were conducted at baseline and 6 and 12 months. At 12 months, significant intervention effects were observed for moderate physical activity (28.5 minutes; P = .003), body mass index (-0.9 kg/m(2); P = .001), energy from total fat (-7.0%; P = .006), and energy from saturated fat (-2.8%; P = .016). A significant intervention effect was reported for vegetable intake (0.4 servings per day; P = .001) at 6 months. No significant group differences were found at 6 or 12 months for HRQoL, cancer-related fatigue, fruit, fiber, or alcohol intake, or smoking. The CanChange intervention was effective for improving physical activity, dietary habits, and body mass index in colorectal cancer survivors. The intervention is translatable through existing telephone cancer support and information services in Australia and other countries.

  8. The Effect of Tailored Web-Based Feedback and Optional Telephone Coaching on Health Improvements: A Randomized Intervention Among Employees in the Transport Service Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solenhill, Madeleine; Grotta, Alessandra; Pasquali, Elena; Bakkman, Linda; Bellocco, Rino; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva

    2016-08-11

    Lifestyle-related health problems are an important health concern in the transport service industry. Web- and telephone-based interventions could be suitable for this target group requiring tailored approaches. To evaluate the effect of tailored Web-based health feedback and optional telephone coaching to improve lifestyle factors (body mass index-BMI, dietary intake, physical activity, stress, sleep, tobacco and alcohol consumption, disease history, self-perceived health, and motivation to change health habits), in comparison to no health feedback or telephone coaching. Overall, 3,876 employees in the Swedish transport services were emailed a Web-based questionnaire. They were randomized into: control group (group A, 498 of 1238 answered, 40.23%), or intervention Web (group B, 482 of 1305 answered, 36.93%), or intervention Web + telephone (group C, 493 of 1333 answered, 36.98%). All groups received an identical questionnaire, only the interventions differed. Group B received tailored Web-based health feedback, and group C received tailored Web-based health feedback + optional telephone coaching if the participants' reported health habits did not meet the national guidelines, or if they expressed motivation to change health habits. The Web-based feedback was fully automated. Telephone coaching was performed by trained health counselors. Nine months later, all participants received a follow-up questionnaire and intervention Web + telephone. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test, analysis of variance, and generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used. Overall, 981 of 1473 (66.60%) employees participated at baseline (men: 66.7%, mean age: 44 years, mean BMI: 26.4 kg/m(2)) and follow-up. No significant differences were found in reported health habits between the 3 groups over time. However, significant changes were found in motivation to change. The intervention groups reported higher motivation to improve dietary habits (144 of 301 participants, 47

  9. A random spatial sampling method in a rural developing nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Kent D.W. Bream; Frances K. Barg; Charles C. Branas

    2014-01-01

    Nonrandom sampling of populations in developing nations has limitations and can inaccurately estimate health phenomena, especially among hard-to-reach populations such as rural residents. However, random sampling of rural populations in developing nations can be challenged by incomplete enumeration of the base population. We describe a stratified random sampling method...

  10. Counselor competence for telephone Motivation Interviewing addressing lifestyle change among Dutch older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesters, I.; Keulen, H.M. van; Vries, H. de; Brug, J.

    2017-01-01

    Counselor competence in telephone Motivation Interviewing (MI) to change lifestyle behaviors in a primary care population was assessed using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) rating system. Counselor behavior was evaluated by trained raters. Twenty minutes of a random sample

  11. Comparison of two theory-based, fully automated telephone interventions designed to maintain dietary change in healthy adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Quintiliani, Lisa M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Migneault, Jeffrey P; Heeren, Timothy; Friedman, Robert H

    2014-11-10

    Health behavior change interventions have focused on obtaining short-term intervention effects; few studies have evaluated mid-term and long-term outcomes, and even fewer have evaluated interventions that are designed to maintain and enhance initial intervention effects. Moreover, behavior theory has not been developed for maintenance or applied to maintenance intervention design to the degree that it has for behavior change initiation. The objective of this paper is to describe a study that compared two theory-based interventions (social cognitive theory [SCT] vs goal systems theory [GST]) designed to maintain previously achieved improvements in fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption. The interventions used tailored, interactive conversations delivered by a fully automated telephony system (Telephone-Linked Care [TLC]) over a 6-month period. TLC maintenance intervention based on SCT used a skills-based approach to build self-efficacy. It assessed confidence in and barriers to eating F&V, provided feedback on how to overcome barriers, plan ahead, and set goals. The TLC maintenance intervention based on GST used a cognitive-based approach. Conversations trained participants in goal management to help them integrate their newly acquired dietary behavior into their hierarchical system of goals. Content included goal facilitation, conflict, shielding, and redundancy, and reflection on personal goals and priorities. To evaluate and compare the two approaches, a sample of adults whose F&V consumption was below public health goal levels were recruited from a large urban area to participate in a fully automated telephony intervention (TLC-EAT) for 3-6 months. Participants who increase their daily intake of F&V by ≥1 serving/day will be eligible for the three-arm randomized controlled trial. A sample of 405 participants will be randomized to one of three arms: (1) an assessment-only control, (2) TLC-SCT, and (3) TLC-GST. The maintenance interventions are 6 months. All 405

  12. Back to the future – feasibility of recruitment and retention to patient education and telephone follow-up after hip fracture: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langford DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dolores P Langford,1,2 Lena Fleig,3–5 Kristin C Brown,3,4 Nancy J Cho,1,2 Maeve Frost,1 Monique Ledoyen,1 Jayne Lehn,1 Kostas Panagiotopoulos,1,6 Nina Sharpe,1 Maureen C Ashe3,4 1Vancouver Coastal Health, 2Department of Physical Therapy, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 3Department of Family Practice, The University of British Columbia (UBC, 4Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 5Freie Universität Berlin, Health Psychology, Berlin, Germany; 6Department of Orthopaedics, The University of British Columbia (UBC, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objectives: Our primary aim of this pilot study was to test feasibility of the planned design, the interventions (education plus telephone coaching, and the outcome measures, and to facilitate a power calculation for a future randomized controlled trial to improve adherence to recovery goals following hip fracture.Design: This is a parallel 1:1 randomized controlled feasibility study.Setting: The study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Vancouver, BC, Canada.Participants: Participants were community-dwelling adults over 60 years of age with a recent hip fracture. They were recruited and assessed in hospital, and then randomized after hospital discharge to the intervention or control group by a web-based randomization service. Treatment allocation was concealed to the investigators, measurement team, and data entry assistants and analysts. Participants and the research physiotherapist were aware of treatment allocation.Intervention: Intervention included usual care for hip fracture plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using a patient-centered educational manual and four videos, and up to five postdischarge telephone calls from a physiotherapist to provide recovery coaching. The control group received usual care plus a 1-hour in-hospital educational session using the educational manual and videos.Measurement: Our primary outcome was feasibility, specifically recruitment

  13. Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, C. M.; Buchhave, P.; K. George, W.

    algorithms; sample and-hold and the direct spectral estimator without residence time weighting. The computer generated signal is a Poisson process with a sample rate proportional to velocity magnitude that consist of well-defined frequency content, which makes bias easy to spot. The idea...

  14. Comparison of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality Between Standard Versus Telephone-Basic Life Support Training Program in Middle-Aged and Elderly Housewives: A Randomized Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Eui Jung; Ro, Young Sun; Lee, KyungWon; Lee, Hyeona; Jang, Dayea Beatrice; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Myklebust, Helge; Birkenes, Tonje Søraas

    2018-02-01

    For cardiac arrests witnessed at home, the witness is usually a middle-aged or older housewife. We compared the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performance of bystanders trained with the newly developed telephone-basic life support (T-BLS) program and those trained with standard BLS (S-BLS) training programs. Twenty-four middle-aged and older housewives without previous CPR education were enrolled and randomized into two groups of BLS training programs. The T-BLS training program included concepts and current instruction protocols for telephone-assisted CPR, whereas the S-BLS training program provided training for BLS. After each training course, the participants simulated CPR and were assisted by a dispatcher via telephone. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality was measured and recorded using a mannequin simulator. The primary outcome was total no-flow time (>1.5 seconds without chest compression) during simulation. Among 24 participants, two (8.3%) who experienced mechanical failure of simulation mannequin and one (4.2%) who violated simulation protocols were excluded at initial simulation, and two (8.3%) refused follow-up after 6 months. The median (interquartile range) total no-flow time during initial simulation was 79.6 (66.4-96.9) seconds for the T-BLS training group and 147.6 (122.5-184.0) seconds for the S-BLS training group (P trained with the T-BLS training program showed shorter no-flow time and fewer interruptions during bystander CPR simulation assisted by a dispatcher.

  15. Effects of repetitive or intensified instructions in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 4-armed, randomized, factorial simulation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, R; Roth, D; Krammel, M; Laggner, R; Heidinger, B; Kienbacher, C; Novosad, H; Chwojka, C; Havel, C; Sterz, F; Schreiber, W; Herkner, H

    2014-01-01

    Compression depth is frequently suboptimal in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We investigated effects of intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instructions on compression depth in telephone-assisted, protocol driven, bystander CPR on a simulation manikin. Thirty-two volunteers performed 10 min of compression only-CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 4-armed, factorial setting. Participants were randomized either to standard wording ("push down firmly 5 cm"), intensified wording ("it is very important to push down 5 cm every time") or standard or intensified wording repeated every 20s. Three dispatchers were randomized to give these instructions. Primary outcome was relative compression depth (absolute compression depth minus leaning depth). Secondary outcomes were absolute distance, hands-off times as well as BORG-scale and nine-hole peg test (NHPT), pulse rate and blood pressure to reflect physical exertion. We applied a random effects linear regression model. Relative compression depth was 35 ± 10 mm (standard) versus 31 ± 11 mm (intensified wording) versus 25 ± 8 mm (repeated standard) and 31 ± 14 mm (repeated intensified wording). Adjusted for design, body mass index and female sex, intensified wording and repetition led to decreased compression depth of 13 (95%CI -25 to -1) mm (p=0.04) and 9 (95%CI -21 to 3) mm (p=0.13), respectively. Secondary outcomes regarding intensified wording showed significant differences for absolute distance (43 ± 2 versus 20 (95%CI 3-37) mm; p=0.01) and hands-off times (60 ± 40 versus 157 (95%CI 63-251) s; p=0.04). In protocol driven, telephone-assisted, bystander CPR, intensified wording and/or repetitive target depth instruction will not improve compression depth compared to the standard instruction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Coaching by Telephone Intervention for Veterans and Care Team Engagement (ACTIVATE): A study protocol for a Hybrid Type I effectiveness-implementation randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oddone, Eugene Z; Damschroder, Laura J; Gierisch, Jennifer; Olsen, Maren; Fagerlin, Angela; Sanders, Linda; Sparks, Jordan; Turner, Marsha; May, Carrie; McCant, Felicia; Curry, David; White-Clark, Courtney; Juntilla, Karen

    2017-04-01

    A large proportion of deaths and many illnesses can be attributed to three modifiable risk factors: tobacco use, overweight/obesity, and physical inactivity. Health risk assessments (HRAs) are widely available online but have not been consistently used in healthcare systems to activate patients to participate in prevention programs aimed at improving lifestyle behaviors. The goal of this study is to test whether adding telephone-based coaching to use of a comprehensive HRA increases at-risk patients' activation and enrollment into a prevention program compared to HRA use alone. Participants were randomized to either complete an HRA alone or in conjunction with a telephone coaching intervention. To be eligible Veterans had to have at least one modifiable risk factor (current smoker, overweight/obese, or physically inactive). The primary outcome is enrollment and participation in a prevention program by 6months. Secondary outcomes include change in a Patient Activation Measure and Framingham Risk Score. This study is the first to test a web-based health risk assessment coupled with a health coaching intervention within a large healthcare system. Results from this study will help the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implement its national plan to include comprehensive health risk assessments as a tool to engage Veterans in prevention. The results will also inform health systems outside VHA who seek to implement Medicare's advisement that health risk assessment become a mandatory component of care under the Affordable Care Act. © 2016.

  17. Very brief physician advice and supplemental proactive telephone calls to promote smoking reduction and cessation in Chinese male smokers with no intention to quit: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zhang, Di; Tian, Hui; Zuo, Fang; Lam, Tai Hing

    2017-11-01

    There is inconsistent evidence that behavioural support to promote smoking reduction is effective at increasing smoking cessation. We examined the effectiveness of brief physician advice together with four very brief telephone calls in promoting smoking cessation among Chinese men via reduction compared with equivalent advice on diet and exercise. A two-group pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Male patients attending the Endocrinology and Acupuncture out-patient clinics of a general hospital in Beijing, China. Physicians advised participants allocated to the smoking-reduction intervention (SRI, n = 181) group to reduce smoking to at least half of their current consumption within 1 month at baseline. At follow-up, a telephone counsellor repeated this advice if the participant had not reduced their cigarette consumption. Participants who had reduced consumption were encouraged to quit smoking. Physicians gave participants in the exercise and diet advice (EDA, n = 188) control group brief advice about physical activity and healthy diet at baseline, and a telephone counsellor reinforced this at each follow-up interview. Both groups had one face-to-face interview at baseline plus five telephone interviews and interventions (approximately 1 minute each) at 1 week and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-up. The primary outcome was self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up interview. By intention-to-treat, the self-reported 6-month prolonged abstinence rate at 12-month follow-up in the SRI groups (19 quitters, 15.7%) was higher, but not significantly, than the EDA control group (10 quitters, 7.8%), and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) was 2.26 (0.97-5.26), P = 0.062. The self-reported 7-day point prevalence quit rate (secondary outcome) in the SRI group was significantly higher than the control group at each follow-up interview (at 12-month follow-up: 13.3 versus 6.9%, OR (95% CI) = 2.09 (1.01, 4.34), P = 0

  18. Acute stress symptoms during the second Lebanon war in a random sample of Israeli citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Yahav, Rivka

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Israel during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey was conducted in July 2006 of a random sample of 235 residents of northern Israel, who were subjected to missile attacks, and of central Israel, who were not subjected to missile attacks. Results indicate that ASS scores were higher in the northern respondents; 6.8% of the northern sample and 3.9% of the central sample met ASD criteria. Appearance of each symptom ranged from 15.4% for dissociative to 88.4% for reexperiencing, with significant differences between northern and central respondents only for reexperiencing and arousal. A low ASD rate and a moderate difference between areas subjected and not subjected to attack were found.

  19. Feasibility and Acceptability of a Web-Based Treatment with Telephone Support for Postpartum Women With Anxiety: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, Miriam T; Olander, Ellinor K; Rowe, Heather; Fisher, Jane Rw; Ayers, Susan

    2018-04-20

    Postpartum anxiety can have adverse effects on the mother and child if left untreated. Time constraints and stigma are common barriers to postpartum treatment. Web-based treatments offer potential flexibility and anonymity. What Am I Worried About (WaWa) is a self-guided treatment based on cognitive-behavioral and mindfulness principles for women experiencing postpartum anxiety. WaWa was developed in Australia and consists of 9 modules with optional weekly telephone support. WaWa was adapted to a Web-based version for use in England (Internet-based What Am I Worried About, iWaWa). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility (engagement and usability) and acceptability (usefulness, satisfaction, and helpfulness) of iWaWa among English postpartum women with anxiety. Postpartum (parenting styles. Despite interest in iWaWa, the results suggest that both the study and iWaWa were not feasible in the current format. However, this first trial provides useful evidence about treatment format and content preferences that can inform iWaWa's future development, as well as research and development of Web-based postpartum anxiety treatments, in general, to optimize adherence. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02434406; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02434406 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xTq7Bwmd). ©Miriam T Ashford, Ellinor K Olander, Heather Rowe, Jane RW Fisher, Susan Ayers. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 20.04.2018.

  20. Randomized Trial Comparing Telephone Versus In-Person Weight Loss Counseling on Body Composition and Circulating Biomarkers in Women Treated for Breast Cancer: The Lifestyle, Exercise, and Nutrition (LEAN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Maura; Cartmel, Brenda; Loftfield, Erikka; Sanft, Tara; Chagpar, Anees B; Zhou, Yang; Playdon, Mary; Li, Fangyong; Irwin, Melinda L

    2016-03-01

    Obesity is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer mortality. The gold standard approach to weight loss is in-person counseling, but telephone counseling may be more feasible. We examined the effect of in-person versus telephone weight loss counseling versus usual care on 6-month changes in body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers. One hundred breast cancer survivors with a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) were randomly assigned to in-person counseling (n = 33), telephone counseling (n = 34), or usual care (UC) (n = 33). In-person and telephone counseling included 11 30-minute counseling sessions over 6 months. These focused on reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavioral therapy. Body composition, physical activity, diet, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline and 6 months. The mean age of participants was 59 ± 7.5 years old, with a mean BMI of 33.1 ± 6.6 kg/m(2), and the mean time from diagnosis was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. Fifty-one percent of the participants had stage I breast cancer. Average 6-month weight loss was 6.4%, 5.4%, and 2.0% for in-person, telephone, and UC groups, respectively (P = .004, P = .009, and P = .46 comparing in-person with UC, telephone with UC, and in-person with telephone, respectively). A significant 30% decrease in C-reactive protein levels was observed among women randomly assigned to the combined weight loss intervention groups compared with a 1% decrease among women randomly assigned to UC (P = .05). Both in-person and telephone counseling were effective weight loss strategies, with favorable effects on C-reactive protein levels. Our findings may help guide the incorporation of weight loss counseling into breast cancer treatment and care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  2. Efficient sampling of complex network with modified random walk strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yunya; Chang, Shuhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Zhang, Mi; Yang, Lei

    2018-02-01

    We present two novel random walk strategies, choosing seed node (CSN) random walk and no-retracing (NR) random walk. Different from the classical random walk sampling, the CSN and NR strategies focus on the influences of the seed node choice and path overlap, respectively. Three random walk samplings are applied in the Erdös-Rényi (ER), Barabási-Albert (BA), Watts-Strogatz (WS), and the weighted USAir networks, respectively. Then, the major properties of sampled subnets, such as sampling efficiency, degree distributions, average degree and average clustering coefficient, are studied. The similar conclusions can be reached with these three random walk strategies. Firstly, the networks with small scales and simple structures are conducive to the sampling. Secondly, the average degree and the average clustering coefficient of the sampled subnet tend to the corresponding values of original networks with limited steps. And thirdly, all the degree distributions of the subnets are slightly biased to the high degree side. However, the NR strategy performs better for the average clustering coefficient of the subnet. In the real weighted USAir networks, some obvious characters like the larger clustering coefficient and the fluctuation of degree distribution are reproduced well by these random walk strategies.

  3. Telephone follow-up by nurse following total knee arthroplasty - protocol for a randomized clinical trial (NCT01771315)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szöts, Kirsten; Konradsen, Hanne; Solgaard, Søren

    2014-01-01

    to the orthopaedic outpatient clinic during the rehabilitation period. METHOD/DESIGN: The design is a randomized un-blinded parallel group clinical trial conducted at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gentofte Hospital, the Capital Region of Denmark. In total, 116 patients will be allocated by an external...... are structured by key subjects relevant to assess the health status according to the VIPS-model (the Swedish acronym for the concepts Well-being, Integrity, Prevention and Safety). The content of the consultations can vary according to the patients´ individual situations and needs. All consultations...... of life, general self-efficacy and the number of acute visits to the orthopaedic outpatient clinic. DISCUSSION: The result of this trial is expected to provide new knowledge to support the development of targeted and effective follow-up after total knee arthroplasty in order to improve the patients...

  4. [Effects of a voice metronome on compression rate and depth in telephone assisted, bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation: an investigator-blinded, 3-armed, randomized, simulation trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tulder, Raphael; Roth, Dominik; Krammel, Mario; Laggner, Roberta; Schriefl, Christoph; Kienbacher, Calvin; Lorenzo Hartmann, Alexander; Novosad, Heinz; Constantin Chwojka, Christof; Havel, Christoph; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Herkner, Harald

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect on compression rate and depth of a conventional metronome and a voice metronome in simulated telephone-assisted, protocol-driven bystander Cardiopulmonary resucitation (CPR) compared to standard instruction. Thirty-six lay volunteers performed 10 minutes of compression-only CPR in a prospective, investigator-blinded, 3-arm study on a manikin. Participants were randomized either to standard instruction ("push down firmly, 5 cm"), a regular metronome pacing 110 beats per minute (bpm), or a voice metronome continuously prompting "deep-deepdeep- deeper" at 110 bpm. The primary outcome was deviation from the ideal chest compression target range (50 mm compression depth x 100 compressions per minute x 10 minutes = 50 m). Secondary outcomes were CPR quality measures (compression and leaning depth, rate, no-flow times) and participants' related physiological response (heart rate, blood pressure and nine hole peg test and borg scales score). We used a linear regression model to calculate effects. The mean (SD) deviation from the ideal target range (50 m) was -11 (9) m in the standard group, -20 (11) m in the conventional metronome group (adjusted difference [95%, CI], 9.0 [1.2-17.5 m], P=.03), and -18 (9) m in the voice metronome group (adjusted difference, 7.2 [-0.9-15.3] m, P=.08). Secondary outcomes (CPR quality measures and physiological response of participants to CPR performance) showed no significant differences. Compared to standard instruction, the conventional metronome showed a significant negative effect on the chest compression target range. The voice metronome showed a non-significant negative effect and therefore cannot be recommended for regular use in telephone-assisted CPR.

  5. Effectiveness of telephone-based aftercare case management for adult patients with unipolar depression compared to usual care: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kivelitz

    Full Text Available Patients with depression often have limited access to outpatient psychotherapy following inpatient treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of a telephone-based aftercare case management (ACM intervention for patients with depression.We performed a prospective randomized controlled trial in four psychotherapeutic inpatient care units with N = 199 patients with major depression or dysthymia (F32.x, F33.x, F34.1, according to the ICD-10. The ACM consisted of six phone contacts at two-week intervals performed by trained and certified psychotherapists. The control group received usual care (UC. The primary outcome was depressive symptom severity (BDI-II at 9-month follow-up, and secondary outcomes were health-related quality of life (SF-8, EQ-5D, self-efficacy (SWE, and the proportion of patients initiating outpatient psychotherapy. Mixed model analyses were conducted to compare improvements between treatment groups.Regarding the primary outcome of symptom severity, the groups did not significantly differ after 3 months (p = .132; ES = -0.23 or at the 9-month follow-up (p = .284; ES = -0.20. No significant differences in health-related quality of life or self-efficacy were found between groups. Patients receiving ACM were more likely to be in outpatient psychotherapy after 3 months (OR: 3.00[1.12-8.07]; p = .029 and 9 months (OR: 4.78 [1.55-14.74]; p = .006 than those receiving UC.Although telephone-based ACM did not significantly improve symptom severity, it seems to be a valuable approach for overcoming treatment barriers to the clinical pathways of patients with depression regarding their access to outpatient psychotherapy.

  6. Comparison of Address-based Sampling and Random-digit Dialing Methods for Recruiting Young Men as Controls in a Case-Control Study of Testicular Cancer Susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Ciosek, Stephanie L.; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J.; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-...

  7. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Hinson, K; Karadayi, E; Saito, M

    2007-01-01

    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e n 2 )). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n 2 ). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications

  8. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.

    2007-09-01

    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e^{n^2}) . We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n2). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.

  9. Sampling large random knots in a confined space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)

    2007-09-28

    DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e{sup n{sup 2}}). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n{sup 2}). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.

  10. SOME SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING STRATEGIES USING MULTIPLE RANDOM STARTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sampath Sundaram; Ammani Sivaraman

    2010-01-01

    In this paper an attempt is made to extend linear systematic sampling using multiple random starts due to Gautschi(1957)for various types of systematic sampling schemes available in literature, namely(i)  Balanced Systematic Sampling (BSS) of  Sethi (1965) and (ii) Modified Systematic Sampling (MSS) of Singh, Jindal, and Garg  (1968). Further, the proposed methods were compared with Yates corrected estimator developed with reference to Gautschi’s Linear systematic samplin...

  11. Brief telephone-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy targeted to parents of children with functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L; Langer, Shelby L; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Romano, Joan M; Murphy, Tasha B; Walker, Lynn S; Mancl, Lloyd A; Claar, Robyn L; DuPen, Melissa M; Whitehead, William E; Abdullah, Bisher; Swanson, Kimberly S; Baker, Melissa D; Stoner, Susan A; Christie, Dennis L; Feld, Andrew D

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs) are associated with increased health care utilization, school absences, and poor quality of life (QoL). Cost-effective and accessible interventions are needed. This multisite study tested the effects of a 3-session cognitive behavioral intervention delivered to parents, in-person or remotely, on the primary outcome of pain severity and secondary outcomes (process measures) of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, catastrophizing, and child-reported coping. Additional outcomes hypothesized a priori and assessed included functional disability, QoL, pain behavior, school absences, health care utilization, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The study was prospective and longitudinal (baseline and 3 and 6 months' follow-up) with 3 randomized conditions: social learning and cognitive behavioral therapy in-person (SLCBT) or by phone (SLCBT-R) and education and support condition by phone (ES-R). Participants were children aged 7 to 12 years with FAPD and their parents (N = 316 dyads). Although no significant treatment effect for pain severity was found, the SLCBT groups showed significantly greater improvements compared with controls on process measures of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, and catastrophizing, and additional outcomes of parent-reported functional disability, pain behaviors, child health care visits for abdominal pain, and (remote condition only) QoL and missed school days. No effects were found for parent and child-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, or child-reported QoL or coping. These findings suggest that for children with FAPD, a brief phone SLCBT for parents can be similarly effective as in-person SLCBT in changing parent responses and improving outcomes, if not reported pain and symptom report, compared with a control condition.

  12. Living well after breast cancer randomized controlled trial protocol: evaluating a telephone-delivered weight loss intervention versus usual care in women following treatment for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Marina M; Terranova, Caroline O; Erickson, Jane M; Job, Jennifer R; Brookes, Denise S K; McCarthy, Nicole; Hickman, Ingrid J; Lawler, Sheleigh P; Fjeldsoe, Brianna S; Healy, Genevieve N; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Janda, Monika; Veerman, J Lennert; Ware, Robert S; Prins, Johannes B; Vos, Theo; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Eakin, Elizabeth G

    2016-10-28

    Obesity, physical inactivity and poor diet quality have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality as well as treatment-related side-effects in breast cancer survivors. Weight loss intervention trials in breast cancer survivors have shown that weight loss is safe and achievable; however, few studies have examined the benefits of such interventions on a broad range of outcomes and few have examined factors important to translation (e.g. feasible delivery method for scaling up, assessment of sustained changes, cost-effectiveness). The Living Well after Breast Cancer randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (versus usual care) on weight change and a range of secondary outcomes including cost-effectiveness. Women (18-75 years; body mass index 25-45 kg/m 2 ) diagnosed with stage I-III breast cancer in the previous 2 years are recruited from public and private hospitals and through the state-based cancer registry (target n = 156). Following baseline assessment, participants are randomized 1:1 to either a 12-month telephone-delivered weight loss intervention (targeting diet and physical activity) or usual care. Data are collected at baseline, 6-months (mid-intervention), 12-months (end-of-intervention) and 18-months (maintenance). The primary outcome is change in weight at 12-months. Secondary outcomes are changes in body composition, bone mineral density, cardio-metabolic and cancer-related biomarkers, metabolic health and chronic disease risk, physical function, patient-reported outcomes (quality of life, fatigue, menopausal symptoms, body image, fear of cancer recurrence) and behaviors (dietary intake, physical activity, sitting time). Data collected at 18-months will be used to assess whether outcomes achieved at end-of-intervention are sustained six months after intervention completion. Cost-effectiveness will be assessed, as will mediators and moderators of

  13. Effects of automated smartphone mobile recovery support and telephone continuing care in the treatment of alcohol use disorder: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, James R; Gustafson, David H; Ivey, Megan; McTavish, Fiona; Pe-Romashko, Klaren; Curtis, Brenda; Oslin, David A; Polsky, Daniel; Quanbeck, Andrew; Lynch, Kevin G

    2018-01-30

    New smartphone communication technology provides a novel way to provide personalized continuing care support following alcohol treatment. One such system is the Addiction version of the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS), which provides a range of automated functions that support patients. A-CHESS improved drinking outcomes over standard continuing care when provided to patients leaving inpatient treatment. Effective continuing care can also be delivered via telephone calls with a counselor. Telephone Monitoring and Counseling (TMC) has demonstrated efficacy in two randomized trials with alcohol-dependent patients. A-CHESS and TMC have complementary strengths. A-CHESS provides automated 24/7 recovery support services and frequent assessment of symptoms and status, but does not involve regular contact with a counselor. TMC provides regular and sustained contact with the same counselor, but no ongoing support between calls. The future of continuing care for alcohol use disorders is likely to involve automated mobile technology and counselor contact, but little is known about how best to integrate these services. To address this question, the study will feature a 2 × 2 design (A-CHESS for 12 months [yes/no] × TMC for 12 months [yes/no]), in which 280 alcohol-dependent patients in intensive outpatient programs (IOPs) will be randomized to one of the four conditions and followed for 18 months. We will determine whether adding TMC to A-CHESS produces fewer heavy drinking days than TMC or A-CHESS alone and test for TMC and A-CHESS main effects. We will determine the costs of each of the four conditions and the incremental cost-effectiveness of the three active conditions. Analyses will also examine secondary outcomes, including a biological measure of alcohol use, and hypothesized moderation and mediation effects. The results of the study will yield important information on improving patient alcohol use outcomes by integrating mobile

  14. Protocol for a randomized controlled dismantling study of a brief telephonic psychological intervention applied to non-professional caregivers with symptoms of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Fernando L; Torres, Ángela; Díaz, Olga; Otero, Patricia; Blanco, Vanessa; Hermida, Elisabet

    2015-11-23

    Although depression is a common problem in caregivers and there are effective cognitive-behavioral interventions for its prevention, the ability of caregivers to attend these treatments is often limited by logistics. Furthermore, the efficacy of the components of these interventions is unknown. The objectives of this study are to (a) evaluate the efficacy of a telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent depression with all its components (cognitive and behavioral) and only with behavioral activation, and to (b) analyze the mediators of the change in depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled clinical trial was designed to dismantle the components of a cognitive-behavioral intervention. Caregivers with elevated depressive symptoms will be randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral intervention, an intervention with only the behavioral activation component, or a usual care control group. Each condition will consist of approximately 60 participants. The two interventions will consist of five sessions lasting 90 min each, applied to groups of about 5 participants at a time via conference call. Trained interviewers, blind to the experimental conditions, will conduct the assessments at the pre-treatment, post-treatment and 1-, 3-, 6- and 12-month follow-ups. This study will provide evidence of the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention to prevent depression in caregivers with elevated depressive symptoms administered via conference call, and on the impact of the behavioral activation component on the overall efficacy of the program. If we find favorable results, it would mean that we have developed a program of prevention of depression of higher clinical utility and efficacy than those currently available, which would make it possible for a large number of caregivers to have access to such resources. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02292394. Registered 6 November 2014.

  15. Effect of telephone-administered vs face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy on adherence to therapy and depression outcomes among primary care patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, David C; Ho, Joyce; Duffecy, Jenna; Reifler, Douglas; Sokol, Leslie; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Jin, Ling; Siddique, Juned

    2012-06-06

    Primary care is the most common site for the treatment of depression. Most depressed patients prefer psychotherapy over antidepressant medications, but access barriers are believed to prevent engagement in and completion of treatment. The telephone has been investigated as a treatment delivery medium to overcome access barriers, but little is known about its efficacy compared with face-to-face treatment delivery. To examine whether telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) reduces attrition and is not inferior to face-to-face CBT in treating depression among primary care patients. A randomized controlled trial of 325 Chicago-area primary care patients with major depressive disorder, recruited from November 2007 to December 2010. Eighteen sessions of T-CBT or face-to-face CBT. The primary outcome was attrition (completion vs noncompletion) at posttreatment (week 18). Secondary outcomes included masked interviewer-rated depression with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D) and self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Significantly fewer participants discontinued T-CBT (n = 34; 20.9%) compared with face-to-face CBT (n = 53; 32.7%; P = .02). Patients showed significant improvement in depression across both treatments (P treatment differences at posttreatment between T-CBT and face-to-face CBT on the Ham-D (P = .22) or the PHQ-9 (P = .89). The intention-to-treat posttreatment effect size on the Ham-D was d = 0.14 (90% CI, -0.05 to 0.33), and for the PHQ-9 it was d = -0.02 (90% CI, -0.20 to 0.17). Both results were within the inferiority margin of d = 0.41, indicating that T-CBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT. Although participants remained significantly less depressed at 6-month follow-up relative to baseline (P adherence compared with face-to-face delivery, but at the cost of some increased risk of poorer maintenance of gains after treatment cessation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00498706.

  16. Random sampling of evolution time space and Fourier transform processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimierczuk, Krzysztof; Zawadzka, Anna; Kozminski, Wiktor; Zhukov, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Application of Fourier Transform for processing 3D NMR spectra with random sampling of evolution time space is presented. The 2D FT is calculated for pairs of frequencies, instead of conventional sequence of one-dimensional transforms. Signal to noise ratios and linewidths for different random distributions were investigated by simulations and experiments. The experimental examples include 3D HNCA, HNCACB and 15 N-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of 13 C 15 N labeled ubiquitin sample. Obtained results revealed general applicability of proposed method and the significant improvement of resolution in comparison with conventional spectra recorded in the same time

  17. The effects of combining Web-based eHealth with telephone nurse case management for pediatric asthma control: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, David; Wise, Meg; Bhattacharya, Abhik; Pulvermacher, Alice; Shanovich, Kathleen; Phillips, Brenda; Lehman, Erik; Chinchilli, Vernon; Hawkins, Robert; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2012-07-26

    Asthma is the most common pediatric illness in the United States, burdening low-income and minority families disproportionately and contributing to high health care costs. Clinic-based asthma education and telephone case management have had mixed results on asthma control, as have eHealth programs and online games. To test the effects of (1) CHESS+CM, a system for parents and children ages 4-12 years with poorly controlled asthma, on asthma control and medication adherence, and (2) competence, self-efficacy, and social support as mediators. CHESS+CM included a fully automated eHealth component (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System [CHESS]) plus monthly nurse case management (CM) via phone. CHESS, based on self-determination theory, was designed to improve competence, social support, and intrinsic motivation of parents and children. We identified eligible parent-child dyads from files of managed care organizations in Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, sent them recruitment letters, and randomly assigned them (unblinded) to a control group of treatment as usual plus asthma information or to CHESS+CM. Asthma control was measured by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) and self-reported symptom-free days. Medication adherence was a composite of pharmacy refill data and medication taking. Social support, information competence, and self-efficacy were self-assessed in questionnaires. All data were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Asthma diaries kept during a 3-week run-in period before randomization provided baseline data. Of 305 parent-child dyads enrolled, 301 were randomly assigned, 153 to the control group and 148 to CHESS+CM. Most parents were female (283/301, 94%), African American (150/301, 49.8%), and had a low income as indicated by child's Medicaid status (154/301, 51.2%); 146 (48.5%) were single and 96 of 301 (31.9%) had a high school education or less. Completion rates were 127 of 153 control group dyads (83.0%) and 132 of 148 CHESS

  18. Is it too early to move to full electronic PROM data collection?: A randomized controlled trial comparing PROM's after hallux valgus captured by e-mail, traditional mail and telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmen, Leonieke N; Schrier, Joost C M; Scholten, Ruben; Jansen, Justus H W; Koëter, Sander

    2016-03-01

    Patient reported outcome measures (PROM's) after hallux valgus surgery are used to rate the effectiveness as perceived by the patient. The interpretability of these PROM's is highly dependent on participation rate. Data capture method may be an important factor contributing to the response rate. We investigated the effect on response rate of traditional paper mail, telephone and e-mail PROM's after hallux valgus surgery. All consecutive patients operated between January and September 2013, were identified. Included patients were randomized by envelope in three groups: traditional pen and paper mail, e-mail and telephone. They were asked to fill in a FFI and EQ-5D. Two weeks later non-responders were sent a reminder. Of the 73 included patients, 25 were approached by mail, 24 by e-mail and 24 patients by telephone. The response rate on traditional mail was highest (88%), while response on e-mail was lowest (33%). Response rate on telephone was also high (79%). Response rate on traditional mail and telephone was significantly higher (pmail. Though electronic data collection has enormous potential, this study shows that e-mail yields unacceptable low response rates. It is too early to replace traditional pen-and-paper PROM's by electronic questionnaires. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Adaptive importance sampling of random walks on continuous state spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggerly, K.; Cox, D.; Picard, R.

    1998-01-01

    The authors consider adaptive importance sampling for a random walk with scoring in a general state space. Conditions under which exponential convergence occurs to the zero-variance solution are reviewed. These results generalize previous work for finite, discrete state spaces in Kollman (1993) and in Kollman, Baggerly, Cox, and Picard (1996). This paper is intended for nonstatisticians and includes considerable explanatory material

  20. A comparison of nonresponse in mail, telephone, and face-to-face surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Leeuw, E.D. de

    1994-01-01

    This article reports a meta-analysis of 45 studies that explicitly compare the response obtained using a mail, telephone or face-to-face survey. The data analysis uses a generalized hierarchical linear model. Sampling procedure (e.g., local convenience sample, random general sample), saliency of

  1. Total Telephone Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This manual of telephone behavior tips for business and sales professionals offers ways to handle the disgruntled caller and makes suggestions on topics relevant to the telephone. The manual is divided into the following sections and subsections: (1) Common Courtesy (staff tips, answering the telephone, screening calls, transferring calls, taking…

  2. Telephone Exchange Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Urgent maintenance work on CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 24 March from 6 a.m. to 8 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted or even interrupted during this time. For more details, please contact us by email at Standard.Telephone@cern.ch.

  3. Applicability of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (Modified) in a community sample with low education level: association with an extensive neuropsychological battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, Teresa Costa; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Amorim, Liliana; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno; Correia Santos, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    To explore the applicability of a Portuguese (PT) version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS), with a delayed recall item [modified (M)], here termed TICSM-PT, against an extensive (in-person) battery of neuropsychological instruments, in a sample of older individuals with low educational level and without clinically manifest/diagnosed cognitive impairment. Following translation/back-translation and pilot testing in 33 community dwellers, 142 community dwellers aged 52 to 84 years (mean = 67.45, SD = 7.91) were selected from local health care centres for the study (convenience sampling; stratified age and gender). Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency, and convergent validity was evaluated through the correlation between TICSM-PT and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as with a comprehensive battery of cognitive instruments. Divergent/discriminant validity was assessed through a battery of psychological instruments. The receiver operating curve was determined for TICSM-PT to classify participants with and without possible indication of cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT showed a satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.705), convergent validity and discriminant validity. TICSM-PT presented a positive association with the global cognitive measures Mini Mental State Examination and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and also with most neuropsychological parameters. Receiver operating curve curves presented a sensitivity of 90.6% and specificity of 73.7%. The area under the curve statistic yielded a threshold score equal or below 13.5 for cognitive impairment. TICSM-PT is a practical tool for rapid cognitive assessment among older individuals with low educational background. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup

  5. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  6. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and physical exercise - Effects studied by automated telephone assessments in mental ill-health patients; a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strid, Catharina; Andersson, Claes; Forsell, Yvonne; Öjehagen, Agneta; Lundh, Lars-Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    Mental ill-health has become a large health problem and it is important for caregivers to provide effective treatment alternatives. REGASSA is a randomized controlled study performed in primary care to study the effects of 12 weeks of Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT) and physical exercise (PE) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) in patients with mild-to-moderate mental ill-health. The present study aimed to examine the results of these treatment alternatives on psychological functioning, stress, and sleep disturbances. The study comprised 879 patients with mental ill-health taking part in the REGASSA study. Data were collected by Interactive Voice Response (IVR), a computerized, automated telephone technique. The treatments were compared at baseline, twice during treatment, at the end of treatment and at three follow-ups after treatment. Measures used were the Outcome Questionnaire-45, the short versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire. Linear mixed models showed that the patients in ICBT and PE had better results than in TAU on psychological functioning and sleep disturbances, p effect sizes. On stress there were no differences; all groups made improvements. Women had stronger effects than men. More patients recovered on psychological functioning (OQ-45) in ICBT and PE than in TAU. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and PE proved to be effective treatment alternatives for patients with mild-to-moderate mental ill-health in improving psychological functioning, stress, and sleep disturbances and could be useful alternatives in primary care. Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy and physical exercise proved to be effective treatment alternatives for mental ill-health patients in primary care. Automated techniques (Interactive Voice Response) could be useful for following treatment course in large groups of patients in the health care. It is important to use measures that capture different

  7. Random vs. systematic sampling from administrative databases involving human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagino, C; Lo, R J

    1998-09-01

    Two sampling techniques, simple random sampling (SRS) and systematic sampling (SS), were compared to determine whether they yield similar and accurate distributions for the following four factors: age, gender, geographic location and years in practice. Any point estimate within 7 yr or 7 percentage points of its reference standard (SRS or the entire data set, i.e., the target population) was considered "acceptably similar" to the reference standard. The sampling frame was from the entire membership database of the Canadian Chiropractic Association. The two sampling methods were tested using eight different sample sizes of n (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, 500, 800). From the profile/characteristics, summaries of four known factors [gender, average age, number (%) of chiropractors in each province and years in practice], between- and within-methods chi 2 tests and unpaired t tests were performed to determine whether any of the differences [descriptively greater than 7% or 7 yr] were also statistically significant. The strengths of the agreements between the provincial distributions were quantified by calculating the percent agreements for each (provincial pairwise-comparison methods). Any percent agreement less than 70% was judged to be unacceptable. Our assessments of the two sampling methods (SRS and SS) for the different sample sizes tested suggest that SRS and SS yielded acceptably similar results. Both methods started to yield "correct" sample profiles at approximately the same sample size (n > 200). SS is not only convenient, it can be recommended for sampling from large databases in which the data are listed without any inherent order biases other than alphabetical listing by surname.

  8. Interactive water monitoring system accessible by cordless telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpicelli, Richard; Andeweg, Pierre; Hagar, William G.

    1985-12-01

    A battery-operated, microcomputer-controlled monitoring device linked with a cordless telephone has been developed for remote measurements. This environmental sensor is self-contained and collects and processes data according to the information sent to its on-board computer system. An RCA model 1805 microprocessor forms the basic controller with a program encoded in memory for data acquisition and analysis. Signals from analog sensing devices used to monitor the environment are converted into digital signals and stored in random access memory of the microcomputer. This remote sensing system is linked to the laboratory by means of a cordless telephone whose base unit is connected to regular telephone lines. This offshore sensing system is simply accessed by a phone call originating from a computer terminal in the laboratory. Data acquisition is initiated upon request: Information continues to be processed and stored until the computer is reprogrammed by another phone call request. Information obtained may be recalled by a phone call after the desired environmental measurements are finished or while they are in progress. Data sampling parameters may be reset at any time, including in the middle of a measurement cycle. The range of the system is limited only by existing telephone grid systems and by the transmission characteristics of the cordless phone used as a communications link. This use of a cordless telephone, coupled with the on-board computer system, may be applied to other field studies requiring data transfer between an on-site analytical system and the laboratory.

  9. A randomized control trial of the effect of negotiated telephone support on glycaemic control in young people with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, L.; Wilson, A. C.; Skinner, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate changes in self-efficacy for self-management in young people with Type 1 diabetes participating in a 'Negotiated Telephone Support' (NTS) intervention developed using the principles of problem solving and social learning theory. Methods: One-year RCT with 79 young people (male 39...

  10. Telephoning in English

    CERN Document Server

    Naterop, B Jean

    1994-01-01

    Many people have to use English on the telephone in the course of their work, either at the level of taking a simple message or involving more complex tasks such as requesting information. Telephoning in English provides an up-to-date and relevant context in which students from lower-intermediate level upwards can develop practical telephone skills. The course principally develops spoken interactive skills, but also includes reading material on telephone systems and techniques. As the material is not restricted to particular job functions, it is suitable for students in a wide range of business and administration fields.

