Bipartite quantum states and random complex networks
Garnerone, Silvano; Giorda, Paolo; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-01-01
We introduce a mapping between graphs and pure quantum bipartite states and show that the associated entanglement entropy conveys non-trivial information about the structure of the graph. Our primary goal is to investigate the family of random graphs known as complex networks. In the case of classical random graphs, we derive an analytic expression for the averaged entanglement entropy \\bar S while for general complex networks we rely on numerics. For a large number of nodes n we find a scaling \\bar {S} \\sim c log n +g_{ {e}} where both the prefactor c and the sub-leading O(1) term ge are characteristic of the different classes of complex networks. In particular, ge encodes topological features of the graphs and is named network topological entropy. Our results suggest that quantum entanglement may provide a powerful tool for the analysis of large complex networks with non-trivial topological properties.
Random Bosonic States for Robust Quantum Metrology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Oszmaniec
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We study how useful random states are for quantum metrology, i.e., whether they surpass the classical limits imposed on precision in the canonical phase sensing scenario. First, we prove that random pure states drawn from the Hilbert space of distinguishable particles typically do not lead to superclassical scaling of precision even when allowing for local unitary optimization. Conversely, we show that random pure states from the symmetric subspace typically achieve the optimal Heisenberg scaling without the need for local unitary optimization. Surprisingly, the Heisenberg scaling is observed for random isospectral states of arbitrarily low purity and preserved under loss of a fixed number of particles. Moreover, we prove that for pure states, a standard photon-counting interferometric measurement suffices to typically achieve resolution following the Heisenberg scaling for all values of the phase at the same time. Finally, we demonstrate that metrologically useful states can be prepared with short random optical circuits generated from three types of beam splitters and a single nonlinear (Kerr-like transformation.
Quantum Entanglement in Random Physical States
Hamma, Alioscia; Santra, Siddhartha; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-07-01
Most states in the Hilbert space are maximally entangled. This fact has proven useful to investigate—among other things—the foundations of statistical mechanics. Unfortunately, most states in the Hilbert space of a quantum many-body system are not physically accessible. We define physical ensembles of states acting on random factorized states by a circuit of length k of random and independent unitaries with local support. We study the typicality of entanglement by means of the purity of the reduced state. We find that for a time k=O(1), the typical purity obeys the area law. Thus, the upper bounds for area law are actually saturated, on average, with a variance that goes to zero for large systems. Similarly, we prove that by means of local evolution a subsystem of linear dimensions L is typically entangled with a volume law when the time scales with the size of the subsystem. Moreover, we show that for large values of k the reduced state becomes very close to the completely mixed state.
Average subentropy, coherence and entanglement of random mixed quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Lin, E-mail: godyalin@163.com [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India); Pati, Arun K., E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Allahabad, 211019 (India)
2017-02-15
Compact expressions for the average subentropy and coherence are obtained for random mixed states that are generated via various probability measures. Surprisingly, our results show that the average subentropy of random mixed states approaches the maximum value of the subentropy which is attained for the maximally mixed state as we increase the dimension. In the special case of the random mixed states sampled from the induced measure via partial tracing of random bipartite pure states, we establish the typicality of the relative entropy of coherence for random mixed states invoking the concentration of measure phenomenon. Our results also indicate that mixed quantum states are less useful compared to pure quantum states in higher dimension when we extract quantum coherence as a resource. This is because of the fact that average coherence of random mixed states is bounded uniformly, however, the average coherence of random pure states increases with the increasing dimension. As an important application, we establish the typicality of relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement for a specific class of random bipartite mixed states. In particular, most of the random states in this specific class have relative entropy of entanglement and distillable entanglement equal to some fixed number (to within an arbitrary small error), thereby hugely reducing the complexity of computation of these entanglement measures for this specific class of mixed states.
Miszczak, Jarosław Adam
2013-01-01
The presented package for the Mathematica computing system allows the harnessing of quantum random number generators (QRNG) for investigating the statistical properties of quantum states. The described package implements a number of functions for generating random states. The new version of the package adds the ability to use the on-line quantum random number generator service and implements new functions for retrieving lists of random numbers. Thanks to the introduced improvements, the new version provides faster access to high-quality sources of random numbers and can be used in simulations requiring large amount of random data. New version program summaryProgram title: TRQS Catalogue identifier: AEKA_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKA_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 18 134 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 520 49 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica, C. Computer: Any supporting Mathematica in version 7 or higher. Operating system: Any platform supporting Mathematica; tested with GNU/Linux (32 and 64 bit). RAM: Case-dependent Supplementary material: Fig. 1 mentioned below can be downloaded. Classification: 4.15. External routines: Quantis software library (http://www.idquantique.com/support/quantis-trng.html) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)118 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Generation of random density matrices and utilization of high-quality random numbers for the purpose of computer simulation. Solution method: Use of a physical quantum random number generator and an on-line service providing access to the source of true random
On the reduction criterion for random quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia, E-mail: maria.jivulescu@upt.ro; Lupa, Nicolae, E-mail: nicolae.lupa@upt.ro [Department of Mathematics, Politehnica University of Timişoara, Victoriei Square 2, 300006 Timişoara (Romania); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2014-11-15
In this paper, we study the reduction criterion for detecting entanglement of large dimensional bipartite quantum systems. We first obtain an explicit formula for the moments of a random quantum state to which the reduction criterion has been applied. We show that the empirical eigenvalue distribution of this random matrix converges strongly to a limit that we compute, in three different asymptotic regimes. We then employ tools from free probability theory to study the asymptotic positivity of the reduction operators. Finally, we compare the reduction criterion with other entanglement criteria, via thresholds.
N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling
Bernardo Gavito, Ramón; Jiménez Urbanos, Fernando; Roberts, Jonathan; Sexton, James; Astbury, Benjamin; Shokeir, Hamzah; McGrath, Thomas; Noori, Yasir J.; Woodhead, Christopher S.; Missous, Mohamed; Roedig, Utz; Young, Robert J.
2017-08-01
In this work, we show how the hysteretic behaviour of resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) can be exploited for new functionalities. In particular, the RTDs exhibit a stochastic 2-state switching mechanism that could be useful for random number generation and cryptographic applications. This behaviour can be scaled to N-bit switching, by connecting various RTDs in series. The InGaAs/AlAs RTDs used in our experiments display very sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks at room temperature which show hysteresis cycles that, rather than having a fixed switching threshold, show a probability distribution about a central value. We propose to use this intrinsic uncertainty emerging from the quantum nature of the RTDs as a source of randomness. We show that a combination of two RTDs in series results in devices with three-state outputs and discuss the possibility of scaling to N-state devices by subsequent series connections of RTDs, which we demonstrate for the up to the 4-state case. In this work, we suggest using that the intrinsic uncertainty in the conduction paths of resonant tunnelling diodes can behave as a source of randomness that can be integrated into current electronics to produce on-chip true random number generators. The N-shaped I-V characteristic of RTDs results in a two-level random voltage output when driven with current pulse trains. Electrical characterisation and randomness testing of the devices was conducted in order to determine the validity of the true randomness assumption. Based on the results obtained for the single RTD case, we suggest the possibility of using multi-well devices to generate N-state random switching devices for their use in random number generation or multi-valued logic devices.
Ensembles of physical states and random quantum circuits on graphs
Hamma, Alioscia; Santra, Siddhartha; Zanardi, Paolo
2012-11-01
In this paper we continue and extend the investigations of the ensembles of random physical states introduced in Hamma [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.040502 109, 040502 (2012)]. These ensembles are constructed by finite-length random quantum circuits (RQC) acting on the (hyper)edges of an underlying (hyper)graph structure. The latter encodes for the locality structure associated with finite-time quantum evolutions generated by physical, i.e., local, Hamiltonians. Our goal is to analyze physical properties of typical states in these ensembles; in particular here we focus on proxies of quantum entanglement as purity and α-Renyi entropies. The problem is formulated in terms of matrix elements of superoperators which depend on the graph structure, choice of probability measure over the local unitaries, and circuit length. In the α=2 case these superoperators act on a restricted multiqubit space generated by permutation operators associated to the subsets of vertices of the graph. For permutationally invariant interactions the dynamics can be further restricted to an exponentially smaller subspace. We consider different families of RQCs and study their typical entanglement properties for finite time as well as their asymptotic behavior. We find that area law holds in average and that the volume law is a typical property (that is, it holds in average and the fluctuations around the average are vanishing for the large system) of physical states. The area law arises when the evolution time is O(1) with respect to the size L of the system, while the volume law arises as is typical when the evolution time scales like O(L).
Quantum random number generators
Herrero-Collantes, Miguel; Garcia-Escartin, Juan Carlos
2017-01-01
Random numbers are a fundamental resource in science and engineering with important applications in simulation and cryptography. The inherent randomness at the core of quantum mechanics makes quantum systems a perfect source of entropy. Quantum random number generation is one of the most mature quantum technologies with many alternative generation methods. This review discusses the different technologies in quantum random number generation from the early devices based on radioactive decay to the multiple ways to use the quantum states of light to gather entropy from a quantum origin. Randomness extraction and amplification and the notable possibility of generating trusted random numbers even with untrusted hardware using device-independent generation protocols are also discussed.
Quantum cryptography using coherent states: Randomized encryption and key generation
Corndorf, Eric
With the advent of the global optical-telecommunications infrastructure, an increasing number of individuals, companies, and agencies communicate information with one another over public networks or physically-insecure private networks. While the majority of the traffic flowing through these networks requires little or no assurance of secrecy, the same cannot be said for certain communications between banks, between government agencies, within the military, and between corporations. In these arenas, the need to specify some level of secrecy in communications is a high priority. While the current approaches to securing sensitive information (namely the public-key-cryptography infrastructure and deterministic private-key ciphers like AES and 3DES) seem to be cryptographically strong based on empirical evidence, there exist no mathematical proofs of secrecy for any widely deployed cryptosystem. As an example, the ubiquitous public-key cryptosystems infer all of their secrecy from the assumption that factoring of the product of two large primes is necessarily time consuming---something which has not, and perhaps cannot, be proven. Since the 1980s, the possibility of using quantum-mechanical features of light as a physical mechanism for satisfying particular cryptographic objectives has been explored. This research has been fueled by the hopes that cryptosystems based on quantum systems may provide provable levels of secrecy which are at least as valid as quantum mechanics itself. Unfortunately, the most widely considered quantum-cryptographic protocols (BB84 and the Ekert protocol) have serious implementation problems. Specifically, they require quantum-mechanical states which are not readily available, and they rely on unproven relations between intrusion-level detection and the information available to an attacker. As a result, the secrecy level provided by these experimental implementations is entirely unspecified. In an effort to provably satisfy the cryptographic
Hacking on decoy-state quantum key distribution system with partial phase randomization
Sun, Shi-Hai; Jiang, Mu-Sheng; Ma, Xiang-Chun; Li, Chun-Yan; Liang, Lin-Mei
2014-04-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides means for unconditional secure key transmission between two distant parties. However, in practical implementations, it suffers from quantum hacking due to device imperfections. Here we propose a hybrid measurement attack, with only linear optics, homodyne detection, and single photon detection, to the widely used vacuum + weak decoy state QKD system when the phase of source is partially randomized. Our analysis shows that, in some parameter regimes, the proposed attack would result in an entanglement breaking channel but still be able to trick the legitimate users to believe they have transmitted secure keys. That is, the eavesdropper is able to steal all the key information without discovered by the users. Thus, our proposal reveals that partial phase randomization is not sufficient to guarantee the security of phase-encoding QKD systems with weak coherent states.
Quantum random number generation enhanced by weak-coherent states interference.
Ferreira da Silva, T; Xavier, G B; Amaral, G C; Temporão, G P; von der Weid, J P
2016-08-22
We propose and demonstrate a technique for quantum random number generation based on the random population of the output spatial modes of a beam splitter when both inputs are simultaneously fed with indistinguishable weak coherent states. We simulate and experimentally validate the probability of generation of random bits as a function of the average photon number per input, and compare it to the traditional approach of a single weak coherent state transmitted through a beam-splitter, showing an improvement of up to 32%. The ensuing interference phenomenon reduces the probability of coincident counts between the detectors associated with bits 0 and 1, thus increasing the probability of occurrence of a valid output. A long bit string is assessed by a standard randomness test suite with good confidence. Our proposal can be easily implemented and opens attractive performance gains without a significant trade-off.
Fortran code for generating random probability vectors, unitaries, and quantum states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonas eMaziero
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The usefulness of generating random configurations is recognized in many areas of knowledge. Fortran was born for scientific computing and has been one of the main programming languages in this area since then. And several ongoing projects targeting towards its betterment indicate that it will keep this status in the decades to come. In this article, we describe Fortran codes produced, or organized, for the generation of the following random objects: numbers, probability vectors, unitary matrices, and quantum state vectors and density matrices. Some matrix functions are also included and may be of independent interest.
Máttar, A.; Skrzypczyk, P.; Aguilar, G. H.; Nery, R. V.; Souto Ribeiro, P. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Cavalcanti, D.
2017-03-01
Recently, Cavalcanti et al (2015) proposed a method to certify the presence of entanglement in asymmetric networks, where some users do not have control over the measurements they are performing. Such asymmetry naturally emerges in realistic situations, such as in cryptographic protocols over quantum networks. Here we implement such ‘semi-device-independent’ techniques to experimentally witness all types of entanglement on a three-qubit photonic W state. Furthermore, we analyse the amount of genuine randomness that can be certified in this scenario from any bipartition of the three-qubit W state.
Random Quantum Dynamics: From Random Quantum Circuits to Quantum Chaos
Brown, Winton G.
Quantum circuits consisting of single and two-qubit gates selected at random from a universal gate set are examined. Specifically, the asymptotic rate for large numbers of qubits n and large circuit depth k at which t-order statistical moments of the matrix elements of the resulting random unitary transformation converge to their values with respect to the invariant Haar measure on U(2 n) are determined. The asymptotic convergence rate is obtained from the spectral gap of a superoperator describing the action of the circuit on t-copies of the system Hilbert space. For a class of random quantum circuits that are reversible and invariant under permutation of the qubit labels, the gap and hence the asymptotic convergence rate is shown to scale as ˜ 1/n for sufficiently large n, with a coefficient that may in general depend on t. Bounds are derived between the convergence rates for a broader class of reversible random quantum circuits and the convergence rates of second order moments of irreversible random quantum circuits are examined through a mapping to a Markov chain. Weak constraints are constructed for finite moments of matrix elements of local observables with respect to the eigenvectors of general many-body Hamiltonians in the thermodynamic limit. This is accomplished by means of an expansion in terms of polynomials which are orthogonal with respect to the density of states. The way in which such constraints are satisfied is explored in connection to non-integrability and is argued to provide a general framework for analyzing many-body quantum chaos. Hamiltonians consisting of the XX-interaction between spin-1/2 particles (qubits) which are nearest neighbors on a 3-regular random graph (non-integrable), and an open chain (integrable), are diagonalized numerically to illustrate how the weak constraints can be satisfied. The entanglement content of the eigenvectors of chaotic many-body Hamiltonians is discussed as well as the connection between quantum chaos and
Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels
Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila
2017-01-01
The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...
Quantum randomness and unpredictability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaeger, Gregg [Quantum Communication and Measurement Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Division of Natural Science and Mathematics, Boston University, Boston, MA (United States)
2017-06-15
Quantum mechanics is a physical theory supplying probabilities corresponding to expectation values for measurement outcomes. Indeed, its formalism can be constructed with measurement as a fundamental process, as was done by Schwinger, provided that individual measurements outcomes occur in a random way. The randomness appearing in quantum mechanics, as with other forms of randomness, has often been considered equivalent to a form of indeterminism. Here, it is argued that quantum randomness should instead be understood as a form of unpredictability because, amongst other things, indeterminism is not a necessary condition for randomness. For concreteness, an explication of the randomness of quantum mechanics as the unpredictability of quantum measurement outcomes is provided. Finally, it is shown how this view can be combined with the recently introduced view that the very appearance of individual quantum measurement outcomes can be grounded in the Plenitude principle of Leibniz, a principle variants of which have been utilized in physics by Dirac and Gell-Mann in relation to the fundamental processes. This move provides further support to Schwinger's ''symbolic'' derivation of quantum mechanics from measurement. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum random oracle model for quantum digital signature
Shang, Tao; Lei, Qi; Liu, Jianwei
2016-10-01
The goal of this work is to provide a general security analysis tool, namely, the quantum random oracle (QRO), for facilitating the security analysis of quantum cryptographic protocols, especially protocols based on quantum one-way function. QRO is used to model quantum one-way function and different queries to QRO are used to model quantum attacks. A typical application of quantum one-way function is the quantum digital signature, whose progress has been hampered by the slow pace of the experimental realization. Alternatively, we use the QRO model to analyze the provable security of a quantum digital signature scheme and elaborate the analysis procedure. The QRO model differs from the prior quantum-accessible random oracle in that it can output quantum states as public keys and give responses to different queries. This tool can be a test bed for the cryptanalysis of more quantum cryptographic protocols based on the quantum one-way function.
Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory
Collins, Benoît; Nechita, Ion
2016-01-01
The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.
Random matrix techniques in quantum information theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, Benoît, E-mail: collins@math.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Département de Mathématique et Statistique, Université d’Ottawa, 585 King Edward, Ottawa, Ontario K1N6N5 (Canada); CNRS, Lyon (France); Nechita, Ion, E-mail: nechita@irsamc.ups-tlse.fr [Zentrum Mathematik, M5, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, IRSAMC, Université de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France)
2016-01-15
The purpose of this review is to present some of the latest developments using random techniques, and in particular, random matrix techniques in quantum information theory. Our review is a blend of a rather exhaustive review and of more detailed examples—coming mainly from research projects in which the authors were involved. We focus on two main topics, random quantum states and random quantum channels. We present results related to entropic quantities, entanglement of typical states, entanglement thresholds, the output set of quantum channels, and violations of the minimum output entropy of random channels.
Logical independence and quantum randomness
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paterek, T; Kofler, J; Aspelmeyer, M; Zeilinger, A; Brukner, C [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Prevedel, R; Klimek, P [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: tomasz.paterek@univie.ac.at
2010-01-15
We propose a link between logical independence and quantum physics. We demonstrate that quantum systems in the eigenstates of Pauli group operators are capable of encoding mathematical axioms and show that Pauli group quantum measurements are capable of revealing whether or not a given proposition is logically dependent on the axiomatic system. Whenever a mathematical proposition is logically independent of the axioms encoded in the measured state, the measurement associated with the proposition gives random outcomes. This allows for an experimental test of logical independence. Conversely, it also allows for an explanation of the probabilities of random outcomes observed in Pauli group measurements from logical independence without invoking quantum theory. The axiomatic systems we study can be completed and are therefore not subject to Goedel's incompleteness theorem.
Brody, DC; Hughston, LP
2016-01-01
We propose an energy-driven stochastic master equation for the density matrix as a dynamical model for quantum state reduction. In contrast, most previous studies of state reduction have considered stochastic extensions of the Schr¨odinger equation, and have introduced the density matrix as the expectation of the random pure projection operator associated with the evolving state vector. After working out properties of the reduction process we construct a general solution to the energy- driven...
Open quantum random walk in terms of quantum Bernoulli noise
Wang, Caishi; Wang, Ce; Ren, Suling; Tang, Yuling
2018-03-01
In this paper, we introduce an open quantum random walk, which we call the QBN-based open walk, by means of quantum Bernoulli noise, and study its properties from a random walk point of view. We prove that, with the localized ground state as its initial state, the QBN-based open walk has the same limit probability distribution as the classical random walk. We also show that the probability distributions of the QBN-based open walk include those of the unitary quantum walk recently introduced by Wang and Ye (Quantum Inf Process 15:1897-1908, 2016) as a special case.
Quantum state revivals in quantum walks on cycles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Phillip R. Dukes
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Recurrence in the classical random walk is well known and described by the Pólya number. For quantum walks, recurrence is similarly understood in terms of the probability of a localized quantum walker to return to its origin. Under certain circumstances the quantum walker may also return to an arbitrary initial quantum state in a finite number of steps. Quantum state revivals in quantum walks on cycles using coin operators which are constant in time and uniform across the path have been described before but only incompletely. In this paper we find the general conditions for which full-quantum state revival will occur.
Quantum Statistical Testing of a Quantum Random Number Generator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Humble, Travis S [ORNL
2014-01-01
The unobservable elements in a quantum technology, e.g., the quantum state, complicate system verification against promised behavior. Using model-based system engineering, we present methods for verifying the opera- tion of a prototypical quantum random number generator. We begin with the algorithmic design of the QRNG followed by the synthesis of its physical design requirements. We next discuss how quantum statistical testing can be used to verify device behavior as well as detect device bias. We conclude by highlighting how system design and verification methods must influence effort to certify future quantum technologies.
Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)
2014-07-15
A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.
Hardy, Lucien
2013-01-01
In this paper we consider theories in which reality is described by some underlying variables, λ. Each value these variables can take represents an ontic state (a particular state of reality). The preparation of a quantum state corresponds to a distribution over the ontic states, λ. If we make three basic assumptions, we can show that the distributions over ontic states corresponding to distinct pure states are nonoverlapping. This means that we can deduce the quantum state from a knowledge of the ontic state. Hence, if these assumptions are correct, we can claim that the quantum state is a real thing (it is written into the underlying variables that describe reality). The key assumption we use in this proof is ontic indifference — that quantum transformations that do not affect a given pure quantum state can be implemented in such a way that they do not affect the ontic states in the support of that state. In fact this assumption is violated in the Spekkens toy model (which captures many aspects of quantum theory and in which different pure states of the model have overlapping distributions over ontic states). This paper proves that ontic indifference must be violated in any model reproducing quantum theory in which the quantum state is not a real thing. The argument presented in this paper is different from that given in a recent paper by Pusey, Barrett and Rudolph. It uses a different key assumption and it pertains to a single copy of the system in question.
Furusawa, Akira
2015-01-01
This book explains what quantum states of light look like. Of special interest, a single photon state is explained by using a wave picture, showing that it corresponds to the complementarity of a quantum. Also explained is how light waves are created by photons, again corresponding to the complementarity of a quantum. The author shows how an optical wave is created by superposition of a "vacuum" and a single photon as a typical example. Moreover, squeezed states of light are explained as "longitudinal" waves of light and Schrödinger's cat states as macroscopic superposition states.
Quantum Criticality of Hot Random Spin Chains
Vasseur, R.; Potter, A. C.; Parameswaran, S. A.
2015-05-01
We study the infinite-temperature properties of an infinite sequence of random quantum spin chains using a real-space renormalization group approach, and demonstrate that they exhibit nonergodic behavior at strong disorder. The analysis is conveniently implemented in terms of SU (2 )k anyon chains that include the Ising and Potts chains as notable examples. Highly excited eigenstates of these systems exhibit properties usually associated with quantum critical ground states, leading us to dub them "quantum critical glasses." We argue that random-bond Heisenberg chains self-thermalize and that the excited-state entanglement crosses over from volume-law to logarithmic scaling at a length scale that diverges in the Heisenberg limit k →∞. The excited state fixed points are generically distinct from their ground state counterparts, and represent novel nonequilibrium critical phases of matter.
A generator for unique quantum random numbers based on vacuum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gabriel, C.; Wittmann, C.; Sych, D.
2010-01-01
Random numbers are a valuable component in diverse applications that range from simulations(1) over gambling to cryptography(2,3). The quest for true randomness in these applications has engendered a large variety of different proposals for producing random numbers based on the foundational unpre...
Certified randomness in quantum physics.
Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis
2016-12-07
The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.
Certified randomness in quantum physics
Acín, Antonio; Masanes, Lluis
2016-12-01
The concept of randomness plays an important part in many disciplines. On the one hand, the question of whether random processes exist is fundamental for our understanding of nature. On the other, randomness is a resource for cryptography, algorithms and simulations. Standard methods for generating randomness rely on assumptions about the devices that are often not valid in practice. However, quantum technologies enable new methods for generating certified randomness, based on the violation of Bell inequalities. These methods are referred to as device-independent because they do not rely on any modelling of the devices. Here we review efforts to design device-independent randomness generators and the associated challenges.
Hosten, O.; Krishnakumar, R.; Engelsen, N. J.; Kasevich, M.A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology exploits entangled states of particles to improve sensing precision beyond the limit achievable with uncorrelated particles. All previous methods required detection noise levels below this standard quantum limit to realize the benefits of the intrinsic sensitivity provided by these states. Remarkably, a recent proposal has shown that, in principle, such low-noise detection is not a necessary requirement. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a widely applicable method for enta...
Random access quantum information processors using multimode circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Naik, R K; Leung, N; Chakram, S; Groszkowski, Peter; Lu, Y; Earnest, N; McKay, D C; Koch, Jens; Schuster, D I
2017-12-04
Qubit connectivity is an important property of a quantum processor, with an ideal processor having random access-the ability of arbitrary qubit pairs to interact directly. This a challenge with superconducting circuits, as state-of-the-art architectures rely on only nearest-neighbor coupling. Here, we implement a random access superconducting quantum information processor, demonstrating universal operations on a nine-qubit memory, with a Josephson junction transmon circuit serving as the central processor. The quantum memory uses the eigenmodes of a linear array of coupled superconducting resonators. We selectively stimulate vacuum Rabi oscillations between the transmon and individual eigenmodes through parametric flux modulation of the transmon frequency. Utilizing these oscillations, we perform a universal set of quantum gates on 38 arbitrary pairs of modes and prepare multimode entangled states, all using only two control lines. We thus achieve hardware-efficient random access multi-qubit control in an architecture compatible with long-lived microwave cavity-based quantum memories.
Bădescu, Costin; O'Donnell, Ryan; Wright, John
2017-01-01
We consider the problem of quantum state certification, where one is given $n$ copies of an unknown $d$-dimensional quantum mixed state $\\rho$, and one wants to test whether $\\rho$ is equal to some known mixed state $\\sigma$ or else is $\\epsilon$-far from $\\sigma$. The goal is to use notably fewer copies than the $\\Omega(d^2)$ needed for full tomography on $\\rho$ (i.e., density estimation). We give two robust state certification algorithms: one with respect to fidelity using $n = O(d/\\epsilon...
Lockhart, Joshua; Guillén, Carlos E. González
2017-01-01
We consider a problem we call StateIsomorphism: given two quantum states of n qubits, can one be obtained from the other by rearranging the qubit subsystems? Our main goal is to study the complexity of this problem, which is a natural quantum generalisation of the problem StringIsomorphism. We show that StateIsomorphism is at least as hard as GraphIsomorphism, and show that these problems have a similar structure by presenting evidence to suggest that StateIsomorphism is an intermediate probl...
