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Sample records for random responding consistent

  1. Identification of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, R P; Elkins, D E

    1999-12-01

    Although substantial research literature on the effects of random responding on the MMPI-2 exists, there is very limited data available on this issue with the MMPI-A. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of selected MMPI-A validity scales in detecting differences in response patterns between protocols produced by 354 adolescents assessed in clinical settings and a group of 354 randomly produced MMPI-A protocols. Results indicate that MMPI-A validity and basic clinical scales differ significantly between random and clinical groups and that MMPI-A validity Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN appear to be most useful in correctly identifying protocols from actual clinical participants versus randomly generated response patterns. Findings are discussed in terms of the dramatic effects of the sample base rate for random responding on overall classification accuracy results. Furthermore, it was noted that the optimal cutting scores for MMPI-A Scales F, F1, F2, and VRIN were largely consistent with interpretive recommendations found in the test manual (Butcher et al., 1992) when the relative frequency of random response protocols to clinical protocols was evaluated at a ratio of 1:10. Finally, future recommendations for evaluation of the F1-F2 difference score and the TRIN scale are offered in terms of the most relevant research designs to evaluate these measures.

  2. Detection of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R A; Ballenger, J; Berry, D T; Wetter, M W

    1997-02-01

    We examined random responding on the MMPI-A in 106 adolescents from the general population. Participants were asked to report on the frequency, location, and reasons for any random responses occurring during a standard administration of the MMPI-A. Relationships between self-reported random responding and validity indices (F1, F2, F, and Variable Response Inconsistency [VRIN] scale) were examined. In addition, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups, with each group completing an assigned portion (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) of an MMPI-A answer sheet without access to the test booklet, and the utility of the validity scales in discriminating standard protocols from all or partially random protocols was investigated. Most adolescents acknowledged one or more random responses correlated significantly with F but not VRIN. Validity scales were sensitive to all or partially random protocols, and produced high classification rates when discriminating among groups.

  3. Flexibility now, consistency later: psychological distance and construal shape evaluative responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Alison; Trope, Yaacov; Chaiken, Shelly

    2010-07-01

    Researchers have long been interested in understanding the conditions under which evaluations will be more or less consistent or context-dependent. The current research explores this issue by asking when stability or flexibility in evaluative responding would be most useful. Integrating construal level theory with research suggesting that variability in the mental representation of an attitude object can produce fluctuations in evaluative responding, we propose a functional relationship between distance and evaluative flexibility. Because individuals construe psychologically proximal objects more concretely, evaluations of proximal objects will tend to incorporate unique information from the current social context, promoting context-specific responses. Conversely, because more distal objects are construed more abstractly, evaluations of distal objects will be less context-dependent. Consistent with this reasoning, the results of 4 studies suggest that when individuals mentally construe an attitude object concretely, either because it is psychologically close or because they have been led to adopt a concrete mindset, their evaluations flexibly incorporate the views of an incidental stranger. However, when individuals think about the same issue more abstractly, their evaluations are less susceptible to incidental social influence and instead reflect their previously reported ideological values. These findings suggest that there are ways of thinking that will tend to produce more or less variability in mental representation across contexts, which in turn shapes evaluative consistency. Connections to shared reality, conformity, and attitude function are discussed.

  4. MMPI-A validity scale uses and limitations in detecting varying levels of random responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Robert P; Handel, Richard W; Lynch, Kathleen D; Elkins, David E

    2002-06-01

    Although there is a substantial research literature on the effects of random responding on the MMPI-2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989), there are very few studies available on this topic with the MMPI-A (Butcher et al., 1992). Archer and Elkins (1999) found that MMPI-A validity scales F and VRIN were particularly useful in detecting entirely random profiles from those derived standardly in clinical settings but noted that "all random" protocols could not be used to evaluate the usefulness of the T-score difference between the first half (F1) and the second half (F2) of the MMPI-A test booklet. Following up on this issue, this study extended the methodology of previous research by examining the hit rate, positive predictive power, negative predictive power, sensitivity, and specificity of VRIN, F, F1, F2 and the absolute value of the T-score difference between F1 and F2 (denoted as IF1-F21) in 5 samples varying in the degree of protocol randomness. One of the samples consisted of 100 adolescent inpatients administered the MMPI-A under standard instructions, and another sample consisted of 100 protocols randomly generated by computer. The additional 3 samples of 100 protocols each contained varying degrees of computer-generated randomness introduced in the latter half of the MMPI-A item pool. Over- all, the results generally indicate that several MMPI-A validity scales are useful in detecting protocols that are largely random, but all of these validity scales are more limited in detecting partially random responding that involves less than half the total item pool located in the second half of the test booklet. Clinicians should be particularly cautious concerning validity inferences based on the observed T-score difference that occurs for the F1 and F2 subscales and current findings do not support the clinical usefulness of this index.

  5. Accuracy of MMPI-2-RF validity scales for identifying feigned PTSD symptoms, random responding, and genuine PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lisa H; Shandera-Ochsner, Anne L; Williamson, Kimberly D; Harp, Jordan P; Edmundson, Maryanne; Berry, David T R; High, Walter M

    2013-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-RF (MMPI-2-RF) validity scales were evaluated to determine accuracy when differentiating honest responding, random responding, genuine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and feigned PTSD. Undergraduate students (n = 109), screened for PTSD, were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 instructional groups: honest, feign PTSD, half random, and full random. Archival data provided clinical MMPI-2-RF profiles consisting of 31 veterans diagnosed with PTSD. Veterans were diagnosed with PTSD using a structured interview and had passed a structured interview for malingering. Validity scales working as a group had correct classification rates of honest (96.6%), full random (88.9%), genuine PTSD (80.7%), fake PTSD (73.1%), and half random (44.4%). Results were fairly supportive of the scales' ability to discriminate feigning and full random responding from honest responding of normal students as well as veterans with PTSD. However, the RF validity scales do not appear to be as effective in detecting partially random responding.

  6. Random responding from participants is a threat to the validity of social science research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Osborne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the social sciences often relies upon the motivation and goodwill of research participants (e.g., teachers, students, minimally-compensated volunteers to do their best on low stakes assessments of the effects of interventions. Research participants who are unmotivated to perform well can engage in random responding on outcome measures, which can cause substantial mis-estimation of results, biasing results toward the null hypothesis. Data from a recent educational intervention study served as a clear example of this problem: participants identified as random responders showed substantially lower scores than other participants on tests during the study, and failed to show growth in scores from pre- to posttest, while those not engaging in random responding showed much higher scores and significant growth over time. This served to mask the hypothesized group differences across instructional method when random responders were retained in the sample (anticipated group differences were significant when these random responders were removed. We remind researchers to screen their data for random responding (and other response biases in their critical outcome measures in order to improve the odds of detecting effects of their interventions.

  7. The Application of Factorial Surveys in General Population Samples: The Effects of Respondent Age and Education on Response Times and Response Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Sauer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies on attitude and decision research which use the factorial survey (FS design. The FS integrates experimental set-ups into a survey: respondents react to hypothetical descriptions (vignettes while the values of each attribute (dimension of these descriptions systematically vary in order to estimate their impact on respondent judgments. As the vignettes are based on a number of dimensions and as respondents evaluate several vignettes, FSs are demanding in terms of individual cognitive and information-processing abilities. So far, there is little empirical knowledge of whether and to what extent this complexity is feasible in general population samples with heterogeneous respondents. Using data from a study on the fairness of earnings (with a mixed mode sample consisting a computer assisted personal interview [CAPI], computer assisted self interview [CASI], and paper and pencil [PAPI] mode, the complexity of FSs is analyzed in terms of: 1 design dimensions, such as the number of vignette dimensions (five, eight, or 12 and the number of vignettes for single respondents (10, 20, or 30, which were varied in a 3x3 experimental design; and 2 respondent characteristics that are associated with cognitive abilities (age and education. Two different indicators for cognitive load as well as learning and fatigue effects are analyzed: 1 latency time and 2 response consistency. The results show that raw reaction times but not latency times are longer for older respondents, suggesting that the cognitive effort needed for the evaluation of vignettes is not particularly high. Consistency measures reveal that respondents with a lower educational level show greater inconsistency in their evaluations when the number of vignettes is high. The number of dimensions has an effect on consistency only when respondents have to rate a large number of vignettes. In short, the results demonstrate

  8. Random Walks on Directed Networks: Inference and Respondent-driven Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Malmros, Jens; Britton, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Respondent driven sampling (RDS) is a method often used to estimate population properties (e.g. sexual risk behavior) in hard-to-reach populations. It combines an effective modified snowball sampling methodology with an estimation procedure that yields unbiased population estimates under the assumption that the sampling process behaves like a random walk on the social network of the population. Current RDS estimation methodology assumes that the social network is undirected, i.e. that all edges are reciprocal. However, empirical social networks in general also have non-reciprocated edges. To account for this fact, we develop a new estimation method for RDS in the presence of directed edges on the basis of random walks on directed networks. We distinguish directed and undirected edges and consider the possibility that the random walk returns to its current position in two steps through an undirected edge. We derive estimators of the selection probabilities of individuals as a function of the number of outgoing...

  9. Consistency of self-reported alcohol consumption on randomized and sequential alcohol purchase tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eAmlung

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral economic demand for addictive substances is commonly assessed via purchase tasks that measure estimated drug consumption at a range of prices. Purchase tasks typically use escalating prices in sequential order, which may influence performance by providing explicit price reference points. This study investigated the consistency of value preferences on two alcohol purchase tasks (APTs that used either a randomized or sequential price order (price range: free to $30 per drink in a sample of ninety-one young adult monthly drinkers. Randomization of prices significantly reduced relative response consistency (p < .01, although absolute consistency was high for both versions (>95%. Self-reported alcohol consumption across prices and indices of demand were highly similar across versions, although a few notable exceptions were found. These results suggest generally high consistency and overlapping performance between randomized and sequential price assessment. Implications for the behavioral economics literature and priorities for future research are discussed.

  10. ANALYSIS OF FUZZY QUEUES: PARAMETRIC PROGRAMMING APPROACH BASED ON RANDOMNESS - FUZZINESS CONSISTENCY PRINCIPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhruba Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, based on Zadeh’s extension principle we have apply the parametric programming approach to construct the membership functions of the performance measures when the interarrival time and the service time are fuzzy numbers based on the Baruah’s Randomness- Fuzziness Consistency Principle. The Randomness-Fuzziness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law of fuzziness using two different laws of randomness. In this article, two fuzzy queues FM/M/1 and M/FM/1 has been studied and constructed their membership functions of the system characteristics based on the aforesaid principle. The former represents a queue with fuzzy exponential arrivals and exponential service rate while the latter represents a queue with exponential arrival rate and fuzzy exponential service rate.

  11. Quality of resuscitation by first responders using the 'public access resuscitator': a randomized manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taelman, Dries G; Huybrechts, Sofie A M; Peersman, Wim; Calle, Paul A; Monsieurs, Koenraad G

    2014-12-01

    The CAREvent Public Access Resuscitator (PAR) is an electronic, oxygen-driven cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) device allowing volume-controlled ventilation with a face mask and guiding the rescuer through the resuscitation with voice prompts and visual indications. We hypothesized that 1 year after initial training, the efficacy of ventilation skills (primary outcome) and compression skills (secondary outcome) by first responders using the PAR would be superior compared with CPR with only a face mask. Seventy-one first responders were randomized to a group using the PAR (n=35) and a control group using only a face mask (n=36). CPR skills were assessed immediately after training and after 3, 7 and 12 months using a Skill Reporter manikin. Differences between groups over time and the interaction between time and groups were assessed using repeated measures models. Results are reported as mean values and number of participants with good ventilation or compression skills. Twelve months after training, there were more PAR users with adequate tidal volume than face mask users. Other ventilations skills did not differ between groups. There were more PAR users with an adequate number of compressions and with good hand position. Skill decay over 12 months did not differ between groups, except for hand position, where no decline was observed in the PAR group. Compared with the face mask, PAR improved tidal volume, compressions per minute and hand position in a manikin setting.

  12. The Discrimination of Fully Randomized and Partially Randomized Responding from Nonrandomized Responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Dale; Korcuska, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the detection of various rates of noncontent responding on the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire-Fifth Edition (R. Cattell, H. Eber, & M. Tatsuoka, 1970). The study used a sample of 237 adult volunteers. New scales were developed and tested. (Contains 3 tables.)

  13. Consistent Estimation in Mendelian Randomization with Some Invalid Instruments Using a Weighted Median Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Davey Smith, George; Haycock, Philip C; Burgess, Stephen

    2016-05-01

    Developments in genome-wide association studies and the increasing availability of summary genetic association data have made application of Mendelian randomization relatively straightforward. However, obtaining reliable results from a Mendelian randomization investigation remains problematic, as the conventional inverse-variance weighted method only gives consistent estimates if all of the genetic variants in the analysis are valid instrumental variables. We present a novel weighted median estimator for combining data on multiple genetic variants into a single causal estimate. This estimator is consistent even when up to 50% of the information comes from invalid instrumental variables. In a simulation analysis, it is shown to have better finite-sample Type 1 error rates than the inverse-variance weighted method, and is complementary to the recently proposed MR-Egger (Mendelian randomization-Egger) regression method. In analyses of the causal effects of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol on coronary artery disease risk, the inverse-variance weighted method suggests a causal effect of both lipid fractions, whereas the weighted median and MR-Egger regression methods suggest a null effect of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol that corresponds with the experimental evidence. Both median-based and MR-Egger regression methods should be considered as sensitivity analyses for Mendelian randomization investigations with multiple genetic variants. © 2016 The Authors. *Genetic Epidemiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A randomized trial comparing bladder volume consistency during fractionated prostate radiation therapy

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullaney, L.

    2014-01-10

    Organ motion is a contributory factor to the variation in location of the prostate and organs at risk during a course of fractionated prostate radiation therapy (RT). A prospective randomized controlled trial was designed with the primary endpoint to provide evidence-based bladder-filling instructions to achieve a consistent bladder volume (BV) and thus reduce the bladder-related organ motion. The secondary endpoints were to assess the incidence of acute and late genitourinary (GU) and gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity for patients and patients’ satisfaction with the bladder-filling instructions.

  15. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Mehr

    Full Text Available Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1 or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2. Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1. However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2, and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  16. Two Randomized Trials Provide No Consistent Evidence for Nonmusical Cognitive Benefits of Brief Preschool Music Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A.; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction. PMID:24349171

  17. Two randomized trials provide no consistent evidence for nonmusical cognitive benefits of brief preschool music enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Schachner, Adena; Katz, Rachel C; Spelke, Elizabeth S

    2013-01-01

    Young children regularly engage in musical activities, but the effects of early music education on children's cognitive development are unknown. While some studies have found associations between musical training in childhood and later nonmusical cognitive outcomes, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been employed to assess causal effects of music lessons on child cognition and no clear pattern of results has emerged. We conducted two RCTs with preschool children investigating the cognitive effects of a brief series of music classes, as compared to a similar but non-musical form of arts instruction (visual arts classes, Experiment 1) or to a no-treatment control (Experiment 2). Consistent with typical preschool arts enrichment programs, parents attended classes with their children, participating in a variety of developmentally appropriate arts activities. After six weeks of class, we assessed children's skills in four distinct cognitive areas in which older arts-trained students have been reported to excel: spatial-navigational reasoning, visual form analysis, numerical discrimination, and receptive vocabulary. We initially found that children from the music class showed greater spatial-navigational ability than did children from the visual arts class, while children from the visual arts class showed greater visual form analysis ability than children from the music class (Experiment 1). However, a partial replication attempt comparing music training to a no-treatment control failed to confirm these findings (Experiment 2), and the combined results of the two experiments were negative: overall, children provided with music classes performed no better than those with visual arts or no classes on any assessment. Our findings underscore the need for replication in RCTs, and suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings from past studies of cognitive effects of music instruction.

  18. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  19. Effects of Cofactors on Conformation Transition of Random Peptides Consisting of a Reduced Amino Acid Alphabet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Feng; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Yue-Jie; Xing, Xue-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore the structure characteristic of random polypeptides constructed by origin early amino acid alphabet, as well as the effects of cofactors on conformation transition of random peptides. DNA library R8-4 encoding VNM random peptides were constructed by small cassette strategy. Subsequently, a random polypeptide library was constructed using in vitro translation. Expression and purification of VNM random peptides were also performed by a conventional method of recombinant. CD spectrum analysis indicated that VNM random polypeptides have a secondary structure characteristic of protein, such as the content of α-helix is greater than 60%, random coil is about 20% β sheet, and β turn is less than 10%. CD spectrum changed with the addition of 10-40 µM ATP and NADP, but slightly changed by NAD; no influence was observed with MgSO4. Bis-ANS binding assay indicated that fluorescent intensity of bis-ANS was strengthened slightly by 10 VNM random peptides. Fluorescent intensity was strengthened fourfold by adding 10-40 µM ATP, NAD, and NADH, whereas the inducing effect of NADPH and MgSO4 were negligible. VNM random peptides have a classic secondary structure and hydrophobic domain in water solution. Moreover, conformation transition and hydrophobic domain could be induced by cofactor, indicating the preliminary evidence for the hypothesis that "the origin of primitive protein was induced by small molecule."

  20. Amantadine in non-responder patients with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabıyıkoğlu, Murat; Ormeci, Necati; Ekiz, Fuat; Beyler, Ali Reşit; Erdem, Hakan; Dökmeci, Abdülkadir; Ozkan, Hasan; Köklü, Seyfettin; Coban, Sahin

    2012-09-01

    The management of non-responders (NR) represents the most challenging of all aspects in the care of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of amantadine. Fourty- three patients with CHC who did not respond to prior combination therapy [IFNα-2a plus ribavirin for 48 weeks] were enrolled into the study. The first group (n=21) was administered pegylated IFN-α2a (180 mcg/week) plus ribavirin (1000-1200 mg/day) and amantadine (200mg/day) for 48 weeks. After discontinuation of therapy, patients were followed-up for an additional 24 weeks. The second group (n=22) received only amantadine (200mg/day) daily for at least 24 weeks (mean 96 weeks) and starting from the 24th week, HCV-RNA was assessed every 12 weeks without discontinuation of therapy. Mean ALT levels before treatment were 115.30 units in the first and 107.73 units in the second group whereas they were 48.38 and 54.76 units, respectively, after the treatment (pamantadine, 1 patient became HCV-RNA negative at the 24th and 3 patients at the 48th week (response rate at week 48 was 18.2%), 1 patient at the second year and 1 patient at the fourth year of the treatment (p=0.031). Amantadine has a potential anti-inflammatory activity that can be a safe alternative for NR-CHC subjects to combination therapy.

  1. Who responds to financial incentives for weight loss? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloyo, Alfredo R; Reichert, Arndt R; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Tauchmann, Harald

    2015-11-01

    There is a paucity of evidence on the heterogeneous impacts of financial incentives on weight loss. Between March 2010 and January 2012, in a randomized controlled trial, we assigned 700 obese persons to three experimental arms. We test whether particular subgroups react differently to financial incentives for weight loss. Two treatment groups obtained a cash reward (€150 and €300 with 237 and 229 participants, respectively) for achieving an individually-assigned target weight within four months; the control group (234 participants) was not incentivized. Participants and administrators were not blinded to the intervention. We find that monetary rewards effectively induced obese individuals to reduce weight across all subgroups. However, there is no evidence for treatment-effect heterogeneity for those groups that were incentivized. Among those who were in the €300 group, statistically significant and large weight losses were observed for women, singles, and those who are not working (all above 4 kg in four months). In addition, the magnitude of the reward matters only for women and migrants. The effectiveness of financial incentives to reduce weight nevertheless raises sensitive ethical issues that should be taken into consideration by policymakers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bi-functional nonlinearities in monodisperse ZnO nano-grains – Self-consistent transport and random lasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubatsch, Andreas [Georg-Simon-Ohm University of Applied Sciences, Keßlerplatz 12, 90489 Nürnberg (Germany); Frank, Regine, E-mail: r.frank@uni-tuebingen.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Optics and Photonics, Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2014-08-20

    We report a quantum field theoretical description of light transport and random lasing. The Bethe-Salpeter equation is solved including maximally crossed diagrams and non-elastic scattering. This is the first theoretical framework that combines so called off-shell scattering and lasing in random media. We present results for the self-consistent scattering mean free path that varies over the width of the sample. Further we discuss the density dependent correlation length of self-consistent transport in disordered media composed of semi-conductor Mie scatterers.

  3. The application of factorial surveys in general population samples: The effects of respondent age and education on response times and response consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, C.G.; Auspurg, K.; Hinz, T.; Liebig, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a marked increase in the number of studies on attitude and decision research which use the factorial survey (FS) design. The FS integrates experimental set-ups into a survey: respondents react to hypothetical descriptions (vignettes) while the values of each

  4. A Self-consistency Approach to Multinomial Logit Model with Random Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufang; Tsodikov, Alex

    2010-07-01

    The computation in the multinomial logit mixed effects model is costly especially when the response variable has a large number of categories, since it involves high-dimensional integration and maximization. Tsodikov and Chefo (2008) developed a stable MLE approach to problems with independent observations, based on generalized self-consistency and quasi-EM algorithm developed in Tsodikov (2003). In this paper, we apply the idea to clustered multinomial response to simplify the maximization step. The method transforms the complex multinomial likelihood to Poisson-type likelihood and hence allows for the estimates to be obtained iteratively solving a set of independent low-dimensional problems. The methodology is applied to real data and studied by simulations. While maximization is simplified, numerical integration remains the dominant challenge to computational efficiency.

  5. Phase IV: randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Joon Young; Cheong, Hee Jin; Lee, Jacob; Wie, Seong-Heon; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kee, Sae Yoon; Jeong, Hye Won; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Noh, Ji Yun; Choi, Won Suk; Park, Dae Won; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Woo Joo

    2014-01-01

    Influenza vaccines are the primary method for preventing influenza and its complications. Considering the increasing demand for influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers are required to establish large-scale production systems. This phase IV randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the lot consistency of trivalent split influenza vaccines regarding immunogenicity and safety. A total of 1,023 healthy adults aged 18-64 y were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive the GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe or the GC FLU® Injection, and they were further randomized to one of 3 lots of each vaccine in a 1:1:1 ratio. In both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups, immune responses were equivalent between lots for each of the 3 vaccine strains on day 21. The 2-sided 95% CI of GMT ratios between pairs of lots were between 0.67 and 1.5, meeting the equivalence criteria. After vaccination, all 3 criteria of the European Medicines Agency were met in both GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe groups. The vaccines showed tolerable safety profiles without serious adverse events. The demonstration of lot consistency, robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles support the reliability of mass-manufacturing systems for the GC FLU® Injection and GC FLU® Prefilled Syringe.

  6. A Longitudinal Randomized Trial of the Effect of Consistent Pain Management for Infant Vaccinations on Future Vaccination Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddio, Anna; Riddell, Rebecca Pillai; Ipp, Moshe; Moss, Steven; Baker, Stephen; Tolkin, Jonathan; Dave, Malini; Feerasta, Sharmeen; Govan, Preeya; Fletcher, Emma; Wong, Horace; McNair, Caitlin; Mithal, Priyanjali; Stephens, Derek

    2017-09-01

    The objective was to determine if consistent pain management during vaccine injections has a beneficial effect on future infant pain reactivity. This was a multicenter, longitudinal, double-blind, double-dummy, add-on, randomized controlled trial. Healthy infants were randomized to 1 of 4 add-on pain management regimens for all vaccinations in the first year of life: 1) placebo control (standard care), 2) parent video education about infant soothing (video), 3) video and oral sucrose solution (sucrose), 4) video and sucrose and topical liposomal lidocaine (lidocaine). At 15-month vaccinations, all active pain interventions were administered (video and sucrose and lidocaine); however, individuals remained blinded to the original treatments given. Pain at 15 months was evaluated during 3 procedure phases (baseline, needle injection, and recovery) by a researcher unaware of group allocation using a validated measure, the Modified Behavioural Pain Scale (range, 0-10). Altogether, 352 infants participated; characteristics did not differ among groups (P > .05). Pain scores did not differ among groups during baseline (P = .642), needle injection (P = .739), or recovery (P = .750) phases. In conclusion, there was no evidence of a long-term benefit of consistent use of pain interventions in the first year of life on future infant pain responsivity at 15-month vaccinations. This randomized controlled trial did not find a long-term benefit of consistent pain management during infant vaccinations on future infant pain responsivity at 15 months. The results are relevant to clinicians and researchers studying and evaluating pain interventions in children undergoing medical procedures. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezova, Ana; Godeaux, Olivier; Aggarwal, Naresh; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Lopez-Fauqued, Marta; Van Damme, Pierre; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vastiau, Ilse; Heineman, Thomas C; Lal, Himal

    2017-12-04

    The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots. This multicenter, phase III, double-blind, randomized study (NCT02075515), assessed lot-to-lot consistency in terms of immunogenicity of HZ/su and also assessed safety of these lots. Participants aged 50 years or older were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2 doses of HZ/su, 2 months apart, from 1 out of 3 randomized HZ/su lots (Lots A, B and C). Humoral immunogenicity was assessed pre-vaccination and 1 month post-second vaccination by anti-gE antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lot-to-lot consistency was demonstrated if the 2-sided 95% confidence intervals of the anti-gE geometric mean concentration ratio between all lot pairs were within 0.67 and 1.5. Solicited symptoms were recorded within 7 days and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were reported until study end (12 months post-second vaccination). Of 651 participants enrolled in the study, 638 received both doses of the HZ/su vaccine and 634 completed the study. Humoral immune responses were robust and consistency between 3 manufacturing lots was demonstrated. The incidence of solicited symptoms, unsolicited AEs and SAEs was comparable between all lots. Three fatal SAEs, 1 in each lot, were reported, none of which were considered vaccine-related by investigator assessment. Two out of the 8 reported pIMDs were considered vaccine-related by the investigator. The three HZ/su manufacturing lots demonstrated consistent immunogenicity. No safety

  8. Targeting Patient Subgroups With Chronic Low Back Pain for Osteopathic Manipulative Treatment: Responder Analyses From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardone, John C; Gatchel, Robert J; Aryal, Subhash

    2016-03-01

    Osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is often used to treat patients with low back pain (LBP). To identify subgroups of patients with chronic LBP who achieve medium to large treatment effects with OMT based on responder analyses involving pain and functioning outcomes from the OSTEOPAThic Health outcomes In Chronic low back pain (OSTEOPATHIC) Trial. This randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial involving 455 patients in Dallas-Fort Worth was conducted from 2006 to 2011. A 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) for LBP intensity and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) for back-specific functioning were used to assess primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Substantial improvement was defined as 50% or greater reduction at week 12 compared with baseline. Cumulative distribution functions for the RR and number-needed-to-treat (NNT) were used to assess response. Medium treatment effects for LBP intensity were observed overall (RR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.13-1.76; P=.002; NNT, 6.9; 95% CI, 4.3-18.6). However, large treatment effects were observed in patients with baseline VAS scores of 35 mm or greater. Although OMT was not associated with overall substantial improvement in back-specific functioning, patients with baseline RMDQ scores of 7 or greater experienced medium effects, and patients with baseline scores 16 or greater experienced large effects that were significant. The OMT effects for LBP intensity and back-specific functioning were independent of baseline patient demographic characteristics, comorbid medical conditions, and medication use for LBP during the trial. Subgrouping according to baseline levels of chronic LBP intensity and back-specific functioning appears to be a simple strategy for identifying sizeable numbers of patients who achieve substantial improvement with OMT and may thereby be less likely to use more costly and invasive interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00315120).

  9. Spin {ital M}1 excitations in deformed nuclei from self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P.; Moya de Guerra, E.; Nojarov, R. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 119, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    1996-08-01

    We present a method to study spin magnetic dipole excitations in deformed nuclei within the quasiparticle random phase approximation based on self-consistent Hartree-Fock mean fields and residual interactions derived from the same effective two-body force. We perform a comprehensive study covering different Skyrme forces and various mass regions, and discussing the role of the mean field and of the residual interaction. An overall agreement with experimental data is obtained with the SG2 force. We study the systematics and the deformation dependence of the spin {ital M}1 strength distributions of {ital K}{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} excitations. It is found for the first time that the summed spin {ital M}1 strength obeys a quadratic dependence on deformation in the two isotope chains studied, {sup 142,146,148,150}Nd and {sup 144,148,150,152,154}Sm. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  10. Hubbard-U corrected Hamiltonians for non-self-consistent random-phase approximation total-energy calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick, Christopher; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2016-01-01

    In non-self-consistent calculations of the total energy within the random-phase approximation (RPA) for electronic correlation, it is necessary to choose a single-particle Hamiltonian whose solutions are used to construct the electronic density and noninteracting response function. Here we...... investigate the effect of including a Hubbard-U term in this single-particle Hamiltonian, to better describe the on-site correlation of 3d electrons in the transitionmetal compounds ZnS, TiO2, and NiO.We find that the RPA lattice constants are essentially independent of U, despite large changes...... and qualitatively different from that found from calculations employingU-corrected (semi)local functionals.However we also find that the+U term cannot be used to correct the RPA’s poor description of the heat of formation of NiO....

  11. Consistency of eletriptan in treating migraine: Results of a randomized, within-patient multiple-dose study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Mary; Tepper, Stewart J; Landy, Stephen; Schweizer, Edward; Ramos, Elodie

    2014-02-01

    The current study evaluated the consistency of eletriptan response. Using a within-patient crossover design, patients with migraine completed a three-attack, open-label, lead-in period, before being treated, double-blind for four attacks, with either eletriptan 40 mg (ELE-40; N = 539) or eletriptan 80 mg (ELE-80; N = 432); placebo was randomly substituted for the treatment of one attack. On an A PRIORI analysis of within-patient consistency, double-blind treatment was associated with similar 2 hour headache response rates using a ≥2/3 response criterion for ELE-40 (77%) and ELE-80 (73%), and using a 3/3 response criterion for ELE-40 (46%) and ELE-80 (47%). Within-patient consistency in achieving pain-free status at 2 hours using a ≥2/3 criterion was slightly higher on ELE-40 (42%) compared with ELE-80 (38%), and was similar using the 3/3 criterion (18% on ELE-40, 17% on ELE-80). On a repeated measures logistic regression analysis across all treated attacks, the probability of achieving a headache response at 2 hours ranged from 71% to 74% on ELE-40 vs. 17% to 28% on placebo ( P ELE-80 vs. 21% to 27% on placebo ( P ELE-40 and ELE-80. Few adverse events occurred with incidence ≥10% on ELE-40 (asthenia, 5.0%) or ELE-80 (asthenia, 10%; nausea, 5.8%). Discontinuations because of adverse events were 0.2% on ELE-40, and 1.6% on ELE-80 CONCLUSION: In this multiple attack study, eletriptan was well-tolerated and demonstrated consistent and significant efficacy in the treatment of migraine.

  12. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  13. Phase III, randomized controlled trial to evaluate lot consistency of a trivalent subunit egg-based influenza vaccine in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Luis; Mazara, Sonia; Vargas, Maria; Fragapane, Elena; Casula, Daniela; Groth, Nicola

    2012-07-27

    Vaccination is the most effective preventive strategy to control influenza. The demonstration of lot-to-lot consistency to confirm the reliability of the manufacturing process has become a mandatory step in vaccine development. This phase III, observer-blind, controlled trial assessed lot-to-lot consistency, immunogenicity, and safety of a subunit trivalent influenza vaccine (Agrippal®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics) in healthy adults aged 18-49 years. The immunogenicity and safety profile of Agrippal was compared with a control vaccine (Fluvirin®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics). A total of 1507 subjects were randomized 2:2:2:1 to receive one vaccination of one of the three lots of influenza vaccine or control vaccine. Antibody levels were measured by hemagglutination inhibition assay on days 1 and 22. Adverse reactions were solicited via diary cards for 7 days after vaccination, and unsolicited adverse events were collected throughout the study period. Equivalence of day 22 immune responses to the three lots was shown for each of the three strains. Robust immunogenic responses after one dose were observed for all vaccine groups, and both Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research criteria for licensure of influenza vaccines were met for all three virus strains. Both vaccines exhibited a robust safety profile and were well tolerated, with no differences in local and systemic solicited reactions or in unsolicited adverse events. The demonstration of consistency between manufacturing lots confirms for purposes of clinical development the reliability of the production process. The robust immunogenic responses and favorable safety profiles further support the use of trivalent subunit influenza vaccines Agrippal and Fluvirin for active immunization against influenza. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and safety of follitropin alfa/lutropin alfa in ART: a randomized controlled trial in poor ovarian responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidan, P; Chin, W; Rogoff, D; D'Hooghe, T; Longobardi, S; Hubbard, J; Schertz, J

    2017-03-01

    How does the efficacy and safety of a fixed-ratio combination of recombinant human FSH plus recombinant human LH (follitropin alfa plus lutropin alfa; r-hFSH/r-hLH) compare with that of r-hFSH monotherapy for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in patients with poor ovarian response (POR)? The primary and secondary efficacy endpoints were comparable between treatment groups and the safety profile of both treatment regimens was favourable. Although meta-analyses of clinical trials have suggested some beneficial effect on reproductive outcomes with r-hLH supplementation in patients with POR, the definitions of POR were heterogeneous and limit the comparability across studies. Phase III, single-blind, active-comparator, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial. Patients were followed for a single ART cycle. A total of 939 women were randomized (1:1) to receive either r-hFSH/r-hLH or r-hFSH. Randomization, stratified by study site and participant age, was conducted via an interactive voice response system. Women classified as having POR, based on criteria incorporating the ESHRE Bologna criteria, were down-regulated with a long GnRH agonist protocol and following successful down-regulation were randomized (1:1) to COS with r-hFSH/r-hLH or r-hFSH alone. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of oocytes retrieved following COS. Safety endpoints included the incidence of adverse events, including ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Post hoc analyses investigated safety outcomes and correlations between live birth and baseline characteristics (age and number of oocytes retrieved in previous ART treatment cycles or serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)). The significance of the treatment effect was tested by generalized linear models (Poisson regression for counts and logistic regression for binary endpoints) adjusting for age and country. Of 949 subjects achieving down-regulation, 939 were randomized to r-hFSH/r-hLH (n = 477) or r-hFSH (n = 462) and received

  15. Academics respond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK......Contribution to the article "Academics respond: Brexit would weaken UK university research and funding", Guardian Witness, The Guardian, UK...

  16. Self-consistent electronic structure and segregation profiles of the Cu-Ni (001) random-alloy surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Abrikosov, I. A.; Kats, D. Ya.

    1994-01-01

    We have calculated the electronic structure and segregation profiles of the (001) surface of random Cu-Ni alloys with varying bulk concentrations by means of the coherent potential approximation and the linear muffin-tin-orbitals method. Exchange and correlation were included within the local......-density approximation. Temperature effects were accounted for by means of the cluster-variation method and, for comparison, by mean-field theory. The necessary interaction parameters were calculated by the Connolly-Williams method generalized to the case of a surface of a random alloy. We find the segregation profiles...... to be oscillatory with a strong preference for Cu to segregate towards the surface of the alloy....

  17. High and Low Responders in a Comprehensive Lifestyle Program for Weight Loss - Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchart, Dieter; Wühr, Erich; Weidenhammer, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Unhealthy lifestyle is often related to overweight and obesity and thus to chronic diseases. Web-based programs might be an option for a comprehensive approach to improving long-term weight management. Data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the impact of a lifestyle program on weight reduction were used for a secondary analysis. The objectives were (a) to identify potential predictors for marked weight loss, (b) to explore associations of weight reduction with changes in health-related variables, and (c) to evaluate whether self-monitoring of the daily lifestyle is associated with weight loss. 67 subjects with a body mass index of 28-35 who underwent the 1-year 'Individual Health Management' (IHM) program were included in the analysis (mean age 49.8 years, 79% female). Two subgroups (high response: ≥7.5% weight reduction vs. low response: weight loss. 70% of the subjects fulfilled the criterion of high response. There were no statistically significant differences between the two subgroups with respect to sociodemographic and baseline data. Regression analysis failed to identify any predictors for the amount of weight reduction. Subjects with high response showed a more distinct improvement in life satisfaction and neurovegetative stability. The findings indicated an association between the level of self-monitoring and weight loss. More research is needed to establish optimal strategies for maximizing the longer-term maintenance of weight loss and prevention effects. For weight reduction, support strategies like feedback learning through self-monitoring, reporting systems, and self-performance measurement with questionnaires might ameliorate high-intensity lifestyle modification programs. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  18. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome

    KAUST Repository

    Matar, Gerald Kamil

    2017-06-21

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  19. Membrane biofilm communities in full-scale membrane bioreactors are not randomly assembled and consist of a core microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Gerald K; Bagchi, Samik; Zhang, Kai; Oerther, Daniel B; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2017-10-15

    Finding efficient biofouling control strategies requires a better understanding of the microbial ecology of membrane biofilm communities in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Studies that characterized the membrane biofilm communities in lab-and pilot-scale MBRs are numerous, yet similar studies in full-scale MBRs are limited. Also, most of these studies have characterized the mature biofilm communities with very few studies addressing early biofilm communities. In this study, five full-scale MBRs located in Seattle (Washington, U.S.A.) were selected to address two questions concerning membrane biofilm communities (early and mature): (i) Is the assembly of biofilm communities (early and mature) the result of random immigration of species from the source community (i.e. activated sludge)? and (ii) Is there a core membrane biofilm community in full-scale MBRs? Membrane biofilm (early and mature) and activated sludge (AS) samples were collected from the five MBRs, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the bacterial communities of AS and membrane biofilms (early and mature). Alpha and beta diversity measures revealed clear differences in the bacterial community structure between the AS and biofilm (early and mature) samples in the five full-scale MBRs. These differences were mainly due to the presence of large number of unique but rare operational taxonomic units (∼13% of total reads in each MBR) in each sample. In contrast, a high percentage (∼87% of total reads in each MBR) of sequence reads was shared between AS and biofilm samples in each MBR, and these shared sequence reads mainly belong to the dominant taxa in these samples. Despite the large fraction of shared sequence reads between AS and biofilm samples, simulated biofilm communities from random sampling of the respective AS community revealed that biofilm communities differed significantly from the random assemblages (P < 0.001 for each MBR), indicating that the biofilm communities (early

  20. Randomized trial of daclatasvir and asunaprevir with or without PegIFN/RBV for hepatitis C virus genotype 1 null responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, Anna S; Gardiner, David F; Hézode, Christophe; Lawitz, Eric J; Bourlière, Marc; Everson, Gregory T; Marcellin, Patrick; Rodriguez-Torres, Maribel; Pol, Stanislas; Serfaty, Lawrence; Eley, Timothy; Huang, Shu-Pang; Li, Jianling; Wind-Rotolo, Megan; Yu, Fei; McPhee, Fiona; Grasela, Dennis M; Pasquinelli, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and prior null response (daclatasvir plus once- or twice-daily asunaprevir in non-cirrhotic genotype 1 null responders. In this randomized, phase 2a, open-label, 24-week treatment study, 101 patients received daclatasvir (60 mg) once-daily. In addition, 38 genotype 1b patients received asunaprevir (200mg) twice- (DUAL A1) or once-daily (DUAL A2); 36 genotype 1a and 5 genotype 1b patients received asunaprevir twice- (QUAD B1) or once-daily (QUAD B2) plus PegIFN/RBV; and 18 genotype 1a and 4 genotype 1b patients received asunaprevir twice-daily plus ribavirin (TRIPLE B3). The primary endpoint was undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks post-treatment (sustained virologic response, SVR12). Across all groups, mean HCV RNA was ⩾ 6 log IU/ml, and 99% of patients had a non-CC IL28B genotype. SVR12 rates were 78% (A1), 65% (A2), 95% (B1), and 95% (B2). In B3, most genotype 1a patients experienced virologic breakthrough. The most common adverse events were headache, diarrhea, and asthenia. Grade 3-4 aminotransferase elevations were infrequent and not treatment-limiting. In genotype 1 null responders, daclatasvir plus twice-daily asunaprevir DUAL therapy is effective for most genotype 1b patients, and daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and PegIFN/RBV QUAD therapy is effective for nearly all genotype 1a and 1b patients; but neither DUAL nor TRIPLE therapy is effective for genotype 1a patients. Interferon-free regimens including daclatasvir and twice-daily asunaprevir for genotype 1 null responders should be tailored to subtype. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for poor-responder patients before and during IVF treatment improves the pregnancy rate: a randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiser, A; Gonen, O; Ghetler, Y; Shavit, T; Berkovitz, A; Shulman, A

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on in vitro fertilization (IVF) data and outcomes among poor-responder patients. A randomized, prospective, controlled study was conducted. All patients received the long-protocol IVF. Those in the study group received 75 mg of DHEA once a day before starting the next IVF cycle and during treatment. Thirty-three women with significantly diminished ovarian reserves were enrolled, 17 in the DHEA group and 16 in the control group. The 33 patients underwent 51 IVF cycles. The DHEA group demonstrated a non-significant improvement in estradiol levels on day of hCG (P = 0.09) and improved embryo quality during treatment (P = 0.04) between first and second cycles. Patients in the DHEA group also had a significantly higher live birth rate compared with controls (23.1% versus 4.0%; P = 0.05), respectively. Six of seven deliveries were among patients with secondary infertility (P = 0.006). Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation can have a beneficial effect on ovarian reserves for poor-responder patients on IVF treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01145144.

  2. Successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Cesare; Linari, Antonella; Micara, Giulietta; Tranquilli, Daniela; Gambaro, Agnese Maria Lourdes; Bezerra Espinola, Maria Salome

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women. Seventy women were selected from 92 consecutive poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) in a natural cycle at our Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Unit from September 2009 to July 2013, and randomly distributed in two homogeneous groups: Group A or B. Women in Group A (35) underwent transfer within 1 h after ICSI; Group B (35, control group) underwent transfer 3 days after ICSI. In Group A, seven clinical pregnancy and one miscarriage occurred; in Group B, eight clinical pregnancies and two miscarriages were observed. Pregnancy, miscarriage, term pregnancy and overall live birth rates' difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Difference between the two groups in terms of timing, type of delivery and newborn birthweight was not observed. Neither ectopic pregnancy nor multiple pregnancies occurred. "Hour 1" uterine transfer of ICSI oocytes, still to be considered with caution because of the relatively low number of observations of the pilot study, deserves further attention on a larger scale, and might be evaluated for clinical and financial effectiveness in other clinical settings.

  3. A randomized, controlled, blinded study of the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine made in China in Chinese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuming; Li, Li; Ai, Xing; Yang, Liqing; Bai, Yunhua; Wang, Zhaoyun; Han, Huixia; Lu, Qiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Zheng; Liu, Chunyu; Xiao, Jun; Shi, Nianmin

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and batch consistency of Aleph inactivated split influenza vaccine, 3308 healthy Chinese people more than 3 years old were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded study and divided into four age groups: 3-10 years, 11-17 years, 18-54 years, and more than 55 years. Each age group was then randomized (2:1) to receive either influenza vaccine or control vaccine (recombinant hepatitis B) for one dose. Also each influenza vaccine group was randomized (1:1:1) to receive three different batches of influenza vaccine. Systematic and local adverse reactions for 28 days after vaccination were recorded, and influenza antibody titer was determined by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay at 28 days after vaccination. There were significant differences in seroconversion and seroprotection rates achieved post-immunization of three strains of influenza antibody (H1N1, H3N2, B) between experimental group and control group in all age groups (P0.05), except for the systematic reaction rates in the 18-54 years and ≥ 55 years age groups (PAleph inactivated split influenza vaccine has good safety and immunogenicity.

  4. Maintenance treatment of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) in responders following first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer: a randomized phase II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhua; Zhao, Xiaoying; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Xinmin; Huang, Mingzhu; Qiu, Lixin; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Zhiyu; Guo, Weijian; Li, Jin; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-06-06

    Maintenance therapy proves to be effective in advanced lung and breast cancer after initial chemotherapy. The purpose of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Uracil and Tegafur (UFT) maintenance in metastatic gastric cancer patients following the first-line fluorouracil-based chemotherapy. Metastatic gastric cancer patients with stable disease or a better response after the completion of first-line chemotherapy were randomized to oral UFT (360mg/m2 × 2 weeks) every 3 weeks until disease progression/intolerable toxicity or to observation (OBS). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and safety. The trial was closed after the interim analysis of the 58 enrolled (120 planned) patients. Median PFS was not improved in the UFT group compared with the OBS group (3.2 months versus 3.6 months, P = 0.752), as well as the median OS (14.2 months for both, P = 0.983). However, subgroup analysis showed that low baseline hemoglobin (maintenance therapy (P = 0.032), while the normal hemoglobin patients benefit from the UFT treatment (P = 0.008). Grade 3 to 4 toxicities in the UFT group were anemia (3.4%), thrombocytopenia (3.4%) and diarrhea (6.9%). This trial did not show superiority of UFT maintenance in non-selected patients responding to fluorouracil-based first-line chemotherapy. The normal hemoglobin level at baseline is a predictive biomarker for favorable patient subsets from the maintenance treatment.