  11. RandomSpot: A web-based tool for systematic random sampling of virtual slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexander I; Grabsch, Heike I; Treanor, Darren E

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2014, Linköping, Sweden. Systematic random sampling (SRS) is a stereological tool, which provides a framework to quickly build an accurate estimation of the distribution of objects or classes within an image, whilst minimizing the number of observations required. RandomSpot is a web-based tool for SRS in stereology, which systematically places equidistant points within a given region of interest on a virtual slide. Each point can then be visually inspected by a pathologist in order to generate an unbiased sample of the distribution of classes within the tissue. Further measurements can then be derived from the distribution, such as the ratio of tumor to stroma. RandomSpot replicates the fundamental principle of traditional light microscope grid-shaped graticules, with the added benefits associated with virtual slides, such as facilitated collaboration and automated navigation between points. Once the sample points have been added to the region(s) of interest, users can download the annotations and view them locally using their virtual slide viewing software. Since its introduction, RandomSpot has been used extensively for international collaborative projects, clinical trials and independent research projects. So far, the system has been used to generate over 21,000 sample sets, and has been used to generate data for use in multiple publications, identifying significant new prognostic markers in colorectal, upper gastro-intestinal and breast cancer. Data generated using RandomSpot also has significant value for training image analysis algorithms using sample point coordinates and pathologist classifications.

  12. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  13. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  14. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  15. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  16. Upgrade of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  17. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling , or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses.

  18. A Table-Based Random Sampling Simulation for Bioluminescence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomeng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As a popular simulation of photon propagation in turbid media, the main problem of Monte Carlo (MC method is its cumbersome computation. In this work a table-based random sampling simulation (TBRS is proposed. The key idea of TBRS is to simplify multisteps of scattering to a single-step process, through randomly table querying, thus greatly reducing the computing complexity of the conventional MC algorithm and expediting the computation. The TBRS simulation is a fast algorithm of the conventional MC simulation of photon propagation. It retained the merits of flexibility and accuracy of conventional MC method and adapted well to complex geometric media and various source shapes. Both MC simulations were conducted in a homogeneous medium in our work. Also, we present a reconstructing approach to estimate the position of the fluorescent source based on the trial-and-error theory as a validation of the TBRS algorithm. Good agreement is found between the conventional MC simulation and the TBRS simulation.

  19. Tobacco smoking surveillance: is quota sampling an efficient tool for monitoring national trends? A comparison with a random cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Guignard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is crucial for policy makers to monitor the evolution of tobacco smoking prevalence. In France, this monitoring is based on a series of cross-sectional general population surveys, the Health Barometers, conducted every five years and based on random samples. A methodological study has been carried out to assess the reliability of a monitoring system based on regular quota sampling surveys for smoking prevalence. DESIGN / OUTCOME MEASURES: In 2010, current and daily tobacco smoking prevalences obtained in a quota survey on 8,018 people were compared with those of the 2010 Health Barometer carried out on 27,653 people. Prevalences were assessed separately according to the telephone equipment of the interviewee (landline phone owner vs "mobile-only", and logistic regressions were conducted in the pooled database to assess the impact of the telephone equipment and of the survey mode on the prevalences found. Finally, logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics were conducted in the random sample in order to determine the impact of the needed number of calls to interwiew "hard-to-reach" people on the prevalence found. RESULTS: Current and daily prevalences were higher in the random sample (respectively 33.9% and 27.5% in 15-75 years-old than in the quota sample (respectively 30.2% and 25.3%. In both surveys, current and daily prevalences were lower among landline phone owners (respectively 31.8% and 25.5% in the random sample and 28.9% and 24.0% in the quota survey. The required number of calls was slightly related to the smoking status after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: Random sampling appears to be more effective than quota sampling, mainly by making it possible to interview hard-to-reach populations.

  20. Large Pelagics Telephone Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Large Pelagics Telephone Survey (LPTS) collects fishing effort information directly from captains holding Highly Migratory Species (HMS) permits (required by...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Telephones

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Telephony (cordless telephones and VoIP...

  2. Telephone calls by individuals with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie; McAndrews, Leanne; Stein, Karen F

    2013-09-01

    To describe symptom type and reporting patterns found in spontaneously initiated telephone calls placed to an ambulatory cancer center practice. Retrospective, descriptive. Adult hematology oncology cancer center. 563 individuals with a wide range of oncology diagnoses who initiated 1,229 telephone calls to report symptoms. Raw data were extracted from telephone forms using a data collection sheet with 23 variables obtained for each phone call, using pre-established coding criteria. A literature-based, investigator-developed instrument was used for the coding criteria and selection of which variables to extract. Symptom reporting, telephone calls, pain, and symptoms. A total of 2,378 symptoms were reported by telephone during the four months. At least 10% of the sample reported pain (38%), fatigue (16%), nausea (16%), swelling (12%), diarrhea (12%), dyspnea (10%), and anorexia (10%). The modal response was to call only one time and to report only one symptom (55%). Pain emerged as the symptom that most often prompted an individual to pick up the telephone and call. Although variation was seen in symptom reporting, an interesting pattern emerged with an individual reporting on a solitary symptom in a single telephone call. The emergence of pain as the primary symptom reported by telephone prompted educational efforts for both in-person clinic visit management of pain and prioritizing nursing education and protocol management of pain reported by telephone. Report of symptoms by telephone can provide nurses unique insight into patient-centered needs. Although pain has been an important focus of education and research for decades, it remains a priority for individuals with cancer. A wide range in symptom reporting by telephone was evident.

  3. Evaluating telephone follow-up of a mail survey of community pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Salisa C; Mount, Jeanine K

    2007-06-01

    Mail and telephone are commonly used modes of survey with pharmacists. Research conducted using general population surveys consistently describes mail surveys as being less expensive but yielding lower response rates than telephone surveys. However, findings obtained from the general population may not be generalizable to pharmacist surveys. This study evaluates the effectiveness of telephone follow-up of mail survey nonrespondents by comparing the 2 survey modes on response rates, cooperation rates, cost per sample unit, and cost per usable response and evaluating potential nonresponse bias in the context of immunization activities. A census mail survey of 1,143 Washington State community pharmacies and a follow-up telephone survey of 262 randomly selected mail survey nonrespondents were compared. Both surveys included the same 15 yes/no-type questions to ask respondents about their pharmacy's involvement in immunization activities. The mail survey yielded a response rate 1 of 26.7% and a cooperation rate 1 of 26.7%, compared with 83.6% and 87.8%, respectively, for the follow-up telephone survey. With respect to cost per sample unit, the mail survey was the least expensive option ($1.20). However, when comparing cost per usable response, the mail survey was the most expensive ($4.37), and the follow-up telephone survey without an advance notification was the least expensive ($1.99). Furthermore, results suggest the presence of nonresponse bias: compared with pharmacies participating in the follow-up telephone survey, pharmacies participating in the mail survey were more likely to be involved in in-house immunization services but less likely to be involved in outsourced services. The telephone survey achieved higher outcome rates with reduced cost per usable response. A telephone survey is a viable mode that holds promise in pharmacy practice research. Maximizing response rates and assessing potential nonresponse bias should be a standard practice among pharmacy

  4. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of telephone-delivered cognitive behavior therapy compared with befriending for treating depression and anxiety in older adults with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doyle C

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Colleen Doyle,1 David Dunt,2 David Ames,3 Marcia Fearn,3 Emily (Chuanmei You,1 Sunil Bhar41Australian Catholic University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Health Policy, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3National Ageing Research Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Department of Psychological Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, AustraliaBackground: COPD is an umbrella term to describe chronic lung diseases that cause limitations in lung airflow, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis. The prevalence of depression and anxiety in people with COPD is high, although these comorbidities are often undiagnosed, untreated, or undertreated. There is a need to identify efficacious treatments for depression and anxiety in people with COPD. Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT for the treatment of anxiety and depression has a strong evidence base. There has been some success delivering this treatment over the telephone in limited studies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of both telephone-administered CBT and befriending on outcomes for patients with diagnosed COPD who have at least mild levels of depression and/or anxiety.Methods: The protocol described in this paper is of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comparing eight sessions of telephone CBT to an active social control, referred to as befriending. Primary outcome measures will include depression and anxiety symptoms, and secondary outcome measures will include quality of life, self-efficacy, and COPD symptom severity. Participants’ satisfaction with the intervention and therapeutic alliance will also be assessed. Measures will be taken pre- and postdelivery of the intervention and again at 8 weeks following the intervention.Conclusion: People with COPD often have limitations to their mobility because of their breathlessness. They are often already attending many medical appointments and could be reluctant to attend for

  5. Psychotherapeutic intervention by telephone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Mozer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erika Mozer1,2, Bethany Franklin1,3, Jon Rose11Department of Veterans Affairs, Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2PGSP Stanford PsyD Consortium Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3Pacific Graduate School of Psychology Palo Alto, California, USAAbstract: Psychotherapy conducted over the telephone has received increasing amounts of empirical attention given practical advantages that side-step treatment barriers encountered in traditional office-based care. The utility and efficacy of telephone therapy appears generalizable across diverse clinical populations seeking care in community-based hospital settings. Treatment barriers common to older adults suggest that telephone therapy may be an efficient and effective mental health resource for this population. This paper describes empirical studies of telehealth interventions and case examples with psychotherapy conducted via telephone on the Spinal Cord Injury Unit of the Palo Alto Veterans’ Administration. Telephone therapy as appears to be a viable intervention with the aging population.Keywords: telehealth, rural mental health, psychotherapy, healthcare delivery, telecare

  6. Are you more concerned about or relieved by medicines? An explorative randomized study of the impact of telephone counseling by pharmacists on patients' beliefs regarding medicines and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Daniela; Menditto, Enrica; Caruso, Giuseppe; Monetti, Valeria Marina; Orlando, Valentina; Guerriero, Francesca; Buonomo, Giuseppe; Caruso, Domenico; D'Avino, Maria

    2018-04-01

    The aim was to determine the impact of a telephone counseling service, provided bi-monthly by pharmacist, on patients' beliefs about antihypertensive medicines and blood pressure (BP) control. Either hypertensive patients were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, usual care) or an intervention group (IG). All patients had BP values registered and filled in the Italian version of the Belief Medicine Questionnaire (BMQ). After 12 months, patients filled in the BMQ again and had their self-reported BP registered. The intervention consisted of an educational/counseling session based on patients' needs assessment provided bi-monthly by a pharmacist for one year via telephone. 80 CG and 84 IG patients were recruited. After 12 months, there were significant differences between IG and CG for both BMQ's Necessity and Concern score (p < 0.001; p < 0.001 respectively) and a significant reduction in BP values in IG (p < 0.001). The intervention improves BP control by modifying patients' perception about treatments and involving patients as participants in the management of their health. This paper could serve as a guideline for other studies to confirm the effectiveness of this intervention in modifying health behavior, and the role of hospital pharmacist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Sampling Polya-Gamma random variates: alternate and approximate techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Windle, Jesse; Polson, Nicholas G.; Scott, James G.

    2014-01-01

    Efficiently sampling from the P\\'olya-Gamma distribution, ${PG}(b,z)$, is an essential element of P\\'olya-Gamma data augmentation. Polson et. al (2013) show how to efficiently sample from the ${PG}(1,z)$ distribution. We build two new samplers that offer improved performance when sampling from the ${PG}(b,z)$ distribution and $b$ is not unity.

  8. Estimates of Inequality Indices Based on Simple Random, Ranked Set, and Systematic Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Pooja; Arora, Sangeeta; Mahajan, Kalpana K.

    2013-01-01

    Gini index, Bonferroni index, and Absolute Lorenz index are some popular indices of inequality showing different features of inequality measurement. In general simple random sampling procedure is commonly used to estimate the inequality indices and their related inference. The key condition that the samples must be drawn via simple random sampling procedure though makes calculations much simpler but this assumption is often violated in practice as the data does not always yield simple random ...

  9. Importance sampling of heavy-tailed iterated random functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Chen (Bohan); C.H. Rhee (Chang-Han); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a stochastic recurrence equation of the form $Z_{n+1} = A_{n+1} Z_n+B_{n+1}$, where $\\mathbb{E}[\\log A_1]<0$, $\\mathbb{E}[\\log^+ B_1]<\\infty$ and $\\{(A_n,B_n)\\}_{n\\in\\mathbb{N}}$ is an i.i.d. sequence of positive random vectors. The stationary distribution of this Markov

  10. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  11. Telephone-Based Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccio, Mindy; Sanna, Rashel S; Adams, Sara R; Goler, Nancy C; Brown, Susan D; Neugebauer, Romain S; Ferrara, Assiamira; Wiley, Deanne M; Bellamy, David J; Schmittdiel, Julie A

    2017-03-01

    Many Americans continue to smoke, increasing their risk of disease and premature death. Both telephone-based counseling and in-person tobacco cessation classes may improve access for smokers seeking convenient support to quit. Little research has assessed whether such programs are effective in real-world clinical populations. Retrospective cohort study comparing wellness coaching participants with two groups of controls. Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care delivery system. Two hundred forty-one patients who participated in telephonic tobacco cessation coaching from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, and two control groups: propensity-score-matched controls, and controls who participated in a tobacco cessation class during the same period. Wellness coaching participants received an average of two motivational interviewing-based coaching sessions that engaged the patient, evoked their reason to consider quitting, and helped them establish a quit plan. Self-reported quitting of tobacco and fills of tobacco cessation medications within 12 months of follow-up. Logistic regressions adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and primary language. After adjusting for confounders, tobacco quit rates were higher among coaching participants vs. matched controls (31% vs. 23%, p Coaching participants and class attendees filled tobacco-cessation prescriptions at a higher rate (47% for both) than matched controls (6%, p coaching was as effective as in-person classes and was associated with higher rates of quitting compared to no treatment. The telephonic modality may increase convenience and scalability for health care systems looking to reduce tobacco use and improve health.

  12. Telephone-Directory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, William

    2005-01-01

    eDirectory is a computer program that makes it possible to view entries in the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) telephone directory by use of PalmPilot(TradeMark) (or equivalent) personal digital assistants. When one uses eDirectory, a single click causes the downloading of a current copy of the directory (which is updated nightly) from a server. The downloaded directory data can be sorted and searched. The program can append a "JPL" category and save directory information in a file that can be imported into the Palm Desktop(TradeMark) software.

  13. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  14. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  15. STATISTICAL LANDMARKS AND PRACTICAL ISSUES REGARDING THE USE OF SIMPLE RANDOM SAMPLING IN MARKET RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CODRUŢA DURA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample represents a particular segment of the statistical populationchosen to represent it as a whole. The representativeness of the sample determines the accuracyfor estimations made on the basis of calculating the research indicators and the inferentialstatistics. The method of random sampling is part of probabilistic methods which can be usedwithin marketing research and it is characterized by the fact that it imposes the requirementthat each unit belonging to the statistical population should have an equal chance of beingselected for the sampling process. When the simple random sampling is meant to be rigorouslyput into practice, it is recommended to use the technique of random number tables in order toconfigure the sample which will provide information that the marketer needs. The paper alsodetails the practical procedure implemented in order to create a sample for a marketingresearch by generating random numbers using the facilities offered by Microsoft Excel.

  16. Brief telephone-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy targeted to parents of children with functional abdominal pain: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; van Tilburg, Miranda A.L.; Romano, Joan M.; Murphy, Tasha B.; Walker, Lynn S.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Claar, Robyn L.; DuPen, Melissa M.; Whitehead, William E.; Abdullah, Bisher; Swanson, Kimberly S.; Baker, Melissa D.; Stoner, Susan A.; Christie, Dennis L.; Feld, Andrew D.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) are associated with increased healthcare utilization, school absences, and poor quality of life (QoL). Cost-effective and accessible interventions are needed. This multi-site study tested the effects of a 3-session cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to parents, in person or remotely, on the primary outcome of pain severity and secondary outcomes (process measures) of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs, catastrophizing, and child-reported coping. Additional outcomes hypothesized a priori and assessed included functional disability, quality of life, pain behavior, school absences, healthcare utilization, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The study was prospective and longitudinal (baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up) with three randomized conditions: social learning and cognitive-behavioral therapy in-person (SLCBT) or by phone (SLCBT-R) and education/support condition by phone (ES-R). Participants were children aged 7–12 with FAPD and their parents (N = 316 dyads). While no significant treatment effect for pain severity was found, the SLCBT groups showed significantly greater improvements compared to controls on process measures of parental solicitousness, pain beliefs and catastrophizing, and additional outcomes of parent-reported functional disability, pain behaviors, child healthcare visits for abdominal pain, and (remote condition only) quality of life and missed school days. No effects were found for parent and child-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, or child-reported quality of life or coping. These findings suggest that for children with FAPD, a brief phone SLCBT for parents can be similarly effective as in-person SLCBT in changing parent responses and improving outcomes, if not reported pain and symptom report, compared to a control condition. PMID:28301859

  17. Telemedicine, the effect of nurse-initiated telephone follow up, on health status and health-care utilization in COPD patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhof, Farida F; van den Berg, Jan W K; Uil, Steven M; Kerstjens, Huib A M

    2015-02-01

    Telemedicine, care provided by electronic communication, may serve as an alternative or extension to traditional outpatient visits. This pilot study determined the effects of telemedicine on health-care utilization and health status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. One hundred and one patients were randomized, 52 patients received telemedicine care and 49 had traditional outpatient visits. The primary outcome was COPD-specific health status, measured with the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ). Secondary outcomes included St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) and resource use in primary and secondary care. The mean age of the participants was 68 ± 9 years and the mean per cent of predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 40.4 ± 12.5. The CCQ total score deteriorated by 0.14 ± 0.13 in the telemedicine group, and improved by -0.03 ± 0.14 in the control group (difference 0.17 ± 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.21-0.55, P = 0.38). The CCQ symptom domain showed a significant and clinically relevant difference in favour of the control group, 0.52 ± 0.24 (95% CI: 0.04-0.10, P = 0.03). Similar results were found for the SGRQ, whereas results for SF-36 were inconsistent. Patients in the control group had significantly fewer visits to the pulmonologist in comparison to patients in the telemedicine group (P = 0.05). The same trend, although not significant, was found for exacerbations after 6 months. This telemedicine model of initiated phone calls by a health-care provider had a negative effect on health status and resource use in primary and secondary care, in comparison with usual care and therefore cannot be recommended in COPD patients in its current form. © 2014 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Correlated random sampling for multivariate normal and log-normal distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Kodeli, Ivan A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for correlated random sampling is presented. Representative samples for multivariate normal or log-normal distribution can be produced. Furthermore, any combination of normally and log-normally distributed correlated variables may be sampled to any requested accuracy. Possible applications of the method include sampling of resonance parameters which are used for reactor calculations.

  19. Substance use among women receiving post-rape medical care, associated post-assault concerns and current substance abuse: results from a national telephone household probability sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Jenna L; Kilpatrick, Dean G; Walsh, Kate; Resnick, Heidi S

    2013-04-01

    To examine post-rape substance use, associated post rape medical and social concern variables, and past year substance abuse among women reporting having received medical care following a most recent or only lifetime incident of rape. Using a subsample of women who received post-rape medical care following a most recent or only rape incident (n=104) drawn from a national household probability sample of U.S. women, the current study described the extent of peritraumatic substance use, past year substance misuse behaviors, post-rape HIV and pregnancy concerns, and lifetime mental health service utilization as a function of substance use at time of incident. One-third (33%) of women seeking post-rape medical attention reported consuming alcohol or drugs at the time of their rape incident. Nearly one in four (24.7%) and one in seven (15%) women seeking medical attention following their most recent rape incident endorsed drug (marijuana, illicit, non-medical use of prescription drugs, or club drug) use or met substance abuse criteria, respectively, in the past year. One in twelve (8.4%) women reported at least monthly binge drinking in the past year. Approximately two-thirds of women reported seeking services for mental health needs in their lifetime. Post-rape concerns among women reporting peritraumatic substance use were not significantly different from those of women not reporting such use. Substance use was reported by approximately one-third of women and past year substance abuse was common among those seeking post-rape medical care. Implications for service delivery, intervention implementation, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Frieder R.; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI–S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI–S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey a...

  1. An alternative procedure for estimating the population mean in simple random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Housila P. Singh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of estimating the finite population mean using auxiliary information in simple random sampling. Firstly we have suggested a correction to the mean squared error of the estimator proposed by Gupta and Shabbir [On improvement in estimating the population mean in simple random sampling. Jour. Appl. Statist. 35(5 (2008, pp. 559-566]. Later we have proposed a ratio type estimator and its properties are studied in simple random sampling. Numerically we have shown that the proposed class of estimators is more efficient than different known estimators including Gupta and Shabbir (2008 estimator.

  2. Health plan auditing: 100-percent-of-claims vs. random-sample audits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillup, George P; Klimberg, Ronald K

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative efficacy of two different methodologies for auditing self-funded medical claim expenses: 100-percent-of-claims auditing versus random-sampling auditing. Multiple data sets of claim errors or 'exceptions' from two Fortune-100 corporations were analysed and compared to 100 simulated audits of 300- and 400-claim random samples. Random-sample simulations failed to identify a significant number and amount of the errors that ranged from $200,000 to $750,000. These results suggest that health plan expenses of corporations could be significantly reduced if they audited 100% of claims and embraced a zero-defect approach.

  3. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  4. Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlberg Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether low-intensity radiofrequency radiation damages the blood-brain barrier has long been debated, but little or no consideration has been given to the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In this cross-sectional study we tested whether long-term and/or short-term use of wireless telephones was associated with changes in the serum transthyretin level, indicating altered transthyretin concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, possibly reflecting an effect of radiation. Methods One thousand subjects, 500 of each sex aged 18–65 years, were randomly recruited using the population registry. Data on wireless telephone use were assessed by a postal questionnaire and blood samples were analyzed for serum transthyretin concentrations determined by standard immunonephelometric techniques on a BN Prospec® instrument. Results The response rate was 31.4%. Logistic regression of dichotomized TTR serum levels with a cut-point of 0.31 g/l on wireless telephone use yielded increased odds ratios that were statistically not significant. Linear regression of time since first use overall and on the day that blood was withdrawn gave different results for males and females: for men significantly higher serum concentrations of TTR were seen the longer an analogue telephone or a mobile and cordless desktop telephone combined had been used, and in contrast, significantly lower serum levels were seen the longer an UMTS telephone had been used. Adjustment for fractions of use of the different telephone types did not modify the effect for cumulative use or years since first use for mobile telephone and DECT, combined. For women, linear regression gave a significant association for short-term use of mobile and cordless telephones combined, indicating that the sooner blood was withdrawn after the most recent telephone call, the higher the expected transthyretin concentration. Conclusion In this hypothesis-generating descriptive study time since first

  5. Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered problem-solving-occupational therapy intervention to reduce participation restrictions in rural breast cancer survivors undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem-solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n = 15) and usual care (n = 16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life, and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by...(b)(3) § 761.306 Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves. (a) Divide each 1 meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as...

  7. [COOP/WONCA: Reliability and validity of the test administered by telephone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Díaz-Olalla, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    The COOP/WONCA test was initially proposed as a self-report in which the answers were supported by drawings illustrating the state investigated. Subsequent studies have confirmed its usefulness as a mere verbal self-report face-to-face administered. No data have been found about its useful when administered by telephone interview. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the COOP / WONCA test to measure Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) administered by telephone and compare them with those obtained in other forms of prior administration. Cross-sectional study on a random. City of Madrid. Random sample of 802 adult subjects, representative of the adult population in Madrid, obtained by stratification from the population census. Questionnaire COOP/WONCA with 9 ítems included in a broader battery, administered by telephone interview. The unrestricted factor analysis points to the unifactoriality of the scale, which measures a single latent construct (HRQOL), showing high internal consistency, not significantly different from those found by face-to-face administration, ruling out the existence of biases in the phone modality. The COOP/WONCA test appears as a reliable and valid measure of HRQOL and telephonic administration allows to assume no changes in the results, which can reduce costs in population studies, increasing efficiency without loss of quality in the information collected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Random Sampling of Correlated Parameters – a Consistent Solution for Unfavourable Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, G., E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kodeli, I.A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo, Coronado, CA 92118-3073 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Two methods for random sampling according to a multivariate lognormal distribution – the correlated sampling method and the method of transformation of correlation coefficients – are briefly presented. The methods are mathematically exact and enable consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters with given information on the first two distribution moments. Furthermore, a weighted sampling method to accelerate the convergence of parameters with extremely large relative uncertainties is described. However, the method is efficient only for a limited number of correlated parameters.

  9. Misrepresenting random sampling? A systematic review of research papers in the Journal of Advanced Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Graham R

    2003-11-01

    This paper discusses the theoretical limitations of the use of random sampling and probability theory in the production of a significance level (or P-value) in nursing research. Potential alternatives, in the form of randomization tests, are proposed. Research papers in nursing, medicine and psychology frequently misrepresent their statistical findings, as the P-values reported assume random sampling. In this systematic review of studies published between January 1995 and June 2002 in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, 89 (68%) studies broke this assumption because they used convenience samples or entire populations. As a result, some of the findings may be questionable. The key ideas of random sampling and probability theory for statistical testing (for generating a P-value) are outlined. The result of a systematic review of research papers published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing is then presented, showing how frequently random sampling appears to have been misrepresented. Useful alternative techniques that might overcome these limitations are then discussed. REVIEW LIMITATIONS: This review is limited in scope because it is applied to one journal, and so the findings cannot be generalized to other nursing journals or to nursing research in general. However, it is possible that other nursing journals are also publishing research articles based on the misrepresentation of random sampling. The review is also limited because in several of the articles the sampling method was not completely clearly stated, and in this circumstance a judgment has been made as to the sampling method employed, based on the indications given by author(s). Quantitative researchers in nursing should be very careful that the statistical techniques they use are appropriate for the design and sampling methods of their studies. If the techniques they employ are not appropriate, they run the risk of misinterpreting findings by using inappropriate, unrepresentative and biased samples.

  10. Correlates of reasons for not reporting rape to police: results from a national telephone household probability sample of women with forcible or drug-or-alcohol facilitated/incapacitated rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M; Zinzow, Heidi M; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-02-01

    Rape tactics, rape incident characteristics, and mental health problems (lifetime depression, PTSD, and substance abuse) were investigated as correlates of eight different reasons for not reporting a rape to police among women who had experienced but did not report a rape to police (n = 441) within a national telephone household probability sample. Rape tactics (nonmutually exclusive) included drug or alcohol-facilitated or incapacitated rape (DAFR/IR; n = 119) and forcible rape (FR; n = 376). Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was conducted to extract a dominant set of patterns among the eight reasons for not reporting, and to reduce the set of dependent variables. PCA results indicated three unique factors: Not Wanting Others to Know, Nonacknowledgment of Rape, and Criminal Justice Concerns. Hierarchical regression analyses showed DAFR/IR and FR were both positively and significantly associated with Criminal Justice Concerns, whereas DAFR/IR, but not FR, was associated with Nonacknowledgment as a reason for not reporting to police. Neither DAFR/IR nor FR emerged as significant predictors of Others Knowing after controlling for fear of death or injury at the time of the incident. Correlations among variables showed that the Criminal Justice Concerns factor was positively related to lifetime depression and PTSD and the Nonacknowledgement factor was negatively related to lifetime PTSD. Findings suggest prevention programs should educate women about the definition of rape, which may include incapacitation due to alcohol or drugs, to increase acknowledgement and decrease barriers to police reporting.

  11. Generating Random Samples of a Given Size Using Social Security Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard C.; Brauchle, Paul E.

    1984-01-01

    The purposes of this article are (1) to present a method by which social security numbers may be used to draw cluster samples of a predetermined size and (2) to describe procedures used to validate this method of drawing random samples. (JOW)

  12. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  13. Short assessment of the Big Five: robust across survey methods except telephone interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G

    2011-06-01

    We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed.

  14. The Efficacy of Internet-Based Mindfulness Training and Cognitive-Behavioral Training With Telephone Support in the Enhancement of Mental Health Among College Students and Young Working Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie Ws; Chio, Floria Hn; Chan, Amy Ty; Lui, Wacy Ws; Wu, Ellery Ky

    2017-03-22

    College students and working adults are particularly vulnerable to stress and other mental health problems, and mental health promotion and prevention are needed to promote their mental health. In recent decades, mindfulness-based training has demonstrated to be efficacious in treating physical and psychological conditions. The aim of our study was to examine the efficacy of an Internet-based mindfulness training program (iMIND) in comparison with the well-established Internet-based cognitive-behavioral training program (iCBT) in promoting mental health among college students and young working adults. This study was a 2-arm, unblinded, randomized controlled trial comparing iMIND with iCBT. Participants were recruited online and offline via mass emails, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, announcement and leaflets in primary care clinics, and social networking sites. Eligible participants were randomized into either the iMIND (n=604) or the iCBT (n=651) condition. Participants received 8 Web-based sessions with information and exercises related to mindfulness or cognitive-behavioral principles. Telephone or email support was provided by trained first tier supporters who were supervised by the study's research team. Primary outcomes included mental and physical health-related measures, which were self-assessed online at preprogram, postprogram, and 3-month follow-up. Among the 1255 study participants, 213 and 127 completed the post- and 3-month follow-up assessment, respectively. Missing data were treated using restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Both iMIND (n=604) and iCBT (n=651) were efficacious in improving mental health, psychological distress, life satisfaction, sleep disturbance, and energy level. Both Internet-based mental health programs showed potential in improving the mental health from pre- to postassessment, and such improvement was sustained at the 3-month follow-up. The high attrition rate in this study suggests the need for refinement

  15. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  16. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  17. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  18. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunamuni Nandini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic physical activity (PA and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D, but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec. These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB.

  19. Random sampling of quantum states: a survey of methods and some issues regarding the Overparametrized Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maziero, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The numerical generation of random quantum states (RQS) is an important procedure for investigations in quantum information science. Here, we review some methods that may be used for performing that task. We start by presenting a simple procedure for generating random state vectors, for which the main tool is the random sampling of unbiased discrete probability distributions (DPD). Afterwards, the creation of random density matrices is addressed. In this context, we first present the standard method, which consists in using the spectral decomposition of a quantum state for getting RQS from random DPDs and random unitary matrices. In the sequence, the Bloch vector parametrization method is described. This approach, despite being useful in several instances, is not in general convenient for RQS generation. In the last part of the article, we regard the overparametrized method (OPM) and the related Ginibre and Bures techniques. The OPM can be used to create random positive semidefinite matrices with unit trace from randomly produced general complex matrices in a simple way that is friendly for numerical implementations. We consider a physically relevant issue related to the possible domains that may be used for the real and imaginary parts of the elements of such general complex matrices. Subsequently, a too fast concentration of measure in the quantum state space that appears in this parametrization is noticed. (author)

  20. Feasibility, internal consistency and covariates of TICS-m (telephone interview for cognitive status-modified) in a population-based sample: findings from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh

    2013-09-01

    Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Potential selection bias in telephone surveys: landline and mobile phones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Continente, Xavier; Pérez-Giménez, Anna; López, María José; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    The increasing use of mobile phones in the last decade has decreased landline telephone coverage in Spanish households. This study aimed to analyze sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators by type of telephone service (mobile phone vs. landline or landline and mobile phone). Two telephone surveys were conducted in Spanish samples (February 2010 and February 2011). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze differences in the main sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators according to the type of telephone service available in Spanish households. We obtained 2027 valid responses (1627 landline telephones and 400 mobile phones). Persons contacted through a mobile phone were more likely to be a foreigner, to belong to the manual social class, to have a lower educational level, and to be a smoker than those contacted through a landline telephone. The profile of the population that has only a mobile phone differs from that with a landline telephone. Therefore, telephone surveys that exclude mobile phones could show a selection bias. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Poppel Mireille NM

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs compared to common practice (CP. Methods We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. Results 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951. Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. Conclusions STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working

  3. Cost-utility analysis of a one-time supervisor telephone contact at 6-weeks post-partum to prevent extended sick leave following maternity leave in The Netherlands: results of an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Kimi; Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G M; de Bruijne, Martine C; van Poppel, Mireille N M; Heymans, Martijn W; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2011-01-27

    Working women of childbearing age are a vital part of the population. Following childbirth, this group of women can experience a myriad of physical and mental health problems that can interfere with their ability to work. Currently, there is little known about cost-effective post-partum interventions to prevent work disability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether supervisor telephone contact (STC) during maternity leave is cost-effective from a societal perspective in reducing sick leave and improving quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) compared to common practice (CP). We conducted an economic evaluation alongside a randomized controlled trial. QALYs were measured by the EuroQol 5-D, and sick leave and presenteeism by the Health and work Performance Questionnaire. Resource use was collected by questionnaires. Data were analysed according to intention-to-treat. Missing data were imputed via multiple imputation. Uncertainty was estimated by 95% confidence intervals, cost-utility planes and curves, and sensitivity analyses. 541 working women from 15 companies participated. Response rates were above 85% at each measurement moment. At the end of the follow-up, no statistically significant between-group differences in QALYs, mean hours of sick leave or presenteeism or costs were observed. STC was found to be less effective and more costly. For willingness-to-pay levels from €0 through €50,000, the probability that STC was cost-effective compared to CP was 0.2. Overall resource use was low. Mean total costs were €3678 (95% CI: 3386; 3951). Productivity loss costs represented 37% of the total costs and of these costs, 48% was attributable to sick leave and 52% to work presenteeism. The cost analysis from a company's perspective indicated that there was a net cost associated with the STC intervention. STC was not cost-effective compared to common practice for a healthy population of working mothers; therefore, implementation is not indicated. The cost

  4. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  5. Estimation of Sensitive Proportion by Randomized Response Data in Successive Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of estimation for binomial proportions of sensitive or stigmatizing attributes in the population of interest. Randomized response techniques are suggested for protecting the privacy of respondents and reducing the response bias while eliciting information on sensitive attributes. In many sensitive question surveys, the same population is often sampled repeatedly on each occasion. In this paper, we apply successive sampling scheme to improve the estimation of the sensitive proportion on current occasion.

  6. 40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection by random number... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each for...

  7. Random sampling of elementary flux modes in large-scale metabolic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniel; Soons, Zita; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb; Ferreira, Eugénio C; Rocha, Isabel

    2012-09-15

    The description of a metabolic network in terms of elementary (flux) modes (EMs) provides an important framework for metabolic pathway analysis. However, their application to large networks has been hampered by the combinatorial explosion in the number of modes. In this work, we develop a method for generating random samples of EMs without computing the whole set. Our algorithm is an adaptation of the canonical basis approach, where we add an additional filtering step which, at each iteration, selects a random subset of the new combinations of modes. In order to obtain an unbiased sample, all candidates are assigned the same probability of getting selected. This approach avoids the exponential growth of the number of modes during computation, thus generating a random sample of the complete set of EMs within reasonable time. We generated samples of different sizes for a metabolic network of Escherichia coli, and observed that they preserve several properties of the full EM set. It is also shown that EM sampling can be used for rational strain design. A well distributed sample, that is representative of the complete set of EMs, should be suitable to most EM-based methods for analysis and optimization of metabolic networks. Source code for a cross-platform implementation in Python is freely available at http://code.google.com/p/emsampler. dmachado@deb.uminho.pt Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. The Dirichet-Multinomial model for multivariate randomized response data and small samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avetisyan, Marianna; Fox, Gerardus J.A.

    2012-01-01

    In survey sampling the randomized response (RR) technique can be used to obtain truthful answers to sensitive questions. Although the individual answers are masked due to the RR technique, individual (sensitive) response rates can be estimated when observing multivariate response data. The

  9. The Dirichlet-Multinomial Model for Multivariate Randomized Response Data and Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisyan, Marianna; Fox, Jean-Paul

    2012-01-01

    In survey sampling the randomized response (RR) technique can be used to obtain truthful answers to sensitive questions. Although the individual answers are masked due to the RR technique, individual (sensitive) response rates can be estimated when observing multivariate response data. The beta-binomial model for binary RR data will be generalized…

  10. A Nationwide Random Sampling Survey of Potential Complicated Grief in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yasunao; Kishimoto, Junji; Asukai, Nozomu

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of significant loss, potential complicated grief (CG), and its contributing factors, we conducted a nationwide random sampling survey of Japanese adults aged 18 or older (N = 1,343) using a self-rating Japanese-language version of the Complicated Grief Brief Screen. Among them, 37.0% experienced their most significant…

  11. A simple sample size formula for analysis of covariance in cluster randomized trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Eldridge, S.; Graff, M.J.; Hoop, E. de; Borm, G.F.

    2012-01-01

    For cluster randomized trials with a continuous outcome, the sample size is often calculated as if an analysis of the outcomes at the end of the treatment period (follow-up scores) would be performed. However, often a baseline measurement of the outcome is available or feasible to obtain. An

  12. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  13. Reinforcing Sampling Distributions through a Randomization-Based Activity for Introducing ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura; Doehler, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the use of a randomization-based activity to introduce the ANOVA F-test to students. The two main goals of this activity are to successfully teach students to comprehend ANOVA F-tests and to increase student comprehension of sampling distributions. Four sections of students in an advanced introductory statistics course…

  14. An efficient method of randomly sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, J.F.; Morin, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of photon transport phenomena require random selection of an interaction process at each collision site along the photon track. Possible choices are usually limited to photoelectric absorption and incoherent scatter as approximated by the Klein-Nishina distribution. A technique is described for sampling the coherent angular scatter distribution, for the benefit of workers in medical physics. (U.K.)

  15. Comparison of address-based sampling and random-digit dialing methods for recruiting young men as controls in a case-control study of testicular cancer susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Bartholt; Nathanson, Katherine L; Ciosek, Stephanie L; McDermoth, Monique; Vaughn, David J; Mitra, Nandita; Weiss, Andrew; Martonik, Rachel; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    Random-digit dialing (RDD) using landline telephone numbers is the historical gold standard for control recruitment in population-based epidemiologic research. However, increasing cell-phone usage and diminishing response rates suggest that the effectiveness of RDD in recruiting a random sample of the general population, particularly for younger target populations, is decreasing. In this study, we compared landline RDD with alternative methods of control recruitment, including RDD using cell-phone numbers and address-based sampling (ABS), to recruit primarily white men aged 18-55 years into a study of testicular cancer susceptibility conducted in the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, metropolitan area between 2009 and 2012. With few exceptions, eligible and enrolled controls recruited by means of RDD and ABS were similar with regard to characteristics for which data were collected on the screening survey. While we find ABS to be a comparably effective method of recruiting young males compared with landline RDD, we acknowledge the potential impact that selection bias may have had on our results because of poor overall response rates, which ranged from 11.4% for landline RDD to 1.7% for ABS.

  16. An inquiry into chiropractors' intention to treat adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feise, R J

    2001-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to (1) determine the clinical management approach of practicing chiropractors with regard to patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and (2) measure the response rate of a telephone survey. A survey instrument was developed and pretested, and a case-specific clinical vignette was generated for a hypothetical typical 12-year-old girl with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. The instrument addressed 3 domains: the specific management of idiopathic scoliosis, elements guiding the general selection of treatment recommendations, and demographics of respondents. The sample frame consisted of 62,000 US chiropractors, of whom 165 were randomly selected for the survey sample. Interviews were conducted by telephone through use of the tested survey instrument. The response rate was 69% (114/165). Of the 51 nonrespondents, 15 did not have a listed business telephone number and 24 were not in active practice. The response rate of those who met the inclusion criteria (practicing chiropractor with a listed telephone number) was 90% (114/126). The gender, chiropractic college, and years in practice of respondents in this survey were similar to those of respondents in 3 other national surveys. In general, the respondents would provide 6 months of "intensive" chiropractic therapy, then follow the patient for 4 years (near skeletal maturity). Eighty-two percent of respondents named diversified technique as their primary adjustive treatment, 87% would use exercise, and 30% would use electric muscle stimulation as an adjunct to manual therapy. Most surveyed chiropractors would use similar methods (frequency and length of treatment, manipulation technique, and exercise) in the treatment of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A high response rate to a national survey can be achieved through use of telephone contact.

  17. Monitoring oil persistence on beaches : SCAT versus stratified random sampling designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, J.W.; Lindeberg, M.R.; Harris, P.M.; Maselko, J.M.; Pella, J.J.; Rice, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    In the event of a coastal oil spill, shoreline clean-up assessment teams (SCAT) commonly rely on visual inspection of the entire affected area to monitor the persistence of the oil on beaches. Occasionally, pits are excavated to evaluate the persistence of subsurface oil. This approach is practical for directing clean-up efforts directly following a spill. However, sampling of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound 12 years later has shown that visual inspection combined with pit excavation does not offer estimates of contaminated beach area of stranded oil volumes. This information is needed to statistically evaluate the significance of change with time. Assumptions regarding the correlation of visually-evident surface oil and cryptic subsurface oil are usually not evaluated as part of the SCAT mandate. Stratified random sampling can avoid such problems and could produce precise estimates of oiled area and volume that allow for statistical assessment of major temporal trends and the extent of the impact. The 2001 sampling of the shoreline of Prince William Sound showed that 15 per cent of surface oil occurrences were associated with subsurface oil. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the stratified random sampling method and shows how sampling design parameters impact statistical outcome. Power analysis based on the study results, indicate that optimum power is derived when unnecessary stratification is avoided. It was emphasized that sampling effort should be balanced between choosing sufficient beaches for sampling and the intensity of sampling

  18. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  19. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Y C; Liu, H Y; Yan, S B; Li, J M; Tang, J; Yang, Y H; Yang, M W

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency. (paper)

  20. Additive non-uniform random sampling in superimposed fiber Bragg grating strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y. C.; Liu, H. Y.; Yan, S. B.; Yang, Y. H.; Yang, M. W.; Li, J. M.; Tang, J.

    2013-05-01

    This paper demonstrates an additive non-uniform random sampling and interrogation method for dynamic and/or static strain gauge using a reflection spectrum from two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The superimposed FBGs are designed to generate non-equidistant space of a sensing pulse train in the time domain during dynamic strain gauge. By combining centroid finding with smooth filtering methods, both the interrogation speed and accuracy are improved. A 1.9 kHz dynamic strain is measured by generating an additive non-uniform randomly distributed 2 kHz optical sensing pulse train from a mean 500 Hz triangular periodically changing scanning frequency.

  1. A Sandia telephone database system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, S.D.; Tolendino, L.F.

    1991-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, may soon have more responsibility for the operation of its own telephone system. The processes that constitute providing telephone service can all be improved through the use of a central data information system. We studied these processes, determined the requirements for a database system, then designed the first stages of a system that meets our needs for work order handling, trouble reporting, and ISDN hardware assignments. The design was based on an extensive set of applications that have been used for five years to manage the Sandia secure data network. The system utilizes an Ingres database management system and is programmed using the Application-By-Forms tools.

  2. Fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring designs for estimating fish passage using stratified random and systematic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalski, J.R.; Hoffman, A.; Ransom, B.H.; Steig, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five alternate sampling designs are compared using 15 d of 24-h continuous hydroacoustic data to identify the most favorable approach to fixed-location hydroacoustic monitoring of salmonid outmigrants. Four alternative aproaches to systematic sampling are compared among themselves and with stratified random sampling (STRS). Stratifying systematic sampling (STSYS) on a daily basis is found to reduce sampling error in multiday monitoring studies. Although sampling precision was predictable with varying levels of effort in STRS, neither magnitude nor direction of change in precision was predictable when effort was varied in systematic sampling (SYS). Furthermore, modifying systematic sampling to include replicated (e.g., nested) sampling (RSYS) is further shown to provide unbiased point and variance estimates as does STRS. Numerous short sampling intervals (e.g., 12 samples of 1-min duration per hour) must be monitored hourly using RSYS to provide efficient, unbiased point and interval estimates. For equal levels of effort, STRS outperformed all variations of SYS examined. Parametric approaches to confidence interval estimates are found to be superior to nonparametric interval estimates (i.e., bootstrap and jackknife) in estimating total fish passage. 10 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs

  3. 75 FR 17943 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Section 8 Random Digit Dialing Fair...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... Management and Property Disposition programs; payment standards for the Rental Voucher program; and any other... select statistically random samples of telephone numbers to locate certain types of rental housing units...