Probability Distributions for Random Quantum Operations
Schultz, Kevin
Motivated by uncertainty quantification and inference of quantum information systems, in this work we draw connections between the notions of random quantum states and operations in quantum information with probability distributions commonly encountered in the field of orientation statistics. This approach identifies natural sample spaces and probability distributions upon these spaces that can be used in the analysis, simulation, and inference of quantum information systems. The theory of exponential families on Stiefel manifolds provides the appropriate generalization to the classical case. Furthermore, this viewpoint motivates a number of additional questions into the convex geometry of quantum operations relative to both the differential geometry of Stiefel manifolds as well as the information geometry of exponential families defined upon them. In particular, we draw on results from convex geometry to characterize which quantum operations can be represented as the average of a random quantum operation. This project was supported by the Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity via Department of Interior National Business Center Contract Number 2012-12050800010.
History dependent quantum random walks as quantum lattice gas automata
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shakeel, Asif, E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu; Love, Peter J., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Physics, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Meyer, David A., E-mail: asif.shakeel@gmail.com, E-mail: dmeyer@math.ucsd.edu, E-mail: plove@haverford.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California/San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States)
2014-12-15
Quantum Random Walks (QRW) were first defined as one-particle sectors of Quantum Lattice Gas Automata (QLGA). Recently, they have been generalized to include history dependence, either on previous coin (internal, i.e., spin or velocity) states or on previous position states. These models have the goal of studying the transition to classicality, or more generally, changes in the performance of quantum walks in algorithmic applications. We show that several history dependent QRW can be identified as one-particle sectors of QLGA. This provides a unifying conceptual framework for these models in which the extra degrees of freedom required to store the history information arise naturally as geometrical degrees of freedom on the lattice.
Rudolph, Terry; Spekkens, Robert W.
2004-11-01
We introduce a primitive for quantum cryptography that we term “state targeting.” We show that increasing one’s probability of success in this task above a minimum amount implies an unavoidable increase in the probability of a particular kind of failure. This is analogous to the unavoidable disturbance to a quantum state that results from gaining information about its identity, and can be shown to be a purely quantum effect. We solve various optimization problems for state targeting that are useful for the security analysis of two-party cryptographic tasks implemented between remote antagonistic parties. Although we focus on weak coin flipping, the results are significant for other two-party protocols, such as strong coin flipping, partially binding and concealing bit commitment, and bit escrow. Furthermore, the results have significance not only for the traditional notion of security in cryptography, that of restricting a cheater’s ability to bias the outcome of the protocol, but also for a different notion of security that arises only in the quantum context, that of cheat sensitivity. Finally, our analysis leads to some interesting secondary results, namely, a generalization of Uhlmann’s theorem and an operational interpretation of the fidelity between two mixed states.
Zhou, Yi; Kanoda, Kazushi; Ng, Tai-Kai
2017-04-01
This is an introductory review of the physics of quantum spin liquid states. Quantum magnetism is a rapidly evolving field, and recent developments reveal that the ground states and low-energy physics of frustrated spin systems may develop many exotic behaviors once we leave the regime of semiclassical approaches. The purpose of this article is to introduce these developments. The article begins by explaining how semiclassical approaches fail once quantum mechanics become important and then describe the alternative approaches for addressing the problem. Mainly spin-1 /2 systems are discussed, and most of the time is spent in this article on one particular set of plausible spin liquid states in which spins are represented by fermions. These states are spin-singlet states and may be viewed as an extension of Fermi liquid states to Mott insulators, and they are usually classified in the category of so-called S U (2 ), U (1 ), or Z2 spin liquid states. A review is given of the basic theory regarding these states and the extensions of these states to include the effect of spin-orbit coupling and to higher spin (S >1 /2 ) systems. Two other important approaches with strong influences on the understanding of spin liquid states are also introduced: (i) matrix product states and projected entangled pair states and (ii) the Kitaev honeycomb model. Experimental progress concerning spin liquid states in realistic materials, including anisotropic triangular-lattice systems [κ -(ET )2Cu2(CN )3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd (dmit )2]2 ], kagome-lattice system [ZnCu3(OH )6Cl2 ], and hyperkagome lattice system (Na4 Ir3 O8 ), is reviewed and compared against the corresponding theories.
Quantum engineering of continuous variable quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabuncu, Metin
2009-10-29
Quantum information with continuous variables is a field attracting increasing attention recently. In continuous variable quantum information one makes use of the continuous information encoded into the quadrature of a quantized light field instead of binary quantities such as the polarization state of a single photon. This brand new research area is witnessing exciting theoretical and experimental achievements such as teleportation, quantum computation and quantum error correction. The rapid development of the field is mainly due higher optical data rates and the availability of simple and efficient manipulation tools in continuous-variable quantum information processing. We in this thesis extend the work in continuous variable quantum information processing and report on novel experiments on amplification, cloning, minimal disturbance and noise erasure protocols. The promising results we obtain in these pioneering experiments indicate that the future of continuous variable quantum information is bright and many advances can be foreseen. (orig.)
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Center for Philosophy and Foundation of Science, New Delhi, India ... Introduction. Quantum entanglement is generally regarded as a very useful resource for quantum infor- mation processing [1]. It can be used for teleportation [2], ... To achieve this, we introduce a class of entangled states calledzero sum amplitude(ZSA).
Multiphoton quantum optics and quantum state engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dell' Anno, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)]. E-mail: dellanno@sa.infn.it; De Siena, Silvio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: desiena@sa.infn.it; Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, CNISM and CNR-INFM Coherentia, and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Via S. Allende, I-84081 Baronissi (SA) (Italy)]. E-mail: illuminati@sa.infn.it
2006-05-15
We present a review of theoretical and experimental aspects of multiphoton quantum optics. Multiphoton processes occur and are important for many aspects of matter-radiation interactions that include the efficient ionization of atoms and molecules, and, more generally, atomic transition mechanisms; system-environment couplings and dissipative quantum dynamics; laser physics, optical parametric processes, and interferometry. A single review cannot account for all aspects of such an enormously vast subject. Here we choose to concentrate our attention on parametric processes in nonlinear media, with special emphasis on the engineering of nonclassical states of photons and atoms that are relevant for the conceptual investigations as well as for the practical applications of forefront aspects of modern quantum mechanics. We present a detailed analysis of the methods and techniques for the production of genuinely quantum multiphoton processes in nonlinear media, and the corresponding models of multiphoton effective interactions. We review existing proposals for the classification, engineering, and manipulation of nonclassical states, including Fock states, macroscopic superposition states, and multiphoton generalized coherent states. We introduce and discuss the structure of canonical multiphoton quantum optics and the associated one- and two-mode canonical multiphoton squeezed states. This framework provides a consistent multiphoton generalization of two-photon quantum optics and a consistent Hamiltonian description of multiphoton processes associated to higher-order nonlinearities. Finally, we discuss very recent advances that by combining linear and nonlinear optical devices allow to realize multiphoton entangled states of the electromagnetic field, either in discrete or in continuous variables, that are relevant for applications to efficient quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and related problems in quantum communication and information.
Monthus, Cécile
2017-04-01
The Lindblad dynamics with dephasing in the bulk and magnetization-driving at the two boundaries is studied for the quantum spin chain with random fields h j and couplings J j (that can be either uniform or random). In the regime of strong disorder in the random fields, or in the regime of strong bulk-dephasing, the effective dynamics can be mapped onto a classical simple symmetric exclusion process with quenched disorder in the diffusion coefficient associated to each bond. The properties of the corresponding non-equilibrium-steady-state in each disordered sample between the two reservoirs are studied in detail by extending the methods that have been previously developed for the symmetric exclusion process without disorder. Explicit results are given for the magnetization profile, for the two-point correlations, for the mean current and for the current fluctuations, in terms of the random fields and couplings defining the disordered sample.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics
Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D
2001-01-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.
Quantum random walks with history dependence
Flitney, Adrian P.; Abbott, Derek; Johnson, Neil F.
2003-01-01
We introduce a multi-coin discrete quantum random walk where the amplitude for a coin flip depends upon previous tosses. Although the corresponding classical random walk is unbiased, a bias can be introduced into the quantum walk by varying the history dependence. By mixing the biased random walk with an unbiased one, the direction of the bias can be reversed leading to a new quantum version of Parrondo's paradox.
Entangled states in quantum mechanics
Ruža, Jānis
2010-01-01
In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.
Solid-state quantum metamaterials
Wilson, Richard; Everitt, Mark; Saveliev, Sergey; Zagoskin, Alexandre
2013-03-01
Quantum metamaterials provide a promising potential test bed for probing the quantum-classical transition. We propose a scalable and feasible architecture for a solid-state quantum metamaterial. This consists of an ensemble of superconducting flux qubits inductively coupled to a superconducting transmission line. We make use of fully quantum mechanical models which account for decoherence, input and readout to study the behaviour of prototypical 1D and 2D quantum metamaterials. In addition to demonstrating some of the novel phenomena that arise in these systems, such as ``quantum birefringence,'' we will also discuss potential applications.
Preparation of quantum state (review)
Ali, N.; Yusof, N. R.; Soekardjo, S.; Saharudin, S.; Endut, R.
2017-11-01
We reviewed experimental results and publications prepared by the Quantum Laboratory, Mimos Berhad. The complexity of the setups lies mainly in preparing the quantum states. Optics is chosen as the medium of this quantum system. The two methods - fiber based and free space systems are different from each other in terms of experimental setups, components configuration, and selections.
Astronomical random numbers for quantum foundations experiments
Leung, Calvin; Brown, Amy; Nguyen, Hien; Friedman, Andrew S.; Kaiser, David I.; Gallicchio, Jason
2017-01-01
Photons from distant astronomical sources can be used as a classical source of randomness to improve fundamental tests of quantum nonlocality, wave-particle duality, and local realism through Bell's inequality and delayed-choice quantum eraser tests inspired by Wheeler's cosmic-scale Mach-Zehnder interferometer gedankenexperiment. Such sources of random numbers may also be useful for information-theoretic applications such as key distribution for quantum cryptography. Building on the design o...
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Mulhall, Declan
2015-01-01
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with random matrix theory. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper the effect on the level statistics of opening the system is seen. In particular the Δ3(L ) statistic, the width distribution and the level spacing are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The emergence of a super-radiant transition is observed. The level spacing and Δ3(L ) statistics exhibit the signatures of missed levels or intruder levels as the super-radiant state is formed.
Quantum optics in multiple scattering random media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodahl, Peter
Quantum Optics in Multiple Scattering Random Media Peter Lodahl Research Center COM, Technical University of Denmark, Dk-2800 Lyngby, Denmark. Coherent transport of light in a disordered random medium has attracted enormous attention both from a fundamental and application point of view. Coherent...... quantum optics in multiple scattering media and novel fundamental phenomena have been predicted when examining quantum fluctuations instead of merely the intensity of the light [1]. Here I will present the first experimental study of the propagation of quantum noise through an elastic, multiple scattering...
Provable quantum advantage in randomness processing.
Dale, Howard; Jennings, David; Rudolph, Terry
2015-09-18
Quantum advantage is notoriously hard to find and even harder to prove. For example the class of functions computable with classical physics exactly coincides with the class computable quantum mechanically. It is strongly believed, but not proven, that quantum computing provides exponential speed-up for a range of problems, such as factoring. Here we address a computational scenario of randomness processing in which quantum theory provably yields, not only resource reduction over classical stochastic physics, but a strictly larger class of problems which can be solved. Beyond new foundational insights into the nature and malleability of randomness, and the distinction between quantum and classical information, these results also offer the potential of developing classically intractable simulations with currently accessible quantum technologies.
Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation
Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng
2016-01-01
Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .
Random Oracles in a Quantum World
D. Boneh; O. Dagdelen; M. Fischlin; D. Lehmann; C. Schaffner (Christian); M. Zhandry
2012-01-01
htmlabstractThe interest in post-quantum cryptography - classical systems that remain secure in the presence of a quantum adversary - has generated elegant proposals for new cryptosystems. Some of these systems are set in the random oracle model and are proven secure relative to adversaries that
Quantum-polarization state tomography
Bayraktar, Ömer; Swillo, Marcin; Canalias, Carlota; Björk, Gunnar
2016-01-01
We propose and demonstrate a method for quantum-state tomography of qudits encoded in the quantum polarization of $N$-photon states. This is achieved by distributing $N$ photons nondeterministically into three paths and their subsequent projection, which for $N=1$ is equivalent to measuring the Stokes (or Pauli) operators. The statistics of the recorded $N$-fold coincidences determines the unknown $N$-photon polarization state uniquely. The proposed, fixed setup manifestly rules out any syste...
Quantum States as Ordinary Information
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ken Wharton
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.
Quantum random walks circuits with photonic waveguides
Peruzzo, Alberto; Matthews, Jonathan; Politi, Alberto; Lobino, Mirko; Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Thompson, Mark G.; O'Brien, Jeremy; Matsuda, Nobuyuki; Ismail, N.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Bromberg, Yaron; Lahini, Yoav; Silberberg, Yaron
2010-01-01
Arrays of 21 evanescently coupled waveguides are fabricated to implement quantum random walks and a generalised form of two-photon non-classical interference, which observed via two photon correlation.
Quantum Darwinism, Decoherence, and the Randomness of Quantum Jumps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zurek, Wojciech H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2014-06-05
Tracing flows of information in our quantum Universe explains why we see the world as classical. Quantum principle of superposition decrees every combination of quantum states a legal quantum state. This is at odds with our experience. Decoherence selects preferred pointer states that survive interaction with the environment. They are localized and effectively classical. They persist while their superpositions decohere. Here we consider emergence of `the classical' starting at a more fundamental pre-decoherence level, tracing the origin of preferred pointer states and deducing their probabilities from the core quantum postulates. We also explore role of the environment as medium through which observers acquire information. This mode of information transfer leads to perception of objective classical reality.
Random unitary evolution model of quantum Darwinism with pure decoherence
Balanesković, Nenad
2015-10-01
We study the behavior of Quantum Darwinism [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009)] within the iterative, random unitary operations qubit-model of pure decoherence [J. Novotný, G. Alber, I. Jex, New J. Phys. 13, 053052 (2011)]. We conclude that Quantum Darwinism, which describes the quantum mechanical evolution of an open system S from the point of view of its environment E, is not a generic phenomenon, but depends on the specific form of input states and on the type of S-E-interactions. Furthermore, we show that within the random unitary model the concept of Quantum Darwinism enables one to explicitly construct and specify artificial input states of environment E that allow to store information about an open system S of interest with maximal efficiency.
Dark states in quantum photosynthesis
Kozyrev, S V
2016-01-01
We discuss a model of quantum photosynthesis with degeneracy in the light-harvesting system. We consider interaction of excitons in chromophores with light and phonons (vibrations of environment). These interactions have dipole form but are different (are related to non-parallel vectors of "bright" states). We show that this leads to excitation of non-decaying "dark" states. We discuss relation of this model to the known from spectroscopical experiments phenomenon of existence of photonic echo in quantum photosynthesis.
Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Yichen, E-mail: ychuang@caltech.edu
2017-05-15
We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique. - Highlights: • We study the dynamical quantum phase transition between many-body localized phases. • We simulate the dynamics of a very long random spin chain with matrix product states. • We observe numerically super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time.
Experimental measurement-device-independent quantum random-number generation
Nie, You-Qi; Guan, Jian-Yu; Zhou, Hongyi; Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-12-01
The randomness from a quantum random-number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.
Quantum Information Protocols with Gaussian States of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacobsen, Christian Scheffmann
Quantum cryptography is widely regarded as the most mature field within the context of quantum information in the sense that its application and development has produced companies that base their products on genuine quantum mechanical principles. Examples include quantum random number generators...... and hardware for secure quantum key distribution. These technologies directly exploit quantum effects, and indeed this is where they offer advantages to classical products. This thesis deals with the development and implementation of quantum information protocols that utilize the rather inexpensive resource...... of Gaussian states. A quantum information protocol is essentially a sequence of state exchanges between some number of parties and a certain ordering of quantum mechanical unitary operators performed by these parties. An example of this is the famous BB84 protocol for secret key generation, where photons...
Quantum graphs and random-matrix theory
Pluhař, Z.; Weidenmüller, H. A.
2015-07-01
For simple connected graphs with incommensurate bond lengths and with unitary symmetry we prove the Bohigas-Giannoni-Schmit (BGS) conjecture in its most general form. Using supersymmetry and taking the limit of infinite graph size, we show that the generating function for every (P,Q) correlation function for both closed and open graphs coincides with the corresponding expression of random-matrix theory. We show that the classical Perron-Frobenius operator is bistochastic and possesses a single eigenvalue +1. In the quantum case that implies the existence of a zero (or massless) mode of the effective action. That mode causes universal fluctuation properties. Avoiding the saddle-point approximation we show that for graphs that are classically mixing (i.e. for which the spectrum of the classical Perron-Frobenius operator possesses a finite gap) and that do not carry a special class of bound states, the zero mode dominates in the limit of infinite graph size.
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Deng, Dong-Ling; Li, Xiaopeng; Das Sarma, S.
2017-04-01
Machine learning, one of today's most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM) architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement) of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our results uncover the
Quantum Entanglement in Neural Network States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong-Ling Deng
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Machine learning, one of today’s most rapidly growing interdisciplinary fields, promises an unprecedented perspective for solving intricate quantum many-body problems. Understanding the physical aspects of the representative artificial neural-network states has recently become highly desirable in the applications of machine-learning techniques to quantum many-body physics. In this paper, we explore the data structures that encode the physical features in the network states by studying the quantum entanglement properties, with a focus on the restricted-Boltzmann-machine (RBM architecture. We prove that the entanglement entropy of all short-range RBM states satisfies an area law for arbitrary dimensions and bipartition geometry. For long-range RBM states, we show by using an exact construction that such states could exhibit volume-law entanglement, implying a notable capability of RBM in representing quantum states with massive entanglement. Strikingly, the neural-network representation for these states is remarkably efficient, in the sense that the number of nonzero parameters scales only linearly with the system size. We further examine the entanglement properties of generic RBM states by randomly sampling the weight parameters of the RBM. We find that their averaged entanglement entropy obeys volume-law scaling, and the meantime strongly deviates from the Page entropy of the completely random pure states. We show that their entanglement spectrum has no universal part associated with random matrix theory and bears a Poisson-type level statistics. Using reinforcement learning, we demonstrate that RBM is capable of finding the ground state (with power-law entanglement of a model Hamiltonian with a long-range interaction. In addition, we show, through a concrete example of the one-dimensional symmetry-protected topological cluster states, that the RBM representation may also be used as a tool to analytically compute the entanglement spectrum. Our
Cluster State Quantum Computation
2014-02-01
important result is called the threshold theorem of quantum computation [Aliferis06]. Fault-tolerant schemes for OWQC using photons have recently...defined in terms of the standard Fubini -Study distance Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited. 25 ( ) ( ) 1
Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states.
Grosshans, Frédéric; Grangier, Philippe
2002-02-04
We propose several methods for quantum key distribution (QKD) based on the generation and transmission of random distributions of coherent or squeezed states, and we show that they are secure against individual eavesdropping attacks. These protocols require that the transmission of the optical line between Alice and Bob is larger than 50%, but they do not rely on "sub-shot-noise" features such as squeezing. Their security is a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, which limits the signal-to-noise ratio of possible quantum measurements on the transmission line. Our approach can also be used for evaluating various QKD protocols using light with Gaussian statistics.
Random Numbers and Quantum Computers
McCartney, Mark; Glass, David
2002-01-01
The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…
Cluster State Quantum Computing
2012-12-01
discuss the potential advantages of such a system and the difficulties of the design. When an incident photon strikes a Niobium nitride ( NbN ...counted. Present superconducting nanowire systems, such as NbN , have reasonably good counting efficiency [Dauler10], [Marsili11], by which we mean...L. O’Brein, A. Furusawa, J. Vuchovic, “Photonic quantum technologies ,” Nat. Photonics 3 Dec. (2009) doi:10.1038/nphoton.2009.229. [Pawlowski09
Entanglement dynamics in critical random quantum Ising chain with perturbations
Huang, Yichen
2017-05-01
We simulate the entanglement dynamics in a critical random quantum Ising chain with generic perturbations using the time-evolving block decimation algorithm. Starting from a product state, we observe super-logarithmic growth of entanglement entropy with time. The numerical result is consistent with the analytical prediction of Vosk and Altman using a real-space renormalization group technique.
Quantum state transfer via Bloch oscillations
Tamascelli, Dario; Olivares, Stefano; Rossotti, Stefano; Osellame, Roberto; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2016-01-01
The realization of reliable quantum channels, able to transfer a quantum state with high fidelity, is a fundamental step in the construction of scalable quantum devices. In this paper we describe a transmission scheme based on the genuinely quantum effect known as Bloch oscillations. The proposed protocol makes it possible to carry a quantum state over different distances with a minimal engineering of the transmission medium and can be implemented and verified on current quantum technology hardware. PMID:27189630
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robles-Perez, S., E-mail: salvarp@imaff.cfmac.csic.e [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain); Hassouni, Y. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, Faculte des Sciences-Universite Sidi Med Ben Abdellah, Avenue Ibn Batouta B.P: 1014, Agdal Rabat (Morocco); Gonzalez-Diaz, P.F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel Catalan' , Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Estacion Ecologica de Biocosmologia, Medellin (Spain)
2010-01-11
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Coherent states in the quantum multiverse
Robles-Pérez, S.; Hassouni, Y.; González-Díaz, P. F.
2010-01-01
In this Letter, we study the role of coherent states in the realm of quantum cosmology, both in a second-quantized single universe and in a third-quantized quantum multiverse. In particular, most emphasis will be paid to the quantum description of multiverses made of accelerated universes. We have shown that the quantum states involved at a quantum mechanical multiverse whose single universes are accelerated are given by squeezed states having no classical analogs.
Entanglement for All Quantum States
de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.
2010-01-01
It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…
Improved classical and quantum random access codes
Liabøtrø, O.
2017-05-01
A (quantum) random access code ((Q)RAC) is a scheme that encodes n bits into m (qu)bits such that any of the n bits can be recovered with a worst case probability p >1/2 . We generalize (Q)RACs to a scheme encoding n d -levels into m (quantum) d -levels such that any d -level can be recovered with the probability for every wrong outcome value being less than 1/d . We construct explicit solutions for all n ≤d/2m-1 d -1 . For d =2 , the constructions coincide with those previously known. We show that the (Q)RACs are d -parity oblivious, generalizing ordinary parity obliviousness. We further investigate optimization of the success probabilities. For d =2 , we use the measure operators of the previously best-known solutions, but improve the encoding states to give a higher success probability. We conjecture that for maximal (n =4m-1 ,m ,p ) QRACs, p =1/2 {1 +[(√{3}+1)m-1 ] -1} is possible, and show that it is an upper bound for the measure operators that we use. We then compare (n ,m ,pq) QRACs with classical (n ,2 m ,pc) RACs. We can always find pq≥pc , but the classical code gives information about every input bit simultaneously, while the QRAC only gives information about a subset. For several different (n ,2 ,p ) QRACs, we see the same trade-off, as the best p values are obtained when the number of bits that can be obtained simultaneously is as small as possible. The trade-off is connected to parity obliviousness, since high certainty information about several bits can be used to calculate probabilities for parities of subsets.
Embedded random matrix ensembles in quantum physics
Kota, V K B
2014-01-01
Although used with increasing frequency in many branches of physics, random matrix ensembles are not always sufficiently specific to account for important features of the physical system at hand. One refinement which retains the basic stochastic approach but allows for such features consists in the use of embedded ensembles. The present text is an exhaustive introduction to and survey of this important field. Starting with an easy-to-read introduction to general random matrix theory, the text then develops the necessary concepts from the beginning, accompanying the reader to the frontiers of present-day research. With some notable exceptions, to date these ensembles have primarily been applied in nuclear spectroscopy. A characteristic example is the use of a random two-body interaction in the framework of the nuclear shell model. Yet, topics in atomic physics, mesoscopic physics, quantum information science and statistical mechanics of isolated finite quantum systems can also be addressed using these ensemb...
Quantum Contextuality with Stabilizer States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiri Vala
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The Pauli groups are ubiquitous in quantum information theory because of their usefulness in describing quantum states and operations and their readily understood symmetry properties. In addition, the most well-understood quantum error correcting codes—stabilizer codes—are built using Pauli operators. The eigenstates of these operators—stabilizer states—display a structure (e.g., mutual orthogonality relationships that has made them useful in examples of multi-qubit non-locality and contextuality. Here, we apply the graph-theoretical contextuality formalism of Cabello, Severini and Winter to sets of stabilizer states, with particular attention to the effect of generalizing two-level qubit systems to odd prime d-level qudit systems. While state-independent contextuality using two-qubit states does not generalize to qudits, we show explicitly how state-dependent contextuality associated with a Bell inequality does generalize. Along the way we note various structural properties of stabilizer states, with respect to their orthogonality relationships, which may be of independent interest.
Statistical properties of random matrix product states
Garnerone, Silvano; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Haas, Stephan; Zanardi, Paolo
2010-11-01
We study the set of random matrix product states (RMPS) introduced by Garnerone, de Oliveira, and Zanardi [S. Garnerone, T. R. de Oliveira, and P. Zanardi, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.032336 81, 032336 (2010)] as a tool to explore foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics. In the present work, we provide an accurate numerical and analytical investigation of the properties of RMPS. We calculate the average state of the ensemble in the nonhomogeneous case, and numerically check the validity of this result. We also suggest using RMPS as a tool to approximate properties of general quantum random states. The numerical simulations presented here support the accuracy and efficiency of this approximation. These results suggest that any generalized canonical state can be approximated with high probability by the reduced density matrix of a RMPS, if the average matrix product states coincide with the associated microcanonical ensemble.
The Metric of Quantum States Revisited
Pandya, Aalok; Nagawat, Ashok K.
2002-01-01
A generalised definition of the metric of quantum states is proposed by using the techniques of differential geometry. The metric of quantum state space derived earlier by Anandan, is reproduced and verified here by this generalised definition. The metric of quantum states in the configuration space and its possible geometrical framework is explored. Also, invariance of the metric of quantum states under local gauge transformations, coordinate transformations, and the relativistic transformat...
Quantum State Transfer via Noisy Photonic and Phononic Waveguides.
Vermersch, B; Guimond, P-O; Pichler, H; Zoller, P
2017-03-31
We describe a quantum state transfer protocol, where a quantum state of photons stored in a first cavity can be faithfully transferred to a second distant cavity via an infinite 1D waveguide, while being immune to arbitrary noise (e.g., thermal noise) injected into the waveguide. We extend the model and protocol to a cavity QED setup, where atomic ensembles, or single atoms representing quantum memory, are coupled to a cavity mode. We present a detailed study of sensitivity to imperfections, and apply a quantum error correction protocol to account for random losses (or additions) of photons in the waveguide. Our numerical analysis is enabled by matrix product state techniques to simulate the complete quantum circuit, which we generalize to include thermal input fields. Our discussion applies both to photonic and phononic quantum networks.
Quantum State Transfer via Noisy Photonic and Phononic Waveguides
Vermersch, B.; Guimond, P.-O.; Pichler, H.; Zoller, P.