  5. Immunogenicity and safety of the candidate RTS,S/AS01 vaccine in young Nigerian children: a randomized, double-blind, lot-to-lot consistency trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Rich; Oguche, Stephen; Oguonu, Tagbo; Pitmang, Simon; Shu, Elvis; Onyia, Jude-Tony; Daniyam, Comfort A; Shwe, David; Ahmad, Abdullahi; Jongert, Erik; Catteau, Grégory; Lievens, Marc; Ofori-Anyinam, Opokua; Leach, Amanda

    2014-11-12

    For regulatory approval, consistency in manufacturing of vaccine lots is expected to be demonstrated in confirmatory immunogenicity studies using two-sided equivalence trials. This randomized, double-blind study (NCT01323972) assessed consistency of three RTS,S/AS01 malaria vaccine batches formulated from commercial-scale purified antigen bulk lots in terms of anti-CS-responses induced. Healthy children aged 5-17 months were randomized (1:1:1:1) to receive RTS,S/AS01 at 0-1-2 months from one of three commercial-scale purified antigen bulk lots (1600 litres-fermentation scale; commercial-scale lots), or a comparator vaccine batch made from pilot-scale purified antigen bulk lot (20 litres-fermentation scale; pilot-scale lot). The co-primary objectives were to first demonstrate consistency of antibody responses against circumsporozoite (CS) protein at one month post-dose 3 for the three commercial-scale lots and second demonstrate non-inferiority of anti-CS antibody responses at one month post-dose 3 for the commercial-scale lots compared to the pilot-scale lot. Safety and reactogenicity were evaluated as secondary endpoints. One month post-dose-3, anti-CS antibody geometric mean titres (GMT) for the 3 commercial scale lots were 319.6 EU/ml (95% confidence interval (CI): 268.9-379.8), 241.4 EU/ml (207.6-280.7), and 302.3 EU/ml (259.4-352.3). Consistency for the RTS,S/AS01 commercial-scale lots was demonstrated as the two-sided 95% CI of the anti-CS antibody GMT ratio between each pair of lots was within the range of 0.5-2.0. GMT of the pooled commercial-scale lots (285.8 EU/ml (260.7-313.3)) was non-inferior to the pilot-scale lot (271.7 EU/ml (228.5-323.1)). Each RTS,S/AS01 lot had an acceptable tolerability profile, with infrequent reports of grade 3 solicited symptoms. No safety signals were identified and no serious adverse events were considered related to vaccination. RTS,S/AS01 lots formulated from commercial-scale purified antigen bulk batches induced a

  6. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...

  7. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children, adolescents, and adults: A randomized, controlled, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorna-Carlos, Josefina B; Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Santos, Jaime; Montalban, M Cecilia; de Looze, Ferdinandus J; Eizenberg, Peter; Hall, Stephen; Dupuy, Martin; Hutagalung, Yanee; Pépin, Stéphanie; Saville, Melanie

    2015-05-15

    Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity

  8. Lot-to-lot consistency, safety and immunogenicity of 3 lots of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine: results from a phase III randomized, multicenter study in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Nicola P; Abu-Elyazeed, Remon; Cornish, Matthew; Leonardi, Michael L; Weiner, Leonard B; Silas, Peter E; Grogg, Stanley E; Varman, Meera; Frenck, Robert W; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Baine, Yaela; Miller, Jacqueline M; Leyssen, Maarten; Mesaros, Narcisa; Roy-Ghanta, Sumita

    2017-06-16

    Vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is included in routine pediatric immunization schedule in the United States. Previous vaccine shortages have created the need for additional options for Hib vaccination. This phase III, randomized, multi-centered study (NCT01000974) evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a monovalent tetanus toxoid-conjugate Hib vaccine (Hib-TT) compared to a monovalent (Hib-TT control) and a combination Hib-TT vaccine. We hierarchically assessed lot-to-lot consistency of 3 Hib-TT lots and non-inferiority of Hib-TT to Hib-TT control. We co-administered routine pediatric vaccines with Hib-TT vaccines at 2, 4, 6months (primary vaccination) and 15-18months of age (booster vaccination). We recorded adverse events (AEs) for 4 (solicited) and 31days (unsolicited) post-vaccination and serious AEs (SAEs) throughout the study. Of 4009 enrolled children, 3086 completed booster phase. Lot-to-lot consistency was not demonstrated. The study met statistical criteria for non-inferiority of Hib-TT to Hib-TT control in terms of immune responses to Hib and co-administered vaccines' antigens, but not in terms of participants achieving post-primary vaccination anti-PRP levels ≥1µg/mL. Because of the hierarchical nature of the objectives, non-inferiority could not be established. In all groups, 92.5-96.7% and 99.6-100% of participants achieved anti-PRP levels ≥0.15µg/mL, while 78.3-89.8% and 97.9-99.1% had anti-PRP levels ≥1µg/mL, post-primary and post-booster vaccination, respectively. Immune responses to co-administered vaccines and reported incidence of AEs were comparable among groups. We recorded SAEs for 107/2963 (3.6%), 24/520 (4.6%), and 21/520 (4.0%) children post-primary vaccination, and 29/2337 (1.2%), 4/435 (0.9%), and 2/400 (0.5%) children post-booster vaccination with Hib-TT, Hib-TT control and combination Hib-TT vaccine, respectively; 6/5330 (0.1%) SAEs in the Hib-TT groups were considered vaccine-related. Hib

  9. Self-consistent random phase approximation - application to systems of strongly correlated fermions; Approximation des phases aleatoires self-consistante - applications a des systemes de fermions fortement correles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemai, M

    2004-07-01

    In the present thesis we have applied the self consistent random phase approximation (SCRPA) to the Hubbard model with a small number of sites (a chain of 2, 4, 6,... sites). Earlier SCRPA had produced very good results in other models like the pairing model of Richardson. It was therefore interesting to see what kind of results the method is able to produce in the case of a more complex model like the Hubbard model. To our great satisfaction the case of two sites with two electrons (half-filling) is solved exactly by the SCRPA. This may seem a little trivial but the fact is that other respectable approximations like 'GW' or the approach with the Gutzwiller wave function yield results still far from exact. With this promising starting point, the case of 6 sites at half filling was considered next. For that case, evidently, SCRPA does not any longer give exact results. However, they are still excellent for a wide range of values of the coupling constant U, covering for instance the phase transition region towards a state with non zero magnetisation. We consider this as a good success of the theory. Non the less the case of 4 sites (a plaquette), as indeed all cases with 4n sites at half filling, turned out to have a problem because of degeneracies at the Hartree Fock level. A generalisation of the present method, including in addition to the pairs, quadruples of Fermions operators (called second RPA) is proposed to also include exactly the plaquette case in our approach. This is therefore a very interesting perspective of the present work. (author)

  10. Reliability of individual valuations of public and private goods: Choice consistency, response time, and preference refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; David Kingsley; George L. Peterson; Nicholas E. Flores; Andrea Clarke; Andrej Birjulin

    2008-01-01

    We examined the reliability of a large set of paired comparison value judgments involving public goods, private goods, and sums of money. As respondents progressed through a random sequence of paired choices they were each given, their response time decreased and they became more consistent, apparently fine-tuning their responses, suggesting that respondents tend to...

  11. Identifying Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Respond Best to Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alessandra Narciso; Costa, Luciola da Cunha Menezes; Hancock, Mark; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena

    2016-05-01

    "Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy" (MDT) (also known as the McKenzie method), like other interventions for low back pain (LBP), has been found to have small effects for people with LBP. It is possible that a group of patients respond best to MDT and have larger effects. Identification of patients who respond best to MDT compared with other interventions would be an important finding. The purpose of the study was to investigate whether baseline characteristics of patients with chronic LBP, already classified as derangement syndrome, can identify those who respond better to MDT compared with Back School. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a previous trial comparing MDT with Back School in 148 patients with chronic LBP. Only patients classified at baseline assessment as being in the directional preference group (n=140) were included. The effect modifiers tested were: clear centralization versus directional preference only, baseline pain location, baseline pain intensity, and age. The primary outcome measures for this study were pain intensity and disability at the end of treatment (1 month). Treatment effect modification was evaluated by assessing the group versus predictor interaction terms from linear regression models. Interactions ≥1.0 for pain and ≥3 for disability were considered clinically important. Being older met our criteria for being a potentially important effect modifier; however, the effect occurred in the opposite direction to our hypothesis. Older people had 1.27 points more benefit in pain reduction from MDT (compared with Back School) than younger participants after 1 month of treatment. The sample (n=140) was powered to detect the main effects of treatment but not to detect the interactions of the potential treatment effect modifiers. The results of the study suggest older age may be an important factor that can be considered as a treatment effect modifier for patients with chronic LBP receiving MDT. As the main trial was not

  12. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive cariprazine in inadequate responders to antidepressants: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in adult patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgam, Suresh; Earley, Willie; Guo, Hua; Li, Dayong; Németh, György; Laszlovszky, István; Fava, Maurizio; Montgomery, Stuart A

    2016-03-01

    Cariprazine is an atypical antipsychotic currently under investigation as adjunctive therapy in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) who have inadequate response to standard antidepressant therapy. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dose study was conducted from December 2011 to December 2013 in adults who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for MDD and had an inadequate antidepressant response. Eligible patients were randomized to 8-week adjunctive treatment with placebo (n = 269), cariprazine 1-2 mg/d (n = 274), or cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d (n = 276). The primary efficacy parameter was change from baseline to week 8 in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score; P values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Safety assessments included adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, vital signs, electrocardiograms (ECGs), and suicidality. Compared with placebo, reduction in MADRS total score at week 8 was significantly greater with adjunctive cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d (least squares mean difference [LSMD] = -2.2; adjusted P = .0114), but not with cariprazine 1-2 mg/d (LSMD = -0.9; adjusted P = .2404). Significant LSMDs for MADRS total score change were detected at all earlier study visits (weeks 2, 4, 6) in the 2- to 4.5-mg/d group and at weeks 2 and 4 in the 1- to 2-mg/d group (all P values related adverse events were reported. These results show that adjunctive cariprazine 2-4.5 mg/d was effective and generally well tolerated in adults with MDD who had inadequate responses to standard antidepressants. Further clinical studies to confirm these results are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01469377. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  13. A safety app to respond to dating violence for college women and their friends: the MyPlan study randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Nancy; Clough, Amber; Case, James; Hanson, Ginger; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie; Waterbury, Amy; Alhusen, Jeanne; Ehrensaft, Miriam; Grace, Karen Trister; Perrin, Nancy

    2015-09-08

    Research demonstrates high rates of physical and sexual victimization of women by intimate partners on college campuses (Black et al. 2001). College women in abusive relationships must weigh complex factors (health, academics, economics, and social stigma) during critical decision-making regarding the relationship. Rather than access formal support systems (e.g., campus security, administrators, counselors), research indicates abused college women most often turn to informal networks; specifically friends (Perspect Psychiatr Care 41:162-171, 2005), who often lack the knowledge or resources to provide effective support (Nurs Res 54(4):235-242, 2005). Decision aids have been shown to assist with health-related decisions by improving knowledge, creating realistic expectations, and resolving decisional conflict (Cochrane Database Syst Rev 1:1-332, 2014). This study is a randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of an interactive safety decision aid web-based and smartphone application (App) for abused college women and their friends. Three hundred female college students experiencing abuse and three hundred friends of female college students experiencing abuse will be recruited in Maryland and Oregon and randomized to either the intervention safety decision aid, accessible by website or smartphone App, or a usual safety planning control website/App. The intervention App allows users to enter information on: a) relationship health; b) safety priorities; and c) severity of violence/danger in relationship. The App uses this information to provide personalized safety planning information and resources. Self-reported outcome measures for abused college women on safety seeking behaviors, decisional conflict, IPV exposure and mental health will be collected at baseline, six, and 12-months post-baseline via the study App/website. Outcomes measured for friends are IPV awareness, confidence to intervene, supportive behaviors and decisional conflict. Protocols for

  14. The phase diagrams of the mixed-spin ternary-alloy consisting of half-integer spins: Standard-random approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Erhan

    2018-02-01

    The ternary-alloy in the form ABpC1-p is investigated on the Bethe lattice with the odd numbered shells containing only A atoms (spin-1/2), while the even shells randomly containing either B (spin-3/2) or C (spin-5/2) atoms with different concentrations p and 1 - p, respectively. The phase diagrams are calculated on the (p ,kTc /JAB) and (R = |JAC | /JAB ,kTc /JAB) planes for given values of R and p, respectively, with the coordination numbers z = 3 , 4 , 5 and 6 by studying the thermal variations of the order-parameters. It is found that there exist a critical value of R, i.e. Rc ≅ 0.653, which is independent of z. In addition, the critical temperatures increase as z increases. The present work is an extension of the previous work [1] and it only differs from it by the implementation technique of randomness into the model. The obtained phase diagrams are in agreement with the site-dependent random case [1] except at low temperatures. On the other hand, there is an overall agreement with the literature.

  15. Responding to the need for sleep among survivors of interpersonal violence: A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive-behavioral insomnia intervention followed by PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Heffner, Kathi L; Crean, Hugh; Gallegos, Autumn M; Walsh, Patrick; Seehuus, Martin; Cerulli, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Sleep disturbance is a common feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but is not a focus of standard PTSD treatments. Psychological trauma exposure is associated with considerable physical and mental health morbidity, possibly due to the alterations in neuroendocrine function and inflammation observed in trauma exposed individuals. Although PTSD treatments are efficacious, they are associated with high drop-out rates in clinical trials and clinical practice. Finally, individuals with PTSD stemming from exposure to interpersonal violence represent an especially under-treated population with significant sleep disturbance. Community-based participatory research was utilized to design and prepare a clinical trial that randomizes recent survivors of interpersonal violence who have PTSD, depression, and insomnia to receive either: (1) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBTi) followed by Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) for trauma, or (2) attention control followed by CPT. Outcome measures include subjective and objective measures of sleep, clinician-administered PTSD and depression scales, inflammatory cytokines, and salivary cortisol. Assessments are conducted at baseline, following the sleep or control intervention, and again following CPT. The design allows for: (1) the first test of a sleep intervention in this population; (2) the comparison of sequenced CBTi and CPT to attention control followed by CPT, and (3) assessing the roles of neuroendocrine function, inflammatory processes, and objective sleep markers in mediating treatment outcomes. The study's overarching hypothesis is that treating insomnia will produce reduction in insomnia, PTSD, and depression severity, allowing patients to more fully engage in, and derive optimal benefits from, cognitive processing therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Anchoring Vignettes and Response Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Kapteyn; Smith, James P.; Arthur van Soest

    2011-01-01

    The use of anchoring vignettes to correct for differential item functioning rests upon two identifying assumptions: vignette equivalence and response consistency. To test the second assumption the authors conduct an experiment in which respondents in an Internet panel are asked to both describe their health in a number of domains and rate their health in these domains. In a subsequent interview respondents are shown vignettes that are in fact descriptions of their own health. Under response c...

  17. Peripheral pulsed electromagnetic fields may reduce the placebo effect in migraine patients that do not respond to the sham intervention in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Pon, Ana Aurora L; Pohls, Fernando Z; Del Castillo-Calcáneo, Juan de Dios; Pérez-Neri, Iván; Ríos, Camilo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and its possible modulation of the placebo effect in migraine. Placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, cross-over clinical trial. Government third level hospital. Patients with migraine were included. PEMF were applied to the wrist with a bracelet. Frequency and intensity of the migraine attacks at baseline and during treatment were recorded. Also, we valuated the possible influence of gender and the presence of aura in the PEMF and placebo responses. Eighteen patients (fifteen women, 30±2 years old) were included. Migraine frequency and intensity was reduced with both PEMF and placebo to a similar extent in the whole population. However, in responders to placebo, migraine intensity was reduced to a median of 100% with the placebo and to 60% with the PEMF, while in non-responders there was only a slight effect of both treatments. Our results do not suggest an influence of gender or presence of aura in the outcomes. Treatment with PEMF may not alter either migraine intensity or frequency compared to baseline, but may reduce the response to placebo in migraine patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A four-drug combination therapy consisting of low-dose tacrolimus, low-dose mycophenolate mofetil, corticosteroids, and mizoribine in living donor renal transplantation: A randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian-zhong Yan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We compared a three-drug combination therapy (control group consisting of tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and corticosteroids in living donor renal transplantation with a four-drug combination therapy (study group, in which the doses of tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were halved and the immunosuppressive drug mizoribine was added, in order to determine whether the incidence rates of acute rejection after transplantation between the study group and the control group are similar, whether the study group regimen prevents the occurrence of calcineurin inhibitor–induced renal damage, and whether the study group regimen prevents adverse effects such as diarrhea caused by mycophenolate mofetil. Methods: We investigated the incidence of acute rejection, serum creatinine levels, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and the incidence of adverse effects such as diarrhea. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in the incidence of acute rejection. Renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine was maintained in the control group whereas in the study group renal function gradually improved, with a statistical difference observed at 12 months. The incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea was significantly higher in the control group than in the study group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection and other adverse effects. Conclusion: These results suggest the study group therapy is an effective regimen in preventing acute rejection and the deterioration of renal function. These results also show this therapy can reduce the incidence of adverse effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms.

  19. Combination treatment with mirabegron and solifenacin in patients with overactive bladder: exploratory responder analyses of efficacy and evaluation of patient-reported outcomes from a randomized, double-blind, factorial, dose-ranging, Phase II study (SYMPHONY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, P; Kelleher, C; Staskin, D; Kay, R; Martan, A; Mincik, I; Newgreen, D; Ridder, A; Paireddy, A; van Maanen, R

    2017-05-01

    This large dose-ranging study explored the benefits of different combinations of mirabegron and solifenacin on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), based on patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and patients ('responders') achieving clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy and HRQoL. SYMPHONY (NCT01340027) was a Phase II, placebo- and monotherapy-controlled, dose-ranging, 12-week trial. Adult patients with overactive bladder (OAB) for ≥3 months were randomized to 1 of 12 groups: 6 combination (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg), 5 monotherapy (solifenacin 2.5/5/10 mg, or mirabegron 25/50 mg), or placebo. Change from baseline to end of treatment was assessed, versus placebo and solifenacin 5 mg in: PROs (OAB-q [Symptom Bother/total HRQoL] and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition score), and responders achieving minimally important differences (MIDs) in PROs and predetermined clinically meaningful improvements in efficacy (e.g. <8 micturitions/24 h). Changes in PROs and responders were analysed using an ANCOVA model and logistic regression, respectively. The Full Analysis Set included 1278 patients. Combination therapy of solifenacin 5/10 mg + mirabegron 25/50 mg significantly improved PROs versus solifenacin 5 mg and placebo, and significantly more responders achieved MIDs in PROs and efficacy. Micturition frequency normalization was approximately twofold greater with 10 + 25 mg (OR 2.06 [95 % CI 1.11, 3.84; p = 0.023]) and 5 + 50 mg (OR 1.91 [95 % CI 1.14, 3.21; p = 0.015]) versus solifenacin 5 mg. Combining mirabegron 25/50 mg and solifenacin 5/10 mg improves objective and subjective efficacy outcomes compared with placebo or solifenacin 5 mg.

  20. Re-treatment of previous non-responders and relapsers to interferon plus ribavirin with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD), ribavirin ± amantadine in patients with chronic hepatitis C: randomized multicentre clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, Mario G; Cheinquer, Hugo; Almeida, Paulo R L; Silva, Giovanni F; Lima, Maria Patelli J S; Paraná, Raymundo; Lacerda, Marco A; Parise, Edison R; Pernambuco, José R B; Pedrosa, Suelene S; Teixeira, Rosângela; Sette, Hoel; Tatsch, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    A large number of patients with chronic hepatitis C have not been cured with interferon-based therapy. Therefore, we evaluated the efficacy of amantadine combined with the standard of care(pegylated interferon plus ribavirin) in patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after ≥ 24 weeks of treatment with conventional interferon plus ribavirin. Patients stratified by previous response (i.e., non-response or relapse) were randomized to 48 weeks of open-label treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) 180 µg/week plus ribavirin 1,000/1,200 mg/day plus amantadine 200 mg/day (triple therapy), or the standard of care (peginterferon alfa-2a [40KD] plus ribavirin). The primary outcome was sustained virological response (SVR), defined as undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA in serum (interferon plus ribavirin achieve an SVR when re-treated with peginterferon alfa-2a (40KD) plus ribavirin. Amantadine does not enhance SVR rates in previously treated patients with chronic hepatitis C and cannot be recommended in this setting.

  1. The Gesell Institute Responds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young Children, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Responding to Dr. Meisels' article concerning the uses and abuses of the Gesell readiness tests, the Gesell Institute of Child development maintains that the Gesell series of assessments are used by schools to gain a fuller developmental understanding of the child and have been predictive of school success. (BB)

  2. Responding to Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, J. T.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author, a superintendent of Clark-Pleasant School Corporation in Whiteland, Indiana, relates how she and the school community responded to a car accident that killed two students. The author stresses the need to develop a comprehensive crisis plan. It is also important to be sensitive to the needs of family members who are…

  3. Phase III, randomized controlled trial in girls 9-15 years old to evaluate lot consistency of a novel nine-valent human papillomavirus L1 virus-like particle vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxembourg, Alain; Moreira, Edson D; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Sun, Xiao; Maansson, Roger; Moeller, Erin; Christiano, Susan; Chen, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    A 9-valent human papillomavirus (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) VLP (9vHPV) vaccine has recently been proven highly efficacious in preventing disease associated with vaccine HPV types in a pivotal Phase III study. The demonstration of lot-to-lot consistency to confirm the reliability of the manufacturing process is a regulatory requirement for vaccine licensure in the United States. A randomized trial was conducted to demonstrate that three lots of 9vHPV vaccine elicit equivalent antibody response for all 9 vaccine types. The study required thorough planning because it required success on 27 separate statistical comparisons. An innovative statistical approach was used taking into account between-lot variance for more conservative power calculations. The study demonstrated equivalence of three lots of 9vHPV vaccine for all 9 vaccine types.

  4. Responding to Mechanical Antigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millis, Marc G.; Thomas, Nicholas E.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the experiences of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project, suggestions are offered for constructively responding to proposals that purport breakthrough propulsion using mechanical devices. Because of the relatively large number of unsolicited submissions received (about 1 per workday) and because many of these involve similar concepts, this report is offered to help the would-be submitters make genuine progress as well as to help reviewers respond to such submissions. Devices that use oscillating masses or gyroscope falsely appear to create net thrust through differential friction or by misinterpreting torques as linear forces. To cover both the possibility of an errant claim and a genuine discovery, reviews should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence; such as achieving sustained deflection of a level-platform pendulum in the case of mechanical thrusters.

  5. Empathy-related responding and prosocial behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I differentiate among empathy, sympathy and personal distress and discuss the central role of empathy-related responding in positive (including moral) development. Empathy-related responding, especially sympathy, is likely an important source of prosocial, other-oriented motivation. In fact, empathy-related responding, especially sympathy, has been associated with prosocial behaviour (voluntary behaviour intended to benefit another, e.g. helping, sharing); this relation has been obtained for both specific instances of empathy-related responding and for dispositional sympathy. In addition, sympathy (or sometimes empathy) has been linked to relatively high levels of moral reasoning and social competence, and to low levels of aggression and antisocial behaviour. In my talk, I will review research on the relation of empathy-related responding to prosocial behaviour, the consistency of costly prosocial behaviour over time and the possible role of sympathy in its consistency, and the relation of empathy-related responding to moral reasoning, antisocial behaviour and social competence. Examples of research, including longitudinal research in our laboratory, are provided to illustrate these relations. Because of its close relations to social and prosocial responding, an understanding of empathy-related responding contributes to efforts to promote children's moral development.

  6. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  7. Responding to Misinformation about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Eva K.; Estow, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined responses to climate change misinformation and messages designed to counter misinformation. Participants (N = 406) first responded to a social media post denying the existence of global warming and then were randomly assigned to read one of three responses to the original post (correction, collaboration, control). Participants…

  8. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a split-virion quadrivalent influenza vaccine in younger and older adults: a phase III randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesay, Sanie; Brzostek, Jerzy; Meyer, Ingo; Donazzolo, Yves; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Rouzier, Régine; Astruc, Béatrice; Szymanski, Henryk; Toursarkissian, Nicole; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Kowalska, Edyta; Van Damme, Pierre; Salamand, Camille; Pepin, Stephanie

    2017-10-02

    Here, we report a randomized multicenter phase III trial assessing the lot-to-lot consistency of the 2014-2015 Northern Hemisphere quadrivalent split-virion inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4; Sanofi Pasteur) and comparing its immunogenicity and safety with that of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) in younger and older adults (EudraCT no. 2014-000785-21). Younger (18-60 y, n = 1114) and older (>60 y, n = 1111) adults were randomized 2:2:2:1:1 to receive a single dose of one of three lots of IIV4, the licensed IIV3 containing the B Yamagata lineage strain, or an investigational IIV3 containing the B Victoria lineage strain. Post-vaccination (day 21) hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were equivalent for the three IIV4 lots. For the pooled IIV4s vs. IIV3, hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers were also non-inferior for the A strains, non-inferior for the B strain when present in the comparator IIV3, and superior for the B strain lineage when absent from the comparator IIV3. For all vaccine strains, seroprotection rates were ≥98% in younger adults and ≥90% in older adults. IIV4 also increased seroneutralizing antibody titers against all three vaccine strains of influenza. All vaccines were well tolerated, with no safety concerns identified. Solicited injection-site reactions were similar for IIV4 and IIV3 and mostly grade 1 and transient. This study showed that in younger and older adults, IIV4 had a similar safety profile as the licensed IIV3 and that including a second B strain lineage in IIV4 provided superior immunogenicity for the added B strain without affecting the immunogenicity of the three IIV3 strains.

  9. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  10. Responding to Marginalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Y. Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an analysis of how refugee youths from Africa used and shifted languages and discourses in the United States. Drawing on sociocultural theories of language and utilizing ethnographic discourse and classroom observation data, the author illustrates the varied ways in which three high school–aged refugee youths used languages to make sense of who and where they are; respond to social, religious, and linguistic marginalization in the United States; and challenge narrow perceptions of African Muslims. This article brings to fore a group that, although facing a unique set of challenges in the United States, is rarely included in research on youth language practices and im/migration. Attention to their multilingual practices and the multilayered nature of their identity is central to understanding how refugee youths experience school in their new land, and how they see themselves and others. This understanding can guide school personnel, educational researchers, and community-based youth workers in their respective work with refugee students.

  11. An Internet-based intervention for eating disorders consisting of automated computer-tailored feedback with or without supplemented frequent or infrequent support from a coach: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Spinhoven, Philip; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Van Furth, Eric F

    2013-10-17

    Several Internet-based interventions for eating disorders have shown their effectiveness. Still, there is a need to refine such interventions given that most existing programs seem to be limited by their static 'one-size-fits-all' approach. 'Featback', an Internet-based intervention for symptoms of eating disorders provides a more individualized approach. It consists of several components (psychoeducation, a fully automated monitoring and feedback system, and support from a coach), which can be matched to participants' needs and preferences. Until now, it is unclear whether online self-help interventions for eating disorders with support are more effective than those without. The aims of the current study are i) to examine the relative effectiveness of (the different components of) Featback; ii) to examine predictors, moderators and mediators of intervention responses; iii) to report on practical experiences with Featback; and iv) to examine the cost-effectiveness of Featback. Individuals aged 16 years or older, with mild to severe eating disorder symptoms will be randomized to one of the four study conditions. In condition one, participants receive the basic version of Featback, consisting of psychoeducation and a fully automated monitoring and feedback system. In conditions two and three, participants receive the basic version of Featback supplemented with the possibility of infrequent (weekly) or frequent (three times a week) e-mail, chat, or Skype support from a coach, respectively. The fourth condition is a waiting list control condition. Participants are assessed at baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks), and at 3- and 6-month follow-up (the latter except for participants in the waiting list control condition). Primary outcome measures are disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. Secondary outcome measures are (eating disorder-related) quality of life, self-stigma of seeking help, self-esteem, mastery and support, symptoms of depression and anxiety

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Switching to Ixekizumab in Etanercept Non-Responders: A Subanalysis from Two Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials in Moderate-to-Severe Plaque Psoriasis (UNCOVER-2 and -3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauvelt, Andrew; Papp, Kim A; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Puig, Luis; Weisman, Jamie; Dutronc, Yves; Kerr, Lisa Farmer; Ilo, Dapo; Mallbris, Lotus; Augustin, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Patients with psoriasis who have an inadequate response to one biologic may benefit from switching to a new biologic, such as ixekizumab, a high affinity monoclonal antibody that selectively targets interleukin (IL)-17A. Our aim was to assess the response to ixekizumab in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who did not respond adequately to etanercept using a post-hoc analysis in two phase III studies. For the subanalyses in two phase III trials (UNCOVER-2 and -3), non-response was defined by either failure to have a static physician global assessment (sPGA) of 0/1 in UNCOVER-2 or failure to have at least 75% improvement in psoriasis area and severity index (PASI 75) in UNCOVER-3 at Week 12 of each study. Non-responders treated with twice-weekly etanercept 50 mg in the first 12 weeks received two injections of placebo at Week 12 (4-week wash-out period), followed by ixekizumab every 4 weeks (Q4W) for Weeks 16-60. Non-responders to placebo in the first 12 weeks were administered ixekizumab 160 mg at Week 12, followed by ixekizumab Q4W for Weeks 16-60. After switching to ixekizumab Q4W, a substantial proportion of patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis who did not respond to etanercept experienced rapid and durable improvement in all efficacy evaluations. Among sPGA 0/1 (UNCOVER-2) and PASI 75 (UNCOVER-3) non-responders to etanercept, 73.0% achieved sPGA 0/1 and 78.2% achieved PASI 75, respectively, after 12 weeks of ixekizumab treatment. Safety profiles in patients switched from etanercept to ixekizumab were similar to those in patients switched from placebo to ixekizumab. Patients who were non-responders to etanercept after 12 weeks, as defined by failure to meet sPGA 0/1 (UNCOVER-2) or PASI 75 (UNCOVER-3), achieved high levels of response 12 weeks after switching to ixekizumab. Studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01597245 and NCT01646177).

  13. No consistent bimetric gravity?

    OpenAIRE

    Deser, S.; Sandora, M.; Waldron, A

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, we show that consistency of BMG relies on it having a PM extension; we then argue that it cannot.

  14. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  15. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  16. Prizes for consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, S.

    1986-07-01

    The importance of consistency in coal quality has become of increasing significance recently, with the current trend towards using coal from a range of sources. A significant development has been the swing in responsibilities for coal quality. The increasing demand for consistency in quality has led to a re-examination of where in the trade and transport chain the quality should be assessed and where further upgrading of inspection and preparation facilities are required. Changes are in progress throughout the whole coal transport chain which will improve consistency of delivered coal quality. These include installation of beneficiation plant at coal mines, export terminals, and on the premises of end users. It is suggested that one of the keys to success for the coal industry will be the ability to provide coal of a consistent quality.

  17. Consistent Probabilistic Social Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Brandl, Florian; Brandt, Felix; Seedig, Hans Georg

    2015-01-01

    Two fundamental axioms in social choice theory are consistency with respect to a variable electorate and consistency with respect to components of similar alternatives. In the context of traditional non-probabilistic social choice, these axioms are incompatible with each other. We show that in the context of probabilistic social choice, these axioms uniquely characterize a function proposed by Fishburn (Rev. Econ. Stud., 51(4), 683--692, 1984). Fishburn's function returns so-called maximal lo...

  18. Immune responses to a recombinant, four-component, meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) in adolescents: a phase III, randomized, multicentre, lot-to-lot consistency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrett, Kirsten P; McVernon, Jodie; Richmond, Peter C; Marshall, Helen; Nissen, Michael; August, Allison; Percell, Sandra; Toneatto, Daniela; Nolan, Terry

    2015-09-22

    For decades, a broadly effective vaccine against serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has remained elusive. Recently, a four-component recombinant vaccine (4CMenB) has been developed and is now approved in Europe, Canada, Australia and some Latin American countries. This phase III, randomized study evaluated the lot consistency, early immune responses and the safety profile of 4CMenB in 11 to 17-year-old adolescents in Australia and Canada (NCT01423084). In total, 344 adolescents received two doses of one of 2 lots of 4CMenB, 1-month apart. Immunogenicity was assessed before, 2-weeks and 1-month following the second vaccination. Serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA) was measured against three reference strains 44/76-SL, 5/99 and NZ98/254, selected to express one of the vaccine antigens; Neisseria adhesin A (NadA), factor H binding protein (fHbp) and porin A (PorA) containing outer membrane vesicle (OMV), respectively. Responses to the Neisseria heparin binding antigen (NHBA) were assessed with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Local and systemic reactions were recorded for 7 days following each vaccination; unsolicited adverse events were monitored throughout the study. Immunological equivalence of the two lots of 4CMenB was established at 1-month. At baseline, ≤7% of participants had hSBA titers ≥5 to all three reference strains. Two weeks following the second dose of 4CMenB, all participants had hSBA titers ≥5 against fHbp and NadA compared with 84-96% against the PorA reference strains. At 1-month, corresponding proportions were 99%, 100% and 70-79%, respectively. Both lots were generally well tolerated and had similar adverse event profiles. Two doses of 4CMenB had an acceptable safety profile and induced a robust immune response in adolescents. Peak antibody responses were observed at 14 days following vaccination. While a substantial non-uniform antigen-dependent early decline in antibody titers was seen thereafter, a

  19. Cache Consistency by Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik

    In this paper we present a proof of the sequential consistency of the lazy caching protocol of Afek, Brown, and Merritt. The proof will follow a strategy of stepwise refinement, developing the distributed caching memory in five transformation steps from a specification of the serial memory, whilst

  20. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  1. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Self-consistent linear-muffin-tin-orbitals coherent-potential technique for bulk and surface calculations: Cu-Ni, Ag-Pd, and Au-Pt random alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrikosov, I. A.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1993-01-01

    We present an efficient technique for calculating surface properties of random alloys based on the coherent-potential approximation within a tight-binding linear-muffin-tin-orbitals basis. The technique has been applied in the calculation of bulk thermodynamic properties as well as (001) surface...

  3. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  4. First Responders and Criticality Accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman; Douglas M. Minnema

    2005-11-01

    Nuclear criticality accident descriptions typically include, but do not focus on, information useful to first responders. We studied these accidents, noting characteristics to help (1) first responders prepare for such an event and (2) emergency drill planners develop appropriate simulations for training. We also provide recommendations to help people prepare for such events in the future.

  5. Generating Consistent Program Tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestdam, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a tool that supports construction of program tutorials. A program tutorial provides the reader with an understanding of an example program by interleaving fragments of source code and explaining text. An example program can for example illustrate how to use a library...... or a framework. We present a means for specifying the fragments of a program that are to be in-lined in the tutorial text. These in-line fragments are defined by addressing named syntactical elements, such as classes and methods, but it is also possible to address individual code lines by labeling them...... with source markers. The tool helps ensuring consistency between program tutorial and example programs by extracting fragments of source code based on the fragment specifications and by detecting when a program tutorial is addressing program fragments that do not exist. The program tutorials are presented...

  6. Responder Technology Alert (February 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  7. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  8. Association of obesity and inflammatory marker levels on treatment outcome: results from a double-blind, randomized study of adjunctive L-methylfolate calcium in patients with MDD who are inadequate responders to SSRIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Richard C; Pencina, Michael J; Barrentine, Lori W; Ruiz, Juan A; Fava, Maurizio; Zajecka, John M; Papakostas, George I

    2015-12-01

    Adjunctive treatment with L-methylfolate calcium significantly improved treatment outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and an inadequate response to antidepressants. This post hoc exploratory analysis evaluated baseline concentrations of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, and IL-17; tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α]; and interferon γ [IFN-γ]), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), insulin, adiponectin and leptin and body mass index (BMI [kg/m2]) on L-methylfolate calcium treatment response. Adults with DSM-IV MDD and an inadequate response to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) were eligible. Patients were randomized 3:3:2 according to the sequential parallel comparison design to placebo versus placebo, placebo versus L-methylfolate calcium (15 mg/d), or L-methylfolate calcium versus L-methylfolate calcium (15 mg/d) during two 30-day phases. The primary outcome was change on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17). Treatment effect with 95% CIs was estimated from baseline concentrations of individual biomarkers and combinations. Cytokines were measured by immunoassay; adiponectin, insulin, and leptin by radioimmunoassay; and hsCRP by a standard turbidimetric assay. The effects of baseline biomarker levels (above and below the median) on outcome were analyzed. The first participant was enrolled July 14, 2009, and the last participant completed April 28, 2011. Mean change on HDRS-17 from baseline was significantly improved with L-methylfolate calcium versus placebo (pooled treatment effect, -2.74; 95% CI, -4.99 to -0.48; P = .017) overall and for those with baseline BMI ≥ 30 (pooled treatment effect, -4.66; 95% CI, -7.22 to -1.98; P = .001) but not BMI treatment for baseline levels of individual markers above median were significant (L-methylfolate calcium vs placebo) for TNF-α, IL-8, hsCRP, and leptin (pooled treatment effects, -4.33 to -3.94 [P

  9. Responding to the Invisible Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Investigates what constitutes good reflection. Describes how one instructor used the Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI) to explore her responses to the reflective writing produced by preservice English teachers. Concludes that the MBTI can provide insight into and improve how instructors assign, respond to, and evaluate student reflection.…

  10. CORRUPTION: HOW SHOULD CHRISTIANS RESPOND?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHRISTIANS RESPOND? ABSTRACT. The results of the 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International indicate the seriousness of the worldwide corruption problem. Although recent decades have witnessed a global public awareness and an increase in attempts to eradicate corruption, it is an ongoing ...

  11. Sixty years of lithium responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grof, Paul

    2010-01-01

    It has been 60 years since Cade first described patients who responded to antimanic lithium treatment. Two decades later, responders to lithium stabilization emerged in larger numbers. The responses of many severely ill bipolar patients to lithium were striking and called for an explanation. Remarkable reactions to a simple ion generated hope for an uncomplicated laboratory test of response and an extensive search for suitable biological markers ensued. But despite promising reports, particularly from molecular genetics, we are still waiting for a biological elucidation of the stabilizing effects of lithium. The most useful predictor of lithium stabilization has to date been the patient's clinical profile, based on a comprehensive clinical assessment: complete remissions and other characteristics of episodic clinical course, bipolar family history, low psychiatric comorbidity and a characteristic presenting psychopathology. In brief, the responders approximate the classical Kraepelinian description of a manic-depressive patient. But the most intriguing findings have recently emerged from prospective observations of the next generation: the children of lithium responders, their counterparts coming from parents who did not respond to lithium and controls. Overall, they indicate that parents and offspring suffer from a comparable brain dysfunction that manifests clinically in distinct stages. If the child's predicament starts early in childhood, it presents with varied, nonaffective or subclinical manifestations that are usually nonresponsive to standard treatments prescribed according to the symptoms. The next stage then unfolds in adolescence, first with depressive and later with activated episodes. The observations have a potential to markedly enrich the prevailing understanding and management of mood disorders. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. 77 GHz radar for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosowsky, L. H.; Aronoff, A. D.; Ferraro, R.; Alland, S.; Fleischman, E.

    2017-02-01

    First responders have the dangerous task of responding to emergency situations in firefighting scenarios involving homes and offices. The importance of this radar is its ability to see through walls and into adjacent areas to provide the first responder with information to assess the status of a building fire, its occupants, and to supplement his thermal camera which is obstructed by the wall. For the firefighter looking into an adjacent room containing unknown objects including humans, the challenge is to recognize what is in that room, the configuration of the room, and potential escape routes. We have just concluded a series of experiments to illustrate the performance of 77GHz radar in buildings. The experiments utilized the Delphi Automotive radar as the mm wave sensor and included display software developed by L. H. Kosowsky and Associates. The system has demonstrated the capability of seeing through walls consisting of sheetrock separated by two by four pieces of wood. It has demonstrated the ability to see into the adjacent room and to display the existence of persons and furniture Based on published data, the radar will perform well in a smoke, haze, and/or fog environment.

  13. Saddleworth, Responding to a Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Matthew Murray's Landscape publication Saddleworth, Responding To A Landscape. Forward by Martin Barnes Senior Curator of Photographs at The Victoria and Albert Museum, London, Artist Richard Billingham and Maartje van den Heuvel Curator Photography and Media Culture -Leiden Institute. \\ud \\ud ‘Every trip I have taken to Saddleworth Moor over four years has encapsulated each season, weather and cloud pattern, rain, sunshine, snow, early morning clear skies and the sense of the bitter cold of ...

  14. Support Framework for First Responder Family Members: A Proposed Model for Increasing Responder Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    always been consistent regarding disaster preparedness. The International Pentecostal Holiness Church article titled Family Preparedness for Disaster...prepared by developing a family disaster plan and when a disaster occurs, work the prearranged plan (International Pentecostal Holiness Church, n.d...would fall under the auspices of “first responder.” It was also noted that there is movement with a blue card certification process for first

  15. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  16. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, Cheryl L.; Seiner, Derrick R.; Ozanich, Richard M.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2012-10-24

    In a white powder scenario, there are a large number of field-deployable assays that can be used to determine if the suspicious substance contains biological material and warrants further investigation. This report summarizes commercially available technologies that are considered hand portable and can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor do the authors endorse any of the technologies described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use.

  17. Dishonest responding or true virtue?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Hilbig, Benjamin E.; Moshagen, Morten

    2015-01-01

    management scores indeed reflect true virtues rather than dishonesty under such conditions. We found support for this idea by replicating previous correlations between impression management scores and virtue-related basic personality traits (including honesty-humility), and additionally provided conclusive...... behavioral evidence: We linked scores on an impression management scale administered under typical low demand condition to behavior in an incentivized, anonymous cheating task. The results clearly indicate that low scores in impression management are associated with more cheating. That is, high—and not low......—scores on the Impression Management scale of the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding are aligned with more virtuous, honest behavior....

  18. Smoothing of Fused Spectral Consistent Satellite Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsson, Johannes; Aanæs, Henrik; Benediktsson, Jon Atli

    2006-01-01

    Several widely used methods have been proposed for fusing high resolution panchromatic data and lower resolution multi-channel data. However, many of these methods fail to maintain spectral consistency of the fused high resolution image, which is of high importance to many of the applications based...... in a statistically meaningful way. The fusion method was called spectral consistent panshapen- ing (SC) and it was shown that spectral consistency was a direct consequence of imaging physics and hence guaranteed by the SCP. In this paper exploit this framework and investigate two smoothing methods of the fused image...... obtain by SCP. The first smoothing method is based on Markov random field (MRF) model, while the second method uses wavelet domain hidden Markov models (HMM) for smoothing of the SCP fused image....

  19. Effects of Tier 3 Intervention for Students With Persistent Reading Difficulties and Characteristics of Inadequate Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Carolyn A; Tolar, Tammy D; Fletcher, Jack M; Barth, Amy E; Vaughn, Sharon; Francis, David J

    2013-08-01

    This article describes a randomized controlled trial conducted to evaluate the effects of an intensive, individualized, Tier 3 reading intervention for second grade students who had previously experienced inadequate response to quality first grade classroom reading instruction (Tier 1) and supplemental small-group intervention (Tier 2). Also evaluated were cognitive characteristics of students with inadequate response to intensive Tier 3 intervention. Students were randomized to receive the research intervention (N = 47) or the instruction and intervention typically provided in their schools (N = 25). Results indicated that students who received the research intervention made significantly better growth than those who received typical school instruction on measures of word identification, phonemic decoding, and word reading fluency and on a measure of sentence- and paragraph-level reading comprehension. Treatment effects were smaller and not statistically significant on phonemic decoding efficiency, text reading fluency, and reading comprehension in extended text. Effect sizes for all outcomes except oral reading fluency met criteria for substantive importance; however, many of the students in the intervention continued to struggle. An evaluation of cognitive profiles of adequate and inadequate responders was consistent with a continuum of severity (as opposed to qualitative differences), showing greater language and reading impairment prior to the intervention in students who were inadequate responders.