  4. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  5. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  6. LOD score exclusion analyses for candidate genes using random population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H W; Li, J; Recker, R R

    2001-05-01

    While extensive analyses have been conducted to test for, no formal analyses have been conducted to test against, the importance of candidate genes with random population samples. We develop a LOD score approach for exclusion analyses of candidate genes with random population samples. Under this approach, specific genetic effects and inheritance models at candidate genes can be analysed and if a LOD score is < or = - 2.0, the locus can be excluded from having an effect larger than that specified. Computer simulations show that, with sample sizes often employed in association studies, this approach has high power to exclude a gene from having moderate genetic effects. In contrast to regular association analyses, population admixture will not affect the robustness of our analyses; in fact, it renders our analyses more conservative and thus any significant exclusion result is robust. Our exclusion analysis complements association analysis for candidate genes in random population samples and is parallel to the exclusion mapping analyses that may be conducted in linkage analyses with pedigrees or relative pairs. The usefulness of the approach is demonstrated by an application to test the importance of vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genes underlying the differential risk to osteoporotic fractures.

  7. Path integral methods for primordial density perturbations - sampling of constrained Gaussian random fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, E.

    1987-01-01

    Path integrals may be used to describe the statistical properties of a random field such as the primordial density perturbation field. In this framework the probability distribution is given for a Gaussian random field subjected to constraints such as the presence of a protovoid or supercluster at a specific location in the initial conditions. An algorithm has been constructed for generating samples of a constrained Gaussian random field on a lattice using Monte Carlo techniques. The method makes possible a systematic study of the density field around peaks or other constrained regions in the biased galaxy formation scenario, and it is effective for generating initial conditions for N-body simulations with rare objects in the computational volume. 21 references

  8. Accounting for Sampling Error in Genetic Eigenvalues Using Random Matrix Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Blows, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    The distribution of genetic variance in multivariate phenotypes is characterized by the empirical spectral distribution of the eigenvalues of the genetic covariance matrix. Empirical estimates of genetic eigenvalues from random effects linear models are known to be overdispersed by sampling error, where large eigenvalues are biased upward, and small eigenvalues are biased downward. The overdispersion of the leading eigenvalues of sample covariance matrices have been demonstrated to conform to the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution. Here we show that genetic eigenvalues estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) in a multivariate random effects model with an unconstrained genetic covariance structure will also conform to the TW distribution after empirical scaling and centering. However, where estimation procedures using either REML or MCMC impose boundary constraints, the resulting genetic eigenvalues tend not be TW distributed. We show how using confidence intervals from sampling distributions of genetic eigenvalues without reference to the TW distribution is insufficient protection against mistaking sampling error as genetic variance, particularly when eigenvalues are small. By scaling such sampling distributions to the appropriate TW distribution, the critical value of the TW statistic can be used to determine if the magnitude of a genetic eigenvalue exceeds the sampling error for each eigenvalue in the spectral distribution of a given genetic covariance matrix. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Telephone switchboard closure | 19 December

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Exceptionally, the telephone switchboard will close at 4 p.m. on Friday, 19 December, instead of the usual time of 6 p.m., to allow time for closing all systems properly before the annual closure. Therefore, switchboard operator assistance to transfer calls from/to external lines will stop. All other phone services will run as usual.

  10. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  11. A simple and efficient alternative to implementing systematic random sampling in stereological designs without a motorized microscope stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Neal R; Poda, Daniel; Sutherland, Robert J

    2007-10-01

    When properly applied, stereology is a very robust and efficient method to quantify a variety of parameters from biological material. A common sampling strategy in stereology is systematic random sampling, which involves choosing a random sampling [corrected] start point outside the structure of interest, and sampling relevant objects at [corrected] sites that are placed at pre-determined, equidistant intervals. This has proven to be a very efficient sampling strategy, and is used widely in stereological designs. At the microscopic level, this is most often achieved through the use of a motorized stage that facilitates the systematic random stepping across the structure of interest. Here, we report a simple, precise and cost-effective software-based alternative to accomplishing systematic random sampling under the microscope. We believe that this approach will facilitate the use of stereological designs that employ systematic random sampling in laboratories that lack the resources to acquire costly, fully automated systems.

  12. Precision of systematic and random sampling in clustered populations: habitat patches and aggregating organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Richard; Burch, Paul; Matthews, Janet M

    2016-01-01

    Natural populations of plants and animals spatially cluster because (1) suitable habitat is patchy, and (2) within suitable habitat, individuals aggregate further into clusters of higher density. We compare the precision of random and systematic field sampling survey designs under these two processes of species clustering. Second, we evaluate the performance of 13 estimators for the variance of the sample mean from a systematic survey. Replicated simulated surveys, as counts from 100 transects, allocated either randomly or systematically within the study region, were used to estimate population density in six spatial point populations including habitat patches and Matérn circular clustered aggregations of organisms, together and in combination. The standard one-start aligned systematic survey design, a uniform 10 x 10 grid of transects, was much more precise. Variances of the 10 000 replicated systematic survey mean densities were one-third to one-fifth of those from randomly allocated transects, implying transect sample sizes giving equivalent precision by random survey would need to be three to five times larger. Organisms being restricted to patches of habitat was alone sufficient to yield this precision advantage for the systematic design. But this improved precision for systematic sampling in clustered populations is underestimated by standard variance estimators used to compute confidence intervals. True variance for the survey sample mean was computed from the variance of 10 000 simulated survey mean estimates. Testing 10 published and three newly proposed variance estimators, the two variance estimators (v) that corrected for inter-transect correlation (ν₈ and ν(W)) were the most accurate and also the most precise in clustered populations. These greatly outperformed the two "post-stratification" variance estimators (ν₂ and ν₃) that are now more commonly applied in systematic surveys. Similar variance estimator performance rankings were found with

  13. Iterative algorithm of discrete Fourier transform for processing randomly sampled NMR data sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanek, Jan; Kozminski, Wiktor

    2010-01-01

    Spectra obtained by application of multidimensional Fourier Transformation (MFT) to sparsely sampled nD NMR signals are usually corrupted due to missing data. In the present paper this phenomenon is investigated on simulations and experiments. An effective iterative algorithm for artifact suppression for sparse on-grid NMR data sets is discussed in detail. It includes automated peak recognition based on statistical methods. The results enable one to study NMR spectra of high dynamic range of peak intensities preserving benefits of random sampling, namely the superior resolution in indirectly measured dimensions. Experimental examples include 3D 15 N- and 13 C-edited NOESY-HSQC spectra of human ubiquitin.

  14. Randomized branch sampling to estimatefruit production in Pecan trees cv. ‘Barton’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filemom Manoel Mokochinski

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Sampling techniques to quantify the production of fruits are still very scarce and create a gap in crop development research. This study was conducted in a rural property in the county of Cachoeira do Sul - RS to estimate the efficiency of randomized branch sampling (RBS in quantifying the production of pecan fruit at three different ages (5,7 and 10 years. Two selection techniques were tested: the probability proportional to the diameter (PPD and the uniform probability (UP techniques, which were performed on nine trees, three from each age and randomly chosen. The RBS underestimated fruit production for all ages, and its main drawback was the high sampling error (125.17% - PPD and 111.04% - UP. The UP was regarded as more efficient than the PPD, though both techniques estimated similar production and similar experimental errors. In conclusion, we reported that branch sampling was inaccurate for this case study, requiring new studies to produce estimates with smaller sampling error.

  15. Telephoning

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Kay

    1994-01-01

    This is part of a series of books, which gives training in key business communication skills. Emphasis is placed on building awareness of language appropriateness and fluency in typical business interactions. This new edition is in full colour.

  16. Revisiting random walk based sampling in networks: evasion of burn-in period and frequent regenerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avrachenkov, Konstantin; Borkar, Vivek S; Kadavankandy, Arun; Sreedharan, Jithin K

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of network sampling, random walk (RW) based estimation techniques provide many pragmatic solutions while uncovering the unknown network as little as possible. Despite several theoretical advances in this area, RW based sampling techniques usually make a strong assumption that the samples are in stationary regime, and hence are impelled to leave out the samples collected during the burn-in period. This work proposes two sampling schemes without burn-in time constraint to estimate the average of an arbitrary function defined on the network nodes, for example, the average age of users in a social network. The central idea of the algorithms lies in exploiting regeneration of RWs at revisits to an aggregated super-node or to a set of nodes, and in strategies to enhance the frequency of such regenerations either by contracting the graph or by making the hitting set larger. Our first algorithm, which is based on reinforcement learning (RL), uses stochastic approximation to derive an estimator. This method can be seen as intermediate between purely stochastic Markov chain Monte Carlo iterations and deterministic relative value iterations. The second algorithm, which we call the Ratio with Tours (RT)-estimator, is a modified form of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) that accommodates the idea of regeneration. We study the methods via simulations on real networks. We observe that the trajectories of RL-estimator are much more stable than those of standard random walk based estimation procedures, and its error performance is comparable to that of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) which has a smaller asymptotic variance than many other estimators. Simulation studies also show that the mean squared error of RT-estimator decays much faster than that of RDS with time. The newly developed RW based estimators (RL- and RT-estimators) allow to avoid burn-in period, provide better control of stability along the sample path, and overall reduce the estimation time. Our

  17. Improving ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance in pregnant women: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Moeller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and has been associated with biased cortisol estimates in nonpregnant subjects. This study is the first to investigate in pregnant women strategies to improve ambulatory saliva-sampling compliance, and the association between sampling noncompliance and saliva cortisol estimates. METHODS: We instructed 64 pregnant women to collect eight scheduled saliva samples on two consecutive days each. Objective compliance with scheduled sampling times was assessed with a Medication Event Monitoring System and self-reported compliance with a paper-and-pencil diary. In a randomized controlled study, we estimated whether a disclosure intervention (informing women about objective compliance monitoring and a reminder intervention (use of acoustical reminders improved compliance. A mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between women's objective compliance and their diurnal cortisol profiles, and between deviation from scheduled sampling and the cortisol concentration measured in the related sample. RESULTS: Self-reported compliance with a saliva-sampling protocol was 91%, and objective compliance was 70%. The disclosure intervention was associated with improved objective compliance (informed: 81%, noninformed: 60%, F(1,60  = 17.64, p<0.001, but not the reminder intervention (reminders: 68%, without reminders: 72%, F(1,60 = 0.78, p = 0.379. Furthermore, a woman's increased objective compliance was associated with a higher diurnal cortisol profile, F(2,64  = 8.22, p<0.001. Altered cortisol levels were observed in less objective compliant samples, F(1,705  = 7.38, p = 0.007, with delayed sampling associated with lower cortisol levels. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that in pregnant women, objective noncompliance with scheduled ambulatory saliva sampling is common and is associated with biased cortisol estimates. To improve sampling compliance, results suggest

  18. The relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to elicit blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, M; Godin, G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to trigger blood donation. A sample of 3454 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: phone only (n = 1176), email only (n = 1091) and phone + email (n = 1187). There was a higher proportion of donors who registered to give blood in the phone + email condition (18·45%) compared to the other two conditions (phone: 15·73%, P email: 13·20%; P email conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0·16), suggesting equivalent efficacy. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Role of telephone triage in obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Nirvana Afsordeh; Magann, Everett F; Rhoads, Sarah J; Ivey, Tesa L; Williams, Donna J

    2012-12-01

    The telephone has become an indispensable method of communication in the practice of obstetrics. The telephone is one of the primary methods by which the patient makes her appointments and contacts her health care provider for advice, reassurance, and referrals. Current methods of telephone triage include personal at the physicians' office, telephone answering services, labor and delivery nurses, and a dedicated telephone triage system using algorithms. Limitations of telephone triage include the inability of the provider to see the patient and receive visual clues from the interaction and the challenges of obtaining a complete history over the telephone. In addition, there are potential safety and legal issues with telephone triage. To date, there is insufficient evidence to either validate or refute the use of a dedicated telephone triage system compared with a traditional system using an answering service or nurses on labor and delivery. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to analyze the scope of variation in telephone triage across health care providers and categorize the components that go into a successful triage system, assess the current scope of research in telephone triage in obstetrics, evaluate potential safety and legal issues with telephone triage in obstetrics, and identify issues that should be addressed in any institution that is using or implementing a system of telephone triage in obstetrics.

  20. Distributed fiber sparse-wideband vibration sensing by sub-Nyquist additive random sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdong; Zheng, Hua; Zhu, Tao; Yin, Guolu; Liu, Min; Bai, Yongzhong; Qu, Dingrong; Qiu, Feng; Huang, Xianbing

    2018-05-01

    The round trip time of the light pulse limits the maximum detectable vibration frequency response range of phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry ({\\phi}-OTDR). Unlike the uniform laser pulse interval in conventional {\\phi}-OTDR, we randomly modulate the pulse interval, so that an equivalent sub-Nyquist additive random sampling (sNARS) is realized for every sensing point of the long interrogation fiber. For an {\\phi}-OTDR system with 10 km sensing length, the sNARS method is optimized by theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation, and the experimental results verify that a wide-band spars signal can be identified and reconstructed. Such a method can broaden the vibration frequency response range of {\\phi}-OTDR, which is of great significance in sparse-wideband-frequency vibration signal detection, such as rail track monitoring and metal defect detection.

  1. Location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Goli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Distribution and optimum allocation of emergency resources are the most important tasks, which need to be accomplished during crisis. When a natural disaster such as earthquake, flood, etc. takes place, it is necessary to deliver rescue efforts as quickly as possible. Therefore, it is important to find optimum location and distribution of emergency relief resources. When a natural disaster occurs, it is not possible to reach some damaged areas. In this paper, location and multi-depot vehicle routing for emergency vehicles using tour coverage and random sampling is investigated. In this study, there is no need to visit all the places and some demand points receive their needs from the nearest possible location. The proposed study is implemented for some randomly generated numbers in different sizes. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed method was capable of reaching desirable solutions in reasonable amount of time.

  2. Effects of a Mail and Telephone Intervention on Breast Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J.; Powers, Diane

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated a mail and telephone intervention to improve breast health behaviors while maintaining quality of life. Women recruited from the general public were randomized to a stepped-intensity intervention consisting of mailings, telephone calls, and counseling (if requested or appropriate given a woman's genetic risk for breast cancer)…

  3. Random On-Board Pixel Sampling (ROPS) X-Ray Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos; Iaroshenko, O. [Los Alamos; Li, S. [Los Alamos; Liu, T. [Fermilab; Parab, N. [Argonne (main); Chen, W. W. [Purdue U.; Chu, P. [Los Alamos; Kenyon, G. [Los Alamos; Lipton, R. [Fermilab; Sun, K.-X. [Nevada U., Las Vegas

    2017-09-25

    Recent advances in compressed sensing theory and algorithms offer new possibilities for high-speed X-ray camera design. In many CMOS cameras, each pixel has an independent on-board circuit that includes an amplifier, noise rejection, signal shaper, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and optional in-pixel storage. When X-ray images are sparse, i.e., when one of the following cases is true: (a.) The number of pixels with true X-ray hits is much smaller than the total number of pixels; (b.) The X-ray information is redundant; or (c.) Some prior knowledge about the X-ray images exists, sparse sampling may be allowed. Here we first illustrate the feasibility of random on-board pixel sampling (ROPS) using an existing set of X-ray images, followed by a discussion about signal to noise as a function of pixel size. Next, we describe a possible circuit architecture to achieve random pixel access and in-pixel storage. The combination of a multilayer architecture, sparse on-chip sampling, and computational image techniques, is expected to facilitate the development and applications of high-speed X-ray camera technology.

  4. Prevalence and correlates of problematic smartphone use in a large random sample of Chinese undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jiang; Liu, Tie-Qiao; Liao, Yan-Hui; Qi, Chang; He, Hao-Yu; Chen, Shu-Bao; Billieux, Joël

    2016-11-17

    Smartphones are becoming a daily necessity for most undergraduates in Mainland China. Because the present scenario of problematic smartphone use (PSU) is largely unexplored, in the current study we aimed to estimate the prevalence of PSU and to screen suitable predictors for PSU among Chinese undergraduates in the framework of the stress-coping theory. A sample of 1062 undergraduate smartphone users was recruited by means of the stratified cluster random sampling strategy between April and May 2015. The Problematic Cellular Phone Use Questionnaire was used to identify PSU. We evaluated five candidate risk factors for PSU by using logistic regression analysis while controlling for demographic characteristics and specific features of smartphone use. The prevalence of PSU among Chinese undergraduates was estimated to be 21.3%. The risk factors for PSU were majoring in the humanities, high monthly income from the family (≥1500 RMB), serious emotional symptoms, high perceived stress, and perfectionism-related factors (high doubts about actions, high parental expectations). PSU among undergraduates appears to be ubiquitous and thus constitutes a public health issue in Mainland China. Although further longitudinal studies are required to test whether PSU is a transient phenomenon or a chronic and progressive condition, our study successfully identified socio-demographic and psychological risk factors for PSU. These results, obtained from a random and thus representative sample of undergraduates, opens up new avenues in terms of prevention and regulation policies.

  5. Cellular telephone use among primary school children in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, Eva; Schuez, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Background: There is some concern about potential health risks of cellular telephone use to children. We assessed data on how many children own a cellular telephone and on how often they use it in a population-based sample. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional study among children in their fourth elementary school year, with a median-age of 10 years. The study was carried out in Mainz (Germany), a city with about 200,000 inhabitants. The study base comprised all 37 primary schools in Mainz and near surroundings. Altogether, 1933 children from 34 primary schools took part in the survey (participation rate of 87.8%). Results: Roughly a third of all children (n = 671, 34.7%) reported to own a cellular telephone. Overall, 119 (6.2%) children used a cellular telephone for making calls at least once a day, 123 (6.4%) used it several times a week and 876 (45.3%) children used it only once in a while. The remaining 805 (41.6%) children had never used a cellular telephone. The probability of owning a cellular telephone among children was associated with older age, being male, having no siblings, giving full particulars to height and weight, more time spent watching TV and playing computer games, being picked up by their parents from school by car (instead of walking or cycling) and going to bed late. The proportion of cellular telephone owners was somewhat higher in classes with more children from socially disadvantaged families. Conclusions: Our study shows that both ownership of a cellular telephone as well as the regular use of it are already quite frequent among children in the fourth grade of primary school. With regard to potential long-term effects, we recommend follow-up studies with children

  6. MUP, CEC-DES, STRADE. Codes for uncertainty propagation, experimental design and stratified random sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.; Astolfi, M.; Lisanti, B.

    1983-01-01

    The report describes the how-to-use of the codes: MUP (Monte Carlo Uncertainty Propagation) for uncertainty analysis by Monte Carlo simulation, including correlation analysis, extreme value identification and study of selected ranges of the variable space; CEC-DES (Central Composite Design) for building experimental matrices according to the requirements of Central Composite and Factorial Experimental Designs; and, STRADE (Stratified Random Design) for experimental designs based on the Latin Hypercube Sampling Techniques. Application fields, of the codes are probabilistic risk assessment, experimental design, sensitivity analysis and system identification problems

  7. [Adaptation and convergent validity of a telephone-based Mini-Mental State Examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garre-Olmo, Josep; Lax-Pericall, Carme; Turro-Garriga, Oriol; Soler-Cors, Olga; Monserrat-Vila, Sílvia; Vilalta-Franch, Joan; Taylor, Joy L; López-Pousa, Secundino

    2008-06-21

    To adapt to Spanish and to determine the convergent validity of a Telephone Mini-Mental State Examination (t-MMSE) in order to assess the cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Prospective and observational study of a clinical sample consisting of patients with dementia from a memory clinic. Consecutive sampling of participants was used and convergent validity of the t-MMSE and MMSE scores was determined using several statistics measures. Patients were randomly assigned depending on the administration of the in-person/telephone test (MMSE and t-MMSE) or telephone/in-person (t-MMSE and MMSE) test within a 1- to 7-day interval. The effect of the confusion variables (age, gender, years of education, dementia severity, presence or absence of hearing impairment and administration order) on the concordance between the in-person and telephone MMSE versions was analysed. After translating and retranslating the t-MMSE, of 141 participants, 77.47% subjects completed the protocol of the study. For the total score, the statistics for the convergent validity suggested a high consistency, independently of the order of test administration (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.87, Spearman's rho = 0.77); for the all subscores, it suggested moderate and good correlations. The difference between subscores did not range more than 1 point in any case. Confusion variables did not affect the variability of the performance scores between t-MMSE and MMSE. The t-MMSE can be used as a good tool to estimate the MMSE score of patients with dementia.

  8. Event-triggered synchronization for reaction-diffusion complex networks via random sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tao; Wang, Aijuan; Zhu, Huiyun; Liao, Xiaofeng

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the synchronization problem of the reaction-diffusion complex networks (RDCNs) with Dirichlet boundary conditions is considered, where the data is sampled randomly. An event-triggered controller based on the sampled data is proposed, which can reduce the number of controller and the communication load. Under this strategy, the synchronization problem of the diffusion complex network is equivalently converted to the stability of a of reaction-diffusion complex dynamical systems with time delay. By using the matrix inequality technique and Lyapunov method, the synchronization conditions of the RDCNs are derived, which are dependent on the diffusion term. Moreover, it is found the proposed control strategy can get rid of the Zeno behavior naturally. Finally, a numerical example is given to verify the obtained results.

  9. Validity of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Interviews in the Assessment of Bread Consumption Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdollahi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: There are different methods to assess dietary intake in the community. Accurate and appropriate methods, rather than costly and time-consuming ones, are good alternatives to assess dietary intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the validity of telephone and face-to-face interviews, in determination of bread-consumption pattern. Material and Methods: A randomized and stratified multi-stage sampling method was used to select 2312 participating households within the Tehran metropolitan area. The study (research was carried out in two individual and household levels, using 24 hours recall and purchase frequency questionnaire. The same 24 hour recall and purchase frequency questionnaires were used at both individual and household level.Results: At household and individual level, the correlation coefficients between the two methods were 0.64 and 0.60, respectively (p<0.001. Mean difference of intake of bread between the methods at individual level was 16-21 g/day and at household level was 3-4 g/person/day, statistically not significant.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a telephone survey can provide a reliable estimation of actual bread intake at both individual and household level. This method is important considering its cost and needed time.Keywords: face to face interview, telephone interview, bread consumption pattern

  10. Open-Label Randomized Trial of Titrated Disease Management for Patients with Hypertension: Study Design and Baseline Sample Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, George L.; Weinberger, Morris; Kirshner, Miriam A.; Stechuchak, Karen M.; Melnyk, Stephanie D.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Coffman, Cynthia J.; Neelon, Brian; Van Houtven, Courtney; Gentry, Pamela W.; Morris, Isis J.; Rose, Cynthia M.; Taylor, Jennifer P.; May, Carrie L.; Han, Byungjoo; Wainwright, Christi; Alkon, Aviel; Powell, Lesa; Edelman, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious treatments, only half of patients with hypertension achieve adequate blood pressure (BP) control. This paper describes the protocol and baseline subject characteristics of a 2-arm, 18-month randomized clinical trial of titrated disease management (TDM) for patients with pharmaceutically-treated hypertension for whom systolic blood pressure (SBP) is not controlled (≥140mmHg for non-diabetic or ≥130mmHg for diabetic patients). The trial is being conducted among patients of four clinic locations associated with a Veterans Affairs Medical Center. An intervention arm has a TDM strategy in which patients' hypertension control at baseline, 6, and 12 months determines the resource intensity of disease management. Intensity levels include: a low-intensity strategy utilizing a licensed practical nurse to provide bi-monthly, non-tailored behavioral support calls to patients whose SBP comes under control; medium-intensity strategy utilizing a registered nurse to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls plus home BP monitoring; and high-intensity strategy utilizing a pharmacist to provide monthly tailored behavioral support telephone calls, home BP monitoring, and pharmacist-directed medication management. Control arm patients receive the low-intensity strategy regardless of BP control. The primary outcome is SBP. There are 385 randomized (192 intervention; 193 control) veterans that are predominately older (mean age 63.5 years) men (92.5%). 61.8% are African American, and the mean baseline SBP for all subjects is 143.6mmHg. This trial will determine if a disease management program that is titrated by matching the intensity of resources to patients' BP control leads to superior outcomes compared to a low-intensity management strategy. PMID:27417982

  11. Call Centre- Computer Telephone Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Kovačević

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Call centre largely came into being as a result of consumerneeds converging with enabling technology- and by the companiesrecognising the revenue opportunities generated by meetingthose needs thereby increasing customer satisfaction. Regardlessof the specific application or activity of a Call centre, customersatisfaction with the interaction is critical to the revenuegenerated or protected by the Call centre. Physical(v, Call centreset up is a place that includes computer, telephone and supervisorstation. Call centre can be available 24 hours a day - whenthe customer wants to make a purchase, needs information, orsimply wishes to register a complaint.

  12. Determination of Initial Conditions for the Safety Analysis by Random Sampling of Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae-Yong; Park, Moon-Ghu

    2015-01-01

    In most existing evaluation methodologies, which follow a conservative approach, the most conservative initial conditions are searched for each transient scenario through tremendous assessment for wide operating windows or limiting conditions for operation (LCO) allowed by the operating guidelines. In this procedure, a user effect could be involved and a remarkable time and human resources are consumed. In the present study, we investigated a more effective statistical method for the selection of the most conservative initial condition by the use of random sampling of operating parameters affecting the initial conditions. A method for the determination of initial conditions based on random sampling of plant design parameters is proposed. This method is expected to be applied for the selection of the most conservative initial plant conditions in the safety analysis using a conservative evaluation methodology. In the method, it is suggested that the initial conditions of reactor coolant flow rate, pressurizer level, pressurizer pressure, and SG level are adjusted by controlling the pump rated flow, setpoints of PLCS, PPCS, and FWCS, respectively. The proposed technique is expected to contribute to eliminate the human factors introduced in the conventional safety analysis procedure and also to reduce the human resources invested in the safety evaluation of nuclear power plants

  13. A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, August

    2011-12-15

    Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N+1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. LOD score exclusion analyses for candidate QTLs using random population samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hong-Wen

    2003-11-01

    While extensive analyses have been conducted to test for, no formal analyses have been conducted to test against, the importance of candidate genes as putative QTLs using random population samples. Previously, we developed an LOD score exclusion mapping approach for candidate genes for complex diseases. Here, we extend this LOD score approach for exclusion analyses of candidate genes for quantitative traits. Under this approach, specific genetic effects (as reflected by heritability) and inheritance models at candidate QTLs can be analyzed and if an LOD score is < or = -2.0, the locus can be excluded from having a heritability larger than that specified. Simulations show that this approach has high power to exclude a candidate gene from having moderate genetic effects if it is not a QTL and is robust to population admixture. Our exclusion analysis complements association analysis for candidate genes as putative QTLs in random population samples. The approach is applied to test the importance of Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene as a potential QTL underlying the variation of bone mass, an important determinant of osteoporosis.

  15. Landslide Susceptibility Assessment Using Frequency Ratio Technique with Iterative Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Joo Oh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the performance of the landslide susceptibility analysis using frequency ratio (FR with an iterative random sampling. A pair of before-and-after digital aerial photographs with 50 cm spatial resolution was used to detect landslide occurrences in Yongin area, Korea. Iterative random sampling was run ten times in total and each time it was applied to the training and validation datasets. Thirteen landslide causative factors were derived from the topographic, soil, forest, and geological maps. The FR scores were calculated from the causative factors and training occurrences repeatedly ten times. The ten landslide susceptibility maps were obtained from the integration of causative factors that assigned FR scores. The landslide susceptibility maps were validated by using each validation dataset. The FR method achieved susceptibility accuracies from 89.48% to 93.21%. And the landslide susceptibility accuracy of the FR method is higher than 89%. Moreover, the ten times iterative FR modeling may contribute to a better understanding of a regularized relationship between the causative factors and landslide susceptibility. This makes it possible to incorporate knowledge-driven considerations of the causative factors into the landslide susceptibility analysis and also be extensively used to other areas.

  16. A Combined Weighting Method Based on Hybrid of Interval Evidence Fusion and Random Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexity of system and lack of expertise, epistemic uncertainties may present in the experts’ judgment on the importance of certain indices during group decision-making. A novel combination weighting method is proposed to solve the index weighting problem when various uncertainties are present in expert comments. Based on the idea of evidence theory, various types of uncertain evaluation information are uniformly expressed through interval evidence structures. Similarity matrix between interval evidences is constructed, and expert’s information is fused. Comment grades are quantified using the interval number, and cumulative probability function for evaluating the importance of indices is constructed based on the fused information. Finally, index weights are obtained by Monte Carlo random sampling. The method can process expert’s information with varying degrees of uncertainties, which possesses good compatibility. Difficulty in effectively fusing high-conflict group decision-making information and large information loss after fusion is avertible. Original expert judgments are retained rather objectively throughout the processing procedure. Cumulative probability function constructing and random sampling processes do not require any human intervention or judgment. It can be implemented by computer programs easily, thus having an apparent advantage in evaluation practices of fairly huge index systems.

  17. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eperon, Isabelle; Vassilakos, Pierre; Navarria, Isabelle; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Gauthier, Aude; Pache, Jean-Claude; Boulvain, Michel; Untiet, Sarah; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  18. Smoothing the redshift distributions of random samples for the baryon acoustic oscillations: applications to the SDSS-III BOSS DR12 and QPM mock samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Jiang; Guo, Qi; Cai, Rong-Gen

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the impact of different redshift distributions of random samples on the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements of D_V(z)r_d^fid/r_d from the two-point correlation functions of galaxies in the Data Release 12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). Big surveys, such as BOSS, usually assign redshifts to the random samples by randomly drawing values from the measured redshift distributions of the data, which would necessarily introduce fiducial signals of fluctuations into the random samples, weakening the signals of BAO, if the cosmic variance cannot be ignored. We propose a smooth function of redshift distribution that fits the data well to populate the random galaxy samples. The resulting cosmological parameters match the input parameters of the mock catalogue very well. The significance of BAO signals has been improved by 0.33σ for a low-redshift sample and by 0.03σ for a constant-stellar-mass sample, though the absolute values do not change significantly. Given the precision of the measurements of current cosmological parameters, it would be appreciated for the future improvements on the measurements of galaxy clustering.

  19. Assessment of fracture risk: value of random population-based samples--the Geelong Osteoporosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, M J; Pasco, J A; Seeman, E; Nicholson, G C; Sanders, K M; Kotowicz, M A

    2001-01-01

    Fracture risk is determined by bone mineral density (BMD). The T-score, a measure of fracture risk, is the position of an individual's BMD in relation to a reference range. The aim of this study was to determine the magnitude of change in the T-score when different sampling techniques were used to produce the reference range. Reference ranges were derived from three samples, drawn from the same region: (1) an age-stratified population-based random sample, (2) unselected volunteers, and (3) a selected healthy subset of the population-based sample with no diseases or drugs known to affect bone. T-scores were calculated using the three reference ranges for a cohort of women who had sustained a fracture and as a group had a low mean BMD (ages 35-72 yr; n = 484). For most comparisons, the T-scores for the fracture cohort were more negative using the population reference range. The difference in T-scores reached 1.0 SD. The proportion of the fracture cohort classified as having osteoporosis at the spine was 26, 14, and 23% when the population, volunteer, and healthy reference ranges were applied, respectively. The use of inappropriate reference ranges results in substantial changes to T-scores and may lead to inappropriate management.

  20. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Marques Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. Method: quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. Results: on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283 with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p < 0.0001, with greater adherence of women participating in the behavioral group (66.8%. Conclusion: the behavioral and educational interventions by phone were effective in the adherence of women to colpocytological examination, representing important strategies for permanent health education and promotion of care for the prevention of cervical cancer.

  1. Do parents of adolescents request the same universal parental support as parents of younger children? A random sample of Swedish parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorslund, Karin; Johansson Hanse, Jan; Axberg, Ulf

    2017-07-01

    Universal parental support intended to enhance parents' capacity for parenting is an important aspect of public health strategies. However, support has mostly been aimed at parents, especially mothers, of younger children. There is a gap in the research concerning parents of adolescents and fathers' interest in parenting support. To investigate and compare the interest in parenting support of parents of adolescents and younger children, potential differences between mothers and fathers, and their knowledge of what is being offered to them already, and to explore their requirements for future universal parental support. Telephone interviews were conducted with a random sample of 1336 parents. Quantitative methods were used to analyze differences between groups and qualitative methods were used to analyze open-ended questions in regard to parents' requirements for future universal parental support. About 82% of the parents of adolescents interviewed think that offering universal parental support is most important during child's adolescence. There is a substantial interest, particularly among mothers, in most forms of support. Despite their interest, parents have limited awareness of the support available. Only 7% knew about the local municipality website, although 70% reported a possible interest in such a website. Similarly, 3% knew that a parent phone line was available to them, while 59% reported a possible interest. It poses a challenge but is nevertheless important for municipalities to develop support targeted at parents of adolescents which is tailored to their needs, and to reach out with information.

  2. Accounting for randomness in measurement and sampling in studying cancer cell population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Siavash; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Lahouti, Farshad; Ullah, Mukhtar; Linnebacher, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the expected temporal evolution of the proportion of different cell types in sample tissues gives an indication about the progression of the disease and its possible response to drugs. Such systems have been modelled using Markov processes. We here consider an experimentally realistic scenario in which transition probabilities are estimated from noisy cell population size measurements. Using aggregated data of FACS measurements, we develop MMSE and ML estimators and formulate two problems to find the minimum number of required samples and measurements to guarantee the accuracy of predicted population sizes. Our numerical results show that the convergence mechanism of transition probabilities and steady states differ widely from the real values if one uses the standard deterministic approach for noisy measurements. This provides support for our argument that for the analysis of FACS data one should consider the observed state as a random variable. The second problem we address is about the consequences of estimating the probability of a cell being in a particular state from measurements of small population of cells. We show how the uncertainty arising from small sample sizes can be captured by a distribution for the state probability.

  3. RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm for material-informatics: application to photovoltaic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Omer; Yosipof, Abraham; Senderowitz, Hanoch

    2017-06-06

    An important aspect of chemoinformatics and material-informatics is the usage of machine learning algorithms to build Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. The RANdom SAmple Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is a predictive modeling tool widely used in the image processing field for cleaning datasets from noise. RANSAC could be used as a "one stop shop" algorithm for developing and validating QSAR models, performing outlier removal, descriptors selection, model development and predictions for test set samples using applicability domain. For "future" predictions (i.e., for samples not included in the original test set) RANSAC provides a statistical estimate for the probability of obtaining reliable predictions, i.e., predictions within a pre-defined number of standard deviations from the true values. In this work we describe the first application of RNASAC in material informatics, focusing on the analysis of solar cells. We demonstrate that for three datasets representing different metal oxide (MO) based solar cell libraries RANSAC-derived models select descriptors previously shown to correlate with key photovoltaic properties and lead to good predictive statistics for these properties. These models were subsequently used to predict the properties of virtual solar cells libraries highlighting interesting dependencies of PV properties on MO compositions.

  4. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  5. Randomized controlled trial of attention bias modification in a racially diverse, socially anxious, alcohol dependent sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Magee, Joshua C; Wells, Tony T; Beard, Courtney; Barnett, Nancy P

    2016-12-01

    Attention biases may be an important treatment target for both alcohol dependence and social anxiety. This is the first ABM trial to investigate two (vs. one) targets of attention bias within a sample with co-occurring symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol dependence. Additionally, we used trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) to capture the phenomena of attention bias in a more ecologically valid, dynamic way compared to traditional attention bias scores. Adult participants (N = 86; 41% Female; 52% African American; 40% White) with elevated social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an 8-session training condition in this 2 (Social Anxiety ABM vs. Social Anxiety Control) by 2 (Alcohol ABM vs. Alcohol Control) design. Symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol dependence, and attention bias were assessed across time. Multilevel models estimated the trajectories for each measure within individuals, and tested whether these trajectories differed according to the randomized training conditions. Across time, there were significant or trending decreases in all attention TL-BS parameters (but not traditional attention bias scores) and most symptom measures. However, there were not significant differences in the trajectories of change between any ABM and control conditions for any symptom measures. These findings add to previous evidence questioning the robustness of ABM and point to the need to extend the effects of ABM to samples that are racially diverse and/or have co-occurring psychopathology. The results also illustrate the potential importance of calculating trial-level attention bias scores rather than only including traditional bias scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial of Attention Bias Modification in a Racially Diverse, Socially Anxious, Alcohol Dependent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Magee, Joshua C.; Wells, Tony T.; Beard, Courtney; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Attention biases may be an important treatment target for both alcohol dependence and social anxiety. This is the first ABM trial to investigate two (vs. one) targets of attention bias within a sample with co-occurring symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol dependence. Additionally, we used trial-level bias scores (TL-BS) to capture the phenomena of attention bias in a more ecologically valid, dynamic way compared to traditional attention bias scores. Method Adult participants (N=86; 41% Female; 52% African American; 40% White) with elevated social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were randomly assigned to an 8-session training condition in this 2 (Social Anxiety ABM vs. Social Anxiety Control) by 2 (Alcohol ABM vs. Alcohol Control) design. Symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol dependence, and attention bias were assessed across time. Results Multilevel models estimated the trajectories for each measure within individuals, and tested whether these trajectories differed according to the randomized training conditions. Across time, there were significant or trending decreases in all attention TL-BS parameters (but not traditional attention bias scores) and most symptom measures. However, there were not significant differences in the trajectories of change between any ABM and control conditions for any symptom measures. Conclusions These findings add to previous evidence questioning the robustness of ABM and point to the need to extend the effects of ABM to samples that are racially diverse and/or have co-occurring psychopathology. The results also illustrate the potential importance of calculating trial-level attention bias scores rather than only including traditional bias scores. PMID:27591918

  7. Fuel cells for telephone networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.D.; Scott, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Critical telephone network systems are currently protected from electric utility power failures by a backup system consisting of lead-acid batteries and an engine-alternator. It is considered here an alternate power system where less expensive off-peak commercial electricity electrolyses water, while fuel cells draw continuously on the stored gas products to provide direct current for the protected equipment. The lead acid batteries are eliminated. The benefits and costs of the existing and alternate systems in scenarios with various system efficiencies, capital costs, and electric utility rates and incentives, are compared. In today's conditions, the alternate system is not economical; however, cost and performance feasibility domains are identified. 2 figs., 4 tabs., 12 refs

  8. Relative efficiency and sample size for cluster randomized trials with variable cluster sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiying; Williams, O Dale; Aban, Inmaculada; Kabagambe, Edmond Kato; Tiwari, Hemant K; Cutter, Gary

    2011-02-01

    The statistical power of cluster randomized trials depends on two sample size components, the number of clusters per group and the numbers of individuals within clusters (cluster size). Variable cluster sizes are common and this variation alone may have significant impact on study power. Previous approaches have taken this into account by either adjusting total sample size using a designated design effect or adjusting the number of clusters according to an assessment of the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes. This article defines a relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes using noncentrality parameters, investigates properties of this measure, and proposes an approach for adjusting the required sample size accordingly. We focus on comparing two groups with normally distributed outcomes using t-test, and use the noncentrality parameter to define the relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes and show that statistical power depends only on this parameter for a given number of clusters. We calculate the sample size required for an unequal cluster sizes trial to have the same power as one with equal cluster sizes. Relative efficiency based on the noncentrality parameter is straightforward to calculate and easy to interpret. It connects the required mean cluster size directly to the required sample size with equal cluster sizes. Consequently, our approach first determines the sample size requirements with equal cluster sizes for a pre-specified study power and then calculates the required mean cluster size while keeping the number of clusters unchanged. Our approach allows adjustment in mean cluster size alone or simultaneous adjustment in mean cluster size and number of clusters, and is a flexible alternative to and a useful complement to existing methods. Comparison indicated that we have defined a relative efficiency that is greater than the relative efficiency in the literature under some conditions. Our measure

  9. Willingness to Pay for Rural Telephone Services: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... This study assessed Willingness to Pay (WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications for agricultural technology transfer in Southeast Nigeria. ... The sample was made up of 240 agro-based entrepreneurs and 60 extension staff.

  10. Random Photon Absorption Model Elucidates How Early Gain Control in Fly Photoreceptors Arises from Quantal Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhuoyi; Zhou, Yu; Juusola, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Many diurnal photoreceptors encode vast real-world light changes effectively, but how this performance originates from photon sampling is unclear. A 4-module biophysically-realistic fly photoreceptor model, in which information capture is limited by the number of its sampling units (microvilli) and their photon-hit recovery time (refractoriness), can accurately simulate real recordings and their information content. However, sublinear summation in quantum bump production (quantum-gain-nonlinearity) may also cause adaptation by reducing the bump/photon gain when multiple photons hit the same microvillus simultaneously. Here, we use a Random Photon Absorption Model (RandPAM), which is the 1st module of the 4-module fly photoreceptor model, to quantify the contribution of quantum-gain-nonlinearity in light adaptation. We show how quantum-gain-nonlinearity already results from photon sampling alone. In the extreme case, when two or more simultaneous photon-hits reduce to a single sublinear value, quantum-gain-nonlinearity is preset before the phototransduction reactions adapt the quantum bump waveform. However, the contribution of quantum-gain-nonlinearity in light adaptation depends upon the likelihood of multi-photon-hits, which is strictly determined by the number of microvilli and light intensity. Specifically, its contribution to light-adaptation is marginal (≤ 1%) in fly photoreceptors with many thousands of microvilli, because the probability of simultaneous multi-photon-hits on any one microvillus is low even during daylight conditions. However, in cells with fewer sampling units, the impact of quantum-gain-nonlinearity increases with brightening light. PMID:27445779

  11. Random sampling or geostatistical modelling? Choosing between design-based and model-based sampling strategies for soil (with discussion)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Classical sampling theory has been repeatedly identified with classical statistics which assumes that data are identically and independently distributed. This explains the switch of many soil scientists from design-based sampling strategies, based on classical sampling theory, to the model-based

  12. Validation of a telephone screening test for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzato, Ana Luiza; Kochhann, Renata; Godinho, Claudia; Costa, Amanda; Chaves, Marcia L

    2011-03-01

    Financial constraints, mobility issues, medical conditions, crime in local areas can make cognitive assessment difficult for elders and telephone interviews can be a good alternative. This study was carried out to evaluate the reliability, validity and clinical utility of a Brazilian telephone version of the Mini Mental State Examination (Braztel-MMSE) in a community sample of healthy elderly participants and AD patients. The MMSE and the Braztel-MMSE were applied to 66 AD patients and 67 healthy elderly participants. The test-retest reliability was strong and significant (r = .92, p = .01), and the correlation between the Braztel-MMSE and the MMSE were significant (p = .01) and strong (r = .92). The general screening ability of the Braztel-MMSE was high (AUC = 0.982; CI95% = 0.964-1.001). This telephone version can therefore be used as a screening measure for dementia in older adults that need neuropsychological screening and cannot present for an evaluation.

  13. The effect of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected pregnant women in Thailand: an embedded mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ratchneewan; Sawatphanit, Wilaiphan; Suwansujarid, Tatirat; Stidham, Andrea W; Drew, Barbara L; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Depressive symptoms negatively impact the lives of HIV-infected individuals and are correlated with faster progression to AIDS. Our embedded mixed methods study examined and described the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms in a sample of HIV-infected pregnant Thai women. HIV-infected pregnant Thai women (n = 40) were randomly assigned to either the control or the intervention group. A registered nurse provided telephone support to the intervention group. Depressive symptoms were measured at three points in both groups. In-depth interviews were conducted at Time 2 and Time 3. Results show that depressive symptoms in the intervention group decreased over time. Qualitative results describe how telephone support can work, but also reveal that telephone support did not work for everyone. We recommend that a larger mixed methods study be conducted to examine the effects of telephone support on depressive symptoms among HIV-infected women, including the costs and benefits of such support. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The contribution of simple random sampling to observed variations in faecal egg counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgerson, Paul R; Paul, Michaela; Lewis, Fraser I

    2012-09-10

    It has been over 100 years since the classical paper published by Gosset in 1907, under the pseudonym "Student", demonstrated that yeast cells suspended in a fluid and measured by a haemocytometer conformed to a Poisson process. Similarly parasite eggs in a faecal suspension also conform to a Poisson process. Despite this there are common misconceptions how to analyse or interpret observations from the McMaster or similar quantitative parasitic diagnostic techniques, widely used for evaluating parasite eggs in faeces. The McMaster technique can easily be shown from a theoretical perspective to give variable results that inevitably arise from the random distribution of parasite eggs in a well mixed faecal sample. The Poisson processes that lead to this variability are described and illustrative examples of the potentially large confidence intervals that can arise from observed faecal eggs counts that are calculated from the observations on a McMaster slide. Attempts to modify the McMaster technique, or indeed other quantitative techniques, to ensure uniform egg counts are doomed to failure and belie ignorance of Poisson processes. A simple method to immediately identify excess variation/poor sampling from replicate counts is provided. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 3 December. During this time, the fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at all times. Mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected by this work. For further details please contact mailto:Netops@cern.ch.