2017-03-01
We describe a quantum state transfer protocol, where a quantum state of photons stored in a first cavity can be faithfully transferred to a second distant cavity via an infinite 1D waveguide, while being immune to arbitrary noise (e.g., thermal noise) injected into the waveguide. We extend the model and protocol to a cavity QED setup, where atomic ensembles, or single atoms representing quantum memory, are coupled to a cavity mode. We present a detailed study of sensitivity to imperfections, and apply a quantum error correction protocol to account for random losses (or additions) of photons in the waveguide. Our numerical analysis is enabled by matrix product state techniques to simulate the complete quantum circuit, which we generalize to include thermal input fields. Our discussion applies both to photonic and phononic quantum networks.
Investigating Quantum Modulation States
2016-03-01
process incurs ambiguity in the interpretation of measurement results. When the average photon number per transmission of a message bit grows...estimates to gain the information conveyed therein. Is the message bit sent a one or zero? That eavesdropper’s minimum probability of error converges...to ½, a coin toss, when the average photon number and the number of possible states satisfy the aforementioned conditions. The eavesdropper
Quantum State Transfer on Coronas
Ackelsberg, Ethan; Brehm, Zachary; Chan, Ada; Mundinger, Joshua; Tamon, Christino
2016-01-01
We study state transfer in quantum walk on graphs relative to the adjacency matrix. Our motivation is to understand how the addition of pendant subgraphs affect state transfer. For two graphs $G$ and $H$, the Frucht-Harary corona product $G \\circ H$ is obtained by taking $|G|$ copies of the cone $K_{1} + H$ and by connecting the conical vertices according to $G$. Our work explores conditions under which the corona $G \\circ H$ exhibits state transfer. We also describe new families of graphs wi...
Quantum state atomic force microscopy
Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George
2017-01-01
New classical modalities of atomic force microscopy continue to emerge to achieve higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution for nanometrology of materials. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum mechanical modality that capitalizes on squeezed states of probe displacement. We show that such squeezing is enabled nanomechanically when the probe enters the van der Waals regime of interaction with a sample. The effect is studied in the non-contact mode, where we consider the paramete...
Source-Device-Independent Ultrafast Quantum Random Number Generation
Marangon, Davide G.; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2017-02-01
Secure random numbers are a fundamental element of many applications in science, statistics, cryptography and more in general in security protocols. We present a method that enables the generation of high-speed unpredictable random numbers from the quadratures of an electromagnetic field without any assumption on the input state. The method allows us to eliminate the numbers that can be predicted due to the presence of classical and quantum side information. In particular, we introduce a procedure to estimate a bound on the conditional min-entropy based on the entropic uncertainty principle for position and momentum observables of infinite dimensional quantum systems. By the above method, we experimentally demonstrated the generation of secure true random bits at a rate greater than 1.7 Gbit /s .
Convergence rates for arbitrary statistical moments of random quantum circuits.
Brown, Winton G; Viola, Lorenza
2010-06-25
We consider a class of random quantum circuits where at each step a gate from a universal set is applied to a random pair of qubits, and determine how quickly averages of arbitrary finite-degree polynomials in the matrix elements of the resulting unitary converge to Haar measure averages. This is accomplished by mapping the superoperator that describes t order moments on n qubits to a multilevel SU(4^{t}) Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick Hamiltonian. We show that, for arbitrary fixed t, the ground-state manifold is exactly spanned by factorized eigenstates and, under the assumption that a mean-field ansatz accurately describes the low-lying excitations, the spectral gap scales as 1/n in the thermodynamic limit. Our results imply that random quantum circuits yield an efficient implementation of ϵ approximate unitary t designs.
Quantum State Engineering Via Coherent-State Superpositions
Janszky, Jozsef; Adam, P.; Szabo, S.; Domokos, P.
1996-01-01
The quantum interference between the two parts of the optical Schrodinger-cat state makes possible to construct a wide class of quantum states via discrete superpositions of coherent states. Even a small number of coherent states can approximate the given quantum states at a high accuracy when the distance between the coherent states is optimized, e. g. nearly perfect Fock state can be constructed by discrete superpositions of n + 1 coherent states lying in the vicinity of the vacuum state.
Quantum Computing in Solid State Systems
Ruggiero, B; Granata, C
2006-01-01
The aim of Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems is to report on recent theoretical and experimental results on the macroscopic quantum coherence of mesoscopic systems, as well as on solid state realization of qubits and quantum gates. Particular attention has been given to coherence effects in Josephson devices. Other solid state systems, including quantum dots, optical, ion, and spin devices which exhibit macroscopic quantum coherence are also discussed. Quantum Computation in Solid State Systems discusses experimental implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices, and in particular observations of quantum behavior in several solid state systems. On the theoretical side, the complementary expertise of the contributors provides models of the various structures in connection with the problem of minimizing decoherence.
Grounding the randomness of quantum measurement.
Jaeger, Gregg
2016-05-28
Julian Schwinger provided to physics a mathematical reconstruction of quantum mechanics on the basis of the characteristics of sequences of measurements occurring at the atomic level of physical structure. The central component of this reconstruction is an algebra of symbols corresponding to quantum measurements, conceived of as discrete processes, which serve to relate experience to theory; collections of outcomes of identically circumscribed such measurements are attributed expectation values, which constitute the predictive content of the theory. The outcomes correspond to certain phase parameters appearing in the corresponding symbols, which are complex numbers, the algebra of which he finds by a process he refers to as 'induction'. Schwinger assumed these (individually unpredictable) phase parameters to take random, uniformly distributed definite values within a natural range. I have previously suggested that the 'principle of plenitude' may serve as a basis in principle for the occurrence of the definite measured values that are those members of the collections of measurement outcomes from which the corresponding observed statistics derive (Jaeger 2015Found. Phys.45, 806-819. (doi:10.1007/s10701-015-9893-6)). Here, I evaluate Schwinger's assumption in the context of recent critiques of the notion of randomness and explicitly relate the randomness of these phases with the principle of plenitude and, in this way, provide a fundamental grounding for the objective, physically irreducible probabilities, conceived of as graded possibilities, that are attributed to measurement outcomes by quantum mechanics. © 2016 The Author(s).
The Roles of a Quantum Channel on a Quantum State
Wang, Lin; Yu, Chang-shui
2013-10-01
When a quantum state undergoes a quantum channel, the state will be inevitably influenced. In general, the fidelity of the state is reduced, so is the entanglement if the subsystems go through the channel. However, the influence on the coherence of the state is quite different. Here we present some state-independent quantities to describe to what degree the fidelity, the entanglement and the coherence of the state are influenced. As applications, we consider some quantum channels on a qubit and find that the infidelity ability monotonically depends on the decay rate, but in usual the decoherence ability is not the case and strongly depends on the channel.
Security enhanced memory for quantum state.
Mukai, Tetsuya
2017-07-27
Security enhancement is important in terms of both classical and quantum information. The recent development of a quantum storage device is noteworthy, and a coherence time of one second or longer has been demonstrated. On the other hand, although the encryption of a quantum bit or quantum memory has been proposed theoretically, no experiment has yet been carried out. Here we report the demonstration of a quantum memory with an encryption function that is realized by scrambling and retrieving the recorded quantum phase. We developed two independent Ramsey interferometers on an atomic ensemble trapped below a persistent supercurrent atom chip. By operating the two interferometers with random phases, the quantum phase recorded by a pulse of the first interferometer was modulated by the second interferometer pulse. The scrambled quantum phase was restored by employing another pulse of the second interferometer with a specific time delay. This technique paves way for improving the security of quantum information technology.
DECOY STATE QUANTUM KEY DISTRIBUTION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sellami Ali
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Experimental weak + vacuum protocol has been demonstrated using commercial QKD system based on a standard bi-directional ‘Plug & Play’ set-up. By making simple modifications to a commercial quantum key distribution system, decoy state QKD allows us to achieve much better performance than QKD system without decoy state in terms of key generation rate and distance. We demonstrate an unconditionally secure key rate of 6.2931 x 10-4per pulse for a 25 km fiber length.
Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography
Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.
2017-07-01
The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.
Quantum State Tomography via Reduced Density Matrices.
Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Klassen, Joel; Yu, Nengkun; Ji, Zhengfeng; Chen, Jianxin; Ma, Xian; Long, Guilu; Zeng, Bei; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-01-13
Quantum state tomography via local measurements is an efficient tool for characterizing quantum states. However, it requires that the original global state be uniquely determined (UD) by its local reduced density matrices (RDMs). In this work, we demonstrate for the first time a class of states that are UD by their RDMs under the assumption that the global state is pure, but fail to be UD in the absence of that assumption. This discovery allows us to classify quantum states according to their UD properties, with the requirement that each class be treated distinctly in the practice of simplifying quantum state tomography. Additionally, we experimentally test the feasibility and stability of performing quantum state tomography via the measurement of local RDMs for each class. These theoretical and experimental results demonstrate the advantages and possible pitfalls of quantum state tomography with local measurements.
Assessments of macroscopicity for quantum optical states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laghaout, Amine; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2015-01-01
With the slow but constant progress in the coherent control of quantum systems, it is now possible to create large quantum superpositions. There has therefore been an increased interest in quantifying any claims of macroscopicity. We attempt here to motivate three criteria which we believe should...... enter in the assessment of macroscopic quantumness: The number of quantum fluctuation photons, the purity of the states, and the ease with which the branches making up the state can be distinguished. © 2014....
Past Quantum States of a Monitored System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, Søren; Julsgaard, Brian; Mølmer, Klaus
2013-01-01
A density matrix ρ(t) yields probabilistic information about the outcome of measurements on a quantum system. We introduce here the past quantum state, which, at time T, accounts for the state of a quantum system at earlier times t
Randomness in Classical Mechanics and Quantum Mechanics
Volovich, Igor V.
2011-03-01
The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics assumes the existence of the classical deterministic Newtonian world. We argue that in fact the Newton determinism in classical world does not hold and in the classical mechanics there is fundamental and irreducible randomness. The classical Newtonian trajectory does not have a direct physical meaning since arbitrary real numbers are not observable. There are classical uncertainty relations: Δ q>0 and Δ p>0, i.e. the uncertainty (errors of observation) in the determination of coordinate and momentum is always positive (non zero). A "functional" formulation of classical mechanics was suggested. The fundamental equation of the microscopic dynamics in the functional approach is not the Newton equation but the Liouville equation for the distribution function of the single particle. Solutions of the Liouville equation have the property of delocalization which accounts for irreversibility. The Newton equation in this approach appears as an approximate equation describing the dynamics of the average values of the position and momenta for not too long time intervals. Corrections to the Newton trajectories are computed. An interpretation of quantum mechanics is attempted in which both classical and quantum mechanics contain fundamental randomness. Instead of an ensemble of events one introduces an ensemble of observers.
Quantum Entanglement Growth under Random Unitary Dynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Nahum
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Characterizing how entanglement grows with time in a many-body system, for example, after a quantum quench, is a key problem in nonequilibrium quantum physics. We study this problem for the case of random unitary dynamics, representing either Hamiltonian evolution with time-dependent noise or evolution by a random quantum circuit. Our results reveal a universal structure behind noisy entanglement growth, and also provide simple new heuristics for the “entanglement tsunami” in Hamiltonian systems without noise. In 1D, we show that noise causes the entanglement entropy across a cut to grow according to the celebrated Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ equation. The mean entanglement grows linearly in time, while fluctuations grow like (time^{1/3} and are spatially correlated over a distance ∝(time^{2/3}. We derive KPZ universal behavior in three complementary ways, by mapping random entanglement growth to (i a stochastic model of a growing surface, (ii a “minimal cut” picture, reminiscent of the Ryu-Takayanagi formula in holography, and (iii a hydrodynamic problem involving the dynamical spreading of operators. We demonstrate KPZ universality in 1D numerically using simulations of random unitary circuits. Importantly, the leading-order time dependence of the entropy is deterministic even in the presence of noise, allowing us to propose a simple coarse grained minimal cut picture for the entanglement growth of generic Hamiltonians, even without noise, in arbitrary dimensionality. We clarify the meaning of the “velocity” of entanglement growth in the 1D entanglement tsunami. We show that in higher dimensions, noisy entanglement evolution maps to the well-studied problem of pinning of a membrane or domain wall by disorder.
Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum dynamical semigroup; Evans–Hudson flow; quantum random walk. 1. Introduction. The aim of this article is to investigate convergence of random walks on von Neumann algebra to Evans–Hudson flows. Here the random walks and Evans–Hudson flows are gene- ralizations of classical Markov chains and Markov ...
An Approach to Quantum State Pooling from Quantum Conditional Independence
Leifer, Matthew
2008-03-01
In approaches to quantum theory in which the quantum state is taken to represent an agent's belief, knowledge or information about a physical system, it is legitimate for different agents to assign different states to one and the same physical system. The question then arises of what state they should assign if they get together and share their information about the system. This is the problem of quantum state pooling. The classical counterpart of this problem for probability distributions only has a unique solution under additional assumptions about how the data are collected, such as conditional independence constraints. Recently, Spekkens and Wiseman found a quantum pooling rule analogous to the classical one, which is valid if the differing state assignments arise from making indirect measurements on special classes of tripartite quantum state. We show that this pooling rule applies to a much wider class of tripartite states, and that its validity rests on quantum analogs of conditional independence recently studied by one of the authors, as well as a generalization of the notion of a sufficient statistic to the quantum case. Work done in collaboration with Robert Spekkens, University of Cambridge.
Tuned Transition from Quantum to Classical for Macroscopic Quantum States
Fedorov, A.; Macha, P.; Feofanov, A.K.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.
2011-01-01
The boundary between the classical and quantum worlds has been intensely studied. It remains fascinating to explore how far the quantum concept can reach with use of specially fabricated elements. Here we employ a tunable flux qubit with basis states having persistent currents of 1???A carried by a
PT-symmetric quantum state discrimination.
Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Caldeira, João; Günther, Uwe; Meister, Bernhard K; Samsonov, Boris F
2013-04-28
The objective of this paper is to explain and elucidate the formalism of PT quantum mechanics by applying it to a well-known problem in conventional Hermitian quantum mechanics, namely the problem of state discrimination. Suppose that a system is known to be in one of two quantum states, |ψ(1)> or |ψ(2)>. If these states are not orthogonal, then the requirement of unitarity forbids the possibility of discriminating between these two states with one measurement; that is, determining with one measurement what state the system is in. In conventional quantum mechanics, there is a strategy in which successful state discrimination can be achieved with a single measurement but only with a success probability p that is less than unity. In this paper, the state-discrimination problem is examined in the context of PT quantum mechanics and the approach is based on the fact that a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonian determines the inner product that is appropriate for the Hilbert space of physical states. It is shown that it is always possible to choose this inner product so that the two states |ψ(1)> and |ψ(2)> are orthogonal. Using PT quantum mechanics, one cannot achieve a better state discrimination than in ordinary quantum mechanics, but one can instead perform a simulated quantum state discrimination, in which with a single measurement a perfect state discrimination is realized with probability p.
Quantum cryptography with 3-state systems.
Bechmann-Pasquinucci, H; Peres, A
2000-10-09
We consider quantum cryptographic schemes where the carriers of information are 3-state particles. One protocol uses four mutually unbiased bases and appears to provide better security than obtainable with 2-state carriers. Another possible method allows quantum states to belong to more than one basis. Security is not better, but many curious features arise.
Mapping quantum state dynamics in spontaneous emission
Naghiloo, M.; Foroozani, N.; Tan, D.; Jadbabaie, A.; Murch, K. W.
2016-01-01
The evolution of a quantum state undergoing radiative decay depends on how its emission is detected. If the emission is detected in the form of energy quanta, the evolution is characterized by a quantum jump to a lower energy state. In contrast, detection of the wave nature of the emitted radiation leads to different dynamics. Here, we investigate the diffusive dynamics of a superconducting artificial atom under continuous homodyne detection of its spontaneous emission. Using quantum state tomography, we characterize the correlation between the detected homodyne signal and the emitter's state, and map out the conditional back-action of homodyne measurement. By tracking the diffusive quantum trajectories of the state as it decays, we characterize selective stochastic excitation induced by the choice of measurement basis. Our results demonstrate dramatic differences from the quantum jump evolution associated with photodetection and highlight how continuous field detection can be harnessed to control quantum evolution. PMID:27167893
Coherent states in quantum physics
Gazeau, Jean-Pierre
2009-01-01
This self-contained introduction discusses the evolution of the notion of coherent states, from the early works of Schrödinger to the most recent advances, including signal analysis. An integrated and modern approach to the utility of coherent states in many different branches of physics, it strikes a balance between mathematical and physical descriptions.Split into two parts, the first introduces readers to the most familiar coherent states, their origin, their construction, and their application and relevance to various selected domains of physics. Part II, mostly based on recent original results, is devoted to the question of quantization of various sets through coherent states, and shows the link to procedures in signal analysis. Title: Coherent States in Quantum Physics Print ISBN: 9783527407095 Author(s): Gazeau, Jean-Pierre eISBN: 9783527628292 Publisher: Wiley-VCH Dewey: 530.12 Publication Date: 23 Sep, 2009 Pages: 360 Category: Science, Science: Physics LCCN: Language: English Edition: N/A LCSH:
Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states
Cheng, Fang
2016-09-01
We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.
Random-matrix theory of quantum transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beenakker, C.W. [Instituut-Lorentz, University of Leiden, 2300 RA Leiden, (The Netherlands)
1997-07-01
This is a review of the statistical properties of the scattering matrix of a mesoscopic system. Two geometries are contrasted: A quantum dot and a disordered wire. The quantum dot is a confined region with a chaotic classical dynamics, which is coupled to two electron reservoirs via point contacts. The disordered wire also connects two reservoirs, either directly or via a point contact or tunnel barrier. One of the two reservoirs may be in the superconducting state, in which case conduction involves Andreev reflection at the interface with the superconductor. In the case of the quantum dot, the distribution of the scattering matrix is given by either Dyson{close_quote}s circular ensemble for ballistic point contacts or the Poisson kernel for point contacts containing a tunnel barrier. In the case of the disordered wire, the distribution of the scattering matrix is obtained from the Dorokhov-Mello-Pereyra-Kumar equation, which is a one-dimensional scaling equation. The equivalence is discussed with the nonlinear {sigma} model, which is a supersymmetric field theory of localization. The distribution of scattering matrices is applied to a variety of physical phenomena, including universal conductance fluctuations, weak localization, Coulomb blockade, sub-Poissonian shot noise, reflectionless tunneling into a superconductor, and giant conductance oscillations in a Josephson junction. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Introduction to quantum-state estimation
Teo, Yong Siah
2016-01-01
Quantum-state estimation is an important field in quantum information theory that deals with the characterization of states of affairs for quantum sources. This book begins with background formalism in estimation theory to establish the necessary prerequisites. This basic understanding allows us to explore popular likelihood- and entropy-related estimation schemes that are suitable for an introductory survey on the subject. Discussions on practical aspects of quantum-state estimation ensue, with emphasis on the evaluation of tomographic performances for estimation schemes, experimental realizations of quantum measurements and detection of single-mode multi-photon sources. Finally, the concepts of phase-space distribution functions, which compatibly describe these multi-photon sources, are introduced to bridge the gap between discrete and continuous quantum degrees of freedom. This book is intended to serve as an instructive and self-contained medium for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students to gra...
Quantum Conditional Mutual Information, Reconstructed States, and State Redistribution.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Harrow, Aram W; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Strelchuk, Sergii
2015-07-31
We give two strengthenings of an inequality for the quantum conditional mutual information of a tripartite quantum state recently proved by Fawzi and Renner, connecting it with the ability to reconstruct the state from its bipartite reductions. Namely, we show that the conditional mutual information is an upper bound on the regularized relative entropy distance between the quantum state and its reconstructed version. It is also an upper bound for the measured relative entropy distance of the state to its reconstructed version. The main ingredient of the proof is the fact that the conditional mutual information is the optimal quantum communication rate in the task of state redistribution.
Open quantum systems and random matrix theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mulhall, Declan [Department of Physics/Engineering, University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania 18510-4642 (United States)
2014-10-15
A simple model for open quantum systems is analyzed with RMT. The system is coupled to the continuum in a minimal way. In this paper we see the effect of opening the system on the level statistics, in particular the level spacing, width distribution and Δ{sub 3}(L) statistic are examined as a function of the strength of this coupling. The usual super-radiant state is observed, and it is seen that as it is formed, the level spacing and Δ{sub 3}(L) statistic exhibit the signatures of missed levels.
Quantum random walks and their convergence to Evans–Hudson ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Using coordinate-free basic operators on toy Fock spaces, quantum random walks are defined following the ideas of Attal and Pautrat. Extending the result for one dimensional noise, strong convergence of quantum random walks associated with bounded structure maps to Evans–Hudson flow is proved under suitable ...
Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.
Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M
2016-06-17
Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.
Zhou, Hua; Su, Yang; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Yong; Shen, Huiping; Pu, Tao; Wu, Chuanxin; Zhao, Jiyong; Zhang, Baofu; Xu, Zhiyong
2017-10-01
Online reconstruction of a time-variant quantum state from the encoding/decoding results of quantum communication is addressed by developing a method of evolution reconstruction from a single measurement record with random time intervals. A time-variant two-dimensional state is reconstructed on the basis of recovering its expectation value functions of three nonorthogonal projectors from a random single measurement record, which is composed from the discarded qubits of the six-state protocol. The simulated results prove that our method is robust to typical metro quantum channels. Our work extends the Fourier-based method of evolution reconstruction from the version for a regular single measurement record with equal time intervals to a unified one, which can be applied to arbitrary single measurement records. The proposed protocol of evolution reconstruction runs concurrently with the one of quantum communication, which can facilitate the online quantum tomography.
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M
2013-01-01
Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the en
Random matrix theory of a chaotic Andreev quantum dot
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altland, A.; Zirnbauer, M.R. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str.77, 50937 Koeln (Germany)
1996-04-01
A new universality class distinct from the standard Wigner-Dyson class is identified. This class is realized by putting a metallic quantum dot in contact with a superconductor, while applying a magnetic field so as to make the pairing field effectively vanish on average. A random-matrix description of the spectral and transport properties of such a quantum dot is proposed. The weak-localization correction to the tunnel conductance is nonzero and results from the depletion of the density of states due to the coupling with the superconductor. Semiclassically, the depletion is caused by a singular mode of phase-coherent long-range propagation of particles and holes. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Quantum cobwebs: Universal entangling of quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ZSA) multipartite, pure entangled states for qubits and study their salient features. ... Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar 751 005, India; Center for Philosophy and Foundation of Science, New Delhi, India; School of Informatics, University of Wales, ...
Quantum Coherence and Random Fields at Mesoscopic Scales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosenbaum, Thomas F. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2016-03-01
We seek to explore and exploit model, disordered and geometrically frustrated magnets where coherent spin clusters stably detach themselves from their surroundings, leading to extreme sensitivity to finite frequency excitations and the ability to encode information. Global changes in either the spin concentration or the quantum tunneling probability via the application of an external magnetic field can tune the relative weights of quantum entanglement and random field effects on the mesoscopic scale. These same parameters can be harnessed to manipulate domain wall dynamics in the ferromagnetic state, with technological possibilities for magnetic information storage. Finally, extensions from quantum ferromagnets to antiferromagnets promise new insights into the physics of quantum fluctuations and effective dimensional reduction. A combination of ac susceptometry, dc magnetometry, noise measurements, hole burning, non-linear Fano experiments, and neutron diffraction as functions of temperature, magnetic field, frequency, excitation amplitude, dipole concentration, and disorder address issues of stability, overlap, coherence, and control. We have been especially interested in probing the evolution of the local order in the progression from spin liquid to spin glass to long-range-ordered magnet.
Quantum information processing with mesoscopic photonic states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars Skovgaard
2012-01-01
The thesis is built up around a versatile optical experimental setup based on a laser, two optical parametric ampliers, a few sets of modulators and two sets of homodyne detectors, which together with passive linear optics generate, process and characterize various types of Gaussian quantum states....... Using this setup we have experimentally and theoretically investigated Gaussian quantum discord, continuous variable quantum key distribution and quantum polarization. The Gaussian discord broadens the definition of non-classical correlations from entanglement, to all types of correlations which cannot...... in the mixture of coherent states. Further we investigate the robustness of the discord of a broader range of states and suggest a toolbox of states which can be used to test if a protocol is discord based, before performing a rigid proof. Gaussian quantum key distribution can be implemented with current...
Noginov, Mikhail A
2005-01-01
Random lasers are the simplest sources of stimulated emission without cavity, with the feedback provided by scattering in a gain medium. First proposed in the late 60’s, random lasers have grown to a large research field. This book reviews the history and the state of the art of random lasers, provides an outline of the basic models describing their behavior, and describes the recent advances in the field. The major focus of the book is on solid-state random lasers. However, it also briefly describes random lasers based on liquid dyes with scatterers. The chapters of the book are almost independent of each other. So, the scientists or engineers interested in any particular aspect of random lasers can read directly the relevant section. Researchers entering the field of random lasers will find in the book an overview of the field of study. Scientists working in the field can use the book as a reference source.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Classical topology and quantum states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Classical topology is in this manner incorporated in conventional quantum physics by formulating it using ... touches both on issues of relevance to quantum gravity such as the meaning of 'quantized topology' and the ..... thus is equivalent to a classical probability measure for an instantaneous measurement. (which any way ...
Quantum key distribution using three basis states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
This note presents a method of public key distribution using quantum communication of photons that simultaneously provides a high probability that the bits have not been tampered. It is a variant of the quantum method of Bennett and Brassard (BB84) where the transmission states have been decreased from 4 to 3 and ...
Sending Quantum Information with Gaussian States
Holevo, Alexander S.
Quantum information characteristics, such as quantum mutual information, loss, noise and coherent information are explicitly calculated for Bosonic attenuation/amplification channel with input Gaussian state. The coherent information is shown to be negative for the values of the attenuation coefficient k < 1sqrt 2.
Sending Quantum Information with Gaussian States
Holevo, Alexander S.
1998-01-01
Quantum information characteristics, such as quantum mutual information, loss, noise and coherent information are explicitly calculated for Bosonic attenuation/amplification channel with input Gaussian state. The coherent information is shown to be negative for the values of the attenuation coefficient $k
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, C. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Mancini, S. [School of Science and Technology, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); De Pasquale, A. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Facchi, P. [Dipartimento di Matematica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Florio, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Pascazio, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica and MECENAS, Universita di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Quantum fidelity and quantum phase transitions in matrix product states
Cozzini, Marco; Ionicioiu, Radu; Zanardi, Paolo
2007-09-01
Matrix product states, a key ingredient of numerical algorithms widely employed in the simulation of quantum spin chains, provide an intriguing tool for quantum phase transition engineering. At critical values of the control parameters on which their constituent matrices depend, singularities in the expectation values of certain observables can appear, in spite of the analyticity of the ground state energy. For this class of generalized quantum phase transitions, we test the validity of the recently introduced fidelity approach, where the overlap modulus of ground states corresponding to slightly different parameters is considered. We discuss several examples, successfully identifying all the present transitions. We also study the finite size scaling of fidelity derivatives, pointing out its relevance in extracting critical exponents.