  20. Drug use among complete responders, partial responders and non-responders in a longitudinal survey of nonagenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wastesson, Jonas W; Rasmussen, Lotte; Oksuzyan, Anna

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In observational studies, non-response can limit representativity and introduce bias. We aimed to investigate the longitudinal changes in the number of used drugs among complete responders, partial responders, and non-responders in a whole birth cohort of Danish nonagenarians participati...

  1. How does not responding to appetitive stimuli cause devaluation: Evaluative conditioning or response inhibition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Z.; Veling, H.P.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Holland, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    In a series of 6 experiments (5 preregistered), we examined how not responding to appetitive stimuli causes devaluation. To examine this question, a go/no-go task was employed in which appetitive stimuli were consistently associated with cues to respond (go stimuli), or with cues to not respond

  2. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  3. Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically

  4. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-784X.2013v13n19p13 Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube.   Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  5. Como responder ao momento presente?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Molder

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foi com esta pergunta — já um efeito de um primeiro encontro entre Irene Pimentel e eu própria — que decidimos desafiar colegas, estudantes e funci­onários da nossa Faculdade, FCSH (Faculdade de Ciências Sociais e Huma­nas, de outras Faculdades da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, de outras Uni­versidades e todos os interessados em con­siderar e discutir em comum aquilo que se passava em Portugal e que no anúncio da Jornada de 6 de De­zembro de 2012 se descrevia como um “processo de desmantela­mento social, económico e cultural sem precedentes — pese embora tantas compara­ções, baseadas na premissa da ‘eterna repetição’ — e cujas consequências não param de exceder as previsões dos responsáveis por esse desmantelamento”. Acedendo com todo o empenho e gratidão ao convite que me foi dirigido por Humberto Brito para fazer uma resenha da Jornada a publicar no primeiro número de Forma de Vida (saúdo a revista e o título, decidi-me, no entanto, a pôr de lado a resenha, que sob a forma de “Editorial” será em breve publi­cada no blogue Responder ao Momento Presente, entre­tanto criado, conjuntamente com os textos escritos pelos nossos convidados, com as parti­cipações de pessoas que corresponderam ao nosso apelo e ainda com contri­bui­ções que se alargaram para lá da Jornada; a que se juntará uma gravação em video, também disponível no Youtube. Texto publicado originalmente em Forma de Vida, Lisboa, n.1, fev. 2013. Agrade­cemos à autora por permitir a republicação neste número do Boletim. [N.E.

  6. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  7. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  8. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  9. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  10. Differences in change in coping styles between good responders, moderate responders and non-responders to pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilkova-Hartmann, Ana; Janssen, Daisy J A; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M

    2015-12-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) improves exercise tolerance and health status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Data on the effects of PR on coping styles are limited. Aim of the present study was to compare changes in coping styles between patients who had a good, moderate and no improvement in either exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Coping styles of 439 COPD patients undergoing PR were assessed by the Utrecht Coping List (UCL) at baseline and after PR. Patients' pulmonary function, six-minute walking distance (6MWD), St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A and HADS-D) were recorded. Good, moderate and non-responders were defined on the basis of minimally clinically important difference (MCID) for SGRQ total score and/or 6MWD. Overall, 54.0% of the patients fulfilled the criteria for good responders, while 22.1% were moderate responders. Change in passive reaction pattern coping style differed significantly between good responders and non-responders following PR (p coping styles after PR occurred among the good responders, whereas the majority of moderate responders' and non-responders' coping styles were not significantly influenced by PR. Good responders decreased their passive reaction pattern coping style in contrast to non-responders after PR. In general, PR did not change the coping among moderate and non-responders. Further research is warranted to determine whether including interventions targeting coping styles may modify coping behaviour of COPD patients, as well as improvement in exercise tolerance or health status after PR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 24 CFR 103.202 - Notification of respondent; joinder of additional or substitute respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of additional or substitute respondents. 103.202 Section 103.202 Housing and Urban Development... Procedures § 103.202 Notification of respondent; joinder of additional or substitute respondents. (a) Within... may be joined as an additional or substitute respondent by service of a notice on the person under...

  12. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  13. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  14. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigates the socio economic assessment of urban forestry respondents' income in Okitipupa, Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and these were administered to 200 urban forestry respondents. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics viz: age, gender, marital status, ...

  15. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  16. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  17. Engineering an allosteric transcription factor to respond to new ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Noah D; Garruss, Alexander S; Moretti, Rocco; Chan, Sum; Arbing, Mark A; Cascio, Duilio; Rogers, Jameson K; Isaacs, Farren J; Kosuri, Sriram; Baker, David; Fields, Stanley; Church, George M; Raman, Srivatsan

    2016-01-01

    Genetic regulatory proteins inducible by small molecules are useful synthetic biology tools as sensors and switches. Bacterial allosteric transcription factors (aTFs) are a major class of regulatory proteins, but few aTFs have been redesigned to respond to new effectors beyond natural aTF-inducer pairs. Altering inducer specificity in these proteins is difficult because substitutions that affect inducer binding may also disrupt allostery. We engineered an aTF, the Escherichia coli lac repressor, LacI, to respond to one of four new inducer molecules: fucose, gentiobiose, lactitol or sucralose. Using computational protein design, single-residue saturation mutagenesis or random mutagenesis, along with multiplex assembly, we identified new variants comparable in specificity and induction to wild-type LacI with its inducer, isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The ability to create designer aTFs will enable applications including dynamic control of cell metabolism, cell biology and synthetic gene circuits. PMID:26689263

  18. Consistent metagenomic biomarker detection via robust PCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshawaqfeh, Mustafa; Bashaireh, Ahmad; Serpedin, Erchin; Suchodolski, Jan

    2017-01-31

    Recent developments of high throughput sequencing technologies allow the characterization of the microbial communities inhabiting our world. Various metagenomic studies have suggested using microbial taxa as potential biomarkers for certain diseases. In practice, the number of available samples varies from experiment to experiment. Therefore, a robust biomarker detection algorithm is needed to provide a set of potential markers irrespective of the number of available samples. Consistent performance is essential to derive solid biological conclusions and to transfer these findings into clinical applications. Surprisingly, the consistency of a metagenomic biomarker detection algorithm with respect to the variation in the experiment size has not been addressed by the current state-of-art algorithms. We propose a consistency-classification framework that enables the assessment of consistency and classification performance of a biomarker discovery algorithm. This evaluation protocol is based on random resampling to mimic the variation in the experiment size. Moreover, we model the metagenomic data matrix as a superposition of two matrices. The first matrix is a low-rank matrix that models the abundance levels of the irrelevant bacteria. The second matrix is a sparse matrix that captures the abundance levels of the bacteria that are differentially abundant between different phenotypes. Then, we propose a novel Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) based biomarker discovery algorithm to recover the sparse matrix. RPCA belongs to the class of multivariate feature selection methods which treat the features collectively rather than individually. This provides the proposed algorithm with an inherent ability to handle the complex microbial interactions. Comprehensive comparisons of RPCA with the state-of-the-art algorithms on two realistic datasets are conducted. Results show that RPCA consistently outperforms the other algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and

  19. Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derwin K; Ivarsson, Andreas; Stenling, Andreas; Yang, Sophie X; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L; Hagger, Martin S

    2015-12-01

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in a survey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results of sport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover study examining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomous motivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletes from Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistency tendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-week interim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of different IID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had stronger parameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  20. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (January 2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  1. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (December 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-13

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  2. Exploring the Consistent behavior of Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapidakis Sarantos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer services are normally assumed to work well all the time. This usually happens for crucial services like bank electronic services, but not necessarily so for others, that there is no commercial interest in their operation. In this work we examined the operation and the errors of information services and tried to find clues that will help predicting the consistency of the behavior and the quality of the harvesting, which is harder because of the transient conditions and the many services and the huge amount of harvested information. We found many unexpected situations. The services that always successfully satisfy a request may in fact return part of it. A significant part of the OAI services have ceased working while many other serves occasionally fail to respond. Some services fail in the same way each time, and we pronounce them dead, as we do not see a way to overcome that. Others also always, or sometimes fail, but not in the same way, and we hope that their behavior is affected by temporary factors, that may improve later on. We categorized the services into classes, to study their behavior in more detail.

  3. Identifying Careless Responding With the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised Validity Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, David K; Church, Abere Sawaqdeh; O'Connell, Debra; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2018-01-01

    The Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R) includes validity scales that assess Deviant Responding (DR), Virtuous Responding, and Inconsistent Responding. We examined the utility of these scales for identifying careless responding using data from two online studies that examined correlates of psychopathy in college students (Sample 1: N = 583; Sample 2: N = 454). Compared with those below the cut scores, those above the cut on the DR scale yielded consistently lower validity coefficients when PPI-R scores were correlated with corresponding scales from the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure. The other three PPI-R validity scales yielded weaker and less consistent results. Participants who completed the studies in an inordinately brief amount of time scored significantly higher on the DR and Virtuous Responding scales than other participants. Based on the findings from the current studies, researchers collecting PPI-R data online should consider identifying and perhaps screening out respondents with elevated scores on the DR scale.

  4. Challenges to Leadership: Responding to Biological Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats Paul Rosenzweig Center for Technology and National Security Policy...Challenges to Leadership : Responding to Biological Threats 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT... theory , two other components to any program to reduce the threat of a biological attack: limiting access to source materials and technology and

  5. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callum Richards

    Full Text Available The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within this "bioreactor", and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming sub-family of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota to the ancestral omnivorous cockroaches. To assess the importance of a fungus diet as a driver of community structure, we compare community compositions in the guts of experimentally manipulated Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroaches fed on fungus cultivated by fungus-farming termites. MiSeq amplicon analysis of gut microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus-feeding termite species showed that although some bacteria OTUs shared by P. surinamensis and the farming termites increased in the guts of cockroaches on a fungal diet, cockroach communities remained distinct from those of termites. These results demonstrate that a fungal diet can play a role in structuring gut community composition, but at the same time exemplifies how original community compositions constrain the magnitude of such change.

  6. Pycnoscelus surinamensis cockroach gut microbiota respond consistently to a fungal diet without mirroring those of fungus-farming termites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Callum; Otani, Saria; Mikaelyan, Aram

    2017-01-01

    microbiotas from 49 gut samples showed a step-wise gradient pattern in community similarity that correlated with an increase in the proportion of fungal material provided to the cockroaches. Comparison of the taxonomic composition of manipulated communities to that of gut communities of a fungus......The gut microbiotas of cockroaches and termites play important roles in the symbiotic digestion of dietary components, such as lignocellulose. Diet has been proposed as a primary determinant of community structure within the gut, acting as a selection force to shape the diversity observed within...... this “bioreactor”, and as a key factor for the divergence of the termite gut microbiota from the omnivorous cockroach ancestor. The gut microbiota in most termites supports primarily the breakdown of lignocellulose, but the fungus-farming subfamily of higher termites has become similar in gut microbiota...

  7. Preschool Needle Pain Responding: Establishing 'Normal'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Jordana A; DiLorenzo, Miranda G; Pillai Riddell, Rebecca R; Flora, David B; Greenberg, Saul; Garfield, Hartley

    2017-06-01

    The current study sets forth to provide descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examine longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Growth mixture modeling was first used to describe stable subgroups of preschoolers on the basis of their pain response patterns over 2-minutes post-needle. Secondly, a parallel-process growth curve model was used to assess the stability of acute pain responding from 12 months of age to preschool age. Specifically, we examined whether preschool pain-related distress or regulation could be predicted from 12-month acute pain responding. Preschool participants were part of a Canadian longitudinal cohort (The Opportunities to Understand Childhood Hurt [OUCH] cohort; N = 302). Growth mixture modeling analyses discerned 3 distinct groups of preschoolers, with an important minority not regulating to low-no pain by 2 minutes post-needle. There were no significant associations between 12-month and preschool pain responding. These results highlight the steep trajectory of development between these different stages of early childhood and the variability of pain responding at the preschool vaccination. This study provides descriptive data for preschool vaccination pain responding as well as examines longitudinal relationships over early childhood. Demonstrating significantly different pain patterns from infancy, 25% of preschoolers are displaying suboptimal regulation trajectories. This considerable minority poses a significant concern because of the established trajectory of phobia onset in middle childhood. Copyright © 2017 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...... distinct gene expression changes while responding tumors adaptively respond or progress by means of the same transcriptional changes. In conclusion, we hypothesize that the identified gene expression changes of responding tumors are associated to bevacizumab response or resistance mechanisms....

  9. Changes in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate during Fixed-Interval Responding in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWeese, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Episodic and sustained increases in heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure can occur with recurring patterns of schedule-controlled behavior. Most previous studies were conducted under fixed-ratio schedules, which maintained a consistent high rate of responding that alternated with periods of no responding during times when the schedule was…

  10. Dependent Interviewing and Sub-Optimal Responding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Eggs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With proactive dependent interviewing (PDI respondents are reminded of the answer they gave in the previous interview, before being asked about their current status. PDI is used in panel surveys to assist respondent recall and reduce spurious changes in responses over time. PDI may however provide scope for new errors if respondents falsely accept the previous information as still being an accurate description of their current situation. In this paper we use data from the German Labour Market and Social Security panel study, in which an error was made with the preload data for a PDI question about receipt of welfare benefit. The survey data were linked to individual administrative records on receipt of welfare benefit. A large proportion of respondents accepted the false preload. This behaviour seems mainly driven by the difficulty of the response task: respondents with a more complex history of receipt according to the records were more likely to confirm the false preload. Personality also seemed related to the probability of confirming. Predictors of satisficing, indicators of satisficing on other items in the survey, and characteristics of the survey and interviewer were not predictive of confirming the false preload.

  11. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybylski, Andrew K

    2016-01-01

    The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group's research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding-a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires-is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  12. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  13. Identification of Responders to Amiodarone: Subgroup Analysis of the EMIAT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kehl, Victoria; Ulm, Kurt; Schmidt, G; Barthel, P.; Malik, Marek

    2003-01-01

    Clinical trials often judge the efficacy of a new treatment by comparing the survival patterns of patients who are randomly assigned to undergo the new or a standard/placebo treatment. Usually, the entire groups are analyzed, although certain subgroups of patients may react differently to the new treatment than others. Some patients taking the new treatment might benefit from it (the positive responders) while others may be harmed by it (the negative responders). We applied a newly developed ...

  14. Probability machines: consistent probability estimation using nonparametric learning machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J D; Kruppa, J; Dasgupta, A; Malley, K G; Ziegler, A

    2012-01-01

    Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications.

  15. Probability Machines: Consistent Probability Estimation Using Nonparametric Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J. D.; Kruppa, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Malley, K. G.; Ziegler, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. Objectives The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Methods Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Results Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Conclusions Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications. PMID:21915433

  16. Transcriptional changes induced by bevacizumab combination therapy in responding and non-responding recurrent glioblastoma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urup, Thomas; Staunstrup, Line Maersk; Michaelsen, Signe Regner

    2017-01-01

    and resistance to bevacizumab combination therapy.Methods: Recurrent glioblastoma patients who had biomarker-accessible tumor tissue surgically removed both before bevacizumab treatment and at time of progression were included. Patients were grouped into responders (n = 7) and non-responders (n = 14). Gene...... expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue was performed using RNA-sequencing.Results: By comparing pretreatment samples of responders with those of non-responders no significant difference was observed. In a paired comparison analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples of non...

  17. Responding to Loneliness: Counseling the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, M. Honore

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development and implementation of a group on "Responding to Loneliness" for the elderly. Focuses on building positive self-esteem; learning social and personal skills; managing stress and anxiety; developing problem-solving strategies; and building a social network. (Author/JAC)

  18. Hemicrania continua: who responds to indomethacin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmura, M J; Silberstein, S D; Gupta, M

    2009-03-01

    Hemicrania continua (HC) is a primary headache disorder characterized by a continuous, moderate to severe, unilateral headache and defined by its absolute responsiveness to indomethacin. However, some patients with the clinical phenotype of HC do not respond to indomethacin. We reviewed the records of 192 patients with the putative diagnosis of HC and divided them into groups based on their headaches' response to indomethacin. They were compared for age, gender, presence or absence of specific autonomic symptoms, medication overuse, rapidity of headache onset, and whether or not the headaches met criteria for migraine when severe. Forty-three patients had an absolute response and 122 patients did not respond to adequate doses of indomethacin. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of age, sex, presence of rapid-onset headache, or medication overuse. Autonomic symptoms, based on a questionnaire, did not predict response. Eighteen patients could not complete a trial of indomethacin due to adverse events. Nine patients could not be included in the HC group despite improvement with indomethacin: one patient probably had primary cough headache, another paroxysmal hemicrania; three patients improved but it was uncertain if they were absolutely pain free, and four patients dramatically improved but still had a baseline headache. We found no statistically significant differences between patients who did and did not respond to indomethacin. All patients with continuous, unilateral headache should receive an adequate trial of indomethacin. Most patients with unilateral headache suggestive of HC did not respond to indomethacin.

  19. Porphyria cutanea tarda responding to spirulina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavithran K

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient of porphyria cutanea tarda responded to oral spirulina - an alga rich in beta - carotene. The beta - carotene in the spirulina quenches the singlet oxygen which is responsible for the tissue damage in porphyria-associated photosensitivity.

  20. What is wrong with non-respondents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and dif...

  1. Responding to organised environmental crimes: Collaborative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding to organised environmental crimes: Collaborative approaches and capacity building. ... helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs. Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  2. Learning Games for Active Student Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Caren; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Instructional games can be used effectively when they require active student participation and high rates of student responding. The article describes principles of such games and suggests ways to turn typical games (such as "Bingo,""War,""Scrabble,""Boggle," paper/pencil games, and question/answer games) into active, high-response games. (JDD)

  3. School Principals and Racism: Responding to Aveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Claire; Mahoney, Caroline; Fox, Brandi; Halse, Christine

    2016-01-01

    This study responds to Nado Aveling's call in "Anti-racism in Schools: A question of leadership?" ("Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education," 2007, 28(1), 69-85) for further investigation into racism in Australian schools. Aveling's interview study concluded that an overwhelming number of school principals…

  4. Comparison of sampling methods for hard-to-reach francophone populations: yield and adequacy of advertisement and respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwakongnwi, Emmanuel; King-Shier, Kathryn M; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Musto, Richard; Quan, Hude

    2014-01-01

    Francophones who live outside the primarily French-speaking province of Quebec, Canada, risk being excluded from research by lack of a sampling frame. We examined the adequacy of random sampling, advertising, and respondent-driven sampling for recruitment of francophones for survey research. We recruited francophones residing in the city of Calgary, Alberta, through advertising and respondentdriven sampling. These 2 samples were then compared with a random subsample of Calgary francophones derived from the 2006 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). We assessed the effectiveness of advertising and respondent-driven sampling in relation to the CCHS sample by comparing demographic characteristics and selected items from the CCHS (specifically self-reported general health status, perceived weight, and having a family doctor). We recruited 120 francophones through advertising and 145 through respondent-driven sampling; the random sample from the CCHS consisted of 259 records. The samples derived from advertising and respondentdriven sampling differed from the CCHS in terms of age (mean ages 41.0, 37.6, and 42.5 years, respectively), sex (proportion of males 26.1%, 40.6%, and 56.6%, respectively), education (college or higher 86.7% , 77.9% , and 59.1%, respectively), place of birth (immigrants accounting for 45.8%, 55.2%, and 3.7%, respectively), and not having a regular medical doctor (16.7%, 34.5%, and 16.6%, respectively). Differences were not tested statistically because of limitations on the analysis of CCHS data imposed by Statistics Canada. The samples generated exclusively through advertising and respondent-driven sampling were not representative of the gold standard sample from the CCHS. Use of such biased samples for research studies could generate misleading results.

  5. Willingness, ability, and intentions of health care workers to respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couig, Mary Pat

    2012-01-01

    Health care workers (HCWs) are a critical component of the emergency management cycle (prevention, mitigation, preparation, response, and recovery). The potential for large numbers of injured from either a man-made or natural disaster has resulted in the development of surge capacity plans and attempts to predict how many HCWs will be available to respond. Since 1991 (with the majority of the research published in 2002 and later), researchers have been conducting studies to learn about the willingness, ability, and intentions of HCWs to respond to disasters. Potential and real barriers to disaster response are being explored as well. This chapter focuses on research authored or coauthored by nurses. Nurse-authored research is just a portion of the growing body of knowledge in this area; however, the findings are consistent with other published works. HCWs are more likely to be willing and able to respond to natural disasters and less likely to be willing and able during infectious outbreaks or incidents with potential exposure to harmful agents (biological, chemical, nuclear, or radiological). HCW concerns include safety of self and family, availability of protective equipment, medicines and vaccines, and caretaking responsibilities (children, elders, and pets).

  6. RESPONDING PROFESSIONALLY TO REQUESTS FOR CESAREAN DELIVERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, F; McCullough, L

    2017-01-01

    Patients' requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery challenge the professionalism of obstetricians. This is because physicians should not provide clinical management in the absence of an evidence-based indication for it. The ethics of responding professionally to requests for non-indicated cesarean delivery would appear to be simple: just say "No." This paper presents an ethically and clinically more nuanced approach, on the basis of the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics, emphasizinga preventive ethics approach. Preventive ethics deploys the informed consent process to minimize ethical conflict in clinical practice. This process should focus on when to recommend against cesarean delivery - rather than simply saying no. There is no evidence of net clinical benefit for pregnant, fetal, and neonatal patients from non-indicated cesarean delivery. Obstetricians should therefore respond to such requests by recommending against cesarean delivery, recommending vaginal delivery, and explaining the evidence base for these recommendations.

  7. Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. Przybylski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5 included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (ntot = 11,908 provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

  8. Responding to the Housing and Financial Crises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scanlon, Kathleen; Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The long period of house price growth in markets across the world ended with the US and global financial crisis of 2007/08. The crisis and the consequent recession had profound effects on mortgage market actors – including households, institutions and governments – in most advanced economies......, whether or not they participated in this rapid house price growth. Many of the trends observed during the boom, especially the innovations in financial instruments, were reversed. This paper presents evidence on how mortgage markets and stakeholders responded in the initial period after the crash....... In particular it reports on a 2009 survey of housing experts from 16 industrialised countries, which concentrated on how each country's mortgage system responded to the crisis and how governments addressed the problems of borrowers....

  9. Protecting Respondent Confidentiality in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Karen

    2009-01-01

    For qualitative researchers, maintaining respondent confidentiality while presenting rich, detailed accounts of social life presents unique challenges. These challenges are not adequately addressed in the literature on research ethics and research methods. Using an example from a study of breast cancer survivors, I argue that by carefully considering the audience for one’s research and by re-envisioning the informed consent process, qualitative researchers can avoid confidentiality dilemmas that might otherwise lead them not to report rich, detailed data. PMID:19843971

  10. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  11. Preventing and responding to medical identity theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amori, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    Medical identity theft is a crime with two victims: patients and providers. It is easy to commit and lucrative because healthcare record keeping and business interactions are complex and mainly electronic. Patients whose identity has been stolen are vulnerable to both medical error and financial loss. Providers may suffer both reputation loss and financial loss. There are steps to help prevent and to respond appropriately to medical identity theft.

  12. Amitriptyline Intoxication Responded to Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güldem Turan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The most severe effects in amitriptiline intoxications are related with central nervous system and cardiovascular system. Amitriptiline intoxication especially with high doses has severe cardiac effects and can result in cardiac arrest. Most favorable responses can be achieved with efficient and prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We wanted to present a case ingested high dose of amitriptiline for attempt to suicide and responded to prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

  13. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  14. The Sensitivity of Respondent-driven Sampling Method

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Xin; Britton, Tom; Camitz, Martin; Kim, Beom Jun; Thorson, Anna; Liljeros, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in many scientific fields make inferences from individuals to larger groups. For many groups however, there is no list of members from which to take a random sample. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a relatively new sampling methodology that circumvents this difficulty by using the social networks of the groups under study. The RDS method has been shown to provide unbiased estimates of population proportions given certain conditions. The method is now widely used in the study of HIV-related high-risk populations globally. In this paper, we test the RDS methodology by simulating RDS studies on the social networks of a large LGBT web community. The robustness of the RDS method is tested by violating, one by one, the conditions under which the method provides unbiased estimates. Results reveal that the risk of bias is large if networks are directed, or respondents choose to invite persons based on characteristics that are correlated with the study outcomes. If these two problems are absent, the RD...

  15. 78 FR 65963 - Antidumping Proceedings: Announcement of Change in Department Practice for Respondent Selection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... concerns, as variation in the dumping behavior of the population gives rise to concerns that a non- random... as a respondent and captures potential variability across the population. Stratification by import... language of the statute with that of the World Trade Organization (``WTO'') AD Agreement (Agreement on...

  16. Infant differential behavioral responding to discrete emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walle, Eric A; Reschke, Peter J; Camras, Linda A; Campos, Joseph J

    2017-10-01

    Emotional communication regulates the behaviors of social partners. Research on individuals' responding to others' emotions typically compares responses to a single negative emotion compared with responses to a neutral or positive emotion. Furthermore, coding of such responses routinely measure surface level features of the behavior (e.g., approach vs. avoidance) rather than its underlying function (e.g., the goal of the approach or avoidant behavior). This investigation examined infants' responding to others' emotional displays across 5 discrete emotions: joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust. Specifically, 16-, 19-, and 24-month-old infants observed an adult communicate a discrete emotion toward a stimulus during a naturalistic interaction. Infants' responses were coded to capture the function of their behaviors (e.g., exploration, prosocial behavior, and security seeking). The results revealed a number of instances indicating that infants use different functional behaviors in response to discrete emotions. Differences in behaviors across emotions were clearest in the 24-month-old infants, though younger infants also demonstrated some differential use of behaviors in response to discrete emotions. This is the first comprehensive study to identify differences in how infants respond with goal-directed behaviors to discrete emotions. Additionally, the inclusion of a function-based coding scheme and interpersonal paradigms may be informative for future emotion research with children and adults. Possible developmental accounts for the observed behaviors and the benefits of coding techniques emphasizing the function of social behavior over their form are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. "Responding to Climate Change" Course: Research Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bowman, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The "Responding to Climate Change" Barnard/Columbia course integrates current research as well as hands-on research-based activities modified for a classroom environment. The course covers the major response themes of adaptation, mitigation and communication. In the spring of 2015 the course was oriented around Arctic and Antarctic case studies. Each week a different theme is addressed, such as the physical setting, changing ecosystems, governance issues, perspectives of residents and indigenous peoples, geoengineering, commercial interests, security, and health and developmental issues. Frequent guest lectures from thematic experts keep the course grounded in realities and present the students with cutting edge issues. Activities match the weekly theme, for example during the week on Arctic development, students engage with the marine spatial planning simulation Arctic SMARTIC (Strategic Management of Resources in Times of Change) based on research on Arctic sea ice trends and projections coupled with current and projected developmental interests of stakeholders. Created under the Polar Learning and Responding: PoLAR Climate Change Education Partnership (thepolarhub.org), a complete set of SMARTIC resources is available on line for use by others (http://www.camelclimatechange.org/view/article/175297/). The Responding to Climate Change course is designed to be current and respond to events. For the Arctic case study, students developed proposals for the US State Department as the upcoming Chair of the Arctic Council. Student evaluations indicated that they appreciated the opportunity to connect science with policy and presentation of preliminary proposals in a workshop format was valued as a way to develop and hone their ideas. An additional finding was that students were surprisingly tolerant of technical issues when guest lecturers were linked in via Skype, allowing interaction with thematic experts across the US. Students commented positively on this exposure to

  18. Safety Risk Management for Homeland Defense and Security Responders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyers, Tommey H

    2005-01-01

    ...) report on responder safety, this thesis explores the issues associated with creating a safety risk management capability that will enable HLDS responders to better protect themselves from harm...

  19. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  20. Brain Changes in Responders versus Non-Responders in Chronic Migraine: Markers of Disease Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S Hubbard

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify structural and functional brain changes that accompanied the transition from chronic (CM; ≥ 15 headache days/month to episodic (EM; < 15 headache days/month migraine following prophylactic treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA. Specifically, we examined whether CM patients responsive to prophylaxis (responders; n = 11, as evidenced by a reversal in disease status (defined by at least a 50% reduction in migraine frequency and < 15 headache days/month, compared to CM patients whose migraine frequency remained unchanged (non-responders; n = 12, showed differences in cortical thickness using surface-based morphometry. We also investigated whether areas showing group differences in cortical thickness displayed altered resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC using seed-to-voxel analyses. Migraine characteristics measured across groups included disease duration, pain intensity and headache frequency. Patient reports’ of headache frequency over the four weeks prior to (pre-treatment and following (post-treatment prophylaxis were compared (post minus pre and this measure served as the clinical endpoint that determined group assignment. All patients were scanned within two weeks of the post-treatment visit. Results revealed that responders showed significant cortical thickening in the right primary somatosensory cortex (SI and anterior insula, and left superior temporal gyrus and pars opercularis compared to non-responders. In addition, disease duration was negatively correlated with cortical thickness in fronto-parietal and temporo-occipital regions in responders but not non-responders, with the exception of the primary motor cortex (MI that showed the opposite pattern; disease duration was positively associated with MI cortical thickness in responders versus non-responders. Our seed-based RS-FC analyses revealed anti-correlations between the SI seed and lateral occipital (LOC and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices

  1. How tree roots respond to drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano eBrunner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing climate change is characterised by increased temperatures and altered precipitation patterns. In addition, there has been an increase in both the frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events such as drought. Episodes of drought induce a series of interconnected effects, all of which have the potential to alter the carbon balance of forest ecosystems profoundly at different scales of plant organisation and ecosystem functioning. During recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of how aboveground parts of trees respond to drought and how these responses affect carbon assimilation. In contrast, processes of belowground parts are relatively underrepresented in research on climate change. In this review, we describe current knowledge about responses of tree roots to drought. Tree roots are capable of responding to drought through a variety of strategies that enable them to avoid and tolerate stress. Responses include root biomass adjustments, anatomical alterations, and physiological acclimations. The molecular mechanisms underlying these responses are characterized to some extent, and involve stress signalling and the induction of numerous genes, leading to the activation of tolerance pathways. In addition, mycorrhizas seem to play important protective roles. The current knowledge compiled in this review supports the view that tree roots are well equipped to withstand drought situations and maintain morphological and physiological functions as long as possible. Further, the reviewed literature demonstrates the important role of tree roots in the functioning of forest ecosystems and highlights the need for more research in this emerging field.

  2. Fission gas bubble percolation on crystallographically consistent grain boundary networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabogal-Suárez, Daniel; David Alzate-Cardona, Juan, E-mail: jdalzatec@unal.edu.co; Restrepo-Parra, Elisabeth

    2016-07-15

    Fission gas release in nuclear fuels can be modeled in the framework of percolation theory, where each grain boundary is classified as open or closed to the release of the fission gas. In the present work, two-dimensional grain boundary networks were assembled both at random and in a crystallographically consistent manner resembling a general textured microstructure. In the crystallographically consistent networks, grain boundaries were classified according to its misorientation. The percolation behavior of the grain boundary networks was evaluated as a function of radial cracks and radial thermal gradients in the fuel pellet. Percolation thresholds tend to shift to the left with increasing length and number of cracks, especially in the presence of thermal gradients. In general, the topology and percolation behavior of the crystallographically consistent networks differs from those of the random network. - Highlights: • Fission gas release in nuclear fuels was studied in the framework of percolation theory. • The nuclear fuel cross-section microstructure was modeled through grain boundary networks. • The grain boundaries were classified randomly or according to its crystallography. • Differences in topology and percolation behavior for both kinds networks were determined.

  3. Biodetection Technologies for First Responders: 2014 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozanich, Richard M.; Baird, Cheryl L.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Colburn, Heather A.; Straub, Tim M.; Bruckner-Lea, Cindy J.

    2014-03-28

    This report summarizes commercially-available, hand-portable technologies that can be used by first responders in the field. This is not meant to be an exhaustive list, nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, this report is meant to provide useful information about available technologies to help end-users make informed decisions about biodetection technology procurement and use. Information listed in this report is primarily vendor-provided; however, where possible it has been supplemented with additional information obtained from publications, reports, and websites. Manufacturers were given the chance to review summaries of their technologies from August through November 2013 to verify the accuracy of technical specifications, available references, and pricing.

  4. Responding to Indigenous Australian Sexual Assault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janya McCalman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous Australians experience a high prevalence of sexual assault, yet a regional sexual assault service found few Indigenous Australians accessed their services. This prompted exploration of how its services might be improved. A resultant systematic search of the literature is reported in this article. Seven electronic databases and seven websites were systematically searched for peer reviewed and gray literature documenting responses to the sexual assault of Indigenous Australians. These publications were then classified by response type and study type. Twenty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. They included studies of legal justice, media, and community-based and mainstream service responses for Indigenous survivors and perpetrators. We located program descriptions, measurement, and descriptive research, but no intervention studies. There is currently insufficient evidence to confidently prescribe what works to effectively respond to Indigenous Australian sexual assault. The study revealed an urgent need for researchers, Indigenous communities, and services to work together to develop the evidence base.

  5. Metastatic urachal cancer responding to FOLFOX chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ben; McKendrick, Joe

    2010-04-01

    Metastatic urachal cancer is a rare disease and subsequently, does not have a defined systemic treatment. Although urachal cancer is most commonly adenocarcinoma and histologically similar to colon cancer, treatment selection is usually based upon location (the proximity of the urachus to the bladder) with bladder cancer regimens the most commonly prescribed. We report a case of metastatic urachal cancer where the immunohistochemical profile's similarities to colon cancer led to treatment with colon cancer specific chemotherapy. Our case is the first to report urachal cancer treated with and responding to modified FOLFOX6. In the age of targeted therapy, where molecular biology drives treatment selection, our case highlights that in rare tumors, when evidence is often lacking, a common sense approach can often prevail.

  6. Responding to the Challenge of True Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul

    We construe a conceptual framework for responding effectively to true uncertainty in the business environment. We drill down to the essential micro-foundational capabilities - sensing and seizing of dynamic capabilities - and link them to classical strategic issue management theory with suggestions...... on how to operationalize these essential capabilities. By definition true uncertainty represents environmental conditions that are hard to foresee, which can catch the unprepared by surprise while presenting opportunities to the conscious organization. We demonstrate that organizations relying...... on aggregation of stakeholder sensing and predictions of emergent strategic issues can positively influence the two capabilities and help the firm adapt in the face of uncertainty and unpredictability. Robust measures predicating performance based on information from key stakeholders involved in the firm’s core...

  7. Methods of responding to healthcare security incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnell, S; Gritzalis, D; Katsikas, S; Mavroudakis, K; Sanders, P; Warren, M

    1998-01-01

    This paper considers the increasing requirement for security in healthcare IT systems and, in particular, identifies the need for appropriate means by which healthcare establishments (HCEs) may respond to incidents. The main discussion focuses upon two significant initiatives that have been established in order to improve understanding and awareness of healthcare security issues. The first is the establishment of a dedicated Incident Reporting Scheme (IRS) for HCEs, enabling the level and types of security incidents faced within the healthcare community to be monitored and advice appropriately targeted. The second aspect presents a description of healthcare security World Wide Web service, which provides a comprehensive source of advice and guidance for establishments when trying to address and prevent IT security breaches. The discussion is based upon work that is currently being undertaken with the ISHTAR (Implementing Secure Healthcare Telematics Applications in Europe) project, as part of the Telematics Applications for Health programme of the European Commission.

  8. How to define responders in osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Cyrus; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Bardin, Thomas; Berenbaum, Francis; Flamion, Bruno; Jonsson, Helgi; Kanis, John A.; Pelousse, Franz; Lems, Willem F.; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Reiter, Susanne; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Rizzoli, René; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis is a clinical syndrome of failure of the joint accompanied by varying degrees of joint pain, functional limitation, and reduced quality of life due to deterioration of articular cartilage and involvement of other joint structures. Scope Regulatory agencies require relevant clinical benefit on symptoms and structure modification for registration of a new therapy as a disease-modifying osteoarthritis drug (DMOAD). An international Working Group of the European Society on Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) and International Osteoporosis Foundation was convened to explore the current burden of osteoarthritis, review current regulatory guidelines for the conduct of clinical trials, and examine the concept of responder analyses for improving drug evaluation in osteoarthritis. Findings The ESCEO considers that the major challenges in DMOAD development are the absence of a precise definition of the disease, particularly in the early stages, and the lack of consensus on how to detect structural changes and link them to clinically meaningful endpoints. Responder criteria should help identify progression of disease and be clinically meaningful. The ideal criterion should be sensitive to change over time and should predict disease progression and outcomes such as joint replacement. Conclusion The ESCEO considers that, for knee osteoarthritis, clinical trial data indicate that radiographic joint space narrowing >0.5 mm over 2 or 3 years might be a reliable surrogate measure for total joint replacement. On-going research using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and biochemical markers may allow the identification of these patients earlier in the disease process. PMID:23557069

  9. Computer architecture for solving consistent labeling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, J.R.; Haralick, R.M.; Shapiro, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    Consistent labeling problems are a family of np-complete constraint satisfaction problems such as school timetabling, for which a conventional computer may be too slow. There are a variety of techniques for reducing the elapsed time to find one or all solutions to a consistent labeling problem. The paper discusses and illustrates solutions consisting of special hardware to accomplish the required constraint propagation and an asynchronous network of intercommunicating computers to accomplish the tree search in parallel. 5 references.

  10. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    . This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  11. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  12. Contractility sensor-guided optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy: results from the RESPOND-CRT trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugada, Josep; Delnoy, Peter Paul; Brachmann, Johannes; Reynolds, Dwight; Padeletti, Luigi; Noelker, Georg; Kantipudi, Charan; Rubin Lopez, José Manuel; Dichtl, Wolfgang; Borri-Brunetto, Alberto; Verhees, Luc; Ritter, Philippe; Singh, Jagmeet P

    2017-03-07

    Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in patients with systolic heart failure (HF) and a wide QRS interval, a substantial proportion of patients remain non-responsive. The SonR contractility sensor embedded in the right atrial lead enables individualized automatic optimization of the atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) timings. The RESPOND-CRT study investigated the safety and efficacy of the contractility sensor system in HF patients undergoing CRT. RESPOND-CRT was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, non-inferiority trial. Patients were randomized (2:1, respectively) to receive weekly, automatic CRT optimization with SonR vs. an Echo-guided optimization of AV and VV timings. The primary efficacy endpoint was the rate of clinical responders (patients alive, without adjudicated HF-related events, with improvement in New York Heart Association class or quality of life), at 12 months. The study randomized 998 patients. Responder rates were 75.0% in the SonR arm and 70.4% in the Echo arm (mean difference, 4.6%; 95% CI, -1.4% to 10.6%; P optimization using the contractility sensor was safe and as effective as Echo-guided AV and VV optimization in increasing response to CRT. NCT01534234.

  13. A responder analysis of the effects of yoga for individuals with COPD: who benefits and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donesky, DorAnne; Melendez, Michelle; Nguyen, Huong Q; Carrieri-Kohlman, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a twice-weekly, modified Iyengar yoga program was a safe and viable self-management strategy for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). 1 The primary purpose of this exploratory analysis was to classify yoga participants into 1 of 3 responder categories by using minimum clinically important difference (MCID) criteria for each of 3 variables: 6-minute walk distance (6MW), distress related to dyspnea (shortness of breath; DD), and functional performance (FPI). Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and in psychological well-being (anxiety and depression), and participants' self-reported improvements by responder category were also examined. A secondary goal was to identify baseline participant characteristics, including initial randomization assignment that might predict response to treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to either an initial yoga (IY) or an enhanced wait-list control (WLC) group. Those in the WLC group were offered the yoga program immediately following the IY group's participation. Individuals from both groups who completed at least 18 of 24 yoga classes were categorized as responders, partial responders, or non-responders for each of the 3 outcome variables (6MW, DD, FPI) on the basis of MCID criteria. Baseline characteristics and changes in HRQL and psychological well-being were also analyzed. None of the participants demonstrated MCIDs for all 3 outcomes; however, 6 were classified as responders for 2 out-come variables and 4 were classified as non-responders for all 3 outcome variables. Two-thirds of the female participant group and one-third of the male participant group completed the yoga program. DD responders showed increased anxiety levels, whereas anxiety levels of the DD non-responders remained unchanged. FPI responders reported significant improvements in physical function, whereas partial and non-FPI responders noted declined function. Participants assigned to the IY

  14. Depression and Logical Consistency of Personal Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, W. V.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Explored Neimeyer's notion that moderately depressed people have relatively disorganized personal construct systems, that non-depressed people see themselves consistently positively, highly depressed people view themselves negatively, and moderately depressed people view themselves with ambivalence. Using a grid measure of logical consistency,…

  15. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  16. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  17. Within-Subject Testing of the Signaled-Reinforcement Effect on Operant Responding as Measured by Response Rate and Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Doughty, Adam H.

    2005-01-01

    Response rates under random-interval schedules are lower when a brief (500 ms) signal accompanies reinforcement than when there is no signal. The present study examined this signaled-reinforcement effect and its relation to resistance to change. In Experiment 1, rats responded on a multiple random-interval 60-s random-interval 60-s schedule, with…

  18. Chromatin proteins: key responders to stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen T Smith

    Full Text Available Environments can be ever-changing and stresses are commonplace. In order for organisms to survive, they need to be able to respond to change and adapt to new conditions. Fortunately, many organisms have systems in place that enable dynamic adaptation to immediate stresses and changes within the environment. Much of this cellular response is coordinated by modulating the structure and accessibility of the genome. In eukaryotic cells, the genome is packaged and rolled up by histone proteins to create a series of DNA/histone core structures known as nucleosomes; these are further condensed into chromatin. The degree and nature of the condensation can in turn determine which genes are transcribed. Histones can be modified chemically by a large number of proteins that are thereby responsible for dynamic changes in gene expression. In this Primer we discuss findings from a study published in this issue of PLoS Biology by Weiner et al. that highlight how chromatin structure and chromatin binding proteins alter transcription in response to environmental changes and stresses. Their study reveals the importance of chromatin in mediating the speed and amplitude of stress responses in cells and suggests that chromatin is a critically important component of the cellular response to stress.

  19. Perception of Climate Risk among Rural Farmers in Vietnam: Consistency within Households and with the Empirical Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Alison C; Anderson, C Leigh

    2017-03-01

    Rural farmers in Vietnamese communes perceive climate risk and potential impacts on livelihood within a complex context that may influence individual and household decisions. In a primary survey of 1,145 residents of the Thach Ha district of Ha Tinh province, we gathered data regarding perception about stability in climate, potential risks to livelihood, demographic characteristics, orientation toward risk, and interest in expanding economic activity. Temporal analysis of meteorological and economic indicator data forms an empirical basis for comparison with human perception. We ask the basic question: Are rural farmers' perceptions of climate consistent with the historical record and reproducible within households? We find that respondents do perceive climate anomalies, with some anchoring on recent extreme events as revealed by climate observational data, and further that spouses disproportionately share perceptions relative to randomly simulated pairings. To put climate-related risk perception in a larger context, we examine patterns across a range of risks to livelihood faced by farmers (livestock disease, pests, markets, health), using dimension reduction techniques. We find that our respondents distinguish among potential causes of low economic productivity, with substantial emphasis on climate-related impacts. They do not express uniform concern across risks, but rather average patterns reveal common modes and distinguish climate concern. Still, among those expressing concern about climate-related risks to livelihood we do not find an association with expressed intention to pursue changes in economic activity as a risk management response. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexuals' attitudes toward homosexual behavior over a two-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Kent; Heywood, Wendy; Simpson, Judy M; Pitts, Marian K; Richters, Juliet; Shelley, Julia M; Smith, Anthony M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated demographic predictors of consistency and change in heterosexual people's attitudes toward homosexual behavior. A nationally representative sample of Australian men and women were recruited via random digit dialling in 2004 through 2005. Participants completed annual computer-assisted telephone interviews over the next five years. Questions about attitudes toward male and female homosexual behavior were assessed at Wave 1 (2004-2005) and Wave 3 (2006-2007) of the study. The majority of the sample reported tolerance of both male and female homosexual behavior (with women slightly more tolerant than men). Multivariate analyses showed that those who regularly attended religious services were more likely to consistently disapprove of homosexual behavior and more likely to change from tolerant to disapproving. Among those who were initially tolerant, younger respondents and those with higher educations were less likely to become homophobic. The results of this study show that individual attitudes toward homosexual behavior are open to change, particularly toward a more tolerant position. Religiosity appears to be consistently associated with the development and reinforcement of homophobic tendencies.