  16. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 10 July from 8 p.m. to midnight. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services, audioconference services and GSM calls made via the 333 prefix may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at all times. For more details about this maintenance work, please call the telephone switchboard on 76111 or send an e-mail. Telecom SectionIT/CS

  17. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    A maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on the 10th of July from 8 p.m. to midnight. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services, audioconference services, and GSM calls made via the 333 prefix may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. For more details about this maintenance, please contact the telephone switchboard at 76111 or by email. Telecom Section IT/CS

  18. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 3 December. During this time, the fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted. However, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at all times. Mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected by this work. For further details please contact Netops@cern.ch.

  19. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 20 November. Fixed-line telephone and audioconference services may be disrupted while the work is being carried out. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be contactable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. For further details about the maintenance work, please contact the telephone switchboard on 76111 or by email to standard.telephone@cern.ch. Telecom Section IT/CS

  20. An R package for spatial coverage sampling and random sampling from compact geographical strata by k-means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walvoort, D.J.J.; Brus, D.J.; Gruijter, de J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Both for mapping and for estimating spatial means of an environmental variable, the accuracy of the result will usually be increased by dispersing the sample locations so that they cover the study area as uniformly as possible. We developed a new R package for designing spatial coverage samples for

  1. A random sampling approach for robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparse data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-May; Ette, Ene I

    2005-09-02

    his study was performed to develop a new nonparametric approach for the estimation of robust tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled paired data (ie, one sample each from plasma and tissue per subject). Tissue-to-plasma ratio was estimated from paired/unpaired experimental data using independent time points approach, area under the curve (AUC) values calculated with the naïve data averaging approach, and AUC values calculated using sampling based approaches (eg, the pseudoprofile-based bootstrap [PpbB] approach and the random sampling approach [our proposed approach]). The random sampling approach involves the use of a 2-phase algorithm. The convergence of the sampling/resampling approaches was investigated, as well as the robustness of the estimates produced by different approaches. To evaluate the latter, new data sets were generated by introducing outlier(s) into the real data set. One to 2 concentration values were inflated by 10% to 40% from their original values to produce the outliers. Tissue-to-plasma ratios computed using the independent time points approach varied between 0 and 50 across time points. The ratio obtained from AUC values acquired using the naive data averaging approach was not associated with any measure of uncertainty or variability. Calculating the ratio without regard to pairing yielded poorer estimates. The random sampling and pseudoprofile-based bootstrap approaches yielded tissue-to-plasma ratios with uncertainty and variability. However, the random sampling approach, because of the 2-phase nature of its algorithm, yielded more robust estimates and required fewer replications. Therefore, a 2-phase random sampling approach is proposed for the robust estimation of tissue-to-plasma ratio from extremely sparsely sampled data.

  2. The study of combining Latin Hypercube Sampling method and LU decomposition method (LULHS method) for constructing spatial random field

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, P. T.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater modeling requires to assign hydrogeological properties to every numerical grid. Due to the lack of detailed information and the inherent spatial heterogeneity, geological properties can be treated as random variables. Hydrogeological property is assumed to be a multivariate distribution with spatial correlations. By sampling random numbers from a given statistical distribution and assigning a value to each grid, a random field for modeling can be completed. Therefore, statistics sampling plays an important role in the efficiency of modeling procedure. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) is a stratified random sampling procedure that provides an efficient way to sample variables from their multivariate distributions. This study combines the the stratified random procedure from LHS and the simulation by using LU decomposition to form LULHS. Both conditional and unconditional simulations of LULHS were develpoed. The simulation efficiency and spatial correlation of LULHS are compared to the other three different simulation methods. The results show that for the conditional simulation and unconditional simulation, LULHS method is more efficient in terms of computational effort. Less realizations are required to achieve the required statistical accuracy and spatial correlation.

  3. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  4. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Hardware architecture for projective model calculation and false match refining using random sample consensus algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Ehsan; Behrad, Alireza; Ghaznavi-Ghoushchi, Mohammad Bagher; Shanbehzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-11-01

    The projective model is an important mapping function for the calculation of global transformation between two images. However, its hardware implementation is challenging because of a large number of coefficients with different required precisions for fixed point representation. A VLSI hardware architecture is proposed for the calculation of a global projective model between input and reference images and refining false matches using random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm. To make the hardware implementation feasible, it is proved that the calculation of the projective model can be divided into four submodels comprising two translations, an affine model and a simpler projective mapping. This approach makes the hardware implementation feasible and considerably reduces the required number of bits for fixed point representation of model coefficients and intermediate variables. The proposed hardware architecture for the calculation of a global projective model using the RANSAC algorithm was implemented using Verilog hardware description language and the functionality of the design was validated through several experiments. The proposed architecture was synthesized by using an application-specific integrated circuit digital design flow utilizing 180-nm CMOS technology as well as a Virtex-6 field programmable gate array. Experimental results confirm the efficiency of the proposed hardware architecture in comparison with software implementation.

  6. Accelerating Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation by differential evolution with self-adaptive randomized subspace sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hyman, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Robinson, Bruce A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, Dave [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ter Braak, Cajo J F [NETHERLANDS; Diks, Cees G H [UNIV OF AMSTERDAM

    2008-01-01

    Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods have found widespread use in many fields of study to estimate the average properties of complex systems, and for posterior inference in a Bayesian framework. Existing theory and experiments prove convergence of well constructed MCMC schemes to the appropriate limiting distribution under a variety of different conditions. In practice, however this convergence is often observed to be disturbingly slow. This is frequently caused by an inappropriate selection of the proposal distribution used to generate trial moves in the Markov Chain. Here we show that significant improvements to the efficiency of MCMC simulation can be made by using a self-adaptive Differential Evolution learning strategy within a population-based evolutionary framework. This scheme, entitled DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis or DREAM, runs multiple different chains simultaneously for global exploration, and automatically tunes the scale and orientation of the proposal distribution in randomized subspaces during the search. Ergodicity of the algorithm is proved, and various examples involving nonlinearity, high-dimensionality, and multimodality show that DREAM is generally superior to other adaptive MCMC sampling approaches. The DREAM scheme significantly enhances the applicability of MCMC simulation to complex, multi-modal search problems.

  7. Discriminative motif discovery via simulated evolution and random under-sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Song

    Full Text Available Conserved motifs in biological sequences are closely related to their structure and functions. Recently, discriminative motif discovery methods have attracted more and more attention. However, little attention has been devoted to the data imbalance problem, which is one of the main reasons affecting the performance of the discriminative models. In this article, a simulated evolution method is applied to solve the multi-class imbalance problem at the stage of data preprocessing, and at the stage of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs training, a random under-sampling method is introduced for the imbalance between the positive and negative datasets. It is shown that, in the task of discovering targeting motifs of nine subcellular compartments, the motifs found by our method are more conserved than the methods without considering data imbalance problem and recover the most known targeting motifs from Minimotif Miner and InterPro. Meanwhile, we use the found motifs to predict protein subcellular localization and achieve higher prediction precision and recall for the minority classes.

  8. Discriminative motif discovery via simulated evolution and random under-sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Gu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Conserved motifs in biological sequences are closely related to their structure and functions. Recently, discriminative motif discovery methods have attracted more and more attention. However, little attention has been devoted to the data imbalance problem, which is one of the main reasons affecting the performance of the discriminative models. In this article, a simulated evolution method is applied to solve the multi-class imbalance problem at the stage of data preprocessing, and at the stage of Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) training, a random under-sampling method is introduced for the imbalance between the positive and negative datasets. It is shown that, in the task of discovering targeting motifs of nine subcellular compartments, the motifs found by our method are more conserved than the methods without considering data imbalance problem and recover the most known targeting motifs from Minimotif Miner and InterPro. Meanwhile, we use the found motifs to predict protein subcellular localization and achieve higher prediction precision and recall for the minority classes.

  9. Neurofeedback Against Binge Eating: A Randomized Controlled Trial in a Female Subclinical Threshold Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Martin, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Brain-directed treatment techniques, such as neurofeedback, have recently been proposed as adjuncts in the treatment of eating disorders to improve therapeutic outcomes. In line with this recommendation, a cue exposure EEG-neurofeedback protocol was developed. The present study aimed at the evaluation of the specific efficacy of neurofeedback to reduce subjective binge eating in a female subthreshold sample. A total of 75 subjects were randomized to EEG-neurofeedback, mental imagery with a comparable treatment set-up or a waitlist group. At post-treatment, only EEG-neurofeedback led to a reduced frequency of binge eating (p = .015, g = 0.65). The effects remained stable to a 3-month follow-up. EEG-neurofeedback further showed particular beneficial effects on perceived stress and dietary self-efficacy. Differences in outcomes did not arise from divergent treatment expectations. Because EEG-neurofeedback showed a specific efficacy, it may be a promising brain-directed approach that should be tested as a treatment adjunct in clinical groups with binge eating. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Upgrade of the CERN telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN switching centre between 8.00 p.m. and 10.00 p.m. on Monday 9 October. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this time. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  11. Randomization-Based Inference about Latent Variables from Complex Samples: The Case of Two-Stage Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tiandong

    2012-01-01

    In large-scale assessments, such as the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), plausible values based on Multiple Imputations (MI) have been used to estimate population characteristics for latent constructs under complex sample designs. Mislevy (1991) derived a closed-form analytic solution for a fixed-effect model in creating…

  12. At convenience and systematic random sampling: effects on the prognostic value of nuclear area assessments in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannink, I; Bennen, J N; Blaauw, J; van Diest, P J; Baak, J P

    1995-01-01

    This study compares the influence of two different nuclear sampling methods on the prognostic value of assessments of mean and standard deviation of nuclear area (MNA, SDNA) in 191 consecutive invasive breast cancer patients with long term follow up. The first sampling method used was 'at convenience' sampling (ACS); the second, systematic random sampling (SRS). Both sampling methods were tested with a sample size of 50 nuclei (ACS-50 and SRS-50). To determine whether, besides the sampling methods, sample size had impact on prognostic value as well, the SRS method was also tested using a sample size of 100 nuclei (SRS-100). SDNA values were systematically lower for ACS, obviously due to (unconsciously) not including small and large nuclei. Testing prognostic value of a series of cut off points, MNA and SDNA values assessed by the SRS method were prognostically significantly stronger than the values obtained by the ACS method. This was confirmed in Cox regression analysis. For the MNA, the Mantel-Cox p-values from SRS-50 and SRS-100 measurements were not significantly different. However, for the SDNA, SRS-100 yielded significantly lower p-values than SRS-50. In conclusion, compared with the 'at convenience' nuclear sampling method, systematic random sampling of nuclei is not only superior with respect to reproducibility of results, but also provides a better prognostic value in patients with invasive breast cancer.

  13. Comparing Costs of Telephone versus Face-to-Face Extended Care Programs for the Management of Obesity in Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Tiffany A.; Bobroff, Linda B.; Lutes, Lesley D.; Durning, Patricia E.; Daniels, Michael J.; Limacher, Marian C.; Janicke, David M.; Martin, A. Daniel; Perri, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Background A major challenge following successful weight loss is continuing the behaviors required for long-term weight maintenance. This challenge may be exacerbated in rural areas with limited local support resources. Objective This study describes and compares program costs and cost-effectiveness for 12-month extended care lifestyle maintenance programs following an initial 6-month weight loss program. Design A 1-year prospective controlled randomized clinical trial. Participants/Setting The study included 215 female participants age 50 or older from rural areas who completed an initial 6-month lifestyle program for weight loss. The study was conducted from June 1, 2003, to May 31, 2007. Intervention The intervention was delivered through local Cooperative Extension Service offices in rural Florida. Participants were randomly-assigned to a 12-month extended care program using either individual telephone counseling (n=67), group face-to-face counseling (n=74), or a mail/control group (n=74). Main Outcome Measures Program delivery costs, weight loss, and self-reported health status were directly assessed through questionnaires and program activity logs. Costs were estimated across a range of enrollment sizes to allow inferences beyond the study sample. Statistical Analyses Performed Non-parametric and parametric tests of differences across groups for program outcomes were combined with direct program cost estimates and expected value calculations to determine which scales of operation favored alternative formats for lifestyle maintenance. Results Median weight regain during the intervention year was 1.7 kg for participants in the face-to-face format, 2.1 kg for the telephone format, and 3.1 kg for the mail/control format. For a typical group size of 13 participants, the face-to-face format had higher fixed costs, which translated into higher overall program costs ($420 per participant) when compared to individual telephone counseling ($268 per participant) and

  14. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts. Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones. Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  15. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Shen

    Full Text Available To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students.The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts.Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05. Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones.Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  16. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  17. Weighting Strategies for Combining Data from Dual-Frame Telephone Surveys: Emerging Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baffour Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Until quite recently, telephone surveys have typically relied on landline telephone numbers. However, with the increasing popularity and affordability of mobile phones, there has been a surge in households that do not have landline connections. Additionally, there has been a decline in the response rates and population coverage of landline telephone surveys, creating a challenge to collecting representative social data. Dual-frame telephone surveys that use both landline and mobile phone sampling frames can overcome the incompleteness of landline-only telephone sampling. However, surveying mobile phone users introduces new complexities in sampling, nonresponse measurement and statistical weighting. This article examines these issues and illustrates the consequences of failing to include mobile-phone-only users in telephone surveys using data from Australia. Results show that there are significant differences in estimates of populations’ characteristics when using information solely from the landline or mobile telephone sample. These biases in the population estimates are significantly reduced when data from the mobile and landline samples are combined and appropriate dual-frame survey estimators are used. The optimal choice of a dual-frame estimation strategy depends on the availability of good-quality information that can account for the differential patterns of nonresponse by frame.

  18. Computer code ENDSAM for random sampling and validation of the resonance parameters covariance matrices of some major nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plevnik, Lucijan; Žerovnik, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Methods for random sampling of correlated parameters. • Link to open-source code for sampling of resonance parameters in ENDF-6 format. • Validation of the code on realistic and artificial data. • Validation of covariances in three major contemporary nuclear data libraries. - Abstract: Methods for random sampling of correlated parameters are presented. The methods are implemented for sampling of resonance parameters in ENDF-6 format and a link to the open-source code ENDSAM is given. The code has been validated on realistic data. Additionally, consistency of covariances of resonance parameters of three major contemporary nuclear data libraries (JEFF-3.2, ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDL-4.0u2) has been checked.

  19. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and midnight on 20 November. Fixed-line telephone and audioconference services may be disrupted while the work is being carried out. However, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. For further details about the maintenance work, please contact the telephone switchboard on 76111 or by email. Telecom Section - IT/CS

  20. Evaluating the privacy properties of telephone metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jonathan; Mutchler, Patrick; Mitchell, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a stream of disclosures has prompted reconsideration of surveillance law and policy. One of the most controversial principles, both in the United States and abroad, is that communications metadata receives substantially less protection than communications content. Several nations currently collect telephone metadata in bulk, including on their own citizens. In this paper, we attempt to shed light on the privacy properties of telephone metadata. Using a crowdsourcing methodology, we demonstrate that telephone metadata is densely interconnected, can trivially be reidentified, and can be used to draw sensitive inferences. PMID:27185922

  1. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge

    OpenAIRE

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Fr?d?ric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. Methods A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed f...

  2. Application of a stratified random sampling technique to the estimation and minimization of respirable quartz exposure to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, C.E.; Horvath, F.J.; Stocker, H.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of a stratified random sampling plan is to provide the best estimate (in the absence of full-shift personal gravimetric sampling) of personal exposure to respirable quartz among underground miners. One also gains information of the exposure distribution of all the miners at the same time. Three variables (or strata) are considered in the present scheme: locations, occupations and times of sampling. Random sampling within each stratum ensures that each location, occupation and time of sampling has equal opportunity of being selected without bias. Following implementation of the plan and analysis of collected data, one can determine the individual exposures and the mean. This information can then be used to identify those groups whose exposure contributes significantly to the collective exposure. In turn, this identification, along with other considerations, allows the mine operator to carry out a cost-benefit optimization and eventual implementation of engineering controls for these groups. This optimization and engineering control procedure, together with the random sampling plan, can then be used in an iterative manner to minimize the mean value of the distribution and collective exposures

  3. Albumin to creatinine ratio in a random urine sample: Correlation with severity of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fady S. Moiety

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: Random urine ACR may be a reliable method for prediction and assessment of severity of preeclampsia. Using the estimated cut-off may add to the predictive value of such a simple quick test.

  4. Evaluation of a Class of Simple and Effective Uncertainty Methods for Sparse Samples of Random Variables and Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vicente [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonney, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schroeder, Benjamin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weirs, V. Gregory [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    When very few samples of a random quantity are available from a source distribution of unknown shape, it is usually not possible to accurately infer the exact distribution from which the data samples come. Under-estimation of important quantities such as response variance and failure probabilities can result. For many engineering purposes, including design and risk analysis, we attempt to avoid under-estimation with a strategy to conservatively estimate (bound) these types of quantities -- without being overly conservative -- when only a few samples of a random quantity are available from model predictions or replicate experiments. This report examines a class of related sparse-data uncertainty representation and inference approaches that are relatively simple, inexpensive, and effective. Tradeoffs between the methods' conservatism, reliability, and risk versus number of data samples (cost) are quantified with multi-attribute metrics use d to assess method performance for conservative estimation of two representative quantities: central 95% of response; and 10-4 probability of exceeding a response threshold in a tail of the distribution. Each method's performance is characterized with 10,000 random trials on a large number of diverse and challenging distributions. The best method and number of samples to use in a given circumstance depends on the uncertainty quantity to be estimated, the PDF character, and the desired reliability of bounding the true value. On the basis of this large data base and study, a strategy is proposed for selecting the method and number of samples for attaining reasonable credibility levels in bounding these types of quantities when sparse samples of random variables or functions are available from experiments or simulations.

  5. Mapping crime scenes and cellular telephone usage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a method that uses a desktop geographical information system (GIS) to plot cellular telephone conversations made when crimes are committed, such as hijackings, hostage taking, kidnapping, rape and murder. The maps produced...

  6. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow......-up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number...... expected in the Danish population. RESULTS: A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary...

  7. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT/CS

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8 p.m. and 2 a.m. on 26 August.   Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the Fire Brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work.

  8. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 8h30 and 17h30 on Saturday 9 May. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS/CS

  9. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and midnight on the 29th of July in order to apply the latest software patches. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS/CS

  10. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and 2h00 on the 16 November. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. IT/CS

  11. Maintenance of the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance work will be carried out on the CERN telephone exchanges between 20h00 and midnight on the 21st of February in order to apply the latest software patches. Fixed-line telephone and audio-conference services may be disrupted during this intervention. Nevertheless, the CCC and the fire brigade will be reachable at any time. Mobile telephony services (GSM) will not be affected by the maintenance work. CS Group

  12. Voice-band Modem: A Device to Transmit Data over Telephone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    over Telephone Networks. 2. Advanced Ideas ... transmitted signal power and No is the noise power spec- ... power distribution over all frequencies, and the samples of noise .... Figure 3, dmin=2fl, and average signal energy, assum- ing that ...

  13. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  14. Relationship between accuracy and number of samples on statistical quantity and contour map of environmental gamma-ray dose rate. Example of random sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu; Minato, Susumu

    2002-01-01

    The accuracy of statistical quantity like the mean value and contour map obtained by measurement of the environmental gamma-ray dose rate was evaluated by random sampling of 5 different model distribution maps made by the mean slope, -1.3, of power spectra calculated from the actually measured values. The values were derived from 58 natural gamma dose rate data reported worldwide ranging in the means of 10-100 Gy/h rates and 10 -3 -10 7 km 2 areas. The accuracy of the mean value was found around ±7% even for 60 or 80 samplings (the most frequent number) and the standard deviation had the accuracy less than 1/4-1/3 of the means. The correlation coefficient of the frequency distribution was found 0.860 or more for 200-400 samplings (the most frequent number) but of the contour map, 0.502-0.770. (K.H.)

  15. Telephone versus face-to-face interviewing for household drug use surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, W S

    1992-01-01

    This research investigated the use of telephone versus face-to-face interviewing to gather data on the use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs. Telephone and personal drug use surveys of the 18-34 year-old household population were conducted in the state of New Jersey in 1986-1987. Survey modes were compared in terms of unit and item nonresponse rates, sample coverage, and levels of self-reported drug use. Results showed that the telephone survey achieved response rates lower than the personal survey, but comparable to telephone surveys of less threatening topics. Item nonresponse to sensitive drug questions was lower by phone than with the self-administered answer sheets in the personal mode. The exclusion of households without telephones in the telephone survey is a potential source of bias, and may lead to underestimation of alcohol and drug use for minority populations. After controlling for telephone status, the telephone survey furnished significantly lower drug use estimates on several indicators than the personal survey, with the largest mode differences found for Blacks.

  16. Effects of enterostomal nurse telephone follow-up on postoperative adjustment of discharged colostomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-e; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; You, Li-ming; Zheng, Mei-chun; Li, Qiong; Zhang, Bing-yan; Huang, Man-rong; Ye, Xin-Mei; Liang, Ming-juan; Liu, Jin-ling

    2013-01-01

    People with a new colostomy encounter many difficulties as they struggle to adjust to their ostomies. Nurse telephone follow-up is a convenient way to ensure continuity of care. There is a paucity of studies testing if nurse telephone follow-up can enhance adjustment of postdischarged colostomy patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of enterostomal nurse telephone follow-up on the adjustment levels of discharged colostomy patients. This was a randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 103) who had undergone colostomy operations in China were recruited and randomly assigned to the study or control group. Both the study and control groups received routine discharge care, whereas the study group received 2-3 nurse telephone calls in the follow-up period. The outcome measures included Ostomy Adjustment Scale, Stoma Self-efficacy Scale, satisfaction with care, and stoma complications. Results of this study indicated that participants in the study group had significantly better ostomy adjustment, higher stoma self-efficacy, higher satisfaction with care, and less stoma complications compared with those in the control group. This study provided evidence to support that enterostomal nurse telephone follow-up can improve patient ostomy adjustment level and other related outcomes. Nurse telephone follow-up is an effective intervention to support the adjustment of stoma patients after hospital discharge.

  17. Sample Size Calculation: Inaccurate A Priori Assumptions for Nuisance Parameters Can Greatly Affect the Power of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Tavernier

    Full Text Available We aimed to examine the extent to which inaccurate assumptions for nuisance parameters used to calculate sample size can affect the power of a randomized controlled trial (RCT. In a simulation study, we separately considered an RCT with continuous, dichotomous or time-to-event outcomes, with associated nuisance parameters of standard deviation, success rate in the control group and survival rate in the control group at some time point, respectively. For each type of outcome, we calculated a required sample size N for a hypothesized treatment effect, an assumed nuisance parameter and a nominal power of 80%. We then assumed a nuisance parameter associated with a relative error at the design stage. For each type of outcome, we randomly drew 10,000 relative errors of the associated nuisance parameter (from empirical distributions derived from a previously published review. Then, retro-fitting the sample size formula, we derived, for the pre-calculated sample size N, the real power of the RCT, taking into account the relative error for the nuisance parameter. In total, 23%, 0% and 18% of RCTs with continuous, binary and time-to-event outcomes, respectively, were underpowered (i.e., the real power was 90%. Even with proper calculation of sample size, a substantial number of trials are underpowered or overpowered because of imprecise knowledge of nuisance parameters. Such findings raise questions about how sample size for RCTs should be determined.

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. Characteristics of men with substance use disorder consequent to illicit drug use: comparison of a random sample and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Maureen D; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent

    2004-09-06

    Men qualifying for substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to consumption of an illicit drug were compared according to recruitment method. It was hypothesized that volunteers would be more self-disclosing and exhibit more severe disturbances compared to randomly recruited subjects. Personal, demographic, family, social, substance use, psychiatric, and SUD characteristics of volunteers (N = 146) were compared to randomly recruited (N = 102) subjects. Volunteers had lower socioceconomic status, were more likely to be African American, and had lower IQ than randomly recruited subjects. Volunteers also evidenced greater social and family maladjustment and more frequently had received treatment for substance abuse. In addition, lower social desirability response bias was observed in the volunteers. SUD was not more severe in the volunteers; however, they reported a higher lifetime rate of opiate, diet, depressant, and analgesic drug use. Volunteers and randomly recruited subjects qualifying for SUD consequent to illicit drug use are similar in SUD severity but differ in terms of severity of psychosocial disturbance and history of drug involvement. The factors discriminating volunteers and randomly recruited subjects are well known to impact on outcome, hence they need to be considered in research design, especially when selecting a sampling strategy in treatment research.

  20. Randomization of grab-sampling strategies for estimating the annual exposure of U miners to Rn daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borak, T B

    1986-04-01

    Periodic grab sampling in combination with time-of-occupancy surveys has been the accepted procedure for estimating the annual exposure of underground U miners to Rn daughters. Temporal variations in the concentration of potential alpha energy in the mine generate uncertainties in this process. A system to randomize the selection of locations for measurement is described which can reduce uncertainties and eliminate systematic biases in the data. In general, a sample frequency of 50 measurements per year is sufficient to satisfy the criteria that the annual exposure be determined in working level months to within +/- 50% of the true value with a 95% level of confidence. Suggestions for implementing this randomization scheme are presented.

  1. Doctor-patient communication on the telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, P; Evens, S

    1989-01-01

    Since its invention, the telephone has been an important tool in medical practice, particularly for primary care physicians. Approximately half the calls made to a physician's office during regular consulting hours are for clinical problems and most are handled effectively over the phone without an immediate office visit. Telephone encounters are generally very brief, and managing such calls requires a pragmatic approach that is often quite different from the approach taken in the office visit. The telephone encounter should be recognized and recorded as a specific medical interaction in the medical chart for both clinical and legal reasons. Effective telephone encounters depend on good communication skills; decision making regarding disposition is a major goal. The physician's perception of a medical problem may be different from the patient's; patients are frequently seeking advice and reassurance rather than diagnosis and treatment, and may call because of anxiety and psychological stress. For physicians and their families who are not prepared for after-hours telephone encounters, calls that interrupt more "legitimate" activities may result in anger or frustration for the physician and dissatisfaction for the patient.

  2. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Steimer

    Full Text Available Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing

  3. Random Sampling with Interspike-Intervals of the Exponential Integrate and Fire Neuron: A Computational Interpretation of UP-States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, Andreas; Schindler, Kaspar

    2015-01-01

    Oscillations between high and low values of the membrane potential (UP and DOWN states respectively) are an ubiquitous feature of cortical neurons during slow wave sleep and anesthesia. Nevertheless, a surprisingly small number of quantitative studies have been conducted only that deal with this phenomenon's implications for computation. Here we present a novel theory that explains on a detailed mathematical level the computational benefits of UP states. The theory is based on random sampling by means of interspike intervals (ISIs) of the exponential integrate and fire (EIF) model neuron, such that each spike is considered a sample, whose analog value corresponds to the spike's preceding ISI. As we show, the EIF's exponential sodium current, that kicks in when balancing a noisy membrane potential around values close to the firing threshold, leads to a particularly simple, approximative relationship between the neuron's ISI distribution and input current. Approximation quality depends on the frequency spectrum of the current and is improved upon increasing the voltage baseline towards threshold. Thus, the conceptually simpler leaky integrate and fire neuron that is missing such an additional current boost performs consistently worse than the EIF and does not improve when voltage baseline is increased. For the EIF in contrast, the presented mechanism is particularly effective in the high-conductance regime, which is a hallmark feature of UP-states. Our theoretical results are confirmed by accompanying simulations, which were conducted for input currents of varying spectral composition. Moreover, we provide analytical estimations of the range of ISI distributions the EIF neuron can sample from at a given approximation level. Such samples may be considered by any algorithmic procedure that is based on random sampling, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo or message-passing methods. Finally, we explain how spike-based random sampling relates to existing computational

  4. Parameters, test criteria and fault assessment in random sampling of waste barrels from non-qualified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the context of random sampling tests, parameters are checked on the waste barrels and criteria are given on which these tests are based. Also, it is shown how faulty data on the properties of the waste or faulty waste barrels should be treated. To decide the extent of testing, the properties of the waste relevant to final storage are determined based on the conditioning process used. (DG) [de

  5. Random or systematic sampling to detect a localised microbial contamination within a batch of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongenburger, I.; Reij, M.W.; Boer, E.P.J.; Gorris, L.G.M.; Zwietering, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms are known to be distributed heterogeneously in food products that are solid, semi-solid or powdered, like for instance peanut butter, cereals, or powdered milk. This complicates effective detection of the pathogens by sampling. Two-class sampling plans, which are deployed

  6. Conditional estimation of exponential random graph models from snowball sampling designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattison, Philippa E.; Robins, Garry L.; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    A complete survey of a network in a large population may be prohibitively difficult and costly. So it is important to estimate models for networks using data from various network sampling designs, such as link-tracing designs. We focus here on snowball sampling designs, designs in which the members

  7. Inferences about Variance Components and Reliability-Generalizability Coefficients in the Absence of Random Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the criticisms of sampling assumptions in generalizability theory (and in reliability theory) and examines the feasibility of using representative sampling, stratification, homogeneity assumptions, and replications to address these criticisms. Suggests some general outlines for the conduct of generalizability theory studies. (SLD)

  8. [Psychometric validation of the telephone memory test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, T; Fernández, A; Martínez-Castillo, E; Maestú, F; Martínez-Arias, R; López-Ibor, J J

    1999-01-01

    Several pathologies (i.e. Alzheimer's disease) that courses with memory alterations, appears in a context of impaired cognitive status and mobility. In recent years, several investigations were carried out in order to design short batteries that detect those subjects under risk of dementia. Some of this batteries were also design to be administrated over the telephone, trying to overcome the accessibility limitations of this patients. In this paper we present a battery (called Autotest de Memoria) essentially composed by episodic and semantic memory tests, administered both over the telephone and face to face. This battery was employed in the cognitive assessment of healthy controls and subjects diagnosed as probable Alzheimer's disease patients. Results show the capability of this battery in order to discriminate patients and healthy controls, a great sensibility and specificity, and a nearly absolute parallelism of telephone and face to face administrations. These data led us to claim the usefulness and practicality of our so called Memoria>.

  9. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poorjam, Amir Hossein; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis...... method is evaluated on telephone speech signals of speakers whose smoking habits are known drawn from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation databases. Experimental results over 1194 utterances show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...... for the automatic smoking habit detection task....

  10. Telephone interventions for adherence to colpocytological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thais Marques; Nicolau, Ana Izabel Oliveira; Carvalho, Francisco Herlânio Costa; Vasconcelos, Camila Teixeira Moreira; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; Pinheiro, Ana Karina Bezerra

    2017-02-06

    to test the effects of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone on adherence of women with inappropriate periodicity to colpocytological examination. quasi-experimental study with a sample of 524 women, selected with the following inclusion criteria: be aged between 25 and 64 years, have initiated sexual activity, have inappropriate periodicity of examination and have mobile or landline phone. The women were divided into two groups for application of behavioral and educational intervention by telephone. It was used an intervention script according to the principles of Motivational Interviewing. on comparing the results before and after the behavioral and educational interventions, it was found that there was a statistically significant change (p = 0.0283) with increase of knowledge of women who participated in the educational intervention. There was no change in the attitude of women of any of the groups and there was an increase of adherence to colpocytological examination in both groups (p grupos para aplicação da intervenção comportamental e educativa por telefone. Utilizou-se um roteiro de intervenção segundo os preceitos da Entrevista Motivacional. ao comparar antes e depois das intervenções comportamental e educativa constatou-se que houve uma mudança estatisticamente significativa (p = 0,0283) no aumento do conhecimento das mulheres que participaram da intervenção educativa; não houve mudança comprovada na atitude das mulheres de nenhum dos grupos e houve um aumento da adesão ao exame colpocitológico nos dois grupos (p grupo comportamental (66,8%). as intervenções comportamentais e educativas por telefone foram eficazes na adesão das mulheres ao exame colpocitológico, representando estratégias importantes para educação permanente em saúde, promovendo a atenção para a prevenção do câncer cérvico-uterino. comprobar los efectos de intervención comportamental y educativa por teléfono en la adhesión de las mujeres, con

  11. Random sampling technique for ultra-fast computations of molecular opacities for exoplanet atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. Opacities of molecules in exoplanet atmospheres rely on increasingly detailed line-lists for these molecules. The line lists available today contain for many species up to several billions of lines. Computation of the spectral line profile created by pressure and temperature broadening, the Voigt profile, of all of these lines is becoming a computational challenge. Aims: We aim to create a method to compute the Voigt profile in a way that automatically focusses the computation time into the strongest lines, while still maintaining the continuum contribution of the high number of weaker lines. Methods: Here, we outline a statistical line sampling technique that samples the Voigt profile quickly and with high accuracy. The number of samples is adjusted to the strength of the line and the local spectral line density. This automatically provides high accuracy line shapes for strong lines or lines that are spectrally isolated. The line sampling technique automatically preserves the integrated line opacity for all lines, thereby also providing the continuum opacity created by the large number of weak lines at very low computational cost. Results: The line sampling technique is tested for accuracy when computing line spectra and correlated-k tables. Extremely fast computations ( 3.5 × 105 lines per second per core on a standard current day desktop computer) with high accuracy (≤1% almost everywhere) are obtained. A detailed recipe on how to perform the computations is given.

  12. Random Walks on Directed Networks: Inference and Respondent-Driven Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmros Jens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Respondent-driven sampling (RDS is often used to estimate population properties (e.g., sexual risk behavior in hard-to-reach populations. In RDS, already sampled individuals recruit population members to the sample from their social contacts in an efficient snowball-like sampling procedure. By assuming a Markov model for the recruitment of individuals, asymptotically unbiased estimates of population characteristics can be obtained. Current RDS estimation methodology assumes that the social network is undirected, that is, all edges are reciprocal. However, empirical social networks in general also include a substantial number of nonreciprocal edges. In this article, we develop an estimation method for RDS in populations connected by social networks that include reciprocal and nonreciprocal edges. We derive estimators of the selection probabilities of individuals as a function of the number of outgoing edges of sampled individuals. The proposed estimators are evaluated on artificial and empirical networks and are shown to generally perform better than existing estimators. This is the case in particular when the fraction of directed edges in the network is large.

  13. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of SEM and TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a BPRML (WSi2/Si with fundamental layer thickness of 3 nm) with a Dual Beam FIB (focused ion beam)/SEM technique. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  14. Random sampling of the Central European bat fauna reveals the existence of numerous hitherto unknown adenoviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovszky, Márton; Kohl, Claudia; Boldogh, Sándor; Görföl, Tamás; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Kurth, Andreas; Harrach, Balázs

    2015-12-01

    From over 1250 extant species of the order Chiroptera, 25 and 28 are known to occur in Germany and Hungary, respectively. Close to 350 samples originating from 28 bat species (17 from Germany, 27 from Hungary) were screened for the presence of adenoviruses (AdVs) using a nested PCR that targets the DNA polymerase gene of AdVs. An additional PCR was designed and applied to amplify a fragment from the gene encoding the IVa2 protein of mastadenoviruses. All German samples originated from organs of bats found moribund or dead. The Hungarian samples were excrements collected from colonies of known bat species, throat or rectal swab samples, taken from live individuals that had been captured for faunistic surveys and migration studies, as well as internal organs of dead specimens. Overall, 51 samples (14.73%) were found positive. We detected 28 seemingly novel and six previously described bat AdVs by sequencing the PCR products. The positivity rate was the highest among the guano samples of bat colonies. In phylogeny reconstructions, the AdVs detected in bats clustered roughly, but not perfectly, according to the hosts' families (Vespertilionidae, Rhinolophidae, Hipposideridae, Phyllostomidae and Pteropodidae). In a few cases, identical sequences were derived from animals of closely related species. On the other hand, some bat species proved to harbour more than one type of AdV. The high prevalence of infection and the large number of chiropteran species worldwide make us hypothesise that hundreds of different yet unknown AdV types might circulate in bats.

  15. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  16. Re-estimating sample size in cluster randomized trials with active recruitment within clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schie, Sander; Moerbeek, Mirjam

    2014-01-01

    Often only a limited number of clusters can be obtained in cluster randomised trials, although many potential participants can be recruited within each cluster. Thus, active recruitment is feasible within the clusters. To obtain an efficient sample size in a cluster randomised trial, the cluster

  17. A systematic random sampling scheme optimized to detect the proportion of rare synapses in the neuropil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Nuno Maçarico; Hepp, Klaus; Martin, Kevan A C

    2009-05-30

    Synapses can only be morphologically identified by electron microscopy and this is often a very labor-intensive and time-consuming task. When quantitative estimates are required for pathways that contribute a small proportion of synapses to the neuropil, the problems of accurate sampling are particularly severe and the total time required may become prohibitive. Here we present a sampling method devised to count the percentage of rarely occurring synapses in the neuropil using a large sample (approximately 1000 sampling sites), with the strong constraint of doing it in reasonable time. The strategy, which uses the unbiased physical disector technique, resembles that used in particle physics to detect rare events. We validated our method in the primary visual cortex of the cat, where we used biotinylated dextran amine to label thalamic afferents and measured the density of their synapses using the physical disector method. Our results show that we could obtain accurate counts of the labeled synapses, even when they represented only 0.2% of all the synapses in the neuropil.

  18. Work on the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Corrective maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be carried out on 13th March 2006, resulting in service interruptions across the west area of the Meyrin site between 9.00 p.m. and 11.00 p.m. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service Tel.: 76111 GSM: 160101

  19. Maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges - erratum

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The next maintenance of CERN telephone exchanges will be performed on 19th, 20th, 21st, and 22nd of September from 7 p.m. to 9 p.m. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur during this lapse of time. We apology in advance for any inconveniences that this may cause.

  20. Maintaining clinical governance when giving telephone advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazawi, William; Agarwal, Kosh; Suddle, Abid; Aluvihare, Varuna; Heneghan, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Delivering excellent healthcare depends on accurate communication between professionals who may be in different locations. Frequently, the first point of contact with the liver unit at King's College Hospital (KCH) is through a telephone call to a specialist registrar or liver fellow, for whom no case notes are available in which to record information. The aim of this study was to improve the clinical governance of telephone referrals and to generate contemporaneous records that could be easily retrieved and audited. An electronic database for telephone referrals and advice was designed and made securely available to registrars in our unit. Service development in a tertiary liver centre that receives referrals from across the UK and Europe. Demographic and clinical data were recorded prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Data from 350 calls were entered during 5 months. The information included the nature and origin of the call (200 from 75 different institutions), disease burden and severity of disease among the patients discussed with KCH, and outcome of the call. The majority of cases were discussed with consultants or arrangements were made for formal review at KCH. A telephone referrals and advice database provides clinical governance, serves as a quality indicator and forms a contemporaneous record at the referral centre. Activity data and knowledge of disease burden help to tailor services to the needs of referrers and commissioners. We recommend implementation of similar models in other centres that give extramural verbal advice.

  1. 75 FR 13471 - Telephone Consumer Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's... Consumer Protection Act (TCPA) that would harmonize those rules with the Federal Trade Commission's (FTC's...] Telephone Consumer Protection AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In...

  2. Strategies for Suicide Intervention by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Jennifer

    1982-01-01

    Describes techniques helpful for telephone counselors dealing with suicide intervention, including reinstating control, reducing anxiety through problem clarification, and providing hope by active listening and tolerance of dispositions. The use of time-outs and detective work is also discussed. (JAC)

  3. Random Evolutionary Dynamics Driven by Fitness and House-of-Cards Mutations: Sampling Formulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry E.

    2017-07-01

    We first revisit the multi-allelic mutation-fitness balance problem, especially when mutations obey a house of cards condition, where the discrete-time deterministic evolutionary dynamics of the allelic frequencies derives from a Shahshahani potential. We then consider multi-allelic Wright-Fisher stochastic models whose deviation to neutrality is from the Shahshahani mutation/selection potential. We next focus on the weak selection, weak mutation cases and, making use of a Gamma calculus, we compute the normalizing partition functions of the invariant probability densities appearing in their Wright-Fisher diffusive approximations. Using these results, generalized Ewens sampling formulae (ESF) from the equilibrium distributions are derived. We start treating the ESF in the mixed mutation/selection potential case and then we restrict ourselves to the ESF in the simpler house-of-cards mutations only situation. We also address some issues concerning sampling problems from infinitely-many alleles weak limits.

  4. A middle class image of society: a study of undercoverage and nonresponse bias in a telephone survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goor, van H.; Rispens, S.

    2004-01-01

    We studied undercoverage and nonresponse in a telephone survey among the population of the City ofGroningen, the Netherlands. The original sample, drawn from the municipal population register,contained 7000 individuals. For 37 percent of them, the telephone company was unable to produce a

  5. A middle class image of society : A study of undercoverage and nonresponse bias in a telephone survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goor, Henk; Rispens, S

    We studied undercoverage and nonresponse in a telephone survey among the population of the City of Groningen, the Netherlands. The original sample, drawn from the municipal population register, contained 7000 individuals. For 37 percent of them, the telephone company was unable to produce a valid

  6. Seroincidence of non-typhoid Salmonella infections: convenience vs. random community-based sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emborg, H-D; Simonsen, J; Jørgensen, C S; Harritshøj, L H; Krogfelt, K A; Linneberg, A; Mølbak, K

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of reported infections of non-typhoid Salmonella is affected by biases inherent to passive laboratory surveillance, whereas analysis of blood sera may provide a less biased alternative to estimate the force of Salmonella transmission in humans. We developed a mathematical model that enabled a back-calculation of the annual seroincidence of Salmonella based on measurements of specific antibodies. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroincidence in two convenience samples from 2012 (Danish blood donors, n = 500, and pregnant women, n = 637) and a community-based sample of healthy individuals from 2006 to 2007 (n = 1780). The lowest antibody levels were measured in the samples from the community cohort and the highest in pregnant women. The annual Salmonella seroincidences were 319 infections/1000 pregnant women [90% credibility interval (CrI) 210-441], 182/1000 in blood donors (90% CrI 85-298) and 77/1000 in the community cohort (90% CrI 45-114). Although the differences between study populations decreased when accounting for different age distributions the estimates depend on the study population. It is important to be aware of this issue and define a certain population under surveillance in order to obtain consistent results in an application of serological measures for public health purposes.

  7. Self-reference and random sampling approach for label-free identification of DNA composition using plasmonic nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Lindsay M; Pang, Lin; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2018-05-09

    The analysis of DNA has led to revolutionary advancements in the fields of medical diagnostics, genomics, prenatal screening, and forensic science, with the global DNA testing market expected to reach revenues of USD 10.04 billion per year by 2020. However, the current methods for DNA analysis remain dependent on the necessity for fluorophores or conjugated proteins, leading to high costs associated with consumable materials and manual labor. Here, we demonstrate a potential label-free DNA composition detection method using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) in which we identify the composition of cytosine and adenine within single strands of DNA. This approach depends on the fact that there is one phosphate backbone per nucleotide, which we use as a reference to compensate for systematic measurement variations. We utilize plasmonic nanomaterials with random Raman sampling to perform label-free detection of the nucleotide composition within DNA strands, generating a calibration curve from standard samples of DNA and demonstrating the capability of resolving the nucleotide composition. The work represents an innovative way for detection of the DNA composition within DNA strands without the necessity of attached labels, offering a highly sensitive and reproducible method that factors in random sampling to minimize error.