Holographic coherent states from random tensor networks
Qi, Xiao-Liang; Yang, Zhao; You, Yi-Zhuang
2017-08-01
Random tensor networks provide useful models that incorporate various important features of holographic duality. A tensor network is usually defined for a fixed graph geometry specified by the connection of tensors. In this paper, we generalize the random tensor network approach to allow quantum superposition of different spatial geometries. We setup a framework in which all possible bulk spatial geometries, characterized by weighted adjacient matrices of all possible graphs, are mapped to the boundary Hilbert space and form an overcomplete basis of the boundary. We name such an overcomplete basis as holographic coherent states. A generic boundary state can be expanded in this basis, which describes the state as a superposition of different spatial geometries in the bulk. We discuss how to define distinct classical geometries and small fluctuations around them. We show that small fluctuations around classical geometries define "code subspaces" which are mapped to the boundary Hilbert space isometrically with quantum error correction properties. In addition, we also show that the overlap between different geometries is suppressed exponentially as a function of the geometrical difference between the two geometries. The geometrical difference is measured in an area law fashion, which is a manifestation of the holographic nature of the states considered.
Quantum optics in multiple scattering random media
Lodahl, P.; Lagendijk, Aart
2005-01-01
The paper presents the first experimental study of the propagation of quantum noise through an elastic, multiple scattering medium. Two different types of quantum noise measurements have been carried out: total transmission and short-range frequency correlations. When comparing shot noise (quantum)
Solid-State Quantum Refrigeration
2013-03-01
are generated. It has been shown that in strained quantum wells grown on (111B) substrates, the direction of the piezoelectric field is toward...compressively strained quantum well . So that the heavy hole band are pushed upwards in the band diagram and consequently the interband transition with...fifth layer 6 InP 2.5 undoped Quantum well sixth layer In this structure (VE1889) we put the InAlAs layer inside the InGaAs layer to see if
Quantum state transfer and network engineering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikolopoulos, Georgios M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (Greece); Jex, Igor (ed.) [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering
2014-03-01
Presents the basics of large-scale quantum information processing and networking. Covers most aspects of the problems of state transfer and quantum network engineering. Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of the field. Presents various theoretical approaches as well as possible implementations and related experiments. Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large-scale quantum information processing and networking, irrespective of the physical platform. Thus, the problems of quantum-state transfer and quantum-network engineering have attracted enormous interest over the last years, and constitute one of the most active areas of research in quantum information processing. The present volume introduces the reader to fundamental concepts and various aspects of this exciting research area, including links to other related areas and problems. The implementation of state-transfer schemes and the engineering of quantum networks are discussed in the framework of various quantum optical and condensed matter systems, emphasizing the interdisciplinary character of the research area. Each chapter is a review of theoretical or experimental achievements on a particular topic, written by leading scientists in the field. The volume aims at both newcomers as well as experienced researchers.
Quantum Random Number Generation on a Mobile Phone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bruno Sanguinetti
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Quantum random number generators (QRNGs can significantly improve the security of cryptographic protocols by ensuring that generated keys cannot be predicted. However, the cost, size, and power requirements of current Quantum random number generators have prevented them from becoming widespread. In the meantime, the quality of the cameras integrated in mobile telephones has improved significantly so that now they are sensitive to light at the few-photon level. We demonstrate how these can be used to generate random numbers of a quantum origin.
Quantum filtering of optical coherent states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wittmann, C.; Elser, D.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2008-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate nondestructive and noiseless removal (filtering) of vacuum states from an arbitrary set of coherent states of continuous variable systems. Errors, i.e., vacuum states in the quantum information are diagnosed through a weak measurement, and on that basis...
Classical and Quantum-Mechanical State Reconstruction
Khanna, F. C.; Mello, P. A.; Revzen, M.
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present the subject of state reconstruction in classical and in quantum physics, a subject that deals with the experimentally acquired information that allows the determination of the physical state of a system. Our first purpose is to explain a method for retrieving a classical state in phase space, similar to that…
Random Tensor Theory: Extending Random Matrix Theory to Mixtures of Random Product States
Ambainis, Andris; Harrow, Aram W.; Hastings, Matthew B.
2012-02-01
We consider a problem in random matrix theory that is inspired by quantum information theory: determining the largest eigenvalue of a sum of p random product states in {(mathbb {C}^d)^{⊗ k}}, where k and p/ d k are fixed while d → ∞. When k = 1, the Marčenko-Pastur law determines (up to small corrections) not only the largest eigenvalue ({(1+sqrt{p/d^k})^2}) but the smallest eigenvalue {(min(0,1-sqrt{p/d^k})^2)} and the spectral density in between. We use the method of moments to show that for k > 1 the largest eigenvalue is still approximately {(1+sqrt{p/d^k})^2} and the spectral density approaches that of the Marčenko-Pastur law, generalizing the random matrix theory result to the random tensor case. Our bound on the largest eigenvalue has implications both for sampling from a particular heavy-tailed distribution and for a recently proposed quantum data-hiding and correlation-locking scheme due to Leung and Winter. Since the matrices we consider have neither independent entries nor unitary invariance, we need to develop new techniques for their analysis. The main contribution of this paper is to give three different methods for analyzing mixtures of random product states: a diagrammatic approach based on Gaussian integrals, a combinatorial method that looks at the cycle decompositions of permutations and a recursive method that uses a variant of the Schwinger-Dyson equations.
Dissipation, dephasing and quantum Darwinism in qubit systems with random unitary interactions
Balaneskovic, Nenad; Mendler, Marc
2016-09-01
We investigate the influence of dissipation and decoherence on quantum Darwinism by generalizing Zurek's original qubit model of decoherence and the establishment of pointer states [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009); see also arXiv: quant-ph/0707.2832v1, pp. 14-19.]. Our model allows for repeated multiple qubit-qubit couplings between system and environment which are described by randomly applied two-qubit quantum operations inducing entanglement, dissipation and dephasing. The resulting stationary qubit states of system and environment are investigated. They exhibit the intricate influence of entanglement generation, dissipation and dephasing on this characteristic quantum phenomenon.
Using Psychokinesis to Explore the Nature of Quantum Randomness
Burns, Jean E.
2011-11-01
In retrocausation different causal events can produce different successor events, yet a successor event reflecting a particular cause occurs before the causal event does. It is sometimes proposed that the successor event is determined by propagation of the causal effect backwards in time via the dynamical equations governing the events. However, because dynamical equations are time reversible, the evolution of the system is not subject to change. Therefore, the backward propagation hypothesis implies that what may have seemed to be an arbitrary selection of a causal factor was in reality predetermined. Yet quantum randomness can be used to determine the causal factor, and a quantum random event is ordinarily thought of as being arbitrarily generated. So we must ask, when quantum random events occur, are they arbitrary (subject to their probabilistic constraints) or are they predetermined? Because psychokinesis (PK) can act on quantum random events, it can be used as a probe to explore questions such as the above. It is found that if quantum random events are predetermined (aside from the action of PK), certain types of experimental design can show enhanced PK through the use of precognition. Actual experiments are examined and compared, and most of those for which the design is especially suitable for showing this effect had unusually low p values for the number of trials. It is concluded that either the experimenter produced a remarkably strong experimenter effect or quantum random events are predetermined, thereby enabling enhanced PK in suitable experimental designs.
Disorder-induced bound states within an adatom-quantum wire system
Magnetta, Bradley; Ordonez, Gonzalo
2014-03-01
Bound states induced by disorder are theoretically observed within a quantum wire and adatom system. The quantum wire is modeled as an array of quantum wells with random energies and exhibits Anderson Localization. By varying the energy of our adatom and adjusting the tunneling strength between the adatom and the quantum wire we observe disorder-induced bound states between the the adatom and its attached point. The characteristics of these disorder-induced bound states are greatly influenced by the site of interest on the quantum wire. Utilizing random quantum wires and disordered superlattices to produce bound states may offer flexibility in fabrication as well as provide grounds for energy transmission in photovoltaics.
Quantum random number generator based on quantum nature of vacuum fluctuations
Ivanova, A. E.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Gleim, A. V.
2017-11-01
Quantum random number generator (QRNG) allows obtaining true random bit sequences. In QRNG based on quantum nature of vacuum, optical beam splitter with two inputs and two outputs is normally used. We compare mathematical descriptions of spatial beam splitter and fiber Y-splitter in the quantum model for QRNG, based on homodyne detection. These descriptions were identical, that allows to use fiber Y-splitters in practical QRNG schemes, simplifying the setup. Also we receive relations between the input radiation and the resulting differential current in homodyne detector. We experimentally demonstrate possibility of true random bits generation by using QRNG based on homodyne detection with Y-splitter.
Lin, Yu-Ping; Kao, Ying-Jer; Chen, Pochung; Lin, Yu-Cheng
2017-08-01
The antiferromagnetic Ising chain in both transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields is one of the paradigmatic models of a quantum phase transition. The antiferromagnetic system exhibits a zero-temperature critical line separating an antiferromagnetic phase and a paramagnetic phase; the critical line connects an integrable quantum critical point at zero longitudinal field and a classical first-order transition point at zero transverse field. Using a strong-disorder renormalization group method formulated as a tree tensor network, we study the zero-temperature phase of the quantum Ising chain with bond randomness. We introduce a new matrix product operator representation of high-order moments, which provides an efficient and accurate tool for determining quantum phase transitions via the Binder cumulant of the order parameter. Our results demonstrate an infinite-randomness quantum critical point in zero longitudinal field accompanied by pronounced quantum Griffiths singularities, arising from rare ordered regions with anomalously slow fluctuations inside the paramagnetic phase. The strong Griffiths effects are signaled by a large dynamical exponent z >1 , which characterizes a power-law density of low-energy states of the localized rare regions and becomes infinite at the quantum critical point. Upon application of a longitudinal field, the quantum phase transition between the paramagnetic phase and the antiferromagnetic phase is completely destroyed. Furthermore, quantum Griffiths effects are suppressed, showing z <1 , when the dynamics of the rare regions is hampered by the longitudinal field.
Graph state-based quantum authentication scheme
Liao, Longxia; Peng, Xiaoqi; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying
2017-04-01
Inspired by the special properties of the graph state, a quantum authentication scheme is proposed in this paper, which is implemented with the utilization of the graph state. Two entities, a reliable party, Trent, as a verifier and Alice as prover are included. Trent is responsible for registering Alice in the beginning and confirming Alice in the end. The proposed scheme is simple in structure and convenient to realize in the realistic physical system due to the use of the graph state in a one-way quantum channel. In addition, the security of the scheme is extensively analyzed and accordingly can resist the general individual attack strategies.
Classical codes in quantum state space
Howard, Mark
2015-12-01
We present a construction of Hermitian operators and quantum states labelled by strings from a finite field. The distance between these operators or states is then simply related (typically, proportional) to the Hamming distance between their corresponding strings. This allows a straightforward application of classical coding theory to find arrangements of operators or states with a given distance distribution. Using the simplex or extended Reed-Solomon code in our construction recovers the discrete Wigner function, which has important applications in quantum information theory.
Song, Yi; Ni, Jiang-Li; Wang, Zhang-Yin; Lu, Yan; Han, Lian-Fang
2017-10-01
We present a new scheme for deterministically realizing the mutual interchange of quantum information between two distant parties via selected quantum states as the shared entangled resource. We first show the symmetric bidirectional remote state preparation (BRSP), where two single-qubit quantum states will be simultaneously exchanged in a deterministic manner provided that each of the users performs single-qubit von Neumann measurements with proper measurement bases as well as appropriate unitary operations, depending essentially on the outcomes of the prior measurements. Then we consider to extend the symmetric protocol to an asymmetric case, in which BRSP of a general single-qubit state and an arbitrary two-qubit state is investigated successfully. The necessary quantum operations and the employed quantum resources are feasible according to the present technology, resulting in that this protocol may be realizable in the realm of current physical experiment.
Quantum communication with coherent states of light
Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2017-06-01
Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.
Quantum communication with coherent states of light.
Khan, Imran; Elser, Dominique; Dirmeier, Thomas; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2017-08-06
Quantum communication offers long-term security especially, but not only, relevant to government and industrial users. It is worth noting that, for the first time in the history of cryptographic encoding, we are currently in the situation that secure communication can be based on the fundamental laws of physics (information theoretical security) rather than on algorithmic security relying on the complexity of algorithms, which is periodically endangered as standard computer technology advances. On a fundamental level, the security of quantum key distribution (QKD) relies on the non-orthogonality of the quantum states used. So even coherent states are well suited for this task, the quantum states that largely describe the light generated by laser systems. Depending on whether one uses detectors resolving single or multiple photon states or detectors measuring the field quadratures, one speaks of, respectively, a discrete- or a continuous-variable description. Continuous-variable QKD with coherent states uses a technology that is very similar to the one employed in classical coherent communication systems, the backbone of today's Internet connections. Here, we review recent developments in this field in two connected regimes: (i) improving QKD equipment by implementing front-end telecom devices and (ii) research into satellite QKD for bridging long distances by building upon existing optical satellite links.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Quantum state engineering with single atom laser
Stefanov, V. P.
2017-11-01
On the basis of quantum stochastic trajectories approach it is shown that a single atom laser with coherent pumping can generate not only coherent states, but squeezed and Fock states, when different schemes of detection are followed by coherent feedback pulses or feedforward actions.
Quantum state sharing against the controller's cheating
Shi, Run-hua; Zhong, Hong; Huang, Liu-sheng
2013-08-01
Most existing QSTS schemes are equivalent to the controlled teleportation, in which a designated agent (i.e., the recoverer) can recover the teleported state with the help of the controllers. However, the controller may attempt to cheat the recoverer during the phase of recovering the secret state. How can we detect this cheating? In this paper, we considered the problem of detecting the controller's cheating in Quantum State Sharing, and further proposed an effective Quantum State Sharing scheme against the controller's cheating. We cleverly use Quantum Secret Sharing, Multiple Quantum States Sharing and decoy-particle techniques. In our scheme, via a previously shared entanglement state Alice can teleport multiple arbitrary multi-qubit states to Bob with the help of Charlie. Furthermore, by the classical information shared previously, Alice and Bob can check whether there is any cheating of Charlie. In addition, our scheme only needs to perform Bell-state and single-particle measurements, and to apply C-NOT gate and other single-particle unitary operations. With the present techniques, it is feasible to implement these necessary measurements and operations.
Local Unitary Invariants of Quantum States
Cui, Meiyu; Chang, Jingmei; Zhao, Ming-Jing; Huang, Xiaofen; Zhang, Tinggui
2017-11-01
We study the equivalence of mixed states under local unitary transformations. First we express quantum states in Bloch representation. Then based on the coefficient matrices, some invariants are constructed. This method and results can be extended to multipartite high dimensional system.
Engineering quantum hyperentangled states in atomic systems
Nawaz, Mehwish; -Islam, Rameez-ul; Abbas, Tasawar; Ikram, Manzoor
2017-11-01
Hyperentangled states have boosted many quantum informatics tasks tremendously due to their high information content per quantum entity. Until now, however, the engineering and manipulation of such states were limited to photonic systems only. In present article, we propose generating atomic hyperentanglement involving atomic internal states as well as atomic external momenta states. Hypersuperposition, hyperentangled cluster, Bell and Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states are engineered deterministically through resonant and off-resonant Bragg diffraction of neutral two-level atoms. Based on the characteristic parameters of the atomic Bragg diffraction, such as comparatively large interaction times and spatially well-separated outputs, such decoherence resistant states are expected to exhibit good overall fidelities and offer the evident benefits of full controllability, along with extremely high detection efficiency, over the counterpart photonic states comprised entirely of flying qubits.
Side Channel Passive Quantum Key Distribution with One Uninformative State
Kang, Guo-Dong; Zhou, Qing-Ping; Fang, Mao-Fa
2017-03-01
In most of quantum key distribution schemes, real random number generators are required on both sides for preparation and measurement bases choice. In this paper, via entangled photon pairs, we present a side channel passive quantum key distribution scheme, in which random number generator is unneeded on the receiver side. On the sender Alice side, along with massive of signal photons, small amount of uninformative photons are randomly sent to her partner Bob for eavesdropper-presence testing and error estimation. While on the other side channel, without using random number generator Bob do not actively measure the income signals randomly in two non-orthogonal bases. Instead, he just passively register photon click events, in two settled symmetric (i.e. X) bases, and the raw key(click events) is the probable outcomes of a special quantum measurement module constructed by Alice and Bob. Further, security analysis and formulas of security bounds for this scheme is also investigated under reasonable assumptions. Our work shows that the uninformative state employed in this paper is powerful to fight against eavesdropper Eve.
Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States
Hyatt, Katharine; Garrison, James R.; Bauer, Bela
2017-10-01
Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network—and hence the geometry—is largely fixed a priori by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.
Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kavan Modi
2011-12-01
Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.
Storing quantum states in bosonic dissipative networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Ponte, M A; Mizrahi, S S [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moussa, M H Y [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)
2008-11-14
By considering a network of dissipative quantum harmonic oscillators, we deduce and analyse the optimum topologies which are able to store quantum superposition states, protecting them from decoherence, for the longest period of time. The storage is made dynamically, in that the states to be protected evolve through the network before being retrieved back in the oscillator where they were prepared. The decoherence time during the dynamic storage process is computed and we demonstrate that it is proportional to the number of oscillators in the network for a particular regime of parameters.
Exotic states in quantum nanostructures
2002-01-01
Mesoscopic physics has made great strides in the last few years It is an area of research that is attractive to many graduate students of theoretical condensed matter physics The techniques that are needed to understand it go beyond the conventional perturbative approaches that still form the bulk of the graduate lectures that are given to students Even when the non-perturbative techniques are presented, they often are presented within an abstract context It is important to have lectures given by experts in the field, which present both theory and experiment in an illuminating and inspiring way, so that the impact of new methodology on novel physics is clear It is an apt time to have such a volume since the field has reached a level of maturity The pedagogical nature of the articles and the variety of topics makes it an important resource for newcomers to the field The topics range from the newly emerging area of quantum computers and quantum information using Josephson junctions to the formal mathematical me...
Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.
2008-11-01
Entanglement is known today as a key resource in many protocols from quantum computation and quantum information theory. However, despite the successful demonstration of several protocols, such as teleportation or quantum key distribution, there are still many open questions of how entanglement affects the efficiency of quantum algorithms or how it can be protected against noisy environments. The investigation of these and related questions often requires a search or optimization over the set of quantum states and, hence, a parametrization of them and various other objects. To facilitate this kind of studies in quantum information theory, here we present an extension of the FEYNMAN program that was developed during recent years as a toolbox for the simulation and analysis of quantum registers. In particular, we implement parameterizations of hermitian and unitary matrices (of arbitrary order), pure and mixed quantum states as well as separable states. In addition to being a prerequisite for the study of many optimization problems, these parameterizations also provide the necessary basis for heuristic studies which make use of random states, unitary matrices and other objects. Program summaryProgram title: FEYNMAN Catalogue identifier: ADWE_v4_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADWE_v4_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 24 231 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 416 085 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 11 Computer: Any computer with Maple software installed Operating system: Any system that supports Maple; program has been tested under Microsoft Windows XP, Linux Classification: 4.15 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: During the last decades
Optimal convex approximations of quantum states
Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2017-10-01
We consider the problem of optimally approximating an unavailable quantum state ρ by the convex mixing of states drawn from a set of available states {νi} . The problem is recast to look for the least distinguishable state from ρ among the convex set ∑ipiνi , and the corresponding optimal weights {pi} provide the optimal convex mixing. We present the complete solution for the optimal convex approximation of a qubit mixed state when the set of available states comprises the three bases of the Pauli matrices.
Statistical tests for quantum state reconstruction II: Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schindler, Philipp; Monz, Thomas [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Moroder, Tobias [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Blatt, Rainer [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria)
2012-07-01
Quantum state tomography is nowadays routinely used in many experiments, for instance to characterize entangled quantum states or to determine input and output states of a quantum processor. Tomography reconstruction algorithms are designed to restrict the results onto physical states. These methods will always return a valid quantum state for any data and therefore it seems necessary to test the recorded data prior to reconstructing the quantum state. We directly apply statistical tests on our experimental data taken in an ion trap quantum computer. In particular, we analyze the sensitivity of these tests to various experimental imperfections like crosstalk and rotated bases.
Khrennikov, Andrei
2017-02-01
The scientific methodology based on two descriptive levels, ontic (reality as it is) and epistemic (observational), is briefly presented. Following Schrödinger, we point to the possible gap between these two descriptions. Our main aim is to show that, although ontic entities may be unaccessible for observations, they can be useful for clarification of the physical nature of operational epistemic entities. We illustrate this thesis by the concrete example: starting with the concrete ontic model preceding quantum mechanics (the latter is treated as an epistemic model), namely, prequantum classical statistical field theory (PCSFT), we propose the natural physical interpretation for the basic quantum mechanical entity-the quantum state ("wave function"). The correspondence PCSFT ↦ QM is not straightforward, it couples the covariance operators of classical (prequantum) random fields with the quantum density operators. We use this correspondence to clarify the physical meaning of the pure quantum state and the superposition principle-by using the formalism of classical field correlations. In classical mechanics the phase space description can be considered as the ontic description, here states are given by points λ =(x , p) of phase space. The dynamics of the ontic state is given by the system of Hamiltonian equations.We can also consider probability distributions on the phase space (or equivalently random variables valued in it). We call them probabilistic ontic states. Dynamics of probabilistic ontic states is given by the Liouville equation.In classical physics we can (at least in principle) measure both the coordinate and momentum and hence ontic states can be treated as epistemic states as well (or it is better to say that here epistemic states can be treated as ontic states). Probabilistic ontic states represent probabilities for outcomes of joint measurement of position and momentum.However, this was a very special, although very important, example of
Many-body localization in the quantum random energy model
Laumann, Chris; Pal, Arijeet
2014-03-01
The quantum random energy model is a canonical toy model for a quantum spin glass with a well known phase diagram. We show that the model exhibits a many-body localization-delocalization transition at finite energy density which significantly alters the interpretation of the statistical ``frozen'' phase at lower temperature in isolated quantum systems. The transition manifests in many-body level statistics as well as the long time dynamics of on-site observables. CRL thanks the Perimeter Institute for hospitality and support.
Randomized dynamical decoupling strategies and improved one-way key rates for quantum cryptography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kern, Oliver
2009-05-25
The present thesis deals with various methods of quantum error correction. It is divided into two parts. In the first part, dynamical decoupling methods are considered which have the task of suppressing the influence of residual imperfections in a quantum memory. Such imperfections might be given by couplings between the finite dimensional quantum systems (qudits) constituting the quantum memory, for instance. The suppression is achieved by altering the dynamics of an imperfect quantum memory with the help of a sequence of local unitary operations applied to the qudits. Whereas up to now the operations of such decoupling sequences have been constructed in a deterministic fashion, strategies are developed in this thesis which construct the operations by random selection from a suitable set. Formulas are derived which estimate the average performance of such strategies. As it turns out, randomized decoupling strategies offer advantages and disadvantages over deterministic ones. It is possible to benefit from the advantages of both kind of strategies by designing combined strategies. Furthermore, it is investigated if and how the discussed decoupling strategies can be employed to protect a quantum computation running on the quantum memory. It is shown that a purely randomized decoupling strategy may be used by applying the decoupling operations and adjusted gates of the quantum algorithm in an alternating fashion. Again this method can be enhanced by the means of deterministic methods in order to obtain a combined decoupling method for quantum computations analogously to the combining strategies for quantum memories. The second part of the thesis deals with quantum error-correcting codes and protocols for quantum key distribution. The focus is on the BB84 and the 6-state protocol making use of only one-way communication during the error correction and privacy amplification steps. It is shown that by adding additional errors to the preliminary key (a process called
Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao Haijing; Chen Zhonghua [Physics Department, Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai 201300 (China); Song Heshan [Physics Department, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)], E-mail: 2007000084@shiep.edu.cn
2008-07-15
A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.
Hyperdiffusion of quantum waves in random photonic lattices
Iomin, Alexander
2015-08-01
A quantum-mechanical analysis of hyperfast (faster than ballistic) diffusion of a quantum wave packet in random optical lattices is presented. The main motivation of the presented analysis is experimental demonstrations of hyperdiffusive spreading of a wave packet in random photonic lattices [L. Levi et al., Nature Phys. 8, 912 (2012), 10.1038/nphys2463]. A rigorous quantum-mechanical calculation of the mean probability amplitude is suggested, and it is shown that the power-law spreading of the mean-squared displacement (MSD) is ˜tα , where 2 <α ≤3 . The values of the transport exponent α depend on the correlation properties of the random potential V (x ,t ) , which describes random inhomogeneities of the medium. In particular, when the random potential is δ correlated in time, the quantum wave packet spreads according Richardson turbulent diffusion with the MSD ˜t3 . Hyperdiffusion with α =12 /5 is also obtained for arbitrary correlation properties of the random potential.
Criteria for reachability of quantum states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schirmer, S.G.; Solomon, A.I. [Quantum Processes Group and Department of Applied Maths, Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)]. E-mails: S.G.Schirmer@open.ac.uk; A.I.Solomon@open.ac.uk; Leahy, J.V. [Department of Mathematics and Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)]. E-mail: leahy@math.uoregon.edu
2002-10-11
We address the question of which quantum states can be inter-converted under the action of a time-dependent Hamiltonian. In particular, we consider the problem as applied to mixed states, and investigate the difference between pure- and mixed-state controllabilities introduced in previous work. We provide a complete characterization of the eigenvalue spectrum for which the state is controllable under the action of the symplectic group. We also address the problem of which states can be prepared if the dynamical Lie group is not sufficiently large to allow the system to be controllable. (author)
Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability
2016-06-29
quantum mechanics . Non-classical quantum states. Gaussian distributions play a fundamental role in classical (non-quantum) linear systems theory, and...quantum systems, we will consider perturbed quantum linear systems described by coupling and Hamiltonian operators with components that depend on a... Hamiltonian . The case of a nominal linear quantum system is considered with quadratic perturbations to the system Hamiltonian . A robust stability
Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks
Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.
2017-06-01
Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.
Mixed quantum states with variable Planck constant
de Gosson, Maurice A.
2017-09-01
Recent cosmological measurements tend to confirm that the fine structure constant α is not immutable and has undergone a tiny variation since the Big Bang. Choosing adequate units, this could also reflect a variation of Planck's constant h. The aim of this Letter is to explore some consequences of such a possible change of h for the pure and mixed states of quantum mechanics. Surprisingly enough it is found that not only is the purity of a state extremely sensitive to such changes, but that quantum states can evolve into classical states, and vice versa. A complete classification of such transitions is however not possible for the moment being because of yet unsolved mathematical difficulties related to the study of positivity properties of trace class operators.
Efficient quantum optical state engineering and applications
McCusker, Kevin T.