  1. Consistency relations in multi-field inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Seo, Min-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We study the consequences of spatial coordinate transformation in multi-field inflation. Among the spontaneously broken de Sitter isometries, only dilatation in the comoving gauge preserves the form of the metric and thus results in quantum-protected Slavnov-Taylor identities. We derive the corresponding consistency relations between correlation functions of cosmological perturbations in two different ways, by the connected and one-particle-irreducible Green's functions. The lowest-order consistency relations are explicitly given, and we find that even in multi-field inflation the consistency relations in the soft limit are independent of the detail of the matter sector.

  2. Smart radio: spectrum access for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvius, Mark D.; Ge, Feng; Young, Alex; MacKenzie, Allen B.; Bostian, Charles W.

    2008-04-01

    This paper details the Wireless at Virginia Tech Center for Wireless Telecommunications' (CWT) design and implementation of its Smart Radio (SR) communication platform. The CWT SR can identify available spectrum within a pre-defined band, rendezvous with an intended receiver, and transmit voice and data using a selected quality of service (QoS). This system builds upon previous cognitive technologies developed by CWT for the public safety community, with the goal of providing a prototype mobile communications package for military and public safety First Responders. A master control (MC) enables spectrum awareness by characterizing the radio environment with a power spectrum sensor and an innovative signal detection and classification module. The MC also enables spectrum and signal memory by storing sensor results in a knowledge database. By utilizing a family radio service (FRS) waveform database, the CWT SR can create a new communication link on any designated FRS channel frequency using FM, BPSK, QPSK, or 8PSK modulations. With FM, it supports analog voice communications with legacy hand-held FRS radios. With digital modulations, it supports IP data services, including a CWT developed CVSD-based VoIP protocol. The CWT SR coordinates spectrum sharing between analog primary users and digital secondary users by applying a simple but effective channel-change protocol. It also demonstrates a novel rendezvous protocol to facilitate the detection and initialization of communications links with neighboring SR nodes through the transmission of frequency-hopped rendezvous beacons. By leveraging the GNU Radio toolkit, writing key modules entirely in Python, and utilizing the USRP hardware front-end, the CWT SR provides a dynamic spectrum test bed for future smart and cognitive radio research.

  3. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  4. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (...

  5. Corfu: A Platform for Scalable Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Corfu is a platform for building systems which are extremely scalable, strongly consistent and robust. Unlike other systems which weaken guarantees to provide better performance, we have built Corfu with a resilient fabric tuned and engineered for scalability and strong consistency at its core: the Corfu shared log. On top of the Corfu log, we have built a layer of advanced data services which leverage the properties of the Corfu log. Today, Corfu is already replacing data platforms in commer...

  6. Responding to student diversity : tutor's manual

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Paul A.; Janik, Ivan; Janikova, Vera; Hofsäss, Thomas; Koinzer, Petra; Vilkiene, Vida; Calleja, Colin; Ale, Peter; Mol Lous, Annemieke; Wetso, Gun Marie; Humphrey, Neil; A Socrates Comenius 2.1 Project;

    2007-01-01

    The handbook was conceived during a meeting in Malta in 2003 among an international group of teacher educators spanning from Sweden to Malta and Greece and to the U.S. The concept was then worked out as a Comenius 2.1 Project DTMp (Differentiated Teaching Module – primary) over three years from 2004 to 2007 (see Box 1, p. viii, and www.dtmp.org). The DTMp Project team consisted of an even wider and more diverse group coming from seven EU countries, namely Malta (Coordinator), Czech Republic, ...

  7. Community first responders and responder schemes in the United Kingdom: systematic scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Viet-Hai; Trueman, Ian; Togher, Fiona; Orner, Roderick; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2017-06-19

    Community First Responder (CFR) schemes support lay people to respond to medical emergencies, working closely with ambulance services. They operate widely in the UK. There has been no previous review of UK literature on these schemes. This is the first systematic scoping review of UK literature on CFR schemes, which identifies the reasons for becoming a CFR, requirements for training and feedback and confusion between the CFR role and that of ambulance service staff. This study also reveals gaps in the evidence base for CFR schemes. We conducted a systematic scoping review of the published literature, in the English language from 2000 onwards using specific search terms in six databases. Narrative synthesis was used to analyse article content. Nine articles remained from the initial search of 15,969 articles after removing duplicates, title and abstract and then full text review. People were motivated to become CFRs through an altruistic desire to help others. They generally felt rewarded by their work but recognised that the help they provided was limited by their training compared with ambulance staff. There were concerns about the possible emotional impact on CFRs responding to incidents. CFRs felt that better feedback would enhance their learning. Ongoing training and support were viewed as essential to enable CFRs to progress. They perceived that public recognition of the CFR role was low, patients sometimes confusing them with ambulance staff. Relationships with the ambulance service were sometimes ambivalent due to confusion over roles. There was support for local autonomy of CFR schemes but with greater sharing of best practice. Most studies dated from 2005 and were descriptive rather than analytical. In the UK and Australia CFRs are usually lay volunteers equipped with basic skills for responding to medical emergencies, whereas in the US they include other emergency staff as well as lay people. Opportunities for future research include exploring

  8. Dementia does not preclude very reliable responding on the MMPI-2 RF: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Dominic A; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2014-01-01

    The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) family of personality tests has long been used by psychologists, in part because it provides extensive information on the validity of patient responses. Although much of the research on MMPI validity indicators has focused on over-reporting or under-reporting symptoms, the consistency (i.e., reliability, a requirement for validity) of responding is also critical to examine. Clinicians tend to avoid using the MMPI-2 or the MMPI-2-RF (Restructured Form) in patients with dementia based on the belief that severe cognitive impairment would make reliable responding impossible given the large number of items (567 and 338, respectively). In contrast with this belief we present the case of a 65-year-old woman with severe memory impairments and executive dysfunction due to a non-specific dementia syndrome who was able to provide remarkably consistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF. Implications and future directions are discussed.

  9. Inconsistent Responding in a Criminal Forensic Setting: An Evaluation of the VRIN-r and TRIN-r Scales of the MMPI-2-RF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wen; Reddy, Hima B; Green, Debbie; Belfi, Brian; Einzig, Shanah

    2017-01-01

    Criminal forensic evaluations are complicated by the risk that examinees will respond in an unreliable manner. Unreliable responding could occur due to lack of personal investment in the evaluation, severe mental illness, and low cognitive abilities. In this study, 31% of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011) profiles were invalid due to random or fixed-responding (T score ≥ 80 on the VRIN-r or TRIN-r scales) in a sample of pretrial criminal defendants evaluated in the context of treatment for competency restoration. Hierarchical regression models showed that symptom exaggeration variables, as measured by inconsistently reported psychiatric symptoms, contributed over and above education and intellectual functioning in their prediction of both random responding and fixed responding. Psychopathology variables, as measured by mood disturbance, better predicted fixed responding after controlling for estimates of cognitive abilities, but did not improve the prediction for random responding. These findings suggest that random responding and fixed responding are not only affected by education and intellectual functioning, but also by intentional exaggeration and aspects of psychopathology. Measures of intellectual functioning and effort and response style should be considered for administration in conjunction with self-report personality measures to rule out rival hypotheses of invalid profiles.

  10. Improving Situational Awareness for First Responders via Mobile Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Bradley J.; Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; Del Mundo, Rommel; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Jorgensen, Charles

    2006-01-01

    This project looks to improve first responder incident command, and an appropriately managed flow of situational awareness using mobile computing techniques. The prototype system combines wireless communication, real-time location determination, digital imaging, and three-dimensional graphics. Responder locations are tracked in an outdoor environment via GPS and uploaded to a central server via GPRS or an 802. II network. Responders can also wireless share digital images and text reports, both with other responders and with the incident commander. A pre-built three dimensional graphics model of the emergency scene is used to visualize responder and report locations. Responders have a choice of information end points, ranging from programmable cellular phones to tablet computers. The system also employs location-aware computing to make responders aware of particular hazards as they approach them. The prototype was developed in conjunction with the NASA Ames Disaster Assistance and Rescue Team and has undergone field testing during responder exercises at NASA Ames.

  11. Accounting for respondent uncertainty to improve willingness-to-pay estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Moore; Richard C. Bishop; Bill Provencher; Patricia A. Champ

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an econometric model of willingness to pay (WTP) that integrates data on respondent uncertainty regarding their own WTP. The integration is utility consistent, there is no recoding of variables, and no need to calibrate the contingent responses to actual payment data, so the approach can "stand alone." In an application to a...

  12. 16 CFR 5.62 - Hearing rights of respondent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hearing rights of respondent. 5.62 Section 5.62 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE... rights of respondent. In any hearing under this subpart, the respondent shall have the right: (a) To be...

  13. Speech Act of Responding to Rudeness: A Case Study of Malaysian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Politeness conventions vary across cultures and so is impoliteness and rudeness. In some cases, what is considered rude in one culture or a society is not necessarily rude or impolite in another. This cannot be explained unless more studies on the use of language functions in a specific culture are conducted. The aim of this paper is to investigate Malaysians university students’ realization of responding to rudeness. For this purpose, 51 Malaysian university students at Universiti Sains Malaysia took part in this research. The respondents completed a Discourse Completion Task consisting of six situations in which they had to respond to an offensive or a rude language directed toward them. The findings were then analyzed using Beebe and Waring’s (2005 a coding scheme of responding rudeness to examine the type and use of strategies in responding to rudeness. Moreover, a post-structured interview was conducted to explore the respondents’ perception of politeness, cognition and language of thought (i.e. the language they think in their mind to produce response in the moment in responding to rudeness. The results showed that participants employ different strategies with variations in contextual variables (i.e. social distance and social status in their responses. The comparison of participants' production and perception in responding to rudeness provided significant results. It is hoped that the analysis of Malaysian university students’ responding to rudeness could add to the body of knowledge in pragmatics and speech act studies in general and to our understanding of Malays university students’ realization in responding to rudeness in particular.

  14. Cross-situational consistency in recognition memory response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantner, Justin; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Individuals taking an old-new recognition memory test differ widely in their bias to respond "old," ranging from strongly conservative to strongly liberal, even without any manipulation intended to affect bias. Kantner and Lindsay (2012) found stability of bias across study-test cycles, suggesting that bias is a cognitive trait. That consistency, however, could have arisen because participants perceived the two tests as being part of the same experiment in the same context. In the present study, we tested for stability across two recognition study-test procedures embedded in markedly different experiments, held weeks apart, that participants did not know were connected. Bias showed substantial cross-situational stability. Moreover, bias weakly predicted identifications on an eyewitness memory task and accuracy on a go-no-go task. Although we found little in the way of relationships between bias and five personality measures, these findings suggest that response bias is a stable and broadly influential characteristic of recognizers.

  15. Individual consistencies in behavior: achievement persistence interactions as personality styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribes-Iñesta, Emilio; Contreras, Sagrario

    2007-10-01

    Two experiments were carried out to find within-subject consistencies as well as individual differences in a choice situation involving achievement persistence. Four volunteers, two men (21 and 23 years old) and two women (21 and 22 years old) were exposed twice, with a 1-mo. interval, to a filling-patterns task, to evaluate their choices for two options. For one option, task-time and outcomes for every response were constant. For the other option, task-time decreased in correlation with an increase in earnings for every response. Analyses showed reliable profiles for three of the four subjects when percent of responding to each option was compared in independent experiments. Results are discussed in terms of interactive styles.

  16. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  17. Quantifying the consistency of scientific databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies.

  18. Pregabalin in fibromyalgia - responder analysis from individual patient data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paine Jocelyn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population mean changes are difficult to use in clinical practice. Responder analysis may be better, but needs validating for level of response and treatment duration. A consensus group has defined what constitutes minimal, moderate, and substantial benefit based on pain intensity and Patient Global Impression of Change scores. Methods We obtained individual patient data from four randomised double blind trials of pregabalin in fibromyalgia lasting eight to 14 weeks. We calculated response for all efficacy outcomes using any improvement (≥ 0%, minimal improvement (≥ 15%, moderate improvement (≥ 30%, substantial improvement (≥ 50%, and extensive improvement (≥ 70%, with numbers needed to treat (NNT for pregabalin 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg daily compared with placebo. Results Information from 2,757 patients was available. Pain intensity and sleep interference showed reductions with increasing level of response, a significant difference between pregabalin and placebo, and a trend towards lower (better NNTs at higher doses. Maximum response rates occurred at 4-6 weeks for higher levels of response, and were constant thereafter. NNTs (with 95% confidence intervals for ≥ 50% improvement in pain intensity compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 22 (11 to 870 for pregabalin 300 mg, 16 (9.3 to 59 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 13 (8.1 to 31 for pregabalin 600 mg daily. NNTs for ≥ 50% improvement in sleep interference compared with placebo after 12 weeks were 13 (8.2 to 30 for pregabalin 300 mg, 8.4 (6.0 to 14 for pregabalin 450 mg, and 8.4 (6.1 to 14 for pregabalin 600 mg. Other outcomes had fewer respondents at higher response levels, but generally did not discriminate between pregabalin and placebo, or show any dose response. Shorter duration and use of 'any improvement' over-estimated treatment effect compared with longer duration and higher levels of response. Conclusions Responder analysis is useful in fibromyalgia

  19. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  20. CIRUN: Climate Information Responding to User Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busalacchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Earth System will experience real climate change over the next 50 years, exceeding the scope of natural climate variability. A paramount question facing society is how to adapt to this certainty of climate variability and change. In response, OSTP and NOAA are considering how comprehensive climate services would best inform decisions about adaptation. Similarly, NASA is considering the optimal configuration of the next generation of Earth, environmental, and climate observations to be deployed over the coming 10-20 years. Moreover, much of the added-value information for specific climate-related decisions will be provided by private, academic and non-governmental organizations. In this context, over the past several years the University of Maryland has established the CIRUN (Climate Information: Responding to User Needs) initiative to identify the nature of national needs for climate information and services from a decision support perspective. To date, CIRUN has brought together decisionmakers in a number of sectors to help understand their perspectives on climate with the goal of improving the usefulness of climate information, observations and prediction products to specific user communities. CIRUN began with a major workshop in October 2007 that convened 430 participants in agriculture, parks and recreation, terrestrial ecosystems, insurance/investment, energy, national security, state/local/municipal, water, human health, commerce and manufacturing, transportation, and coastal/marine sectors. Plenary speakers such as Norman Augustine, R. James Woolsey, James Mahoney, and former Senator Joseph Tydings, breakout panel sessions, and participants provided input based on the following: - How would you characterize the exposure or vulnerability to climate variability or change impacting your organization? - Does climate variability and/or change currently factor into your organization's objectives or operations? - Are any of your existing plans being affected by

  1. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  2. Effecting Consistency across Curriculum: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasagayam, P. Raj; Mahaffey, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is the clarion call across all business schools which is driving the emphasis on assessing the attainment of learning outcomes. An issue that deems special attention in assurance of learning outcomes is related to consistency across courses and, more specifically, across multiple sections of the same course taught by…

  3. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 8. 'Ionic crystals' consisting of trinuclear macrocations and polyoxometalate anions exhibiting single crystal to single crystal transformation: breathing of crystals. T ARUMUGANATHAN ASHA SIDDIKHA SAMAR K DAS. REGULAR ARTICLE Volume 129 ...

  4. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  5. On Consistency Maintenance In Service Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    Communication and node failures degrade the ability of a service discovery protocol to ensure Users receive the correct service information when the service changes. We propose that service discovery protocols employ a set of recovery techniques to recover from failures and regain consistency. We

  6. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, P.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  7. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  8. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available from a lexicon containing variants. In this paper we (the authors) address both these issues by creating ‘pseudo-phonemes’ associated with sets of ‘generation restriction rules’ to model those pronunciations that are consistently realised as two or more...

  9. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  10. The Auditory P3 in Antidepressant Pharmacotherapy Treatment Responders, Non-Responders and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relationship between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to the novel and target sounds, respectively, as were accompanying behavioural performance measures. Depression ratings and antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioural measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, hence, basic attentive processes. PMID:23664712

  11. Auditory P3 in antidepressant pharmacotherapy treatment responders, non-responders and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Natalia; De Somma, Elisea; Blondeau, Claude; Tessier, Pierre; Norris, Sandhaya; Fusee, Wendy; Smith, Dylan; Blier, Pierre; Knott, Verner

    2013-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs), derived from electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, can index electrocortical activity related to cognitive operations. The fronto-central P3a ERP is involved in involuntary processing of novel auditory information, whereas the parietal P3b indexes controlled attention processing. The amplitude of the auditory P3b has been found to be decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, few studies have examined the relations between the P3b, the related P3a, and antidepressant treatment response. We tested 53 unmedicated individuals (25 females) with MDD, as well as 43 non-depressed controls (23 females) on the novelty oddball task, wherein infrequent deviant (target) and frequent standard (non-target) tones were presented, along with infrequent novel (non-target/distractor) sounds. The P3a and P3b ERPs were assessed to novel and target sounds, respectively, as were their accompanying behavioral performance measures. Depression ratings and the antidepressant response status were assessed following 12 weeks of pharmacotherapy with three different regimens. Antidepressant treatment non-responders had smaller baseline P3a/b amplitudes than responders and healthy controls. Baseline P3b amplitude also weakly predicted the extent of depression rating changes by week 12. Females exhibited larger P3a/b amplitudes than males. With respect to task performance, controls had more target hits than treatment non-responders. ERP measures correlated with clinical changes in males and with behavioral measures in females. These results suggest that greater (or control-like) baseline P3a/b amplitudes are associated with a positive antidepressant response, and that gender differences characterize the P3 and, by extension, basic attentive processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  12. Social skills group training in high-functioning autism: A qualitative responder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque Olsson, Nora; Rautio, Daniel; Asztalos, Jenny; Stoetzer, Ulrich; Bölte, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Systematic reviews show some evidence for the efficacy of group-based social skills group training in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder, but more rigorous research is needed to endorse generalizability. In addition, little is known about the perspectives of autistic individuals participating in social skills group training. Using a qualitative approach, the objective of this study was to examine experiences and opinions about social skills group training of children and adolescents with higher functioning autism spectrum disorder and their parents following participation in a manualized social skills group training ("KONTAKT"). Within an ongoing randomized controlled clinical trial (NCT01854346) and based on outcome data from the Social Responsiveness Scale, six high responders and five low-to-non-responders to social skills group training and one parent of each child (N = 22) were deep interviewed. Interestingly, both high responders and low-to-non-responders (and their parents) reported improvements in social communication and related skills (e.g. awareness of own difficulties, self-confidence, independence in everyday life) and overall treatment satisfaction, although more positive intervention experiences were expressed by responders. These findings highlight the added value of collecting verbal data in addition to quantitative data in a comprehensive evaluation of social skills group training. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Deriving consistent GSM schemas from DCR graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshuis, Rik; Debois, Søren; Slaats, Tijs

    2016-01-01

    Case Management (CM) is a BPM technology for supporting flexible services orchestration. CM approaches like CMMN, an OMG standard, and GSM, one of CMMN’s core influences, use Event- Condition-Action rules, which can be inconsistent due to cyclic interdependencies between the rules; repairing...... such an inconsistent case management schema is difficult. To avoid the problem of inconsistencies altogether, we provide a technique for automatically deriving consistent GSM case management schemas from higher-level business policies defined as DCR graphs, an alternative CM approach. Concretely, we define a behaviour......-preserving mapping that (1) removes the burden from the modeller of GSM schemas to prove consistency and define the ordering of rules, (2) provides high-level patterns for modelling GSM schemas, and (3) gives a way to define a notion of progress (liveness) and acceptance for GSM instances. The mapping is illustrated...

  14. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  15. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, R. K.; Sloth, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields. DOI......If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show...... that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out...

  16. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  17. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA; Lucian-Alexandru FRATILA

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  18. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  19. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  20. On the Consistent Migration of Unsplittable Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    In consistent flow migration, the task is to change the paths the flows take in the network, but without inducing congestion during the  update process. Even though the rise of Software Defined Networks allows for centralized control of path changes, the execution is still performed in an inheren......In consistent flow migration, the task is to change the paths the flows take in the network, but without inducing congestion during the  update process. Even though the rise of Software Defined Networks allows for centralized control of path changes, the execution is still performed...... of consistently migrating splittable flows is well understood, for the practically more relevant unsplittable flows, few non-heuristic results are known – and upper complexity bounds are missing. We give a dynamic programming algorithm for unsplittable flows, showing the containment in EXPTIME, for both...... computation time and schedule length. In particular, there are cases where flows must switch between paths back and forth repeatedly: as thus, flow migration is not just an ordering problem. We also study lower bounds and show NP-hardness already for two flows, via reduction from edge-disjoint path problems...

  1. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity bar theta. Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k gtrsim 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k, can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  2. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  3. Basic and translational evaluation of renewal of operant responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michael E; Liddon, Clare J; Ribeiro, Aurelia; Greif, Abigail E; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    Treatment relapse, defined as the reemergence of problem behavior after treatment, is a serious difficulty faced by clinicians. Failures of treatment integrity (i.e., failure to implement interventions as intended) are often invoked to explain the reemergence of problem behavior. Basic studies suggest that the prevailing stimulus context might also contribute. We conducted 2 experiments in which reinforcement for a target response was followed by 2 phases of extinction with different or identical stimulus contexts relative to baseline (ABA renewal). In Experiment 1, pigeons served as subjects using procedures typical of those used in basic behavioral research. Experiment 2 was designed as a translational replication of Experiment 1, and children who had been diagnosed with autism served as participants. Returning to the previously reinforced stimulus context in both species produced a clear and immediate increase of extinguished responding. These findings are consistent with previous studies that have suggested that both reinforcement contingencies and stimulus context influence the reemergence of extinguished behavior. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Canada's National Forest Inventory (responding to current information needs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M D

    2001-01-01

    Canada's current National Forest Inventory is a periodic compilation of existing inventory material from across the country. While the current approach has many advantages, it lacks information on the nature and rate of changes to the resource, and does not permit projections or forecasts. Being a compilation of inventories of different dates, the current national forest inventory cannot reflect the current state of the forests and therefore cannot be used as a satisfactory baseline for monitoring change. The current format of Canada's National Forest Inventory has served its purpose by providing national statistical compilations and reporting. However, its useful life is coming to a conclusion. To meet new demands, Canada is considering a new National Forest Inventory design consisting of a plot-based system of permanent observational units located on a national grid. The objective of the new inventory design is to assess and monitor the extent, state and sustainability of Canada's forests in a timely and accurate manner. Details of the new inventory design are described. A strategy to respond to Canada's national and international forest reporting commitments through a National Forest Information System is also discussed.

  5. Strong static-magnetic field alters operant responding by rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, M.; Matsuda, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Forty male rats of the Wistar ST strain were trained and observed for Sidman avoidance (SA) for 7 weeks or for discriminative avoidance (DA) for 14 weeks to determine the effects of exposure to a strong static-magnetic field. Before avoidance conditioning was completed, rats in the SA group were exposed to the static field at 0.6 T, 16 h/day for 4 days during the fifth week, and those in the DA group were exposed for 6 h/day for 4 days during the seventh week. In the SA conditioning, frequency of lever-pressing by exposed rats gradually decreased during 1 week of exposure and stayed low for at least 2 weeks after exposure. Frequencies of electric shocks received by the rats increased dramatically during the second day of exposure and consistently stayed higher than those of control rats. In the DA condition, exposed rats responded at lower rates than did control rats throughout the observation period. They received more shocks during the 2 weeks following exposure. The data indicate that performance of avoidance responses was inhibited by a comparatively long exposure to a strong magnetic field.

  6. Human MST but not MT responds to tactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Michael S; Yasar, Nafi E; Kishan, Neel; Ro, Tony

    2007-08-01

    Previous reports of tactile responses in human visual area MT/V5 have used complex stimuli, such as a brush stroking the arm. These complex moving stimuli are likely to induce imagery of visual motion, which is known to be a powerful activator of MT. The area described as "MT" in previous reports consists of at least two distinct cortical areas, MT and MST. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we separately localized human MT and MST and measured their response to vibrotactile stimuli unlikely to induce imagery of visual motion. Strong vibrotactile responses were observed in MST but not in MT. Vibrotactile responses in MST were approximately one-half as large as the response to visual motion and were distinct from those in another visual area previously reported to respond to tactile stimulation, the lateral occipital complex. To examine somatotopic organization, we separately stimulated the left and right hand and foot. No spatial segregation between hand and foot responses was observed in MST. The average response profile of MST was similar to that of somatosensory cortex, with a strong preference for the contralateral hand. These results offer evidence for the existence of somatosensory responses in MST, but not MT, independent of imagery of visual motion.

  7. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  8. Internal consistency and validity of the self-assessment Parkinson's Disease disability scale. Abstract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.; Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Woude, L.H.V. van der

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. DESIGN: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  9. The internal consistency and validity of the Self-assessment parkinsons's Disease Disability Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemans, M.A.J.E.; Dekker, J.; van der Woude, L.H.V.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To test the consistency and validity of the Self-assessment Parkinson's Disease Disability Scale in patients with Parkinson's disease living at home. Design: Patients with Parkinson's disease responded to a set of questionnaires. In addition, an observation of the performance of daily

  10. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve...

  11. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  12. Consistency Checking of Web Service Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cambronero, M. Emilia; Okika, Joseph C.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2008-01-01

    Behavioural properties are analyzed for web service contracts formulated in Business Process Execution Language (BPEL) and Choreography Description Language (CDL). The key result reported is an automated technique to check consistency between protocol aspects of the contracts. The contracts...... are abstracted to (timed) automata and from there a simulation is set up, which is checked using automated tools for analyzing networks of finite state processes. Here we use the Concurrency Work Bench. The proposed techniques are illustrated with a case study that include otherwise difficult to analyze fault...

  13. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  14. Numerical Self-Consistent Analysis of VCSELs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sarzała

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs yield single-longitudinal-mode operation, low-divergence circular output beam, and low threshold current. This paper gives an overview on theoretical, self-consistent modelling of physical phenomena occurring in a VCSEL. The model has been experimentally confirmed. We present versatile numerical methods for nitride, arsenide, and phosphide VCSELs emitting light at wavelengths varying from violet to near infrared. We also discuss different designs with respect to optical confinement: gain guidance using tunnel junctions and index guidance using oxide confinement or photonic crystal and we focus on the problem of single-transverse-mode operation.

  15. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS IN JAVANESE

    OpenAIRE

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract:  Javanese has been studied from many different perspectives. However, no one discusses how Javanese respond to compliments politely. The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies as applied to respond to compliments by the Javanese people in Jember, East Java. The notion of politeness plays crucial role in the realization of speech acts (utterances and verbal communication) in Javanese, such as responding to compliements. As utterances and verbal communications s...

  16. Connecting, Protecting, and Informing the Next Generation of First Responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) First Responder Group‘s (FRG) cutting-edge Next Generation First Responder...smartphones, responders have access to a powerful computer that has potential far beyond smartphones’ conventional uses. Michael Flood, a developer...for flight on an indoor-capable drone required a collaboration of aero, electrical, controls, and mechanical engineers and physicists .” Complementing

  17. Consistency between Modalities Enhances Visually Induced Self-Motion (Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Seno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Visually induced illusory self-motion (vection is generally facilitated by consistent information of self-motion from other modalities. We provide three examples that consistent information between vision and other proprioception enhances vection, ie, locomotion, air flow, and sounds. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. First, We measured the strength of forward or backward vection with or without forward locomotion on a treadmill (2 km/h. The results revealed that forward vection was facilitated by the consistent locomotion whereas vections in the other directions were inhibited by the inconsistent locomotion. Second, we found that forward vection intensity increased when the air flow to subjects' faces produced by an electric fan (the wind speed was 6.37 m/s was provided. On the contrary, the air flow did not enhance backward vection. Finally, we demonstrated that sounds which increased in loudness facilitated forward vection and the sounds which ascended (descended in pitch facilitated upward (downward vection.

  18. Subgame consistent cooperation a comprehensive treatise

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, David W K

    2016-01-01

    Strategic behavior in the human and social world has been increasingly recognized in theory and practice. It is well known that non-cooperative behavior could lead to suboptimal or even highly undesirable outcomes. Cooperation suggests the possibility of obtaining socially optimal solutions and the calls for cooperation are prevalent in real-life problems. Dynamic cooperation cannot be sustainable if there is no guarantee that the agreed upon optimality principle at the beginning is maintained throughout the cooperation duration. It is due to the lack of this kind of guarantees that cooperative schemes fail to last till its end or even fail to get started. The property of subgame consistency in cooperative dynamic games and the corresponding solution mechanism resolve this “classic” problem in game theory. This book is a comprehensive treatise on subgame consistent dynamic cooperation covering the up-to-date state of the art analyses in this important topic. It sets out to provide the theory, solution tec...

  19. Consistency of extreme flood estimation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Guido; Paquet, Emmanuel; Penot, David; Zischg, Andreas; Weingartner, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Estimations of low-probability flood events are frequently used for the planning of infrastructure as well as for determining the dimensions of flood protection measures. There are several well-established methodical procedures to estimate low-probability floods. However, a global assessment of the consistency of these methods is difficult to achieve, the "true value" of an extreme flood being not observable. Anyway, a detailed comparison performed on a given case study brings useful information about the statistical and hydrological processes involved in different methods. In this study, the following three different approaches for estimating low-probability floods are compared: a purely statistical approach (ordinary extreme value statistics), a statistical approach based on stochastic rainfall-runoff simulation (SCHADEX method), and a deterministic approach (physically based PMF estimation). These methods are tested for two different Swiss catchments. The results and some intermediate variables are used for assessing potential strengths and weaknesses of each method, as well as for evaluating the consistency of these methods.

  20. Consistent mutational paths predict eukaryotic thermostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Noort Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proteomes of thermophilic prokaryotes have been instrumental in structural biology and successfully exploited in biotechnology, however many proteins required for eukaryotic cell function are absent from bacteria or archaea. With Chaetomium thermophilum, Thielavia terrestris and Thielavia heterothallica three genome sequences of thermophilic eukaryotes have been published. Results Studying the genomes and proteomes of these thermophilic fungi, we found common strategies of thermal adaptation across the different kingdoms of Life, including amino acid biases and a reduced genome size. A phylogenetics-guided comparison of thermophilic proteomes with those of other, mesophilic Sordariomycetes revealed consistent amino acid substitutions associated to thermophily that were also present in an independent lineage of thermophilic fungi. The most consistent pattern is the substitution of lysine by arginine, which we could find in almost all lineages but has not been extensively used in protein stability engineering. By exploiting mutational paths towards the thermophiles, we could predict particular amino acid residues in individual proteins that contribute to thermostability and validated some of them experimentally. By determining the three-dimensional structure of an exemplar protein from C. thermophilum (Arx1, we could also characterise the molecular consequences of some of these mutations. Conclusions The comparative analysis of these three genomes not only enhances our understanding of the evolution of thermophily, but also provides new ways to engineer protein stability.

  1. Action orientation, consistency and feelings of regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd McElroy

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that consistency between people's behavior and their dispositions has predictive validity for judgments of regret. Research has also shown that differences in the personality variable of action orientation can influence ability to regulate negative affect. The present set of studies was designed to investigate how both consistency factors and action-state personality orientation influence judgments of regret. In Study 1, we used a recalled life event to provide a situation in which the person had experienced either an action or inaction. Individuals with an action orientation experienced more regret for situations involving inaction (staying home than situations involving action (going out. State-oriented individuals, however, maintained high levels of regret and did not differ in their regret ratings across either the action or inaction situations. In Study 2, participants made realistic choices involving either an action or inaction. Our findings revealed the same pattern of results: action-oriented individuals who chose an option that involved not acting (inaction had more regret that individuals who chose an option that involved acting (action. State-oriented individuals experienced high levels of regret regardless of whether they chose to act or not to act.

  2. Ghrelin receptor activation in the ventral tegmental area amplified instrumental responding but not the excitatory influence of Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Susanne; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Pavlovian stimuli predictive of food are able to amplify instrumental responding for food. This phenomenon termed Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) critically depends on intact VTA function and mesoaccumbens dopamine transmission. Considerable evidence suggests that food-predictive stimuli can enhance the release of ghrelin, an orexigen hormone that promotes food-directed responding. The ventral tegmental area (VTA) appears to be a key region through which stimulation of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) invigorates food-directed responding, in part by activating the mesoaccumbens dopamine system. Thus, it is conceivable that stimulation of GHS-R1A in the VTA can amplify PIT, i.e. stimulus-elicited increase in lever pressing for food. Here we examined in rats the effects of VTA ghrelin microinfusion on PIT. Our results demonstrate that ghrelin microinfusion into the VTA failed to enhance PIT suggesting that VTA GHS-R1A stimulation was unable to enhance the motivational significance of food-predictive stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, our results further indicate that intra-VTA ghrelin microinfusion invigorated instrumental responding under a progressive ratio schedule. These data provide support to the notion that VTA GHS-R1A stimulation increases the tendency to work for food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An integrated command control and communications center for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Richard A.; Hludik, Frank; Vidacic, Dragan; Melnyk, Pavlo

    2005-05-01

    First responders to a major incident include many different agencies. These may include law enforcement officers, multiple fire departments, paramedics, HAZMAT response teams, and possibly even federal personnel such as FBI and FEMA. Often times multiple jurisdictions respond to the incident which causes interoperability issues with respect to communication and dissemination of time critical information. Accurate information from all responding sources needs to be rapidly collected and made available to the current on site responders as well as the follow-on responders who may just be arriving on scene. The creation of a common central database with a simple easy to use interface that is dynamically updated in real time would allow prompt and efficient information distribution between different jurisdictions. Such a system is paramount to the success of any response to a major incident. First responders typically arrive in mobile vehicles that are equipped with communications equipment. Although the first responders may make reports back to their specific home based command centers, the details of those reports are not typically available to other first responders who are not a part of that agencies infrastructure. Furthermore, the collection of information often occurs outside of the first responder vehicle and the details of the scene are normally either radioed from the field or written down and then disseminated after significant delay. Since first responders are not usually on the same communications channels, and the fact that there is normally a considerable amount of confusion during the first few hours on scene, it would be beneficial if there were a centralized location for the repository of time critical information which could be accessed by all the first responders in a common fashion without having to redesign or add significantly to each first responders hardware/software systems. Each first responder would then be able to provide information

  4. New onset of asthma and job status change among world trade center responders and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Baron, Sherry; Baidwan, Navneet K; Schwartz, Adam; Moline, Jacqueline

    2017-09-14

    Despite the high rates, the consequences of new onset asthma among the World Trade Center (WTC) responders in terms of the change in job status have not been studied. This study consists of a cohort of 8132 WTC responders out of the total 25 787 responders who held a full-time job at the baseline visit, and participated in at least one follow-up visit. Overall, 34% of the study cohort changed their job status from full-time at a follow-up visit. Multivariable models showed that asthmatics were respectively 27% and 47% more likely to have any job status change and get retired, and twice as likely to become disabled as compared to non-asthmatics. With asthma incidence from WTC exposure, negative job status change should be considered as a potential long-term consequence of WTC exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Responder safety and health: preparing for future disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissman, Dori B; Howard, John

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews lessons learned about managing the safety and health of workers who were involved in disaster response, recovery, and cleanup after the 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) disaster. The first two sections review ongoing responder health burdens and the tragic toll of this disaster from a worker safety and health perspective. The remaining sections address changes in federal infrastructure, response planning, and resources for protection of response and recovery personnel. Proper preparation includes pre-event and "just-in-time" disaster-worker training on likely hazards, organizational assets for hazard monitoring, and hands-on instruction in the use of assigned protective equipment. Good planning includes predeployment medical review to ensure "fitness for duty" and considers the following: (1) personal risk factors, (2) hazards likely to be associated with particular field locations, and (3) risks involved with assigned tasks (eg, workload and pace, work/rest cycles, available resources, and team/supervisory dynamics). Planning also should address worker health surveillance, medical monitoring, and availability of medical care (including mental health services). Disaster safety managers should anticipate likely hazards within planning scenarios and prepare asset inventories to facilitate making timely safety decisions. Disaster safety management begins immediately and provides ongoing real-time guidance to incident leadership at all levels of government. Robust standards must be met to reliably protect workers/responders. An integrated and measurable multiagency safety management function must be built into the incident command system before an incident occurs. This function delineates roles and responsibilities for rapid exposure assessments, ensuring cross-agency consistency in data interpretation, and timely, effective communication of information and control strategies. The ability to perform this safety management function should be tested and

  6. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  7. Consistent Stochastic Modelling of Meteocean Design Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    height from neighboring directional sectors. Numerical examples are presented where the models are calibrated using the Maximum Likelihood method to data from the central part of the North Sea. The calibration of the directional distributions is made such that the stochastic model for the omnidirectional...... maximum wave height is statistically consistent with the directional distribution functions. Finally, it is shown how the stochastic models can be used to estimate characteristic values and in reliability assessment of offshore structures....... velocity, and water level is presented. The stochastic model includes statistical uncertainty and dependency between the four stochastic variables. Further, a new stochastic model for annual maximum directional significant wave heights is presented. The model includes dependency between the maximum wave...

  8. Internal Branding and Employee Brand Consistent Behaviours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzei, Alessandra; Ravazzani, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    -normative and constitutive approach to internal branding by proposing an enablement-oriented communication approach. The conceptual background presents a holistic model of the inside-out process of brand building. This model adopts a theoretical approach to internal branding as a nonnormative practice that facilitates...... constitutive processes. In particular, the paper places emphasis on the role and kinds of communication practices as a central part of the nonnormative and constitutive internal branding process. The paper also discusses an empirical study based on interviews with 32 Italian and American communication managers...... and 2 focus groups with Italian communication managers. Findings show that, in order to enhance employee brand consistent behaviours, the most effective communication practices are those characterised as enablement-oriented. Such a communication creates the organizational conditions adequate to sustain...

  9. Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Gianluca [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, calle Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Kiefer, Claus [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Köln (Germany); Steinwachs, Christian F., E-mail: calcagni@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de, E-mail: christian.steinwachs@physik.uni-freiburg.de [Physikalisches Institut, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Str. 3, 79104 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

  10. Thermodynamically consistent model calibration in chemical kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goutsias John

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamics of biochemical reaction systems are constrained by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics, which impose well-defined relationships among the reaction rate constants characterizing these systems. Constructing biochemical reaction systems from experimental observations often leads to parameter values that do not satisfy the necessary thermodynamic constraints. This can result in models that are not physically realizable and may lead to inaccurate, or even erroneous, descriptions of cellular function. Results We introduce a thermodynamically consistent model calibration (TCMC method that can be effectively used to provide thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of an open biochemical reaction system. The proposed method formulates the model calibration problem as a constrained optimization problem that takes thermodynamic constraints (and, if desired, additional non-thermodynamic constraints into account. By calculating thermodynamically feasible values for the kinetic parameters of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling cascade, we demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative significance of imposing thermodynamic constraints on these parameters and the effectiveness of our method for accomplishing this important task. MATLAB software, using the Systems Biology Toolbox 2.1, can be accessed from http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS lab/software.html. An SBML file containing the thermodynamically feasible EGF/ERK signaling cascade model can be found in the BioModels database. Conclusions TCMC is a simple and flexible method for obtaining physically plausible values for the kinetic parameters of open biochemical reaction systems. It can be effectively used to recalculate a thermodynamically consistent set of parameter values for existing thermodynamically infeasible biochemical reaction models of cellular function as well as to estimate thermodynamically feasible values for the parameters of new

  11. Self-consistent estimation of mislocated fixations during reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Engbert

    Full Text Available During reading, we generate saccadic eye movements to move words into the center of the visual field for word processing. However, due to systematic and random errors in the oculomotor system, distributions of within-word landing positions are rather broad and show overlapping tails, which suggests that a fraction of fixations is mislocated and falls on words to the left or right of the selected target word. Here we propose a new procedure for the self-consistent estimation of the likelihood of mislocated fixations in normal reading. Our approach is based on iterative computation of the proportions of several types of oculomotor errors, the underlying probabilities for word-targeting, and corrected distributions of landing positions. We found that the average fraction of mislocated fixations ranges from about 10% to more than 30% depending on word length. These results show that fixation probabilities are strongly affected by oculomotor errors.

  12. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwense, Stefan AW; Olesen, Søren S; Drewes, Asbjørn M; van Goor, Harry; Wilder-Smith, Oliver HG

    2015-01-01

    Background Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders) to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15) or placebo (n=12; n=17) treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT) in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects) and Ventral T10 (segmental effects). Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM) paradigm. Results Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA) vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015). This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9%) vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001). CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006). Conclusion This hypothesis-generating study provides the first evidence that pain relief with pregabalin is associated with anti-hyperalgesic effects and increased endogenous inhibitory modulation. No such effects were observed in patients experiencing pain relief with the placebo treatment. The mechanisms underlying analgesic response to placebo vs drug treatments are different and, together with their interactions, deserve further study. PMID:26203273

  13. Olfaction in the Queensland fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. I: Identification of olfactory receptor neuron types responding to environmental odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, C D; Cribb, B W

    2001-05-01

    The electroantennogram method was used to investigate the number of distinct olfactory receptor neuron types responding to a range of behaviorally active volatile chemicals in gravid Queensland fruit flies, Bactrocera tryoni. Three receptor neuron types were identified. One type responds to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide; a second to ethanol; and a third to n-butyric acid and ammonia. The receptor neuron type responding to methyl butyrate, 2-butanone, farnesene, and carbon dioxide consists of three subtypes. The presence of a limited number of receptor neuron types responding to a diverse set of chemicals and the reception of carbon dioxide by a receptor neuron type that responds to other odorants are novel aspects of the peripheral olfactory discrimination process.

  14. Random thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ajansen; kwhitefoot; panteltje1; edprochak; sudhakar, the

    2014-07-01

    In reply to the physicsworld.com news story “How to make a quantum random-number generator from a mobile phone” (16 May, http://ow.ly/xFiYc, see also p5), which describes a way of delivering random numbers by counting the number of photons that impinge on each of the individual pixels in the camera of a Nokia N9 smartphone.

  15. Gender, Sexual Orientation, and Rape Myth Acceptance: Preliminary Findings From a Sample of Primarily LGBQ-Identified Survey Respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Corina; Koon-Magnin, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study is among the first to examine the relationship between sexual orientation and rape myth adherence using a nationwide survey of primarily lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) respondents (n = 184). The more established Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance Scale and a modified Male Rape Survey serve as the primary instruments to test both rape myth adherence and instrument-appropriateness. Results suggest that respondents were most likely to support myths that discredit sexual assault allegations or excuse rape as a biological imperative and least likely to support myths related to physical resistance. Consistent with previous work, men exhibited higher levels of rape myth adherence than women. Regarding sexual orientation, respondents who identified as queer consistently exhibited lower levels of rape myth adherence than respondents who identified as gay.

  16. Increasing Poverty: How Do Leaders in One Suburban District Respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jennifer Dawn

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the question of how suburban school district leaders in one large Midwestern school district respond to increasing student poverty. The purpose of this study was to determine how suburban school district leaders respond to increasing student poverty in their decision making and actions. Data for this study came from one…

  17. 76 FR 68828 - Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... Administration [Docket ID PHMSA-2011-0295] Pipeline Safety: Emergency Responder Forum AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Forum. SUMMARY: PHMSA is co-sponsoring a one-day Emergency Responder Forum with the National Association of Pipeline Safety...

  18. 45 CFR 612.4 - Responding to requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responding to requests. 612.4 Section 612.4 Public... RECORDS AND INFORMATION § 612.4 Responding to requests. (a) Monitoring of requests. The NSF Office of the... General, that Office will control incoming requests made directly or referred to it, dispatch response...

  19. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  20. Collaboration and interaction of first responders with the general public

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmerik, M. van; Dinesen, C.; Rijk, R. van; Bird, M.; Wester, M.; Hansen, L.J.; Vinther-Larsen, L.; Padron, C.; Boswinkel, R.; Ven, J. van de

    2016-01-01

    There is an increased focus on the need for collaboration between first responders and the general public. This type of collaboration requires soft skills that are not necessarily included in more traditional command and control trainings for first responders. Learning to collaborate with the

  1. Responding to the double implication of telemarketers' opinion queries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazeland, H

    During a call, telemarketers sometimes solicit respondent's opinions about a product or service. This turns out to be a query with multiple implications, and respondents are alive to them. On the one hand, the recipient orients to a local preference to evaluate the telemarketer's product positively.