  8. The quality of the reported sample size calculations in randomized controlled trials indexed in PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Paul H; Tse, Andy C Y

    2017-05-01

    There are limited data on the quality of reporting of information essential for replication of the calculation as well as the accuracy of the sample size calculation. We examine the current quality of reporting of the sample size calculation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in PubMed and to examine the variation in reporting across study design, study characteristics, and journal impact factor. We also reviewed the targeted sample size reported in trial registries. We reviewed and analyzed all RCTs published in December 2014 with journals indexed in PubMed. The 2014 Impact Factors for the journals were used as proxies for their quality. Of the 451 analyzed papers, 58.1% reported an a priori sample size calculation. Nearly all papers provided the level of significance (97.7%) and desired power (96.6%), and most of the papers reported the minimum clinically important effect size (73.3%). The median (inter-quartile range) of the percentage difference of the reported and calculated sample size calculation was 0.0% (IQR -4.6%;3.0%). The accuracy of the reported sample size was better for studies published in journals that endorsed the CONSORT statement and journals with an impact factor. A total of 98 papers had provided targeted sample size on trial registries and about two-third of these papers (n=62) reported sample size calculation, but only 25 (40.3%) had no discrepancy with the reported number in the trial registries. The reporting of the sample size calculation in RCTs published in PubMed-indexed journals and trial registries were poor. The CONSORT statement should be more widely endorsed. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  10. Respondent Cooperation in Telephone Surveys: The Effects of Using Volunteer Interviewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Marc T.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of using volunteer interviewers on respondent cooperation in telephone surveys were studied, using data on 241 interviews, 99 refusals, and 251 non-contacts. A random, national survey on public knowledge of and attitudes toward a county 4-H youth services program indicated respondent cooperation for professional program staff and…

  11. Telephone-Based Physical Activity Counseling for Major Depression in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H.; Ehde, Dawn M.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Kraft, George H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48).…

  12. Colorization-Based RGB-White Color Interpolation using Color Filter Array with Randomly Sampled Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Paul; Lee, Sukho; Kang, Moon Gi

    2017-06-28

    Recently, several RGB-White (RGBW) color filter arrays (CFAs) have been proposed, which have extra white (W) pixels in the filter array that are highly sensitive. Due to the high sensitivity, the W pixels have better SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) characteristics than other color pixels in the filter array, especially, in low light conditions. However, most of the RGBW CFAs are designed so that the acquired RGBW pattern image can be converted into the conventional Bayer pattern image, which is then again converted into the final color image by using conventional demosaicing methods, i.e., color interpolation techniques. In this paper, we propose a new RGBW color filter array based on a totally different color interpolation technique, the colorization algorithm. The colorization algorithm was initially proposed for colorizing a gray image into a color image using a small number of color seeds. Here, we adopt this algorithm as a color interpolation technique, so that the RGBW color filter array can be designed with a very large number of W pixels to make the most of the highly sensitive characteristics of the W channel. The resulting RGBW color filter array has a pattern with a large proportion of W pixels, while the small-numbered RGB pixels are randomly distributed over the array. The colorization algorithm makes it possible to reconstruct the colors from such a small number of RGB values. Due to the large proportion of W pixels, the reconstructed color image has a high SNR value, especially higher than those of conventional CFAs in low light condition. Experimental results show that many important information which are not perceived in color images reconstructed with conventional CFAs are perceived in the images reconstructed with the proposed method.

  13. Telephone Consultation as a Substitute for Routine Out-patient Face-to-face Consultation for Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Randomised Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Akobeng, Anthony K.; O'Leary, Neil; Vail, Andy; Brown, Nailah; Widiatmoko, Dono; Fagbemi, Andrew; Thomas, Adrian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for the use of telephone consultation in childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is lacking. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost consequences of telephone consultation compared with the usual out-patient face-to-face consultation for young people with IBD. Methods: We conducted a randomised-controlled trial in Manchester, UK, between July 12, 2010 and June 30, 2013. Young people (aged 8–16 years) with IBD were randomized to receive telephone consultation o...

  14. Incorporating covariance estimation uncertainty in spatial sampling design for prediction with trans-Gaussian random fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter eSpöck

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Spock and Pilz [38], demonstratedthat the spatial sampling design problem forthe Bayesian linear kriging predictor can betransformed to an equivalent experimentaldesign problem for a linear regression modelwith stochastic regression coefficients anduncorrelated errors. The stochastic regressioncoefficients derive from the polar spectralapproximation of the residual process. Thus,standard optimal convex experimental designtheory can be used to calculate optimal spatialsampling designs. The design functionals ̈considered in Spock and Pilz [38] did nottake into account the fact that kriging isactually a plug-in predictor which uses theestimated covariance function. The resultingoptimal designs were close to space-fillingconfigurations, because the design criteriondid not consider the uncertainty of thecovariance function.In this paper we also assume that thecovariance function is estimated, e.g., byrestricted maximum likelihood (REML. Wethen develop a design criterion that fully takesaccount of the covariance uncertainty. Theresulting designs are less regular and space-filling compared to those ignoring covarianceuncertainty. The new designs, however, alsorequire some closely spaced samples in orderto improve the estimate of the covariancefunction. We also relax the assumption ofGaussian observations and assume that thedata is transformed to Gaussianity by meansof the Box-Cox transformation. The resultingprediction method is known as trans-Gaussiankriging. We apply the Smith and Zhu [37]approach to this kriging method and show thatresulting optimal designs also depend on theavailable data. We illustrate our results witha data set of monthly rainfall measurementsfrom Upper Austria.

  15. Improvement of Metroliner Telephone Channel Capacity and Modeling of Telephone Channel Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-03-01

    The channel capacity of the present Metroliner telephone system is analyzed and methods are proposed to increase that capacity without increasing the overall bandwidth. To determine the number of channels required, calculations have been carried out ...

  16. Mobile phones are a viable option for surveying young Australian women: a comparison of two telephone survey methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bette

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Households with fixed-line telephones have decreased while mobile (cell phone ownership has increased. We therefore sought to examine the feasibility of recruiting young women for a national health survey through random digit dialling mobile phones. Methods Two samples of women aged 18 to 39 years were surveyed by random digit dialling fixed and mobile numbers. We compared participation rates and responses to a questionnaire between women surveyed by each contact method. Results After dialling 5,390 fixed-lines and 3,697 mobile numbers, 140 and 128 women were recruited respectively. Among women contacted and found to be eligible, participation rates were 74% for fixed-lines and 88% for mobiles. Taking into account calls to numbers where eligibility was unknown (e.g. unanswered calls the estimated response rates were 54% and 45% respectively. Of women contacted by fixed-line, 97% reported having a mobile while 61% of those contacted by mobile reported having a fixed-line at home. After adjusting for age, there were no significant differences between mobile-only and fixed-line responders with respect to education, residence, and various health behaviours; however compared to those with fixed-lines, mobile-only women were more likely to identify as Indigenous (OR 4.99, 95%CI 1.52-16.34 and less likely to live at home with their parents (OR 0.09, 95%CI 0.03-0.29. Conclusions Random digit dialling mobile phones to conduct a health survey in young Australian women is feasible, gives a comparable response rate and a more representative sample than dialling fixed-lines only. Telephone surveys of young women should include mobile dialling.

  17. Global Stratigraphy of Venus: Analysis of a Random Sample of Thirty-Six Test Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.; Head, James W., III

    1995-01-01

    The age relations between 36 impact craters with dark paraboloids and other geologic units and structures at these localities have been studied through photogeologic analysis of Magellan SAR images of the surface of Venus. Geologic settings in all 36 sites, about 1000 x 1000 km each, could be characterized using only 10 different terrain units and six types of structures. These units and structures form a major stratigraphic and geologic sequence (from oldest to youngest): (1) tessera terrain; (2) densely fractured terrains associated with coronae and in the form of remnants among plains; (3) fractured and ridged plains and ridge belts; (4) plains with wrinkle ridges; (5) ridges associated with coronae annulae and ridges of arachnoid annulae which are contemporary with wrinkle ridges of the ridged plains; (6) smooth and lobate plains; (7) fractures of coronae annulae, and fractures not related to coronae annulae, which disrupt ridged and smooth plains; (8) rift-associated fractures; and (9) craters with associated dark paraboloids, which represent the youngest 1O% of the Venus impact crater population (Campbell et al.), and are on top of all volcanic and tectonic units except the youngest episodes of rift-associated fracturing and volcanism; surficial streaks and patches are approximately contemporary with dark-paraboloid craters. Mapping of such units and structures in 36 randomly distributed large regions (each approximately 10(exp 6) sq km) shows evidence for a distinctive regional and global stratigraphic and geologic sequence. On the basis of this sequence we have developed a model that illustrates several major themes in the history of Venus. Most of the history of Venus (that of its first 80% or so) is not preserved in the surface geomorphological record. The major deformation associated with tessera formation in the period sometime between 0.5-1.0 b.y. ago (Ivanov and Basilevsky) is the earliest event detected. In the terminal stages of tessera fon

  18. Work on the CERN telephone exchanges

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Corrective maintenance work on the CERN telephone exchanges will be carried out on 23 September 2004, resulting in interruptions of service across the whole CERN site between 6:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. and from 7:00 p.m. onwards. We apologise for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service Tel.: 76111 GSM: 160026- 163610 Calls between GSM mobile phones will not be affected.

  19. Diffusion and Advertising: The German Telephone Campaign

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Simon; Karl-Heinz Sebastian

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the influence of advertising on the diffusion of new telephones in West Germany. Several alternative ways of integrating advertising into the well-known Bass-diffusion-model are suggested and empirically tested. The econometric investigation yields results which are consistent with the behavioral assumption. A model which assumes that advertising mainly influenced the demand of imitators is accepted as the most valid representation of reality. T...

  20. Active learning for clinical text classification: is it better than random sampling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Rosa L; Ngo, Long H; Goryachev, Sergey; Wiechmann, Eduardo P

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study explores active learning algorithms as a way to reduce the requirements for large training sets in medical text classification tasks. Design Three existing active learning algorithms (distance-based (DIST), diversity-based (DIV), and a combination of both (CMB)) were used to classify text from five datasets. The performance of these algorithms was compared to that of passive learning on the five datasets. We then conducted a novel investigation of the interaction between dataset characteristics and the performance results. Measurements Classification accuracy and area under receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves for each algorithm at different sample sizes were generated. The performance of active learning algorithms was compared with that of passive learning using a weighted mean of paired differences. To determine why the performance varies on different datasets, we measured the diversity and uncertainty of each dataset using relative entropy and correlated the results with the performance differences. Results The DIST and CMB algorithms performed better than passive learning. With a statistical significance level set at 0.05, DIST outperformed passive learning in all five datasets, while CMB was found to be better than passive learning in four datasets. We found strong correlations between the dataset diversity and the DIV performance, as well as the dataset uncertainty and the performance of the DIST algorithm. Conclusion For medical text classification, appropriate active learning algorithms can yield performance comparable to that of passive learning with considerably smaller training sets. In particular, our results suggest that DIV performs better on data with higher diversity and DIST on data with lower uncertainty. PMID:22707743

  1. Adults' Knowledge of Child Development in Alberta, Canada: Comparing the Level of Knowledge of Adults in Two Samples in 2007 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Vinturache, Angela; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Breitkreuz, Rhonda; Bukutu, Cecilia; Gibbard, Ben; Tough, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    Parents and non-parental adults who interact with children influence child development. This study evaluates the knowledge of child development in two large and diverse samples of adults from Alberta in 2007 and 2013. Telephone interviews were completed by two random samples (1,443 in 2007; 1,451 in 2013). Participants were asked when specific…

  2. 26. Effectiveness of telephone follow up in managing patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Taiyem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable diseases globally, labeled as the greatest healthcare challenge according to the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation. This complex disease requires the involvement of multidisciplinary teams to reduce the risk and impact of long-term diabetes complications through intensive monitoring, education and lifestyle modifications with a great emphasis on promoting self-care. A brief and cost-effective interventions to improve diabetes self care management are needed. This study evaluated the effect of “educational” telephone intervention delivered by nurse specialist on glycemic control “Glyclated hemoglobin A1c”, and diabetes self-care management for patients with type 2 diabetes followed-up by a nurse-led cardiovascular disease management program of a tertiary hospital within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This quantitative descriptive and qauzi-experimental study was conducted over three months, included 60 adult patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Participants within the intervention group received usual care and six educational phone calls promoting them to improve their diabetic self-care activities. Patients within the control arm continued to receive their usual care only. The telephone follow-up intervention increased frequency of exercise and foot care, improved diet and adherence to anti-diabetes medication. Modest improvement was detected on the glycemic control and home glucose monitoring. As a conclusion, the study indicated positive effect of the intervention on glycemic control and self-care management. Multi-centers and longitudinal studies with larger sample size are recommended for future studies.

  3. Willingness to pay for rural telephone services: Implications for rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    WTP) for rural telephone services and the implications on poverty reduction in Southeast Nigeria. The key research problem was the inability of the telephone providers or regulatory agencies to estimate the amount the people were willing to pay ...

  4. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Intentions to Use Recommended Skills While Experiencing Functional Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Woodward, Alan; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Empathic engagement with distressed others can lead to elevated symptoms of psychological distress and functional impairment, which preclude helping professionals' delivery of optimal patient care. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. This study examined the relationship between functional impairment and intentions to use recommended support skills in a representative national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers. Participants completed an online survey including measures of functional impairment and intentions to use recommended telephone crisis support skills with callers reporting suicidal ideation, symptoms of depression, and anxiety. As a group, participants who experienced greater functional impairment during the past month reported significantly lower intentions to use recommended support skills with callers than those who reported lower functional impairment. Future research is needed to clarify the extent to which results generalize to telephone crisis support workers from other organizations. Results warrant further research to (a) identify determinants of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment, and (b) for the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' functional impairment through developing and/or modifying existing service strategies to optimize workers' psychological well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  5. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarino, Rosa; Vassilakos, Pierre; Bilancioni, Aline; Vanden Eynde, Mathieu; Meyer-Hamme, Ulrike; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Guerry, Frédéric; Petignat, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (self-HPV) is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab. A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY) or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA). After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET). HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic. HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7-70.2) detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6-64.4) by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1-62.9) by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34), and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56). Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+) were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5-79.8) for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5-93.9) for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0-89.0) for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%). Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD)/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab). Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA. International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 43310942.

  6. Randomized Comparison of Two Vaginal Self-Sampling Methods for Human Papillomavirus Detection: Dry Swab versus FTA Cartridge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Catarino

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling (self-HPV is valuable in cervical cancer screening. HPV testing is usually performed on physician-collected cervical smears stored in liquid-based medium. Dry filters and swabs are an alternative. We evaluated the adequacy of self-HPV using two dry storage and transport devices, the FTA cartridge and swab.A total of 130 women performed two consecutive self-HPV samples. Randomization determined which of the two tests was performed first: self-HPV using dry swabs (s-DRY or vaginal specimen collection using a cytobrush applied to an FTA cartridge (s-FTA. After self-HPV, a physician collected a cervical sample using liquid-based medium (Dr-WET. HPV types were identified by real-time PCR. Agreement between collection methods was measured using the kappa statistic.HPV prevalence for high-risk types was 62.3% (95%CI: 53.7-70.2 detected by s-DRY, 56.2% (95%CI: 47.6-64.4 by Dr-WET, and 54.6% (95%CI: 46.1-62.9 by s-FTA. There was overall agreement of 70.8% between s-FTA and s-DRY samples (kappa = 0.34, and of 82.3% between self-HPV and Dr-WET samples (kappa = 0.56. Detection sensitivities for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse (LSIL+ were: 64.0% (95%CI: 44.5-79.8 for s-FTA, 84.6% (95%CI: 66.5-93.9 for s-DRY, and 76.9% (95%CI: 58.0-89.0 for Dr-WET. The preferred self-collection method among patients was s-DRY (40.8% vs. 15.4%. Regarding costs, FTA card was five times more expensive than the swab (~5 US dollars (USD/per card vs. ~1 USD/per swab.Self-HPV using dry swabs is sensitive for detecting LSIL+ and less expensive than s-FTA.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN: 43310942.

  7. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  8. Efficacy and experiences of telephone counselling for informal carers of people with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Sabine; Hayder-Beichel, Daniela; Rücker, Gerta; Motschall, Edith; Antes, Gerd; Meyer, Gabriele; Langer, Gero

    2014-09-01

    integrated quantitative RCT data with the qualitative data. Nine RCTs and two qualitative studies were included. Six studies investigated telephone counselling without additional intervention, one study combined telephone counselling with video sessions, and two studies combined it with video sessions and a workbook. All quantitative studies had a high risk of bias in terms of blinding of participants and outcome assessment. Most studies provided no information about random sequence generation and allocation concealment. The quality of the qualitative studies ('thin descriptions') was assessed as moderate. Meta-analyses indicated a reduction of depressive symptoms for telephone counselling without additional intervention (three trials, 163 participants: standardised mean different (SMD) 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.01 to 0.63, P value 0.04; moderate quality evidence). The estimated effects on other outcomes (burden, distress, anxiety, quality of life, self-efficacy, satisfaction and social support) were uncertain and differences could not be excluded (burden: four trials, 165 participants: SMD 0.45, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.90, P value 0.05; moderate quality evidence; support: two trials, 67 participants: SMD 0.25, 95% CI -0.24 to 0.73, P value 0.32; low quality evidence). None of the quantitative studies included reported adverse effects or harm due to telephone counselling. Three analytical themes (barriers and facilitators for successful implementation of telephone counselling, counsellor's emotional attitude and content of telephone counselling) and 16 descriptive themes that present the carers' needs for telephone counselling were identified in the thematic synthesis. Integration of quantitative and qualitative data shows potential for improvement. For example, no RCT reported that the counsellor provided 24-hour availability or that there was debriefing of the counsellor. Also, the qualitative studies covered a limited range of ways of performing telephone counselling

  9. 24 CFR 3285.704 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Telephone and cable TV. 3285.704....704 Telephone and cable TV. Refer to § 3285.906 for considerations pertinent to installation of telephone and cable TV. ...

  10. 7 CFR 1737.60 - Telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Telephone loan budget. 1737.60 Section 1737.60... Cost Estimation Procedures § 1737.60 Telephone loan budget. (a) RUS shall prepare a “Telephone Loan Budget” (RUS Form 493) showing all costs for the proposed project and the amount of loan and nonloan...

  11. 7 CFR 1744.63 - The telephone loan budget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The telephone loan budget. 1744.63 Section 1744.63... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.63 The telephone loan budget. When the loan is made, RUS provides the borrower a Telephone Loan Budget, RUS Form 493. This budget divides the loan into budget accounts such as “Engineering...

  12. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Subsidies in Telephone Pricing Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Three papers consider the provision of telephone service to rural and/or low income customers. The first paper, "An Analysis of Telephone Penetration" (Alexander Belinfante), analyzes the relationship between telephone penetration (the proportion of households with phone service) and prices, household income, and other factors. This…

  13. The telephone in family practice | Furman | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a time-and-motion study in family practice it was found that 35,8% of all patient contact was per telephone. The study further revealed that 12,3% of total practice time was spent on the telephone, stressing its importance as a useful tool. in family practice. The study supports others which suggest that 'telephone medicine' ...

  14. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  15. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  16. Application of bias factor method using random sampling technique for prediction accuracy improvement of critical eigenvalue of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Motohiro; Endo, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Akio; Kuroda, Yusuke; Yoshii, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The bias factor method based on the random sampling technique is applied to the benchmark problem of Peach Bottom Unit 2. Validity and availability of the present method, i.e. correction of calculation results and reduction of uncertainty, are confirmed in addition to features and performance of the present method. In the present study, core characteristics in cycle 3 are corrected with the proposed method using predicted and 'measured' critical eigenvalues in cycles 1 and 2. As the source of uncertainty, variance-covariance of cross sections is considered. The calculation results indicate that bias between predicted and measured results, and uncertainty owing to cross section can be reduced. Extension to other uncertainties such as thermal hydraulics properties will be a future task. (author)

  17. Soil map disaggregation improved by soil-landscape relationships, area-proportional sampling and random forest implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anders Bjørn; Malone, Brendan P.; Odgers, Nathan

    implementation generally improved the algorithm’s ability to predict the correct soil class. The implementation of soil-landscape relationships and area-proportional sampling generally increased the calculation time, while the random forest implementation reduced the calculation time. In the most successful......Detailed soil information is often needed to support agricultural practices, environmental protection and policy decisions. Several digital approaches can be used to map soil properties based on field observations. When soil observations are sparse or missing, an alternative approach...... is to disaggregate existing conventional soil maps. At present, the DSMART algorithm represents the most sophisticated approach for disaggregating conventional soil maps (Odgers et al., 2014). The algorithm relies on classification trees trained from resampled points, which are assigned classes according...

  18. Investigating causal associations between use of nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis: a two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2018-07-01

    Epidemiological studies consistently show co-occurrence of use of different addictive substances. Whether these associations are causal or due to overlapping underlying influences remains an important question in addiction research. Methodological advances have made it possible to use published genetic associations to infer causal relationships between phenotypes. In this exploratory study, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) to examine the causality of well-established associations between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. Two-sample MR was employed to estimate bidirectional causal effects between four addictive substances: nicotine (smoking initiation and cigarettes smoked per day), caffeine (cups of coffee per day), alcohol (units per week) and cannabis (initiation). Based on existing genome-wide association results we selected genetic variants associated with the exposure measure as an instrument to estimate causal effects. Where possible we applied sensitivity analyses (MR-Egger and weighted median) more robust to horizontal pleiotropy. Most MR tests did not reveal causal associations. There was some weak evidence for a causal positive effect of genetically instrumented alcohol use on smoking initiation and of cigarettes per day on caffeine use, but these were not supported by the sensitivity analyses. There was also some suggestive evidence for a positive effect of alcohol use on caffeine use (only with MR-Egger) and smoking initiation on cannabis initiation (only with weighted median). None of the suggestive causal associations survived corrections for multiple testing. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses found little evidence for causal relationships between nicotine, alcohol, caffeine and cannabis use. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Comparing the performance of cluster random sampling and integrated threshold mapping for targeting trachoma control, using computer simulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Smith

    Full Text Available Implementation of trachoma control strategies requires reliable district-level estimates of trachomatous inflammation-follicular (TF, generally collected using the recommended gold-standard cluster randomized surveys (CRS. Integrated Threshold Mapping (ITM has been proposed as an integrated and cost-effective means of rapidly surveying trachoma in order to classify districts according to treatment thresholds. ITM differs from CRS in a number of important ways, including the use of a school-based sampling platform for children aged 1-9 and a different age distribution of participants. This study uses computerised sampling simulations to compare the performance of these survey designs and evaluate the impact of varying key parameters.Realistic pseudo gold standard data for 100 districts were generated that maintained the relative risk of disease between important sub-groups and incorporated empirical estimates of disease clustering at the household, village and district level. To simulate the different sampling approaches, 20 clusters were selected from each district, with individuals sampled according to the protocol for ITM and CRS. Results showed that ITM generally under-estimated the true prevalence of TF over a range of epidemiological settings and introduced more district misclassification according to treatment thresholds than did CRS. However, the extent of underestimation and resulting misclassification was found to be dependent on three main factors: (i the district prevalence of TF; (ii the relative risk of TF between enrolled and non-enrolled children within clusters; and (iii the enrollment rate in schools.Although in some contexts the two methodologies may be equivalent, ITM can introduce a bias-dependent shift as prevalence of TF increases, resulting in a greater risk of misclassification around treatment thresholds. In addition to strengthening the evidence base around choice of trachoma survey methodologies, this study illustrates

  20. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  1. Maintenance of the telephone exchange in building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In order to secure the power supply of the telephone exchange in Building 40, maintenance work will be done on 18th December from 7.30 am to 8 am. During this intervention, the fixed telephone services in Building 39 and 40 will be interrupted. The fixed telephone services in other CERN buildings will not be affected by this maintenance. The mobile telephone services (GSM) will not be affected. For more details, please send your questions to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch Telecom Services IT/CS

  2. Participants' views of telephone interviews within a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kim; Gott, Merryn; Hoare, Karen

    2015-12-01

    To offer a unique contribution to the evolving debate around the use of the telephone during semistructured interview by drawing on interviewees' reflections on telephone interview during a grounded theory study. The accepted norm for qualitative interviews is to conduct them face-to-face. It is typical to consider collecting qualitative data via telephone only when face-to-face interview is not possible. During a grounded theory study, exploring users' experiences with overnight mask ventilation for sleep apnoea, the authors selected the telephone to conduct interviews. This article reports participants' views on semistructured interview by telephone. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted on data pertaining to the use of the telephone interview in a grounded theory study. The data were collected during 4 months of 2011 and 6 months in 2014. The article presents an inductive thematic analysis of sixteen participants' opinions about telephone interviewing and discusses these in relation to existing literature reporting the use of telephone interviews in grounded theory studies. Overall, participants reported a positive experience of telephone interviewing. From each participants reports we identified four themes from the data: being 'phone savvy; concentrating on voice instead of your face; easy rapport; and not being judged or feeling inhibited. By drawing on these data, we argue that the telephone as a data collection tool in grounded theory research and other qualitative methodologies need not be relegated to second best status. Rather, researchers can consider telephone interview a valuable first choice option. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Health aspects of cellular mobile telephones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garn, H.

    1996-01-01

    Cellular mobile telephones are one of the main topics among health aspects of electromagnetic fields. In many countries, the number of people opposing communication towers is on the rise. Lawsuits against telecommunication and power line companies have been filed. All this makes people doubt the safety of electromagnetic fields. With respect to cellular phones, there are two scenarios: * Exposure of the operators of hand-held terminals (HHT). * Exposure of the general public from base stations (BS). In the first case, the transmit antenna of the HHT is very close to the human body. For normal operation, the distance will roughly be 2 - 3 cm. The transmitter power of the HHT is comparatively low, but there is a considerable fraction of the radiated electromagnetic energy penetrating the tissue. Considering the second case, BS transmitter powers are by a factor of 100-1000 higher, but the distance between antenna and the human body is by a factor of 1000-100,000 greater, as far as areas of unrestricted public access are concerned. As the power density of an electromagnetic wave decreases inversely proportional to the square of the distance, exposure of the public is always significantly (by many orders of magnitude) lower than exposure of operators of HHTs. Some well-known interaction mechanisms of microwave radiation with the human body have been very well-established today. In some other areas, there is still a need for further research. This paper summarizes present knowledge on human safety with mobile telephone systems. (author)

  4. Applying technology to the treatment of cannabis use disorder: comparing telephone versus Internet delivery using data from two completed trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Sally E; Gates, Peter J; Norberg, Melissa M; Copeland, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Technology-based interventions such as those delivered by telephone or online may assist in removing significant barriers to treatment seeking for cannabis use disorder. Little research, however, has addressed differing technology-based treatments regarding their comparative effectiveness, and how user profiles may affect compliance and treatment satisfaction. This study addressed this issue by examining these factors in online (N=225) versus telephone (N=160) delivered interventions for cannabis use, using data obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials conducted by the current authors. Several differences emerged including stronger treatment effects (medium to large effect sizes in the telephone study versus small effect sizes in the Web study) and lower dropout in the telephone intervention (38% vs. 46%). Additionally, around half of the telephone study participants sought concurrent treatment, compared with 2% of participants in the Web study. Demographics and predictors of treatment engagement, retention and satisfaction also varied between the studies. Findings indicate that both telephone and Web-based treatments can be effective in assisting cannabis users to quit or reduce their use; however, participant characteristics may have important implications for treatment preference and outcome, with those who elect telephone-based treatment experiencing stronger outcomes. Thus, participant preference may shape study populations, adherence, and outcome. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessing sample representativeness in randomized controlled trials: application to the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susukida, Ryoko; Crum, Rosa M; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ebnesajjad, Cyrus; Mojtabai, Ramin

    2016-07-01

    To compare the characteristics of individuals participating in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments of substance use disorder (SUD) with individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings, and to provide a summary quantitative measure of differences between characteristics of these two groups of individuals using propensity score methods. Design Analyses using data from RCT samples from the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN) and target populations of patients drawn from the Treatment Episodes Data Set-Admissions (TEDS-A). Settings Multiple clinical trial sites and nation-wide usual SUD treatment settings in the United States. A total of 3592 individuals from 10 CTN samples and 1 602 226 individuals selected from TEDS-A between 2001 and 2009. Measurements The propensity scores for enrolling in the RCTs were computed based on the following nine observable characteristics: sex, race/ethnicity, age, education, employment status, marital status, admission to treatment through criminal justice, intravenous drug use and the number of prior treatments. Findings The proportion of those with ≥ 12 years of education and the proportion of those who had full-time jobs were significantly higher among RCT samples than among target populations (in seven and nine trials, respectively, at P difference in the mean propensity scores between the RCTs and the target population was 1.54 standard deviations and was statistically significant at P different from individuals receiving treatment in usual care settings. Notably, RCT participants tend to have more years of education and a greater likelihood of full-time work compared with people receiving care in usual care settings. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. High Field In Vivo 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Brain by Random Radiofrequency Heteronuclear Decoupling and Data Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ningzhi; Li, Shizhe; Shen, Jun

    2017-06-01

    In vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a unique and effective tool for studying dynamic human brain metabolism and the cycling of neurotransmitters. One of the major technical challenges for in vivo 13C-MRS is the high radio frequency (RF) power necessary for heteronuclear decoupling. In the common practice of in vivo 13C-MRS, alkanyl carbons are detected in the spectra range of 10-65ppm. The amplitude of decoupling pulses has to be significantly greater than the large one-bond 1H-13C scalar coupling (1JCH=125-145 Hz). Two main proton decoupling methods have been developed: broadband stochastic decoupling and coherent composite or adiabatic pulse decoupling (e.g., WALTZ); the latter is widely used because of its efficiency and superb performance under inhomogeneous B1 field. Because the RF power required for proton decoupling increases quadratically with field strength, in vivo 13C-MRS using coherent decoupling is often limited to low magnetic fields (protons via weak long-range 1H-13C scalar couplings, which can be decoupled using low RF power broadband stochastic decoupling. Recently, the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS technique using low power random RF heteronuclear decoupling was safely applied to human brain studies at 7T. Here, we review the two major decoupling methods and the carboxylic/amide 13C-MRS with low power decoupling strategy. Further decreases in RF power deposition by frequency-domain windowing and time-domain random under-sampling are also discussed. Low RF power decoupling opens the possibility of performing in vivo 13C experiments of human brain at very high magnetic fields (such as 11.7T), where signal-to-noise ratio as well as spatial and temporal spectral resolution are more favorable than lower fields.

  7. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  8. Iterative random vs. Kennard-Stone sampling for IR spectrum-based classification task using PLS2-DA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Loong Chuen; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    External testing (ET) is preferred over auto-prediction (AP) or k-fold-cross-validation in estimating more realistic predictive ability of a statistical model. With IR spectra, Kennard-stone (KS) sampling algorithm is often used to split the data into training and test sets, i.e. respectively for model construction and for model testing. On the other hand, iterative random sampling (IRS) has not been the favored choice though it is theoretically more likely to produce reliable estimation. The aim of this preliminary work is to compare performances of KS and IRS in sampling a representative training set from an attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transform infrared spectral dataset (of four varieties of blue gel pen inks) for PLS2-DA modeling. The `best' performance achievable from the dataset is estimated with AP on the full dataset (APF, error). Both IRS (n = 200) and KS were used to split the dataset in the ratio of 7:3. The classic decision rule (i.e. maximum value-based) is employed for new sample prediction via partial least squares - discriminant analysis (PLS2-DA). Error rate of each model was estimated repeatedly via: (a) AP on full data (APF, error); (b) AP on training set (APS, error); and (c) ET on the respective test set (ETS, error). A good PLS2-DA model is expected to produce APS, error and EVS, error that is similar to the APF, error. Bearing that in mind, the similarities between (a) APS, error vs. APF, error; (b) ETS, error vs. APF, error and; (c) APS, error vs. ETS, error were evaluated using correlation tests (i.e. Pearson and Spearman's rank test), using series of PLS2-DA models computed from KS-set and IRS-set, respectively. Overall, models constructed from IRS-set exhibits more similarities between the internal and external error rates than the respective KS-set, i.e. less risk of overfitting. In conclusion, IRS is more reliable than KS in sampling representative training set.

  9. Impact of the telephone assistive device (TAD) on stuttering severity while speaking on the telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Nola

    2009-01-01

    There is extensive experimental evidence that altered auditory feedback (AAF) can have a clinically significant effect on the severity of speech symptoms in people who stutter. However, there is less evidence regarding whether these experimental effects can be observed in naturalistic everyday settings particularly when using the telephone. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the Telephone Assistive Device (TAD), which is designed to provide AAF on the telephone to people who stutter, on reducing stuttering severity. Nine adults participated in a quasi-experimental study. Stuttering severity was measured first without and then with the device in participants' naturalistic settings while making and receiving telephone calls (immediate benefit). Participants were then allowed a week of repeated use of the device following which all measurements were repeated (delayed benefit). Overall, results revealed significant immediate benefits from the TAD in all call conditions. Delayed benefits in received and total calls were also significant. There was substantial individual variability in response to the TAD but none of the demographic or speech-related factors measured in the study were found to significantly impact the benefit (immediate or delayed) derived from the TAD. Results have implications for clinical decision making for adults who stutter.

  10. Patterns of Signs That Telephone Crisis Support Workers Associate with Suicide Risk in Telephone Crisis Line Callers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tara; Wilson, Coralie; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-30

    Signs of suicide are commonly used in suicide intervention training to assist the identification of those at imminent risk for suicide. Signs of suicide may be particularly important to telephone crisis-line workers (TCWs), who have little background information to identify the presence of suicidality if the caller is unable or unwilling to express suicidal intent. Although signs of suicide are argued to be only meaningful as a pattern, there is a paucity of research that has examined whether TCWs use patterns of signs to decide whether a caller might be suicidal, and whether these are influenced by caller characteristics such as gender. The current study explored both possibilities. Data were collected using an online self-report survey in a Australian sample of 137 TCWs. Exploratory factor analysis uncovered three patterns of suicide signs that TCWs may use to identify if a caller might be at risk for suicide (mood, hopelessness, and anger), which were qualitatively different for male and female callers. These findings suggest that TCWs may recognise specific patterns of signs to identify suicide risk, which appear to be influenced to some extent by the callers' inferred gender. Implications for the training of telephone crisis workers and others including mental-health and medical professionals, as well as and future research in suicide prevention are discussed.

  11. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  12. Improving Posthospital Discharge Telephone Reach Rates Through Prehospital Discharge Face-to-Face Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.

  13. Identifying the core competencies of mental health telephone triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Natisha; Elsom, Stephen; Gerdtz, Marie; Henderson, Kathryn; Keppich-Arnold, Sandra; Droste, Nicolas; Prematunga, Roshani K; Wereta, Zewdu W

    2013-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify the core competencies of mental health telephone triage, including key role tasks, skills, knowledge and responsibilities, in which clinicians are required to be competent to perform safe and effective triage. Recent global trends indicate an increased reliance on telephone-based health services to facilitate access to health care across large populations. The trend towards telephone-based health services has also extended to mental health settings, evidenced by the growing number of mental health telephone triage services providing 24-hour access to specialist mental health assessment and treatment. Mental health telephone triage services are critical to the early identification of mental health problems and the provision of timely, appropriate interventions. In spite of the rapid growth in mental health telephone triage and the important role these services play in the assessment and management of mental illness and related risks, there has been very little research investigating this area of practice. An observational design was employed to address the research aims. Structured observations (using dual wireless headphones) were undertaken on 197 occasions of mental health telephone triage over a three-month period from January to March 2011. The research identified seven core areas of mental health telephone triage practice in which clinicians are required to be competent in to perform effective mental health telephone triage, including opening the call; performing mental status examination; risk assessment; planning and action; termination of call; referral and reporting; and documentation. The findings of this research contribute to the evidence base for mental health telephone triage by articulating the core competencies for practice. The mental health telephone triage competencies identified in this research may be used to define an evidence-based framework for mental health telephone triage practice that aims to

  14. Telephone operator change: your questions answered

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2015-01-01

    CERN will be changing mobile telephone operators on 24 June. As the community prepares for the summer switchover, everyone has questions. What brought on the change? Why are we losing our old phone numbers? What kind of improvements will we see? "Just as with every contract at CERN, we issue calls for tenders every few years to ensure we are still receiving the best possible service," explains Tony Cass, from the Communication Systems group within the IT department. "As we came to the end of our contract with Sunrise, we put out a call for tenders, which was won by Swisscom. Not only is their pricing more competitive, they will also be providing better service conditions." The scope of these new service conditions is multifaceted: there will be improvements to the redundancy and reliability of the network as well as modern 4G network coverage in the LHC tunnel. "People will also see their mobile phone bills decrease," says Tony. "This will esp...

  15. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  16. Multiple-image authentication with a cascaded multilevel architecture based on amplitude field random sampling and phase information multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Desheng; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Pan, Xuemei; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2015-04-10

    A multiple-image authentication method with a cascaded multilevel architecture in the Fresnel domain is proposed, in which a synthetic encoded complex amplitude is first fabricated, and its real amplitude component is generated by iterative amplitude encoding, random sampling, and space multiplexing for the low-level certification images, while the phase component of the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is constructed by iterative phase information encoding and multiplexing for the high-level certification images. Then the synthetic encoded complex amplitude is iteratively encoded into two phase-type ciphertexts located in two different transform planes. During high-level authentication, when the two phase-type ciphertexts and the high-level decryption key are presented to the system and then the Fresnel transform is carried out, a meaningful image with good quality and a high correlation coefficient with the original certification image can be recovered in the output plane. Similar to the procedure of high-level authentication, in the case of low-level authentication with the aid of a low-level decryption key, no significant or meaningful information is retrieved, but it can result in a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient of the output image and the corresponding original certification image. Therefore, the method realizes different levels of accessibility to the original certification image for different authority levels with the same cascaded multilevel architecture.

  17. Mental Health Impact of Hosting Disaster Refugees: Analyses from a Random Sample Survey Among Haitians Living in Miami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Lacoste, Jérôme; Gokalsing, Erick; Shultz, James M; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Acuna, Juan M

    2016-08-01

    Studies on the mental health of families hosting disaster refugees are lacking. This study compares participants in households that hosted 2010 Haitian earthquake disaster refugees with their nonhost counterparts. A random sample survey was conducted from October 2011 through December 2012 in Miami-Dade County, Florida. Haitian participants were assessed regarding their 2010 earthquake exposure and impact on family and friends and whether they hosted earthquake refugees. Using standardized scores and thresholds, they were evaluated for symptoms of three common mental disorders (CMDs): posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD). Participants who hosted refugees (n = 51) had significantly higher percentages of scores beyond thresholds for MDD than those who did not host refugees (n = 365) and for at least one CMD, after adjusting for participants' earthquake exposures and effects on family and friends. Hosting refugees from a natural disaster appears to elevate the risk for MDD and possibly other CMDs, independent of risks posed by exposure to the disaster itself. Families hosting refugees deserve special attention.

  18. Validation of the Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS instrument: a computerized telephonic measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Thomas D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brief screening tests have been developed to measure cognitive performance and dementia, yet they measure limited cognitive domains and often lack construct validity. Neuropsychological assessments, while comprehensive, are too costly and time-consuming for epidemiological studies. This study's aim was to develop a psychometrically valid telephone administered test of cognitive function in aging. Methods Using a sequential hierarchical strategy, each stage of test development did not proceed until specified criteria were met. The 30 minute Cognitive Assessment of Later Life Status (CALLS measure and a 2.5 hour in-person neuropsychological assessment were conducted with a randomly selected sample of 211 participants 65 years and older that included equivalent distributions of men and women from ethnically diverse populations. Results Overall Cronbach's coefficient alpha for the CALLS test was 0.81. A principal component analysis of the CALLS tests yielded five components. The CALLS total score was significantly correlated with four neuropsychological assessment components. Older age and having a high school education or less was significantly correlated with lower CALLS total scores. Females scored better overall than males. There were no score differences based on race. Conclusion The CALLS test is a valid measure that provides a unique opportunity to reliably and efficiently study cognitive function in large populations.

  19. Validation of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) in Hebrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Michal Schnaider; Werner, Perla; Davidson, Michael; Schmidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy

    2003-05-01

    The validity of the Hebrew version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-Modified (TICS-m) for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), for dementia, and for cognitive impairment (either MCI or dementia) was investigated. Of the 10 059 who took part of the Israel Ischemic Heart Disease Cohort, 1902 of the 2901 survivors in 1999 had TICS-m interviews. Those with a score of 27 or below and a random sample with a score of 28 or 29 were invited to have a physician's examination for the diagnosis of dementia. The analysis was performed on the 576 who agreed. Based on physician's diagnosis, 269 were diagnosed as suffering from dementia, 128 as suffering from MCI, and 179 were diagnosed with no cognitive impairment. The TICS-m Hebrew version's internal consistency was very high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.98) and showed a strong convergent validity with the MMSE (r = 0.82; p education and hearing impairment, TICS-m was a strong predictor of dementia, MCI and cognitive impairment. At a cut-off of 27/50 the Hebrew version of the TICS-m is a useful screening instrument to identify subjects suffering from mild cognitive impairment, dementia and cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia). Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Testing a Model of Functional Impairment in Telephone Crisis Support Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that helping professionals experience functional impairment related to elevated symptoms of psychological distress as a result of frequent empathic engagement with distressed others. Whether telephone crisis support workers are impacted in a similar way is not currently reported in the literature. The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of factors contributing to functional impairment in telephone crisis support workers. A national sample of 210 telephone crisis support workers completed an online survey including measures of emotion regulation, symptoms of general psychological distress and suicidal ideation, intentions to seek help for symptoms, and functional impairment. Structural equation modeling was used to test the fit of the data to the hypothesized model. Goodness-of-fit indices were adequate and supported the interactive effects of emotion regulation, general psychological distress, suicidal ideation, and intentions to seek help for ideation on functional impairment. These results warrant the deliberate management of telephone crisis support workers' impairment through service selection, training, supervision, and professional development strategies. Future research replicating and extending this model will further inform the modification and/or development of strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and delivery of support to callers.

  1. A Systematic Review of Surgical Randomized Controlled Trials: Part 2. Funding Source, Conflict of Interest, and Sample Size in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Ziolkowski, Natalia I; Kaur, Manraj N; Banfield, Laura; Meade, Maureen O; Chung, Kevin C; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined industry support, conflict of interest, and sample size in plastic surgery randomized controlled trials that compared surgical interventions. They hypothesized that industry-funded trials demonstrate statistically significant outcomes more often, and randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes report statistically significant results more frequently. An electronic search identified randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2013. Independent reviewers assessed manuscripts and performed data extraction. Funding source, conflict of interest, primary outcome direction, and sample size were examined. Chi-squared and independent-samples t tests were used in the analysis. The search identified 173 randomized controlled trials, of which 100 (58 percent) did not acknowledge funding status. A relationship between funding source and trial outcome direction was not observed. Both funding status and conflict of interest reporting improved over time. Only 24 percent (six of 25) of industry-funded randomized controlled trials reported authors to have independent control of data and manuscript contents. The mean number of patients randomized was 73 per trial (median, 43, minimum, 3, maximum, 936). Small trials were not found to be positive more often than large trials (p = 0.87). Randomized controlled trials with small sample size were common; however, this provides great opportunity for the field to engage in further collaboration and produce larger, more definitive trials. Reporting of trial funding and conflict of interest is historically poor, but it greatly improved over the study period. Underreporting at author and journal levels remains a limitation when assessing the relationship between funding source and trial outcomes. Improved reporting and manuscript control should be goals that both authors and journals can actively achieve.