Over a century after the modern prediction of the existence of individual particles of light by Albert Einstein, a reliable source of this simple quantum state of one photon does not exist. While common light sources such as a light bulb, LED, or laser can produce a pulse of light with an average of one photon, there is (currently) no way of knowing the number of photons in that pulse without first absorbing (and thereby destroying) them. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, a process in which one high-energy photon splits into two lower-energy photons, allows us to prepare a single-photon state by detecting one of the photons, which then heralds the existence of its twin. This process has been the workhorse of quantum optics, allowing demonstrations of a myriad of quantum processes and protocols, such as entanglement, cryptography, superdense coding, teleportation, and simple quantum computing demonstrations. All of these processes would benefit from better engineering of the underlying down-conversion process, but despite significant effort (both theoretical and experimental), optimization of this process is ongoing. The focus of this work is to optimize certain aspects of a down-conversion source, and then use this tool in novel experiments not otherwise feasible. Specifically, the goal is to optimize the heralding efficiency of the down-conversion photons, i.e., the probability that if one photon is detected, the other photon is also detected. This source is then applied to two experiments (a single-photon source, and a quantum cryptography implementation), and the detailed theory of an additional application (a source of Fock states and path-entangled states, called N00N states) is discussed, along with some other possible applications.
Randomness in quantum mechanics: philosophy, physics and technology.
Bera, Manabendra Nath; Acín, Antonio; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan W; Lewenstein, Maciej
2017-12-01
This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining simple and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.
Randomness in quantum mechanics: philosophy, physics and technology
Nath Bera, Manabendra; Acín, Antonio; Kuś, Marek; Mitchell, Morgan W.; Lewenstein, Maciej
2017-12-01
This progress report covers recent developments in the area of quantum randomness, which is an extraordinarily interdisciplinary area that belongs not only to physics, but also to philosophy, mathematics, computer science, and technology. For this reason the article contains three parts that will be essentially devoted to different aspects of quantum randomness, and even directed, although not restricted, to various audiences: a philosophical part, a physical part, and a technological part. For these reasons the article is written on an elementary level, combining simple and non-technical descriptions with a concise review of more advanced results. In this way readers of various provenances will be able to gain while reading the article.
Adaptive Quantum State Tomography Improves Accuracy Quadratically
Mahler, D. H.; Rozema, Lee A.; Darabi, Ardavan; Ferrie, Christopher; Blume-Kohout, Robin; Steinberg, A. M.
2013-11-01
We introduce a simple protocol for adaptive quantum state tomography, which reduces the worst-case infidelity [1-F(ρ^,ρ)] between the estimate and the true state from O(1/N) to O(1/N). It uses a single adaptation step and just one extra measurement setting. In a linear optical qubit experiment, we demonstrate a full order of magnitude reduction in infidelity (from 0.1% to 0.01%) for a modest number of samples (N≈3×104).
Quantum marginals from pure doubly excited states
Maciążek, Tomasz; Tsanov, Valdemar
2017-11-01
The possible spectra of one-particle reduced density matrices that are compatible with a pure multipartite quantum system of finite dimension form a convex polytope. We introduce a new construction of inner- and outer-bounding polytopes that constrain the polytope for the entire quantum system. The outer bound is sharp. The inner polytope stems only from doubly excited states. We find all quantum systems, where the bounds coincide giving the entire polytope. We show, that those systems are: (i) any system of two particles (ii) L qubits, (iii) three fermions on N≤slant 7 levels, (iv) any number of bosons on any number of levels and (v) fermionic Fock space on N≤slant 5 levels. The methods we use come from symplectic geometry and representation theory of compact Lie groups. In particular, we study the images of proper momentum maps, where our method describes momentum images for all representations that are spherical.
Siegert State Approach to Quantum Defect Theory
Hategan, C.; Ionescu, R. A.; Wolter, H. H.
2016-01-01
The Siegert states are approached in framework of Bloch-Lane-Robson formalism for quantum collisions. The Siegert state is not described by a pole of Wigner R- matrix but rather by the equation $1- R_{nn}L_n = 0$, relating R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ to decay channel logarithmic derivative $L_n$. Extension of Siegert state equation to multichannel system results into replacement of channel R- matrix element $R_{nn}$ by its reduced counterpart ${\\cal R}_{nn}$. One proves the Siegert state is a ...
Control aspects of quantum computing using pure and mixed states.
Schulte-Herbrüggen, Thomas; Marx, Raimund; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Khaneja, Navin; Glaser, Steffen J
2012-10-13
Steering quantum dynamics such that the target states solve classically hard problems is paramount to quantum simulation and computation. And beyond, quantum control is also essential to pave the way to quantum technologies. Here, important control techniques are reviewed and presented in a unified frame covering quantum computational gate synthesis and spectroscopic state transfer alike. We emphasize that it does not matter whether the quantum states of interest are pure or not. While pure states underly the design of quantum circuits, ensemble mixtures of quantum states can be exploited in a more recent class of algorithms: it is illustrated by characterizing the Jones polynomial in order to distinguish between different (classes of) knots. Further applications include Josephson elements, cavity grids, ion traps and nitrogen vacancy centres in scenarios of closed as well as open quantum systems.
Delgado, Francisco
2017-12-01
Quantum information processing should be generated through control of quantum evolution for physical systems being used as resources, such as superconducting circuits, spinspin couplings in ions and artificial anyons in electronic gases. They have a quantum dynamics which should be translated into more natural languages for quantum information processing. On this terrain, this language should let to establish manipulation operations on the associated quantum information states as classical information processing does. This work shows how a kind of processing operations can be settled and implemented for quantum states design and quantum processing for systems fulfilling a SU(2) reduction in their dynamics.
Hybrid quantum processors: molecular ensembles as quantum memory for solid state circuits.
Rabl, P; DeMille, D; Doyle, J M; Lukin, M D; Schoelkopf, R J; Zoller, P
2006-07-21
We investigate a hybrid quantum circuit where ensembles of cold polar molecules serve as long-lived quantum memories and optical interfaces for solid state quantum processors. The quantum memory realized by collective spin states (ensemble qubit) is coupled to a high-Q stripline cavity via microwave Raman processes. We show that, for convenient trap-surface distances of a few microm, strong coupling between the cavity and ensemble qubit can be achieved. We discuss basic quantum information protocols, including a swap from the cavity photon bus to the molecular quantum memory, and a deterministic two qubit gate. Finally, we investigate coherence properties of molecular ensemble quantum bits.
Quantum Nonadiabatic Cloning of Entangled Coherent States.
Izmaylov, Artur F; Joubert-Doriol, Loïc
2017-04-20
We propose a systematic approach to the basis set extension for nonadiabatic dynamics of entangled combination of nuclear coherent states (CSs) evolving according to the time-dependent variational principle (TDVP). The TDVP provides a rigorous framework for fully quantum nonadiabatic dynamics of closed systems; however, the quality of results strongly depends on available basis functions. Starting with a single nuclear CS replicated vertically on all electronic states, our approach clones this function when replicas of the CS on different electronic states experience increasingly different forces. Created clones move away from each other (decohere), extending the basis set. To determine a moment for cloning, we introduce generalized forces based on derivatives that maximally contribute to a variation of the total quantum action and thus account for entanglement of all basis functions.
Quantum Chaos and Random Matrix Theory Some New Results
Smilansky, U
1996-01-01
New insight into the correspondence between Quantum Chaos and Random Matrix Theory is gained by developing a semiclassical theory for the autocorrelation function of spectral determinants. We study in particular the unitary operators which are the quantum versions of area preserving maps. The relevant Random Matrix ensembles are the Circular ensembles. The resulting semiclassical expressions depend on the symmetry of the system with respect to time reversal, and on a classical parameter $\\mu = tr U -1$ where U is the classical 1-step evolution operator. For system without time reversal symmetry, we are able to reproduce the exact Random Matrix predictions in the limit $\\mu \\to 0$. For systems with time reversal symmetry we can reproduce only some of the features of Random Matrix Theory. For both classes we obtain the leading corrections in $\\mu$. The semiclassical theory for integrable systems is also developed, resulting in expressions which reproduce the theory for the Poissonian ensemble to leading order i...
Quantum coherence generated by interference-induced state selectiveness
Garreau, Jean Claude
2001-01-01
The relations between quantum coherence and quantum interference are discussed. A general method for generation of quantum coherence through interference-induced state selection is introduced and then applied to `simple' atomic systems under two-photon transitions, with applications in quantum optics and laser cooling.
Bifurcation in Ground-state Fidelity and Quantum Criticality in Two-leg Potts Ladder
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sheng-Hao LI
2014-02-01
Full Text Available We have investigated an intriguing connection between bifurcations, reduced fidelity per lattice site, local order parameter, universal order parameter, entropy and quantum phase transitions in the ground state for quantum three-state Potts model with two coupled infinite-size ladder system, in the context of the tensor network algorithm. The tensor network algorithm produces degenerate symmetry-breaking ground-state wave functions arising from the Z3 symmetry breaking, each of results from a randomly chosen initial state. We expect that our approach might provide further insights into critical phenomena in quantum many-body infinite lattice systems in condensed matter physics.
An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this article we present an effective Hamiltonian approach for discrete time quantum random walk. A form of the Hamiltonian ... TARUN KANTI GHOSH2. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, India; Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India ...
Extreme Violation of Local Realism in Quantum Hypergraph States.
Gachechiladze, Mariami; Budroni, Costantino; Gühne, Otfried
2016-02-19
Hypergraph states form a family of multiparticle quantum states that generalizes the well-known concept of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and more broadly graph states. We study the nonlocal properties of quantum hypergraph states. We demonstrate that the correlations in hypergraph states can be used to derive various types of nonlocality proofs, including Hardy-type arguments and Bell inequalities for genuine multiparticle nonlocality. Moreover, we show that hypergraph states allow for an exponentially increasing violation of local realism which is robust against loss of particles. Our results suggest that certain classes of hypergraph states are novel resources for quantum metrology and measurement-based quantum computation.
Quantum correlations support probabilistic pure state cloning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roa, Luis, E-mail: lroa@udec.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Alid-Vaccarezza, M.; Jara-Figueroa, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Klimov, A.B. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Guadalajara, Avenida Revolución 1500, 44420 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)
2014-02-01
The probabilistic scheme for making two copies of two nonorthogonal pure states requires two auxiliary systems, one for copying and one for attempting to project onto the suitable subspace. The process is performed by means of a unitary-reduction scheme which allows having a success probability of cloning different from zero. The scheme becomes optimal when the probability of success is maximized. In this case, a bipartite state remains as a free degree which does not affect the probability. We find bipartite states for which the unitarity does not introduce entanglement, but does introduce quantum discord between some involved subsystems.
Extremal quantum correlations: Experimental study with two-qubit states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiuri, A.; Mataloni, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Ottica (INO-CNR), L.go E. Fermi 6, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Vallone, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Via Panisperna 89/A, Compendio del Viminale, I-00184 Roma (Italy); Paternostro, M. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)
2011-08-15
We explore experimentally the space of two-qubit quantum-correlated mixed states, including frontier states as defined by the use of quantum discord and von Neumann entropy. Our experimental setup is flexible enough to allow for high-quality generation of a vast variety of states. We address quantitatively the relation between quantum discord and a recently suggested alternative measure of quantum correlations.
Heralded amplification of path entangled quantum states
Monteiro, F.; Verbanis, E.; Caprara Vivoli, V.; Martin, A.; Gisin, N.; Zbinden, H.; Thew, R. T.
2017-06-01
Device-independent quantum key distribution (DI-QKD) represents one of the most fascinating challenges in quantum communication, exploiting concepts of fundamental physics, namely Bell tests of nonlocality, to ensure the security of a communication link. This requires the loophole-free violation of a Bell inequality, which is intrinsically difficult due to losses in fibre optic transmission channels. Heralded photon amplification (HPA) is a teleportation-based protocol that has been proposed as a means to overcome transmission loss for DI-QKD. Here we demonstrate HPA for path entangled states and characterise the entanglement before and after loss by exploiting a recently developed displacement-based detection scheme. We demonstrate that by exploiting HPA we are able to reliably maintain high fidelity entangled states over loss-equivalent distances of more than 50 km.
Quantum Darwinism for mixed-state environment
Quan, Haitao; Zwolak, Michael; Zurek, Wojciech
2009-03-01
We exam quantum darwinism when a system is in the presence of a mixed environment, and we find a general relation between the mutual information for the mixed-state environment and the change of the entropy of the fraction of the environment. We then look at a particular solvable model, and we numerically exam the time evolution of the ``mutual information" for large environment. Finally we discuss about the exact expressions for all entropies and the mutual information at special time.
Solid State Quantum Computer in Silicon
2008-09-30
focused microprobe of 2 MeV alpha particles, produced by the 5U Pelletron accelerator at the University of Melbourne and the MP2 nuclear microprobe...Kotthaus and S. Ludwig, “ Electrostatically defined serial triple quantum dot charged with few electrons”, Physical Review B 76, 075306 (2007). M.Y...ESR line to induce Rabi oscillation of the spin state. In addition, the electrostatic potential on the ESR line is used to shift the Zeeman-split
Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.
Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi
2008-11-01
A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.
Tuning the Quantum Efficiency of Random Lasers - Intrinsic Stokes-Shift and Gain
Lubatsch, Andreas; Frank, Regine
2015-11-01
We report the theoretical analysis for tuning the quantum efficiency of solid state random lasers. Vollhardt-Wölfle theory of photonic transport in disordered non-conserving and open random media, is coupled to lasing dynamics and solved positionally dependent. The interplay of non-linearity and homogeneous non-radiative frequency conversion by means of a Stokes-shift leads to a reduction of the quantum efficiency of the random laser. At the threshold a strong decrease of the spot-size in the stationary state is found due to the increase of non-radiative losses. The coherently emitted photon number per unit of modal surface is also strongly reduced. This result allows for the conclusion that Stokes-shifts are not sufficient to explain confined and extended mode regimes.
Extracting Entanglement Geometry from Quantum States.
Hyatt, Katharine; Garrison, James R; Bauer, Bela
2017-10-06
Tensor networks impose a notion of geometry on the entanglement of a quantum system. In some cases, this geometry is found to reproduce key properties of holographic dualities, and subsequently much work has focused on using tensor networks as tractable models for holographic dualities. Conventionally, the structure of the network-and hence the geometry-is largely fixed a priori by the choice of the tensor network ansatz. Here, we evade this restriction and describe an unbiased approach that allows us to extract the appropriate geometry from a given quantum state. We develop an algorithm that iteratively finds a unitary circuit that transforms a given quantum state into an unentangled product state. We then analyze the structure of the resulting unitary circuits. In the case of noninteracting, critical systems in one dimension, we recover signatures of scale invariance in the unitary network, and we show that appropriately defined geodesic paths between physical degrees of freedom exhibit known properties of a hyperbolic geometry.
Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Quantum computing algorithms require that the quantum register be initially present in a superposition state. To achieve this, we consider the practical problem of creating a coherent superposition state of several qubits. We show that the constraints of quantum statistics require that the entropy of the system be brought ...
A Quantum Version of Wigner’s Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
2009-01-01
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner’s transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in ħ. This leads to an explicit algorithm to
A Quantum Version of Wigner's Transition State Theory
Schubert, R.; Waalkens, H.; Wiggins, S.
A quantum version of a recent realization of Wigner's transition state theory in phase space is presented. The theory developed builds on a quantum normal form which locally decouples the quantum dynamics near the transition state to any desired order in (h) over bar. This leads to an explicit
Neural-Network Quantum States, String-Bond States, and Chiral Topological States
Glasser, Ivan; Pancotti, Nicola; August, Moritz; Rodriguez, Ivan D.; Cirac, J. Ignacio
2018-01-01
Neural-network quantum states have recently been introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between neural-network quantum states in the form of restricted Boltzmann machines and some classes of tensor-network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that short-range restricted Boltzmann machines are entangled plaquette states, while fully connected restricted Boltzmann machines are string-bond states with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of restricted Boltzmann machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-bond states also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of neural-network quantum states and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of tensor networks and the efficiency of neural-network quantum states into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional tensor networks, we show that, because of their nonlocal geometry, neural-network quantum states and their string-bond-state extension can describe a lattice fractional quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that neural-network quantum states can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than entangled plaquette states and local string-bond states. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of string-bond states as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.
Neural-Network Quantum States, String-Bond States, and Chiral Topological States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivan Glasser
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Neural-network quantum states have recently been introduced as an Ansatz for describing the wave function of quantum many-body systems. We show that there are strong connections between neural-network quantum states in the form of restricted Boltzmann machines and some classes of tensor-network states in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, we demonstrate that short-range restricted Boltzmann machines are entangled plaquette states, while fully connected restricted Boltzmann machines are string-bond states with a nonlocal geometry and low bond dimension. These results shed light on the underlying architecture of restricted Boltzmann machines and their efficiency at representing many-body quantum states. String-bond states also provide a generic way of enhancing the power of neural-network quantum states and a natural generalization to systems with larger local Hilbert space. We compare the advantages and drawbacks of these different classes of states and present a method to combine them together. This allows us to benefit from both the entanglement structure of tensor networks and the efficiency of neural-network quantum states into a single Ansatz capable of targeting the wave function of strongly correlated systems. While it remains a challenge to describe states with chiral topological order using traditional tensor networks, we show that, because of their nonlocal geometry, neural-network quantum states and their string-bond-state extension can describe a lattice fractional quantum Hall state exactly. In addition, we provide numerical evidence that neural-network quantum states can approximate a chiral spin liquid with better accuracy than entangled plaquette states and local string-bond states. Our results demonstrate the efficiency of neural networks to describe complex quantum wave functions and pave the way towards the use of string-bond states as a tool in more traditional machine-learning applications.
Coherent states in quantum mechanics; Estados coerentes em mecanica quantica
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rodrigues, R. de Lima [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rafaelr@cbpf.br; Fernandes Junior, Damasio; Batista, Sheyla Marques [Paraiba Univ., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica
2001-12-01
We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out. (author)
Generating quantum states through spin chain dynamics
Kay, Alastair
2017-04-01
The spin chain is a theoretical work-horse of the physicist, providing a convenient, tractable model that yields insight into a host of physical phenomena including conduction, frustration, superconductivity, topological phases, localisation, phase transitions, quantum chaos and even string theory. Our ultimate aim, however, is not just to understand the properties of a physical system, but to harness it for our own ends. We therefore study the possibilities for engineering a special class of spin chain, envisaging the potential for this to feedback into the original physical systems. We pay particular attention to the generation of multipartite entangled states such as the W (Dicke) state, superposed over multiple sites of the chain.
Quantum state transfer between light and matter via teleportation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krauter, Hanna; Sherson, Jacob; Polzik, Eugene Simon
2010-01-01
Quantum teleportation is an interesting feature of quantum mechanics. Entanglement is used as a link between two remote locations to transfer a quantum state without physically sending it - a process that cannot be realized utilizing merely classical tools. Furthermore it has become evident...... that teleportation is also an important element of future quantum networks and it can be an ingredient for quantum computation. This article reports for the first time the teleportation from light to atoms. In the experiment discussed, the quantum state of a light beam is transferred to an atomic ensemble. The key...
Invariant Correlation Entropy and Complexity of Quantum States
Sokolov, V V; Zelevinsky, V; Sokolov, Valentin V.; Zelevinsky, Vladimir
1998-01-01
We define correlational (von Neumann) entropy for an individual quantum state of a system whose time-independent hamiltonian contains random parameters and is treated as a member of a statistical ensemble. This entropy is representation independent and can be calculated as a trace functional of the density matrix which describes the system in its interaction with the noise source. We analyze perturbation theory in order to show the evolution from the pure state to the mixed one. Exactly solvable examples illustrate the use of correlational entropy as a measure of the degree of complexity in comparison with other available suggestions such as basis-dependent information entropy. It is shown in particular that a harmonic oscillator in a uniform field of random strength comes to a quasithermal equilibrium; we discuss the relation between effective temperature and canonical equilibrium temperature. The notion of correlational entropy is applied to a realistic numerical caculation in the framework of the nuclear s...
Mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions
Bhattacharya, Utso; Bandyopadhyay, Souvik; Dutta, Amit
2017-11-01
Preparing an integrable system in a mixed state described by a thermal density matrix, we subject it to a sudden quench and explore the subsequent unitary dynamics. To address the question of whether the nonanalyticities, namely, the dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), persist when the initial state is mixed, we consider two versions of the generalized Loschmidt overlap amplitude (GLOA). Our study shows that the GLOA constructed using the Uhlmann approach does not show any signature of DQPTs at any nonzero initial temperature. On the other hand, a GLOA defined in the interferometric phase approach through the purifications of the time-evolved density matrix, indeed shows that nonanalyiticies in the corresponding "dynamical free-energy density" persist, thereby establishing the existence of mixed state dynamical quantum phase transitions (MSDQPTs). Our work provides a framework that perfectly reproduces both the nonanalyticities and also the emergent topological structure in the pure state limit. These claims are corroborated by analyzing the nonequilibrium dynamics of a transverse Ising chain initially prepared in a thermal state and subjected to a sudden quench of the transverse field.
Controlling the quantum state of trapped ions
Roos, C
2000-01-01
brace quadrupole transition enables the transfer of the ion's motional state into the ground state with up to 99.9 % probability. Different aspects of the cooling process are investigated. In particular, a measurement of the length of time that the ion spends on average in the final state after switching off the cooling lasers (heating time) is made. In contrast to prior experiments, this time is found to be orders of magnitude longer than the time required to manipulate the ion's quantum state. By coherently exciting the ion after preparing it in Fock states of motion, the coherence time is probed and found to be on the order of a millisecond, thus allowing the realization of a few quantum gates. Coherence-limiting processes have been investigated, as well as first steps towards extending the experiments to the case of two trapped ions. In addition to the experiments mentioned above, the possibility of performing cavity-QED experiments with trapped ions is explored. How to efficiently couple the quadrupole t...
Optimal estimation of parameters of an entangled quantum state
Virzì, S.; Avella, A.; Piacentini, F.; Gramegna, M.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Genovese, M.
2017-05-01
Two-photon entangled quantum states are a fundamental tool for quantum information and quantum cryptography. A complete description of a generic quantum state is provided by its density matrix: the technique allowing experimental reconstruction of the density matrix is called quantum state tomography. Entangled states density matrix reconstruction requires a large number of measurements on many identical copies of the quantum state. An alternative way of certifying the amount of entanglement in two-photon states is represented by the estimation of specific parameters, e.g., negativity and concurrence. If we have a priori partial knowledge of our state, it’s possible to develop several estimators for these parameters that require lower amount of measurements with respect to full density matrix reconstruction. The aim of this work is to introduce and test different estimators for negativity and concurrence for a specific class of two-photon states.
Self-calibrating quantum state tomography
Brańczyk, A. M.; Mahler, D. H.; Rozema, L. A.; Darabi, A.; Steinberg, A. M.; James, D. F. V.
2012-08-01
We introduce and experimentally demonstrate a technique for performing quantum state tomography (QST) on multiple-qubit states despite incomplete knowledge about the unitary operations used to change the measurement basis. Given unitary operations with unknown rotation angles, our method can be used to reconstruct the density matrix of the state up to local \\hat \\sigma _z rotations as well as recover the magnitude of the unknown rotation angle. We demonstrate high-fidelity self-calibrating tomography on polarization-encoded one- and two-photon states. The unknown unitary operations are realized in two ways: using a birefringent polymer sheet—an inexpensive smartphone screen protector—or alternatively a liquid crystal wave plate with a tuneable retardance. We explore how our technique may be adapted for QST of systems such as biological molecules where the magnitude and orientation of the transition dipole moment is not known with high accuracy.
Advantages of Unfair Quantum Ground-State Sampling.
Zhang, Brian Hu; Wagenbreth, Gene; Martin-Mayor, Victor; Hen, Itay
2017-04-21
The debate around the potential superiority of quantum annealers over their classical counterparts has been ongoing since the inception of the field. Recent technological breakthroughs, which have led to the manufacture of experimental prototypes of quantum annealing optimizers with sizes approaching the practical regime, have reignited this discussion. However, the demonstration of quantum annealing speedups remains to this day an elusive albeit coveted goal. We examine the power of quantum annealers to provide a different type of quantum enhancement of practical relevance, namely, their ability to serve as useful samplers from the ground-state manifolds of combinatorial optimization problems. We study, both numerically by simulating stoquastic and non-stoquastic quantum annealing processes, and experimentally, using a prototypical quantum annealing processor, the ability of quantum annealers to sample the ground-states of spin glasses differently than thermal samplers. We demonstrate that (i) quantum annealers sample the ground-state manifolds of spin glasses very differently than thermal optimizers (ii) the nature of the quantum fluctuations driving the annealing process has a decisive effect on the final distribution, and (iii) the experimental quantum annealer samples ground-state manifolds significantly differently than thermal and ideal quantum annealers. We illustrate how quantum annealers may serve as powerful tools when complementing standard sampling algorithms.
Effective quantum state reconstruction using compressed sensing in NMR quantum computing
Yang, J.; Cong, S.; Liu, X.; Li, Z.; Li, K.
2017-11-01
Compressed sensing (CS) has been verified as an effective technique in the reconstruction of quantum state; however, it is still unknown if CS can reconstruct quantum states given the incomplete data measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In this paper, we propose an effective NMR quantum state reconstruction method based on CS. Different from the conventional CS-based quantum state reconstruction, our method uses the actual observation data from NMR experiments rather than the data measured by the Pauli operators. We implement measurements on quantum states in practical NMR computing experiments and reconstruct states of two, three, and four qubits using fewer number of measurement settings, respectively. The proposed method is easy to implement and performs more efficiently with the increase of the system dimension size. The performance reveals both efficiency and accuracy, which provides an alternative for the quantum state reconstruction in practical NMR.
How to spell out the epistemic conception of quantum states
Friederich, Simon
The paper investigates the epistemic conception of quantum states-the view that quantum states are not descriptions of quantum systems but rather reflect the assigning agents' epistemic relations to the systems. This idea, which can be found already in the works of Copenhagen adherents Heisenberg and Peierls, has received increasing attention in recent years because it promises an understanding of quantum theory in which neither the measurement problem nor a conflict between quantum non-locality and relativity theory arises. Here it is argued that the main challenge for proponents of this idea is to make sense of the notion of a state assignment being performed correctly without thereby acknowledging the notion of a true state of a quantum system-a state it is in. An account based on the epistemic conception of states is proposed that fulfills this requirement by interpreting the rules governing state assignment as constitutive rules in the sense of John Searle.
A Novel Algorithm of Quantum Random Walk in Server Traffic Control and Task Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dong Yumin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A quantum random walk optimization model and algorithm in network cluster server traffic control and task scheduling is proposed. In order to solve the problem of server load balancing, we research and discuss the distribution theory of energy field in quantum mechanics and apply it to data clustering. We introduce the method of random walk and illuminate what the quantum random walk is. Here, we mainly research the standard model of one-dimensional quantum random walk. For the data clustering problem of high dimensional space, we can decompose one m-dimensional quantum random walk into m one-dimensional quantum random walk. In the end of the paper, we compare the quantum random walk optimization method with GA (genetic algorithm, ACO (ant colony optimization, and SAA (simulated annealing algorithm. In the same time, we prove its validity and rationality by the experiment of analog and simulation.