  2. Understanding and Responding to Adolescent Girls' Online Cruelty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokal, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Many school counsellors have identified "cyber-bullying" among adolescent girls as a growing concern. In order to respond to this issue, this article begins with a new model of cyber-communications from the unique perspective of adolescent girls. Next, it explores the limitations of responding to this model, based on current understandings of…

  3. Responding electronically to student drafts on campus: Dis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on an investigation into whether writing centre (WC) respondents at an institution of Higher Education (HE) encourage or discourage draft dialogue (a conversation in writing) with students submitting drafts electronically to the WC for feedback. The writing respondents insert local feedback responses or ...

  4. Radiometric consistency in source specifications for lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Lai, Kafai; Tian, Kehan; Melville, David O. S.; Totzeck, Michael; Blahnik, Vladan; Koolen, Armand; Flagello, Donis

    2008-03-01

    There is a surprising lack of clarity about the exact quantity that a lithographic source map should specify. Under the plausible interpretation that input source maps should tabulate radiance, one will find with standard imaging codes that simulated wafer plane source intensities appear to violate the brightness theorem. The apparent deviation (a cosine factor in the illumination pupil) represents one of many obliquity/inclination factors involved in propagation through the imaging system whose interpretation in the literature is often somewhat obscure, but which have become numerically significant in today's hyper-NA OPC applications. We show that the seeming brightness distortion in the illumination pupil arises because the customary direction-cosine gridding of this aperture yields non-uniform solid-angle subtense in the source pixels. Once the appropriate solid angle factor is included, each entry in the source map becomes proportional to the total |E|^2 that the associated pixel produces on the mask. This quantitative definition of lithographic source distributions is consistent with the plane-wave spectrum approach adopted by litho simulators, in that these simulators essentially propagate |E|^2 along the interfering diffraction orders from the mask input to the resist film. It can be shown using either the rigorous Franz formulation of vector diffraction theory, or an angular spectrum approach, that such an |E|^2 plane-wave weighting will provide the standard inclination factor if the source elements are incoherent and the mask model is accurate. This inclination factor is usually derived from a classical Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, and we show that the nominally discrepant inclination factors used by the various diffraction integrals of this class can all be made to yield the same result as the Franz formula when rigorous mask simulation is employed, and further that these cosine factors have a simple geometrical interpretation. On this basis

  5. Cognitive Attributes of Adequate and Inadequate Responders to Reading Intervention in Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Stuebing, Karla K.; Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Barth, Amy Elizabeth; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2016-01-01

    No studies have investigated the cognitive attributes of middle school students who are adequate and inadequate responders to Tier 2 reading intervention. We compared students in Grades 6 and 7 representing groups of adequate responders (n = 77) and inadequate responders who fell below criteria in (a) comprehension (n = 54); (b) fluency (n = 45); and (c) decoding, fluency, and comprehension (DFC; n = 45). These students received measures of phonological awareness, listening comprehension, rapid naming, processing speed, verbal knowledge, and nonverbal reasoning. Multivariate comparisons showed a significant Group-by-Task interaction: the comprehension-impaired group demonstrated primary difficulties with verbal knowledge and listening comprehension, the DFC group with phonological awareness, and the fluency-impaired group with phonological awareness and rapid naming. A series of regression models investigating whether responder status explained unique variation in cognitive skills yielded largely null results consistent with a continuum of severity associated with level of reading impairment, with no evidence for qualitative differences in the cognitive attributes of adequate and inadequate responders. PMID:28579668

  6. Dissociating indifferent, directional, and extreme responding in personality data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zettler, Ingo; Lang, Jonas W B; Hülsheger, Ute R

    2015-01-01

    supporting the hypothesis that Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. CONCLUSION: In Likert-based personality data, applying the three-process model can unveil individual differences in the response process. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......- and observer reports of personality traits. The three-process model captures indifferent, directional, and extreme responding. Substantively, we hypothesize that, and test whether, trait Honesty-Humility is negatively linked to extreme responding. METHOD: We applied the three-process model to personality data...... of N = 577 dyads (self- and observer reports of the HEXACO Personality Inventory-Revised) of Dutch and German respondents. RESULTS: First, we provide evidence that indifferent, directional, and extreme responding can be separated from each other in personality data through the use of the three...

  7. Agreement among response to intervention criteria for identifying responder status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Amy E; Stuebing, Karla K; Anthony, Jason L; Denton, Carolyn A; Mathes, Patricia G; Fletcher, Jack M; Francis, David J

    2008-09-01

    In order to better understand the extent to which operationalizations of response to intervention (RTI) overlap and agree in identifying adequate and inadequate responders, an existing database of 399 first grade students was evaluated in relation to cut-points, measures, and methods frequently cited for the identification of inadequate responders to instruction. A series of 543 2x2 measures of association (808 total comparisons) were computed to address the agreement of different operationalizations of RTI. The results indicate that agreement is generally poor and that different methods tend to identify different students as inadequate responders, although agreement for identifying adequate responders is higher. Approaches to the assessment of responder status must use multiple criteria and avoid formulaic decision making.

  8. [Consistent Declarative Memory with Depressive Symptomatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho de Oliveira, Silvia; Flórez, Ruth Natalia Suárez; Caballero, Diego Andrés Vásquez

    2012-12-01

    Some studies have suggested that potentiated remembrance of negative events on people with depressive disorders seems to be an important factor in the etiology, course and maintenance of depression. Evaluate the emotional memory in people with and without depressive symptomatology by means of an audio-visual test. 73 university students were evaluated, male and female, between 18 and 40 years old, distributed in two groups: with depressive symptomatology (32) and without depressive symptomatology (40), using the Scale from the Center of Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D, English Abbreviation) and a cutting point of 20. There were not meaningful differences between free and voluntary recalls, with and without depressive symptomatology, in spite of the fact that both groups had granted a higher emotional value to the audio-visual test and that they had associated it with emotional sadness. People with depressive symptomatology did not exhibit the effect of mnemonic potentiation generally associated to the content of the emotional version of the test; therefore, the hypothesis of emotional consistency was not validated. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  9. Consistency between GRUAN sondes, LBLRTM and IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Calbet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiosonde soundings from the GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN data record are shown to be consistent with Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Instrument (IASI-measured radiances via LBLRTM (Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model in the part of the spectrum that is mostly affected by water vapour absorption in the upper troposphere (from 700 hPa up. This result is key for climate data records, since GRUAN, IASI and LBLRTM constitute reference measurements or a reference radiative transfer model in each of their fields. This is specially the case for night-time radiosonde measurements. Although the sample size is small (16 cases, daytime GRUAN radiosonde measurements seem to have a small dry bias of 2.5 % in absolute terms of relative humidity, located mainly in the upper troposphere, with respect to LBLRTM and IASI. Full metrological closure is not yet possible and will not be until collocation uncertainties are better characterized and a full uncertainty covariance matrix is clarified for GRUAN.

  10. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  11. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regin, J.C. [ILOG S.A., Gentilly (France)

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  12. [The accuracy and consistency of dental radiometers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, S

    2001-11-01

    Radiometers are used in dentistry to evaluate the intensity of light emitted by curing lights. This article discusses the accuracy and consistency of radiometers. The study was done as two experiments, dividing radiometers by age. In experiment 1, one Heliolux II curing light was tested nine times with each of four old radiometers. In experiment 2 the same curing light was tested with three very new radiometers, under identical circumstances. In experiment 1, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 262 and 348 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 7.59 and 42.03. In experiment 2, the average intensities measured by the radiometers ranged between 240 and 283.75 mW/cm2, while the standard deviation varied between 0.00 and 4.63. The seven radiometers differed significantly (P radiometers differs depending on the age of the unit, the state of repair of the unit, and how often it is standardised. In this study it was impossible to evaluate the accuracy of the radiometers.

  13. Consistent quadrupole-octupole collective model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, A.; Mazurek, K.; Góźdź, A.

    2016-11-01

    Within this work we present a consistent approach to quadrupole-octupole collective vibrations coupled with the rotational motion. A realistic collective Hamiltonian with variable mass-parameter tensor and potential obtained through the macroscopic-microscopic Strutinsky-like method with particle-number-projected BCS (Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer) approach in full vibrational and rotational, nine-dimensional collective space is diagonalized in the basis of projected harmonic oscillator eigensolutions. This orthogonal basis of zero-, one-, two-, and three-phonon oscillator-like functions in vibrational part, coupled with the corresponding Wigner function is, in addition, symmetrized with respect to the so-called symmetrization group, appropriate to the collective space of the model. In the present model it is D4 group acting in the body-fixed frame. This symmetrization procedure is applied in order to provide the uniqueness of the Hamiltonian eigensolutions with respect to the laboratory coordinate system. The symmetrization is obtained using the projection onto the irreducible representation technique. The model generates the quadrupole ground-state spectrum as well as the lowest negative-parity spectrum in 156Gd nucleus. The interband and intraband B (E 1 ) and B (E 2 ) reduced transition probabilities are also calculated within those bands and compared with the recent experimental results for this nucleus. Such a collective approach is helpful in searching for the fingerprints of the possible high-rank symmetries (e.g., octahedral and tetrahedral) in nuclear collective bands.

  14. Toward development of a fibromyalgia responder index and disease activity score: OMERACT module update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Philip J; Clauw, Daniel J; Christensen, Robin; Crofford, Leslie J; Gendreau, R Michael; Martin, Susan A; Simon, Lee S; Strand, Vibeke; Williams, David A; Arnold, Lesley M

    2011-07-01

    Following development of the core domain set for fibromyalgia (FM) in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) meetings 7 to 9, the FM working group has progressed toward the development of an FM responder index and a disease activity score based on these domains, utilizing outcome indices of these domains from archived randomized clinical trials in FM. Possible clinical domains that could be included in a responder index and disease activity score include pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, tenderness, stiffness, and functional impairment. Outcome measures for these domains demonstrate good to adequate psychometric properties, although measures of cognitive dysfunction need to be further developed. The approach used in the development of responder indices and disease activity scores for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis represents heuristic models for our work, but FM is challenging in that there is no clear algorithm of treatment that defines disease activity based on treatment decisions, nor are there objective markers that define thresholds of severity or response to treatment. The process of developing candidate dichotomous responder definitions and continuous quantitative disease activity measures is described, along with participant discussions from OMERACT 10. Final results of this work will be published in a separate report pending completion of analyses.

  15. Variance estimation, design effects, and sample size calculations for respondent-driven sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salganik, Matthew J

    2006-11-01

    Hidden populations, such as injection drug users and sex workers, are central to a number of public health problems. However, because of the nature of these groups, it is difficult to collect accurate information about them, and this difficulty complicates disease prevention efforts. A recently developed statistical approach called respondent-driven sampling improves our ability to study hidden populations by allowing researchers to make unbiased estimates of the prevalence of certain traits in these populations. Yet, not enough is known about the sample-to-sample variability of these prevalence estimates. In this paper, we present a bootstrap method for constructing confidence intervals around respondent-driven sampling estimates and demonstrate in simulations that it outperforms the naive method currently in use. We also use simulations and real data to estimate the design effects for respondent-driven sampling in a number of situations. We conclude with practical advice about the power calculations that are needed to determine the appropriate sample size for a study using respondent-driven sampling. In general, we recommend a sample size twice as large as would be needed under simple random sampling.

  16. Sound practices for consistent human visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchore, James A

    2011-03-01

    Numerous presentations and articles on manual inspection of pharmaceutical drug products have been released, since the pioneering articles on inspection by Knapp and associates Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Drug Assoc 34:14, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (Bull Parenter Drug Assoc 34:369, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 35:176, 1981); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 37:170, 1983). This original work by Knapp and associates provided the industry with a statistical means of evaluating inspection performance. This methodology enabled measurement of individual inspector performance, performance of the entire inspector pool and provided basic suggestions for the conduct of manual inspection. Since that time, numerous subject matter experts (SMEs) have presented additional valuable information for the conduct of manual inspection Borchert et al. (J Parenter Sci Technol 40:212, 1986); Knapp and Abramson (J Parenter Sci Technol 44:74, 1990); Shabushnig et al. (1994); Knapp (1999); Knapp (2005); Cherris (2005); Budd (2005); Barber and Thomas (2005); Knapp (2005); Melchore (2007); Leversee and Ronald (2007); Melchore (2009); Budd (2007); Borchert et al. (1986); Berdovich (2005); Berdovich (2007); Knapp (2007); Leversee and Shabushing (2009); Budd (2009). Despite this abundance of knowledge, neither government regulations nor the multiple compendia provide more than minimal guidance or agreement for the conduct of manual inspection. One has to search the literature for useful information that has been published by SMEs in the field of Inspection. The purpose of this article is to restate the sound principles proclaimed by SMEs with the hope that they serve as a useful guideline to bring greater consistency to the conduct of manual inspection. © 2010 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists

  17. Is Ethical Judgement Influenced By Social Desirability In Responding? An Analyse On Turkish Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    URAL, Assist. Prof. Dr.Tülin; ÖZBİRECİKLİ, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study has two main purposes: 1 to produce the short form of Marlowe Crowne Social Desirability Scale MCSDS developed by Marlowe and Crowne 1960 1964 based on Turkish culture; and 2 to assess the relationship between the ethical judgment and the socially desirable responding The 33 item MCSDS was translated from English to Turkish and presented to 73 accountants Then using factor and reliability analyses a 7 item Turkish short form of MCSDS was produced MCSDS consists of three...

  18. Characteristics of first-trimester screening of non-responders in a high-uptake population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hanne Trap; Wulff, Camilla Bernt; Ekelund, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    without cFTS, the other half from those with cFTS. A cohort of 20 women tested the questionnaire for consistency. The results are based on the responders (58%). RESULTS: The response rate was 88% among the women with cFTS and 19% among the women without. Not having a cFTS performed was associated...... with the following factors: country of origin other than Denmark (p religious belief (p

  19. THERAPY ADHERENCE OF 40-75 Y.O. HYPERTENSION RESPONDENTS USING MORISKY INSTRUMENT IN NGEMPLAK, SLEMAN, DIY (STUDY ON AGE, DEMOGRAPHY, SOCIAL, AND LIFE-STYLE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millatina Jasmine

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is systolic blood pressure (SBP ≥140mmHg and/or diastolic blood pessure (DBP ≥90mmHg. The risk factors of hypertension consist of age, life-style, demographic, and social factors. The risk factors have a significant association with antihypertension adherence. Adherence is the suitability of patient behavior to the prescriber’s recommendations. Morisky instrument can be used to measure the level of hypertension therapy adherence. The aims of this study were to assess respondent’s profile and therapy adherence based on age, life-style, demographic, social factors among the subjects in Ngemplak, Sleman, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (DIY. Total respondents were 63 respondents. The observational study was done with cross-sectional design. Technique for determining the location used random sampling, data were collected by door to door in the villages of Morangan, Jimat, and Jelapan. Data analysis used chi square with 95% confidence level. There were 23.8% good adherent and 76.2% poor adherent subjects to antihypertensive medication. There was no significant difference between age, life-style, demographic, and social factors to the level of hypertension therapy adherence. However, it was found that controlled blood pressure (p-value<0.01 were significantly associated with therapy adherence. This study also found that SBP at age 60-75 years and 40-59 years was significantly different (p-value <0.05.

  20. Using facial expressions as CSs and fearsome and disgusting pictures as UCSs: affective responding and evaluative learning of fear and disgust in blood-injection-injury phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Lohr, Jeffrey M; Sawchuk, Craig N; Westendorf, David H

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments examine use of an evaluative conditioning (EC) paradigm in the acquisition of fear and disgust responding to neutral facial expressions. In Experiment 1, 60 participants were randomly assigned to one of three evaluative learning conditions in which neutral facial expressions were paired with fearsome, disgusting, or neutral pictures. No statistically significant differences were detected between the three conditions. However, significant differences emerged within subjects as post-exposure of fear and disgust ratings were higher among expressions that were paired with pictorial stimuli. Experiment 2 sought to examine if an analogue sample of BII phobics would be more susceptible than nonphobic controls to fear and disgust EC utilizing a similar experimental design, given the co-occurrence of fear and disgust in BII-phobic responding. Results failed to demonstrate an EC effect specific to the analogue phobic group, although both groups showed an evaluative shift toward disgust for those facial expressions paired with BII-relevant pictures. Consistent with previous findings, examination of picture rating data suggested that analogue BII phobics rated the BII pictures as significantly more disgusting than fearful. The role of EC processes and a priori expectancy biases in the associative learning of disgust in BII phobia is discussed.

  1. Comparing Choral Responding and a Choral Responding Plus Mnemonic Device during Geography Lessons for Students with Mild to Moderate Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, Todd; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Alter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Four male 9th-grade students with mild to moderate disabilities participated in a single case design that compared choral responding (CR) and a choral responding plus mnemonic device (CR+) during geography lessons. The authors used an alternating treatments design to evaluate the effects of the two strategies on students' on-task behavior and…

  2. Responders and non-responders to drug treatment in social phobia : Differences at baseline and prediction of response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaap, BR; Westenberg, HGM; DenBoer, JA

    1996-01-01

    Differences between responders and non-responders to drug therapy were investigated in social phobia. Two previously published studies were pooled to obtain data of 30 patients who were treated for 12 weeks with brofaromine or fluvoxamine. Four criterion variables were used to divide patients in

  3. International Scavenging for First Responder Guidance and Tools: IAEA Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Berthelot, L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Bachner, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-05-05

    In fiscal years (FY) 2016 and 2017, with support from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) examined the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) radiological emergency response and preparedness products (guidance and tools) to determine which of these products could be useful to U.S. first responders. The IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC), which is responsible for emergency preparedness and response, offers a range of tools and guidance documents for responders in recognizing, responding to, and recovering from radiation emergencies and incidents. In order to implement this project, BNL obtained all potentially relevant tools and products produced by the IAEA IEC and analyzed these materials to determine their relevance to first responders in the U.S. Subsequently, BNL organized and hosted a workshop at DHS National Urban Security Technology Laboratory (NUSTL) for U.S. first responders to examine and evaluate IAEA products to consider their applicability to the United States. This report documents and describes the First Responder Product Evaluation Workshop, and provides recommendations on potential steps the U.S. federal government could take to make IAEA guidance and tools useful to U.S. responders.

  4. Characterizing hospital workers' willingness to respond to a radiological event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran D Balicer

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Terrorist use of a radiological dispersal device (RDD, or "dirty bomb", which combines a conventional explosive device with radiological materials, is among the National Planning Scenarios of the United States government. Understanding employee willingness to respond is critical for planning experts. Previous research has demonstrated that perception of threat and efficacy is key in the assessing willingness to respond to a RDD event. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was used to evaluate the willingness of hospital employees to respond to a RDD event. Agreement with a series of belief statements was assessed, following a methodology validated in previous work. The survey was available online to all 18,612 employees of the Johns Hopkins Hospital from January to March 2009. RESULTS: Surveys were completed by 3426 employees (18.4%, whose demographic distribution was similar to overall hospital staff. 39% of hospital workers were not willing to respond to a RDD scenario if asked but not required to do so. Only 11% more were willing if required. Workers who were hesitant to agree to work additional hours when required were 20 times less likely to report during a RDD emergency. Respondents who perceived their peers as likely to report to work in a RDD emergency were 17 times more likely to respond during a RDD event if asked. Only 27.9% of the hospital employees with a perception of low efficacy declared willingness to respond to a severe RDD event. Perception of threat had little impact on willingness to respond among hospital workers. CONCLUSIONS: Radiological scenarios such as RDDs are among the most dreaded emergency events yet studied. Several attitudinal indicators can help to identify hospital employees unlikely to respond. These risk-perception modifiers must then be addressed through training to enable effective hospital response to a RDD event.

  5. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Responder Technology Alert Monthly (Oct-Nov 2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upton, Jaki F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stein, Steven L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-01-21

    As part of technology foraging for the Responder Technology Alliance, established by the Department of Homeland Science and Technologies First Responders Group, this report summarizes technologies that are relevant in the area of “wearables,” with the potential for use by first responders. The content was collected over the previous month(s) and reproduced from a general Internet search using the term wearables. Additional information is available at the websites provided. This report is not meant to be an exhaustive list nor an endorsement of any technology described herein. Rather, it is meant to provide useful information about current developments in the areas wearable technology.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of early responders versus early nonresponders to atypical antipsychotic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng X

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Xiaomei Peng1, Haya Ascher-Svanum1, Douglas E Faries1, Virginia L Stauffer1, Sara Kollack-Walker1, Bruce J Kinon1, John M Kane21Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana; 2Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Glen Oaks, New York, USABackground: To compare the cost-effectiveness of treating early responders versus early nonresponders to an atypical antipsychotic (risperidone and the cost-effectiveness of treating early nonresponders maintained on risperidone versus those switched to olanzapine.Methods: This post hoc analysis used data from a randomized, double-blind, 12-week schizophrenia study (Study Code: HGMN, n = 628. Participants were initially assigned to risperidone therapy. Early response was defined as a ≥ 20% improvement on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS total score from baseline to two weeks. Early responders continued on risperidone, whereas early nonresponders were randomized in a double-blind manner to continue on risperidone or switch to olanzapine for 10 additional weeks. Early responders and early nonresponders maintained on risperidone were compared for health-state utilities (benefits and total cost over the 12-week study; early nonresponders maintained on risperidone or switched to olanzapine were compared from randomization (10-week period. Utilities were derived from the PANSS and adverse events. Mixed models were used to assess group differences in utilities. Treatment costs were calculated based on health states. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were then utilized to compare treatment groups.Results: Early responders to risperidone had significantly greater total utility and lower total treatment costs than early nonresponders to risperidone. Compared with early nonresponders who continued on risperidone, those who were switched to olanzapine had significantly higher total utility scores at endpoint and numerically lower total treatment costs, reflecting significantly lower

  8. Random triangles

    OpenAIRE

    Matula, Dominik

    2013-01-01

    The author summarizes some previous results concerning random triangles. He describes the Gaussian triangle and random triangles whose vertices lie in a unit n-dimensional ball, in a rectangle or in a general bounded convex set. In the second part, the author deals with an inscribed triangle in a triangle - let ABC be an equilateral triangle and let M, N, O be three points, each laying on one side of the ABC. We call MNO inscribed triangle (in an equi- laterral triangle). The median triangle ...

  9. Random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal

    1990-01-01

    Since the publication of Random Matrices (Academic Press, 1967) so many new results have emerged both in theory and in applications, that this edition is almost completely revised to reflect the developments. For example, the theory of matrices with quaternion elements was developed to compute certain multiple integrals, and the inverse scattering theory was used to derive asymptotic results. The discovery of Selberg's 1944 paper on a multiple integral also gave rise to hundreds of recent publications. This book presents a coherent and detailed analytical treatment of random matrices, leading

  10. Bipolar I and II disorders in a random and representative Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldney, Robert D; Fisher, Laura J; Grande, Eleonora Dal; Taylor, Anne W; Hawthorne, Graeme

    2005-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of bipolar I and II disorders in an Australian population. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) was administered to 3015 respondents in a random and representative sample in South Australia. Health status, quality of life and demographic data were also collected. There was a 2.5% lifetime prevalence of bipolar I and II disorders delineated by the MDQ. Those people had a significantly greater use of services and a poorer health status and quality of life than those who were MDQ-negative. These results in an Australian population are consistent with other international studies showing a greater prevalence of bipolar disorders than hitherto appreciated.

  11. Relationships among attention networks and physiological responding to threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarapas, Casey; Weinberg, Anna; Langenecker, Scott A; Shankman, Stewart A

    2017-02-01

    Although researchers have long hypothesized a relationship between attention and anxiety, theoretical and empirical accounts of this relationship have conflicted. We attempted to resolve these conflicts by examining relationships of attentional abilities with responding to predictable and unpredictable threat - related but distinct motivational process implicated in a number of anxiety disorders. Eighty-one individuals completed a behavioral task assessing efficiency of three components of attention - alerting, orienting, and executive control (Attention Network Test - Revised). We also assessed startle responding during anticipation of both predictable, imminent threat (of mild electric shock) and unpredictable contextual threat. Faster alerting and slower disengaging from non-emotional attention cues were related to heightened responding to unpredictable threat, whereas poorer executive control of attention was related to heightened responding to predictable threat. This double dissociation helps to integrate models of attention and anxiety and may be informative for treatment development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Public transportation's role in responding to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This paper details the role public transportation has in responding to the challenge of climate change. It collects and analyzes data from across the country on public transportation fuel use, vehicles deployed, rides taken, and other key metrics, dr...

  13. Enhancing Syndromic Surveillance With Online Respondent-Driven Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L; van Steenbergen, Jim E; Buskens, Vincent; van der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, MEE

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. METHODS: In 2014, volunteers from 2

  14. Enhancing syndromic surveillance with online respondent-driven detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Mart L.; Van Steenbergen, Jim E.; Buskens, Vincent; Van Der Heijden, Peter G M; Koppeschaar, Carl E.; Bengtsson, Linus; Thorson, Anna; Kretzschmar, Mirjam E E

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the feasibility of combining an online chain recruitment method (respondent-driven detection) and participatory surveillance panels to collect previously undetected information on infectious diseases via social networks of participants. Methods. In 2014, volunteers from 2

  15. Climate change 101 : understanding and responding to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    To inform the climate change dialogue, the Pew Center on Global Climate Change and the Pew Center on the States have developed a series of brief reports entitled Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change. These reports...

  16. Respondents characteristics, their awareness and benefits of Sukur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of investigation into the socio–economic characteristics of the respondents showed that the average monthly income across all the respondents that ranged from N12, 611.11 – N15, 736.11 was less than N18, 500.00 which is the Nigerian civil service minimum wage. The major values of the study area in order of ...

  17. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters

    OpenAIRE

    Cregger, Melissa A.; Sanders, Nathan J.; Dunn, Robert R.; Classen, Aimée T.

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not th...

  18. The Influence of Agreeableness and Ego Depletion on Emotional Responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Anna J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2017-10-01

    Agreeable individuals report more intense withdrawal-oriented negative emotions across aversive situations. Two studies tested the hypothesis that self-regulatory depletion (i.e., ego depletion) moderates the relationship between trait Agreeableness and negative emotional responding. Ego depletion was manipulated using a writing task. Emotional responding was measured with startle eye-blink responses (Study 1, N = 71) and self-reported valence, arousal, and empathic concern (Study 2, N = 256) during emotional picture viewing. Trait Agreeableness was measured using a questionnaire. In Study 1, Agreeableness predicted especially large startle responses during aversive images and especially small startles during appetitive images. After exercising self-control, the relationship between startle magnitudes and Agreeableness decreased. In Study 2, Agreeableness predicted more empathic concern for aversive images, which in turn predicted heightened self-reported negative emotions. After exercising self-control, the relationship between Agreeableness and empathic concern decreased. Agreeable individuals exhibit heightened negative emotional responding. Ego depletion reduced the link between Agreeableness and negative emotional responding in Study 1 and moderated the indirect effect of Agreeableness on negative emotional responding via empathic concern in Study 2. Empathic concern appears to be a resource-intensive process underlying heightened responding to aversive stimuli among agreeable persons. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. New Survey Questions and Estimators for Network Clustering with Respondent-Driven Sampling Data

    CERN Document Server

    Verdery, Ashton M; Siripong, Nalyn; Abdesselam, Kahina; Bauldry, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a popular method for sampling hard-to-survey populations that leverages social network connections through peer recruitment. While RDS is most frequently applied to estimate the prevalence of infections and risk behaviors of interest to public health, like HIV/AIDS or condom use, it is rarely used to draw inferences about the structural properties of social networks among such populations because it does not typically collect the necessary data. Drawing on recent advances in computer science, we introduce a set of data collection instruments and RDS estimators for network clustering, an important topological property that has been linked to a network's potential for diffusion of information, disease, and health behaviors. We use simulations to explore how these estimators, originally developed for random walk samples of computer networks, perform when applied to RDS samples with characteristics encountered in realistic field settings that depart from random walks. In partic...

  20. Time-Consistent and Market-Consistent Evaluations (Revised version of 2012-086)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stadje, M.A.; Pelsser, A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  1. Reports of fewer activity limitations: recovery, survey fatigue, or switching respondent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Steven C; Pylypchuk, Yuriy

    2006-05-01

    Very little is known about the validity and reliability of disability dynamics reported in household surveys, and some researchers argue that measurement error likely plays a large part in reported recovery from disability. We assessed the reliability of reported recovery from activity limitations elicited from 2 types of questions. We assessed competing hypotheses explaining reported recoveries from disability: people are less likely to recover from more severe disabilities, switching between self- and proxy-response affects reported recovery, and survey fatigue reduces reported disability. Using the second panel of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, we estimated kappas for 2 types of questions in the same interview about limitations in activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living. We estimated multinomial logit models of consistently reported recovery, consistently reported ongoing limitations, and inconsistent responses. Recovery is a function of severity, switching respondent, measures of survey burden (such as family size), age, and education. Within an interview, we found substantial reliability for both instrumental activities of daily living and activities of daily living limitations (kappa = 0.62 and 0.70, respectively). Sample members with more severe disabilities are less likely to report recovery, which is consistent with accurate reporting. Controlling for severity, the type of respondent affects reported recovery. Measures of survey burden did not affect reports. Researchers can be confident in reports of recovery in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, especially when disability status was self-reported in both interviews. Researchers may also want to control for proxy respondents and switching respondents in their analyses.

  2. Permutation Entropy for Random Binary Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingfeng Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we generalize the permutation entropy (PE measure to binary sequences, which is based on Shannon’s entropy, and theoretically analyze this measure for random binary sequences. We deduce the theoretical value of PE for random binary sequences, which can be used to measure the randomness of binary sequences. We also reveal the relationship between this PE measure with other randomness measures, such as Shannon’s entropy and Lempel–Ziv complexity. The results show that PE is consistent with these two measures. Furthermore, we use PE as one of the randomness measures to evaluate the randomness of chaotic binary sequences.

  3. The accuracy and consistency of nutrition care process terminology use in cases of refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kylie L; Palmer, Michelle A; Capra, Sandra M

    2017-11-08

    Using standardised terminology in acute care has encouraged consistency in patient care and the evaluation of outcomes. As such, the Nutrition Care Process (NCP) and Nutrition Care Process Terminology (NCPT) may assist dietitian nutritionists in the delivery of high quality nutrition care worldwide; however, limited research has been conducted examining the consistency and accuracy of its use. We aimed to examine the NCPT that dietitian nutritionists would use to formulate a diagnostic statement relating to refeeding syndrome (RFS). A multimethod action research approach was used, incorporating two projects. The first was a survey examining Australian dietitian nutritionists' (n = 195) opinions regarding NCPT use in cases of RFS. To establish if results were similar internationally, an interview was then conducted with 22 dietitian nutritionists working within 10 different countries. 'Imbalance of nutrients' was only identified as a correct code by 17% of respondents in project 1. No mention of this term was made in project 2. Also 86% of respondents incorrectly selected more than one diagnostic code. The majority of respondents (80%, n = 52/65) who incorrectly selected 'Malnutrition', without also selecting 'Imbalance of nutrients', selected 'reduce intake' as an intervention, suggesting some misunderstanding in the requirement for interrelated diagnoses, interventions and goals. Our findings demonstrate that there is limited accuracy and consistency in selecting nutritional diagnostic codes in relation to RFS. Respondents also demonstrated limited knowledge regarding appropriate application of the NCP and NCPT. Implementation practices may require further refinement, as accurate and consistent use is required to procure the benefits of standardised terminology. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  4. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals' selfie corpora.

  5. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  6. No impact of repeated extinction exposures on operant responding maintained by different reinforcer rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, John Y H; Podlesnik, Christopher A

    2017-05-01

    Greater rates of intermittent reinforcement in the presence of discriminative stimuli generally produce greater resistance to extinction, consistent with predictions of behavioral momentum theory. Other studies reveal more rapid extinction with higher rates of reinforcers - the partial reinforcement extinction effect. Further, repeated extinction often produces more rapid decreases in operant responding due to learning a discrimination between training and extinction contingencies. The present study examined extinction repeatedly with training with different rates of intermittent reinforcement in a multiple schedule. We assessed whether repeated extinction would reverse the pattern of greater resistance to extinction with greater reinforcer rates. Counter to this prediction, resistance to extinction was consistently greater across twelve assessments of training followed by six successive sessions of extinction. Moreover, patterns of responding during extinction resembled those observed during satiation tests, which should not alter discrimination processes with repeated testing. These findings join others suggesting operant responding in extinction can be durable across repeated tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender differences in attitudes toward gay men and lesbians: the role of motivation to respond without prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Jennifer J; Lassiter, G Daniel; Markman, Keith D; Snyder, Celeste J

    2006-10-01

    Research has uncovered consistent gender differences in attitudes toward gay men, with women expressing less prejudice than men (Herek, 2003). Attitudes toward lesbians generally show a similar pattern, but to a weaker extent. The present work demonstrated that motivation to respond without prejudice importantly contributes to these divergent attitudes. Study 1 revealed that women evince higher internal motivation to respond without prejudice (IMS, Plant & Devine, 1998) than do men and that this difference partially mediates the relationship between gender and attitudes toward gay men. The second study replicated this finding and demonstrated that IMS mediates the relationship between gender and attitudes toward lesbians. Study 2 further revealed that gender-role variables contribute to the observed gender differences in motivation to respond without prejudice. These findings provide new insights into the nature of sexual prejudice and for the first time point to possible antecedents of variation in motivation to respond without prejudice.

  8. Responding to reviewers' comments as part of writing for publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a resource for authors to help them in getting their work published. The focus is on dealing with, and responding to, the comments of reviewers. The importance to research of nurses writing for publication is widely acknowledged. However, a number of significant barriers to nurses actively engaging in this form of dissemination has been identified. Ways in which nurses can avoid the pitfalls that would make their manuscripts more likely to be rejected have been the subjects of published articles. Significantly less attention has been devoted to providing authors with methods to assist them in responding when their manuscripts are rejected or major revisions are requested. This article provides a brief overview of the process of editorial review. It offers a practical but structured approach to responding to reviewers' comments when undertaking major revisions and to preparing a rejected manuscript for resubmission to another journal. Authors frequently respond negatively to reviewers' comments and this may result in their being dissuaded from writing for publication. A structured approach to dealing with reviewers' comments may help nurses in making the requested revisions and increase their chances of publication. The publication of research findings and other scholarly work are important for the professional advancement of nursing. Strategies to overcome the barriers to writing for publication are essential to achieving this goal. Helping authors to respond positively to reviewer critique and to make the necessary changes are important steps in this process.

  9. Understanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: application to iloperidone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerts, Hugo; Roberts, Patrick; Spiros, Athan; Potkin, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The concept of targeted therapies remains a holy grail for the pharmaceutical drug industry for identifying responder populations or new drug targets. Here we provide quantitative systems pharmacology as an alternative to the more traditional approach of retrospective responder pharmacogenomics analysis and applied this to the case of iloperidone in schizophrenia. This approach implements the actual neurophysiological effect of genotypes in a computer-based biophysically realistic model of human neuronal circuits, is parameterized with human imaging and pathology, and is calibrated by clinical data. We keep the drug pharmacology constant, but allowed the biological model coupling values to fluctuate in a restricted range around their calibrated values, thereby simulating random genetic mutations and representing variability in patient response. Using hypothesis-free Design of Experiments methods the dopamine D4 R-AMPA (receptor-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor coupling in cortical neurons was found to drive the beneficial effect of iloperidone, likely corresponding to the rs2513265 upstream of the GRIA4 gene identified in a traditional pharmacogenomics analysis. The serotonin 5-HT3 receptor-mediated effect on interneuron gamma-aminobutyric acid conductance was identified as the process that moderately drove the differentiation of iloperidone versus ziprasidone. This paper suggests that reverse-engineered quantitative systems pharmacology is a powerful alternative tool to characterize the underlying neurobiology of a responder population and possibly identifying new targets. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. MAP estimators and their consistency in Bayesian nonparametric inverse problems

    KAUST Repository

    Dashti, M.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the inverse problem of estimating an unknown function u from noisy measurements y of a known, possibly nonlinear, map applied to u. We adopt a Bayesian approach to the problem and work in a setting where the prior measure is specified as a Gaussian random field μ0. We work under a natural set of conditions on the likelihood which implies the existence of a well-posed posterior measure, μy. Under these conditions, we show that the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator is well defined as the minimizer of an Onsager-Machlup functional defined on the Cameron-Martin space of the prior; thus, we link a problem in probability with a problem in the calculus of variations. We then consider the case where the observational noise vanishes and establish a form of Bayesian posterior consistency for the MAP estimator. We also prove a similar result for the case where the observation of can be repeated as many times as desired with independent identically distributed noise. The theory is illustrated with examples from an inverse problem for the Navier-Stokes equation, motivated by problems arising in weather forecasting, and from the theory of conditioned diffusions, motivated by problems arising in molecular dynamics. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form (BIDR-16

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M. Hart

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-report studies often call for assessment of socially desirable responding. Many researchers use the Marlowe–Crowne Scale for its brief versions; however, this scale is outdated, and contemporary models of social desirability emphasize its multi-dimensional nature. The 40-item Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR incorporates Self-Deceptive Enhancement (honest but overly positive responding and Impression Management (bias toward pleasing others. However, its length limits its practicality. This article introduces the BIDR-16. In four studies, we shorten the BIDR from 40 items to 16 items, while retaining its two-factor structure, reliability, and validity. This short form will be invaluable to researchers wanting to assess social desirability when time is limited.

  12. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cregger, Melissa A; Sanders, Nathan J; Dunn, Robert R; Classen, Aimée T

    2014-01-01

    Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  13. Microbial communities respond to experimental warming, but site matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Cregger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Because microorganisms are sensitive to temperature, ongoing global warming is predicted to influence microbial community structure and function. We used large-scale warming experiments established at two sites near the northern and southern boundaries of US eastern deciduous forests to explore how microbial communities and their function respond to warming at sites with differing climatic regimes. Soil microbial community structure and function responded to warming at the southern but not the northern site. However, changes in microbial community structure and function at the southern site did not result in changes in cellulose decomposition rates. While most global change models rest on the assumption that taxa will respond similarly to warming across sites and their ranges, these results suggest that the responses of microorganisms to warming may be mediated by differences across the geographic boundaries of ecosystems.

  14. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  15. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN RESPONDING TO COMPLIMENTS IN JAVANESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarno Sukarno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:  Javanese has been studied from many different perspectives. However, no one discusses how Javanese respond to compliments politely. The aim of this study is to investigate the politeness strategies as applied to respond to compliments by the Javanese people in Jember, East Java. The notion of politeness plays crucial role in the realization of speech acts (utterances and verbal communication in Javanese, such as responding to compliements. As utterances and verbal communications should be interpreted based on the sosio-cultural background, the politeness strategies in responding to compliments in Javanese cannot be separated from the concepts of the Javanese culture, such as: andhap-asor (lowering oneself, while exalting the others and tanggap ing sasmita (understanding the hidden meaning. First, as a Javanese, one must be able to apply the concept of andhap-asor in responding to compliments by denigrating himself. Second, a good Javanese should also have a sense of tanggap ing sasmita while responding to compliments. Consequently, failure to apply one of the cultural factors can be detrimental to the speaker, reducing the harmony of the conversation. This paper examines how politeness is manifested and conveyed within the major framework of the Javanese culture. This study is about socio-cultural pragmatics in which utterances are discussed in relation to their situations, and the cultural background which support them. The data are in the form of dialogues among students-teachers, and students-students which show the different social status among the interlocutors. The data of this research were collected by recording, and by note taking (for the parts in which recording is not possible. The data are aimed to generate the strategies used by the Javanese (in Jember, Indonesia to build politeness strategies in responding to compliments. Finally, the data of this research are examined both from the general theory of politeness, and

  16. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Report 5:] Summary report to phase 1 respondents including frequency distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Kennedy, John M.; White, Terry F.

    1991-01-01

    Phase 1 of a four part study was undertaken to investigate the use of scientific and technical information (STI) by U.S. aerospace engineers and scientists. Specific attention was paid to institutional and sociometric variables and to the step-by-step process of information gathering used by the respondents. Data were collected by means of three self-administered mail-back questionnaires. The approximately 34,000 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics served as the study population. More than 65 percent of the randomly selected respondants returned the questionnaires in each of the three groups. Respondants relied more heavily on informal sources of information than formal sources and turned to librarians and other technical information specialists only when they did not obtain results via informal means or their own formal searches. The report includes frequency distributions for the questions.

  17. Three Chronometric Indices of Relational Responding as Predictors of Performance on a Brief Intelligence Test: The Importance of Relational Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Catriona; Barnes-Holmes, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    Participants completed a before/after and a similar/different relational task, using the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP), and subsequently took the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT). For each relational task, response latencies were measured first on consistent trials, where participants responded in accordance with…

  18. Factors related to acupuncture response in patients with chronic severe functional constipation: Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingyue Yang

    Full Text Available Acupuncture has been demonstrated to be effective and safe for chronic severe functional constipation (CSFC. However, which patients with CSFC will have a better response to acupuncture remains unclear.To explore factors related to acupuncture response in patients with CSFC.We performed a secondary analysis of a previous multicenter randomized controlled trial consisting of a 2-week run-in period, 8-week treatment, and 12-week follow-up without treatment in which patients with CSFC were randomly allocated to an electroacupuncture group or a sham electroacupuncture group. Responders were defined as participants with an increase of at least one complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM in week 20 compared with the baseline period. The CSBM responder rate in both groups was described, and the baseline characteristics of participants potentially related to acupuncture response were mainly analyzed using logistic regression analysis with bootstrapping techniques.A total of 1021 participants were analyzed in this study, of whom 516 (50.5% were classified as responders. The CSBM responder rate in week 20 was significantly greater in the electroacupuncture group than in the sham electroacupuncture group (62.9% vs. 37.9%, respectively; P<0.001. Both age and comorbidity were negatively associated with clinical response: with every one-year increase in age, the likelihood of clinical response was reduced by 1.2% (OR 0.988, 95%CI 0.980 to 0.996; P = 0.005, and patients with comorbidities were approximately 42% less likely to respond to treatment (OR 0.581, 95%CI 0.248 to 0.914; P = 0.001.CSFC patients with increasing age and comorbidity may be less likely to respond to acupuncture. These findings contribute to guiding clinical practice in terms of pretreatment patient selection. Further research is needed to confirm the association.

  19. Inconsistent Responding on the MMPI-2-RF and Uncooperative Attitude: Evidence From Cognitive Performance Validity Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Tarescavage, Anthony M; Greiffenstein, Manfred F; Wygant, Dustin B; Deslauriers, Cheryl; Arends, Patricia

    2017-06-19

    It is generally well understood that possible reasons for inconsistent responding on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), as measured by the Variable Response Inconsistency (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency (TRIN-r) scales, include reading or language limitations, cognitive impairment, and intentional random responding; however, the interpretive recommendations for the test suggest that higher scores on these scales can also result from an uncooperative test-taking approach. This study utilized a sample of 3,457 predominately non-head injury disability claimants to examine the association between inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF and performance on cognitive tests as well performance validity tests (PVTs), an independent indicator of uncooperative test-taking attitude. Analysis of variance found that both VRIN-r and TRIN-r were associated with statistically lower cognitive test scores. These analyses also supported that TRIN-r was associated with poor performance on collaterally administered PVTs in a subsample of individuals with average reading levels. Illustrating the practical effects of these results, in follow-up relative risk ratio analyses, individuals with elevations on TRIN-r were at up to five times greater risk of PVT failure than those without elevations. Overall, the results of this study provide some support for the interpretation that inconsistent responding on the MMPI-2-RF is associated not only with cognitive/reading problems or limitations but also an uncooperative test-taking approach, particularly for elevated TRIN-r scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Sexual Victimization, Alcohol Intoxication, Sexual-Emotional Responding, and Sexual Risk in Heavy Episodic Drinking Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N. Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Andrasik, Michele P.