  2. Quality of life of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode: development and use of a telephone questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubé Eve

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The negative consequences of acute otitis media (AOM on the quality of life (QOL of children and their families need to be measured to assess benefits of preventive interventions. Methods A new questionnaire was specifically designed for use in telephone surveys. A random sample of Canadian families was selected using random-digit dialling. Caregivers of children 6-59 months of age who experienced at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months were interviewed. Multidimensional severity and global QOL scores were measured both for affected children and their caregivers. Internal consistency of scores was assessed using standard tests. Results Of the 502 eligible caregivers who completed the survey, 161 (32% reported at least one AOM episode during the last 12 months and these cases were included in the analysis. Average severity was 2.6 for children and 2.4 for caregivers on a 1 to 4 scale (maximum severity. Cronbach alpha values were 0.78 and 0.81 for the severity score of children and caregivers respectively. Average QOL was 3.4 for children and 3.5 for caregivers on a 1 to 5 scale (best QOL. There was moderate to high correlation between severity and QOL scores, and between these scores and duration of AOM episodes. Conclusions The questionnaire was easy to use during telephone interviews and results suggest good reliability and validity of the different scores to measure AOM severity and QOL of children and their caregivers during an AOM episode.

  3. Recovery from work-related stress: a randomized controlled trial of a stress management intervention in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasscock, David J; Carstensen, Ole; Dalgaard, Vita Ligaya

    2018-05-28

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions aimed at reducing work-related stress indicate that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is more effective than other interventions. However, definitions of study populations are often unclear and there is a lack of interventions targeting both the individual and the workplace. The aim of this study was to determine whether a stress management intervention combining individual CBT and a workplace focus is superior to no treatment in the reduction of perceived stress and stress symptoms and time to lasting return to work (RTW) in a clinical sample. Patients with work-related stress reactions or adjustment disorders were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 57, 84.2% female) or a control group (n = 80, 83.8% female). Subjects were followed via questionnaires and register data. The intervention contained individual CBT and the offer of a workplace meeting. We examined intervention effects by analysing group differences in score changes on the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30). We also tested if intervention led to faster lasting RTW. Mean baseline values of PSS were 24.79 in the intervention group and 23.26 in the control group while the corresponding values for GHQ were 21.3 and 20.27, respectively. There was a significant effect of time. 10 months after baseline, both groups reported less perceived stress and improved mental health. 4 months after baseline, we found significant treatment effects for both perceived stress and mental health. The difference in mean change in PSS after 4 months was - 3.09 (- 5.47, - 0.72), while for GHQ it was - 3.91 (- 7.15, - 0.68). There were no group differences in RTW. The intervention led to faster reductions in perceived stress and stress symptoms amongst patients with work-related stress reactions and adjustment disorders. 6 months after the intervention ended there were no longer differences between

  4. Network of mobile telephone communication: necessarily of 3. Millennium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejana, V.; Dragan, M.; Nebojsa, V.; Simo, S.

    2002-01-01

    Mobile telephones have transformed the telecommunications industry. These devices can be used to make telephone calls from almost anywhere. There are two types, one has the antenna mounted on the handset and the other has the antenna mounted on a separate transmitter or, if the telephone is installed in a vehicle, mounted on the roof or rear window. Communication between a mobile telephone and the nearest base station is achieved by the microwave emissions from the antenna. Concerns have been raised about the type of mobile telephone that has the antenna in the handset. In this case, the antenna is very close to the user's head during normal use of the telephone and there is concern about the level of microwave emissions to which the brain is being exposed. Those telephones that have the antenna mounted elsewhere are of no concern, since exposure levels decrease rapidly with increasing distance from the antenna. Cordless telephones, which need to be operated within about 20 metres of a base unit that is connected directly to the telephone system, do not have any health concerns associated with their use because exposure levels are very low

  5. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    OpenAIRE

    Hardell, Lennart; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Carlberg, Michael; Söderqvist, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumo...

  6. 'Putting Life in Years' (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountain, Gail A; Hind, Daniel; Gossage-Worrall, Rebecca; Walters, Stephen J; Duncan, Rosie; Newbould, Louise; Rex, Saleema; Jones, Carys; Bowling, Ann; Cattan, Mima; Cairns, Angela; Cooper, Cindy; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Goyder, Elizabeth C

    2014-04-24

    Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a recruitment window of 1 year is feasible. For

  7. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  8. CT-Guided Transgluteal Biopsy for Systematic Random Sampling of the Prostate in Patients Without Rectal Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenka, Ajit H; Remer, Erick M; Veniero, Joseph C; Thupili, Chakradhar R; Klein, Eric A

    2015-09-01

    The objective of our study was to review our experience with CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy in patients without rectal access. Twenty-one CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy procedures were performed in 16 men (mean age, 68 years; age range, 60-78 years) who were under conscious sedation. The mean prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value was 11.4 ng/mL (range, 2.3-39.4 ng/mL). Six had seven prior unsuccessful transperineal or transurethral biopsies. Biopsy results, complications, sedation time, and radiation dose were recorded. The mean PSA values and number of core specimens were compared between patients with malignant results and patients with nonmalignant results using the Student t test. The average procedural sedation time was 50.6 minutes (range, 15-90 minutes) (n = 20), and the mean effective radiation dose was 8.2 mSv (median, 6.6 mSv; range 3.6-19.3 mSv) (n = 13). Twenty of the 21 (95%) procedures were technically successful. The only complication was a single episode of gross hematuria and penile pain in one patient, which resolved spontaneously. Of 20 successful biopsies, 8 (40%) yielded adenocarcinoma (Gleason score: mean, 8; range, 7-9). Twelve biopsies yielded nonmalignant results (60%): high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 3) or benign prostatic tissue with or without inflammation (n = 9). Three patients had carcinoma diagnosed on subsequent biopsies (second biopsy, n = 2 patients; third biopsy, n = 1 patient). A malignant biopsy result was not significantly associated with the number of core specimens (p = 0.3) or the mean PSA value (p = 0.1). CT-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy is a safe and reliable technique for the systematic random sampling of the prostate in patients without a rectal access. In patients with initial negative biopsy results, repeat biopsy should be considered if there is a persistent rise in the PSA value.

  9. Demographics and Professional Practices of School Psychologists: A Comparison of NASP Members and Non-NASP School Psychologists by Telephone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael F.; Truscott, Stephen D.; Volker, Martin A.

    2008-01-01

    A national telephone survey was conducted to examine potential differences between National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) members and non-NASP member school psychologists. Identified schools were contacted by telephone and the researchers asked to speak with the school psychologist. A sample of 124 practicing school psychologists was…

  10. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  11. Stratified random sampling plans designed to assist in the determination of radon and radon daughter concentrations in underground uranium mine atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Sampling strategies for the monitoring of deleterious agents present in uranium mine air in underground and surface mining areas are described. These methods are designed to prevent overexposure of the lining of the respiratory system of uranium miners to ionizing radiation from radon and radon daughters, and whole body overexposure to external gamma radiation. A detailed description is provided of stratified random sampling monitoring methodology for obtaining baseline data to be used as a reference for subsequent compliance assessment

  12. Telephone consultation for improving health of people living with or at risk of HIV: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle H M M T van Velthoven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low cost, effective interventions are needed to deal with the major global burden of HIV/AIDS. Telephone consultation offers the potential to improve health of people living with HIV/AIDS cost-effectively and to reduce the burden on affected people and health systems. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of telephone consultation for HIV/AIDS care. METHODS: We undertook a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature. Two authors independently screened citations, extracted data and assessed the quality of randomized controlled trials which compared telephone interventions with control groups for HIV/AIDS care. Telephone interventions were voice calls with landlines or mobile phones. We present a narrative overview of the results as the obtained trials were highly heterogeneous in design and therefore the data could not be pooled for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The search yielded 3321 citations. Of these, nine studies involving 1162 participants met the inclusion criteria. The telephone was used for giving HIV test results (one trial and for delivering behavioural interventions aimed at improving mental health (four trials, reducing sexual transmission risk (one trial, improving medication adherence (two trials and smoking cessation (one trial. Limited effectiveness of the intervention was found in the trial giving HIV test results, in one trial supporting medication adherence and in one trial for smoking cessation by telephone. CONCLUSIONS: We found some evidence of the benefits of interventions delivered by telephone for the health of people living with HIV or at risk of HIV. However, only limited conclusions can be drawn as we only found nine studies for five different interventions and they mainly took place in the United States. Nevertheless, given the high penetration of low-cost mobile phones in countries with high HIV endemicity, more evidence is needed on how telephone consultation

  13. Distribution of peak expiratory flow variability by age, gender and smoking habits in a random population sample aged 20-70 yrs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boezen, H M; Schouten, J. P.; Postma, D S; Rijcken, B

    1994-01-01

    Peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability can be considered as an index of bronchial lability. Population studies on PEF variability are few. The purpose of the current paper is to describe the distribution of PEF variability in a random population sample of adults with a wide age range (20-70 yrs),

  14. Evaluating effectiveness of down-sampling for stratified designs and unbalanced prevalence in Random Forest models of tree species distributions in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth A. Freeman; Gretchen G. Moisen; Tracy S. Frescino

    2012-01-01

    Random Forests is frequently used to model species distributions over large geographic areas. Complications arise when data used to train the models have been collected in stratified designs that involve different sampling intensity per stratum. The modeling process is further complicated if some of the target species are relatively rare on the landscape leading to an...

  15. Telephone-based nursing intervention improves the effectiveness of the informed consent process in cancer clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaronson, N. K.; Visser-Pol, E.; Leenhouts, G. H.; Muller, M. J.; van der Schot, A. C.; van Dam, F. S.; Keus, R. B.; Koning, C. C.; ten Bokkel Huinink, W. W.; van Dongen, J. A.; Dubbelman, R.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: Here we report the results of a randomized study undertaken to test the efficacy of a supplementary, telephone-based nursing intervention in increasing patients' awareness and understanding of the clinical trials in which they are asked to participate. METHODS: During a 12-month period, 180

  16. 24 CFR 3285.906 - Telephone and cable TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Optional Information for Manufacturer's Installation Instructions § 3285.906 Telephone and cable TV. It is recommended that the installation instructions explain that telephone and cable TV wiring should be installed in accordance with requirements of...

  17. THE EFFECTS OF MOBILE TELEPHONING ON DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROOKHUIS, KA; DEVRIES, G; DEWAARD, D

    The effects of telephoning while driving were studied in three different traffic conditions, i.e. in light traffic on a quiet motorway, in heavy traffic on a four-lane ring-road, and in city traffic. Twelve subjects, unfamiliar with mobile telephones, drove an instrumented vehicle for one hour each

  18. Openings and Closings in Telephone Conversations between Native Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Molina, Serafin M.

    1998-01-01

    A study analyzed the opening and closing sequences of 11 dyads of native Spanish-speakers in natural telephone conversations conducted in Spanish. The objective was to determine how closely Hispanic cultural patterns of conduct for telephone conversations follow the sequences outlined in previous research. It is concluded that Spanish…

  19. 20 CFR 638.516 - Laundry, mail, and telephone service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laundry, mail, and telephone service. 638.516... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.516 Laundry, mail, and telephone service. (a) The center operator shall provide adequate laundry services and supplies at...

  20. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings of...

  1. 26 CFR 49.4251-4 - Prepaid telephone cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; adding value. (i) After using the card described in Example 2, P arranges with A by telephone to have 30... EXCISE TAXES FACILITIES AND SERVICES EXCISE TAXES Communications § 49.4251-4 Prepaid telephone cards. (a... section provides rules for the application of the section 4251 tax to PTCs. (b) Definitions. The following...

  2. 49 CFR 195.52 - Telephonic notice of certain accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Telephonic notice of certain accidents. 195.52... TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Annual, Accident, and Safety-Related Condition Reporting § 195.52 Telephonic notice of certain accidents. (a) At the earliest practicable moment following discovery of a...

  3. 47 CFR 42.6 - Retention of telephone toll records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... whether it is billing its own toll service customers for toll calls or billing customers for another... Section 42.6 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... telephone toll records. Each carrier that offers or bills toll telephone service shall retain for a period...

  4. Gesturing on the Telephone: Independent Effects of Dialogue and Visibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavelas, Janet; Gerwing, Jennifer; Sutton, Chantelle; Prevost, Danielle

    2008-01-01

    Speakers often gesture in telephone conversations, even though they are not visible to their addressees. To test whether this effect is due to being in a dialogue, we separated visibility and dialogue with three conditions: face-to-face dialogue (10 dyads), telephone dialogue (10 dyads), and monologue to a tape recorder (10 individuals). For the…

  5. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology.......The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology....

  6. Call Us: Development of a Library Telephone Enquiry Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Liz; Beranek, Lea

    2006-01-01

    The authors detail the trial and piloting of a telephone enquiry service (TES) at the Bundoora Campus Library at La Trobe University in order to attempt to resolve the balance between telephone and face-to-face enquiries at the library service desk. They investigated various options throughout 2001 and 2002 and settled on a centralised service…

  7. Convergence analysis for Latin-hypercube lattice-sample selection strategies for 3D correlated random hydraulic-conductivity fields

    OpenAIRE

    Simuta-Champo, R.; Herrera-Zamarrón, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique provides a natural method for evaluating uncertainties. The uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution or by related quantities such as statistical moments. When the groundwater flow and transport governing equations are solved and the hydraulic conductivity field is treated as a random spatial function, the hydraulic head, velocities and concentrations also become random spatial functions. When that is the case, for the stochastic simulation of groundw...

  8. Telephone: The Old Technology that is Never Old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi Philip Aborisade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telephone technology is a technology that stands the test of time. Since it was invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Belle, it remains the technology of all time. This article reports the major finding of a recent research, how technology transforms citizen journalism business in Nigeria. According to the research, Telephone technology has over the years emerged the major tool with which ordinary citizens in Nigeria without journalism and media background or affiliation participate in the process of news gathering, reporting and distribution. Guided by the recent use of telephone around the world by ordinary citizens to report themselves during protests through different social media outlets-Facebook, Tweeter, Youtube, the article illuminates the evergreen nature of the telephone. The article therefore concluded that the telephone technology invented in 1876 has survived the test of time. Instead of being obsolete, it blends with emerging communications technology to improve on its performance.

  9. Choosing a New Telephone System for Your Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    E-mail may rule the world in other types of businesses, but for medical practices, the telephone remains the primary mode of communication with patients, specialists, and pharmacies. From making appointments to calling in prescriptions, telephones are essential to patient care. With technology changing very quickly and new capabilities coming into the medical practice, such as telemedicine and Skype, you need to know your options when choosing a new telephone system. The possibilities include on-site, cloud, and hybrid networked solutions. A wide variety of features and capabilities are available, from dozens of vendors. Of course, no matter what telephone solution you choose, you must meet regulatory compliance, particularly HIPAA, and Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard if you take credit cards. And it has to be affordable, reliable, and long lasting. This article explores what medical practices need to know when choosing a new business telephone system in order to find the right solutions for their businesses.

  10. Telephone and Face-to-Face Interviews with Low-Income Males with Child Care Responsibilities Support Inclusion as a Target Audience in SNAP-Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krall, Jodi Stotts; Wamboldt, Patricia; Lohse, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Federally funded nutrition programs mostly target females. Changes in family dynamics suggest low-income men have an important role in food management responsibilities. The purpose of this study was to inform nutrition education program planning to meet needs of lower-income males. Cross-sectional telephone and face-to-face interviews. Stratified random sample of men (n = 101), 18-59 years of age, with child care responsibilities, living in households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and a convenience sample of adult males (n = 25) recruited from lower income venues. (1) Scripted telephone interviews about health status, eating behaviors, eating competence, food security, technology usage and topics and strategies for nutrition education. (2) In-person cognitive interviews during review of selected online nutrition education lessons. Nutrition education topics of interest, preferred educational strategies, influences on and barriers to intake, eating competence, critiques of online program content, graphics, format. Bivariate correlations, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance or Chi square, as appropriate. Thematic analyses of cognitive interviews. Of telephone interviewees, 92.1% prepared meals/snacks for children and 54.5% made major household food decisions. Taste was the greatest influence on food selection and the greatest barrier to eating healthful foods. Topics of highest interest were "which foods are best for kids" and "how to eat more healthy foods." Preferred nutrition education strategies included online delivery. Online lessons were highly rated. Interactive components were recognized as particularly appealing; enhanced male centricity of lessons was supported. Findings provided compelling evidence for including needs specific to low-income males when planning, designing, and funding nutrition education programs.

  11. Nutritional status and falls in community-dwelling older people: a longitudinal study of a population-based random sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hung Chien

    Full Text Available Falls are common in older people and may lead to functional decline, disability, and death. Many risk factors have been identified, but studies evaluating effects of nutritional status are limited. To determine whether nutritional status is a predictor of falls in older people living in the community, we analyzed data collected through the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan (SHLSET.SHLSET include a series of interview surveys conducted by the government on a random sample of people living in community dwellings in the nation. We included participants who received nutritional status assessment using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Taiwan Version 2 (MNA-T2 in the 1999 survey when they were 53 years or older and followed up on the cumulative incidence of falls in the one-year period before the interview in the 2003 survey.At the beginning of follow-up, the 4440 participants had a mean age of 69.5 (standard deviation= 9.1 years, and 467 participants were "not well-nourished," which was defined as having an MNA-T2 score of 23 or less. In the one-year study period, 659 participants reported having at least one fall. After adjusting for other risk factors, we found the associated odds ratio for falls was 1.73 (95% confidence interval, 1.23, 2.42 for "not well-nourished," 1.57 (1.30, 1.90 for female gender, 1.03 (1.02, 1.04 for one-year older, 1.55 (1.22, 1.98 for history of falls, 1.34 (1.05, 1.72 for hospital stay during the past 12 months, 1.66 (1.07, 2.58 for difficulties in activities of daily living, and 1.53 (1.23, 1.91 for difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living.Nutritional status is an independent predictor of falls in older people living in the community. Further studies are warranted to identify nutritional interventions that can help prevent falls in the elderly.

  12. Cost effectiveness of a telephone intervention to promote dilated fundus examination in adults with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde B Schechter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Clyde B Schechter1, Charles E Basch2, Arlene Caban3, Elizabeth A Walker41Departments of Family and Social Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA; 2Department of Health Behavior Studies, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA; 4Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USAAbstract: In a clinical trial, we have previously shown that a telephone intervention can significantly increase participation in dilated fundus examination (DFE screening among low-income adults with diabetes. Here the costs and cost-effectiveness ratio of this intervention are calculated. Intervention effectiveness was estimated as the difference in DFE utilization between the telephone intervention and print groups from the clinical trial multiplied by the size of the telephone intervention group. A micro-costing approach was used. Personnel time was aggregated from logs kept during the clinical trial of the intervention. Wage rates were taken from a commercial compensation database. Telephone charges were estimated based on prevailing fees. The cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated as the ratio of total costs of the intervention to the number of DFEs gained by the intervention. A sensitivity analysis estimated the cost-effectiveness of a more limited telephone intervention. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis using bootstrap samples from the clinical trial results quantified the uncertainties in resource utilization and intervention effectiveness. Net intervention costs were US$18,676.06, with an associated gain of 43.7 DFEs and 16.4 new diagnoses of diabetic retinopathy. The cost-effectiveness ratio is US$427.37 per DFE gained. A restricted intervention limiting the number of calls to 5, as opposed to 7, would achieve the same results

  13. Statistical Power and Optimum Sample Allocation Ratio for Treatment and Control Having Unequal Costs Per Unit of Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    This article considers optimal sample allocation between the treatment and control condition in multilevel designs when the costs per sampling unit vary due to treatment assignment. Optimal unequal allocation may reduce the cost from that of a balanced design without sacrificing any power. The optimum sample allocation ratio depends only on the…

  14. The telephone effect: Overcoming initiation deficits in two settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Kayci L; Keesler, Michael E; Williams, Kelli S; Charles, Jeremy Y; Hamilton, Roy H

    2018-04-19

    Disorders of motivation substantially impair an individual's ability to communicate with their families, therapists, and doctors. One method of overcoming initiation deficits is by utilizing the telephone effect, which is the ability for individuals with severe motivation deficits to communicate more readily when speaking on a telephone. However, little is available in the extant literature on how this effect works or how best to integrate this into patient care. This article aims to provide the first report of a proposed mechanism underlying the telephone effect and the first published procedures for eliciting this effect. This is largely a review article that also contains descriptions of clinical procedures for eliciting the telephone effect with 2 patient populations: acute inpatients following brain injury and dementia residents. A case vignette is also provided. We propose that the telephone effect is the result of an interaction between the patient and environment, and occurs because of Gibson's (1979) law of affordances. The use of this theory provides an explanation of the behaviors often observed when attempting to elicit this effect (i.e., disruption of the effect when using a cellular phone). Moreover, we argue that this can, and does, apply to social interactions as well. The telephone effect is an understudied phenomenon that provides a means of improving care for individuals with disorders of motivation. Future directions include systematic research into the telephone effect and further investigation of the mechanism underlying this effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Validation of a telephone screening tool for spasmodic dysphonia and vocal fold tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David M; Hapner, Edie R; Klein, Adam M; Pethan, Madeleine; Johns, Michael M

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain whether clinicians can reliably distinguish between spasmodic dysphonia (SD)/vocal tremor and other voice disorders by telephone, despite this modality's limited frequency response. Randomized, single-blinded, and prospective study. Voice-disordered patients with (n = 22) and without (n = 17) SD and/or vocal tremor recorded standardized utterances via landline telephone. A laryngologist and two speech-language pathologists blinded to the diagnoses rated each recording as "yes" or "no" to "SD or tremor present?," and if "yes" categorized into adductor, abductor, tremor only, or adductor with tremor subtypes. Twenty-one recordings were presented twice at random so intrarater reliability could be assessed. All ratings were compared with gold standard diagnosis by a second laryngologist who performed a full examination, including videostroboscopy, on each patient. For the comparison "SD or tremor" yes versus no, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value are 90%, 95%, 96%, and 89%, respectively. Interrater reliability (Cohen kappa) compared with the gold standard ranged from 0.70 to 0.93 (substantial to almost perfect agreement). Cronbach alpha among three raters was 0.90 for this comparison. Intrarater reliability (number matched/number inspected) was very high, ranging from 0.97 to 1.0. Comparing gold standard and telephone rating of SD/tremor subtypes, kappa ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 (moderate agreement). Cronbach alpha among three raters was 0.88 for this comparison. Intrarater reliability ranged from 0.84 to 0.97. SD and tremor can be reliably distinguished from other voice disorders over the telephone. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of Daily Proteinuria in Patients with Amyloidosis by Using the Protein-To-Creatinine ratio in Random Urine Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Mir Muhammad, A; Pandey, Manoj K; Zhu, Junjia; Creer, Michael H; Malysz, Jozef

    2015-02-11

    Measurement of daily proteinuria in patients with amyloidosis is recommended at the time of diagnosis for assessing renal involvement, and for monitoring disease activity. Renal involvement is usually defined by proteinuria >500 mg/day. We evaluated the accuracy of the random urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (Pr/Cr) in predicting 24 hour proteinuria in patient with amyloidosis. We compared results of random urine Pr/Cr ratio and concomitant 24-hour urine collections in 44 patients with amyloidosis. We found a strong correlation (Spearman's ρ=0.874) between the Pr/Cr ratio and the 24 hour urine protein excretion. For predicting renal involvement, the optimal cut-off point of the Pr/Cr ratio was 715 mg/g. The sensitivity and specificity for this point were 91.8% and 95.5%, respectively, and the area under the curve value was 97.4%. We conclude that the random urine Pr/Cr ratio could be useful in the screening of renal involvement in patients with amyloidosis. If validated in a prospective study, the random urine Pr/Cr ratio could replace the 24 hour urine collection for the assessment of daily proteinuria and presence of nephrotic syndrome in patients with amyloidosis.

  17. Estimation of daily proteinuria in patients with amyloidosis by using the protein-to-creatinine ratio in random urine sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Talamo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of daily proteinuria in patients with amyloidosis is recommended at the time of diagnosis for assessing renal involvement, and for monitoring disease activity. Renal involvement is usually defined by proteinuria >500 mg/day. We evaluated the accuracy of the random urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (Pr/Cr in predicting 24 hour proteinuria in patient with amyloidosis. We com- pared results of random urine Pr/Cr ratio and concomitant 24-hour urine collections in 44 patients with amyloidosis. We found a strong correlation (Spearman’s ρ=0.874 between the Pr/Cr ratio and the 24 hour urine protein excretion. For predicting renal involvement, the optimal cut-off point of the Pr/Cr ratio was 715 mg/g. The sensitivity and specificity for this point were 91.8% and 95.5%, respectively, and the area under the curve value was 97.4%. We conclude that the random urine Pr/Cr ratio could be useful in the screening of renal involvement in patients with amyloidosis. If validated in a prospective study, the random urine Pr/Cr ratio could replace the 24 hour urine collection for the assessment of daily proteinuria and presence of nephrotic syndrome in patients with amyloidosis.

  18. Assessment of mental health and illness by telephone survey: experience with an Alberta mental health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Scott B; Adair, Carol E; Williams, Jeanne Va; Brant, Rollin; Wang, Jian Li; Casebeer, Ann; Beauséjour, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Mental health is an emerging priority for health surveillance. It has not been determined that the existing data sources can adequately meet surveillance needs. The objective of this project was to explore the use of telephone surveys as a means of collecting supplementary surveillance information. A computer-assisted telephone interview was administered to 5,400 subjects in Alberta. The interview included a set of brief, validated measures for evaluating mental disorder prevalence and related variables. The individual subject response rate was 78 percent, but a substantial number of refusals occurred at the initial household contact. The age and sex distribution of the study sample differed from that of the provincial population prior to weighting. Prevalence proportions did not vary substantially across administrative health regions. There is a potential role for telephone data collection in mental health surveillance, but these results highlight some associated methodological challenges. They also draw into question the importance of regional variation in mental disorder prevalence--which might otherwise have been a key advantage of telephone survey methodologies.

  19. Effectiveness of Telephone-Based Health Coaching for Patients with Chronic Conditions: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Härter

    Full Text Available Chronic diseases, like diabetes mellitus, heart disease and cancer are leading causes of death and disability. These conditions are at least partially preventable or modifiable, e.g. by enhancing patients' self-management. We aimed to examine the effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching (TBHC in chronically ill patients.This prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial compares an intervention group (IG of participants in TBHC to a control group (CG without TBHC. Endpoints were assessed two years after enrolment. Three different groups of insurees with 1 multiple conditions (chronic campaign, 2 heart failure (heart failure campaign, or 3 chronic mental illness conditions (mental health campaign were targeted. The telephone coaching included evidence-based information and was based on the concepts of motivational interviewing, shared decision-making, and collaborative goal setting. Patients received an average of 12.9 calls. Primary outcome was time from enrolment until hospital readmission within a two-year follow-up period. Secondary outcomes comprised the probability of hospital readmission, number of daily defined medication doses (DDD, frequency and duration of inability to work, and mortality within two years. All outcomes were collected from routine data provided by the statutory health insurance. As informed consent was obtained after randomization, propensity score matching (PSM was used to minimize selection bias introduced by decliners. For the analysis of hospital readmission and mortality, we calculated Kaplan-Meier curves and estimated hazard ratios (HR. Probability of hospital readmission and probability of death were analysed by calculating odds ratios (OR. Quantity of health service use and inability to work were analysed by linear random effects regression models. PSM resulted in patient samples of 5,309 (IG: 2,713; CG: 2,596 in the chronic campaign, of 660 (IG: 338; CG: 322 in the heart failure campaign, and of

  20. Systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a service representative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Scott H.; Johnson, Joel A.; Neiswanger, Jeffery R.; Twitchell, Kevin E.

    2004-03-09

    The present invention includes systems configured to distribute a telephone call, communication systems, communication methods and methods of routing a telephone call to a customer service representative. In one embodiment of the invention, a system configured to distribute a telephone call within a network includes a distributor adapted to connect with a telephone system, the distributor being configured to connect a telephone call using the telephone system and output the telephone call and associated data of the telephone call; and a plurality of customer service representative terminals connected with the distributor and a selected customer service representative terminal being configured to receive the telephone call and the associated data, the distributor and the selected customer service representative terminal being configured to synchronize, application of the telephone call and associated data from the distributor to the selected customer service representative terminal.

  1. When may doctors give nurses telephonic treatment instructions?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When is it legal for doctors to give nurses telephonic treatment instructions? ... telemedicine? Telemedicine is defined as 'the practice of medicine, from a distance, ... [6] Therefore, if in such circumstances the doctors cannot reach the patients in ...

  2. Is there a bias against telephone interviews in qualitative research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Gina

    2008-08-01

    Telephone interviews are largely neglected in the qualitative research literature and, when discussed, they are often depicted as a less attractive alternative to face-to-face interviewing. The absence of visual cues via telephone is thought to result in loss of contextual and nonverbal data and to compromise rapport, probing, and interpretation of responses. Yet, telephones may allow respondents to feel relaxed and able to disclose sensitive information, and evidence is lacking that they produce lower quality data. This apparent bias against telephone interviews contrasts with a growing interest in electronic qualitative interviews. Research is needed comparing these modalities, and examining their impact on data quality and their use for studying varying topics and populations. Such studies could contribute evidence-based guidelines for optimizing interview data. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  3. Towards effective telephone-based delivery of government services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barnard, E

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Government regulations have combined with a tremendous growth in prepaid cellular telephony to bring telephone connectivity to an unprecedented number of South African citizens – thus creating an ideal platform for delivering services to a wide...

  4. Approximating the variance of estimated means for systematic random sampling, illustrated with data of the French Soil Monitoring Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.; Saby, N.P.A.

    2016-01-01

    In France like in many other countries, the soil is monitored at the locations of a regular, square grid thus forming a systematic sample (SY). This sampling design leads to good spatial coverage, enhancing the precision of design-based estimates of spatial means and totals. Design-based

  5. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  6. Telephone survey to investigate relationships between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Amanda F; Larson, Mandy; Baldwin, Claudia J; Petersen, Christine

    2016-09-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether associations existed between onychectomy or onychectomy technique and house soiling in cats. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SAMPLE 281 owners of 455 cats in Polk County, Iowa, identified via a list of randomly selected residential phone numbers of cat owners in that region. PROCEDURES A telephone survey was conducted to collect information from cat owners on factors hypothesized a priori to be associated with house soiling, including cat sex, reproductive status, medical history, and onychectomy history. When cats that had undergone onychectomy were identified, data were collected regarding the cat's age at the time of the procedure and whether a carbon dioxide laser (CDL) had been used. Information on history of house soiling behavior (urinating or defecating outside the litter box) was also collected. RESULTS Onychectomy technique was identified as a risk factor for house soiling. Cats for which a non-CDL technique was used had a higher risk of house soiling than cats for which the CDL technique was used. Cats that had undergone onychectomy and that lived in a multicat (3 to 5 cats) household were more than 3 times as likely to have house soiled as were single-housed cats with intact claws. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this cross-sectional study suggested that use of the CDL technique for onychectomy could decrease the risk of house soiling by cats relative to the risk associated with other techniques. This and other findings can be used to inform the decisions of owners and veterinarians when considering elective onychectomy for cats.

  7. The effect of telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy on parenting stress: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Fei Wan; Wong, Paul Wai-Ching; Chung, Ka Fai; Leung, Kwok Yin

    2016-07-01

    Objective Stress related to parenting has detrimental effects on the well-being of children, parents and the family system as a whole. There are limited studies about the efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy delivered by telephone in reducing parenting stress. The present study investigates the effect of telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy on parenting stress at six weeks and six months postpartum. This is a multi-site randomised controlled trial. A total of 397 Chinese mothers at risk of postnatal depression were randomly assigned to receive either telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy or routine postpartum care. Parental stress was assessed by the Parenting Stress Index Short Form at six weeks and six months postpartum. The findings revealed that mothers who had received telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy showed significantly lower levels of parenting stress than women only receiving routine postpartum care at six weeks (mean difference=9.42, 95% confidence interval 5.85-12.99, pparenting and reducing stress during the transition period. Integration of telephone-based cognitive-behavioural therapy into routine postpartum care might facilitate positive adaptation in particular for mothers at risk of postnatal depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose levels and postpartum screening in mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorshidi Roozbahani, Rezvan; Geranmayeh, Mehrnaz; Hantoushzadeh, Sedigheh; Mehran, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes that occurs in pregnancy. GDM, defined as glucose intolerance, first diagnosed or initiated during pregnancy affects 1-14% of pregnancies based on various studies. Screening and early diagnosis and appropriate glycemic control can improve prenatal outcomes. Telephone follow-up seems to be a reasonable way for pregnant women follow-up. The present study evaluated the effects of telephone follow-up on blood glucose level during pregnancy and postpartum screening. Eighty mothers with GDM were enrolled in this clinical trial and randomly divided into intervention and control groups. All mothers were asked to check their blood sugar levels fivetimes daily. In intervention group, telephone intervention was performed for 10 weeks. In each follow-up, individuals were followed for insulin injections, diet, clinical tests and reminding the next visit. In control group, three times of telephone call was established to record blood sugar levels. Another telephone call was established at 6 weeks of postpartum in both study groups to evaluate the performance of the screening test for blood sugar. The mean age of mothers was 30.9±5 years in the control and 30.7±5.1 years in the intervention groups In intervention group, mean level of blood glucose, 2 hours after lunch at 28 weeks of pregnancy was significantly lower than the control group (Pmothers with gestational diabetes and also increased the rate of postpartum screening test.

  9. Mobile phone text messaging and Telephone follow-up in type 2 diabetic patients for 3 months: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolfaghari Mirta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate and to compare the effectiveness of a nurse short message service (SMS by cellular phone and telephone follow-up by nurse on Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods Semi experimental study consisted of 77 patients with type 2 diabetes that randomly assigned to two groups: telephone follow-up (n = 39 and short message service (n = 38. Telephone interventions were applied by researcher for 3 months. SMS group that received message daily for 12 weeks. Data gathering instrument include data sheet to record HbA1c and questionnaire that consisted of demographic characteristics. Data gathering was performed at two points: initial the study and after 12 weeks. Data analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics methods with SPSS version 11.5. Results Demographic variables were compared and all of them were homogenous. Results of this study showed that both interventions had significant mean changes in HbA1c; for the telephone group (p = 0.001, with a mean change of −0.93% and for the SMS group (p = 0.001, with a mean change of −1.01%. Conclusion Finding of this research showed that intervention using SMS via cellular phone and nurse-led-telephone follow up improved HbA1c for three months in type 2 diabetic patients and it can consider as alternative methods for diabetes control.

  10. Can Smartphones Enhance Telephone-Based Cognitive Assessment (TBCA)?

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Yiu-Cho Kwan; Claudia Kam-Yuk Lai

    2013-01-01

    TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then di...

  11. Bundling the value of discharge telephone calls and leader rounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Nina; Meade, Christine

    2009-03-01

    Discharge telephone calls made by hospital staff provide invaluable opportunities to prevent adverse events, improve quality of care, and increase patient satisfaction. Similarly, the effect of rounding on patients can improve clinical quality and improve both patient and staff satisfaction. The author discusses how the combination of implementing both nurse leader rounding and discharge telephone calls simultaneously produced powerful positive outcomes in satisfaction and patient quality of care.

  12. A random cluster survey and a convenience sample give comparable estimates of immunity to vaccine preventable diseases in children of school age in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Heath; Riddell, Michaela A; Gidding, Heather F; Nolan, Terry; Gilbert, Gwendolyn L

    2002-08-19

    We compared estimates of the age-specific population immunity to measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B and varicella zoster viruses in Victorian school children obtained by a national sero-survey, using a convenience sample of residual sera from diagnostic laboratories throughout Australia, with those from a three-stage random cluster survey. When grouped according to school age (primary or secondary school) there was no significant difference in the estimates of immunity to measles, mumps, hepatitis B or varicella. Compared with the convenience sample, the random cluster survey estimated higher immunity to rubella in samples from both primary (98.7% versus 93.6%, P = 0.002) and secondary school students (98.4% versus 93.2%, P = 0.03). Despite some limitations, this study suggests that the collection of a convenience sample of sera from diagnostic laboratories is an appropriate sampling strategy to provide population immunity data that will inform Australia's current and future immunisation policies. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  13. Simultaneous escaping of explicit and hidden free energy barriers: application of the orthogonal space random walk strategy in generalized ensemble based conformational sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianqing; Chen, Mengen; Yang, Wei

    2009-06-21

    To overcome the pseudoergodicity problem, conformational sampling can be accelerated via generalized ensemble methods, e.g., through the realization of random walks along prechosen collective variables, such as spatial order parameters, energy scaling parameters, or even system temperatures or pressures, etc. As usually observed, in generalized ensemble simulations, hidden barriers are likely to exist in the space perpendicular to the collective variable direction and these residual free energy barriers could greatly abolish the sampling efficiency. This sampling issue is particularly severe when the collective variable is defined in a low-dimension subset of the target system; then the "Hamiltonian lagging" problem, which reveals the fact that necessary structural relaxation falls behind the move of the collective variable, may be likely to occur. To overcome this problem in equilibrium conformational sampling, we adopted the orthogonal space random walk (OSRW) strategy, which was originally developed in the context of free energy simulation [L. Zheng, M. Chen, and W. Yang, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105, 20227 (2008)]. Thereby, generalized ensemble simulations can simultaneously escape both the explicit barriers along the collective variable direction and the hidden barriers that are strongly coupled with the collective variable move. As demonstrated in our model studies, the present OSRW based generalized ensemble treatments show improved sampling capability over the corresponding classical generalized ensemble treatments.

  14. Sexual activity, fertility and contraceptive use in middle-aged and older men: Men in Australia, Telephone Survey (MATeS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, C A; McLachlan, R I; Cumming, R; Wittert, G; Handelsman, D J; de Kretser, D M; Pitts, M

    2005-12-01

    With limited information regarding fertility and sexual activity in the older population, men's behaviour, attitudes and concerns were explored in a representative population of middle-aged and older men using the Men in Australia, Telephone Survey (MATeS). A stratified random national sample of 5990 men participated in a standardized computer-assisted telephone interview. Equal numbers in the age strata 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 and >or=70 years were surveyed with findings census-standardized to the national population. Broad aspects of men's health and well-being, including reproductive health, were explored. The majority of men were sexually active in the last 12 months (age-standardized proportion, 78.3%) with approximately 37% of men aged >or=70 years still continuing sexual activity. Overall, 12.2% of men had never fathered children, of whom most (7.7%) had chosen not to have children. Questioning on failed attempts to produce a pregnancy suggested an involuntary infertility rate of 7.6%. The age-standardized vasectomy rate was 25.1%, with 5.6% of vasectomized men having no children. Although 9.2% of vasectomized men regretted sterilization, only 1.4% had undergone vasectomy reversal. Continuing sexual activity, fertility and contraception needs in middle-aged and older men suggests that education and service delivery must be more appropriately directed to an ageing population.

  15. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  16. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  17. A Telephone-based Physiotherapy Intervention for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odole, Adesola C.; Ojo, Oluwatobi D.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a 6-week telephone based intervention on the pain intensity and physical function of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), and compared the results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. Fifty randomly selected patients with knee OA were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a clinic group (CG) and a tele-physiotherapy group (TG). The CG received thrice-weekly physiotherapist administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises in the clinic for six weeks. The TG received structured telephone calls thrice-weekly at home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises. Participants’ pain intensity and physical function were assessed at baseline, two, four, and six weeks, in the clinic environment. Within group comparison showed significant improvements across baseline, and at weeks two, four, and six for both TG and CG’s pain intensity and physical function. Between-group comparison of CG and TG’s pain intensity and physical function at baseline and weeks two, four, and six showed no significant differences. This study demonstrated that a six-week course of structured telephone calls thrice-weekly to patients at their home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises for patients with knee OA (i.e., tele-physiotherapy) achieved comparable results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. PMID:25945214

  18. A Telephone-based Physiotherapy Intervention for Patients with Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesola C Odole

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of a 6-week telephone based intervention on the pain intensity and physical function of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA, and compared the results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic. Fifty randomly selected patients with knee OA were assigned to one of two treatment groups: a clinic group (CG and a tele-physiotherapy group (TG. The CG received thrice-weekly physiotherapist administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises in the clinic for six weeks. The TG received structured telephone calls thrice-weekly at home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises. Participants’ pain intensity and physical function were assessed at baseline, two, four, and six weeks, in the clinic environment. Within group comparison showed significant improvements across baseline, and at weeks two, four, and six for both TG and CG’s pain intensity and physical function. Between-group comparison of CG and TG’s pain intensity and physical function at baseline and weeks two, four, and six showed no significant differences. This study demonstrated that a six-week course of structured telephone calls thrice-weekly to patients at their home, to monitor self-administered osteoarthritis-specific exercises for patients with knee OA (i.e., tele-physiotherapy achieved comparable results to physiotherapy conducted in the clinic.   12.00 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  19. Educação e monitorização por telefone de pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca: ensaio clínico randomizado Educación y monitoreo por teléfono de pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca: ensayo clínico randomizado Education and telephone monitoring by nurses of patients with heart failure: randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda B Domingues

    2011-03-01

    morbidity and mortality. However, combining intra-hospital education with telephone contact after hospital discharge has been little explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare two nursing intervention groups among patients hospitalized due to decompensated HF: the intervention group (IG received educational nursing intervention during hospitalization followed by telephone monitoring after discharge and the control group (CG received in-hospital intervention only. Outcomes were levels of HF and self-care knowledge, the frequency of visits to the emergency room, rehospitalizations and deaths in a three-month period. METHODS: Randomized clinical trial. We studied adult HF patients with left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF < 45% who could be contacted by telephone after discharge. HF awareness was evaluated through a standardized questionnaire that also included questions regarding self-care knowledge, which was answered during the hospitalization period and three months later. For patients in the IG group contacts were made using phone calls and final interviews were conducted in both groups at end of the study. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were assigned to the IG and 63 to the CG. Mean age (63 ± 13 years and L (around 29% were similar in the two groups. Scores for HF and self-care knowledge were similar at baseline. Three months later, both groups showed significantly improved HF awareness and self-care knowledge scores (P < 0.001. Other outcomes were similar. CONCLUSION: An in-hospital educational nursing intervention benefitted all HF patients in understanding their disease, regardless of telephone contact after discharge.

  20. Effects of Using Licensed Practical Nurses to Assist with Telephone Consultation Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiley, Jennifer L

    2006-01-01

    .... The study compared means of pre- and post-implementation provider overall job satisfaction, provider satisfaction with the telephone consult process, average daily hours providers spent on telephone...

  1. A Trial of Telephone Support Services to Prevent Further Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jack; Scribano, Philip V; Marshall, Jessica; Nadkarni, Radha; Hayes, John; Kelleher, Kelly J

    2015-12-01

    We conducted a randomized-controlled trial of telephone support services (TSS) versus enhanced usual care (EUC) for women who had reported intimate partner violence (IPV) within the past year during a visit to a pediatric emergency department. TSS nurse interventionists identified appropriate referrals to community programs, helped participants by problem-solving barriers to obtaining these local services, and provided social support. Three hundred women, ages 18 years and above were recruited. The TSS and EUC groups did not differ on any outcome variable, including IPV victimization, feelings of chronic vulnerability to a perpetrator, depressive symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A randomized trial of a DWI intervention program for first offenders: intervention outcomes and interactions with antisocial personality disorder among a primarily American-Indian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, W Gill; Delaney, Harold D; Kunitz, Stephen J; Westerberg, Verner S; Zhao, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    Randomized trial evidence on the effectiveness of incarceration and treatment of first-time driving while intoxicated (DWI) offenders who are primarily American Indian has yet to be reported in the literature on DWI prevention. Further, research has confirmed the association of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) with problems with alcohol including DWI. A randomized clinical trial was conducted, in conjunction with 28 days of incarceration, of a treatment program incorporating motivational interviewing principles for first-time DWI offenders. The sample of 305 offenders including 52 diagnosed as ASPD by the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were assessed before assignment to conditions and at 6, 12, and 24 months after discharge. Self-reported frequency of drinking and driving as well as various measures of drinking over the preceding 90 days were available at all assessments for 244 participants. Further, DWI rearrest data for 274 participants were available for analysis. Participants randomized to receive the first offender incarceration and treatment program reported greater reductions in alcohol consumption from baseline levels when compared with participants who were only incarcerated. Antisocial personality disorder participants reported heavier and more frequent drinking but showed significantly greater declines in drinking from intake to posttreatment assessments. Further, the treatment resulted in larger effects relative to the control on ASPD than non-ASPD participants. Nonconfrontational treatment may significantly enhance outcomes for DWI offenders with ASPD when delivered in an incarcerated setting, and in the present study, such effects were found in a primarily American-Indian sample.