Randomness in quantum mechanics - nature's ultimate cryptogram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erber, T.; Putterman, S.
1985-11-07
Will a single atom irradiated by coherent light be equivalent to an infinite computer as regards its ability to generate random numbers. As described in the paper, a search for unexpected patterns of order by cryptanalysis of the telegraph signal generated by the on/off time of the atom's fluorescence will provide new experimental tests of the fundamental principles of the quantum theory. (author).
A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems
Wang, Pei
2017-09-01
Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.
Quantum Ground States as Equilibrium Particle-Vacuum Interaction States
Puthoff, Harold E
2012-01-01
A remarkable feature of atomic ground states is that they are observed to be radiationless in nature, despite (from a classical viewpoint) typically involving charged particles in accelerated motions. The simple hydrogen atom is a case in point. This universal groundstate characteristic is shown to derive from particle-vacuum interactions in which a dynamic equilibrium is established between radiation emission due to particle acceleration, and compensatory absorption from the zero-point fluctuations of the vacuum electromagnetic field. The result is a net radiationless ground state. This principle constitutes an overarching constraint that delineates an important feature of quantum ground states.
Random matrices as models for the statistics of quantum mechanics
Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Mantica, Giorgio
1986-05-01
Random matrices from the Gaussian unitary ensemble generate in a natural way unitary groups of evolution in finite-dimensional spaces. The statistical properties of this time evolution can be investigated by studying the time autocorrelation functions of dynamical variables. We prove general results on the decay properties of such autocorrelation functions in the limit of infinite-dimensional matrices. We discuss the relevance of random matrices as models for the dynamics of quantum systems that are chaotic in the classical limit. Permanent address: Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano, Italy.
Generating nonclassical quantum input field states with modulating filters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gough, John E. [Aberystwyth University, Department of Physics, Aberystwyth, Wales (United Kingdom); Zhang, Guofeng [The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Hong Kong (China)
2015-12-15
We give explicit constructions of quantum dynamical filters which generate nonclassical states (coherent states, cat states, shaped single and multi-photon states) of quantum optical fields as inputs to general quantum Markov systems. The filters will be quantum harmonic oscillators damped by the input fields, and we exploit the fact that the cascaded filter and system will have a Lindbladian that is naturally Wick-ordered in the filter modes. In particular the initialization of the modulating filter will determine the signal state generated. (orig.)
Spatial evolution of quantum mechanical states
Christensen, N. D.; Unger, J. E.; Pinto, S.; Su, Q.; Grobe, R.
2018-02-01
The time-dependent Schrödinger equation is solved traditionally as an initial-time value problem, where its solution is obtained by the action of the unitary time-evolution propagator on the quantum state that is known at all spatial locations but only at t = 0. We generalize this approach by examining the spatial evolution from a state that is, by contrast, known at all times t, but only at one specific location. The corresponding spatial-evolution propagator turns out to be pseudo-unitary. In contrast to the real energies that govern the usual (unitary) time evolution, the spatial evolution can therefore require complex phases associated with dynamically relevant solutions that grow exponentially. By introducing a generalized scalar product, for which the spatial generator is Hermitian, one can show that the temporal integral over the probability current density is spatially conserved, in full analogy to the usual norm of the state, which is temporally conserved. As an application of the spatial propagation formalism, we introduce a spatial backtracking technique that permits us to reconstruct any quantum information about an atom from the ionization data measured at a detector outside the interaction region.
Quantum hydrodynamic description of collective nuclear states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sapershtein, E.E.; Fayans, S.A.; Khodel' , V.A.
1978-03-01
The nature of low-lying collective nuclear states is analyzed in the framework of the Fermi-liquid approach. It is shown that in a drop of Fermi liquid one has not only the ordinary zero-sound branch but also a new collective mode resulting from the spontaneous breaking of the translational invariance. These are quantum capillary waves that have much in common with ordinary surface excitations of a classical drop. Numerical calculations show that the first collective levels of nuclei belong to this branch.
Semiconductor Nanostructures Quantum States and Electronic Transport
Ihn, Thomas
2009-01-01
This textbook describes the physics of semiconductor nanostructures with emphasis on their electronic transport properties. At its heart are five fundamental transport phenomena: quantized conductance, tunnelling transport, the Aharonov-Bohm effect, the quantum Hall effect, and the Coulomb blockade effect. The book starts out with the basics of solid state and semiconductor physics, such as crystal structure, band structure, and effective mass approximation, including spin-orbit interaction effects important for research in semiconductor spintronics. It contains material aspects such as band e
Experimental magic state distillation for fault-tolerant quantum computing.
Souza, Alexandre M; Zhang, Jingfu; Ryan, Colm A; Laflamme, Raymond
2011-01-25
Any physical quantum device for quantum information processing (QIP) is subject to errors in implementation. In order to be reliable and efficient, quantum computers will need error-correcting or error-avoiding methods. Fault-tolerance achieved through quantum error correction will be an integral part of quantum computers. Of the many methods that have been discovered to implement it, a highly successful approach has been to use transversal gates and specific initial states. A critical element for its implementation is the availability of high-fidelity initial states, such as |0〉 and the 'magic state'. Here, we report an experiment, performed in a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) quantum processor, showing sufficient quantum control to improve the fidelity of imperfect initial magic states by distilling five of them into one with higher fidelity.
Can a quantum state over time resemble a quantum state at a single time?
Horsman, Dominic; Heunen, Chris; Pusey, Matthew F; Barrett, Jonathan; Spekkens, Robert W
2017-09-01
The standard formalism of quantum theory treats space and time in fundamentally different ways. In particular, a composite system at a given time is represented by a joint state, but the formalism does not prescribe a joint state for a composite of systems at different times. If there were a way of defining such a joint state, this would potentially permit a more even-handed treatment of space and time, and would strengthen the existing analogy between quantum states and classical probability distributions. Under the assumption that the joint state over time is an operator on the tensor product of single-time Hilbert spaces, we analyse various proposals for such a joint state, including one due to Leifer and Spekkens, one due to Fitzsimons, Jones and Vedral, and another based on discrete Wigner functions. Finding various problems with each, we identify five criteria for a quantum joint state over time to satisfy if it is to play a role similar to the standard joint state for a composite system: that it is a Hermitian operator on the tensor product of the single-time Hilbert spaces; that it represents probabilistic mixing appropriately; that it has the appropriate classical limit; that it has the appropriate single-time marginals; that composing over multiple time steps is associative. We show that no construction satisfies all these requirements. If Hermiticity is dropped, then there is an essentially unique construction that satisfies the remaining four criteria.
Quantum logic gates using coherent population trapping states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Coherent population trap; quantum computation; controlled phase gate. PACS Nos 42.50.Ex; 32.80.Qk; 32.90+a; 03.67.Lx. Conventional computers handle information in the form of bits – which take up values 0 or. 1. Quantum computers on the other hand, use quantum bits (qubits), which can be prepared in states 0, 1 or ...
Protected State Transfer via an Approximate Quantum Adder.
Gatti, G; Barberena, D; Sanz, M; Solano, E
2017-07-31
We propose a decoherence protected protocol for sending single photon quantum states through depolarizing channels. This protocol is implemented via an approximate quantum adder engineered through spontaneous parametric down converters, and shows higher success probability than distilled quantum teleportation protocols for distances below a threshold depending on the properties of the channel.
Erratum to "Quantum Limits of Eisenstein Series and Scattering States''
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.
2013-01-01
We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak. © Cana....... © Canadian Mathematical Society 2012....
Quantum limits of Eisenstein series and scattering states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petridis, Y.N.; Raulf, N.; Risager, Morten S.
2013-01-01
We identify the quantum limits of scattering states for the modular surface. This is obtained through the study of quantum measures of non-holomorphic Eisenstein series away from the critical line. We provide a range of stability for the quantum unique ergodicity theorem of Luo and Sarnak....
Statistical properties of quasi-energy spectrum for a system of coupled quantum states
Starovoitov, Vladimir; Churakov, V. V.
2002-05-01
Local spectral density (LSD) of quasienergies is investigated for a generic system of coupled quantum states represented by a superimposed band random matrix with preferential basis. The shape, the inverse participation ratio and the localization regimes for LSD are studied under conditions when the states are isolated or excited by a field, the shape of which is close to monochromatic one.
Finding resource states of measurement-based quantum computing is harder than quantum computing
Morimae, Tomoyuki
2017-11-01
Measurement-based quantum computing enables universal quantum computing with only adaptive single-qubit measurements on certain many-qubit states, such as the graph state, the Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) state, and several tensor-network states. Finding new resource states of measurement-based quantum computing is a hard task, since for a given state there are exponentially many possible measurement patterns on the state. In this paper, we consider the problem of deciding, for a given state and a set of unitary operators, whether there exists a way of measurement-based quantum computing on the state that can realize all unitaries in the set, or not. We show that the decision problem is QCMA-hard (where QCMA stands for quantum classical Merlin Arthur), which means that finding new resource states of measurement-based quantum computing is harder than quantum computing itself [unless BQP (bounded-error quantum polynomial time) is equal to QCMA]. We also derive an upper bound of the decision problem: the problem is in a quantum version of the second level of the polynomial hierarchy.
Equivalence of Quantum Resource Measures for X States
Huang, Zhiming; Zhang, Cai; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Lianghui
2017-11-01
In this paper, we investigate some X states, quantum resource measures of which are equivalent. We find that for a class of X states, trace norm geometric quantum discord (TGQD), trace norm measurement-induced nonlocality (TMIN) and l 1 norm quantum coherence (L1QC) are all equal, and for some special states, therein two measures are equal. We also exemplify relative application of the equivalent relations.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.
2014-03-01
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Latifah, E., E-mail: enylatifah@um.ac.id [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya, Indonesia and Physics Department, Malang State University (Indonesia); Purwanto, A. [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Natural Philosophy, Physics Department, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, ITS, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.
Information Divergence and Distance Measures for Quantum States
Jiang, Nan; Zhang, Zhaozhi
2015-02-01
Both information divergence and distance are measures of closeness of two quantum states which are widely used in the theory of information processing and quantum cryptography. For example, the quantum relative entropy and trace distance are well known. Here we introduce a number of new quantum information divergence and distance measures into the literature and discuss their relations and properties. We also propose a method to analyze the properties and relations of various distance and pseudo-distance measures.
Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vollmer, Christina E.
2014-01-24
The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With
Coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on evolving random networks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Li
Full Text Available We study the coevolution of quantum and classical strategies on weighted and directed random networks in the realm of the prisoner's dilemma game. During the evolution, agents can break and rewire their links with the aim of maximizing payoffs, and they can also adjust the weights to indicate preferences, either positive or negative, towards their neighbors. The network structure itself is thus also subject to evolution. Importantly, the directionality of links does not affect the accumulation of payoffs nor the strategy transfers, but serves only to designate the owner of each particular link and with it the right to adjust the link as needed. We show that quantum strategies outperform classical strategies, and that the critical temptation to defect at which cooperative behavior can be maintained rises, if the network structure is updated frequently. Punishing neighbors by reducing the weights of their links also plays an important role in maintaining cooperation under adverse conditions. We find that the self-organization of the initially random network structure, driven by the evolutionary competition between quantum and classical strategies, leads to the spontaneous emergence of small average path length and a large clustering coefficient.
Diverging conductance at the contact between random and pure quantum XX spin chains
Chatelain, Christophe
2017-11-01
A model consisting of two quantum XX spin chains, one homogeneous and the second with random couplings drawn from a binary distribution, is considered. The two chains are coupled to two different non-local thermal baths and their dynamics is governed by a Lindblad equation. In the steady state, a current J is induced between the two chains by coupling them together by their edges and imposing different chemical potentials μ to the two baths. While a regime of linear characteristics J versus Δμ is observed in the absence of randomness, a gap opens as the disorder strength is increased. In the infinite-randomness limit, this behavior is related to the density of states of the localized states contributing to the current. The conductance is shown to diverge in this limit.
Secure identity-based encryption in the quantum random oracle model
Zhandry, Mark
2015-04-01
We give the first proof of security for an identity-based encryption (IBE) scheme in the quantum random oracle model. This is the first proof of security for any scheme in this model that does not rely on the assumed existence of so-called quantum-secure pseudorandom functions (PRFs). Our techniques are quite general and we use them to obtain security proofs for two random oracle hierarchical IBE schemes and a random oracle signature scheme, all of which have previously resisted quantum security proofs, even assuming quantum-secure PRFs. We also explain how to remove quantum-secure PRFs from prior quantum random oracle model proofs. We accomplish these results by developing new tools for arguing that quantum algorithms cannot distinguish between two oracle distributions. Using a particular class of oracle distributions that we call semi-constant distributions, we argue that the aforementioned cryptosystems are secure against quantum adversaries.
Quantum Entanglement Swapping between Two Multipartite Entangled States.
Su, Xiaolong; Tian, Caixing; Deng, Xiaowei; Li, Qiang; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-12-09
Quantum entanglement swapping is one of the most promising ways to realize the quantum connection among local quantum nodes. In this Letter, we present an experimental demonstration of the entanglement swapping between two independent multipartite entangled states, each of which involves a tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled state of an optical field. The entanglement swapping is implemented deterministically by means of a joint measurement on two optical modes coming from the two multipartite entangled states respectively and the classical feedforward of the measurement results. After entanglement swapping the two independent multipartite entangled states are merged into a large entangled state in which all unmeasured quantum modes are entangled. The entanglement swapping between a tripartite GHZ state and an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state is also demonstrated and the dependence of the resultant entanglement on transmission loss is investigated. The presented experiment provides a feasible technical reference for constructing more complicated quantum networks.
Operating Quantum States in Single Magnetic Molecules: Implementation of Grover's Quantum Algorithm.
Godfrin, C; Ferhat, A; Ballou, R; Klyatskaya, S; Ruben, M; Wernsdorfer, W; Balestro, F
2017-11-03
Quantum algorithms use the principles of quantum mechanics, such as, for example, quantum superposition, in order to solve particular problems outperforming standard computation. They are developed for cryptography, searching, optimization, simulation, and solving large systems of linear equations. Here, we implement Grover's quantum algorithm, proposed to find an element in an unsorted list, using a single nuclear 3/2 spin carried by a Tb ion sitting in a single molecular magnet transistor. The coherent manipulation of this multilevel quantum system (qudit) is achieved by means of electric fields only. Grover's search algorithm is implemented by constructing a quantum database via a multilevel Hadamard gate. The Grover sequence then allows us to select each state. The presented method is of universal character and can be implemented in any multilevel quantum system with nonequal spaced energy levels, opening the way to novel quantum search algorithms.
Operating Quantum States in Single Magnetic Molecules: Implementation of Grover's Quantum Algorithm
Godfrin, C.; Ferhat, A.; Ballou, R.; Klyatskaya, S.; Ruben, M.; Wernsdorfer, W.; Balestro, F.
2017-11-01
Quantum algorithms use the principles of quantum mechanics, such as, for example, quantum superposition, in order to solve particular problems outperforming standard computation. They are developed for cryptography, searching, optimization, simulation, and solving large systems of linear equations. Here, we implement Grover's quantum algorithm, proposed to find an element in an unsorted list, using a single nuclear 3 /2 spin carried by a Tb ion sitting in a single molecular magnet transistor. The coherent manipulation of this multilevel quantum system (qudit) is achieved by means of electric fields only. Grover's search algorithm is implemented by constructing a quantum database via a multilevel Hadamard gate. The Grover sequence then allows us to select each state. The presented method is of universal character and can be implemented in any multilevel quantum system with nonequal spaced energy levels, opening the way to novel quantum search algorithms.
Li, Na; Li, Jian; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Tao
2016-08-01
A deterministic secure quantum communication and authentication protocol based on extended GHZ-W state and quantum one-time pad is proposed. In the protocol, state | φ -> is used as the carrier. One photon of | φ -> state is sent to Alice, and Alice obtains a random key by measuring photons with bases determined by ID. The information of bases is secret to others except Alice and Bob. Extended GHZ-W states are used as decoy photons, the positions of which in information sequence are encoded with identity string ID of the legal user, and the eavesdropping detection rate reaches 81%. The eavesdropping detection based on extended GHZ-W state combines with authentication and the secret ID ensures the security of the protocol.
Nuclear quantum state engineering in ion channeling regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Berec Vesna
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A key challenge in quantum state engineering is to identify coherent quantum mechanical systems that can be precisely manipulated and scaled, but at the same time to allow decoupling from unwanted interactions. Such systems, once realized, would represent an efficient tool for characterization of quantum behavior reflected in the properties of matter with prerequisites for meeting dissipation constraints imposed in the nuclear physics as well in the quantum information theory. Using the pure29Si nanocrystal system we present a novel high resolution method for initialization of single electron polarized spin interaction and control of nuclear spin qubits. The presented study fuses field of particle channeling in MeV energy regime with quantum state engineering utilized via entanglement as an essential quantum property. Its aim is to bring focus on new theoretical proposals testing the quantum mechanical models for systems producible at particle accelerator facilities.
Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States
Hirota, Osamu
2017-12-01
Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011). This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.
Bound Electron States in Skew-symmetric Quantum Wire Intersections
2014-01-01
for electronic transport studies was to confine resonant- tunneling heterostructures laterally with a fabrication-imposed po- tential. This approach...Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Quantum Wires, Crossed Nanowires , Trapped Electron States, Quantum Dots REPORT...realistic systems such as semiconductor nanowire films and carbon nanotube bundles. Bound electron states in skew-symmetric quantum wire intersections by
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-09-21
Sep 21, 2016 ... quantum information brought to fore the relative beha- viour of entanglement. It is an observer-dependent quantity which degrades with acceleration from the perspective of accelerated observer. On the other hand, correlations other than entanglement exist in quantum system whose benefits in quantum ...
Quantum nonlinear lattices and coherent state vectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ellinas, Demosthenes; Johansson, M.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
for the CSV parameters. The so obtained evolution equations are intimately related to the respective evolution equations for the classical lattices, provided we account for the ordering rules (normal, symmetric) adopted for their quantization. Analysing the geometrical content of the factorization ansatz made......Quantized nonlinear lattice models are considered for two different classes, boson and fermionic ones. The quantum discrete nonlinear Schrodinger model (DNLS) is our main objective, but its so called modified discrete nonlinear (MDNLS) version is also included, together with the fermionic polaron...... (FP) model. Based on the respective dynamical symmetries of the models, a method is put forward which by use of the associated boson and spin coherent state vectors (CSV) and a factorization ansatz for the solution of the Schrodinger equation, leads to quasiclassical Hamiltonian equations of motion...
The structure of states and maps in quantum theory
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory ... Quantum state spaces and maps on them have rich convex structures arising from the superposition principle and consequent entanglement. Communication channels (physical processes) in the ...
Quantum State Generation and Entanglement Manipulation Using Linear Optics
ÖZDEMİR, Şahin Kaya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato
2014-01-01
Quantum information processing (QIP) requires unitary operations, measurements and synthesis, manipulation and characterization of arbitrary quantum states. Linear optics provides efficient tools for these purposes. In this review paper, we introduce the elements of linear optics toolbox, and briefly discuss some experimental and theoretical investigations using this toolbox. Our main focus will be the qubit state generation and entanglement extraction using linear optics toolbox.
From Shannon to Quantum Information Science-Mixed States
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 5. From Shannon to Quantum Information Science - Mixed States. Rajiah Simon. General Article Volume 7 Issue 5 May 2002 pp 16-33 ... Keywords. Mixed states; entanglement witnesses; partial transpose; quantum computers; von Neumann entropy ...
Quantum walks induced by Dirichlet random walks on infinite trees
Higuchi, Yusuke; Segawa, Etsuo
2018-02-01
We consider the Grover walk on infinite trees from the viewpoint of spectral analysis. From the previous work, infinite regular trees provide localization. In this paper, we give the complete characterization of the eigenspace of this Grover walk, which involves localization of its behavior and recovers the previous work. Our result suggests that the Grover walk on infinite trees may be regarded as a limit of the quantum walk induced by the isotropic random walk with the Dirichlet boundary condition at the n-th depth rather than one with the Neumann boundary condition.
Multi-bit dark state memory: Double quantum dot as an electronic quantum memory
Aharon, Eran; Pozner, Roni; Lifshitz, Efrat; Peskin, Uri
2016-12-01
Quantum dot clusters enable the creation of dark states which preserve electrons or holes in a coherent superposition of dot states for a long time. Various quantum logic devices can be envisioned to arise from the possibility of storing such trapped particles for future release on demand. In this work, we consider a double quantum dot memory device, which enables the preservation of a coherent state to be released as multiple classical bits. Our unique device architecture uses an external gating for storing (writing) the coherent state and for retrieving (reading) the classical bits, in addition to exploiting an internal gating effect for the preservation of the coherent state.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Jeppe; Stobbe, Søren; Nikolaev, I.S.
2007-01-01
We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics.......We have measured time-resolved spontaneous emission from quantum dots near a dielectric interface with known photonic local density of states. We thus experimentally determine the quantum efficiency and the dipole moment, important for quantum optics....
Quantum broadcast scheme and multi-output quantum teleportation via four-qubit cluster state
Yu, Yan; Zha, Xin Wei; Li, Wei
2017-02-01
In this paper, two theoretical schemes of the arbitrary single-qubit states via four-qubit cluster state are proposed. One is three-party quantum broadcast scheme, which realizes the broadcast among three participants. The other is multi-output quantum teleportation. Both allow two distant receivers to simultaneously and deterministically obtain the arbitrary single-qubit states, respectively. Compared with former schemes of an arbitrary single-qubit state, the proposed schemes realize quantum multi-cast communication efficiently, which enables Bob and Charlie to obtain the states simultaneously in the case of just knowing Alice's measurement results. The proposed schemes play an important role in quantum information, specially in secret sharing and quantum teleportation.
Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Stefan Lund
Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...... — a nanofiber based light-atom interface. Using a dual-frequency probing method we measure and prepare an ensemble with a sub-Poissonian atom number distribution. This is a first step towards the implementation of more exotic quantum states....
Fractional quantum Hall states of bosons on cones
Wu, Ying-Hai; Tu, Hong-Hao; Sreejith, G. J.
2017-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment, which synthesizes Landau levels for photons on cones [Schine et al., Nature (London) 534, 671 (2016), 10.1038/nature17943], and more generally the interest in understanding gravitational responses of quantum Hall states, we study fractional quantum Hall states of bosons on cones. A variety of trial wave functions for conical systems are constructed and compared with exact diagonalization results. The tip of a cone is a localized geometrical defect with singular curvature, which can modify the density profiles of quantum Hall states. The density profiles on cones can be used to extract some universal information about quantum Hall states. The values of certain quantities are computed numerically using the density profiles of some quantum Hall states and they agree with analytical predictions.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Gromov, Andrey; Son, Dam Thanh
2017-10-01
We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP) mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k6 order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH) transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Bimetric Theory of Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrey Gromov
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a bimetric low-energy effective theory of fractional quantum Hall (FQH states that describes the topological properties and a gapped collective excitation, known as the Girvin-Macdonald-Platzman (GMP mode. The theory consists of a topological Chern-Simons action, coupled to a symmetric rank-2 tensor, and an action à la bimetric gravity, describing the gapped dynamics of a spin-2 mode. The theory is formulated in curved ambient space and is spatially covariant, which allows us to restrict the form of the effective action and the values of phenomenological coefficients. Using bimetric theory, we calculate the projected static structure factor up to the k^{6} order in the momentum expansion. To provide further support for the theory, we derive the long-wave limit of the GMP algebra, the dispersion relation of the GMP mode, and the Hall viscosity of FQH states. The particle-hole (PH transformation of the theory takes a very simple form, making the duality between FQH states and their PH conjugates manifest. We also comment on the possible applications to fractional Chern insulators, where closely related structures arise. It is shown that the familiar FQH observables acquire a curious geometric interpretation within the bimetric formalism.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramírez-Porras, A., E-mail: aramirez@fisica.ucr.ac.cr [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales (CICIMA), Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); García, O. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Vargas, C. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Corrales, A. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Escuela de Química, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica); Solís, J.D. [Escuela de Física, Universidad de Costa Rica, San Pedro de Montes de Oca 11501 (Costa Rica)
2015-08-30
Highlights: • PL spectra of porous silicon samples have been studied using a stochastic model. • This model can deconvolute PL spectra into three components. • Quantum dots, quantum wires and localized states have been identified. • Nanostructure diameters are in the range from 2.2 nm to 4.0 nm. • Contributions from quantum wires are small compared to the others. - Abstract: Nanocrystallites of Silicon have been produced by electrochemical etching of crystal wafers. The obtained samples show photoluminescence in the red band of the visible spectrum when illuminated by ultraviolet light. The photoluminescence spectra can be deconvolved into three components according to a stochastic quantum confinement model: one band coming from Nanocrystalline dots, or quantum dots, one from Nanocrystalline wires, or quantum wires, and one from the presence of localized surface states related to silicon oxide. The results fit well within other published models.
Generation and storage of quantum states using cold atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Josse, Vincent; Cviklinski, Jean
2006-01-01
Cold cesium or rubidium atomic samples have a good potential both for generation and storage of nonclassical states of light. Generation of nonclassical states of light is possible through the high non-linearity of cold atomic samples excited close to a resonance line. Quadrature squeezing......, polarization squeezing and entanglement have been demonstrated. Quantum state storage is made possible by the presence of long-lived angular momentum in the ground state. Cold atoms are thus a promising resource in quantum information....
Concrete Quantum Logics and Δ -Logics, States and Δ -States
Hroch, Michal; Pták, Pavel
2017-12-01
By a concrete quantum logic (in short, by a logic) we mean the orthomodular poset that is set-representable. If L=({Ω },L) is a logic and L is closed under the formation of symmetric difference, Δ , we call L a Δ -logic. In the first part we situate the known results on logics and states to the context of Δ -logics and Δ -states (the Δ -states are the states that are subadditive with respect to the symmetric difference). Moreover, we observe that the rather prominent logic E^{ {even}}_{Ω } of all even-coeven subsets of the countable set Ω possesses only Δ -states. Then we show when a state on the logics given by the divisibility relation allows for an extension as a state. In the next paragraph we consider the so called density logic and its Δ -closure. We find that the Δ -closure coincides with the power set. Then we investigate other properties of the density logic and its factor.