    2013-01-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women’s sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10%) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol’s effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  1. Pregabalin and placebo responders show different effects on central pain processing in chronic pancreatitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouwense SA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stefan AW Bouwense,1 Søren S Olesen,2 Asbjørn M Drewes,2 Harry van Goor,1 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith31Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Surgery, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Denmark; 3Pain and Nociception Neuroscience Research Group, Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsBackground: Pain control in chronic pancreatitis is a major challenge; the mechanisms behind analgesic treatment are poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the differences in pain sensitivity and modulation in chronic pancreatitis patients, based on their clinical response (responders vs nonresponders to placebo or pregabalin treatment. Methods: This study was part of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the analgesic effects of pregabalin and placebo in chronic pancreatitis. Post hoc, patients were assigned to one of four groups, ie, responders and nonresponders to pregabalin (n=16; n=15 or placebo (n=12; n=17 treatment. Responders were defined as patients with >30% pain reduction after 3 weeks of treatment. We measured change in pain sensitivity before and after the treatment using electric pain detection thresholds (ePDT in dermatomes C5 (generalized effects and Ventral T10 (segmental effects. Descending endogenous pain modulation was quantified via conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm. Results: Sixty patients were analyzed in a per-protocol analysis. ePDT change in C5 was significant vs baseline and greater in pregabalin (1.3 mA vs placebo responders (−0.1 mA; P=0.015. This was not so for ePDT in Ventral T10. CPM increased more in pregabalin (9% vs placebo responders (−17%; P<0.001. CPM changed significantly vs baseline only for pregabalin responders (P=0.006. Conclusion: This hypothesis

  2. Explanatory, Multilevel Person-Fit Analysis of Response Consistency on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Judith M; Emons, Wilco H M; van Assen, Marcel A L M; Pedersen, Susanne S; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-09-01

    Self-report measures are vulnerable to concentration and motivation problems, leading to responses that may be inconsistent with the respondent's latent trait value. We investigated response consistency in a sample (N = 860) of cardiac patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their partners who completed the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on five measurement occasions. For each occasion and for both the state and trait subscales, we used the l (p) z person-fit statistic to assess response consistency. We used multilevel analysis to model the between-person and within-person differences in the repeated observations of response consistency using time-dependent (e.g., mood states) and time-invariant explanatory variables (e.g., demographic characteristics). Respondents with lower education, undergoing psychological treatment, and with more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms tended to respond less consistently. The percentages of explained variance in response consistency were small. Hence, we conclude that the results give insight into the causes of response inconsistency but that the identified explanatory variables are of limited practical value for identifying respondents at risk of producing invalid test results. We discuss explanations for the small percentage of explained variance and suggest alternative methods for studying causes of response inconsistency.

  3. Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Elizabeth; Chabata, Sungai T; Thompson, Jennifer A; Cowan, Frances M; Hargreaves, James R

    2017-09-14

    While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  4. Random tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2017-01-01

    Written by the creator of the modern theory of random tensors, this book is the first self-contained introductory text to this rapidly developing theory. Starting from notions familiar to the average researcher or PhD student in mathematical or theoretical physics, the book presents in detail the theory and its applications to physics. The recent detections of the Higgs boson at the LHC and gravitational waves at LIGO mark new milestones in Physics confirming long standing predictions of Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. These two experimental results only reinforce today the need to find an underlying common framework of the two: the elusive theory of Quantum Gravity. Over the past thirty years, several alternatives have been proposed as theories of Quantum Gravity, chief among them String Theory. While these theories are yet to be tested experimentally, key lessons have already been learned. Whatever the theory of Quantum Gravity may be, it must incorporate random geometry in one form or another....

  5. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  6. Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandre, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    "Poetic Voices: Writing, Reading, and Responding to Poetry" was the title of the 2011 Master Class in Children's Literature. Woven into this session were the insights of poets Joyce Sidman and Pat Mora who shared their creative processes and the voices that inspire their poetry. In addition, Barbara Kiefer provided advice regarding how to connect…

  7. Knowledge, attitude and perception of respondents in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The study showed that respondents in the study community had an understanding of when urine colour is normal or abnormal. They are also aware that it could be caused by diseases and would therefore require treatment in a health facility. However, they did not know that it could cause anuria in some cases.

  8. Increasing Students' Opportunities to Respond: A Strategy for Supporting Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Holly M.; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2017-01-01

    This article offers a rationale for using a low-intensity support, increasing opportunities to respond, to promote students' academic engagement and decrease disruptive behaviors. A step-by-step guide to implementing this strategy in the classroom setting is presented.

  9. Responding to Student Unrest: A Guide for Administrators and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James; Miller, William

    The aim of this essay is to help educators understand, respond to, and survive student militancy. The author analyzes the problem of student unrest; discusses programs for reducing militancy; and explains why student involvement is necessary and how it helps accomplish the purposes of education, stimulates interest, and reduces dropouts and…

  10. Training Emergency Responders: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. An Instructor's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applied Science Associates, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This manual was developed to help instructors train police and emergency medical technicians, who often are the first persons to arrive at the scene of a death (first responders), to serve families who lose a child to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The manual begins with an introduction that discusses the purpose of the training and…

  11. Responding to LGBT forced migration in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitta Zomorodi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the passage of Uganda’s Anti-Homosexuality Act in December 2013, hundreds of LGBT individuals fled to Kenya seeking safety. A variety of interventions is needed in both Uganda and Kenya to respond effectively.

  12. Strengthening Capacity to Respond to Computer Security Incidents ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Capacity to Respond to Computer Security Incidents in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Internet has become a crucial tool for companies and individuals to conduct all sorts of social and economic transactions. Unfortunately, the increasing virtualization of the economy and society comes with significant ...

  13. Policy options to respond to rapid climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, R.J.; Marinova, N.A.; Bakker, S.; Tilburg, van X.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing research on climate change indicates that we cannot rule out the possibility of extreme climatic changes, beyond current IPCC scenarios. The thinking about policy responses to address these risks is still in its infancy. This study explores the possibilities for responding to extreme

  14. Responding to Intimacies and Crises in Students' Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Marti

    1990-01-01

    Notes that even specific journal writing assignments tend to elicit intimate feelings and expressions from students. Notes that English teachers often question their ability to respond in positive ways to such intimacies. Argues that English teachers should learn about legal implications, response options, and their own individual values to…

  15. Arthritis associated with recurrent erythema multiforme responding to oral acyclovir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, I; Matulis, M

    2002-09-01

    Erythema multiforme is a skin condition frequently associated with herpes simplex virus and has a tendency to recur. Oral acyclovir has been successful in suppression of the disease. Here we report a patient who had recurrent erythema multiforme associated with recurrent polyarthritis that responded to oral acyclovir suppression therapy.

  16. Malawi faith communities responding to HIV/AIDS: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi faith communities responding to HIV/AIDS: preliminary findings of a knowledge translation and participatory-action research (PAR) project. ... For example, FC leaders wish to know how the message of condom promotion (a behavioural and technical argument) might be grafted onto what they would posit as a moral ...

  17. Dense graph limits under respondent-driven sampling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siva Athreya

    Hypothesis Testing: H0: Graph is a linkedin network. H1: Graph is a facebook network. Page 6. A Method: Respondent Driven Sampling. • Used to obtain estimates about properties of so-called. “hidden” or “hard-to-reach” populations. • Start with a convenient sample of participants. • Ask the participants for referrals among ...

  18. Transcultural nursing: how do nurses respond to cultural needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Aru

    The aim of the study was to explore how nurses responded to the cultural needs of their clients. From the transcultural point of view, healthcare providers must deliver a service that is culturally sensitive and appropriate. However, for a variety of reasons, there is growing concern that the cultural healthcare needs of minority ethnic groups are not met adequately. This study was done to outline nurses' activity in transcultural care. Empirical data were obtained from a sample of registered nurses (n = 126) who were invited to complete questionnaires pertaining to cultural care. As a result of data analysis, the quantitative findings are presented as tables and the qualitative data as categories and themes. The findings suggest that most respondents felt that patients' cultural needs should be given consideration. Cultural aspects of care seem to be a feature of the overall nursing picture within a multicultural context of health care. Many participants claimed that they responded to the cultural needs of patients. Some felt that patients' cultural needs are adequately met; such needs are perceived as religious practices, diets, communication, dying, prayer and culture. Furthermore, a significant number of respondents suggested that they would like further education in meeting the cultural needs of their patients. This study offers some insights into transcultural healthcare practice, and, in accordance with the findings, identifies strategies for improving these practices for nursing and nurse education.

  19. Emergence of Intraverbal Responding Following Tact Instruction with Compound Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Bailey; Carp, Charlotte L.; Hiett, Kiley A.; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Effective intraverbal responding often requires control by multiple elements of a verbal stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the emergence of such intraverbal relations following tact instruction with compound stimuli and to analyze any resulting error patterns. Participants were seven typically developing children between 3 and…

  20. Effectively Responding to Public Scrutiny When Communicating Climate Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, A.; Halpern, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate researchers face regular scrutiny of their work from groups outside academia. In recent years, interest groups that oppose climate policy have targeted scientists with hate-mail campaigns, invasive document requests, hostile questioning and legal threats. In their day-to-day work, scientists struggle to respond to heated discussions about their research, whether from online commentators, opinion columnists, or special interest groups. Based on decades of experience and interviews with scientists, the Union of Concerned Scientists has developed a guide for communicating science amid heightened scrutiny. Building on the information contained in the UCS guide, this presentation will discuss best practices for climate researchers, including suggestions for when scrutiny can be ignored or when it deserves a response and methods for responding that can uphold scientific integrity while also protecting an individual researcher's reputation and ability to publicly communicate. Examples include scientists who have responded to bloggers criticizing their research, advocacy groups demanding their personal emails and policymakers targeting them with personal attacks. In understanding how to respond to scrutiny, scientists can bolster their own ability to communicate and curtail the chilling effect that scrutiny can have on other scientists conducting public enegagement.

  1. Serial Killers: Academic Libraries Respond to Soaring Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Paul

    1994-01-01

    Discusses ways in which academic libraries are responding to rising costs of serials. Topics addressed include pricing by publishers; the effect of journal cancellations on research activities; interlibrary loans and document delivery services; coordinated cancelling; electronic journals; and experiences at the University of Arizona. (LRW)

  2. Editor's Note Responding to suggestions from the research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Editor's Note. Responding to suggestions from the research fellowship of the Institute of African Studies for a re-branding of the. Research Review, which began publication in the early 1960s soon after the establishment of the Institute, the old title has now been replaced with a new title — Contemporary Journal of African ...

  3. Responding to Individual Differences in Inclusive Classrooms in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kraayenoord, Christina E.; Waterworth, David; Brady, Trish

    2014-01-01

    Responding to individual differences in classrooms in which there is increasing diversity is one of the challenges of inclusive education in Australia. The linking of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and assistive technologies (ATs) is one way in which this challenge can be addressed. This article describes an initiative, known as…

  4. Authors' Rejoinder to Respondents (Shulman, Steinberg, & Piquero, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike A.; Brown, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Respondents, in "A Mistaken Account of the Age-Crime Curve: Response to Males and Brown," dispute our finding that virtually all of the discrepancy in violent crime rates between adolescents/emerging adults versus older adults is explained not by young age per se but by higher poverty levels among the young. Our rejoinder argues that…

  5. Responding to Suicidal Calls: Does Trait Anxiety Hinder or Help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marceline Moulin; Range, Lillian M.

    2005-01-01

    To see if trait anxiety and suicidality interfered with the ability to respond to suicidal crisis calls, 279 undergraduates completed measures of trait anxiety and suicidality in the past week, and the revised Suicide Intervention Response Inventory (SIRI-2). Unexpectedly, trait anxiety (but not suicidality) correlated with better SIRI-2 scores.…

  6. Responding To An Income Shock Through Increasing Forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Responding To An Income Shock Through Increasing Forest Extraction: Survey Evidence From Ethiopian Coffee Farmers. ... There is however inadequate knowledge with respect to mechanisms used by resource poor coffee farmers to stave off situations of economic hardship. Using cross-sectional household survey data ...

  7. respondents characteristics, their awareness and benefits of sukur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    and awareness of the respondents of the existence of Sukur – Wanuki hills was negative (r= -0.038) at 0.05 level of significance, those of income and awareness ... makes him a direct enemy of his environment as a result of the measures he adopts to .... Source: Field Survey (2014). * Number outside parenthesis represents ...

  8. Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thirty-seven transcription factor genes differentially respond to a harpin protein and affect resistance to the green peach aphid in Arabidopsis. Ruoxue Liu Beibei Lü Xiaomeng Wang Chunling Zhang Shuping Zhang Jun Qian Lei Chen Haojie Shi Hansong Dong. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 435-450 ...

  9. Characteristics of first-trimester screening of non-responders in a high-uptake population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Hanne Trap; Wulff, Camilla Bernt; Ekelund, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    without cFTS, the other half from those with cFTS. A cohort of 20 women tested the questionnaire for consistency. The results are based on the responders (58%). RESULTS: The response rate was 88% among the women with cFTS and 19% among the women without. Not having a cFTS performed was associated...... with the following factors: country of origin other than Denmark (p unemployment (p ... of a conscious choice based on ethical considerations, rather than being the result of a lack of information. However, a low response rate decreases the strength of our conclusions. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  10. Compensatory and non-compensatory multidimensional randomized item response models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, J.P.; Entink, R.K.; Avetisyan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Randomized response (RR) models are often used for analysing univariate randomized response data and measuring population prevalence of sensitive behaviours. There is much empirical support for the belief that RR methods improve the cooperation of the respondents. Recently, RR models have been

  11. The random projection method

    CERN Document Server

    Vempala, Santosh S

    2005-01-01

    Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...

  12. Characteristics of Effective Disaster Responders and Leaders: A Survey of Disaster Medical Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Richard V; Larkin, Gregory Luke; Fowler, Raymond L; Downs, Dana L; North, Carol S

    2016-10-01

    To identify key attributes of effective disaster/mass casualty first responders and leaders, thereby informing the ongoing development of a capable disaster health workforce. We surveyed emergency response practitioners attending a conference session, the EMS State of the Science: A Gathering of Eagles. We used open-ended questions to ask participants to describe key characteristics of successful disaster/mass casualty first responders and leaders. Of the 140 session attendees, 132 (94%) participated in the survey. All responses were categorized by using a previously developed framework. The most frequently mentioned characteristics were related to incident command/disaster knowledge, teamwork/interpersonal skills, performing one's role, and cognitive abilities. Other identified characteristics were related to communication skills, adaptability/flexibility, problem solving/decision-making, staying calm and cool under stress, personal character, and overall knowledge. The survey findings support our prior focus group conclusion that important characteristics of disaster responders and leaders are not limited to the knowledge and skills typically included in disaster training. Further research should examine the extent to which these characteristics are consistently associated with actual effective performance of disaster response personnel and determine how best to incorporate these attributes into competency models, processes, and tools for the development of an effective disaster response workforce. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 4).

  13. Extinction of Chained Instrumental Behaviors: Effects of Procurement Extinction on Consumption Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrailkill, Eric A.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental behavior often consists of sequences or chains of responses that minimally include procurement behaviors that enable subsequent consumption behaviors. In such chains, behavioral units are linked by access to one another and eventually to a primary reinforcer, such as food or a drug. The present experiments examined the effects of extinguishing procurement responding on consumption responding after training of a discriminated heterogeneous instrumental chain. Rats learned to make a procurement response (e.g., pressing a lever) in the presence of a distinctive discriminative stimulus; making that response led to the presentation of a second discriminative stimulus that set the occasion for a consumption response (e.g., pulling a chain), which then produced a food-pellet reinforcer. Experiment 1 showed that extinction of either the full procurement-consumption chain or procurement alone weakened the consumption response tested in isolation. Experiment 2 replicated the procurement extinction effect and further demonstrated that the opportunity to make the procurement response, as opposed to simple exposure to the procurement stimulus alone, was required. In Experiment 3, rats learned 2 distinct discriminated heterogeneous chains; extinction of 1 procurement response specifically weakened the consumption response that had been associated with it. The results suggest that learning to inhibit the procurement response may produce extinction of consumption responding through mediated extinction. The experiments suggest the importance of an associative analysis of instrumental behavior chains. PMID:25915751

  14. Sport fans: evaluating the consistency between implicit and explicit attitudes toward favorite and rival teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Jay L; Brown, Roderick O

    2014-04-01

    Sport fans often foster very positive attitudes for their favorite teams and less favorable attitudes for opponents. The current research was designed to evaluate the consistency that might exist between implicit and explicit measures of those attitudes. College students (24 women, 16 men) performed a version of the Implicit Association Test related to their favorite and rival teams. Participants also reported their attitudes for these teams explicitly, via self-report instruments. When responding to the IAT, participants' responses were faster when they paired positive words with concepts related to favorite teams and negative words with rival teams, indicating implicit favorability for favorite teams and implicit negativity for rival teams. This pattern of implicit favorability and negativity was consistent with what participants reported explicitly via self-report. The importance of evaluating implicit attitudes and the corresponding consistency with explicit attitudes are discussed.

  15. LATAR BELAKANG KARAKTERISTIK RESPONDED DALAM PENCEGAHAN PENYAKIT SHIGELLA/DISENTRI YANG DILAKUKAN OLEH MASYARAKAT DI JAKARTA UTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Handayani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Research was conducted in North Jakarta and Selected 2 district in Jakarta North that is Tanjung Priok and Koja district as a research region. About 300 respondents which include 140 men and 151 woman from Tanjung Priok district. In Koja district was taken 200 respondents that consist of 101 men and 99 woman. Data processing done with double entry, by using program ISSA (Integrated Survey Analysis and Analysis Data used SPSS (Statistic Package for Social Science. The Research shown 88,7%-89,2% prevent spicy food can overcome dysentery disease of, 55.2% improving clean water can be temporary prevention of dysentery disease, and 56,4%-56,6% personal hygiene able to handle dysentery disease forever. By repairing bathroom (usually used for bath, wash, dump faeces 57.1%-58.4% and fixing garbage 56,2%-57,2% can prevent dysentery disease temporary, while 97,2%-97,4% of drinking traditional medicine (jamu also happen the same thing with dysentery disease. Based on respondents, 96,5%-96,6% using its own medicine/ingredient will prevent dysentery disease. According respondents habit on wash hand about 84.4% respondents wash their hand firstly in the morning and 74.2% washing band before sleep but 64.4% respondents who never wash their band before get dressed. From this research inferential respondents belief to prevent eat spicy food, improving readily clean water, bathroom, garbage place, efficacious of traditional drink, ingredients, washing band habit can be major factors that can prevent community from dysentery disease. The research is part of social Behavior Culture in Overcome Shigella Disease in Jakarta. Keywords: Respondent, Preventing, Shigella Disease

  16. Explanatory, multilevel person-fit analysis of response consistency on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.; Pedersen, S.S.; Sijtsma, K.

    2013-01-01

    Self-report measures are vulnerable to concentration and motivation problems, leading to responses that may be inconsistent with the respondent's latent trait value. We investigated response consistency in a sample (N = 860) of cardiac patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and

  17. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Social scientists dealing with business and politics have tended to focus mostly on the power of business and less on the political challenges and constraints that business interest groups face. This paper analyses how business interest groups respond to political initiatives that challenge...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...... adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board-level...

  18. Responding to aggression and reactive behaviours in the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Rachel V; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2017-01-01

    Behaviours such as hitting, spitting, swearing and kicking can be a common response to personal, social and environmental challenges experienced by people with dementia. Little attention, however, has been given to how partners in care experience and respond to these behaviours in the home. This paper examines the emerging theme of 'aggression,' in seven interviews with nine former partners in care of people with dementia in Ontario, Canada. We explore how partners in care talk about, interpret and respond to these behaviours drawing on recent conceptualizations of structural and interpersonal violence in health and social geography and contributing to the growing body of research on relational care. We discuss the responses to, and implications of, these behaviours at a range of spatial scales and identify important considerations for future research.

  19. Feeling good: autonomic nervous system responding in five positive emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L; Yeung, Wan H; Moser, Stephanie E; Perea, Elaine F

    2011-12-01

    Although dozens of studies have examined the autonomic nervous system (ANS) aspects of negative emotions, less is known about ANS responding in positive emotion. An evolutionary framework was used to define five positive emotions in terms of fitness-enhancing function, and to guide hypotheses regarding autonomic responding. In a repeated measures design, participants viewed sets of visual images eliciting these positive emotions (anticipatory enthusiasm, attachment love, nurturant love, amusement, and awe) plus an emotionally neutral state. Peripheral measures of sympathetic and vagal parasympathetic activation were assessed. Results indicated that the emotion conditions were characterized by qualitatively distinct profiles of autonomic activation, suggesting the existence of multiple, physiologically distinct positive emotions. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. An alternative framework for responding to the amphibian crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muths, Erin L.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Volumes of data illustrate the severity of the crisis affecting amphibians, where > 32% of amphibians worldwide are threatened with declining populations. Although there have been isolated victories, the current approach to the issue is unsuccessful. We suggest that a radically different approach, something akin to human emergency response management (i.e. the Incident Command System), is one alternative to addressing the inertia and lack of cohesion in responding to amphibian issues. We acknowledge existing efforts and the useful research that has been conducted, but we suggest that a change is warranted and that the identification of a new amphibian chytrid provides the impetus for such a change. Our goal is to recognize that without a centralized effort we (collectively) are likely to fail in responding to this challenge.

  1. Correlates of cyberbullying and how school nurses can respond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ouytsel, Joris; Walrave, Michel; Vandebosch, Heidi

    2015-05-01

    Cyberbullying is one of many online risks that affect an increasing number of children and teenagers. This form of abuse often occurs under the radar of adults as it usually takes place outside of school and away from adult supervision. Moreover, bystanders and victims are often reluctant to report what they have experienced. School nurses might be among the first to witness the real-life consequences of this virtual behavior, as involvement in cyberbullying is often correlated with psychological and behavioral problems. For this reason, school nurses should know how to recognize the warning signs so that they can respond and intervene appropriately. This article provides a discussion of what cyberbullying is and a summary of research on factors associated with cyberbullying, in terms of both victimization and perpetration. It also provides school nurses with evidence-based strategies for responding effectively. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Social adjustment among treatment responder patients with mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serretti, Alessandro; Chiesa, Alberto; Souery, Daniel; Calati, Raffaella; Sentissi, Othman; Kasper, Siegfried; Akimova, Elena; Marsano, Agnese; Balestri, Martina; Alberti, Siegfried; Zohar, Joseph; Amital, Daniela; Montgomery, Stuart; Mendlewicz, Julien

    2013-09-25

    Patients with major depression (MD) show reduced social adjustment when compared with healthy controls. However, even among treatment responders, significant differences in social adjustment occur. The main aim of the present work is to study several socio-demographic and clinical variables possibly influencing social adjustment in MD patients who responded to treatment. Two hundred and eleven MD patients experiencing a depressive episode who responded to their current treatment were recruited within the context of a large European multicentre project. Our primary outcome measure was the association between 19 socio-demographic and clinical variables and total social adjustment scores, as measured with the Social Adjustment Scale (SAS). Secondary outcome measures included the associations between the same variables and SAS sub-scales, and the associations between these variables and self-esteem, as measured with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. A co-morbidity with anxiety disorders and the severity of residual depression symptoms were the strongest independent factors associated with poorer social adjustment, in terms of total and most sub-areas' SAS scores. Other variables associated with total and sub-areas' SAS scores were identified as well, although some variations across different areas were observed. The cross-sectional design, the retrospective assessment of data and the lack of a placebo control group. Our results confirm that a co-morbidity with anxiety disorders and higher residual depression symptoms could reduce social adjustment among responder MD patients. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  4. Can the Indian Navy respond to a growing Chinese fleet?

    OpenAIRE

    Quidachay, VIncent J.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether the Indian Navy can respond to a growing Chinese fleet by analyzing the historical development of the Indian Navy since independence. Three naval expansion periods are identified, and three causal factors are measured to determine the effects of each factor on Indian naval expansion. The three factors are (1) responses to a perceived threat, (2) India's economic condition, and (3) the benefits of foreign military aid. The saidy shows that res...

  5. NARAC Dispersion Model Product Integration With RadResponder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Work on enhanced cooperation and interoperability of Nuclear Incident Response Teams (NIRT) is a joint effort between DHS/FEMA, DOE/NNSA and EPA. One such effort was the integration between the RadResponder Network, a resource sponsored by FEMA for the management of radiological data during an emergency, and the National Atmospheric Advisory Center (NARAC), a DOE/NNSA modeling resource whose predictions are used to aid radiological emergency preparedness and response. Working together under a FEMA-sponsored project these two radiological response assets developed a capability to read and display plume model prediction results from the NARAC computer system in the RadResponder software tool. As a result of this effort, RadResponder users have been provided with NARAC modeling predictions of contamination areas, radiological dose levels, and protective action areas (e.g., areas warranting worker protection or sheltering/evacuation) to help guide protective action decisions and field monitoring surveys, and gain key situation awareness following a radiological/nuclear accident or incident (e.g., nuclear power plant accident, radiological dispersal device incident, or improvised nuclear detonation incident). This document describes the details of this integration effort.

  6. Measurement of the nonuniformity of first responder thermal imaging cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Andrew; Amon, Francine

    2008-04-01

    Police, firefighters, and emergency medical personnel are examples of first responders that are utilizing thermal imaging cameras in a very practical way every day. However, few performance metrics have been developed to assist first responders in evaluating the performance of thermal imaging technology. This paper describes one possible metric for evaluating the nonuniformity of thermal imaging cameras. Several commercially available uncooled focal plane array cameras were examined. Because of proprietary property issues, each camera was considered a 'black box'. In these experiments, an extended area black body (18 cm square) was placed very close to the objective lens of the thermal imaging camera. The resultant video output from the camera was digitized at a resolution of 640x480 pixels and a grayscale depth of 10 bits. The nonuniformity was calculated using the standard deviation of the digitized image pixel intensities divided by the mean of those pixel intensities. This procedure was repeated for each camera at several blackbody temperatures in the range from 30° C to 260° C. It has observed that the nonuniformity initially increases with temperature, then asymptotically approaches a maximum value. Nonuniformity is also applied to the calculation of Spatial Frequency Response as well providing a noise floor. The testing procedures described herein are being developed as part of a suite of tests to be incorporated into a performance standard covering thermal imaging cameras for first responders.

  7. Total knee replacement; minimal clinically important differences and responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, A; García Pérez, L; Herrera-Espiñeira, C; Aizpuru, F; Sarasqueta, C; Gonzalez Sáenz de Tejada, M; Quintana, J M; Bilbao, A

    2013-12-01

    To provide new data on minimally clinical important difference (MCID) and percentages of responders on pain and functional dimensions of Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) in patients who have undergone total knee replacement (TKR). 1-year prospective multicentre study with two different cohorts. Consecutive patients on the waiting list were recruited. There were 415 and 497 patients included. Pain and function were collected by the reverse scoring option of the WOMAC (0-100, worst to best). Transition items (five point scale) were collected at 1-year and MCID was calculated through mean change in patients somewhat better, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) and two other questions about satisfaction. Analysis was performed in the whole sample and by tertiles of baseline severity. Likewise were calculated the percentages of patients who attained cut-off values. Global MCID for pain were about 30 in both cohorts and 32 for. By ROC these values were about 20 and 24 respectively. According to the other two transitional questions these values were for pain 27 and 20 for function. By tertiles the worst the baseline score the higher the cut-off values. Percentage of responders does not change when comparing responders to the global MCID with their own tertile MCID and were about 61% for pain and 50% for function. Due to the wide variations, MCID estimates should be calculated and used according to the baseline severity score. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Random fixed points and random differential inclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos S. Papageorgiou

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, we study random best approximations to random sets, using fixed point techniques, obtaining this way stochastic analogues of earlier deterministic results by Browder-Petryshyn, KyFan and Reich. Then we prove two fixed point theorems for random multifunctions with stochastic domain that satisfy certain tangential conditions. Finally we consider a random differential inclusion with upper semicontinuous orientor field and establish the existence of random solutions.

  9. Multiple seed structure and disconnected networks in respondent-driven sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Malmros, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Respondent-driven sampling (RDS) is a link-tracing sampling method that is especially suitable for sampling hidden populations. RDS combines an efficient snowball-type sampling scheme with inferential procedures that yield unbiased population estimates under some assumptions about the sampling procedure and population structure. Several seed individuals are typically used to initiate RDS recruitment. However, standard RDS estimation theory assume that all sampled individuals originate from only one seed. We present an estimator, based on a random walk with teleportation, which accounts for the multiple seed structure of RDS. The new estimator can also be used on populations with disconnected social networks. We numerically evaluate our estimator by simulations on artificial and real networks. Our estimator outperforms previous estimators, especially when the proportion of seeds in the sample is large. We recommend our new estimator to be used in RDS studies, in particular when the number of seeds is large or ...

  10. Scratch lottery tickets are a poor incentive to respond to mailed questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsen, Vilhjalmur; Storeheier, Andreas H

    2006-01-01

    Background It has been demonstrated that the enclosure of money with a mailed questionnaire increases the response rate significantly. We evaluated scratch lottery tickets as an alternative to cash. Methods 1500 randomly selected Norwegians between the ages of 40 and 65 years were sent a short questionnaire. 250 received one lottery scratch ticket worth 20 Norwegian kroner (approximately 3 US$) together with the questionnaire, 250 received two scratch tickets, and 250 were promised two scratch tickets if they replied within one week. A fourth group of 250 persons received a 50 kroner banknote with the questionnaire. The remaining 500 letters served as controls. Results The overall response rate after 6 weeks was 77%. Logistic regression analysis showed that only the 50 kroner group had a response rate that was statistically significantly higher than the controls (p Lottery scratch tickets are no substitute for cash as an incentive to respond to a questionnaire. PMID:16646970

  11. Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice / Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa – comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole – were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such results are in line with those found in the literature, which indicate the opposition between egalitarianism (suprapersonal vs. protestant ethic (achievement values so as to explicate the prejudice and the motivations that would prevent such attitude.

  12. Early switching strategies in antidepressant non-responders: current evidence and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlow, Paul A; McIntyre, Roger S; Lam, Raymond W

    2014-07-01

    Studies have found that up to two-thirds of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not fully respond to the first antidepressant. While switching antidepressants is a common strategy for antidepressant non-responders, there is still a lack of consensus about the optimal timing of a switch. Many clinicians wait for 6-12 weeks before considering a switch. The objectives of this paper are to (1) review the evidence for positive and negative predictive value (NPV) of early improvement at 2-4 weeks to predict final antidepressant response; (2) review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examine early switching strategies; and (3) provide future research directions and clinical recommendations for timing of antidepressant switching. We conducted a literature search for English-language studies via PubMed and Google Scholar, from 1984 to May 2013, with the following terms: 'antidepressants', 'MDD', 'time course', 'trajectory', 'early response', 'onset', 'delayed response', 'early improvement', 'predictors', 'switch', 'combination therapy', and 'augmentation'. Replicated evidence indicates that lack of early improvement (e.g. <20% reduction in a depression scale score) at 2-4 weeks can be an accurate predictor to identify eventual non-responders. The NPVs suggest that only about one in five patients with lack of improvement at 4 weeks will have a response by 8 weeks. Three RCTs examined early switch strategies, but results are inconsistent and comparisons limited by methodological differences. Future studies should incorporate a standard consensus definition of early improvement, discern whether the effect of early switching is specific to certain types of antidepressants, and determine whether early switch is superior to other strategies such as augmentation or combination. Notwithstanding these limitations, there is reasonable evidence to recommend earlier assessment for improvement. If there is no indication of early improvement at 2-4 weeks after starting

  13. Do hospitals respond to rivals' quality and efficiency? A spatial panel econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Francesco; Siciliani, Luigi; Gravelle, Hugh; Santos, Rita

    2017-09-01

    We investigate whether hospitals in the English National Health Service change their quality or efficiency in response to changes in quality or efficiency of neighbouring hospitals. We first provide a theoretical model that predicts that a hospital will not respond to changes in the efficiency of its rivals but may change its quality or efficiency in response to changes in the quality of rivals, though the direction of the response is ambiguous. We use data on eight quality measures (including mortality, emergency readmissions, patient reported outcome, and patient satisfaction) and six efficiency measures (including bed occupancy, cancelled operations, and costs) for public hospitals between 2010/11 and 2013/14 to estimate both spatial cross-sectional and spatial fixed- and random-effects panel data models. We find that although quality and efficiency measures are unconditionally spatially correlated, the spatial regression models suggest that a hospital's quality or efficiency does not respond to its rivals' quality or efficiency, except for a hospital's overall mortality that is positively associated with that of its rivals. The results are robust to allowing for spatially correlated covariates and errors and to instrumenting rivals' quality and efficiency. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Responders to Platelet-Rich Plasma in Osteoarthritis: A Technical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Milants

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the similarities and differences between the variety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP formulations, preparation, and uses to try to determine the best responses for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods. A comparison of the outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs included in the 3 most recent and high-quality meta-analyses to classify the different studies in 2 groups (bad responders group (BRG and very good responders group (VGRG. Results and Discussion. From the 19 RCTs analyzed, 7 trials were included in the VGRG and 4 in the BRG. In VGRG, 1 or 2 injections were performed in 4/7 trials, time between injections was 2 to 3 weeks in 4/5 studies with many injections, volume injected varied from 2.5 to 8 mL, and single spinning technique was used in 5/7 studies. PRP classification was Mishra 4B and PAWP2Bβ in 5/7 studies. The use of PRP with leukocytes is only found in the BRG. Conclusion. There is a lack of standardization in PRP preparation technique for knee osteoarthritis. However it appears that the use of a single spinning technique, a platelet concentration lower than 5 times the baseline, and avoidance of leukocytes should be preferred.

  15. Human T-cell memory consists mainly of unexpanded clones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klarenbeek, P.L.; Tak, P.P.; van Schaik, B.D.C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Jakobs, M.E.; Zhang, Z.; van Kampen, A.H.C.; van Lier, R.A.W.; Baas, F.; de Vries, N.

    2010-01-01

    The immune system is able to respond to millions of antigens using adaptive receptors, including the αβ-T-cell receptor (TCR). Upon antigen encounter a T-cell may proliferate to produce a clone of TCR-identical cells, which develop a memory phenotype. Previous studies suggested that most memory

  16. Experimental Modification of Interpretation Bias about Animal Fear in Young Children: Effects on Cognition, Avoidance Behavior, Anxiety Vulnerability, and Physiological Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kathryn J.; Field, Andy P.; Muris, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of experimentally modifying interpretation biases for children's cognitions, avoidance behavior, anxiety vulnerability, and physiological responding. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative interpretation bias modification procedure to induce interpretation…

  17. Stimulus-Food Pairings Produce Stimulus-Directed Touch Screen Responding in Cynomolgus Monkeys ("Macaca Fascicularis") with or without a Positive Response Contingency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Christopher E.; Myers, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    Acquisition and maintenance of touch-screen responding was examined in naive cynomolgus monkeys ("Macaca fascicularis") under automaintenance and classical conditioning arrangements. In the first condition of Experiment 1, we compared acquisition of screen touching to a randomly positioned stimulus (a gray square) that was either stationary or…

  18. Characterization of consistent triggers of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauge, Anne Werner; Kirchmann, Malene; Olesen, Jes

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA).......The aim of the present study was to characterize perceived consistent triggers of migraine with aura (MA)....

  19. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-08-19

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital ("visual") brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4-17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). We find that "visual" cortices of young blind (but not sighted) children respond to sound. Responses to nonlanguage sounds increased between the ages of 4 and 17. By contrast, occipital responses to spoken language were maximal by age 4 and were not related to Braille learning. These findings suggest that occipital plasticity for spoken language is independent of plasticity for Braille and for sound. We conclude that in the absence of visual input, spoken language colonizes the visual system during brain development. Our findings suggest that early in life, human cortex has a remarkably broad computational capacity. The same cortical tissue can take on visual perception and language functions. Studies of plasticity provide key insights into how experience shapes the human brain. The "visual" cortex of adults who are blind from birth responds to touch, sound, and spoken language. To date, all existing studies have been conducted with adults, so little is known about the developmental trajectory of plasticity. We used fMRI to study the emergence of "visual" cortex responses to sound and spoken language in blind children and adolescents. We find that "visual" cortex responses to sound increase between 4 and 17 years of age. By contrast, responses to spoken language are present by 4 years of age and are not related to Braille-learning. These findings suggest that, early in development, human cortex can take on a strikingly wide range of functions. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3511674-08$15.00/0.

  20. Immunotherapy for non-responders among patients of spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ayush; Gupta, Ajay; Kumar, Awkash; Arora, Sumit

    2016-04-01

    Combined chemo- and immunotherapy are the major advancement in the treatment of tuberculosis. Immunotherapy supposedly increases cure rate while reducing the duration of treatment and tissue damage. Non-responders are those patients of tuberculosis who do not respond to anti-tubercular therapy (ATT) in the desired manner despite the mycobacteria showing sensitivity to the given drugs. The role of immunotherapy in the treatment of this particular subset of patients has been investigated scarcely. The present study included a retrospective review of prospectively collected clinico-radiological data of 14 non-responder patients who were taking ATT for spinal tuberculosis for a mean duration of 10.3 months. An immunotherapeutic regime comprising of single intramuscular injection of vitamin D 600,000IU, 3 days course of oral albendazole 200mg daily, salmonella vaccine 0.5ml intramuscular and influenza vaccine 0.5ml intramuscular were added to ATT. The vaccines and the course of oral albendazole were repeated after a month. Before immunotherapy, seven patients were partially dependent while other seven were completely dependent on others for activities of daily living. All except one patient after treatment became independent till last follow-up (p value <0.01). Post immunotherapy, ATT was continued for mean duration of 4.9 months with mean follow-up of 22.4 months. All patients showed good clinical response within 2-6 weeks after the initiation of immunotherapy. The crux to success of the immunotherapy regime is its potential to restore the existing Th1 Th2 imbalance and to provide substitute to the anergic and dysfunctional immune cells. Copyright © 2015 Tuberculosis Association of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Called to respond: The potential of unveiling hiddens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L Black

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interested in exploring how personal stories and aesthetic modes of representing experiences can nudge open academic and educational spaces, this article/collection of particles seeks to document our encounters of being affected and called to respond to things the other has written and represented. As a way of engaging with questions about what research and research data might be and become, our attention has been drawn to stories and images from our lives that we have not shaken off – and to how, as we have opened these to the other, making once private moments public, our hiddens have morphed tenderly into a shared knowing and being. As we have acted on the call we have felt to respond we have found ourselves entering spaces of collaboration, communion, contemplation, and conversation – spaces illuminated by what we have not been able to – and cannot – set aside. Using visual and poetic materials we explore heartfelt and heartbroken aspects of our educational worlds and lives, to be present with each other and our (reemerging personal and professional meanings. We see the shared body (of work, of writing, of image that develops from the taking of brave steps and the risky slipping off of academic masks and language, as a manifestation of the trusted and nurturing spaces that can be generated through collaborative opportunities to gather together. These steps towards unveiling hiddens are producing in us and of us a friendship, fluency, and fluidity as we write new ways of becoming. In turn, we hope the uncovering and revealing of our dialogue in the public gathering of this journal might supports readers’ telling of their own life stories through what calls them to respond.

  2. Application of PLM processes to respond to mechanical SMEs needs

    CERN Document Server

    Duigou, Julien Le; Perry, Nicolas; Delplace, Jean-Charles

    2010-01-01

    PLM is today a reality for mechanical SMEs. Some companies implement PLM systems very well but others have more difficulties. This paper aims to explain why some SMEs do not success to integrated PLM systems analyzing the needs of mechanical SMEs, the processes to implement to respond to those needs and the actual PLM software functionalities. The proposition of a typology of those companies and the responses of those needs by PLM processes will be explain through the applications of a demonstrator applying appropriate generic data model and modelling framework.

  3. Psychological Aspects of Responding to Feedback in the Coaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Fornalczyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses ways in which individuals respond to feedback received in the coaching process. In the first part, the author discusses different response styles to feedback and their consequences. She focuses especially on the defensive, dominating, manipulative, and improvement-oriented behaviors of the coached. In the second part, she addresses psychological determinants of effective feedback reception by the coaching participants, including their dispositional determinants. The author concludes emphasizing that for the coached to correct their behavior, the provision of feedback by coaches must be founded on the knowledge of the mechanisms and the dispositional determinants of human functioning.

  4. Phantom Extremity Pain Responding to Stellate Ganglion Blockage: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edip Gonullu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phantom extremity pain is that which continues to be felt in a non-existent extremity after amputation. The pathophysiological mechanism and etiology of phantom extremity pain are not exactly known, Phantom extremity pain affects the patients in physical and psycho-social aspects. This paper presents a patient with phantom extremity pain that had not responded to medical treatment. A stellate ganglion blockage was performed using lidocaine, bupivacaine and fentanyl and the patient%u2019s pain was observed to be reduced.

  5. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  6. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Consistent seasonal ... Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and ...

  7. Temporal analysis of pain responders and common adverse events: when do these first appear following treatment with pregabalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons B

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bruce Parsons, Birol Emir, Andrew Clair Pfizer, New York, NY, USA Background: Pregabalin is an α2δ ligand indicated in the USA for treatment of a number of chronic pain conditions, including diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, pain associated with spinal cord injury, and fibromyalgia. A greater understanding of when patients first respond to treatment with pregabalin and when adverse events emerge, or worsen, could aid design of new proof-of-concept studies and help guide treatment of patients. Methods: This was an analysis of five randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials (between 8 and 16 weeks in duration of flexible-dose pregabalin (150–600 mg/day. Individual patient data were pooled into three groups by disease condition: diabetic peripheral neuro-pathy or postherpetic neuralgia (n=514, spinal cord injury (n=356, and fibromyalgia (n=498. Responders were classified as having a ≥30% and/or ≥50% reduction in mean pain score from baseline; once a patient responded, they were not scored subsequently (and were excluded from the responder analysis. The emergence of adverse events at each week was also recorded. Results: The majority of the 30% and 50% responders emerged within the first 3–4 weeks with pregabalin, but were more uniformly distributed across the 6 weeks of the analysis with placebo. The majority of common adverse events also emerged within the first 3–4 weeks of pregabalin treatment. Conclusion: These data suggest that the majority of pain responders and common adverse events emerge within 3–4 weeks of treatment with pregabalin. These data could advise new proof-of-concept studies and guide clinical management. Keywords: neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, clinical trial design

  8. A Simple Evacuation Modeling and Simulation Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Daniel B [ORNL; Payne, Patricia W [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Although modeling and simulation of mass evacuations during a natural or man-made disaster is an on-going and vigorous area of study, tool adoption by front-line first responders is uneven. Some of the factors that account for this situation include cost and complexity of the software. For several years, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been actively developing the free Incident Management Preparedness and Coordination Toolkit (IMPACT) to address these issues. One of the components of IMPACT is a multi-agent simulation module for area-based and path-based evacuations. The user interface is designed so that anyone familiar with typical computer drawing tools can quickly author a geospatially-correct evacuation visualization suitable for table-top exercises. Since IMPACT is designed for use in the field where network communications may not be available, quick on-site evacuation alternatives can be evaluated to keep pace with a fluid threat situation. Realism is enhanced by incorporating collision avoidance into the simulation. Statistics are gathered as the simulation unfolds, including most importantly time-to-evacuate, to help first responders choose the best course of action.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Transcription Machinery: Ready To Respond to Host Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flentie, Kelly; Garner, Ashley L.

    2016-01-01

    Regulating responses to stress is critical for all bacteria, whether they are environmental, commensal, or pathogenic species. For pathogenic bacteria, successful colonization and survival in the host are dependent on adaptation to diverse conditions imposed by the host tissue architecture and the immune response. Once the bacterium senses a hostile environment, it must enact a change in physiology that contributes to the organism's survival strategy. Inappropriate responses have consequences; hence, the execution of the appropriate response is essential for survival of the bacterium in its niche. Stress responses are most often regulated at the level of gene expression and, more specifically, transcription. This minireview focuses on mechanisms of regulating transcription initiation that are required by Mycobacterium tuberculosis to respond to the arsenal of defenses imposed by the host during infection. In particular, we highlight how certain features of M. tuberculosis physiology allow this pathogen to respond swiftly and effectively to host defenses. By enacting highly integrated and coordinated gene expression changes in response to stress, M. tuberculosis is prepared for battle against the host defense and able to persist within the human population. PMID:26883824

  10. Perceptions of Hunting and Hunters by U.S. Respondents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Byrd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Public acceptance of hunting and hunting practices is an important human dimension of wildlife management in the United States. Researchers surveyed 825 U.S. residents in an online questionnaire about their views of hunting, hunters, and hunting practices. Eighty-seven percent of respondents from the national survey agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for food whereas 37% agreed that it was acceptable to hunt for a trophy. Over one-quarter of respondents did not know enough about hunting over bait, trapping, and captive hunts to form an opinion about whether the practice reduced animal welfare. Chi-square tests were used to explore relationships between perceptions of hunters and hunting practices and demographics. Those who knew hunters, participated in hunting-related activities, visited fairs or livestock operations, or were males who had more favorable opinions on hunting. A logistic regression model showed that not knowing a hunter was a statistically significant negative predictor of finding it acceptable to hunt; owning a pet was statistically significant and negative for approving of hunting for a trophy.