  3. Assessing differences in groups randomized by recruitment chain in a respondent-driven sample of Seattle-area injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Richard D; Thiede, Hanne

    2014-11-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a form of peer-based study recruitment and analysis that incorporates features designed to limit and adjust for biases in traditional snowball sampling. It is being widely used in studies of hidden populations. We report an empirical evaluation of RDS's consistency and variability, comparing groups recruited contemporaneously, by identical methods and using identical survey instruments. We randomized recruitment chains from the RDS-based 2012 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance survey of injection drug users in the Seattle area into two groups and compared them in terms of sociodemographic characteristics, drug-associated risk behaviors, sexual risk behaviors, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and HIV testing frequency. The two groups differed in five of the 18 variables examined (P ≤ .001): race (e.g., 60% white vs. 47%), gender (52% male vs. 67%), area of residence (32% downtown Seattle vs. 44%), an HIV test in the previous 12 months (51% vs. 38%). The difference in serologic HIV status was particularly pronounced (4% positive vs. 18%). In four further randomizations, differences in one to five variables attained this level of significance, although the specific variables involved differed. We found some material differences between the randomized groups. Although the variability of the present study was less than has been reported in serial RDS surveys, these findings indicate caution in the interpretation of RDS results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Telephone screening for mild cognitive impairment in hispanics using the Alzheimer's questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ricardo; Velez, Carlos E; Royall, Donald R

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: There is a need for a simple and reliable screening test to detect individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The authors analyzed the relationship between performance of the Alzheimer's Questionnaire (AQ), an informant-rated measure of dementia-related behaviors, relative to the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status-modified (TICS-m), Memory Impairment Scale-telephone version (MIS-t), and the Telephone Executive Assessment (TEXAS) as predictors of MCI. Comparative cross-sectional design, with data collected from participants in the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium's (TARCC) San Antonio site. One-hundred percent of our sample was Hispanic. The San Antonio subset of TARCC sample is highly enriched with Mexican Americans (MAs). Fifty-five percent of the interviews were conducted in Spanish. Of the 184 persons enrolled, 124 were normal controls (NCs), and 60 participants had MCI. MCI status and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) were determined through clinical consensus and performed blind to telephone assessments. Controlling for age, gender, education, and language of interview, the association between telephone measures and CDR-SOB was evaluated by multivariate regression. AQ scores were not affected by education, gender, and language of interview, but subject's age did show a positive correlation with informant AQ ratings. The AQ predicted CDR-SOB independently of the cognitive measures, adding variance above and beyond demographics. The TICS-m and the TEXAS appear to have additive value in improving the detection of cognitively impaired patients. The MIS-t failed to contribute significantly to CDR-SOB, independent of the other measures. The AQ may have utility as a culture-fair telephone screening for MCI. The AQ was able to modestly distinguish MCI from NCs. The TEXAS adds variance to a model of dementia severity independent of the AQ, suggesting that the latter may weakly assess that

  5. Computed tomography of the brain, hepatotoxic drugs and high alcohol consumption in male alcoholic patients and a random sample from the general male population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muetzell, S. (Univ. Hospital of Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Family Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was performed in a random sample of a total of 195 men and 211 male alcoholic patients admitted for the first time during a period of two years from the same geographically limited area of Greater Stockholm as the sample. Laboratory tests were performed, including liver and pancreatic tests. Toxicological screening was performed and the consumption of hepatotoxic drugs was also investigated. The groups were then subdivided with respect to alcohol consumption and use of hepatotoxic drugs: group IA, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption and no use of hepatotoxic drugs; IB, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption with use of hepatotoxic drugs; IIA, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and no drugs; and IIB, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and drugs. Group IIB was found to have a higher incidence of cortical and subcortical changes than group IA. Group IB had a higher incidence of subcortical changes than group IA, and they differed only in drug use. Groups IIN and IIA only differed in drug use, and IIB had a higher incidence of brian damage except for anterior horn index and wide cerebellar sulci indicating vermian atrophy. Significantly higher serum levels of bilirubin, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CK LD, and amylase were found in IIB. The results indicate that drug use influences the incidence of cortical and subcortical aberrations, except anterior horn index. It is concluded that the groups with alcohol abuse who used hepatotoxic drugs showed a picture of cortical changes (wide transport sulci and clear-cut of high-grade cortical changes) and also of subcortical aberrations, expressed as an increased widening on the third ventricle.

  6. Computed tomography of the brain, hepatotoxic drugs and high alcohol consumption in male alcoholic patients and a random sample from the general male population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muetzell, S.

    1992-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the brain was performed in a random sample of a total of 195 men and 211 male alcoholic patients admitted for the first time during a period of two years from the same geographically limited area of Greater Stockholm as the sample. Laboratory tests were performed, including liver and pancreatic tests. Toxicological screening was performed and the consumption of hepatotoxic drugs was also investigated. The groups were then subdivided with respect to alcohol consumption and use of hepatotoxic drugs: group IA, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption and no use of hepatotoxic drugs; IB, men from the random sample with low or moderate alcohol consumption with use of hepatotoxic drugs; IIA, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and no drugs; and IIB, alcoholic inpatients with use of alcohol and drugs. Group IIB was found to have a higher incidence of cortical and subcortical changes than group IA. Group IB had a higher incidence of subcortical changes than group IA, and they differed only in drug use. Groups IIN and IIA only differed in drug use, and IIB had a higher incidence of brian damage except for anterior horn index and wide cerebellar sulci indicating vermian atrophy. Significantly higher serum levels of bilirubin, GGT, ASAT, ALAT, CK LD, and amylase were found in IIB. The results indicate that drug use influences the incidence of cortical and subcortical aberrations, except anterior horn index. It is concluded that the groups with alcohol abuse who used hepatotoxic drugs showed a picture of cortical changes (wide transport sulci and clear-cut of high-grade cortical changes) and also of subcortical aberrations, expressed as an increased widening on the third ventricle

  7. Inclusion of mobile telephone numbers into an ongoing population health survey in New South Wales, Australia, using an overlapping dual-frame design: impact on the time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Margo L; Ferguson, Raymond A; Steel, David G

    2014-08-12

    Since 1997, the NSW Population Health Survey (NSWPHS) had selected the sample using random digit dialing of landline telephone numbers. When the survey began coverage of the population by landline phone frames was high (96%). As landline coverage in Australia has declined and continues to do so, in 2012, a sample of mobile telephone numbers was added to the survey using an overlapping dual-frame design. Details of the methodology are published elsewhere. This paper discusses the impacts of the sampling frame change on the time series, and provides possible approaches to handling these impacts. Prevalence estimates were calculated for type of phone-use, and a range of health indicators. Prevalence ratios (PR) for each of the health indicators were also calculated using Poisson regression analysis with robust variance estimation by type of phone-use. Health estimates for 2012 were compared to 2011. The full time series was examined for selected health indicators. It was estimated from the 2012 NSWPHS that 20.0% of the NSW population were mobile-only phone users. Looking at the full time series for overweight or obese and current smoking if the NSWPHS had continued to be undertaken only using a landline frame, overweight or obese would have been shown to continue to increase and current smoking would have been shown to continue to decrease. However, with the introduction of the overlapping dual-frame design in 2012, overweight or obese increased until 2011 and then decreased in 2012, and current smoking decreased until 2011, and then increased in 2012. Our examination of these time series showed that the changes were a consequence of the sampling frame change and were not real changes. Both the backcasting method and the minimal coverage method could adequately adjust for the design change and allow for the continuation of the time series. The inclusion of the mobile telephone numbers, through an overlapping dual-frame design, did impact on the time series for some of

  8. Predictors of poor retention on antiretroviral therapy as a major HIV drug resistance early warning indicator in Cameroon: results from a nationwide systematic random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billong, Serge Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Penda, Calixte Ida; Amadou, Salmon; Kob, David Same; Billong, Edson-Joan; Colizzi, Vittorio; Ndjolo, Alexis; Bisseck, Anne-Cecile Zoung-Kani; Elat, Jean-Bosco Nfetam

    2016-11-15

    Retention on lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential in sustaining treatment success while preventing HIV drug resistance (HIVDR), especially in resource-limited settings (RLS). In an era of rising numbers of patients on ART, mastering patients in care is becoming more strategic for programmatic interventions. Due to lapses and uncertainty with the current WHO sampling approach in Cameroon, we thus aimed to ascertain the national performance of, and determinants in, retention on ART at 12 months. Using a systematic random sampling, a survey was conducted in the ten regions (56 sites) of Cameroon, within the "reporting period" of October 2013-November 2014, enrolling 5005 eligible adults and children. Performance in retention on ART at 12 months was interpreted following the definition of HIVDR early warning indicator: excellent (>85%), fair (85-75%), poor (sampling strategy could be further strengthened for informed ART monitoring and HIVDR prevention perspectives.

  9. An econometric method for estimating population parameters from non-random samples: An application to clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Rulof P; McLaren, Zoë M

    2017-09-01

    The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision. We use a generalized method of moments with instrumental variables and maximum likelihood to estimate the population prevalence of the characteristic of interest and the agents' accuracy in identifying targets. We apply this method to tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide. We use a national database of TB test data from South Africa to examine testing for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Approximately one quarter of MDR-TB cases was undiagnosed between 2004 and 2010. The official estimate of 2.5% is therefore too low, and MDR-TB prevalence is as high as 3.5%. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be between 0.5 and 1. Our approach is widely applicable because of the availability of routinely collected data and abundance of potential instruments. Using routinely collected data to monitor population prevalence can guide evidence-based policy making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle sampling with or without suction for better cytological diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puri, Rajesh; Vilmann, Peter; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    ). The samples were characterized for cellularity and bloodiness, with a final cytology diagnosis established blindly. The final diagnosis was reached either by EUS-FNA if malignancy was definite, or by surgery and/or clinical follow-up of a minimum of 6 months in the cases of non-specific benign lesions...

  11. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagi Ariel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately . In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in of the test utterances.

  12. Bandwidth Extension of Telephone Speech Aided by Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Malah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for bandwidth extension of telephone speech, aided by data embedding, is presented. The proposed system uses the transmitted analog narrowband speech signal as a carrier of the side information needed to carry out the bandwidth extension. The upper band of the wideband speech is reconstructed at the receiving end from two components: a synthetic wideband excitation signal, generated from the narrowband telephone speech and a wideband spectral envelope, parametrically represented and transmitted as embedded data in the telephone speech. We propose a novel data embedding scheme, in which the scalar Costa scheme is combined with an auditory masking model allowing high rate transparent embedding, while maintaining a low bit error rate. The signal is transformed to the frequency domain via the discrete Hartley transform (DHT and is partitioned into subbands. Data is embedded in an adaptively chosen subset of subbands by modifying the DHT coefficients. In our simulations, high quality wideband speech was obtained from speech transmitted over a telephone line (characterized by spectral magnitude distortion, dispersion, and noise, in which side information data is transparently embedded at the rate of 600 information bits/second and with a bit error rate of approximately 3⋅10−4. In a listening test, the reconstructed wideband speech was preferred (at different degrees over conventional telephone speech in 92.5% of the test utterances.

  13. Telephone Crisis Support Workers' Psychological Distress and Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchingman, Taneile A; Wilson, Coralie J; Caputi, Peter; Wilson, Ian; Woodward, Alan

    2018-01-01

    In order to respond to crises with appropriate intervention, crisis workers are required to manage their own needs as well as the needs of those they respond to. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine whether telephone crisis support workers experience elevated symptoms of psychological distress and are impaired by elevated symptoms. Studies were identified in April 2015 by searching three databases, conducting a gray literature search, and forward and backward citation chaining. Of 113 identified studies, seven were included in the review. Results suggest that that telephone crisis support workers experience symptoms of vicarious traumatization, stress, burnout, and psychiatric disorders, and that they may not respond optimally to callers when experiencing elevated symptoms of distress. However, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn due to the paucity and methodological limitations of available data. While the most comprehensive search strategy possible was adopted, resource constraints meant that conference abstracts were not searched and authors were not contacted for additional unpublished information. There is an urgent need to identify the impact of telephone crisis support workers' role on their well-being, the determinants of worker well-being in the telephone crisis support context, and the extent to which well-being impacts their performance and caller outcomes. This will help inform strategies to optimize telephone crisis support workers' well-being and their delivery of support to callers.

  14. Can smartphones enhance telephone-based cognitive assessment (TBCA)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Rick Yiu-Cho; Lai, Claudia Kam-Yuk

    2013-12-12

    TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then discuss the recent developments in tele-technology, the popularity of tele-technology among the elderly, potential benefits and challenges in using smartphones for cognitive assessment, and possible future developments in this technology. In the systematic review, eighteen TBCA instruments were identified. They were found to be valid in differentiating between people with and without dementia. TBCA was previously found to be launched on a conventional telephone platform. The advances in understanding of cognitive impairment may demand that telephones be equipped with more advanced features. Recently, the development and penetration of smartphones among the elderly has been rapid. This may allow the smartphone to enhance its TBCA applicability by overcoming the limitations of the conventional telephone, rendering the TBCA more efficient in addressing the increasing demand and complexity of cognitive assessments in the future. However, more research and technology developments are needed before smartphones can become a valid platform for TBCA.

  15. Can Smartphones Enhance Telephone-Based Cognitive Assessment (TBCA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Yiu-Cho Kwan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available TBCA has emerged to solve the limitations of administering cognitive assessments face-to-face. The recent development of telephones and knowledge advances in the area of cognitive impairment may affect the development of TBCA. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how smartphones can be used to enhance the applicability of TBCA, which has previously been administered by conventional telephone. This paper will first review, describe and critique the existing TBCA instruments. It will then discuss the recent developments in tele-technology, the popularity of tele-technology among the elderly, potential benefits and challenges in using smartphones for cognitive assessment, and possible future developments in this technology. In the systematic review, eighteen TBCA instruments were identified. They were found to be valid in differentiating between people with and without dementia. TBCA was previously found to be launched on a conventional telephone platform. The advances in understanding of cognitive impairment may demand that telephones be equipped with more advanced features. Recently, the development and penetration of smartphones among the elderly has been rapid. This may allow the smartphone to enhance its TBCA applicability by overcoming the limitations of the conventional telephone, rendering the TBCA more efficient in addressing the increasing demand and complexity of cognitive assessments in the future. However, more research and technology developments are needed before smartphones can become a valid platform for TBCA.

  16. A novel approach to non-biased systematic random sampling: a stereologic estimate of Purkinje cells in the human cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashiwala, Rajiv M; Louis, Elan D; Hof, Patrick R; Perl, Daniel P

    2008-10-21

    Non-biased systematic sampling using the principles of stereology provides accurate quantitative estimates of objects within neuroanatomic structures. However, the basic principles of stereology are not optimally suited for counting objects that selectively exist within a limited but complex and convoluted portion of the sample, such as occurs when counting cerebellar Purkinje cells. In an effort to quantify Purkinje cells in association with certain neurodegenerative disorders, we developed a new method for stereologic sampling of the cerebellar cortex, involving calculating the volume of the cerebellar tissues, identifying and isolating the Purkinje cell layer and using this information to extrapolate non-biased systematic sampling data to estimate the total number of Purkinje cells in the tissues. Using this approach, we counted Purkinje cells in the right cerebella of four human male control specimens, aged 41, 67, 70 and 84 years, and estimated the total Purkinje cell number for the four entire cerebella to be 27.03, 19.74, 20.44 and 22.03 million cells, respectively. The precision of the method is seen when comparing the density of the cells within the tissue: 266,274, 173,166, 167,603 and 183,575 cells/cm3, respectively. Prior literature documents Purkinje cell counts ranging from 14.8 to 30.5 million cells. These data demonstrate the accuracy of our approach. Our novel approach, which offers an improvement over previous methodologies, is of value for quantitative work of this nature. This approach could be applied to morphometric studies of other similarly complex tissues as well.

  17. Long-term effectiveness of telephone-based health coaching for heart failure patients: A post-only randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Michel; Dwinger, Sarah; Herbarth, Lutz; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2017-09-01

    Introduction The * Equal contributors. health-status of heart failure patients can be improved to some extent by disease self-management. One method of developing such skills is telephone-based health coaching. However, the effects of telephone-based health coaching remain inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of telephone-based health coaching for people with heart failure. Methods A total sample of 7186 patients with various chronic diseases was randomly assigned to either the coaching or the control group. Then 184 patients with heart failure were selected by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 code for subgroup analysis. Data were collected at 24 and 48 months after the beginning of the coaching. The primary outcome was change in quality of life. Secondary outcomes were changes in depression and anxiety, health-related control beliefs, control preference, health risk behaviour and health-related behaviours. Statistical analyses included a per-protocol evaluation, employing analysis of variance and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) as well as Mann-Whitney U tests. Results Participants' average age was 73 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9) and the majority were women (52.8%). In ANCOVA analyses there were no significant differences between groups for the change in quality of life (QoL) . However, the coaching group reported a significantly higher level of physical activity ( p = 0.03), lower intake of non-prescribed drugs ( p = 0.04) and lower levels of stress ( p = 0.02) than the control group. Mann-Whitney U tests showed a different external locus of control ( p = 0.014), and higher reduction in unhealthy nutrition ( p = 0.019), physical inactivity ( p = 0.004) and stress ( p = 0.028). Discussion Our results suggest that telephone-based health coaching has no effect on QoL, anxiety and depression of heart failure patients, but helps in improving certain risk behaviours and changes the locus

  18. A 3-Arm randomised controlled trial of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants to prevent childhood obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ming Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With an increasing prevalence of obesity in young children globally, there is an urgent need for the development of effective early interventions. A previous Healthy Beginnings Trial using a nurse-led home visiting program has demonstrated that providing mothers with evidence-based advice can improve maternal practice regarding obesity prevention, and can reduce Body Mass Index (BMI in the first few years of life. However, the costs for scale-up of home visiting limit its population reach. This trial aims to determine the efficacy of Communicating Healthy Beginnings Advice by Telephone (CHAT to mothers with infants in improving infant feeding practices and preventing the early onset of childhood overweight and obesity. Methods/Design We propose a 3-arm randomised controlled trial (RCT with a consecutive sample of 1056 mothers with their newborn children in New South Wales (NSW Australia. Pregnant women who are between weeks 28 and 34 of their pregnancy will be invited to participate in the CHAT trial. Informed consent will be obtained, and after baseline data collection, participants will be randomly allocated to the telephone intervention, text messaging intervention, or the control group. The intervention comprises telephone consultations or text messages, together with 6 intervention packages being mailed at specific times from the third trimester of pregnancy until 12 months post birth. The main trial outcome measures include a duration of breastfeeding, b timing of introduction of solids, c nutrition behaviours, physical activity and television viewing, and d weight and BMI z-score at 12 and 24 months, e cost-effectiveness, as well as f feasibility and acceptability of the interventions. Discussion The results will ascertain whether early intervention using telephone consultation or text messaging together with staged mailed intervention resources can be feasible and effective in improving infant feeding practices

  19. Telephone-administered psychotherapy in combination with antidepressant medication for the acute treatment of major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corruble, Emmanuelle; Swartz, Holly A; Bottai, Thierry; Vaiva, Guillaume; Bayle, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel; Courtet, Philippe; Frank, Ellen; Gorwood, Philip

    2016-01-15

    Telephone-administered psychotherapies (T-P) provided as an adjunct to antidepressant medication may improve response rates in major depressive disorder (MDD). The goal of this study was to compare telephone-administered social rhythm therapy (T-SRT) and telephone-administered intensive clinical management (T-ICM) as adjuncts to antidepressant medication for MDD. A secondary goal was to compare T-P with Treatment as Usual (TAU) as adjunctive treatment to medication for MDD. 221 adult out-patients with MDD, currently depressed, were randomly assigned to 8 sessions of weekly T-SRT (n=110) or T-ICM (n=111), administered as an adjunct to agomelatine. Both psychotherapies were administered entirely by telephone, by trained psychologists who were blind to other aspects of treatment. The 221 patients were a posteriori matched with 221 depressed outpatients receiving TAU (controls). The primary outcome measure was the percentage of responders at 8 weeks post-treatment. No significant differences were found between T-SRT and T-ICM. But T-P was associated with higher response rates (65.4% vs 54.8%, p=0.02) and a trend toward higher remission rates (33.2% vs 25.1%; p=0.06) compared to TAU. Short term study. This study is the first assessing the short-term effects of an add-on, brief, telephone-administered psychotherapy in depressed patients treated with antidepressant medication. Eight sessions of weekly telephone-delivered psychotherapy as an adjunct to antidepressant medication resulted in improved response rates relative to medication alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventilatory Function in Relation to Mining Experience and Smoking in a Random Sample of Miners and Non-miners in a Witwatersrand Town1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluis-Cremer, G. K.; Walters, L. G.; Sichel, H. S.

    1967-01-01

    The ventilatory capacity of a random sample of men over the age of 35 years in the town of Carletonville was estimated by the forced expiratory volume and the peak expiratory flow rate. Five hundred and sixty-two persons were working or had worked in gold-mines and 265 had never worked in gold-mines. No difference in ventilatory function was found between the miners and non-miners other than that due to the excess of chronic bronchitis in miners. PMID:6017134

  1. Telephone-based physical activity counseling for major depression in people with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardier, Charles H; Ehde, Dawn M; Gibbons, Laura E; Wadhwani, Roini; Sullivan, Mark D; Rosenberg, Dori E; Kraft, George H

    2013-02-01

    Physical activity represents a promising treatment for major depressive disorder (MDD) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). We conducted a single-blind, two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing a 12-week physical activity counseling intervention delivered primarily by telephone (n = 44) to a wait-list control group (N = 48). Ninety-two adults with MS and MDD or dysthymia (M(age) = 48 years; 86% female, 92% White) completed an in-person baseline assessment and were randomized to wait-list control or an intervention involving motivational-interviewing-based promotion of physical activity. The treatment group received an initial in-person session; 7 telephone counseling sessions (Weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10), and an in-person session at Week 12. The primary outcome, treatment response, was defined as those with 50% or greater reduction in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Our primary hypothesis, that the proportion of responders in the treatment group would be significantly greater than in the control group, was not confirmed. However, compared with the control group, those in the treatment group evidenced significantly lower depression severity on the HAM-D, on self-reported depression, and on a measure of potential side effects and at 12 weeks were less likely to meet the criteria for MDD as set forth in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Physical activity increased significantly more in the treatment condition, though it did not mediate improvement in depression severity. Telephone-based physical activity promotion represents a promising approach to treating MDD in MS. Further research is warranted on ways to bolster the impact of the intervention and on mediators of the treatment effect.

  2. Telephone based weight loss intervention: Relevance for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayisi Addo, Sandra; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda

    2018-02-08

    Obesity is a major public health challenge not only for developed but developing countries as well. The World Health Organization recommends the immediate use of effective, efficient and widely accessible weight loss interventions. Telephone based weight loss intervention could provide a cheaper and wider reach of obese participants. Previous systematic reviews on telephone based weight loss interventions either excluded studies that had obese participants with co-morbidities or were silent on their inclusion. Obese/overweight individuals with co-morbidities constitute an important population in any weight loss intervention study due to the strong association of obesity with major chronic health conditions. This paper, reviews the efficacy of telephone based weight loss intervention solely in overweight/obese individuals with obesity related diseases and discusses its relevance for developing countries.

  3. Cordless telephone use: implications for mobile phone research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Inyang, Imo; Dimitriadis, Christina; Benke, Geza; Abramson, Michael J

    2010-04-01

    Cordless and mobile (cellular) telephone use has increased substantially in recent years causing concerns about possible health effects. This has led to much epidemiological research, but the usual focus is on mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) exposure only despite cordless RF being very similar. Access to and use of cordless phones were included in the Mobile Radiofrequency Phone Exposed Users Study (MoRPhEUS) of 317 Year 7 students recruited from Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed an exposure questionnaire-87% had a cordless phone at home and 77% owned a mobile phone. There was a statistically significant positive relationship (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) between cordless and mobile phone use. Taken together, this increases total RF exposure and its ratio in high-to-low mobile users. Therefore, the design and analysis of future epidemiological telecommunication studies need to assess cordless phone exposure to accurately evaluate total RF telephone exposure effects.

  4. The influence of worksite and employee variables on employee engagement in telephonic health coaching programs: a retrospective multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmeier, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed 11 determinants of health coaching program participation. A cross-sectional study design used secondary data to assess the role of six employee-level and five worksite-level variables on telephone-based coaching enrollment, active participation, and completion. Data was provided by a national provider of worksite health promotion program services for employers. A random sample of 34,291 employees from 52 companies was selected for inclusion in the study. Survey-based measures included age, gender, job type, health risk status, tobacco risk, social support, financial incentives, comprehensive communications, senior leadership support, cultural support, and comprehensive program design. Gender-stratified multivariate logistic regression models were applied using backwards elimination procedures to yield parsimonious prediction models for each of the dependent variables. Employees were more likely to enroll in coaching programs if they were older, female, and in poorer health, and if they were at worksites with fewer environmental supports for health, clear financial incentives for participation in coaching, more comprehensive communications, and more comprehensive programs. Once employees were enrolled, program completion was greater among those who were older, did not use tobacco, worked at a company with strong communications, and had fewer environmental supports for health. Both worksite-level and employee-level factors have significant influences on health coaching engagement, and there are gender differences in the strength of these predictors.

  5. Monitoring of risk and protective factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey in Brazilian State Capitals, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; da Silva, Sara Araújo; de Oliveira, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos; Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Bernal, Regina Tomie Ivata; Sardinha, Luciana Monteiro Vasconcelos; Moura, Lenildo de

    2012-09-01

    To estimate the prevalence of protective and risk factors for the most important chronic non communicable diseases in all Brazilian capitals, including the Federal District. Data used were collected in 2008 through VIGITEL, an ongoing population-based telephone survey surveillance system implemented in all Brazilian State capitals since 2006. In 2008, over 54,000 interviews were completed over the phone with a random sample of individuals living in all 27 capitals. The analyses showed differences in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases by demographic characteristics such as gender, age and schooling. Men were more likely to be current smokers, overweight, and consumers of soft drinks, fatty meat and alcohol. They were also more likely to be more active in leisure. Women reported being more likely to eat healthy, but also were more likely to have a physician diagnosis of high blood pressure, dyslipidemia, osteoporosis and overall poor health status. In general, the prevalence of risk factors studied increased with decreasing levels of schooling. The VIGITEL system was implemented to monitor changes in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases over time to inform public health workers and decision makers to adjust existing programs and policies according to the changing profile of consumers. The ultimate goal is to improve the health of the Brazilian population.

  6. Job strain and resting heart rate: a cross-sectional study in a Swedish random working sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Eriksson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous studies have reported an association between stressing work conditions and cardiovascular disease. However, more evidence is needed, and the etiological mechanisms are unknown. Elevated resting heart rate has emerged as a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but little is known about the relation to work-related stress. This study therefore investigated the association between job strain, job control, and job demands and resting heart rate. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected men and women in Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden (West county of Sweden (n = 1552. Information about job strain, job demands, job control, heart rate and covariates was collected during the period 2001–2004 as part of the INTERGENE/ADONIX research project. Six different linear regression models were used with adjustments for gender, age, BMI, smoking, education, and physical activity in the fully adjusted model. Job strain was operationalized as the log-transformed ratio of job demands over job control in the statistical analyses. Results No associations were seen between resting heart rate and job demands. Job strain was associated with elevated resting heart rate in the unadjusted model (linear regression coefficient 1.26, 95 % CI 0.14 to 2.38, but not in any of the extended models. Low job control was associated with elevated resting heart rate after adjustments for gender, age, BMI, and smoking (linear regression coefficient −0.18, 95 % CI −0.30 to −0.02. However, there were no significant associations in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions Low job control and job strain, but not job demands, were associated with elevated resting heart rate. However, the observed associations were modest and may be explained by confounding effects.

  7. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  8. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%, who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ≥ 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month. Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2 of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358

  10. Sampling and assessment accuracy in mate choice: a random-walk model of information processing in mating decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Sergio; Cermelli, Paolo

    2011-04-07

    Mate choice depends on mating preferences and on the manner in which mate-quality information is acquired and used to make decisions. We present a model that describes how these two components of mating decision interact with each other during a comparative evaluation of prospective mates. The model, with its well-explored precedents in psychology and neurophysiology, assumes that decisions are made by the integration over time of noisy information until a stopping-rule criterion is reached. Due to this informational approach, the model builds a coherent theoretical framework for developing an integrated view of functions and mechanisms of mating decisions. From a functional point of view, the model allows us to investigate speed-accuracy tradeoffs in mating decision at both population and individual levels. It shows that, under strong time constraints, decision makers are expected to make fast and frugal decisions and to optimally trade off population-sampling accuracy (i.e. the number of sampled males) against individual-assessment accuracy (i.e. the time spent for evaluating each mate). From the proximate-mechanism point of view, the model makes testable predictions on the interactions of mating preferences and choosiness in different contexts and it might be of compelling empirical utility for a context-independent description of mating preference strength. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Maintenance of the telephone exchange in building 40

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In order to secure the power supply of the telephone exchange in building 40, a maintenance will be done on the 18th of December from 7.30 am to 8 am. During this intervention, the fixed telephony services in building 39 and 40 will be interrupted. The fixed telephony services in other CERN buildings won't be affected by this maintenance. The mobile telephony services (GSM) won't be affected. For more details, please send your questions to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch Telecom Services IT/CS

  12. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Fredrik

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.

  13. Novel approach to systematic random sampling in population surveys: Lessons from the United Arab Emirates National Diabetes Study (UAEDIAB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Nabil; Albadawi, Salah; Abusnana, Salah; Fikri, Mahmoud; Madani, Abdulrazzag; Mairghani, Maisoon; Alawadi, Fatheya; Zimmet, Paul; Shaw, Jonathan

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has risen rapidly in the Middle East, particularly in the Gulf Region. However, some prevalence estimates have not fully accounted for large migrant worker populations and have focused on minority indigenous populations. The objectives of the UAE National Diabetes and Lifestyle Study are to: (i) define the prevalence of, and risk factors for, T2DM; (ii) describe the distribution and determinants of T2DM risk factors; (iii) study health knowledge, attitudes, and (iv) identify gene-environment interactions; and (v) develop baseline data for evaluation of future intervention programs. Given the high burden of diabetes in the region and the absence of accurate data on non-UAE nationals in the UAE, a representative sample of the non-UAE nationals was essential. We used an innovative methodology in which non-UAE nationals were sampled when attending the mandatory biannual health check that is required for visa renewal. Such an approach could also be used in other countries in the region. Complete data were available for 2719 eligible non-UAE nationals (25.9% Arabs, 70.7% Asian non-Arabs, 1.1% African non-Arabs, and 2.3% Westerners). Most were men < 65 years of age. The response rate was 68%, and the non-response was greater among women than men; 26.9% earned less than UAE Dirham (AED) 24 000 (US$6500) and the most common areas of employment were as managers or professionals, in service and sales, and unskilled occupations. Most (37.4%) had completed high school and 4.1% had a postgraduate degree. This novel methodology could provide insights for epidemiological studies in the UAE and other Gulf States, particularly for expatriates. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Address-based versus random-digit-dial surveys: comparison of key health and risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Michael W; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R; Osborn, Larry; Mokdad, Ali H

    2006-11-15

    Use of random-digit dialing (RDD) for conducting health surveys is increasingly problematic because of declining participation rates and eroding frame coverage. Alternative survey modes and sampling frames may improve response rates and increase the validity of survey estimates. In a 2005 pilot study conducted in six states as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the authors administered a mail survey to selected household members sampled from addresses in a US Postal Service database. The authors compared estimates based on data from the completed mail surveys (n = 3,010) with those from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System telephone surveys (n = 18,780). The mail survey data appeared reasonably complete, and estimates based on data from the two survey modes were largely equivalent. Differences found, such as differences in the estimated prevalences of binge drinking (mail = 20.3%, telephone = 13.1%) or behaviors linked to human immunodeficiency virus transmission (mail = 7.1%, telephone = 4.2%), were consistent with previous research showing that, for questions about sensitive behaviors, self-administered surveys generally produce higher estimates than interviewer-administered surveys. The mail survey also provided access to cell-phone-only households and households without telephones, which cannot be reached by means of standard RDD surveys.

  15. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  16. Missing citations due to exact reference matching: Analysis of a random sample from WoS. Are publications from peripheral countries disadvantaged?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donner, P.

    2016-07-01

    Citation counts of scientific research contributions are one fundamental data in scientometrics. Accuracy and completeness of citation links are therefore crucial data quality issues (Moed, 2005, Ch. 13). However, despite the known flaws of reference matching algorithms, usually no attempts are made to incorporate uncertainty about citation counts into indicators. This study is a step towards that goal. Particular attention is paid to the question whether publications from countries not using basic Latin script are differently affected by missed citations. The proprietary reference matching procedure of Web of Science (WoS) is based on (near) exact agreement of cited reference data (normalized during processing) to the target papers bibliographical data. Consequently, the procedure has near-optimal precision but incomplete recall - it is known to miss some slightly inaccurate reference links (Olensky, 2015). However, there has been no attempt so far to estimate the rate of missed citations by a principled method for a random sample. For this study a simple random sample of WoS source papers was drawn and it was attempted to find all reference strings of WoS indexed documents that refer to them, in particular inexact matches. The objective is to give a statistical estimate of the proportion of missed citations and to describe the relationship of the number of found citations to the number of missed citations, i.e. the conditional error distribution. The empirical error distribution is statistically analyzed and modelled. (Author)

  17. Positive random variables with a discrete probability mass at the origin: Parameter estimation for left-censored samples with application to air quality monitoring data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogolak, C.V.

    1986-11-01

    The concentration of a contaminant measured in a particular medium might be distributed as a positive random variable when it is present, but it may not always be present. If there is a level below which the concentration cannot be distinguished from zero by the analytical apparatus, a sample from such a population will be censored on the left. The presence of both zeros and positive values in the censored portion of such samples complicates the problem of estimating the parameters of the underlying positive random variable and the probability of a zero observation. Using the method of maximum likelihood, it is shown that the solution to this estimation problem reduces largely to that of estimating the parameters of the distribution truncated at the point of censorship. The maximum likelihood estimate of the proportion of zero values follows directly. The derivation of the maximum likelihood estimates for a lognormal population with zeros is given in detail, and the asymptotic properties of the estimates are examined. The estimation method was used to fit several different distributions to a set of severely censored 85 Kr monitoring data from six locations at the Savannah River Plant chemical separations facilities

  18. Can You Hear Me Now? Assessing Students’ Classroom Communication Preferences via a Telephone Conference Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon G. Heilmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Telephone conference presentation delivery was compared to face-to-face classroom delivery in an undergraduate business course setting to assess whether concern over presenting in front of the class and/or gender impacted presentation mode preference. After completing a classroom exercise, students (n=102 were surveyed and asked to compare delivery methods from two courses, one requiring a telephone conference and the other requiring a face-to-face classroom presentation, in terms of perceived effectiveness, feedback, teamwork, instructor cues, preparation time, and overall comfort. Independent sample t-test results indicated respondents who worried about presenting in front of the class believed the telephone conference format required more attention to verbal presentation quality, and they also worried more about presenting in the telephone conference format than respondents who did not worry about presenting in front of the class. In terms of gender, female respondents indicated more attention to visual aid was required during the teleconference format, believed the teleconference presentation format allowed for the same opportunity for feedback from the instructor as the formal presentation, were more likely to indicate they were concerned about speaking in front of the classroom during formal presentations, and were also more concerned about speaking during the teleconference than male respondents. Overall, results indicated the teleconference activity was perceived to be a practical alternative to the traditional face-to-face delivery method; however, females’ perceptions of discomfort across both delivery formats warrant further study. The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government.

  19. The relationship between external and internal validity of randomized controlled trials: A sample of hypertension trials from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Yuxia; Ren, Pengwei; Liu, Xueting; Kang, Deying

    2015-10-30

    To explore the relationship between the external validity and the internal validity of hypertension RCTs conducted in China. Comprehensive literature searches were performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCTR), CBMdisc (Chinese biomedical literature database), CNKI (China National Knowledge Infrastructure/China Academic Journals Full-text Database) and VIP (Chinese scientific journals database) as well as advanced search strategies were used to locate hypertension RCTs. The risk of bias in RCTs was assessed by a modified scale, Jadad scale respectively, and then studies with 3 or more grading scores were included for the purpose of evaluating of external validity. A data extract form including 4 domains and 25 items was used to explore relationship of the external validity and the internal validity. Statistic analyses were performed by using SPSS software, version 21.0 (SPSS, Chicago, IL). 226 hypertension RCTs were included for final analysis. RCTs conducted in university affiliated hospitals (P internal validity. Multi-center studies (median = 4.0, IQR = 2.0) were scored higher internal validity score than single-center studies (median = 3.0, IQR = 1.0) (P internal validity (P = 0.004). Multivariate regression indicated sample size, industry-funding, quality of life (QOL) taken as measure and the university affiliated hospital as trial setting had statistical significance (P external validity of RCTs do associate with the internal validity, that do not stand in an easy relationship to each other. Regarding the poor reporting, other possible links between two variables need to trace in the future methodological researches.

  20. A sero-survey of rinderpest in nomadic pastoral systems in central and southern Somalia from 2002 to 2003, using a spatially integrated random sampling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempia, S; Salman, M D; Keefe, T; Morley, P; Freier, J E; DeMartini, J C; Wamwayi, H M; Njeumi, F; Soumaré, B; Abdi, A M

    2010-12-01

    A cross-sectional sero-survey, using a two-stage cluster sampling design, was conducted between 2002 and 2003 in ten administrative regions of central and southern Somalia, to estimate the seroprevalence and geographic distribution of rinderpest (RP) in the study area, as well as to identify potential risk factors for the observed seroprevalence distribution. The study was also used to test the feasibility of the spatially integrated investigation technique in nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral systems. In the absence of a systematic list of livestock holdings, the primary sampling units were selected by generating random map coordinates. A total of 9,216 serum samples were collected from cattle aged 12 to 36 months at 562 sampling sites. Two apparent clusters of RP seroprevalence were detected. Four potential risk factors associated with the observed seroprevalence were identified: the mobility of cattle herds, the cattle population density, the proximity of cattle herds to cattle trade routes and cattle herd size. Risk maps were then generated to assist in designing more targeted surveillance strategies. The observed seroprevalence in these areas declined over time. In subsequent years, similar seroprevalence studies in neighbouring areas of Kenya and Ethiopia also showed a very low seroprevalence of RP or the absence of antibodies against RP. The progressive decline in RP antibody prevalence is consistent with virus extinction. Verification of freedom from RP infection in the Somali ecosystem is currently in progress.

  1. Sample size adjustments for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with binary outcomes analyzed with second-order PQL mixed logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, Math J J M; Van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2010-06-30

    Adjustments of sample size formulas are given for varying cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials with a binary outcome when testing the treatment effect with mixed effects logistic regression using second-order penalized quasi-likelihood estimation (PQL). Starting from first-order marginal quasi-likelihood (MQL) estimation of the treatment effect, the asymptotic relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes is derived. A Monte Carlo simulation study shows this asymptotic relative efficiency to be rather accurate for realistic sample sizes, when employing second-order PQL. An approximate, simpler formula is presented to estimate the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes when planning a trial. In many cases sampling 14 per cent more clusters is sufficient to repair the efficiency loss due to varying cluster sizes. Since current closed-form formulas for sample size calculation are based on first-order MQL, planning a trial also requires a conversion factor to obtain the variance of the second-order PQL estimator. In a second Monte Carlo study, this conversion factor turned out to be 1.25 at most. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dynamical implications of sample shape for avalanches in 2-dimensional random-field Ising model with saw-tooth domain wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka

    2018-03-01

    We study dynamics of a built-in domain wall (DW) in 2-dimensional disordered ferromagnets with different sample shapes using random-field Ising model on a square lattice rotated by 45 degrees. The saw-tooth DW of the length Lx is created along one side and swept through the sample by slow ramping of the external field until the complete magnetisation reversal and the wall annihilation at the open top boundary at a distance Ly. By fixing the number of spins N =Lx ×Ly = 106 and the random-field distribution at a value above the critical disorder, we vary the ratio of the DW length to the annihilation distance in the range Lx /Ly ∈ [ 1 / 16 , 16 ] . The periodic boundary conditions are applied in the y-direction so that these ratios comprise different samples, i.e., surfaces of cylinders with the changing perimeter Lx and height Ly. We analyse the avalanches of the DW slips between following field updates, and the multifractal structure of the magnetisation fluctuation time series. Our main findings are that the domain-wall lengths materialised in different sample shapes have an impact on the dynamics at all scales. Moreover, the domain-wall motion at the beginning of the hysteresis loop (HLB) probes the disorder effects resulting in the fluctuations that are significantly different from the large avalanches in the central part of the loop (HLC), where the strong fields dominate. Specifically, the fluctuations in HLB exhibit a wide multi-fractal spectrum, which shifts towards higher values of the exponents when the DW length is reduced. The distributions of the avalanches in this segments of the loops obey power-law decay and the exponential cutoffs with the exponents firmly in the mean-field universality class for long DW. In contrast, the avalanches in the HLC obey Tsallis density distribution with the power-law tails which indicate the new categories of the scale invariant behaviour for different ratios Lx /Ly. The large fluctuations in the HLC, on the other

  3. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... attorneys when the inmate demonstrates that communication with attorneys by correspondence, visiting, or... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL...

  4. Telephone versus usual care in management of acute whiplash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whiplash associated disorder (WAD) is a common and costly condition, and recommended management includes advice to “act as usual” and exercise. Providing this treatment through a telephonic intervention may help to improve access to care, and reduce costs. This pilot study assessed: (1) the effectiveness of a ...

  5. 77 FR 34233 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... initiator of the message, to be a nuisance and an invasion of privacy; and (3) individuals' privacy rights... are made by the consumer's loan servicer, because the primary motivation of the calling party is to... challenged as TCPA violations because the primary motivation appears to be sending a telephone solicitation...

  6. AIDS and condoms in Brasilia: a telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chequer, P; VanOss Marín, B; Paiva, L; Hudes, E S; Piazza, T; Rodrigues, L; Hearst, N

    1997-10-01

    A telephone survey was conducted to measure AIDS knowledge, media usage and condom attitudes and behaviors among 500 adults aged 18 to 49 in Brasilia, as well as to evaluate the feasibility of the telephone survey method in a developing country. The response rate was 91.6%. Respondents had good knowledge about correct modes of HIV transmission and prevention but also believed HIV was transmitted through blood donation, public toilets, swimming pools, and mosquito bites. TV and newspapers were the most important sources of information on health matters and AIDS, though health workers were considered the most credible sources of such information. Only 19% of sexual encounters in the 4 weeks prior to the survey included condoms. Single and younger respondents and those with more positive attitudes used condoms more frequently. More work is needed to identify appropriate messages to motivate people to use condoms. Telephone surveys regarding AIDS and sexual attitudes and behaviors are feasible in Brasilia, a planned community with universal telephone coverage.

  7. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall provide interstate transmission or billing and collection services to an entity offering any service within the scope...

  8. 77 FR 66935 - Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 [CG Docket No. 02-278; FCC 12-21] Telephone Consumer Protection Act of 1991 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction...: Karen Johnson, Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau, Consumer Policy Division, at (202) 418- 7706 or...