Quantum state engineering using one-dimensional discrete-time quantum walks
Innocenti, Luca; Majury, Helena; Giordani, Taira; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Sciarrino, Fabio; Paternostro, Mauro; Ferraro, Alessandro
2017-12-01
Quantum state preparation in high-dimensional systems is an essential requirement for many quantum-technology applications. The engineering of an arbitrary quantum state is, however, typically strongly dependent on the experimental platform chosen for implementation, and a general framework is still missing. Here we show that coined quantum walks on a line, which represent a framework general enough to encompass a variety of different platforms, can be used for quantum state engineering of arbitrary superpositions of the walker's sites. We achieve this goal by identifying a set of conditions that fully characterize the reachable states in the space comprising walker and coin and providing a method to efficiently compute the corresponding set of coin parameters. We assess the feasibility of our proposal by identifying a linear optics experiment based on photonic orbital angular momentum technology.
Quantum state majorization at the output of bosonic Gaussian channels
Mari, A.; Giovannetti, V.; Holevo, A. S.
2014-05-01
Quantum communication theory explores the implications of quantum mechanics to the tasks of information transmission. Many physical channels can be formally described as quantum Gaussian operations acting on bosonic quantum states. Depending on the input state and on the quality of the channel, the output suffers certain amount of noise. For a long time it has been conjectured, but never proved, that output states of Gaussian channels corresponding to coherent input signals are the less noisy ones (in the sense of a majorization criterion). Here we prove this conjecture. Specifically we show that every output state of a phase-insensitive Gaussian channel is majorized by the output state corresponding to a coherent input. The proof is based on the optimality of coherent states for the minimization of strictly concave output functionals. Moreover we show that coherent states are the unique optimizers.
Quantum synchronization and quantum state sharing in an irregular complex network.
Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan
2017-02-01
We investigate the quantum synchronization phenomenon of the complex network constituted by coupled optomechanical systems and prove that the unknown identical quantum states can be shared or distributed in the quantum network even though the topology is varying. Considering a channel constructed by quantum correlation, we show that quantum synchronization can sustain and maintain high levels in Markovian dissipation for a long time. We also analyze the state-sharing process between two typical complex networks, and the results predict that linked nodes can be directly synchronized, but the whole network will be synchronized only if some specific synchronization conditions are satisfied. Furthermore, we give the synchronization conditions analytically through analyzing network dynamics. This proposal paves the way for studying multi-interaction synchronization and achieving effective quantum information processing in a complex network.
Quantum key distribution based on orthogonal states allows secure quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2011-11-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But based on a previously proposed quantum key distribution scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the no-go proofs of QBC are based. Thus, the no-go proofs could be evaded. Our protocol is fault-tolerant and very feasible with currently available technology. It reopens the venue for other ‘post-cold-war’ multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g. quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Efficient state initialization by a quantum spectral filtering algorithm
Fillion-Gourdeau, François; MacLean, Steve; Laflamme, Raymond
2017-04-01
An algorithm that initializes a quantum register to a state with a specified energy range is given, corresponding to a quantum implementation of the celebrated Feit-Fleck method. This is performed by introducing a nondeterministic quantum implementation of a standard spectral filtering procedure combined with an apodization technique, allowing for accurate state initialization. It is shown that the implementation requires only two ancilla qubits. A lower bound for the total probability of success of this algorithm is derived, showing that this scheme can be realized using a finite, relatively low number of trials. Assuming the time evolution can be performed efficiently and using a trial state polynomially close to the desired states, it is demonstrated that the number of operations required scales polynomially with the number of qubits. Tradeoffs between accuracy and performance are demonstrated in a simple example: the harmonic oscillator. This algorithm would be useful for the initialization phase of the simulation of quantum systems on digital quantum computers.
Open quantum dots in graphene: Scaling relativistic pointer states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferry, D K; Huang, L; Yang, R; Lai, Y-C; Akis, R, E-mail: ferry@asu.ed [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering and Center for Solid State Electronics Research, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States)
2010-04-01
Open quantum dots provide a window into the connection between quantum and classical physics, particularly through the decoherence theory, in which an important set of quantum states are not 'ashed out' through interaction with the environment-the pointer states provide connection to trapped classical orbits which remain stable in the dots. Graphene is a recently discovered material with highly unusual properties. This single layer, one atom thick, sheet of carbon has a unique bandstructure, governed by the Dirac equation, in which charge carriers imitate relativistic particles with zero rest mass. Here, an atomic orbital-based recursive Green's function method is used for studying the quantum transport. We study quantum fluctuations in graphene and bilayer graphene quantum dots with this recursive Green's function method. Finally, we examine the scaling of the domiant fluctuation frequency with dot size.
Quantum light and topological surface states
Dai, C. M.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.
2017-12-01
We demonstrate theoretically that, when quantum light interacts with massless Dirac fermions on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator, the elementary excitation spectrum depends on the polarizations of quantum light. Linear-polarized light cannot open a gap and leads to an anisotropic Dirac cone, but circular-polarized light can induce a mass term and the sign of mass is determined by the helicity of light. The effects due to quantum fluctuations are also discussed.
Yuste, A.; Moreno-Cardoner, M.; Sanpera, A.
2017-05-01
Disordered quantum antiferromagnets in two-dimensional compounds have been a focus of interest in the last years due to their exotic properties. However, with very few exceptions, the ground states of the corresponding Hamiltonians are notoriously difficult to simulate making their characterization and detection very elusive, both theoretically and experimentally. Here we propose a method to signal quantum disordered antiferromagnets by doing exact diagonalization in small lattices using random boundary conditions and averaging the observables of interest over the different disorder realizations. We apply our method to study the Heisenberg spin-1/2 model in an anisotropic triangular lattice. In this model, the competition between frustration and quantum fluctuations might lead to some spin-liquid phases as predicted from different methods ranging from spin-wave mean-field theory to 2D-DMRG or PEPS. Our method accurately reproduces the ordered phases expected of the model and signals quantum disordered phases by the presence of a large number of quasidegenerate ground states together with an undefined local order parameter. The method presents a weak dependence on finite-size effects.
Statistical constraints on state preparation for a quantum computer ∑
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tation on a quantum computer. How do we load information on the quantum register if the information-carrying particles in the cells of the register are indistinguishable? Quantum computing algorithms as visualized now [1,2] proceed with the register of n cells in a pure state. Each cell is seen to store a qubit αeiθ1 0 +βeiθ2 1 ...
Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hu, Jiawei, E-mail: hujiawei@nbu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Yu, Hongwei, E-mail: hwyu@hunnu.edu.cn [Center for Nonlinear Science and Department of Physics, Ningbo University, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315211 (China); Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2015-12-15
We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.
Quantum metrology with spin cat states under dissipation
Huang, Jiahao; Qin, Xizhou; Zhong, Honghua; Ke, Yongguan; Lee, Chaohong
2015-12-01
Quantum metrology aims to yield higher measurement precisions via quantum techniques such as entanglement. It is of great importance for both fundamental sciences and practical technologies, from testing equivalence principle to designing high-precision atomic clocks. However, due to environment effects, highly entangled states become fragile and the achieved precisions may even be worse than the standard quantum limit (SQL). Here we present a high-precision measurement scheme via spin cat states (a kind of non-Gaussian entangled states in superposition of two quasi-orthogonal spin coherent states) under dissipation. In comparison to maximally entangled states, spin cat states with modest entanglement are more robust against losses and their achievable precisions may still beat the SQL. Even if the detector is imperfect, the achieved precisions of the parity measurement are higher than the ones of the population measurement. Our scheme provides a realizable way to achieve high-precision measurements via dissipative quantum systems of Bose atoms.
Emergence of equilibrium thermodynamic properties in quantum pure states. I. Theory.
Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J
2010-07-21
Investigation on foundational aspects of quantum statistical mechanics recently entered a renaissance period due to novel intuitions from quantum information theory and to increasing attention on the dynamical aspects of single quantum systems. In the present contribution a simple but effective theoretical framework is introduced to clarify the connections between a purely mechanical description and the thermodynamic characterization of the equilibrium state of an isolated quantum system. A salient feature of our approach is the very transparent distinction between the statistical aspects and the dynamical aspects in the description of isolated quantum systems. Like in the classical statistical mechanics, the equilibrium distribution of any property is identified on the basis of the time evolution of the considered system. As a consequence equilibrium properties of quantum system appear to depend on the details of the initial state due to the abundance of constants of the motion in the Schrodinger dynamics. On the other hand the study of the probability distributions of some functions, such as the entropy or the equilibrium state of a subsystem, in statistical ensembles of pure states reveals the crucial role of typicality as the bridge between macroscopic thermodynamics and microscopic quantum dynamics. We shall consider two particular ensembles: the random pure state ensemble and the fixed expectation energy ensemble. The relation between the introduced ensembles, the properties of a given isolated system, and the standard quantum statistical description are discussed throughout the presentation. Finally we point out the conditions which should be satisfied by an ensemble in order to get meaningful thermodynamical characterization of an isolated quantum system.
Comment on "Observer dependence of quantum states in relativistic quantum field theories"
Bloch, I.
1984-04-01
In response to Malin's recent paper it is suggested that the important aspect of timing in relativistic descriptions of position determinations is the timing with which a pure state is converted to a mixture, rather than the timing of the mixture's reduction to a new pure state; this suggestion removes some of the subjectivism that Malin finds in quantum states. It is suggested also that viewing quantum mechanics as a branch of psychology raises more questions than it answers.
Xiao, Hailin; Zhang, Zhongshan
2017-01-01
Quantum key distribution (QKD) system is presently being developed for providing high-security transmission in future free-space optical communication links. However, current QKD technique restricts quantum secure communication to a low bit rate. To improve the QKD bit rate, we propose a subcarrier multiplexing multiple-input multiple-output quantum key distribution (SCM-MQKD) scheme with orthogonal quantum states. Specifically, we firstly present SCM-MQKD system model and drive symmetrical SCM-MQKD system into decoherence-free subspaces. We then utilize bipartite Werner and isotropic states to construct multiple parallel single photon with orthogonal quantum states that are invariant for unitary operations. Finally, we derive the density matrix and the capacity of SCM-MQKD system, respectively. Theoretical analysis and numerical results show that the capacity of SCM-MQKD system will increase {log _2}(N^2+1) times than that of single-photon QKD system.
Quantum state transfer between hybrid qubits in a circuit QED
Feng, Zhi-Bo
2012-01-01
In this Brief Report, we propose a theoretical scheme to transfer quantum states between superconducting charge qubits and semiconductor spin qubits in a circuit QED device. Under dispersive conditions, resonator-assisted state transfer between qubits can be performed controllably only by addressing the flux bias applied to the charge qubits. The low infidelity and existing advantages show that the proposal may provide an effective route toward scalable quantum-information transfer with solid-state hybrid qubits.
Dynamics of quantum observables in entangled states
Sudheesh, C.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.
2009-08-01
We examine the dynamics of a radiation field propagating through a nonlinear medium. A time series analysis of the mean photon number illustrates how an open quantum system interacting with a quantum environment can exhibit remarkably diverse ergodicity properties, both nonlinearity and departure from coherence playing a crucial role.
Imperfect state preparation in continuous-variable quantum key distribution
Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Xuyang; Wang, Ning; Du, Shanna; Li, Yongmin
2017-10-01
In continuous-variable quantum key distribution, the loss and excess noise of the quantum channel are key parameters that determine the secure key rate and the maximal distribution distance. We investigate the imperfect quantum state preparation in Gaussian modulation coherent-state protocol both theoretically and experimentally. We show that the Gaussian distribution characteristic of the prepared states in phase space is broken due to the incorrect calibration of the working parameters for the amplitude modulator and phase modulator. This further causes a significant increase of the excess noise and misestimate of the channel loss. To ensure an accurate estimate of the quantum channel parameters and achieve a reliable quantum key distribution, we propose and demonstrate two effective schemes to calibrate the working parameters of the modulators.
Entanglement distillation between solid-state quantum network nodes.
Kalb, N; Reiserer, A A; Humphreys, P C; Bakermans, J J W; Kamerling, S J; Nickerson, N H; Benjamin, S C; Twitchen, D J; Markham, M; Hanson, R
2017-06-02
The impact of future quantum networks hinges on high-quality quantum entanglement shared between network nodes. Unavoidable imperfections necessitate a means to improve remote entanglement by local quantum operations. We realize entanglement distillation on a quantum network primitive of distant electron-nuclear two-qubit nodes. The heralded generation of two copies of a remote entangled state is demonstrated through single-photon-mediated entangling of the electrons and robust storage in the nuclear spins. After applying local two-qubit gates, single-shot measurements herald the distillation of an entangled state with increased fidelity that is available for further use. The key combination of generating, storing, and processing entangled states should enable the exploration of multiparticle entanglement on an extended quantum network. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Entanglement distillation between solid-state quantum network nodes
Kalb, N.; Reiserer, A. A.; Humphreys, P. C.; Bakermans, J. J. W.; Kamerling, S. J.; Nickerson, N. H.; Benjamin, S. C.; Twitchen, D. J.; Markham, M.; Hanson, R.
2017-06-01
The impact of future quantum networks hinges on high-quality quantum entanglement shared between network nodes. Unavoidable imperfections necessitate a means to improve remote entanglement by local quantum operations. We realize entanglement distillation on a quantum network primitive of distant electron-nuclear two-qubit nodes. The heralded generation of two copies of a remote entangled state is demonstrated through single-photon-mediated entangling of the electrons and robust storage in the nuclear spins. After applying local two-qubit gates, single-shot measurements herald the distillation of an entangled state with increased fidelity that is available for further use. The key combination of generating, storing, and processing entangled states should enable the exploration of multiparticle entanglement on an extended quantum network.
Blind Quantum Signature with Controlled Four-Particle Cluster States
Li, Wei; Shi, Jinjing; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying
2017-08-01
A novel blind quantum signature scheme based on cluster states is introduced. Cluster states are a type of multi-qubit entangled states and it is more immune to decoherence than other entangled states. The controlled four-particle cluster states are created by acting controlled-Z gate on particles of four-particle cluster states. The presented scheme utilizes the above entangled states and simplifies the measurement basis to generate and verify the signature. Security analysis demonstrates that the scheme is unconditional secure. It can be employed to E-commerce systems in quantum scenario.
Volokitin, V.; Liniov, A.; Meyerov, I.; Hartmann, M.; Ivanchenko, M.; Hänggi, P.; Denisov, S.
2017-11-01
Quantum systems out of equilibrium are presently a subject of active research, both in theoretical and experimental domains. In this work, we consider time-periodically modulated quantum systems that are in contact with a stationary environment. Within the framework of a quantum master equation, the asymptotic states of such systems are described by time-periodic density operators. Resolution of these operators constitutes a nontrivial computational task. Approaches based on spectral and iterative methods are restricted to systems with the dimension of the hosting Hilbert space dim H =N ≲300 , while the direct long-time numerical integration of the master equation becomes increasingly problematic for N ≳400 , especially when the coupling to the environment is weak. To go beyond this limit, we use the quantum trajectory method, which unravels the master equation for the density operator into a set of stochastic processes for wave functions. The asymptotic density matrix is calculated by performing a statistical sampling over the ensemble of quantum trajectories, preceded by a long transient propagation. We follow the ideology of event-driven programming and construct a new algorithmic realization of the method. The algorithm is computationally efficient, allowing for long "leaps" forward in time. It is also numerically exact, in the sense that, being given the list of uniformly distributed (on the unit interval) random numbers, {η1,η2,...,ηn} , one could propagate a quantum trajectory (with ηi's as norm thresholds) in a numerically exact way. By using a scalable N -particle quantum model, we demonstrate that the algorithm allows us to resolve the asymptotic density operator of the model system with N =2000 states on a regular-size computer cluster, thus reaching the scale on which numerical studies of modulated Hamiltonian systems are currently performed.
Volokitin, V; Liniov, A; Meyerov, I; Hartmann, M; Ivanchenko, M; Hänggi, P; Denisov, S
2017-11-01
Quantum systems out of equilibrium are presently a subject of active research, both in theoretical and experimental domains. In this work, we consider time-periodically modulated quantum systems that are in contact with a stationary environment. Within the framework of a quantum master equation, the asymptotic states of such systems are described by time-periodic density operators. Resolution of these operators constitutes a nontrivial computational task. Approaches based on spectral and iterative methods are restricted to systems with the dimension of the hosting Hilbert space dimH=N≲300, while the direct long-time numerical integration of the master equation becomes increasingly problematic for N≳400, especially when the coupling to the environment is weak. To go beyond this limit, we use the quantum trajectory method, which unravels the master equation for the density operator into a set of stochastic processes for wave functions. The asymptotic density matrix is calculated by performing a statistical sampling over the ensemble of quantum trajectories, preceded by a long transient propagation. We follow the ideology of event-driven programming and construct a new algorithmic realization of the method. The algorithm is computationally efficient, allowing for long "leaps" forward in time. It is also numerically exact, in the sense that, being given the list of uniformly distributed (on the unit interval) random numbers, {η_{1},η_{2},...,η_{n}}, one could propagate a quantum trajectory (with η_{i}'s as norm thresholds) in a numerically exact way. By using a scalable N-particle quantum model, we demonstrate that the algorithm allows us to resolve the asymptotic density operator of the model system with N=2000 states on a regular-size computer cluster, thus reaching the scale on which numerical studies of modulated Hamiltonian systems are currently performed.
Photodissociation of ultracold diatomic strontium molecules with quantum state control.
McDonald, M; McGuyer, B H; Apfelbeck, F; Lee, C-H; Majewska, I; Moszynski, R; Zelevinsky, T
2016-07-07
Chemical reactions at ultracold temperatures are expected to be dominated by quantum mechanical effects. Although progress towards ultracold chemistry has been made through atomic photoassociation, Feshbach resonances and bimolecular collisions, these approaches have been limited by imperfect quantum state selectivity. In particular, attaining complete control of the ground or excited continuum quantum states has remained a challenge. Here we achieve this control using photodissociation, an approach that encodes a wealth of information in the angular distribution of outgoing fragments. By photodissociating ultracold (88)Sr2 molecules with full control of the low-energy continuum, we access the quantum regime of ultracold chemistry, observing resonant and nonresonant barrier tunnelling, matter-wave interference of reaction products and forbidden reaction pathways. Our results illustrate the failure of the traditional quasiclassical model of photodissociation and instead are accurately described by a quantum mechanical model. The experimental ability to produce well-defined quantum continuum states at low energies will enable high-precision studies of long-range molecular potentials for which accurate quantum chemistry models are unavailable, and may serve as a source of entangled states and coherent matter waves for a wide range of experiments in quantum optics.
Optimal eavesdropping in cryptography with three-dimensional quantum states.
Bruss, D; Macchiavello, C
2002-03-25
We study optimal eavesdropping in quantum cryptography with three-dimensional systems, and show that this scheme is more secure against symmetric attacks than protocols using two-dimensional states. We generalize the according eavesdropping transformation to arbitrary dimensions, and discuss the connection with optimal quantum cloning.
Experimental Study of Optimal Measurements for Quantum State Tomography
Sosa-Martinez, H.; Lysne, N. K.; Baldwin, C. H.; Kalev, A.; Deutsch, I. H.; Jessen, P. S.
2017-10-01
Quantum tomography is a critically important tool to evaluate quantum hardware, making it essential to develop optimized measurement strategies that are both accurate and efficient. We compare a variety of strategies using nearly pure test states. Those that are informationally complete for all states are found to be accurate and reliable even in the presence of errors in the measurements themselves, while those designed to be complete only for pure states are far more efficient but highly sensitive to such errors. Our results highlight the unavoidable trade-offs inherent in quantum tomography.
Extending SDL and LMC complexity measures to quantum states
Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Campbell-Borges, Yuri Cássio
2013-10-01
An extension of SDL (Shiner, Davison, Landsberg) and LMC (López-Ruiz, Mancini, Calbet) complexity measures is proposed for the quantum information context, considering that Von Neumann entropy is a natural disorder quantifier for quantum states. As a first example of application, the simple qubit was studied, presenting results similar to that obtained by applying SDL and LMC measures to a classical probability distribution. Then, for the Werner state, a mixture of Bell states, SDL and LMC measures were calculated, depending on the mixing factor γ, providing some conjectures concerning quantum systems.
Topological quantum computing with Read-Rezayi states.
Hormozi, L; Bonesteel, N E; Simon, S H
2009-10-16
Read-Rezayi fractional quantum Hall states are among the prime candidates for realizing non-Abelian anyons which, in principle, can be used for topological quantum computation. We present a prescription for efficiently finding braids which can be used to carry out a universal set of quantum gates on encoded qubits based on anyons of the Read-Rezayi states with k>2, k not equal 4. This work extends previous results which only applied to the case k=3 (Fibonacci) and clarifies why, in that case, gate constructions are simpler than for a generic Read-Rezayi state.
Bound states in Galilean-invariant quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corley, S.R.; Greenberg, O.W. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-4111 (United States)
1997-02-01
We consider the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics of a model of two spinless fermions interacting via a two-body potential. We introduce quantum fields associated with the two particles as well as the expansion of these fields in asymptotic {open_quotes}in{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}out{close_quotes} fields, including such fields for bound states, in principle. We limit our explicit discussion to a two-body bound state. In this context we discuss the implications of the Galilean invariance of the model and, in particular, show how to include bound states in a strictly Galilean-invariant quantum field theory. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Quantum reciprocity conjecture for the non-equilibrium steady state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coleman, P; Mao, W [Center for Materials Theory, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2004-05-26
A consideration of the lack of history dependence in the non-equilibrium steady state of a quantum system leads us to conjecture that in such a system there is a set of quantum mechanical observables whose retarded response functions are insensitive to the arrow of time, and which consequently satisfy a quantum analogue of the Onsager reciprocity relations. Systems which satisfy this conjecture can be described by an effective free energy functional. We demonstrate that the conjecture holds in a resonant level model of a multi-lead quantum dot. (letter to the editor)
A secure quantum group signature scheme based on Bell states
Zhang, Kejia; Song, Tingting; Zuo, Huijuan; Zhang, Weiwei
2013-04-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum group signature with Bell states, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. Compared with the recent quantum group signature protocols, our scheme is focused on the most general situation in practice, i.e. only the arbitrator is trusted and no intermediate information needs to be stored in the signing phase to ensure the security. Furthermore, our scheme has achieved all the characteristics of group signature—anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability, by using some current developed quantum and classical technologies. Finally, a feasible security analysis model for quantum group signature is presented.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi [Department of Chemical System Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); CREST, JST, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
Zounia, M.; Shamirzaie, M.; Ashouri, A.
2017-09-01
In this paper quantum teleportation of an unknown quantum state via noisy maximally bipartite (Bell) and maximally tripartite (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)) entangled states are investigated. We suppose that one of the observers who would receive the sent state accelerates uniformly with respect to the sender. The interactions of the quantum system with its environment during the teleportation process impose noises. These (unital and nonunital) noises are: phase damping, phase flip, amplitude damping and bit flip. In expressing the modes of the Dirac field used as qubits, in the accelerating frame, the so-called single mode approximation is not imposed. We calculate the fidelities of teleportation, and discuss their behaviors using suitable plots. The effects of noise, acceleration and going beyond the single mode approximation are discussed. Although the Bell states bring higher fidelities than GHZ states, the global behaviors of the two quantum systems with respect to some noise types, and therefore their fidelities, are different.
Kobayashi, Masaki; Yoshimatsu, Kohei; Mitsuhashi, Taichi; Kitamura, Miho; Sakai, Enju; Yukawa, Ryu; Minohara, Makoto; Fujimori, Atsushi; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi
2017-11-30
Controlling quantum critical phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems, which emerge in the neighborhood of a quantum phase transition, is a major challenge in modern condensed matter physics. Quantum critical phenomena are generated from the delicate balance between long-range order and its quantum fluctuation. So far, the nature of quantum phase transitions has been investigated by changing a limited number of external parameters such as pressure and magnetic field. We propose a new approach for investigating quantum criticality by changing the strength of quantum fluctuation that is controlled by the dimensional crossover in metallic quantum well (QW) structures of strongly correlated oxides. With reducing layer thickness to the critical thickness of metal-insulator transition, crossover from a Fermi liquid to a non-Fermi liquid has clearly been observed in the metallic QW of SrVO3 by in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Non-Fermi liquid behavior with the critical exponent α = 1 is found to emerge in the two-dimensional limit of the metallic QW states, indicating that a quantum critical point exists in the neighborhood of the thickness-dependent Mott transition. These results suggest that artificial QW structures provide a unique platform for investigating novel quantum phenomena in strongly correlated oxides in a controllable fashion.
Passive Decoy-State Quantum Key Distribution with Coherent Light
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Curty
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett–Brassard 1984 (BB84 polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup with an infinite number of decoy settings.
Experimental demonstration of efficient quantum state tomography of matrix product states.
Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Hou, Zhibo; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can
2017-04-17
Quantum state tomography is a key technology for fully determining a quantum state. Unfortunately, standard quantum state tomography is intractable for general many-body quantum states, because the number of measurements and the post-processing time increase exponentially with the size of the system. However, for the matrix product states (MPSs), there exists an efficient method using linearly scaled local measurements and polynomially scaled post-processing times. In this study, we demonstrate the validity of the method in practice by reconstructing a four-photon MPS from its local two- or three-photon reduced-density matrices with the presence of statistical errors and systematical errors in experiment.
A delayed random choice quantum mechanics experiment using light quanta
Jakubowicz, O. G.
1984-01-01
Wheeler has often articulated during the past seven years several delayed choice Gendanken experiments which are intended to focus attention on the meaning of the elementary quantum phenomenon. Attempts to realize a delayed choice Gendanken xperiment in the spirit John Wheeler's thinking were undertaken. Short laser pulses attenuated to the single photon detection level are introduced into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer one at a time. There is a very fast completely random choice (yes/no) optical switch in one of the arms. Any photons in that arm would be reflected out and into a photomultiplier (PMT) if the optical switch decided to be closed. And any photon in the other arm would have equal probability of going into either of the PMTs that normally monitor interference. If the optical switch chooses to leave the pathway in its arm clear (open) then the photon must split at the beamsplitter and no photons will be detected in the PMT waiting for reflections out of that arm. Additionally, the phase of the interferometer may be set beforehand so that one PMT monitoring interference will register the photon and the other PMT monitoring interference will have zero probability of photon registration. The results are consistent with conventional quantum mechanics even if the decision to block or unblock one arm of the interferometer occurs after the single photon light pulse has passed the entrance beamsplitter of the interferometer.
Observing Quantum State Diffusion by Heterodyne Detection of Fluorescence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Campagne-Ibarcq
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A qubit can relax by fluorescence, which prompts the release of a photon into its electromagnetic environment. By counting the emitted photons, discrete quantum jumps of the qubit state can be observed. The succession of states occupied by the qubit in a single experiment, its quantum trajectory, depends in fact on the kind of detector. How are the quantum trajectories modified if one measures continuously the amplitude of the fluorescence field instead? Using a superconducting parametric amplifier, we perform heterodyne detection of the fluorescence of a superconducting qubit. For each realization of the measurement record, we can reconstruct a different quantum trajectory for the qubit. The observed evolution obeys quantum state diffusion, which is characteristic of quantum measurements subject to zero-point fluctuations. Independent projective measurements of the qubit at various times provide a quantitative verification of the reconstructed trajectories. By exploring the statistics of quantum trajectories, we demonstrate that the qubit states span a deterministic surface in the Bloch sphere at each time in the evolution. Additionally, we show that when monitoring fluorescence field quadratures, coherent superpositions are generated during the decay from excited to ground state. Counterintuitively, measuring light emitted during relaxation can give rise to trajectories with increased excitation probability.