  11. Niacin-respondent subset of schizophrenia – a therapeutic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X J; Jiang, G S

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that niacin deficiency manifests with several psychiatric manifestations. Also historically evidence has accumulated that niacin augmentation can be used for treatment of schizophrenia. However, the etiopathological associations between niacin deficiency and schizophrenia as well as the mechanism of action of niacin in its treatment. More importantly, the subgroups of schizophrenia which will respond to niacin augmentation has never been highlighted in the literature. In this article, we review three of the mechanisms in which niacin deficiency could lead to schizophrenic symptoms: (1) Niacin deficiency neurodegeneration (2) Membrane phospholipid deficiency hypothesis and (3) Adrenochrome hypothesis. We will further move towards the clinical as well as treatment related associations as reviewed from the literature. Here, we propose a model that a subset of schizophrenia can respond to niacin augmentation therapy better than other subsets because these patients have contributions in their psychotic manifestations from the neural degeneration resulting from niacin deficiency. We present a short description of our case report which showed rapid improvement in schizophrenic psychotic symptoms subsequent to administration of niacin as an augmentation therapy. We, thus, propose that niacin deficiency is a contributory factor in schizophrenia development in some patients and symptom alleviation in these patients will benefit from niacin augmentation, especially in some particular psychotic features.

  12. Adhesion and migration of cells responding to microtopography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Maruxa; Martínez, Elena; Yarwood, Stephen J; Dalby, Matthew J; Samitier, Josep

    2015-05-01

    It is known that cells respond strongly to microtopography. However, cellular mechanisms of response are unclear. Here, we study wild-type fibroblasts responding to 25 µm(2) posts and compare their response to that of FAK(-/-) fibroblasts and fibroblasts with PMA treatment to stimulate protein kinase C (PKC) and the small g-protein Rac. FAK knockout cells modulated adhesion number and size in a similar way to cells on topography; that is, they used more, smaller adhesions, but migration was almost completely stalled demonstrating the importance of FAK signaling in contact guidance and adhesion turnover. Little similarity, however, was observed to PKC stimulated cells and cells on the topography. Interestingly, with PKC stimulation the cell nuclei became highly deformable bringing focus on these surfaces to the study of metastasis. Surfaces that aid the study of cellular migration are important in developing understanding of mechanisms of wound healing and repair in aligned tissues such as ligament and tendon. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Life Threatening Idiopathic Recurrent Angioedema Responding to Cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 27-year-old man with recurrent episodes of angioedema since he was 19, who responded well to treatment with medical grade cannabis. Initially, he responded to steroids and antihistamines, but several attempts to withdraw treatment resulted in recurrence. In the last few months before prescribing cannabis, the frequency and severity of the attacks worsened and included several presyncope events, associated with scrotal and neck swelling. No predisposing factors were identified, and extensive workup was negative. The patient reported that he was periodically using cannabis socially and that during these periods he was free of attacks. Recent data suggest that cannabis derivatives are involved in the control of mast cell activation. Consequently, we decided to try a course of inhaled cannabis as modulators of immune cell functions. The use of inhaled cannabis resulted in a complete response, and he has been free of symptoms for 2 years. An attempt to withhold the inhaled cannabis led to a recurrent attack within a week, and resuming cannabis maintained the remission, suggesting a cause and effect relationship.

  14. Using facebook for medical education: will students respond?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, S

    2015-02-01

    There is little information about the willingness of medical students to participate in Facebook for education. I analyzed my interactions with students for the past 14 months to estimate the quantity of student interaction. A Facebook Group was created. Students friend requests were accepted, but "friending" was never solicited. Questions were created around a clinical situation and posted. Forty questions were posted. 5/40 questions were about physics/chemistry. 24 questions focused on basic medical sciences. 11 questions were primarily about clinical medicine. In fourteen months, 533/810 (66%) college students joined the Group. In all, 163/533 students (30%) responded at least once. Half of all responses were comments; the rest were clicks on the "like" button. The average number of responses was 9.5 unique students/question. If participation is voluntary, and targeted students are large in number, one can expect about 66% of students to become members of a site, and about 30% of these to interact. For any given question posted on the site, about 2% of members will respond, regardless of the nature of question: clinically oriented or basic.

  15. Enabling complex genetic circuits to respond to extrinsic environmental signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Shopera, Tatenda; Hinman, Kristina; Creamer, John Philip; Moon, Tae Seok

    2017-07-01

    Genetic circuits have the potential to improve a broad range of metabolic engineering processes and address a variety of medical and environmental challenges. However, in order to engineer genetic circuits that can meet the needs of these real-world applications, genetic sensors that respond to relevant extrinsic and intrinsic signals must be implemented in complex genetic circuits. In this work, we construct the first AND and NAND gates that respond to temperature and pH, two signals that have relevance in a variety of real-world applications. A previously identified pH-responsive promoter and a temperature-responsive promoter were extracted from the E. coli genome, characterized, and modified to suit the needs of the genetic circuits. These promoters were combined with components of the type III secretion system in Salmonella typhimurium and used to construct a set of AND gates with up to 23-fold change. Next, an antisense RNA was integrated into the circuit architecture to invert the logic of the AND gate and generate a set of NAND gates with up to 1168-fold change. These circuits provide the first demonstration of complex pH- and temperature-responsive genetic circuits, and lay the groundwork for the use of similar circuits in real-world applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1626-1631. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. First aid skill retention of first responders within the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masse Jeff

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent literature states that many necessary skills of CPR and first aid are forgotten shortly after certification. The purpose of this study was to determine the skill and knowledge decay in first aid in those who are paid to respond to emergency situations within a workplace. Methods Using a choking victim scenario, the sequence and accuracy of events were observed and recorded in 257 participants paid to act as first responders in large industrial or service industry settings. A multiple choice exam was also written to determine knowledge retention. Results First aid knowledge was higher in those who were trained at a higher level, and did not significantly decline over time. Those who had renewed their certificate one or more times performed better than those who had learned the information only once. During the choking scenario many skills were performed poorly, regardless of days since last training, such as hand placement and abdominal thrusts. Compressions following the victim becoming unconscious also showed classic signs of skill deterioration after 30 days. Conclusions As many skills deteriorate rapidly over the course of the first 90 days, changing frequency of certification is not necessarily the most obvious choice to increase retention of skill and knowledge. Alternatively, methods of regularly "refreshing" a skill should be explored that could be delivered at a high frequency - such as every 90 days.

  17. Please respond ASAP: workplace telepressure and employee recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Santuzzi, Alecia M

    2015-04-01

    Organizations rely heavily on asynchronous message-based technologies (e.g., e-mail) for the purposes of work-related communications. These technologies are primary means of knowledge transfer and building social networks. As a by-product, workers might feel varying levels of preoccupations with and urges for responding quickly to messages from clients, coworkers, or supervisors--an experience we label as workplace telepressure. This experience can lead to fast response times and thus faster decisions and other outcomes initially. However, research from the stress and recovery literature suggests that the defining features of workplace telepressure interfere with needed work recovery time and stress-related outcomes. The present set of studies defined and validated a new scale to measure telepressure. Study 1 tested an initial pool of items and found some support for a single-factor structure after problematic items were removed. As expected, public self-consciousness, techno-overload, and response expectations were moderately associated with telepressure in Study 1. Study 2 demonstrated that workplace telepressure was distinct from other personal (job involvement, affective commitment) and work environment (general and ICT work demands) factors and also predicted burnout (physical and cognitive), absenteeism, sleep quality, and e-mail responding beyond those factors. Implications for future research and workplace practices are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Correlatos valorativos das motivações para responder sem preconceito Value correlates of the motivations to respond without prejudice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney V. Gouveia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo principal conhecer em que medida as motivações interna e externa para responder sem preconceito frente aos negros se correlacionam com os valores humanos. Para tanto, contou-se com a participação de 308 pessoas da cidade de João Pessoa (PB, distribuídas entre estudantes do ensino médio e universitário, bem como pessoas da população geral. Estes responderam, além de questões demográficas, o Questionário dos Valores Básicos, Escala de Desejabilidade Social e a Escala de Motivação Interna e Externa para Responder sem Preconceito. De acordo com os resultados, a motivação interna se correlacionou de modo positivo principalmente com os valores suprapessoais, como maturidade, beleza e conhecimento. No caso da motivação externa, esta o fez unicamente com os valores de realização, destacando-se entre eles prestígio e privacidade. Estes resultados são coerentes com aqueles apresentados na literatura, que indicam a oposição entre os valores de igualitarismo (suprapessoais vs. ética protestante (realização para explicar o preconceito e as motivações para não apresentar este tipo de atitude.The current study aimed at establishing to what extent both internal and external motivations to respond without prejudice towards Blacks would correlate with human values. As many as 308 subjects from João Pessoa - comprising high school and university students as well as individuals from the community as a whole - were considered. The Basic Values Questionnaire, the Impression Management Scale and the Scale of Internal and External Motivation to Respond without Prejudice, and also demographic questions were applied. Results showed that the internal motivation was positively correlated with the suprapersonal values, specifically maturity, beauty and knowledge. Moreover, the external motivation did correlate, predominantly, with the achievement values, specifically those of prestige and privacy. Such

  19. Non-random species loss in a forest herbaceous layer following nitrogen addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Christopher A; Adams, Mary Beth; Gilliam, Frank S; Peterjohn, William T

    2017-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) additions have decreased species richness (S) in hardwood forest herbaceous layers, yet the functional mechanisms for these decreases have not been explicitly evaluated. We tested two hypothesized mechanisms, random species loss (RSL) and non-random species loss (NRSL), in the hardwood forest herbaceous layer of a long-term, plot-scale, fertilization experiment in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA. Using a random thinning algorithm, we simulated changes in species densities under RSL and compared the simulated densities to the observed densities among N-fertilized (+N), N-fertilized and limed (+N+L), and reference (REF) plots in regenerating forest stands. We found a lower S in the +N treatment across all survey years and determined that the reduction in S was a function of NRSL. Furthermore, non-random effects were observed in certain species, as they occurred at densities that were either higher or lower than expected due to RSL. Differential advantages were also observed among species between +N and +N+L treatments, suggesting that species responded to either the fertilization or acidification effects of N, though no consistent pattern emerged. Species nitrophily status was not a useful trait for predicting specific species losses, but was a significant factor when averaged across all treatments and sampling years. Our results provide strong evidence that declines in S in the forest herbaceous layer under N fertilization are due largely to NRSL and not simply a function of species rarity. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  20. Incompatible multiple consistent sets of histories and measures of quantumness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    In the consistent histories approach to quantum theory probabilities are assigned to histories subject to a consistency condition of negligible interference. The approach has the feature that a given physical situation admits multiple sets of consistent histories that cannot in general be united into a single consistent set, leading to a number of counterintuitive or contrary properties if propositions from different consistent sets are combined indiscriminately. An alternative viewpoint is proposed in which multiple consistent sets are classified according to whether or not there exists any unifying probability for combinations of incompatible sets which replicates the consistent histories result when restricted to a single consistent set. A number of examples are exhibited in which this classification can be made, in some cases with the assistance of the Bell, Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt, or Leggett-Garg inequalities together with Fine's theorem. When a unifying probability exists logical deductions in different consistent sets can in fact be combined, an extension of the "single framework rule." It is argued that this classification coincides with intuitive notions of the boundary between classical and quantum regimes and in particular, the absence of a unifying probability for certain combinations of consistent sets is regarded as a measure of the "quantumness" of the system. The proposed approach and results are closely related to recent work on the classification of quasiprobabilities and this connection is discussed.

  1. Towards an understanding of resilience: responding to health systems shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanefeld, Johanna; Mayhew, Susannah; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Martineau, Frederick; Karanikolos, Marina; Blanchet, Karl; Liverani, Marco; Yei Mokuwa, Esther; McKay, Gillian; Balabanova, Dina

    2018-01-09

    The recent outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) in West Africa has drawn attention to the role and responsiveness of health systems in the face of shock. It brought into sharp focus the idea that health systems need not only to be stronger but also more 'resilient'. In this article, we argue that responding to shocks is an important aspect of resilience, examining the health system behaviour in the face of four types of contemporary shocks: the financial crisis in Europe from 2008 onwards; climate change disasters; the EVD outbreak in West Africa 2013-16; and the recent refugee and migration crisis in Europe. Based on this analysis, we identify '3 plus 2' critical dimensions of particular relevance to health systems' ability to adapt and respond to shocks; actions in all of these will determine the extent to which a response is successful. These are three core dimensions corresponding to three health systems functions: 'health information systems' (having the information and the knowledge to make a decision on what needs to be done); 'funding/financing mechanisms' (investing or mobilising resources to fund a response); and 'health workforce' (who should plan and implement it and how). These intersect with two cross-cutting aspects: 'governance', as a fundamental function affecting all other system dimensions; and predominant 'values' shaping the response, and how it is experienced at individual and community levels. Moreover, across the crises examined here, integration within the health system contributed to resilience, as does connecting with local communities, evidenced by successful community responses to Ebola and social movements responding to the financial crisis. In all crises, inequalities grew, yet our evidence also highlights that the impact of shocks is amenable to government action. All these factors are shaped by context. We argue that the '3 plus 2' dimensions can inform pragmatic policies seeking to increase health systems resilience. © The Author

  2. Geriatric Respondents and Non-Respondents To Probiotic Intervention Can Be Differentiated By Inherent Gut Microbiome Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja eSenan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope: Probiotic interventions are known to have been shown to influence the composition of the intestinal microbiota in geriatrics. The growing concern is the apparent variation in response to identical strain dosage among human volunteers. One factor that governs this variation is the host gut microbiome. In this study, we attempted to define a core gut metagenome which could act as a predisposition signature marker of inherent bacterial community that can help predict the success of a probiotic intervention. Methods and Results: To characterize the geriatric gut microbiome we designed primers targeting the 16S rRNA hypervariable region V2-V3 followed by semiconductor sequencing using Ion Torrent PGM. Among respondents and non- respondents the chief genera of phylum Firmicutes that showed significant differences are Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Eubacterium, and Blautia (q< 0.002 while in the genera of phylum Proteobacteria included Shigella, Escherichia, Burkholderia and Camphylobacter (q <0.002. Conclusion: We have identified potential microbial biomarkers and taxonomic patterns that correlate with a positive response to probiotic intervention in geriatric volunteers. Future work with larger cohorts of geriatrics with diverse dietary influences could reveal the potential of the signature patterns of microbiota for personalized nutrition.

  3. Consistency in use through model based user interface development

    OpenAIRE

    Trapp, M.; Schmettow, M.

    2006-01-01

    In dynamic environments envisioned under the concept of Ambient Intelligence the consistency of user interfaces is of particular importance. To encounter this, the variability of the environment has to be transformed to a coherent user experience. In this paper we explain several dimension of consistency and present our ideas and recent results on achieving adaptive and consistent user interfaces by exploiting the technology of model driven user interface development.

  4. Pioneering of Schools with International Standard to Respond the Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipnugraha Ipnugraha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet respond the challenges of globalization Indonesia Government held a Pioneering of Schools with International Standard (RSBI. As an international standard schools pilot, these schools prepared gradually through the guidance by government and stakeholders. Within a certain period of four years it is expected that the schools is able to fulfill and meet the criteria of Schools with International Standard (SBI. Actually, in it’s implementation, RSBI faces many challenges, among others, were expensive anda require modern infrastructure, require a qualified teacher, SBI criteria and English implementation in education not yet possessed constitutional base. With RSBI it will form a national school with national education standards that have international quality and its graduates are able to compete internationally

  5. Misery loves company: mood-congruent emotional responding to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Patrick G; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Griffith, Andrew T

    2011-10-01

    We examined emotional responding to music after mood induction. On each trial, listeners heard a 30-s music excerpt and rated how much they liked it, whether it sounded happy or sad, and how familiar it was. When the excerpts sounded unambiguously happy or sad (Experiment 1), the typical preference for happy-sounding music was eliminated after inducing a sad mood. When the excerpts sounded ambiguous with respect to happiness and sadness (Experiment 2), listeners perceived more sadness after inducing a sad mood. Sad moods had no influence on familiarity ratings (Experiments 1 and 2). These findings imply that "misery loves company." Listeners in a sad mood fail to show the typical preference for happy-sounding music, and they perceive more sadness in music that is ambiguous with respect to mood.

  6. Responding to the refusal of care in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jennifer; Venkat, Arvind; Davenport, Moira

    2014-01-01

    The emergency department (ED) serves as the primary gateway for acute care and the source of health care of last resort. Emergency physicians are commonly expected to rapidly assess and treat patients with a variety of life-threatening conditions. However, patients do refuse recommended therapy, even when the consequences are significant morbidity and even mortality. This raises the ethical dilemma of how emergency physicians and ED staff can rapidly determine whether patient refusal of treatment recommendations is based on intact decision-making capacity and how to respond in an appropriate manner when the declining of necessary care by the patient is lacking a basis in informed judgment. This article presents a case that illustrates the ethical tensions raised by the refusal of life-sustaining care in the ED and how such situations can be approached in an ethically appropriate manner.

  7. Respondents, Operants, and Emergents: Toward an Integrated Perspective on Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Daune M.; Washburn, David A.; Hillix, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A triarchic organization of behavior, building on Skinner's description of respondents and operants, is proposed by introducing a third class of behavior called 'emergents.' Emergents are new responses, never specifically reinforced, that require operations more complex than association. Some of these operations occur naturally only in animals above a minimum level of brain complexity, and are developed in an interaction between treatment and organismic variables. (Here complexity is defined in terms of relative levels of hierarchical integration made possible both by the amount of brain, afforded both by brain-body allometric relationships and by encephalization, and, also, the elaboration of dendritic and synaptic connections within the cortex and connections between various parts/regions of the brain.) Examples of emergents are discussed to advance this triarchic view, of behavior. The prime example is language. This triarchic view reflects both the common goals and the cumulative nature of psychological science.

  8. Plants respond to leaf vibrations caused by insect herbivore chewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B

    2014-08-01

    Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.

  9. Groupthink: How Should Clinicians Respond to Human Trafficking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, William Polk

    2017-01-01

    Human trafficking is a pervasive problem that exceeds the capacity of social and organizational resources to restrain and for which guidelines are inadequate to assist medical professionals in responding to the special needs of victims when they present as patients. One obstacle to appropriate disagreement with an inadequate status quo is the lure of group cohesion. "Groupthink" is a social psychological phenomenon in which presumed group consensus prevails despite potentially adverse consequences. In the context of the medical response to human trafficking, groupthink may foster complacency, rationalize acquiescence with inaction on the basis of perceived futility, create an illusion of unanimity, and accommodate negative stereotyping. Despite these inhibiting influences, even in apparently futile situations, medical professionals have unique opportunities to be a force for good. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Facing Change in Southeastern North Carolina: How Do We Respond?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Hossfeld

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Once referred to as the "vale of humility between two mountains of conceit," North Carolina has transformed itself from its humble origins to a progressive state embracing the new millennium. From the boom of the Research Triangle to the financial banking hub of Charlotte, the state stands out on many indicators of progress, prosperity and leadership. Yet the very problems that have plagued the state for centuries endure, and the residue of these is the very issue Southeastern North Carolinians must address. Persistent poverty, affordable housing, low incomes and enduring racial inequalities are the age-old problems plaguing our region. Coupled with remarkable population growth and a growing immigrant population, the face of Down East is changing – and how we respond is critical to our future. A number of suggestions on economic development for areas of poverty are suggested.

  11. Primate dental ecology: How teeth respond to the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Ungar, Peter S; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth are central for the study of ecology, as teeth are at the direct interface between an organism and its environment. Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the use of teeth to understand a broad range of topics in living and fossil primate biology. This in part reflects new techniques for assessing ways in which teeth respond to, and interact with, an organism's environment. Long-term studies of wild primate populations that integrate dental analyses have also provided a new context for understanding primate interactions with their environments. These new techniques and long-term field studies have allowed the development of a new perspective-dental ecology. We define dental ecology as the broad study of how teeth respond to, or interact with, the environment. This includes identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, as they reflect feeding ecology, behavior, and habitat variation, including areas impacted by anthropogenic disturbance, and how dental development can reflect environmental change and/or stress. The dental ecology approach, built on collaboration between dental experts and ecologists, holds the potential to provide an important theoretical and practical framework for inferring ecology and behavior of fossil forms, for assessing environmental change in living populations, and for understanding ways in which habitat impacts primate growth and development. This symposium issue brings together experts on dental morphology, growth and development, tooth wear and health, primate ecology, and paleontology, to explore the broad application of dental ecology to questions of how living and fossil primates interact with their environments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Electroencephalographic brain dynamics following manually responded visual targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Makeig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Scalp-recorded electroencephalographic (EEG signals produced by partial synchronization of cortical field activity mix locally synchronous electrical activities of many cortical areas. Analysis of event-related EEG signals typically assumes that poststimulus potentials emerge out of a flat baseline. Signals associated with a particular type of cognitive event are then assessed by averaging data from each scalp channel across trials, producing averaged event-related potentials (ERPs. ERP averaging, however, filters out much of the information about cortical dynamics available in the unaveraged data trials. Here, we studied the dynamics of cortical electrical activity while subjects detected and manually responded to visual targets, viewing signals retained in ERP averages not as responses of an otherwise silent system but as resulting from event-related alterations in ongoing EEG processes. We applied infomax independent component analysis to parse the dynamics of the unaveraged 31-channel EEG signals into maximally independent processes, then clustered the resulting processes across subjects by similarities in their scalp maps and activity power spectra, identifying nine classes of EEG processes with distinct spatial distributions and event-related dynamics. Coupled two-cycle postmotor theta bursts followed button presses in frontal midline and somatomotor clusters, while the broad postmotor "P300" positivity summed distinct contributions from several classes of frontal, parietal, and occipital processes. The observed event-related changes in local field activities, within and between cortical areas, may serve to modulate the strength of spike-based communication between cortical areas to update attention, expectancy, memory, and motor preparation during and after target recognition and speeded responding.

  13. Properties of solitary tract neurones responding to peripheral arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, J F; Deuchars, J; Li, Y W; Kasparov, S

    2001-01-01

    Despite the highly integrated pattern of response evoked by peripheral chemoreceptor stimulation, limited information exists regarding the neurones within the nucleus of the solitary tract that mediate this reflex. Using a working heart-brainstem preparation, we describe evoked synaptic response patterns, some intrinsic membrane properties, location, morphology and axonal projections of physiologically characterised 'chemoreceptive' neurones located in the solitary tract nucleus in the rat. From 172 whole cell recordings, 56 neurones were identified as chemoreceptive since they responded to aortic injections of low doses of sodium cyanide (2-5 microg). Chemoreceptive neurones had a mean resting membrane potential of -52+/-1 mV and input resistance was 297+/-15 M(Omega) (n=56). Synaptic responses evoked included excitatory synaptic potentials alone, excitatory-inhibitory post-synaptic potential complexes, inhibitory synaptic potentials alone and central respiratory modulated synaptic potentials. Synaptic response latency data were obtained by stimulating electrically the solitary tract: the mean excitatory synaptic latency was 5.2+/-0.4 ms (range 2.5-8.0 ms; n=17). Chemoreceptive neurones showed a heterogeneity in their intrinsic membrane properties: neurones displayed either steady state, augmenting or adapting firing responses to depolarising current injection and, in some neurones, either delayed excitation or rebound activity following hyperpolarising pulses. Eleven chemoreceptive neurones were labelled and provided the first morphological data of these cells. Labelled somata were detected dorsomedial or medial to the solitary tract spanning the obex. Neurones typically had three to eight primary dendrites which often entered the solitary tract as well as extending across the ipsilateral region of the nucleus of the solitary tract. Axons were mostly unmyelinated with boutons of the en passant variety and often ramified within the solitary tract nucleus as well

  14. Lysosomal adaptation: How cells respond to lysosomotropic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shuyan; Sung, Tae; Lin, Nianwei; Abraham, Robert T.; Jessen, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    Lysosomes are acidic organelles essential for degradation and cellular homoeostasis and recently lysosomes have been shown as signaling hub to respond to the intra and extracellular changes (e.g. amino acid availability). Compounds including pharmaceutical drugs that are basic and lipophilic will become sequestered inside lysosomes (lysosomotropic). How cells respond to the lysosomal stress associated with lysosomotropism is not well characterized. Our goal is to assess the lysosomal changes and identify the signaling pathways that involve in the lysosomal changes. Eight chemically diverse lysosomotropic drugs from different therapeutic areas were subjected to the evaluation using the human adult retinal pigmented epithelium cell line, ARPE-19. All lysosomotropic drugs tested triggered lysosomal activation demonstrated by increased lysosotracker red (LTR) and lysosensor green staining, increased cathepsin activity, and increased LAMP2 staining. However, tested lysosomotropic drugs also prompted lysosomal dysfunction exemplified by intracellular and extracellular substrate accumulation including phospholipid, SQSTM1/p62, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and opsin. Lysosomal activation observed was likely attributed to lysosomal dysfunction, leading to compensatory responses including nuclear translocation of transcriptional factors TFEB, TFE3 and MITF. The adaptive changes are protective to the cells under lysosomal stress. Mechanistic studies implicate calcium and mTORC1 modulation involvement in the adaptive changes. These results indicate that lysosomotropic compounds could evoke a compensatory lysosomal biogenic response but with the ultimate consequence of lysosomal functional impairment. This work also highlights a pathway of response to lysosomal stress and evidences the role of TFEB, TFE3 and MITF in the stress response. PMID:28301521

  15. Freeze-all cycle for all normal responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Matheus; Valle, Marcello; Guimarães, Fernando; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the freeze-all strategy in subgroups of normal responders, to assess whether this strategy is beneficial regardless of ovarian response, and to evaluate the possibility of implementing an individualized embryo transfer (iET) based on ovarian response. This was an observational, cohort study performed in a private IVF center. A total of 938 IVF cycles were included in this study. The patients were submitted to controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol and a cleavage-stage day 3 embryo transfer. We performed a comparison of outcomes between the fresh embryo transfer (n = 523) and the freeze-all cycles (n = 415). The analysis was performed in two subgroups of patients based on the number of retrieved oocytes: Group 1 (4-9 oocytes) and Group 2 (10-15 oocytes). In Group 1 (4-9 retrieved oocytes), the implantation rates (IR) were 17.9 and 20.5% (P = 0.259) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively; the ongoing pregnancy rates (OPR) were 31 and 33% (P = 0.577) in the fresh and freeze-all group, respectively. In Group 2 (10-15 oocytes), the IR were 22.1 and 30.1% (P = 0.028) and the OPR were 34 and 47% (P = 0.021) in the fresh and freeze-all groups, respectively. Although the freeze-all policy may be related to better in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in normal responders, these potential advantages decrease with worsening ovarian response. Patients with poorer ovarian response do not benefit from the freeze-all strategy.

  16. Random responses inflate statistical estimates in heavily skewed addictions data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin M; Kim, Dale S; McCabe, Connor J

    2017-12-09

    Some respondents may respond at random to self-report surveys, rather than responding conscientiously (Meade and Craig, 2012), and this has only recently come to the attention of researchers in the addictions field (Godinho et al., 2016). Almost no research in the published addictions literature has reported screening for random responses. We illustrate how random responses can bias statistical estimates using simulated and real data, and how this is especially problematic in skewed data, as is common with substance use outcomes. We first tested the effects of varying amounts and types of random responses on covariance-based statistical estimates in distributions with varying amounts of skew. We replicated these findings in correlations from a real dataset (Add Health) by replacing varying amounts of real data with simulated random responses. Skew and the proportion of random responses influenced the amount and direction of bias. When the data were not skewed, uniformly random responses deflated estimates, while long-string random responses inflated estimates. As the distributions became more skewed, all types of random responses began to inflate estimates, even at very small proportions. We observed similar effects in the Add Health data. Failing to screen for random responses in survey data produces biased statistical estimates, and data with only 2.5% random responses can inflate covariance-based estimates (i.e., correlations, Cronbach's alpha, regression coefficients, factor loadings, etc.) when data are heavily skewed. Screening for random responses can substantially improve data quality, reliability and validity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known to be inconsis......This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...

  18. Checking Consistency of Pedigree Information is NP-complete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Hansen, Jens A.; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    Consistency checking is a fundamental computational problem in genetics. Given a pedigree and information on the genotypes of some of the individuals in it, the aim of consistency checking is to determine whether these data are consistent with the classic Mendelian laws of inheritance. This problem...... arose originally from the geneticists' need to filter their input data from erroneous information, and is well motivated from both a biological and a sociological viewpoint. This paper shows that consistency checking is NP-complete, even in the presence of three alleles. Several other results...

  19. Systematic Differences and Random Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.; Winter, Sidney G.

    2017-01-01

    of quantity in the face of a downward sloping demand curve and recognition of their impact on the market price. If firms are subject to random firm-specific shocks, then in this equilibrium setting a population of such firms would generate a pattern of growth consistent with Gibrat’s law. However, if broader......A fundamental premise of the strategy field is the existence of persistent firm level differences in resources and capabilities. This property of heterogeneity should express itself in a variety of empirical “signatures,” such as firm performance and arguably systematic and persistent differences...... component, but for much of an industry’s and firm’s history should have a random pattern consistent with the Gibrat property. The intuition is as follows. In a Cournot equilibrium, firms of better “type” (i.e., lower cost) realize a larger market share, but act with some restraint on their choice...

  20. The impact of arbitrarily applicable relational responding on evaluative learning about hypothetical money and shock outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymond, Simon; Molet, Mikael; Davies, Lynette

    2017-08-01

    Evaluative learning comprises changes in preferences after co-occurrences between conditioned stimuli (CSs) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) of affective value. Co-occurrences may involve relational responding. Two experiments examined the impact of arbitrary relational responding on evaluative preferences for hypothetical money and shock outcomes. In Experiment 1, participants were trained to make arbitrary relational responses by placing CSs of the same size but different colours into boxes and were then instructed that these CSs represented different intensities of hypothetical USs (money or shock). Liking ratings of the CSs were altered in accordance with the underlying bigger/smaller than relations. A reversal of preference was also observed: the CS associated with the smallest hypothetical shock was rated more positively than the CS associated with the smallest amount of hypothetical money. In Experiment 2, procedures from Relational Frame Theory (RFT) established a relational network of more than/less than relations consisting of five CSs (A-B-C-D-E). Overall, evaluative preferences were altered, but not reversed, depending on (a) how stimuli had been related to one another during the learning phase and (b) whether those stimuli referred to money or shocks. The contribution of RFT to evaluative learning research is discussed.

  1. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  2. The Nature of Error Consistency in Individuals With Acquired Apraxia of Speech and Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Malcolm; Spencer, Kristie A.; Yorkston, Kathryn; Kendall, Diane L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The primary characteristics used to define acquired apraxia of speech (AOS) have evolved to better reflect a disorder of motor planning/programming. However, there is debate regarding the feature of relatively consistent error location and type. Method Ten individuals with acquired AOS and aphasia and 11 individuals with aphasia without AOS participated in this study. In the context of a 2-group experimental design, error consistency was examined via 5 repetitions of 30 multisyllabic words. The influence of error rate, severity of impairment, and stimulus presentation condition (blocked vs. random) on error consistency was also explored, as well as between-groups differences in the types of errors produced. Results Groups performed similarly on consistency of error location; however, adults with AOS demonstrated greater variability of error type in a blocked presentation condition only. Stimulus presentation condition, error rate, and severity of impairment did not influence error consistency in either group. Groups differed in the production of phonetic errors (e.g., sound distortions) but not phonemic errors. Conclusions Overall, findings do not support relatively consistent errors as a differentiating characteristic of AOS. PMID:28654943

  3. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  4. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.8 Consistency with Federal law. Any provisions o...

  5. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  6. Carl Rogers during Initial Interviews: A Moderate and Consistent Therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. P.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed two initial interviews by Carl Rogers in their entirety using the Carkhuff scales, Hill's category system, and a brief grammatical analysis to establish the level and consistency with which Rogers provides facilitative conditions. Results indicated his behavior as counselor was stable and consistent within and across interviews. (Author)

  7. Numerical consistency check between two approaches to radiative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We briefly outline the two popular approaches on radiative corrections to neutrino masses and mixing angles, and then carry out a detailed numerical analysis for a consistency check between them in MSSM. We find that the two approaches are nearly consistent with a discrepancy factor of 4.2% with running vacuum ...

  8. The Finitistic Consistency of Heck's Predicative Fregean System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Filipe, L.; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Frege's theory is inconsistent (Russell's paradox). However, the predicative version of Frege's system is consistent. This was proved by Richard Heck in 1996 using a model theoretic argument. In this paper, we give a finitistic proof of this consistency result. As a consequence, Heck's predicative...

  9. Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…

  10. Consistency of the Babinski reflex and its variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singerman, J; Lee, L

    2008-09-01

    The Babinski Reflex, first described in 1896, is still an integral part of the neurological examination. Many have studied the consistency of this reflex, but none have compared the inter- and intra-observer consistency of the Babinski reflex and its variants. Thirty-four subjects were examined by six neurologists. The Babinski, Gordon, Chaddock, and Oppenheim reflexes were tested, and each neurologist concluded if the plantar response was flexor or extensor. Six subjects were re-tested 1 week later to determine intra-observer consistency. The Babinski reflex had the highest interobserver consistency with a kappa value of 0.5491. The Chaddock, Oppenheim, and Gordon reflexes had kappa values of 0.4065, 0.3739, and 0.3515, respectively. For intra-observer consistency, Gordon was the most consistent with a kappa value of 0.6731. When reflexes were combined in pairs, the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes together were the most reliable. The Babinski reflex was shown to be the most consistent between examiners. The Gordon reflex had the highest intra-observer consistency; however, the small sample size should limit conclusions drawn from this calculation. Clinicians often utilize more than one reflex to examine the plantar response; the combination of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes was the most reliable.

  11. Student Consistency and Implications for Feedback in Online Assessment Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhyastha, Tara M.; Tanimoto, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Most of the emphasis on mining online assessment logs has been to identify content-specific errors. However, the pattern of general "consistency" is domain independent, strongly related to performance, and can itself be a target of educational data mining. We demonstrate that simple consistency indicators are related to student outcomes,…

  12. Web-Based Instruction and Learning: Responding to K-14 Customer Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marianne; Grabowski, Barbara; Koszalka, Tiffany; Peck, Christa

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up working conference was held at Lewis Research Center (now Glenn Research Center) on September 23-25, 1997, to continue discussing issues related to the development of Web-based education materials for the K-14 community. The conference continued the collaboration among the NASA aerospace technology Centers (Ames, Dryden, Langley, and Lewis [now Glenn]), NASA Headquarters, the University of Idaho and the Pennsylvania State University. The conference consisted of presentations by the Aeronautics Cooperative Agreement teams, and working sessions that addressed issues related to the conference theme, responding to the K-14 customers needs. The group identified the most significant issues by consensus. The issues addressed were: classroom access, World Wide Web resources, teacher training, different teaching and learning styles, interactivity, and education standards. The working sessions produced observations and recommendations in each of these areas in order to work toward the goal of making NASA sponsored Web-based educational resources useful to teachers and students.

  13. Biosimmer: A Virtual Reality Simulator for Training First Responders in a BW Scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawver, D.M.; Sobel, A.L.; Stansfield, S.A.

    1998-11-11

    BioSimMER (Bioterrorism Simulated Medical Emergency Response) is a Virtual Reality-based mission rehearsal and training environment. BioSimMER employs contingency-oriented, multiple-path algorithms and MOESINIOPS focused on real-world operations. BioSimMER is network-based and immerses multiple trainees in a high resolution synthetic environment, including virtual casualties and instruments that they may interact with and manipulate. Trainees are represented as individuals by virtual human Avatars. The simulation consists of several components: virtual casualties dynamically manifest the symptoms of their injuries and respond to the intervention of the trainees. Agent transport analysis is used to simulate casualty exposures and to drive the responses of simulated sensors/detectors. The selected prototype scenario is representative of combined injuries anticipated in BW operations.

  14. A comparison of consistency and taste of five commercial thickeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, C A

    1997-01-01

    This study presents the results of a blinded test of the performance of five commercial thickners. Experimental variables considered are brand of commercial thickener, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time. Success of outcome is defined by a numerical rating scale comparing the consistency and taste to actual liquid samples. The findings suggest that no one commercial thickener consistently produces a desired consistency or was consistently superior regarding taste. Success in producing certain liquid consistencies and "good taste" varied according to brand, type of liquid, desired thickness, and thickening time used. It is suggested that specific recipes be developed for each brand and liquid to be thickened. Flavorings should be tested to enhance taste.

  15. Business and Law Respondents: What Is Ethical Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, George E.

    1993-01-01

    In a survey of 97 business managers, 141 business students, 46 attorneys, and 98 law students, all groups were consistent in rating their own and peers' ethical beliefs; they perceived peers to have lower ethical values and were aware of competitive market pressures. The idea that new workplace entrants represent a new wave of ethical values was…

  16. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  17. Consistent individual differences in paternal behavior: a field study of threespine stickleback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Laura R; Bell, Alison M

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences in parenting are widespread; however, we know little about why there is variation in parenting behavior among individuals within species. One possible explanation for consistent individual differences in parenting is that individuals invest in different aspects of parental care, such as provisioning or defense. In this field study we measured consistent individual differences in parenting behavior and evaluated correlations between parenting and other behaviors in threespine stickleback ( Gasterosteus aculeatus ). We repeatedly measured male parenting behavior and male behavior in the presence of three different types of live intruders: a female, a conspecific male, and a predator, meant to provoke courtship, aggressive and antipredator behavior, respectively. While males plastically adjusted their reactions to different types of intruders, we found consistent individual differences in behavior (behavioral types) both within and across contexts, even after accounting for variation in body size and nest characteristics. Males that performed more parenting behavior responded faster to all types of intruders. These results suggest that in nature, individual male stickleback exhibit robust parental behavioral types, and highly parental males are more attentive to their surroundings. Future studies are needed to examine the potential causes of individual variation in parental behavior in the field.

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccinations among community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junling; Munshi, Kiraat D; Hong, Song Hee

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, pharmacists in all 50 states in the U.S. have been authorized to administer vaccinations. This study examined racial and ethnic disparities in the reported receipt of influenza vaccinations within the past year among noninstitutionalized community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. The 2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. The sample consisted of respondents aged 50 years or older, as per the 2009 recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the influenza vaccination rates and disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations within past year between non-Hispanic Whites (Whites), non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) and Hispanics. The influenza vaccination rates between community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents were also examined. Bivariate analyses found that among the community pharmacy patients, a greater proportion of Whites reported receiving influenza vaccinations compared to Blacks (60.9% vs. 49.1%; P vaccination rates among Whites compared to Blacks (41.0% vs. 24.3%; P vaccinations within the past year among both community pharmacy patients (odds ratio [OR]: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.69-0.95) and non-community pharmacy respondents (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.46-0.94). Sociodemographic characteristics and health status accounted for the disparities between Hispanics and Whites. Overall, community pharmacy patients reported higher influenza vaccination rates compared to non-community pharmacy respondents (59.0% vs. 37.2%; P vaccination rates were higher among community pharmacy patients, there were racial disparities in receiving influenza vaccinations among both community pharmacy patients and non-community pharmacy respondents. Increased emphasis on educational campaigns among pharmacists and their patients, especially minorities, may be needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uku Vainik

    Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  20. Protein modification responds to exercise intensity and antioxidant supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Oettl, Karl; Schwaberger, Guenther; Hofmann, Peter; Greilberger, Joachim F

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effects of different exercise intensities and antioxidant supplementation on plasma protein modification. Trained men (n = 41) from a homogenous population were randomly assigned to perform cycle ergometer exercise either at 70% or 80% of individual .VO2max. Each intensity group was randomly assigned to receive either juice powder concentrate (JPC 70%, n = 11; JPC 80%, n = 10) or placebo (Plac 70%, n = 10; Plac 80%, n = 10) capsules for 28 wk. Four controlled exercise bouts and blood collections were conducted at baseline and study weeks 4, 16, and 28. Blood samples were drawn before (BE), immediately after (IE), and 30 min (30M) and 30 h (30H) postexercise. These samples were analyzed to estimate concentrations of carbonyl groups on plasma proteins (CP) and the redox state of human serum albumin (HSA). In the Plac group, CP concentrations increased at 80% of .VO2max IE and 30M, returning to preexercise concentrations by 30H (P JPC groups (P JPC group had lower baseline CP levels after 16 and 28 wk and no exercise-induced CP increase. HSA is reversibly shifted to a more oxidized state by recent intense exercise.

  1. Random broadcast on random geometric graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradonjic, Milan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Elsasser, Robert [UNIV OF PADERBORN; Friedrich, Tobias [ICSI/BERKELEY; Sauerwald, Tomas [ICSI/BERKELEY

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we consider the random broadcast time on random geometric graphs (RGGs). The classic random broadcast model, also known as push algorithm, is defined as: starting with one informed node, in each succeeding round every informed node chooses one of its neighbors uniformly at random and informs it. We consider the random broadcast time on RGGs, when with high probability: (i) RGG is connected, (ii) when there exists the giant component in RGG. We show that the random broadcast time is bounded by {Omicron}({radical} n + diam(component)), where diam(component) is a diameter of the entire graph, or the giant component, for the regimes (i), or (ii), respectively. In other words, for both regimes, we derive the broadcast time to be {Theta}(diam(G)), which is asymptotically optimal.

  2. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkham, Alexander J; Hayes, Amy E; Pawling, Ralph; Tipper, Steven P

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene), whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene). During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  3. Facial Mimicry and Emotion Consistency: Influences of Memory and Context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Kirkham

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether mimicry of facial emotions is a stable response or can instead be modulated and influenced by memory of the context in which the emotion was initially observed, and therefore the meaning of the expression. The study manipulated emotion consistency implicitly, where a face expressing smiles or frowns was irrelevant and to be ignored while participants categorised target scenes. Some face identities always expressed emotions consistent with the scene (e.g., smiling with a positive scene, whilst others were always inconsistent (e.g., frowning with a positive scene. During this implicit learning of face identity and emotion consistency there was evidence for encoding of face-scene emotion consistency, with slower RTs, a reduction in trust, and inhibited facial EMG for faces expressing incompatible emotions. However, in a later task where the faces were subsequently viewed expressing emotions with no additional context, there was no evidence for retrieval of prior emotion consistency, as mimicry of emotion was similar for consistent and inconsistent individuals. We conclude that facial mimicry can be influenced by current emotion context, but there is little evidence of learning, as subsequent mimicry of emotionally consistent and inconsistent faces is similar.

  4. Protective Factors, Risk Indicators, and Contraceptive Consistency Among College Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Leslie F; Sieving, Renee E; Pettingell, Sandra L; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; McMorris, Barbara J; Bearinger, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    To explore risk and protective factors associated with consistent contraceptive use among emerging adult female college students and whether effects of risk indicators were moderated by protective factors. Secondary analysis of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health Wave III data. Data collected through in-home interviews in 2001 and 2002. National sample of 18- to 25-year-old women (N = 842) attending 4-year colleges. We examined relationships between protective factors, risk indicators, and consistent contraceptive use. Consistent contraceptive use was defined as use all of the time during intercourse in the past 12 months. Protective factors included external supports of parental closeness and relationship with caring nonparental adult and internal assets of self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction. Risk indicators included heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, and depression symptoms. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate relationships between protective factors and consistent contraceptive use and between risk indicators and contraceptive use. Self-esteem, confidence, independence, and life satisfaction were significantly associated with more consistent contraceptive use. In a final model including all internal assets, life satisfaction was significantly related to consistent contraceptive use. Marijuana use and depression symptoms were significantly associated with less consistent use. With one exception, protective factors did not moderate relationships between risk indicators and consistent use. Based on our findings, we suggest that risk and protective factors may have largely independent influences on consistent contraceptive use among college women. A focus on risk and protective factors may improve contraceptive use rates and thereby reduce unintended pregnancy among college students. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published

  5. A Primer on Memory Consistency and Cache Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Sorin, Daniel; Wood, David

    2011-01-01

    Many modern computer systems and most multicore chips (chip multiprocessors) support shared memory in hardware. In a shared memory system, each of the processor cores may read and write to a single shared address space. For a shared memory machine, the memory consistency model defines the architecturally visible behavior of its memory system. Consistency definitions provide rules about loads and stores (or memory reads and writes) and how they act upon memory. As part of supporting a memory consistency model, many machines also provide cache coherence protocols that ensure that multiple cached

  6. The SPH consistency problem and some astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, Jaime; Sigalotti, Leonardo; Rendon, Otto; Gabbasov, Ruslan; Torres, Ayax

    2017-11-01

    We discuss the SPH kernel and particle consistency problem and demonstrate that SPH has a limiting second-order convergence rate. We also present a solution to the SPH consistency problem. We present examples of how SPH implementations that are not mathematically consistent may lead to erroneous results. The new formalism has been implemented into the Gadget 2 code, including an improved scheme for the artificial viscosity. We present results for the ``Standard Isothermal Test Case'' of gravitational collapse and fragmentation of protostellar molecular cores that produce a very different evolution than with the standard SPH theory. A further application of accretion onto a black hole is presented.