  9. Applicability of structured telephone monitoring to follow up heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over 90% of the contacted patients gave valuable information regarding their clinical status. Conclusion: Majority of HF patients can be contacted and provide valuable clinical information through mobile phones within a month post discharge from the national hospital in Tanzania. Structured telephone monitoring could be ...

  10. Applicability of structured telephone monitoring to follow up heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pilly Chillo

    Keywords: heart failure, structured telephone, home monitoring, Tanzania ... in a parallel increase in HF admissions and a major impact on health care systems. ... was entered in Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 software for analysis. ..... Failure (DIAL): study design and preliminary observations.

  11. Short Term Group Counseling of Visually Impaired People by Telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguy, Beth M.; Evans, Ron L.

    1983-01-01

    Short term group counseling via the telephone resulted in marked increases in activities of daily living among 12 legally blind veterans. Many subjects' personal coping goals were met as well, and social involvement also increased. No significant changes in levels of depression or agitation were noted. (CL)

  12. An enquiry into the prospects of mobile telephone for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LPhidza

    KEYWORDS: Mobile phones, agricultural information, global system for mobile ... rural services (i.e. agricultural extension) more efficient and cost-effective. 2. ... adoption of mobile telephones, evaluation research has however .... Distribution of respondents by religion. Religion. Frequencies Percentages. Christian. Islam.

  13. Convenience samples and caregiving research: how generalizable are the findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Brill, Jonathan E; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-12-01

    We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and provide care to a community-dwelling older person were recruited using either RDD (N = 55) or convenience methods (N = 87). Telephone interviews were conducted using reliable, valid measures of demographics, characteristics of the care recipient, help provided to the care recipient, evaluations of caregiver-care recipient relationship, and outcomes common to caregiving research. Convenience and RDD samples had similar variances on 68.4% of the examined variables. We found significant mean differences for 63% of the variables examined. Bivariate correlations suggest that one would reach different conclusions using the convenience and RDD sample data sets. Researchers should use convenience samples cautiously, as they may have limited generalizability.

  14. Telephone Care Management of Fall Risk:: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Elizabeth A; Pence, Maureen; Williams, Barbara; MacCornack, Frederick A

    2017-03-01

    Care management has been found to be more effective than usual care for some chronic conditions, but few studies have tested care management for prevention of elder falls. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of telephone care management of older adults presenting for medical attention due to a fall. The setting was an independent practice association in western Washington serving 1,300 Medicare Advantage-insured patients. Patients aged ≥65 years treated for a fall in an emergency department or their primary care provider's office were contacted via telephone by a care manager within 48 hours of their fall-related visit and invited to participate in a telephone-administered interview to identify modifiable fall risk factors and receive recommendations and follow-up to address identified risk factors. Data from care manager records, patient medical records, and healthcare claims for the first 6 months (November 2009-April 2010) of program implementation were analyzed in 2011. The feasibility of screening and management of fall risk factors over the telephone and the effect on medically attended falls were assessed. Twenty-two patients eligible for fall care management were reached and administered the protocol. Administration took 15-20 minutes and integrated easily with the care manager's other responsibilities. Follow-through on recommendations varied, from 45% for those for whom exercise participation was recommended to 100% for other recommendations. No medically attended falls occurred over 6 months of follow-up. Telephone care management of fall risk appears feasible and may reduce falls requiring medical attention. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emergency telephone consultations: a new course for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufelberger, Mireille; Harris, Michael; Frey, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Using the telephone for consultations is now common practice. Although there is a clear need for specific training for telephone consultations, it is uncommon for it to be taught in medical school. A practical course on emergency telephone consultations (ECTs) was designed for the medical degree course at the University of Bern Medical School. During the module, each of the volunteer fifth-year medical students had to perform two simulated telephone consultations. Medical students in their first year of medical school acted as simulated patients (SPs), and they gave immediate feedback to the participants. Nineteen per cent of fifth-year students voluntarily undertook the ETC course. The course was rated 'very informative' by 68 per cent of the participants, and 'informative' by 32 per cent. Ninety-four per cent of the attendees recorded a personal learning gain, and 68 per cent suggested that the course should be obligatory. All the participants thought that the SPs played their roles realistically. In their rating of the ETC, the fifth-year students gave it a mean mark of 5.5 (out of a maximum of 6), suggesting that they thought it had been very successful. Students became aware of their need for ETC training through the course itself, and they recommended that it should be obligatory. The ETC pilot received a highly positive response from lead clinicians who anticipated a rising number of telephone consultations, and who have to deal with trainees who have not been taught about how to deal with ETCs. As a result, the Faculty of Medicine decided to make the course obligatory. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  16. GYNOTEL: telephone advice to gynaecological surgical patients after discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caljouw, Monique A A; Hogendorf-Burgers, Marja E H J

    2010-12-01

    To investigate in surgical gynaecological patients the types of health problems arising or persisting up to six weeks after discharge and the effectiveness of telephone advice. The decreasing length of hospital stay has increased the need for specific instructions about the postdischarge period. Telephone advice could be a valuable tool to address this problem. To our knowledge, postdischarge health problems and the value of telephone advice have not been investigated among gynaecological patients. Randomised controlled trial. Gynaecological patients expected to stay in the ward longer than 24 hour were invited to participate. A pilot study showed that wound healing, pain, mobility, urination, defecation and vaginal bleeding were the most common health problems postdischarge. Based on that information, guidelines were formulated that were used by trained nurses to give telephone advice to the intervention group (n=235), in addition to the usual care. The control group of gynaecological patients (n=233) received usual care only. Of all 468 participants, about 50% were operated for general gynaecology. At discharge, wound pain (56%), mobility problems (54%) and constipation (27%) were the most frequently mentioned problems in both groups. Participants who completely followed the advice with regard to wound healing (p=0.02), pain (p=0.01), vaginal bleeding (p=0.03) and mobility (p=0.04) experienced greater improvement than participants who did not follow, or only partly followed, the advice. The telephone advice appears to make a significant contribution to help gynaecological surgical patients to solve or reduce their postdischarge health problems. The positive effect of such advice can be interpreted as an improvement in the quality of life of the postoperative gynaecological patient. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Impact of Monetary Incentives and Mailing Procedures: An Experiment in a Federally Sponsored Telephone Survey. Methodology Report. NCES 2006-066

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Hagedorn, Mary Collins; Montaquila, Jill; Roth, Shelley Brock; Chapman, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) includes a series of random digit dial (RDD) surveys developed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) in the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. It is designed to collect information on important educational issues through telephone surveys of…

  18. Random noise attenuation of non-uniformly sampled 3D seismic data along two spatial coordinates using non-equispaced curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Yang, Hui; Li, Hongxing; Huang, Guangnan; Ding, Zheyi

    2018-04-01

    The attenuation of random noise is important for improving the signal to noise ratio (SNR). However, the precondition for most conventional denoising methods is that the noisy data must be sampled on a uniform grid, making the conventional methods unsuitable for non-uniformly sampled data. In this paper, a denoising method capable of regularizing the noisy data from a non-uniform grid to a specified uniform grid is proposed. Firstly, the denoising method is performed for every time slice extracted from the 3D noisy data along the source and receiver directions, then the 2D non-equispaced fast Fourier transform (NFFT) is introduced in the conventional fast discrete curvelet transform (FDCT). The non-equispaced fast discrete curvelet transform (NFDCT) can be achieved based on the regularized inversion of an operator that links the uniformly sampled curvelet coefficients to the non-uniformly sampled noisy data. The uniform curvelet coefficients can be calculated by using the inversion algorithm of the spectral projected-gradient for ℓ1-norm problems. Then local threshold factors are chosen for the uniform curvelet coefficients for each decomposition scale, and effective curvelet coefficients are obtained respectively for each scale. Finally, the conventional inverse FDCT is applied to the effective curvelet coefficients. This completes the proposed 3D denoising method using the non-equispaced curvelet transform in the source-receiver domain. The examples for synthetic data and real data reveal the effectiveness of the proposed approach in applications to noise attenuation for non-uniformly sampled data compared with the conventional FDCT method and wavelet transformation.

  19. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunrong Mi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane (Grus monacha, n = 33, White-naped Crane (Grus vipio, n = 40, and Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis, n = 75 in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model, Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models. In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC and true skill statistic (TSS were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  20. Why choose Random Forest to predict rare species distribution with few samples in large undersampled areas? Three Asian crane species models provide supporting evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Chunrong; Huettmann, Falk; Guo, Yumin; Han, Xuesong; Wen, Lijia

    2017-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) have become an essential tool in ecology, biogeography, evolution and, more recently, in conservation biology. How to generalize species distributions in large undersampled areas, especially with few samples, is a fundamental issue of SDMs. In order to explore this issue, we used the best available presence records for the Hooded Crane ( Grus monacha , n  = 33), White-naped Crane ( Grus vipio , n  = 40), and Black-necked Crane ( Grus nigricollis , n  = 75) in China as three case studies, employing four powerful and commonly used machine learning algorithms to map the breeding distributions of the three species: TreeNet (Stochastic Gradient Boosting, Boosted Regression Tree Model), Random Forest, CART (Classification and Regression Tree) and Maxent (Maximum Entropy Models). In addition, we developed an ensemble forecast by averaging predicted probability of the above four models results. Commonly used model performance metrics (Area under ROC (AUC) and true skill statistic (TSS)) were employed to evaluate model accuracy. The latest satellite tracking data and compiled literature data were used as two independent testing datasets to confront model predictions. We found Random Forest demonstrated the best performance for the most assessment method, provided a better model fit to the testing data, and achieved better species range maps for each crane species in undersampled areas. Random Forest has been generally available for more than 20 years and has been known to perform extremely well in ecological predictions. However, while increasingly on the rise, its potential is still widely underused in conservation, (spatial) ecological applications and for inference. Our results show that it informs ecological and biogeographical theories as well as being suitable for conservation applications, specifically when the study area is undersampled. This method helps to save model-selection time and effort, and allows robust and rapid

  1. Levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in a random sample of Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padula, D.; Madigan, T.; Kiermeier, A.; Daughtry, B.; Pointon, A. [South Australian Research and Development Inst. (Australia)

    2004-09-15

    To date there has been no published information available on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna (Thunnus maccoyii). Southern Bluefin Tuna are commercially farmed off the coast of Port Lincoln in the state of South Australia, Australia. This paper reports the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in muscle tissue samples from 11 randomly sampled aquaculture-produced Southern Bluefin Tuna collected in 2003. Little published data exists on the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in Australian aquacultureproduced seafood. Wild tuna are first caught in the Great Australian Bight in South Australian waters, and are then brought back to Port Lincoln where they are ranched in sea-cages before being harvested and exported to Japan. The aim of the study was to identify pathways whereby contaminants such as dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs may enter the aquaculture production system. This involved undertaking a through chain analysis of the levels of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs in wild caught tuna, seafloor sediment samples from the marine environment, levels in feeds and final harvested exported product. Detailed study was also undertaken on the variation of dioxin (PCDD/F) and PCBs across individual tuna carcases. This paper addresses the levels found in final harvested product. Details on levels found in other studies will be published elsewhere shortly.

  2. Sample size determinations for group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Litwin, Alain H; Blackstock, Oni; Kim, Namhee; Arnsten, Julia H

    2017-02-01

    We derived sample size formulae for detecting main effects in group-based randomized clinical trials with different levels of data hierarchy between experimental and control arms. Such designs are necessary when experimental interventions need to be administered to groups of subjects whereas control conditions need to be administered to individual subjects. This type of trial, often referred to as a partially nested or partially clustered design, has been implemented for management of chronic diseases such as diabetes and is beginning to emerge more commonly in wider clinical settings. Depending on the research setting, the level of hierarchy of data structure for the experimental arm can be three or two, whereas that for the control arm is two or one. Such different levels of data hierarchy assume correlation structures of outcomes that are different between arms, regardless of whether research settings require two or three level data structure for the experimental arm. Therefore, the different correlations should be taken into account for statistical modeling and for sample size determinations. To this end, we considered mixed-effects linear models with different correlation structures between experimental and control arms to theoretically derive and empirically validate the sample size formulae with simulation studies.

  3. Typology of after-hours care instructions for patients: telephone survey and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordman, Risa; Bovett, Monica; Drummond, Neil; Crighton, Eric J; Wheler, David; Moineddin, Rahim; White, David

    2007-03-01

    To develop a typology of after-hours care (AHC) instructions and to examine physician and practice characteristics associated with each type of instruction. Cross-sectional telephone survey. Physicians' offices were called during evenings and weekends to listen to their messages regarding AHC. All messages were categorized. Thematic analysis of a subset of messages was conducted to develop a typology of AHC instructions. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between physician and practice characteristics and the instructions left for patients. Family practices in the greater Toronto area. Stratified random sample of family physicians providing office-based primary care. Form of response (eg, answering machine), content of message, and physician and practice characteristics. Of 514 after-hours messages from family physicians' offices, 421 were obtained from answering machines, 58 were obtained from answering services, 23 had no answer, 2 gave pager numbers, and 10 had other responses. Message content ranged from no AHC instructions to detailed advice; 54% of messages provided a single instruction, and the rest provided a combination of instructions. Content analysis identified 815 discrete instructions or types of response that were classified into 7 categories: 302 instructed patients to go to an emergency department; 122 provided direct contact with a physician; 115 told patients to go to a clinic; 94 left no directions; 76 suggested calling a housecall service; 45 suggested calling Telehealth; and 61 suggested other things. About 22% of messages only advised attending an emergency department, and 18% gave no advice at all. Physicians who were female, had Canadian certification in family medicine, held hospital privileges, or had attended a Canadian medical school were more likely to be directly available to their patients. Important issues identified included the recommendation to use an emergency department as the sole source of AHC

  4. Comparison of response rates and cost-effectiveness for a community-based survey: postal, internet and telephone modes with generic or personalised recruitment approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological research often requires collection of data from a representative sample of the community or recruitment of specific groups through broad community approaches. The population coverage of traditional survey methods such as mail-outs to residential addresses, and telephone contact via public directories or random-digit-dialing is declining and survey response rates are falling. There is a need to explore new sampling frames and consider multiple response modes including those offered by changes in telecommunications and internet technology. Methods We evaluated response rates and cost-effectiveness for three modes of survey administration (postal invitation/postal survey, postal invitation/internet survey and postal invitation/telephone survey) and two styles of contact approach (personalised and generic) in a community survey of greywater use. Potential respondents were contacted only once, with no follow up of non-responders. Results The telephone survey produced the highest adjusted response rate (30.2%), followed by the personalised postal survey (10.5%), generic postal survey (7.5%) and then the internet survey (4.7% for the personalised approach and 2.2% for the generic approach). There were some differences in household characteristics and greywater use rates between respondents to different survey modes, and between respondents to personalised and generic approaches. These may be attributable to the differing levels of motivations needed for a response, and varying levels of interest in the survey topic among greywater users and non-users. The generic postal survey had the lowest costs per valid survey received (Australian $22.93), followed by the personalised postal survey ($24.75). Conclusions Our findings suggest that postal surveys currently remain the most economic option for population-based studies, with similar costs for personalised and generic approaches. Internet surveys may be effective for specialised groups where email

  5. Random and systematic sampling error when hooking fish to monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden in Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fensham, J R; Bubner, E; D'Antignana, T; Landos, M; Caraguel, C G B

    2018-05-01

    The Australian farmed yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi, YTK) industry monitor skin fluke (Benedenia seriolae) and gill fluke (Zeuxapta seriolae) burden by pooling the fluke count of 10 hooked YTK. The random and systematic error of this sampling strategy was evaluated to assess potential impact on treatment decisions. Fluke abundance (fluke count per fish) in a study cage (estimated 30,502 fish) was assessed five times using the current sampling protocol and its repeatability was estimated the repeatability coefficient (CR) and the coefficient of variation (CV). Individual body weight, fork length, fluke abundance, prevalence, intensity (fluke count per infested fish) and density (fluke count per Kg of fish) were compared between 100 hooked and 100 seined YTK (assumed representative of the entire population) to estimate potential selection bias. Depending on the fluke species and age category, CR (expected difference in parasite count between 2 sampling iterations) ranged from 0.78 to 114 flukes per fish. Capturing YTK by hooking increased the selection of fish of a weight and length in the lowest 5th percentile of the cage (RR = 5.75, 95% CI: 2.06-16.03, P-value = 0.0001). These lower end YTK had on average an extra 31 juveniles and 6 adults Z. seriolae per Kg of fish and an extra 3 juvenile and 0.4 adult B. seriolae per Kg of fish, compared to the rest of the cage population (P-value sampling towards the smallest and most heavily infested fish in the population, resulting in poor repeatability (more variability amongst sampled fish) and an overestimation of parasite burden in the population. In this particular commercial situation these finding supported that health management program, where the finding of an underestimation of parasite burden could provide a production impact on the study population. In instances where fish populations and parasite burdens are more homogenous, sampling error may be less severe. Sampling error when capturing fish

  6. Systematic screening with information and home sampling for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections in young men and women in Norway: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kløvstad, Hilde; Natås, Olav; Tverdal, Aage; Aavitsland, Preben

    2013-01-23

    As most genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections are asymptomatic, many patients do not seek health care for testing. Infections remain undiagnosed and untreated. We studied whether screening with information and home sampling resulted in more young people getting tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention compared to the current strategy of testing in the health care system. We conducted a population based randomized controlled trial among all persons aged 18-25 years in one Norwegian county (41 519 persons). 10 000 persons (intervention) received an invitation by mail with chlamydia information and a mail-back urine sampling kit. 31 519 persons received no intervention and continued with usual care (control). All samples from both groups were analysed in the same laboratory. Information on treatment was obtained from the Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD). We estimated risk ratios and risk differences of being tested, diagnosed and treated in the intervention group compared to the control group. In the intervention group 16.5% got tested and in the control group 3.4%, risk ratio 4.9 (95% CI 4.5-5.2). The intervention led to 2.6 (95% CI 2.0-3.4) times as many individuals being diagnosed and 2.5 (95% CI 1.9-3.4) times as many individuals receiving treatment for chlamydia compared to no intervention in the three months following the intervention. In Norway, systematic screening with information and home sampling results in more young people being tested, diagnosed and treated for chlamydia in the three months following the intervention than the current strategy of testing in the health care system. However, the study has not established that the intervention will reduce the chlamydia prevalence or the risk of complications from chlamydia.

  7. Telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression in MS patients: moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckner, Victoria; Howard, Isa; Vella, Lea; Mohr, David C

    2010-02-01

    Depression is common in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While psychotherapy is an effective treatment for depression, not all individuals benefit. We examined whether baseline social support might differentially affect treatment outcome in 127 participants with MS and depression randomized to either Telephone-administered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (T-CBT) or Telephone-administered Emotion-Focused Therapy (T-EFT). We predicted that those with low social support would improve more in T-EFT, since this approach emphasizes the therapeutic relationship, while participants with strong social networks and presumably more emotional resources might fare better in the more structured and demanding T-CBT. We found that both level of received support and satisfaction with that support at baseline did moderate treatment outcome. Individuals with high social support showed a greater reduction in depressive symptoms in the T-CBT as predicted, but participants with low social support showed a similar reduction in both treatments. This suggests that for participants with high social support, CBT may be a more beneficial treatment for depression compared with EFT.

  8. Teaching adolescents with severe disabilities to use the public telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Test, D W; Spooner, F; Keul, P K; Grossi, T

    1990-04-01

    Two adolescents with severe disabilities served as participants in a study conducted to train in the use of the public telephone to call home. Participants were trained to complete a 17-step task analysis using a training package which consisted of total task presentation in conjunction with a four-level prompting procedure (i.e., independent, verbal, verbal + gesture, verbal + guidance). All instruction took place in a public setting (e.g., a shopping mall) with generalization probes taken in two alternative settings (e.g., a movie theater and a convenience store). A multiple probe across individuals design demonstrated the training package was successful in teaching participants to use the telephone to call home. In addition, newly acquired skills generalized to the two untrained settings. Implications for community-based training are discussed.

  9. Supplemental Analysis Survey of C&P Telephone Inside Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    telephone company facilities in 1984. In 1985, among other actions favorable to deregulation and detariffing of inside wiring, the FCC proposed to detariff ...installation of inside wiring, detariff the maintenance of all inside wiring, treat all inside wiring as customer premise equipment and pass ownership...85-148, 50 Fed. let. 13991 (April 9, 1985), pToposing to detariff the installation of simple inside wiring and also to detariff the maintenance of all

  10. Impact of telephone nursing education program for equity in healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    H?glund, Anna T.; Carlsson, Marianne; Holmstr?m, Inger K.; Kaminsky, Elenor

    2016-01-01

    Background The Swedish Healthcare Act prescribes that healthcare should be provided according to needs and with respect for each person?s human dignity. The goal is equity in health for the whole population. In spite of this, studies have revealed that Swedish healthcare is not always provided equally. This has also been observed in telephone nursing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate if and how an educational intervention can improve awareness of equity in healthcare...

  11. For whom bell toils: medical imaging by telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhfeld, A W

    1991-01-01

    The use of the induction balance, which was invented by Alexander Graham Bell to cancel out line interference on his telephone, to determine the location of bullets inside the human body is discussed. Experiments conducted to locate a bullet in the body of US President Garfield, who had been shot by an assassin in 1881, are described. The trials on Garfield were unsuccessful, but the approach was later perfected by Bell.

  12. Demographic corrections for the modified Telephone Screening for Cognitive Status

    OpenAIRE

    Dennett, Kathryn; Tometich, Danielle; Duff, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing use of the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (mTICS) as a cognitive screening instrument, it does not yet have demographic corrections. Demographic data, mTICS, and a neuropsychological battery were collected from 274 community dwelling older adults with intact cognition or mild cognitive impairments. Age, education, premorbid intellect, and depression were correlated with mTICS scores. Using regression equations, age and education significantly predicted m...

  13. Assessing representativeness of sampling methods for reaching men who have sex with men: a direct comparison of results obtained from convenience and probability samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Spindler, Hilary; Scheer, Susan; Valleroy, Linda; Lansky, Amy

    2007-07-01

    Convenience samples are used to determine HIV-related behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM) without measuring the extent to which the results are representative of the broader MSM population. We compared results from a cross-sectional survey of MSM recruited from gay bars between June and October 2001 to a random digit dial telephone survey conducted between June 2002 and January 2003. The men in the probability sample were older, better educated, and had higher incomes than men in the convenience sample, the convenience sample enrolled more employed men and men of color. Substance use around the time of sex was higher in the convenience sample but other sexual behaviors were similar. HIV testing was common among men in both samples. Periodic validation, through comparison of data collected by different sampling methods, may be useful when relying on survey data for program and policy development.

  14. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae) and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirovicza, Leonóra; López, Pilar; Kopena, Renáta; Benkő, Mária; Martín, José; Pénzes, Judit J

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs) in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni), nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus), and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi), respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  15. Random Sampling of Squamate Reptiles in Spanish Natural Reserves Reveals the Presence of Novel Adenoviruses in Lacertids (Family Lacertidae and Worm Lizards (Amphisbaenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonóra Szirovicza

    Full Text Available Here, we report the results of a large-scale PCR survey on the prevalence and diversity of adenoviruses (AdVs in samples collected randomly from free-living reptiles. On the territories of the Guadarrama Mountains National Park in Central Spain and of the Chafarinas Islands in North Africa, cloacal swabs were taken from 318 specimens of eight native species representing five squamate reptilian families. The healthy-looking animals had been captured temporarily for physiological and ethological examinations, after which they were released. We found 22 AdV-positive samples in representatives of three species, all from Central Spain. Sequence analysis of the PCR products revealed the existence of three hitherto unknown AdVs in 11 Carpetane rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni, nine Iberian worm lizards (Blanus cinereus, and two Iberian green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi, respectively. Phylogeny inference showed every novel putative virus to be a member of the genus Atadenovirus. This is the very first description of the occurrence of AdVs in amphisbaenian and lacertid hosts. Unlike all squamate atadenoviruses examined previously, two of the novel putative AdVs had A+T rich DNA, a feature generally deemed to mirror previous host switch events. Our results shed new light on the diversity and evolution of atadenoviruses.

  16. Methodological issues associated with collecting sensitive information over the telephone - experience from an Australian non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fullerton Simon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting population data on sensitive issues such as non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI is problematic. Case note audits or hospital/clinic based presentations only record severe cases and do not distinguish between suicidal and non-suicidal intent. Community surveys have largely been limited to school and university students, resulting in little much needed population-based data on NSSI. Collecting these data via a large scale population survey presents challenges to survey methodologists. This paper addresses the methodological issues associated with collecting this type of data via CATI. Methods An Australia-wide population survey was funded by the Australian Government to determine prevalence estimates of NSSI and associations, predictors, relationships to suicide attempts and suicide ideation, and outcomes. Computer assisted telephone interviewing (CATI on a random sample of the Australian population aged 10+ years of age from randomly selected households, was undertaken. Results Overall, from 31,216 eligible households, 12,006 interviews were undertaken (response rate 38.5%. The 4-week prevalence of NSSI was 1.1% (95% ci 0.9-1.3% and lifetime prevalence was 8.1% (95% ci 7.6-8.6. Methodological concerns and challenges in regard to collection of these data included extensive interviewer training and post interview counselling. Ethical considerations, especially with children as young as 10 years of age being asked sensitive questions, were addressed prior to data collection. The solution required a large amount of information to be sent to each selected household prior to the telephone interview which contributed to a lower than expected response rate. Non-coverage error caused by the population of interest being highly mobile, homeless or institutionalised was also a suspected issue in this low prevalence condition. In many circumstances the numbers missing from the sampling frame are small enough to not cause worry

  17. Validation of a structured interview for telephone assessment of the modified Rankin Scale in Brazilian stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Jussara A O; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Cougo-Pinto, Pedro T; Camilo, Millene; Silva, Nathalia F; Antunes, Paula; Machado, Laura; Leite, João P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M

    2014-01-01

    The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) is a commonly used scale to assess the functional outcome after stroke. Several studies on mRS showed good reliability, feasibility, and interrater agreement of this scale using a face-to-face assessment. However, telephone assessment is a more time-efficient way to obtain an mRS grade than a face-to-face interview. The aim of this study was to validate the telephone assessment of mRS among the Portuguese using a structured interview in a sample of Brazilian stroke patients. We evaluated 50 stroke outpatients twice. The first interview was face-to-face and the second was made by telephone and the time between the two assessments ranged between 7 and 14 days. Four certified raters evaluated the patients using a structured interview based on a questionnaire previously published in the literature. Raters were blinded for the Rankin score given by the other rater. For both assessments, the rater could also interview a caregiver if necessary. The patients' mean age was 62.8 ± 14.7, mean number of years of study 5.2 ± 3.4, 52% were males, 55.2% of patients needed a caregiver's help to answer the questions. The majority of caregivers were female (85%), mean age 49.1 ± 15, and mean number of years of study 8.3 ± 3.4. Perfect agreement between the telephone and face-to-face assessments was obtained for 27 (54%) patients, corresponding to an unweighted Kappa of 0.44 (95% CI 0.27-0.61) and a weighted Kappa of 0.89. The median of telephone assessment mRS was 3.5 (interquartile range = 2-4) and of face-to-face assessment was 4 (interquartile range = 2-5). There was no difference between the two assessments (Wilcoxon test, p = 0.35). Despite the low education level of our sample, the telephone assessment of functional impairment of stroke patients using a translated and culturally adapted Brazilian Portuguese version of the mRS showed good validity and reliability. Therefore, the telephone assessment of mRS can be used in clinical practice and

  18. Diagnostic-test evaluation of immunoassays for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in a random sample of Mexican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Ortega, Heriberto; Castillo-Cruz, Rocío; Murieta, Sandra; Ortíz-Alegría, Luz Belinda; Calderón-Segura, Esther; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Cañedo-Solares, Irma; Correa, Dolores

    2014-05-14

    There are few articles on evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii serological tests. Besides, commercially available tests are not always useful and are expensive for studies in open population. The aim of this study was to evaluate in-house ELISA and western blot for IgG antibodies in a representative sample of people living in Mexico. Three hundred and five serum samples were randomly selected from two national seroepidemiological survey banks; they were taken from men and women of all ages and from all areas of the country. ELISA cut-off was established using the mean plus three standard deviations of negative samples. Western blots were analysed by two experienced technicians and positivity was established according to the presence of at least three diagnostic bands. A commercial ELISA kit was used as a third test. Two reference standards were built up: one using concordant results of two assays leaving the evaluated test out and the other in which the evaluated test was included (IN) with at least two concordant results to define diagnosis. the lowest values of diagnostic parameters were obtained with the OUT reference standards: in-house ELISA had 96.9% sensitivity, 62.1% specificity, 49.6% PPV, 98.1% NPV and 71.8% accuracy, while western blot presented 81.8%, 89.7%, 84.0%, 88.2% and 86.6% values and the best kappa coefficient (0.72-0.82). The in-house ELISA is useful for screening people of Mexico, due to its high sensitivity, while western blot may be used to confirm diagnosis. These techniques might prove useful in other Latin American countries.

  19. Survey on the Use of Mobile Telephone for Micro and Small ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Survey on the Use of Mobile Telephone for Micro and Small Business ... In Ghana, as in other developing countries, mobile telephones are pervasive, and used ... to announce that the first call for applications for the new Early Career Women.

  20. 75 FR 6704 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-663] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

  1. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof;Notice of...

  2. 77 FR 43858 - Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-703] Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital Cameras, and Components Thereof; Determination To Review... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless...

  3. Employing a Multi-level Approach to Recruit a Representative Sample of Women with Recent Gestational Diabetes Mellitus into a Randomized Lifestyle Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Skurnik, Geraldine; Zera, Chloe A; Reforma, Liberty G; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2016-02-01

    The postpartum period is a window of opportunity for diabetes prevention in women with recent gestational diabetes (GDM), but recruitment for clinical trials during this period of life is a major challenge. We adapted a social-ecologic model to develop a multi-level recruitment strategy at the macro (high or institutional level), meso (mid or provider level), and micro (individual) levels. Our goal was to recruit 100 women with recent GDM into the Balance after Baby randomized controlled trial over a 17-month period. Participants were asked to attend three in-person study visits at 6 weeks, 6, and 12 months postpartum. They were randomized into a control arm or a web-based intervention arm at the end of the baseline visit at six weeks postpartum. At the end of the recruitment period, we compared population characteristics of our enrolled subjects to the entire population of women with GDM delivering at Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH). We successfully recruited 107 of 156 (69 %) women assessed for eligibility, with the majority (92) recruited during pregnancy at a mean 30 (SD ± 5) weeks of gestation, and 15 recruited postpartum, at a mean 2 (SD ± 3) weeks postpartum. 78 subjects attended the initial baseline visit, and 75 subjects were randomized into the trial at a mean 7 (SD ± 2) weeks postpartum. The recruited subjects were similar in age and race/ethnicity to the total population of 538 GDM deliveries at BWH over the 17-month recruitment period. Our multilevel approach allowed us to successfully meet our recruitment goal and recruit a representative sample of women with recent GDM. We believe that our most successful strategies included using a dedicated in-person recruiter, integrating recruitment into clinical flow, allowing for flexibility in recruitment, minimizing barriers to participation, and using an opt-out strategy with providers. Although the majority of women were recruited while pregnant, women recruited in the early postpartum period were

  4. Risk and protection factors for chronic non communicable diseases by telephone survey--VIGITEL-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Betine Pinto Moehlecke; Claro, Rafael Moreira; de Moura, Erly Catarina; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Morais Neto, Otaliba Libânio

    2011-09-01

    To describe the risk and protection factors for non communicable diseases with data from Telephone-based Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases (VIGITEL) in 2009. The prevalence of main risk and protective factors was estimated in adults (>18 years old), by telephone surveys in a probabilistic sample of the population covered by landline telephones in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District, stratified by gender, age and schooling. Data from 54,367 adults were collected. Smokers and former smokers represented 15.5 and 22% of Brazilian adults, respectively. Excess weight affected 46.6% of adults; 33% reported the consumption of meat with visible fat and reported 18.9% alcohol abuse. These factors were more prevalent among men and, in general, young adults and people with low schooling. The prevalence of physical activity in leisure was 18.8% (95%CI 17.4-20.1) among men and 11.3% (95%CI 10.6-12.0) among women. Physical inactivity affected 15.6% of population and increased with age. Consumption of fruits and vegetables and physical activity in leisure time were more prevalent in men and women with 12 years of schooling or more. Hypertension diagnosis was reported by 21.1% (95%CI 19.6-22.5) of men, and 27.2% (95%CI 25.8-28.5) of women. Prevalence of diabetes was 5.8%. The results point to different health behavior according to gender, age and schooling of the population and reinforce the decreasing smoking trend and increasing overweight trend in Brazil.

  5. 75 FR 78269 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Telephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Telephone Point of Purchase Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Telephone Point of Purchase Survey,'' to the Office [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The purpose of the Telephone Point of Purchase Survey is to...

  6. 78 FR 78389 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Telephone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... for OMB Review; Comment Request; Telephone Point of Purchase Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... request (ICR) revision titled, ``Telephone Point of Purchase Survey,'' to the Office of Management and... seeks to make minor modifications to the Telephone Point of Purchase Survey (TPOPS) and extend its PRA...

  7. 75 FR 8112 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones and Wireless Communication Devices Featuring Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... importation of certain mobile telephones and wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras, and... importation of certain mobile telephones or wireless communication devices featuring digital cameras, or... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-703] In the Matter of Certain Mobile Telephones...

  8. 75 FR 21979 - NRC Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Region II Address and Main Telephone Number Changes AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final... address for its Region II office and to update the main telephone number. The Region II office move and... update the NRC Region II office street address and office main telephone number. The physical location of...

  9. Assessing the suitability of summary data for two-sample Mendelian randomization analyses using MR-Egger regression: the role of the I2 statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Del Greco M, Fabiola; Minelli, Cosetta; Davey Smith, George; Sheehan, Nuala A; Thompson, John R

    2016-12-01

    : MR-Egger regression has recently been proposed as a method for Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses incorporating summary data estimates of causal effect from multiple individual variants, which is robust to invalid instruments. It can be used to test for directional pleiotropy and provides an estimate of the causal effect adjusted for its presence. MR-Egger regression provides a useful additional sensitivity analysis to the standard inverse variance weighted (IVW) approach that assumes all variants are valid instruments. Both methods use weights that consider the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-exposure associations to be known, rather than estimated. We call this the `NO Measurement Error' (NOME) assumption. Causal effect estimates from the IVW approach exhibit weak instrument bias whenever the genetic variants utilized violate the NOME assumption, which can be reliably measured using the F-statistic. The effect of NOME violation on MR-Egger regression has yet to be studied. An adaptation of the I2 statistic from the field of meta-analysis is proposed to quantify the strength of NOME violation for MR-Egger. It lies between 0 and 1, and indicates the expected relative bias (or dilution) of the MR-Egger causal estimate in the two-sample MR context. We call it IGX2 . The method of simulation extrapolation is also explored to counteract the dilution. Their joint utility is evaluated using simulated data and applied to a real MR example. In simulated two-sample MR analyses we show that, when a causal effect exists, the MR-Egger estimate of causal effect is biased towards the null when NOME is violated, and the stronger the violation (as indicated by lower values of IGX2 ), the stronger the dilution. When additionally all genetic variants are valid instruments, the type I error rate of the MR-Egger test for pleiotropy is inflated and the causal effect underestimated. Simulation extrapolation is shown to substantially mitigate these adverse effects. We

  10. 1What do first-time mothers worry about? A study of usage patterns and content of calls made to a postpartum support telephone hotline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naassan Georges

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone hotlines designed to address common concerns in the early postpartum could be a useful resource for parents. Our aim was to test the feasibility of using a telephone as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. We also aimed to test to use of algorithms to address parental concerns through a telephone hotline. Methods Healthy first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum wards of hospitals throughout Lebanon. Participants were given the number of a 24-hour telephone hotline that they could access for the first four months after delivery. Calls were answered by a midwife using algorithms developed by the study team whenever possible. Callers with medical complaints were referred to their physicians. Call patterns and content were recorded and analyzed. Results Eighty-four of the 353 women enrolled (24% used the hotline. Sixty percent of the women who used the service called more than once, and all callers reported they were satisfied with the service. The midwife received an average of three calls per day and most calls occurred during the first four weeks postpartum. Our algorithms were used to answer questions in 62.8% of calls and 18.6% of calls required referral to a physician. Of the questions related to mothers, 66% were about breastfeeding. Sixty percent of questions related to the infant were about routine care and 23% were about excessive crying. Conclusions Utilization of a telephone hotline service for postpartum support is highest in the first four weeks postpartum. Most questions are related to breastfeeding, routine newborn care, and management of a fussy infant. It is feasible to test a telephone hotline as an intervention in a randomized controlled trial. Algorithms can be developed to provide standardized answers to the most common questions.

  11. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of an educational intervention on women's knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling: a randomized controlled trial in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëtan Sossauer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV self-sampling (Self-HPV may be used as a primary cervical cancer screening method in a low resource setting. Our aim was to evaluate whether an educational intervention would improve women's knowledge and confidence in the Self-HPV method. METHOD: Women aged between 25 and 65 years old, eligible for cervical cancer screening, were randomly chosen to receive standard information (control group or standard information followed by educational intervention (interventional group. Standard information included explanations about what the test detects (HPV, the link between HPV and cervical cancer and how to perform HPV self-sampling. The educational intervention consisted of a culturally tailored video about HPV, cervical cancer, Self-HPV and its relevancy as a screening test. All participants completed a questionnaire that assessed sociodemographic data, women's knowledge about cervical cancer and acceptability of Self-HPV. RESULTS: A total of 302 women were enrolled in 4 health care centers in Yaoundé and the surrounding countryside. 301 women (149 in the "control group" and 152 in the "intervention group" completed the full process and were included into the analysis. Participants who received the educational intervention had a significantly higher knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer than the control group (p<0.05, but no significant difference on Self-HPV acceptability and confidence in the method was noticed between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Educational intervention promotes an increase in knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Further investigation should be conducted to determine if this intervention can be sustained beyond the short term and influences screening behavior. TRIALS REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN Register ISRCTN78123709.

  13. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Chen, Xinguang; Gong, Jie; Li, Fang; Zhu, Chaoyang; Yan, Yaqiong; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China. Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45) from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ), an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design. 16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only), 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only). Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation). Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants. Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  14. Association between Spouse/Child Separation and Migration-Related Stress among a Random Sample of Rural-to-Urban Migrants in Wuhan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    Full Text Available Millions of people move from rural areas to urban areas in China to pursue new opportunities while leaving their spouses and children at rural homes. Little is known about the impact of migration-related separation on mental health of these rural migrants in urban China.Survey data from a random sample of rural-to-urban migrants (n = 1113, aged 18-45 from Wuhan were analyzed. The Domestic Migration Stress Questionnaire (DMSQ, an instrument with four subconstructs, was used to measure migration-related stress. The relationship between spouse/child separation and stress was assessed using survey estimation methods to account for the multi-level sampling design.16.46% of couples were separated from their spouses (spouse-separation only, 25.81% of parents were separated from their children (child separation only. Among the participants who married and had children, 5.97% were separated from both their spouses and children (double separation. Spouse-separation only and double separation did not scored significantly higher on DMSQ than those with no separation. Compared to parents without child separation, parents with child separation scored significantly higher on DMSQ (mean score = 2.88, 95% CI: [2.81, 2.95] vs. 2.60 [2.53, 2.67], p < .05. Stratified analysis by separation type and by gender indicated that the association was stronger for child-separation only and for female participants.Child-separation is an important source of migration-related stress, and the effect is particularly strong for migrant women. Public policies and intervention programs should consider these factors to encourage and facilitate the co-migration of parents with their children to mitigate migration-related stress.

  15. Thermal discomfort with cold extremities in relation to age, gender, and body mass index in a random sample of a Swiss urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orgül Selim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this epidemiological study was to investigate the relationship of thermal discomfort with cold extremities (TDCE to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI in a Swiss urban population. Methods In a random population sample of Basel city, 2,800 subjects aged 20-40 years were asked to complete a questionnaire evaluating the extent of cold extremities. Values of cold extremities were based on questionnaire-derived scores. The correlation of age, gender, and BMI to TDCE was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 1,001 women (72.3% response rate and 809 men (60% response rate returned a completed questionnaire. Statistical analyses revealed the following findings: Younger subjects suffered more intensely from cold extremities than the elderly, and women suffered more than men (particularly younger women. Slimmer subjects suffered significantly more often from cold extremities than subjects with higher BMIs. Conclusions Thermal discomfort with cold extremities (a relevant symptom of primary vascular dysregulation occurs at highest intensity in younger, slimmer women and at lowest intensity in elderly, stouter men.

  16. Attacks on public telephone networks: technologies and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosloff, T.; Moore, Tyler; Keller, J.; Manes, Gavin W.; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2003-09-01

    Signaling System 7 (SS7) is vital to signaling and control in America's public telephone networks. This paper describes a class of attacks on SS7 networks involving the insertion of malicious signaling messages via compromised SS7 network components. Three attacks are discussed in detail: IAM flood attacks, redirection attacks and point code spoofing attacks. Depending on their scale of execution, these attacks can produce effects ranging from network congestion to service disruption. Methods for detecting these denial-of-service attacks and mitigating their effects are also presented.

  17. Towards a 21st century telephone exchange at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)745509; Hesnaux, Anthony Gerard; Sierra, Rodrigo; Chapron, Frederic; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2015-01-01

    The advent of mobile telephony and Voice over IP (VoIP) has significantly impacted the traditional telephone exchange industry—to such an extent that private branch exchanges are likely to disappear completely in the near future. For large organisations, such as CERN, it is important to be able to smooth this transition by implementing new multimedia platforms that can protect past investments and the flexibility needed to securely interconnect emerging VoIP solutions and forthcoming developments such as Voice over LTE (VoLTE). We present the results of ongoing studies and tests at CERN of the latest technologies in this area.

  18. Alternative Measured-Service Rate Structures for Local Telephone Service,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    contracts or grants . Views expressed in a Papet are the author’s own, and are not necessarily shared by Rand or its research sponsors. The Rand Corporation...by National Science Foundation, grant DAR 77-16286 to The Rand Corporation. Measuring costs depend strongly on the technology of the telephone network...a Budget Constraint. The Case of the Two-Part Tariff," Review of Economic Studies, July 1974, Vol. 41, pp. 337-345. -28- Oi, W. Y., "A Disneyland

  19. Telephone consultations on exposure to nuclear disaster radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashima, Sachiko; Chida, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The Fukushima nuclear disaster occurred on March 11, 2011. For about six weeks, I worked as a counselor for phone consultations regarding radiation risk. I analyzed the number of consultations, consultations by telephone, and their changing patterns with elapse of time, to assist with consultations about risk in the future. There were a large number of questions regarding the effects of radiation, particularly with regard to children. We believe that counseling and risk communication are the key to effectively informing the public about radiation risks. (author)

  20. Effect of Nurse-Led Telephone Follow ups (Tele-Nursing) on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargar Jahromi, Marzieh; Javadpour, Shohreh; Taheri, Leila; Poorgholami, Farzad

    2015-07-26

    Depressive and anxious patients on hemodialysis have a higher risk of death and hospitalizations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nurse-led telephone follow ups (tele-nursing) on depression, anxiety and stress in hemodialysis patients. The subjects of the study who were selected based on double blind randomized clinical trial consisted of 60 patients with advanced chronic renal disease treated with hemodialysis. The patients were placed in two groups of 30 individuals. Before the intervention, a questionnaire was completed by patients.  There was no telephone follow up in the control group and the patients received only routine care in the hospital. The participants allocated to the intervention group received telephone follow-up 30 days after dialysis shift, in addition to conventional treatment. Every session lasted 30 minutes, as possible. Then the DASS scale was filled out by the patients after completion of study by two groups. Significant differences were observed between the two groups in the posttest regarding the dimensions scores of DASS scale. The result of this trial is expected to provide new knowledge to support the effective follow-up for hemodialysis patient in order to improve their emotional and health status.