  7. The Consistent Preferences Approach to Deductive Reasoning in Games

    CERN Document Server

    Asheim, Geir B

    2006-01-01

    "The Consistent Preferences Approach to Deductive Reasoning in Games" presents, applies, and synthesizes what my co-authors and I have called the 'consistent preferences' approach to deductive reasoning in games. Briefly described, this means that the object of the analysis is the ranking by each player of his own strategies, rather than his choice. The ranking can be required to be consistent (in different senses) with his beliefs about the opponent's ranking of her strategies. This can be contrasted to the usual 'rational choice' approach where a player's strategy choice is (in dif

  8. Ergodicity of Random Walks on Random DFA

    OpenAIRE

    Balle, Borja

    2013-01-01

    Given a DFA we consider the random walk that starts at the initial state and at each time step moves to a new state by taking a random transition from the current state. This paper shows that for typical DFA this random walk induces an ergodic Markov chain. The notion of typical DFA is formalized by showing that ergodicity holds with high probability when a DFA is sampled uniformly at random from the set of all automata with a fixed number of states. We also show the same result applies to DF...

  9. The copper responding surfaceome of Methylococccus capsulatus Bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Odd A; Larsen, Oivind; Jensen, Harald B

    2011-10-01

    Proteins on the cellular surface of a bacterium, its surfaceome, are part of the interface between the bacterium and its environment, and are essential for the cells response to its habitat. Methylococcus capsulatus Bath is one of the most extensively studied methane-oxidizers and is considered as a model-methanotroph. The composition of proteins of the surfaceome of M. capsulatus Bath varies with the availability of copper and changes significantly upon only minor changes of copper concentration in the sub-μM concentration range. Proteins that respond to the changes in copper availability include the assumed copper acquisition protein MopE, c-type heme proteins (SACCP, cytochrome c(553o) proteins) and several proteins of unknown function. The most intriguing observation is that multi-heme c-type cytochromes are major constituents of the M. capsulatus Bath surfaceome. This is not commonly observed in bacteria, but is a feature shared with the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria. Their presence on the M. capsulatus Bath cellular surface may be linked to the cells ability to efficiently adapt to changing growth conditions and environmental challenges. However, their possible role(s) in methane oxidation, nitrogen metabolism, copper acquisition, redox-reactions and/or electron transport remain(s) at present an open question. This review will discuss the possible significance of these findings. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Wild North Island Robins (Petroica longipes respond to Prey Animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Garland

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available North Island robins of New Zealand are a food hoarding species, which is unique in that they almost exclusively cache highly perishable hunted insects for later retrieval. In order to do so, they either kill and dismember or paralyze their prey for caching, depending on the prey size and kind. The present study comprises two experiments, using a Violation of Expectancy (VoE paradigm to examine variation in search behavior response to different prey conditions. The first experiment presents three different types of prey (mealworms, earthworms and locusts in expected (present and unexpected (absent conditions. The second experiment presents prey in varying states of animacy (alive and whole, dead and whole, dead and halved, and an inanimate stick and reveals prey in expected (same state or unexpected (differing state conditions. While robins did not respond with differential search times to different types of unexpectedly missing prey in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 robins searched longer in conditions where prey was found in a differing state of animacy than initially shown. Robins also searched longer for prey when immediately consuming retrieved prey than when caching retrieved prey. Results indicate that North Island robins may be sensitive to prey animacy upon storage and retrieval of insect prey; such information could play a role in storage, pilfering and retrieval strategies of such a perishable food source.

  11. Alopecia mucinosa responding to antileprosy treatment: Are we missing something?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases with single lesion of Alopecia mucinosa (follicular mucinosis were treated with antileprosy treatment and showed rapid and complete resolution of the lesions with no recurrence on extended follow-up. Two children, a boy aged 14 years and a girl aged 12 years presented themselves, each, with a single hypopigmented, hypoesthetic patch on the face. Clinically leprosy was suspected, however, skin biopsy from both patients revealed follicular mucinosis as the only pathological finding, without any granulomas. Based on clinical suspicion both were started on multi drug therapy (MDT for leprosy with complete resolution of the lesions. The third case, male, aged 22 years presented with a single erythematous, hypoesthetic plaque on the forehead.This lesion had been diagnosed as follicular mucinosis with folliculo-tropic mycosis fungoides, in the USA. He too responded completely within 3 months with rifampicin, ofloxacin, minocycline (ROM treatment, which was given once monthly for a total of 6 months and remains free of disease since the past 1 year. Follicular mucinosis as the only pathology may be seen in facial lesions of clinically suspected leprosy in children and young adults. Based on histological findings these cannot be diagnosed as leprosy and will be considered as Alopecia mucinosa. These lesions, however, are always single and show rapid and complete response to antileprosy treatment. The authors suggest that in regions endemic for leprosy, such as India, single lesion Alopecia mucinosa on the face in children and young adults should be given antileprosy treatment.

  12. Detecting and Explaining Aberrant Responding to the Outcome Questionnaire-45.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Judith M; Emons, Wilco H M; De Jong, Kim; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2015-08-01

    We applied item response theory based person-fit analysis (PFA) to data of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) to investigate the prevalence and causes of aberrant responding in a sample of Dutch clinical outpatients. The [Formula: see text] person-fit statistic was used to detect misfitting item-score patterns and the standardized residual statistic for identifying the source of the misfit in the item-score patterns identified as misfitting. Logistic regression analysis was used to predict person misfit from clinical diagnosis, OQ-45 total score, and Global Assessment of Functioning code. The [Formula: see text] statistic classified 12.6% of the item-score patterns as misfitting. Person misfit was positively related to the severity of psychological distress. Furthermore, patients with psychotic disorders, somatoform disorders, or substance-related disorders more likely showed misfit than the baseline group of patients with mood and anxiety disorders. The results suggest that general outcome measures such as the OQ-45 are not equally appropriate for patients with different disorders. Our study emphasizes the importance of person-misfit detection in clinical practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Fever of unknown origin responding to steroid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, A; Ohosone, Y; Mita, S; Obana, M; Matsuoka, Y; Irimajiri, S

    1997-02-01

    It is not uncommon to find cases of fever of unknown origin (FUO) in which no final diagnosis is made ever after various examinations. We investigated such cases of undiagnosed FUO, with fever persisting for a long periods and responding to steroid therapy. Among 4,596 patients who were hospitalized over 3-year period from September 1991, 25 met Petersdorf's definition of FUO. Among these 25 patient, six cases were steroid-responsive undiagnosed FUO (SR-FUO). Patients with SR-FUO had the following characteristics: marked inflammatory findings and severe illness; without a definite underlying disease being found despite various examinations; no findings which indicated any known diseases such as adult-onset Still's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, or other collagen diseases; elderly onset, at 58 to 77 years of age (mean age: 67 years); no improvement with antibiotics, antituberculous agents, or antimycotic drugs; significant improvement of symptoms and signs with steroid therapy; and a relatively good prognosis. SR-FUO, which is not caused by any known disease and is highly responsive to steroids, is included among the FUO cases which we have difficulty in diagnosing and treating.

  14. Development of an IgG4-RD Responder Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, Mollie N; Stone, John H; Deshpande, Vikram; Khosroshahi, Arezou

    2012-01-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multiorgan inflammatory disease in which diverse organ manifestations are linked by common histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Prospective studies of IgG4-RD patients are required to clarify the natural history, long-term prognosis, and treatment approaches in this recently recognized condition. Patients with IgG4-RD have different organ manifestations and are followed by multiple specialties. Divergent approaches to the assessment of patients can complicate the interpretation of studies, emphasizing the critical need for validated outcome measures, particularly assessments of disease activity and response to treatment. We developed a prototype IgG4-RD Responder Index (IgG4-RD RI) based on the approach used in the development of the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score for Wegener's granulomatosis (BVAS/WG). The IgG4-RD RI was refined by members of the International IgG4-RD Symposium Organizing Committee in a paper case exercise. The revised instrument was applied retrospectively to fifteen IgG4-RD patients at our institution. Those scores were compared to physician's global assessment scale for the same visits. This paper describes the philosophy and goals of the IgG4-RD RI, the steps in the development of this instrument to date, and future plans for validation of this instrument as an outcome measure.

  15. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashton M Verdery

    Full Text Available This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS. Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  16. Network Structure and Biased Variance Estimation in Respondent Driven Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdery, Ashton M; Mouw, Ted; Bauldry, Shawn; Mucha, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores bias in the estimation of sampling variance in Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS). Prior methodological work on RDS has focused on its problematic assumptions and the biases and inefficiencies of its estimators of the population mean. Nonetheless, researchers have given only slight attention to the topic of estimating sampling variance in RDS, despite the importance of variance estimation for the construction of confidence intervals and hypothesis tests. In this paper, we show that the estimators of RDS sampling variance rely on a critical assumption that the network is First Order Markov (FOM) with respect to the dependent variable of interest. We demonstrate, through intuitive examples, mathematical generalizations, and computational experiments that current RDS variance estimators will always underestimate the population sampling variance of RDS in empirical networks that do not conform to the FOM assumption. Analysis of 215 observed university and school networks from Facebook and Add Health indicates that the FOM assumption is violated in every empirical network we analyze, and that these violations lead to substantially biased RDS estimators of sampling variance. We propose and test two alternative variance estimators that show some promise for reducing biases, but which also illustrate the limits of estimating sampling variance with only partial information on the underlying population social network.

  17. LEARNING IN CONTEXT AND RESPONDING TO LEARNERS’ NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanda-Marina BĂDULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Learning in context and responding to learners’ needs is more effective than learning that is not clearly tied to the purposes it intends to serve. In the field of work and enterprises, there are practical basic issues that have to be taken into account: internal variation of the world of work, and frequency of the problematic situations and contexts. At the Education level it means to create an incentive formal frame, a dynamic pace, and a variety of methods that make students/trainees to be really involved in, and to actively participate to the training process. A Teacher-trainer in foreign languages, for example, has to teach his students to have permanent initiative, to do something new or in a new way, to answer our challenging society. A trainer has to train his trainees for having a critical thinking, for using their creativity in solving all sorts of problems of applied sciences or applied linguistics in and for the new contexts of our pluralist society.

  18. Sharka: how do plants respond to Plum pox virus infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente-Moreno, María J; Hernández, José A; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV), the causal agent of sharka disease, is one of the most studied plant viruses, and major advances in detection techniques, genome characterization and organization, gene expression, transmission, and the description of candidate genes involved in PPV resistance have been described. However, information concerning the plant response to PPV infection is very scarce. In this review, we provide an updated summary of the research carried out to date in order to elucidate how plants cope with PPV infection and their response at different levels, including the physiological, biochemical, proteomic, and genetic levels. Knowledge about how plants respond to PPV infection can contribute to the development of new strategies to cope with this disease. Due to the fact that PPV induces an oxidative stress in plants, the bio-fortification of the antioxidative defences, by classical or biotechnological approaches, would be a useful tool to cope with PPV infection. Nevertheless, there are still some gaps in knowledge related to PPV-plant interaction that remain to be filled, such as the effect of PPV on the hormonal profile of the plant or on the plant metabolome. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Marine assemblages respond rapidly to winter climate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, James W; Batt, Ryan D; Pinsky, Malin L

    2017-07-01

    Even species within the same assemblage have varied responses to climate change, and there is a poor understanding for why some taxa are more sensitive to climate than others. In addition, multiple mechanisms can drive species' responses, and responses may be specific to certain life stages or times of year. To test how marine species respond to climate variability, we analyzed 73 diverse taxa off the southeast US coast in 26 years of scientific trawl survey data and determined how changes in distribution and biomass relate to temperature. We found that winter temperatures were particularly useful for explaining interannual variation in species' distribution and biomass, although the direction and magnitude of the response varied among species from strongly negative, to little response, to strongly positive. Across species, the response to winter temperature varied greatly, with much of this variation being explained by thermal preference. A separate analysis of annual commercial fishery landings revealed that winter temperatures may also impact several important fisheries in the southeast United States. Based on the life stages of the species surveyed, winter temperature appears to act through overwinter mortality of juveniles or as a cue for migration timing. We predict that this assemblage will be responsive to projected increases in temperature and that winter temperature may be broadly important for species relationships with climate on a global scale. © The Authors Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sequential responding and planning in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Parrish, Audrey E

    2012-11-01

    Previous experiments have assessed planning during sequential responding to computer generated stimuli by Old World nonhuman primates including chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. However, no such assessment has been made with a New World primate species. Capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are an interesting test case for assessing the distribution of cognitive processes in the Order Primates because they sometimes show proficiency in tasks also mastered by apes and Old World monkeys, but in other cases fail to match the proficiency of those other species. In two experiments, eight capuchin monkeys selected five arbitrary stimuli in distinct locations on a computer monitor in a learned sequence. In Experiment 1, shift trials occurred in which the second and third stimuli were transposed when the first stimulus was selected by the animal. In Experiment 2, mask trials occurred in which all remaining stimuli were masked after the monkey selected the first stimulus. Monkeys made more mistakes on trials in which the locations of the second and third stimuli were interchanged than on trials in which locations were not interchanged, suggesting they had already planned to select a location that no longer contained the correct stimulus. When mask trials occurred, monkeys performed at levels significantly better than chance, but their performance exceeded chance levels only for the first and the second selections on a trial. These data indicate that capuchin monkeys performed very similarly to chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys and appeared to plan their selection sequences during the computerized task, but only to a limited degree.

  1. Anti-p200 pemphigoid responding to dapsone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Van Lerberghe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-p200 pemphigoid is a rare autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease. Clinical presentation is similar to standard bullous pemphigoid (BP but mucous membranes and cephalic lesions are more frequent. Histology and direct immunofluorescence (IF are identical to BP but indirect IF discloses linear deposits of immunoglobulin G (IgG on the dermal side of artificial salt-split skin. Specific diagnosis is based on western immunoblotting that shows circulating IgG recognizing a 200-kDa protein localized on the dermal extract. The 200-kDa antigen was recently identified as laminin γ1. Anti-p200 pemphigoid should be considered before all atypical or topical steroid-resistant bullous disease, as well as mucous membranes pemphigoid or epidermolysis bullosa acquisita. Dapsone appears to be the most effective treatment and should be used as the first option in combination with topical steroids. In this report, we describe the case of a patient with a typical clinical and immunopathological anti-p200 pemphigoid, responding to a combination of topical steroids and dapsone.

  2. Disgust sensitivity predicts defensive responding to mortality salience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Nicholas J; Crowell, Adrienne L; Tang, David; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Schmeichel, Brandon J

    2015-10-01

    Disgust protects the physical self. The present authors suggest that disgust also contributes to the protection of the psychological self by fostering stronger defensive reactions to existential concerns. To test this idea, 3 studies examined the link between disgust sensitivity and defensive responses to mortality salience or "terror management" processes (Greenberg, Solomon, & Pyszczynski, 1997). Each study included an individual difference measure of disgust sensitivity, a manipulation of mortality salience, and a dependent measure of defensive responding. In Study 1, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in worldview defense in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 2, disgust sensitivity predicted increases in optimistic perceptions of the future in the mortality salience condition but not in the control condition. In Study 3, disgust sensitivity predicted reductions in delay discounting for those in the mortality salience condition such that those higher in disgust sensitivity discounted the future less. This pattern did not occur in the control condition. These findings highlight disgust sensitivity as a key to understanding reactions to mortality salience, and they support the view that disgust-related responses protect against both physical (e.g., noxious substances) and psychological threats. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. PERIPHERAL SENSORY NEURONS EXPRESSING MELANOPSIN RESPOND TO LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Matynia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability of light to cause pain is paradoxical. The retina detects light but is devoid of nociceptors while the trigeminal sensory ganglia (TG contain nociceptors but not photoreceptors. Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are thought to mediate light-induced pain but recent evidence raises the possibility of an alternative light responsive pathway independent of the retina and optic nerve. Here, we show that melanopsin is expressed in both human and mouse TG neurons. In mice, they represent 3% of small TG neurons that are preferentially localized in the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve and are likely nociceptive C fibers and high-threshold mechanoreceptor Aδ fibers based on a strong size-function association. These isolated neurons respond to blue light stimuli with a delayed onset and sustained firing, similar to the melanopsin-dependent intrinsic photosensitivity observed in ipRGCs. Mice with severe bilateral optic nerve crush exhibit no light-induced responses including behavioral light aversion until treated with nitroglycerin, an inducer of migraine in people and migraine-like symptoms in mice. With nitroglycerin, these same mice with optic nerve crush exhibit significant light aversion. Furthermore, this retained light aversion remains dependent on melanopsin-expressing neurons. Our results demonstrate a novel light-responsive neural function independent of the optic nerve that may originate in the peripheral nervous system to provide the first direct mechanism for an alternative light detection pathway that influences motivated behavior.

  4. Random fractional Fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Liu, Shutian

    2007-08-01

    We propose a novel random fractional Fourier transform by randomizing the transform kernel function of the conventional fractional Fourier transform. The random fractional Fourier transform inherits the excellent mathematical properties from the fractional Fourier transform and can be easily implemented in optics. As a primary application the random fractional Fourier transform can be directly used in optical image encryption and decryption. The double phase encoding image encryption schemes can thus be modeled with cascaded random fractional Fourier transformers.

  5. Whither RDS? An investigation of Respondent Driven Sampling as a method of recruiting mainstream marijuana users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousineau Marie-Marthe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or unwanted consequences of their use. Much of the deviant, pathologized perception of drug users is historically derived from, and empirically supported, by a research emphasis on gaining ready access to users in drug treatment or in prison populations with higher incidence of problems of dependence and misuse. Because they are less visible, responsible recreational users of illicit drugs have been more difficult to study. Methods This article investigates Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS as a method of recruiting experienced marijuana users representative of users in the general population. Based on sampling conducted in a multi-city study (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, and compared to samples gathered using other research methods, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of RDS recruitment as a means of gaining access to illicit substance users who experience few harmful consequences of their use. Demographic characteristics of the sample in Toronto are compared with those of users in a recent household survey and a pilot study of Toronto where the latter utilized nonrandom self-selection of respondents. Results A modified approach to RDS was necessary to attain the target sample size in all four cities (i.e., 40 'users' from each site. The final sample in Toronto was largely similar, however, to marijuana users in a random household survey that was carried out in the same city. Whereas well-educated, married, whites and females in the survey were all somewhat overrepresented, the two samples, overall, were more alike than different with respect to economic status and employment. Furthermore, comparison with a self-selected sample suggests that (even modified RDS recruitment is a cost-effective way of

  6. Acrylonitrile exposure assessment in the emergency responders of a major train accident in Belgium: a human biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Fierens, S; De Smedt, T; De Cremer, K; Vleminckx, C; Mertens, B; Van Overmeire, I; Bader, M; De Paepe, P; Göen, T; Nemery, B; Schettgen, T; Stove, C; Van Oyen, H; Van Loco, J

    2014-12-15

    On May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in Wetteren, Belgium. Several tanks loaded with acrylonitrile (ACN) exploded, resulting in a fire and a leakage of ACN. To determine exposure to ACN and to assess discriminating factors for ACN exposure in the emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident. The study population consisted of 841 emergency responders. Between May 21 and June 28, they gave blood for the determination of N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) hemoglobin adducts and urine for the measurement of cotinine. They also filled in a short questionnaire. 163 (26%) non-smokers and 55 (27%) smokers showed CEV concentrations above the reference values of 10 and 200 pmol/g globin, respectively. The 95th percentile in the non-smokers was 73 pmol/g globin and the maximum was 452 pmol/g globin. ACN exposure among the non-smokers was predicted by (1) the distance to the accident, (2) the duration of exposure, and (3) the occupational function. Emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident were clearly exposed to ACN from the accident. However, the extent of exposure remained relatively moderate with CEV concentrations staying within the ranges described in literature as background for a smoking population. Moreover, the exposure was less pronounced in the emergency responders as compared to that in the local population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. How do protozoa respond to intense magnetic fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevorkian, Karine

    2005-03-01

    Most microorganisms such as Paramecium Caudatum, swim in helical paths in nature. In the absence of any external stimuli (e.g. obstacles, electric field, heat, etc.) the axes of these helical paths, which define the trajectories, are straight lines and are distributed in random directions. Our experiments reveal that these trajectories can be manipulated by applying intense DC magnetic fields of the order of several Tesla. Swimming paramecia, for example, align their trajectories with magnetic fields in excess of about 7 Tesla in fraction of a second. We will describe this phenomenon in fields up to 25 T. We will address whether this effect is an active or passive response to the magnetic torque exerted on the diamagnetically anisotropic structures in Paramecium. In addition we will present results for other species as they are obtained.

  8. NTU-Bankruptcy Problems: Consistency and the Relative Adjustment Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, B.; Borm, Peter; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper axiomatically studies bankruptcy problems with nontransferable utility by adequately generalizing and analyzing properties for bankruptcy rules. In particular, we discuss several consistency notions and introduce the class of parametric bankruptcy rules. Moreover, we introduce the class

  9. Island of Stability for Consistent Deformations of Einstein's Gravity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, Dennis D.; Berkhahn, Felix; Hofmann, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We construct deformations of general relativity that are consistent and phenomenologically viable, since they respect, in particular, cosmological backgrounds. These deformations have unique symmetries in accordance with their Minkowski cousins (Fierz-Pauli theory for massive gravitons) and incor...

  10. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  11. NTU-Bankruptcy Problems : Consistency and the Relative Adjustment Principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Bas; Borm, Peter; Estevez Fernandez, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper axiomatically studies bankruptcy problems with nontransferable utility by adequately generalizing and analyzing properties for bankruptcy rules. In particular, we discuss several consistency notions and introduce the class of parametric bankruptcy rules. Moreover, we introduce the class

  12. Uniform Consistency for Nonparametric Estimators in Null Recurrent Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jiti; Kanaya, Shin; Li, Degui

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes uniform consistency results for nonparametric kernel density and regression estimators when time series regressors concerned are nonstationary null recurrent Markov chains. Under suitable regularity conditions, we derive uniform convergence rates of the estimators. Our resu...

  13. A new insight into the consistency of smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G; Klapp, Jaime; Vargas, Carlos A; Campos, Kilver

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the problem of consistency of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) is solved. A novel error analysis is developed in $n$-dimensional space using the Poisson summation formula, which enables the treatment of the kernel and particle approximation errors in combined fashion. New consistency integral relations are derived for the particle approximation which correspond to the cosine Fourier transform of the classically known consistency conditions for the kernel approximation. The functional dependence of the error bounds on the SPH interpolation parameters, namely the smoothing length $h$ and the number of particles within the kernel support ${\\cal{N}}$ is demonstrated explicitly from which consistency conditions are seen to follow naturally. As ${\\cal{N}}\\to\\infty$, the particle approximation converges to the kernel approximation independently of $h$ provided that the particle mass scales with $h$ as $m\\propto h^{\\beta}$, with $\\beta >n$. This implies that as $h\\to 0$, the joint limit $m\\to 0$, $...

  14. Dynamic Consistency in Process Algebra: From Paradigm to ACP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Andova; L.P.J. Groenewegen; E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThe coordination modelling language Paradigm addresses collaboration between components in terms of dynamic constraints. Within a Paradigm model, component dynamics are consistently specified at various levels of abstraction. The operational semantics of Paradigm is given. For a

  15. What is wrong with non-respondents? Alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity in a 12-year follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Gray, Linsay; Glümer, Charlotte; Juel, Knud

    2015-09-01

    Response rates in health surveys have diminished over the last two decades, making it difficult to obtain reliable information on health and health-related risk factors in different population groups. This study compared cause-specific mortality and morbidity among survey respondents and different types of non-respondents to estimate alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity among non-respondents. Prospective follow-up study of respondents and non-respondents in two cross-sectional health surveys. Denmark. A total sample of 39 540 Danish citizens aged 16 years or older. Register-based information on cause-specific mortality and morbidity at the individual level was obtained for respondents (n = 28 072) and different types of non-respondents (refusals n = 8954; illness/disabled n = 731, uncontactable n = 1593). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine differences in alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity, respectively, in a 12-year follow-up period. Overall, non-response was associated with a significantly increased hazard ratio (HR) of 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36-1.78] for alcohol-related morbidity, 1.88 (95% CI = 1.38-2.57) for alcohol-related mortality, 1.55 (95% CI = 1.27-1.88) for drug-related morbidity, 3.04 (95% CI = 1.57-5.89) for drug-related mortality and 1.15 (95% CI = 1.03-1.29) for smoking-related morbidity. The hazard ratio for smoking-related mortality also tended to be higher among non-respondents compared with respondents, although no significant association was evident (HR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.95-1.36). Uncontactable and ill/disabled non-respondents generally had a higher hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with refusal non-respondents. Health survey non-respondents in Denmark have an increased hazard ratio of alcohol-, drug- and smoking-related mortality and morbidity compared with

  16. Consistent Yokoya-Chen Approximation to Beamstrahlung(LCC-0010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M

    2004-04-22

    I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.I reconsider the Yokoya-Chen approximate evolution equation for beamstrahlung and modify it slightly to generate simple, consistent analytical approximations for the electron and photon energy spectra. I compare these approximations to previous ones, and to simulation data.

  17. All consistent interactions for exterior form gauge fields

    OpenAIRE

    Henneaux, Marc; Knaepen, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    We give the complete list of all first-order consistent interaction vertices for a set of exterior form gauge fields of form degree >1, described in the free limit by the standard Maxwell-like action. A special attention is paid to the interactions that deform the gauge transformations. These are shown to be necessarily of the Noether form "conserved antisymmetric tensor" times "p-form potential" and exist only in particular spacetime dimensions. Conditions for consistency to all orders in th...

  18. Articulated object tracking by rendering consistent appearance parts

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzementi, Z.; Voros, Sandrine; Hager, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; We describe a general methodology for tracking 3-dimensional objects in monocular and stereo video that makes use of GPU-accelerated filtering and rendering in combination with machine learning techniques. The method operates on targets consisting of kinematic chains with known geometry. The tracked target is divided into one or more areas of consistent appearance. The appearance of each area is represented by a classifier trained to assign a class-conditional probabil...

  19. Consistent description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markiv, B. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); Tokarchuk, M. [Institute for Condensed Matter Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 1 Svientsitskii St., 79011 Lviv (Ukraine); National University “Lviv Polytechnic,” 12 Bandera St., 79013 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-15

    A consistent statistical description of kinetics and hydrodynamics of dusty plasma is proposed based on the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method. For the case of partial dynamics, the nonequilibrium statistical operator and the generalized transport equations for a consistent description of kinetics of dust particles and hydrodynamics of electrons, ions, and neutral atoms are obtained. In the approximation of weakly nonequilibrium process, a spectrum of collective excitations of dusty plasma is investigated in the hydrodynamic limit.

  20. Behavioural consistency and life history of Rana dalmatina tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urszán, Tamás János; Török, János; Hettyey, Attila; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-05-01

    The focus of evolutionary behavioural ecologists has recently turned towards understanding the causes and consequences of behavioural consistency, manifesting either as animal personality (consistency in a single behaviour) or behavioural syndrome (consistency across more behaviours). Behavioural type (mean individual behaviour) has been linked to life-history strategies, leading to the emergence of the integrated pace-of-life syndrome (POLS) theory. Using Rana dalmatina tadpoles as models, we tested if behavioural consistency and POLS could be detected during the early ontogenesis of this amphibian. We targeted two ontogenetic stages and measured activity, exploration and risk-taking in a common garden experiment, assessing both individual behavioural type and intra-individual behavioural variation. We observed that activity was consistent in all tadpoles, exploration only became consistent with advancing age and risk-taking only became consistent in tadpoles that had been tested, and thus disturbed, earlier. Only previously tested tadpoles showed trends indicative of behavioural syndromes. We found an activity-age at metamorphosis POLS in the previously untested tadpoles irrespective of age. Relative growth rate correlated positively with the intra-individual variation of activity of the previously untested older tadpoles. In previously tested older tadpoles, intra-individual variation of exploration correlated negatively and intra-individual variation of risk-taking correlated positively with relative growth rate. We provide evidence for behavioural consistency and POLS in predator- and conspecific-naive tadpoles. Intra-individual behavioural variation was also correlated to life history, suggesting its relevance for the POLS theory. The strong effect of moderate disturbance related to standard behavioural testing on later behaviour draws attention to the pitfalls embedded in repeated testing.

  1. S Matrix Proof of Consistency Condition Derived from Mixed Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Vineer

    For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the JJJ> and anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. We present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.

  2. Autonomous Navigation with Constrained Consistency for C-Ranger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujing Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs have become the most widely used tools for undertaking complex exploration tasks in marine environments. Their synthetic ability to carry out localization autonomously and build an environmental map concurrently, in other words, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM, are considered to be pivotal requirements for AUVs to have truly autonomous navigation. However, the consistency problem of the SLAM system has been greatly ignored during the past decades. In this paper, a consistency constrained extended Kalman filter (EKF SLAM algorithm, applying the idea of local consistency, is proposed and applied to the autonomous navigation of the C-Ranger AUV, which is developed as our experimental platform. The concept of local consistency (LC is introduced after an explicit theoretical derivation of the EKF-SLAM system. Then, we present a locally consistency-constrained EKF-SLAM design, LC-EKF, in which the landmark estimates used for linearization are fixed at the beginning of each local time period, rather than evaluated at the latest landmark estimates. Finally, our proposed LC-EKF algorithm is experimentally verified, both in simulations and sea trials. The experimental results show that the LC-EKF performs well with regard to consistency, accuracy and computational efficiency.

  3. Measuring consistency of autobiographical memory recall in depression.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Semkovska, Maria

    2012-05-15

    Autobiographical amnesia assessments in depression need to account for normal changes in consistency over time, contribution of mood and type of memories measured. We report herein validation studies of the Columbia Autobiographical Memory Interview - Short Form (CAMI-SF), exclusively used in depressed patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) but without previous published report of normative data. The CAMI-SF was administered twice with a 6-month interval to 44 healthy volunteers to obtain normative data for retrieval consistency of its Semantic, Episodic-Extended and Episodic-Specific components and assess their reliability and validity. Healthy volunteers showed significant large decreases in retrieval consistency on all components. The Semantic and Episodic-Specific components demonstrated substantial construct validity. We then assessed CAMI-SF retrieval consistencies over a 2-month interval in 30 severely depressed patients never treated with ECT compared with healthy controls (n=19). On initial assessment, depressed patients produced less episodic-specific memories than controls. Both groups showed equivalent amounts of consistency loss over a 2-month interval on all components. At reassessment, only patients with persisting depressive symptoms were distinguishable from controls on episodic-specific memories retrieved. Research quantifying retrograde amnesia following ECT for depression needs to control for normal loss in consistency over time and contribution of persisting depressive symptoms.

  4. Self-consistency in Bicultural Persons: Dialectical Self-beliefs Mediate the Relation between Identity Integration and Self-consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Noels, Kimberly A.; Lalonde, Richard N.; Salas, S. J.

    2017-01-01

    Prior research differentiates dialectical (e.g., East Asian) from non-dialectical cultures (e.g., North American and Latino) and attributes cultural differences in self-concept consistency to naïve dialecticism. In this research, we explored the effects of managing two cultural identities on consistency within the bicultural self-concept via the role of dialectical beliefs. Because the challenge of integrating more than one culture within the self is common to biculturals of various heritage backgrounds, the effects of bicultural identity integration should not depend on whether the heritage culture is dialectical or not. In four studies across diverse groups of bicultural Canadians, we showed that having an integrated bicultural identity was associated with being more consistent across roles (Studies 1–3) and making less ambiguous self-evaluations (Study 4). Furthermore, dialectical self-beliefs mediated the effect of bicultural identity integration on self-consistency (Studies 2–4). Finally, Latino biculturals reported being more consistent across roles than did East Asian biculturals (Study 2), revealing the ethnic heritage difference between the two groups. We conclude that both the content of heritage culture and the process of integrating cultural identities influence the extent of self-consistency among biculturals. Thus, consistency within the bicultural self-concept can be understood, in part, to be a unique psychological product of bicultural experience. PMID:28326052

  5. Accommodation Responds to Optical Vergence and Not Defocus Blur Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Esteve-Taboada, José J; Kruger, Philip B; Montés-Micó, Robert; López-Gil, Norberto

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether changes in wavefront spherical curvature (optical vergence) are a directional cue for accommodation. Nine subjects participated in this experiment. The accommodation response to a monochromatic target was measured continuously with a custom-made adaptive optics system while astigmatism and higher-order aberrations were corrected in real time. There were two experimental open-loop conditions: vergence-driven condition, where the deformable mirror provided sinusoidal changes in defocus at the retina between -1 and +1 diopters (D) at 0.2 Hz; and blur-driven condition, in which the level of defocus at the retina was always 0 D, but a sinusoidal defocus blur between -1 and +1 D at 0.2 Hz was simulated in the target. Right before the beginning of each trial, the target was moved to an accommodative demand of 2 D. Eight out of nine subjects showed sinusoidal responses for the vergence-driven condition but not for the blur-driven condition. Their average (±SD) gain for the vergence-driven condition was 0.50 (±0.28). For the blur-driven condition, average gain was much smaller at 0.07 (±0.03). The ninth subject showed little to no response for both conditions, with average gain Vergence-driven condition gain was significantly different from blur-driven condition gain (P = 0.004). Accommodation responds to optical vergence, even without feedback, and not to changes in defocus blur alone. These results suggest the presence of a retinal mechanism that provides a directional cue for accommodation from optical vergence.

  6. Secondary calcification and dissolution respond differently to future ocean conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, N. J.; Donahue, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change threatens both the accretion and erosion processes that sustain coral reefs. Secondary calcification, bioerosion, and reef dissolution are integral to the structural complexity and long-term persistence of coral reefs, yet these processes have received less research attention than reef accretion by corals. In this study, we use climate scenarios from RCP 8.5 to examine the combined effects of rising ocean acidity and sea surface temperature (SST) on both secondary calcification and dissolution rates of a natural coral rubble community using a flow-through aquarium system. We found that secondary reef calcification and dissolution responded differently to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature. Calcification had a non-linear response to the combined effect of pCO2 and temperature: the highest calcification rate occurred slightly above ambient conditions and the lowest calcification rate was in the highest temperature-pCO2 condition. In contrast, dissolution increased linearly with temperature-pCO2 . The rubble community switched from net calcification to net dissolution at +271 μatm pCO2 and 0.75 °C above ambient conditions, suggesting that rubble reefs may shift from net calcification to net dissolution before the end of the century. Our results indicate that (i) dissolution may be more sensitive to climate change than calcification and (ii) that calcification and dissolution have different functional responses to climate stressors; this highlights the need to study the effects of climate stressors on both calcification and dissolution to predict future changes in coral reefs.

  7. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  8. Methods for Evaluating Respondent Attrition in Web-Based Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochheimer, Camille J; Sabo, Roy T; Krist, Alex H; Day, Teresa; Cyrus, John; Woolf, Steven H

    2016-11-22

    Electronic surveys are convenient, cost effective, and increasingly popular tools for collecting information. While the online platform allows researchers to recruit and enroll more participants, there is an increased risk of participant dropout in Web-based research. Often, these dropout trends are simply reported, adjusted for, or ignored altogether. To propose a conceptual framework that analyzes respondent attrition and demonstrates the utility of these methods with existing survey data. First, we suggest visualization of attrition trends using bar charts and survival curves. Next, we propose a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) to detect or confirm significant attrition points. Finally, we suggest applications of existing statistical methods to investigate the effect of internal survey characteristics and patient characteristics on dropout. In order to apply this framework, we conducted a case study; a seventeen-item Informed Decision-Making (IDM) module addressing how and why patients make decisions about cancer screening. Using the framework, we were able to find significant attrition points at Questions 4, 6, 7, and 9, and were also able to identify participant responses and characteristics associated with dropout at these points and overall. When these methods were applied to survey data, significant attrition trends were revealed, both visually and empirically, that can inspire researchers to investigate the factors associated with survey dropout, address whether survey completion is associated with health outcomes, and compare attrition patterns between groups. The framework can be used to extract information beyond simple responses, can be useful during survey development, and can help determine the external validity of survey results.

  9. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 4. Random Walks in a Random Environment. S R S Varadhan. Invited Articles Volume 114 Issue ... Author Affiliations. S R S Varadhan1. Department of Mathematics, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012, USA ...

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  11. Temporal Learning and Rhythmic Responding: No Reduction in the Proportion Easy Effect with Variable Response-Stimulus Intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Schmidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present report further investigates the proportion easy effect, a conflict-free version of the proportion congruent effect. In the proportion easy paradigm, it is observed that the difference in performance between easy (high contrast and hard (low contrast items is smaller in a task with mostly hard items relative to a task with mostly easy items. This effect has been interpreted as evidence for temporal learning: participants learn a faster pace (i.e., rhythm of responding in the mostly easy context, which boosts the contrast effect, and a slower pace in the mostly hard context. In the present experiment, intervals between trials were either fixed or randomly varied from trial to trial. Interestingly, the proportion easy effect was still present with variable intervals. These data suggest that participants do not learn the regularity in timing from one response to the next (which was highly inconsistent with variable intervals. As one alternative, participants might be learning the intervals between stimulus onset and responses, which were not manipulated. They could then use this learned timing information to prepare for responding at the anticipated time, resulting in rhythmic responding. The results further imply that variable response-stimulus intervals are insufficient for controlling for rhythmic biases.

  12. Dealing with Conflicting or Consistent Medical Information on the Web: When Expert Information Breeds Laypersons' Doubts about Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienhues, Dorothe; Stadtler, Marc; Bromme, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated how dealing with conflicting versus consistent medical information on the Web impacts on topic-specific and medicine-related epistemic beliefs as well as aspects of health decision making. One hundred mostly female university students were randomly assigned to three groups. Two intervention groups searched the Web…

  13. Random walks on random Koch curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, S; Hoffmann, K H [Institut fuer Physik, Technische Universitaet, D-09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Essex, C [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 5B7 (Canada)

    2009-06-05

    Diffusion processes in porous materials are often modeled as random walks on fractals. In order to capture the randomness of the materials random fractals are employed, which no longer show the deterministic self-similarity of regular fractals. Finding a continuum differential equation describing the diffusion on such fractals has been a long-standing goal, and we address the question of whether the concepts developed for regular fractals are still applicable. We use the random Koch curve as a convenient example as it provides certain technical advantages by its separation of time and space features. While some of the concepts developed for regular fractals can be used unaltered, others have to be modified. Based on the concept of fibers, we introduce ensemble-averaged density functions which produce a differentiable estimate of probability explicitly and compare it to random walk data.

  14. Prevention of incorrect responding for establishing instruction following behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, P C

    1981-03-01

    A comparison of two techniques for teaching instruction-following to severely retarded children was the purpose of the present study. The design consisted of a cross-over design involving a cross-over of techniques for each of the three subjects. Within the experimental condition the instructions were presented by physically preventing the subject from making an incorrect response, that is, interrupting an incorrect movement. The results were in favour of the experimental condition in comparison with a trial-and-error approach. The data obtained in this investigation provide further evidence for the notion of errorless-discrimination learning.

  15. Near-resonant absorption in the time-dependent self-consistent field and multiconfigurational self-consistent field approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Patrick; Bishop, David M.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aa

    2001-01-01

    Computationally tractable expressions for the evaluation of the linear response function in the multiconfigurational self-consistent field approximation were derived and implemented. The finite lifetime of the electronically excited states was considered and the linear response function was shown...

  16. Martial arts striking hand peak acceleration, accuracy and consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Osmar Pinto; Marzullo, Ana Carolina De Miranda; Bolander, Richard P; Bir, Cynthia A

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to investigate the possible trade-off between peak hand acceleration and accuracy and consistency of hand strikes performed by martial artists of different training experiences. Ten male martial artists with training experience ranging from one to nine years volunteered to participate in the experiment. Each participant performed 12 maximum effort goal-directed strikes. Hand acceleration during the strikes was obtained using a tri-axial accelerometer block. A pressure sensor matrix was used to determine the accuracy and consistency of the strikes. Accuracy was estimated by the radial distance between the centroid of each subject's 12 strikes and the target, whereas consistency was estimated by the square root of the 12 strikes mean squared distance from their centroid. We found that training experience was significantly correlated to hand peak acceleration prior to impact (r(2)=0.456, p =0.032) and accuracy (r(2)=0. 621, p=0.012). These correlations suggest that more experienced participants exhibited higher hand peak accelerations and at the same time were more accurate. Training experience, however, was not correlated to consistency (r(2)=0.085, p=0.413). Overall, our results suggest that martial arts training may lead practitioners to achieve higher striking hand accelerations with better accuracy and no change in striking consistency.

  17. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Consistency of response and image recognition, pulmonary nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, T M; Liu, M A Q; Galvan, E; Bassett, R; Murphy, W A; Ng, C S; Matamoros, A; Marom, E M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the effect of recognition of a previously encountered radiograph on consistency of response in localized pulmonary nodules. 13 radiologists interpreted 40 radiographs each to locate pulmonary nodules. A few days later, they again interpreted 40 radiographs. Half of the images in the second set were new. We asked the radiologists whether each image had been in the first set. We used Fisher's exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test to evaluate the correlation between recognition of an image and consistency in its interpretation. We evaluated the data using all possible recognition levels-definitely, probably or possibly included vs definitely, probably or possibly not included by collapsing the recognition levels into two and by eliminating the "possibly included" and "possibly not included" scores. With all but one of six methods of looking at the data, there was no significant correlation between consistency in interpretation and recognition of the image. When the possibly included and possibly not included scores were eliminated, there was a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.04) with slightly greater consistency in interpretation of recognized than that of non-recognized images. We found no convincing evidence that radiologists' recognition of images in an observer performance study affects their interpretation on a second encounter. Conscious recognition of chest radiographs did not result in a greater degree of consistency in the tested interpretation than that in the interpretation of images that were not recognized.

  19. Gravitationally Consistent Halo Catalogs and Merger Trees for Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi; Busha, Michael T.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Primack, Joel R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for generating merger trees and halo catalogs which explicitly ensures consistency of halo properties (mass, position, and velocity) across time steps. Our algorithm has demonstrated the ability to improve both the completeness (through detecting and inserting otherwise missing halos) and purity (through detecting and removing spurious objects) of both merger trees and halo catalogs. In addition, our method is able to robustly measure the self-consistency of halo finders; it is the first to directly measure the uncertainties in halo positions, halo velocities, and the halo mass function for a given halo finder based on consistency between snapshots in cosmological simulations. We use this algorithm to generate merger trees for two large simulations (Bolshoi and Consuelo) and evaluate two halo finders (ROCKSTAR and BDM). We find that both the ROCKSTAR and BDM halo finders track halos extremely well; in both, the number of halos which do not have physically consistent progenitors is at the 1%-2% level across all halo masses. Our code is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/consistent-trees. Our trees and catalogs are publicly available at http://hipacc.ucsc.edu/Bolshoi/.

  20. Analysis of Consistency of Printing Blankets using Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Jayaraman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the application of an analytical tool to quantify material consistency of offset printing blankets. Printing blankets are essentially viscoelastic rubber composites of several laminas. High levels of material consistency are expected from rubber blankets for quality print and for quick recovery from smash encountered during the printing process. The present study aims at determining objectively the consistency of printing blankets at three specific torque levels of tension under two distinct stages; 1. under normal printing conditions and 2. on recovery after smash. The experiment devised exhibits a variation in tone reproduction properties of each blanket signifying the levels of inconsistency also in thicknessdirection. Correlation technique was employed on ink density variations obtained from the blanket on paper. Both blankets exhibited good consistency over three torque levels under normal printing conditions. However on smash the recovery of blanket and its consistency was a function of manufacturing and torque levels. This study attempts to provide a new metrics for failure analysis of offset printing blankets. It also underscores the need for optimizing the torque for blankets from different manufacturers.