Fluctuation Theorem for Many-Body Pure Quantum States
Iyoda, Eiki; Kaneko, Kazuya; Sagawa, Takahiro
2017-09-01
We prove the second law of thermodynamics and the nonequilibrium fluctuation theorem for pure quantum states. The entire system obeys reversible unitary dynamics, where the initial state of the heat bath is not the canonical distribution but is a single energy eigenstate that satisfies the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis. Our result is mathematically rigorous and based on the Lieb-Robinson bound, which gives the upper bound of the velocity of information propagation in many-body quantum systems. The entanglement entropy of a subsystem is shown connected to thermodynamic heat, highlighting the foundation of the information-thermodynamics link. We confirmed our theory by numerical simulation of hard-core bosons, and observed dynamical crossover from thermal fluctuations to bare quantum fluctuations. Our result reveals a universal scenario that the second law emerges from quantum mechanics, and can be experimentally tested by artificial isolated quantum systems such as ultracold atoms.
Fluctuation Theorem for Many-Body Pure Quantum States.
Iyoda, Eiki; Kaneko, Kazuya; Sagawa, Takahiro
2017-09-08
We prove the second law of thermodynamics and the nonequilibrium fluctuation theorem for pure quantum states. The entire system obeys reversible unitary dynamics, where the initial state of the heat bath is not the canonical distribution but is a single energy eigenstate that satisfies the eigenstate-thermalization hypothesis. Our result is mathematically rigorous and based on the Lieb-Robinson bound, which gives the upper bound of the velocity of information propagation in many-body quantum systems. The entanglement entropy of a subsystem is shown connected to thermodynamic heat, highlighting the foundation of the information-thermodynamics link. We confirmed our theory by numerical simulation of hard-core bosons, and observed dynamical crossover from thermal fluctuations to bare quantum fluctuations. Our result reveals a universal scenario that the second law emerges from quantum mechanics, and can be experimentally tested by artificial isolated quantum systems such as ultracold atoms.
Random matrix theory and higher genus integrability: the quantum chiral Potts model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angles d' Auriac, J.Ch. [Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperatures, BP 166, Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: dauriac@polycnrs-gre.fr; Maillard, J.M.; Viallet, C.M. [LPTHE, Tour 16, Paris (France)]. E-mails: maillard@lpthe.jussieu.fr; viallet@lpthe.jussieu.fr
2002-06-14
We perform a random matrix theory (RMT) analysis of the quantum four-state chiral Potts chain for different sizes of the chain up to size L 8. Our analysis gives clear evidence of a Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE) statistics, suggesting the existence of a generalized time-reversal invariance. Furthermore, a change from the (generic) GOE distribution to a Poisson distribution occurs when the integrability conditions are met. The chiral Potts model is known to correspond to a (star-triangle) integrability associated with curves of genus higher than zero or one. Therefore, the RMT analysis can also be seen as a detector of 'higher genus integrability'. (author)
Quantum State-Resolved Studies of Chemisorption Reactions.
Chadwick, Helen; Beck, Rainer D
2017-05-05
Chemical reactions at the gas-surface interface are ubiquitous in the chemical industry as well as in nature. Investigating these processes at a microscopic, quantum state-resolved level helps develop a predictive understanding of this important class of reactions. In this review, we present an overview of the field of quantum state-resolved gas-surface reactivity measurements that explore the role of the initial quantum state on the dissociative chemisorption of a gas-phase reactant incident on a solid surface. Using molecular beams and either quantum state-specific reactant preparation or product detection by laser excitation, these studies have observed mode specificity and bond selectivity as well as steric effects in chemisorption reactions, highlighting the nonstatistical and complex nature of gas-surface reaction dynamics.
Data processing inequality and open quantum systems: Beyond Markov states
Türkmen, A.; Verçin, A.; Yılmaz, S.
2017-10-01
Using a tripartite framework consisting of an open quantum system, its environment, and a passive reference system, in this study we discuss quantum mutual information (QMI) and data processing inequality (DPI). Without any restriction on the initial correlations, the necessary and sufficient conditions for the decrease or increase as well as for the conservation of QMI are obtained for any joint unitary evolution of the open quantum system and its environment. In the special case of the input Markov states, it has been shown that as long as the tripartite input state is a Markov state then DPI holds for every joint unitary evolution even in the presence of initial correlations encoded in the input. We also point out that the converse of the last statement, that is, sufficiency of the existence of a local quantum channel or of the fulfillment of DPI for the input Markov state does not hold in general and this fact is exhibited by counterexamples.
Theoretically extensible quantum digital signature with starlike cluster states
Yang, Yu-Guang; Liu, Zhi-Chao; Li, Jian; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Shi, Wei-Min
2017-01-01
Chen et al. (Phys Rev A 73:012303, 2006) constructed this "starlike cluster" state, which involves one qubit located at the center and n neighboring two-qubit arms. This genuine entangled state has been used for the construction of 2D and 3D cluster states, topological one-way computation, and dynamical quantum secret sharing. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of this starlike cluster state and propose a theoretically extensible quantum digital signature scheme. The proposed scheme can be theoretically generalized to more than three participants. Moreover, it retains the merits of no requirements such as authenticated quantum channels and long-term quantum memory. We also give a security proof for the proposed scheme against repudiation and forgery.
Photon-echo-based quantum memory for optical squeezed states
Wu, Miao-Xin; Wang, Ming-Feng; Zheng, Yi-Zhuang
2015-08-01
The ability to efficiently realize storage and readout of optical squeezed states plays a key roll in continuous-variables quantum information processing. Here we study the quantum memory for squeezed state of propagating light in atoms based on the hybrid photon echo re-phasing. The optical quantum state is recorded in two sublevels of the ground state of an atomic ensemble to realize long-lived quantum memory. Taking into account the noise effect due to atomic decay, our estimation indicates that high fidelities larger than the classical fidelity threshold 81.5% are obtainable even with currently available techniques. Moreover, our result shows that the decay rate of atoms restricts the maximal fidelity. Our work provides some practical guidance for the realization of efficient and faithful photon-echo-based memory for squeezed light.
A quantum spin system with random interactions I
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Е3ЖY Ж-. KMS states f&Е3Жg, the spectrum of the generator of the group of unitaries which implement (Е3Ж in the GNS representation is also almost surely independent of 3. Keywords. Spin; system; quasi-local; random; dynamics; evolution; ...
Absence of quantum states corresponding to unstable classical channels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herbst, Ira; Skibsted, Erik
2008-01-01
We develop a general theory of absence of quantum states corresponding to unstable classical scattering channels. We treat in detail Hamiltonians arising from symbols of degree zero in x and outline a generalization in an Appendix.......We develop a general theory of absence of quantum states corresponding to unstable classical scattering channels. We treat in detail Hamiltonians arising from symbols of degree zero in x and outline a generalization in an Appendix....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cramer, M [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Albert-Einstein Allee 11, Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Eisert, J, E-mail: marcus.cramer@macnews.d, E-mail: jense@qipc.or [Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Imperial College London, Prince' s Gardens, London SW7 2PE (United Kingdom)
2010-05-15
We prove that quantum many-body systems on a one-dimensional lattice locally relax to Gaussian states under non-equilibrium dynamics generated by a bosonic quadratic Hamiltonian. This is true for a large class of initial states-pure or mixed-which have to satisfy merely weak conditions concerning the decay of correlations. The considered setting is a proven instance of a situation where dynamically evolving closed quantum systems locally appear as if they had truly relaxed, to maximum entropy states for fixed second moments. This furthers the understanding of relaxation in suddenly quenched quantum many-body systems. The proof features a non-commutative central limit theorem for non-i.i.d. random variables, showing convergence to Gaussian characteristic functions, giving rise to trace-norm closeness. We briefly link our findings to the ideas of typicality and concentration of measure.
Practical issues in decoy-state quantum key distribution based on the central limit theorem
Trushechkin, A. S.; Kiktenko, E. O.; Fedorov, A. K.
2017-08-01
Decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) is a standard tool for long-distance quantum communications. An important issue in this field is processing the decoy-state statistics taking into account statistical fluctuations (or "finite-key effects"). In this work, we propose and analyze an option for decoy statistics processing, which is based on the central limit theorem. We discuss such practical issues as inclusion of the failure probability of the decoy-state statistical estimates in the total failure probability of a QKD protocol and also taking into account the deviations of the binomially distributed random variables used in the estimations from the Gaussian distribution. The results of numerical simulations show that the obtained estimations are quite tight. The proposed technique can be used as a part of post-processing procedures for industrial quantum key distribution systems.
Measuring the effective phonon density of states of a quantum dot in cavity quantum electrodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Kristian Høeg; Nielsen, Per Kær; Kreiner-Møller, Asger
2013-01-01
We employ detuning-dependent decay-rate measurements of a quantum dot in a photonic-crystal cavity to study the influence of phonon dephasing in a solid-state quantum-electrodynamics experiment. The experimental data agree with a microscopic non-Markovian model accounting for dephasing from...... longitudinal acoustic phonons, and the analysis explains the difference between nonresonant cavity feeding in different nanocavities. From the comparison between experiment and theory we extract the effective phonon density of states experienced by the quantum dot in the nanocavity. This quantity determines...
Efficient Raman generation in a waveguide: A route to ultrafast quantum random number generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
England, D. G.; Bustard, P. J.; Moffatt, D. J.; Nunn, J.; Lausten, R.; Sussman, B. J., E-mail: ben.sussman@nrc.ca [National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada)
2014-02-03
The inherent uncertainty in quantum mechanics offers a source of true randomness which can be used to produce unbreakable cryptographic keys. We discuss the development of a high-speed random number generator based on the quantum phase fluctuations in spontaneously initiated stimulated Raman scattering (SISRS). We utilize the tight confinement and long interaction length available in a Potassium Titanyl Phosphate waveguide to generate highly efficient SISRS using nanojoule pulse energies, reducing the high pump power requirements of the previous approaches. We measure the random phase of the Stokes output using a simple interferometric setup to yield quantum random numbers at 145 Mbps.
Heralded atomic-ensemble quantum memory for photon polarization states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanji, Haruka; Simon, Jonathan [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ghosh, Saikat; Bloom, Benjamin; Vuletic, Vladan [Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms, and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)], E-mail: vuletic@mit.edu
2009-07-15
We describe the mapping of quantum states between single photons and an atomic ensemble. In particular, we demonstrate a heralded quantum memory based on the mapping of a photon polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. The polarization fidelity above 90(2)% for any input polarization far exceeds the classical limit of 2/3. The process also constitutes a quantum non-destructive probe that detects and regenerates a photon without measuring its polarization.
Experimental demonstration of macroscopic quantum coherence in Gaussian states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marquardt, C.; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.
2007-01-01
We witness experimentally the presence of macroscopic coherence in Gaussian quantum states using a recently proposed criterion [E. G. Cavalcanti and M. D. Reid, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 170405 (2006)]. The macroscopic coherence stems from interference between macroscopically distinct states in phase...... space, and we prove experimentally that a coherent state contains these features with a distance in phase space of 0.51 +/- 0.02 shot noise units. This is surprising because coherent states are generally considered being at the border between classical and quantum states, not yet displaying any...
Fine, Boris V.
2009-11-01
This work describes the statistics for the occupation numbers of quantum levels in a large isolated quantum system, where all possible superpositions of eigenstates are allowed provided all these superpositions have the same fixed energy. Such a condition is not equivalent to the conventional microcanonical condition because the latter limits the participating eigenstates to a very narrow energy window. The statistics is obtained analytically for both the entire system and its small subsystem. In a significant departure from the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, the average occupation numbers of quantum states exhibit in the present case weak algebraic dependence on energy. In the macroscopic limit, this dependence is routinely accompanied by the condensation into the lowest-energy quantum state. This work contains initial numerical tests of the above statistics for finite systems and also reports the following numerical finding: when the basis states of large but finite random matrix Hamiltonians are expanded in terms of eigenstates, the participation of eigenstates in such an expansion obeys the newly obtained statistics. The above statistics might be observable in small quantum systems, but for the macroscopic systems, it rather re-enforces doubts about self-sufficiency of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics for justifying the Boltzmann-Gibbs equilibrium.
Singly and Doubly Occupied Higher Quantum States in Nanocrystals.
Jeong, Juyeon; Yoon, Bitna; Kwon, Young-Wan; Choi, Dongsun; Jeong, Kwang Seob
2017-02-08
Filling the lowest quantum state of the conduction band of colloidal nanocrystals with a single electron, which is analogous to the filling the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital in a molecule with a single electron, has attracted much attention due to the possibility of harnessing the electron spin for potential spin-based applications. The quantized energy levels of the artificial atom, in principle, make it possible for a nanocrystal to be filled with an electron if the Fermi-energy level is optimally tuned during the nanocrystal growth. Here, we report the singly occupied quantum state (SOQS) and doubly occupied quantum state (DOQS) of a colloidal nanocrystal in steady state under ambient conditions. The number of electrons occupying the lowest quantum state can be controlled to be zero, one (unpaired), and two (paired) depending on the nanocrystal growth time via changing the stoichiometry of the nanocrystal. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy proved the nanocrystals with single electron to show superparamagnetic behavior, which is a direct evidence of the SOQS, whereas the DOQS of the two- or zero-electron occupied nanocrystals in the 1Se exhibit diamagnetic behavior. In combination with the superconducting quantum interference device measurement, it turns out that the SOQS of the HgSe colloidal quantum dots has superparamagnetic property. The appearance and change of the steady-state mid-IR intraband absorption spectrum reflect the sequential occupation of the 1Se state with electrons. The magnetic property of the colloidal quantum dot, initially determined by the chemical synthesis, can be tuned from diamagnetic to superparamagnetic and vice versa by varying the number of electrons through postchemical treatment. The switchable magnetic property will be very useful for further applications such as colloidal nanocrystal based spintronics, nonvolatile memory, infrared optoelectronics, catalyst, imaging, and quantum computing.
Extreme quantum nonequilibrium, nodes, vorticity, drift and relaxation retarding states
Underwood, Nicolas G.
2018-02-01
Consideration is given to the behaviour of de Broglie trajectories that are separated from the bulk of the Born distribution with a view to describing the quantum relaxation properties of more ‘extreme’ forms of quantum nonequilibrium. For the 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator, through the construction of what is termed the ‘drift field’, a description is given of a general mechanism that causes the relaxation of ‘extreme’ quantum nonequilibrium. Quantum states are found which do not feature this mechanism, so that relaxation may be severely delayed or possibly may not take place at all. A method by which these states may be identified, classified and calculated is given in terms of the properties of the nodes of the state. Properties of the nodes that enable this classification are described for the first time.
Quantum Public Key Cryptosystem Based on Bell States
Wu, WanQing; Cai, QingYu; Zhang, HuanGuo; Liang, XiaoYan
2017-11-01
Classical public key cryptosystems ( P K C), such as R S A, E I G a m a l, E C C, are no longer secure in quantum algorithms, and quantum cryptography has become a novel research topic. In this paper we present a quantum asymmetrical cryptosystem i.e. quantum public key cryptosystem ( Q P K C) based on the Bell states. In particular, in the proposed QPKC the public key are given by the first n particles of Bell states and generalized Pauli operations. The corresponding secret key are the last n particles of Bell states and the inverse of generalized Pauli operations. The proposed QPKC encrypts the message using a public key and decrypts the ciphertext using a private key. By H o l e v o ' s theorem, we proved the security of the secret key and messages during the QPKC.
Controlling the Quantum State with a time varying potential.
Carrasco, Sebastián; Rogan, José; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro
2017-10-16
The problem of controlling the quantum state of a system is investigated using a time varying potential. As a concrete example we study the problem of a particle in a box with a periodically oscillating infinite square-well potential, from which we obtain results that can be applied to systems with periodically oscillating boundary conditions. We derive an analytic expression for the frequencies of resonance between states, and against standard intuition, we show how to use this behavior to control the quantum state of the system at will. In particular, we offer as an example the transition from the ground state to the first excited state of the square well potential. At first sight, it may be counter intuitive that we can control the state of such a quantum Hamiltonian, as the Schrödinger equation conserves the norm of the wave function. In this manuscript, we show how that can be achieved.
Decomposition of fractional quantum Hall states: New symmetries and approximations
Thomale, R.; Estienne, B.; Regnault, N.; Bernevig, B.A.
2010-01-01
Abstract: We provide a detailed description of a new symmetry structure of the monomial (Slater) expansion coefficients of bosonic (fermionic) fractional quantum Hall states first obtained in Ref. 1, which we now extend to spin-singlet states. We show that the Haldane-Rezayi spin-singlet state can
Coherent states of non-Hermitian quantum systems
Roy, B.; Roy, P.
2006-01-01
We use the Gazeau-Klauder formalism to construct coherent states of non-Hermitian quantum systems. In particular we use this formalism to construct coherent state of a PT symmetric system. We also discuss construction of coherent states following Klauder's minimal prescription.
Quantum State Transfer from a Single Photon to a Distant Quantum-Dot Electron Spin.
He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Kai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven
2017-08-11
Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of 0.796±0.020. Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path, and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 m. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axes on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of 78.5%.
Quantum State Transfer from a Single Photon to a Distant Quantum-Dot Electron Spin
He, Yu; He, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yu-Jia; Jiang, Xiao; Chen, Kai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei; Schneider, Christian; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven
2017-08-01
Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of 0.796 ±0.020 . Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path, and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 m. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axes on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of 78.5%.
Delocalized Quantum States Enhance Photocell Efficiency
Zhang, Yiteng; Alharbi, Fahhad H; Engel, Greg; Kais, Sabre
2014-01-01
The high quantum efficiency of photosynthetic complexes has inspired researchers to explore new routes to utilize this process for photovoltaic devices. Quantum coherence has been demonstrated to play a crucial role within this process. Herein, we propose a three-dipole system as a model of a new photocell type which exploits the coherence among its three dipoles. We have proved that the efficiency of such a photocell is greatly enhanced by quantum coherence. We have also predicted that the photocurrents can be enhanced by about 49.5 % in such a coherent coupled dipole system compared with the uncoupled dipoles. These results suggest a promising novel design aspect of photosynthesis-mimicking photovoltaic devices.
Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan; Zheng, Shi-Biao
2017-10-01
In this paper, we propose an approach to accelerate the dissipation dynamics for quantum state generation with Lyapunov control. The strategy is to add target-state-related coherent control fields into the dissipation process to intuitively improve the evolution speed. By applying the current approach, without losing the advantages of dissipation dynamics, the target stationary states can be generated in a much shorter time as compared to that via traditional dissipation dynamics. As a result, the current approach containing the advantages of coherent unitary dynamics and dissipation dynamics allows for a significant improvement in quantum state generation.
High-NOON states by mixing quantum and classical light.
Afek, Itai; Ambar, Oron; Silberberg, Yaron
2010-05-14
Precision measurements can be brought to their ultimate limit by harnessing the principles of quantum mechanics. In optics, multiphoton entangled states, known as NOON states, can be used to obtain high-precision phase measurements, becoming more and more advantageous as the number of photons grows. We generated "high-NOON" states (N = 5) by multiphoton interference of quantum down-converted light with a classical coherent state in an approach that is inherently scalable. Super-resolving phase measurements with up to five entangled photons were produced with a visibility higher than that obtainable using classical light only.
Weak measurements, quantum-state collapse, and the Born rule
Patel, Apoorva; Kumar, Parveen
2017-08-01
Projective measurement is used as a fundamental axiom in quantum mechanics, even though it is discontinuous and cannot predict which measured operator eigenstate will be observed in which experimental run. The probabilistic Born rule gives it an ensemble interpretation, predicting proportions of various outcomes over many experimental runs. Understanding gradual weak measurements requires replacing this scenario with a dynamical evolution equation for the collapse of the quantum state in individual experimental runs. We revisit the quantum trajectory framework that models quantum measurement as a continuous nonlinear stochastic process. We describe the ensemble of quantum trajectories as noise fluctuations on top of geodesics that attract the quantum state towards the measured operator eigenstates. In this effective theory framework for the ensemble of quantum trajectories, the measurement interaction can be specific to each system-apparatus pair, a context necessary for understanding weak measurements. Also in this framework, the constraint to reproduce projective measurement as per the Born rule in the appropriate limit requires that the magnitudes of the noise and the attraction are precisely related, in a manner reminiscent of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. This relation implies that both the noise and the attraction have a common origin in the underlying measurement interaction between the system and the apparatus. We analyze the quantum trajectory ensemble for the scenarios of quantum diffusion and binary quantum jump, and show that the ensemble distribution is completely determined in terms of a single evolution parameter. This trajectory ensemble distribution can be tested in weak measurement experiments. We also comment on how the required noise may arise in the measuring apparatus.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-01-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime. PMID:26364893
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-09-01
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime.
Gaussian private quantum channel with squeezed coherent states.
Jeong, Kabgyun; Kim, Jaewan; Lee, Su-Yong
2015-09-14
While the objective of conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) is to secretly generate and share the classical bits concealed in the form of maximally mixed quantum states, that of private quantum channel (PQC) is to secretly transmit individual quantum states concealed in the form of maximally mixed states using shared one-time pad and it is called Gaussian private quantum channel (GPQC) when the scheme is in the regime of continuous variables. We propose a GPQC enhanced with squeezed coherent states (GPQCwSC), which is a generalization of GPQC with coherent states only (GPQCo) [Phys. Rev. A 72, 042313 (2005)]. We show that GPQCwSC beats the GPQCo for the upper bound on accessible information. As a subsidiary example, it is shown that the squeezed states take an advantage over the coherent states against a beam splitting attack in a continuous variable QKD. It is also shown that a squeezing operation can be approximated as a superposition of two different displacement operations in the small squeezing regime.
Disentanglement of source and target and the laser quantum state.
Noh, Changsuk; Carmichael, H J
2008-03-28
Disentanglement of a laser source from its target qubit is proposed as a criterion establishing the laser quantum state as a coherent state. It is shown that the source-target density operator has a unique factorization in coherent states when the environmental record monitoring laser pump quanta is ignored. The source-target state conditioned upon the complete environmental record is entangled, though, as a state of known total quanta number (source plus target).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, James E; Carroll, Malcolm S; Ganti, Anand; Phillips, Cynthia A; Landahl, Andrew J; Gurrieri, Thomas M; Carr, Robert D; Stalford, Harold L; Nielsen, Erik, E-mail: jelevy@sandia.gov [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)
2011-08-15
In this paper we present the impact of classical electronics constraints on a solid-state quantum dot logical qubit architecture. Constraints due to routing density, bandwidth allocation, signal timing and thermally aware placement of classical supporting electronics significantly affect the quantum error correction circuit's error rate (by a factor of {approx}3-4 in our specific analysis). We analyze one level of a quantum error correction circuit using nine data qubits in a Bacon-Shor code configured as a quantum memory. A hypothetical silicon double quantum dot quantum bit (qubit) is used as the fundamental element. A pessimistic estimate of the error probability of the quantum circuit is calculated using the total number of gates and idle time using a provably optimal schedule for the circuit operations obtained with an integer program methodology. The micro-architecture analysis provides insight about the different ways the electronics impact the circuit performance (e.g. extra idle time in the schedule), which can significantly limit the ultimate performance of any quantum circuit and therefore is a critical foundation for any future larger scale architecture analysis.
Reducing collective quantum state rotation errors with reversible dephasing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cox, Kevin C.; Norcia, Matthew A.; Weiner, Joshua M.; Bohnet, Justin G.; Thompson, James K. [JILA, NIST, and Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 440 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)
2014-12-29
We demonstrate that reversible dephasing via inhomogeneous broadening can greatly reduce collective quantum state rotation errors, and observe the suppression of rotation errors by more than 21 dB in the context of collective population measurements of the spin states of an ensemble of 2.1×10{sup 5} laser cooled and trapped {sup 87}Rb atoms. The large reduction in rotation noise enables direct resolution of spin state populations 13(1) dB below the fundamental quantum projection noise limit. Further, the spin state measurement projects the system into an entangled state with 9.5(5) dB of directly observed spectroscopic enhancement (squeezing) relative to the standard quantum limit, whereas no enhancement would have been obtained without the suppression of rotation errors.
Quantum Communication Using Macroscopic Phase Entangled States
2015-12-10
realistic requirement. vi. List of patents • Patent application # 14/508,741, “Quantum key distribution over large distances using amplifiers...and unitary transformations”, James Franson, Todd Pittman, Brian Kirby, and Garrett Hickman 8 vii. List of publications • G. Jaeger, D. S
Quantum Averaging of Squeezed States of Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Squeezing has been recognized as the main resource for quantum information processing and an important resource for beating classical detection strategies. It is therefore of high importance to reliably generate stable squeezing over longer periods of time. The averaging procedure for a single...
Regression relation for pure quantum states and its implications for efficient computing.
Elsayed, Tarek A; Fine, Boris V
2013-02-15
We obtain a modified version of the Onsager regression relation for the expectation values of quantum-mechanical operators in pure quantum states of isolated many-body quantum systems. We use the insights gained from this relation to show that high-temperature time correlation functions in many-body quantum systems can be controllably computed without complete diagonalization of the Hamiltonians, using instead the direct integration of the Schrödinger equation for randomly sampled pure states. This method is also applicable to quantum quenches and other situations describable by time-dependent many-body Hamiltonians. The method implies exponential reduction of the computer memory requirement in comparison with the complete diagonalization. We illustrate the method by numerically computing infinite-temperature correlation functions for translationally invariant Heisenberg chains of up to 29 spins 1/2. Thereby, we also test the spin diffusion hypothesis and find it in a satisfactory agreement with the numerical results. Both the derivation of the modified regression relation and the justification of the computational method are based on the notion of quantum typicality.
Quenched dynamics of entangled states in correlated quantum dots
Maslova, N. S.; Arseyev, P. I.; Mantsevich, V. N.
2017-10-01
The time evolution of an initially prepared entangled state in the system of coupled quantum dots has been analyzed by means of two different theoretical approaches: equations of motion for all orders localized electron correlation functions, considering interference effects, and kinetic equations for the pseudoparticle occupation numbers with constraint on the possible physical states. Results obtained by means of different approaches were carefully analyzed and compared to each other. Revealing a direct link between concurrence (degree of entanglement) and quantum dots pair correlation functions allowed us to follow the changes of entanglement during the time evolution of the coupled quantum dots system. It was demonstrated that the degree of entanglement can be controllably tuned during the time evolution of quantum dots system.
Wigner function and the probability representation of quantum states
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Man’ko Margarita A.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The relation of theWigner function with the fair probability distribution called tomographic distribution or quantum tomogram associated with the quantum state is reviewed. The connection of the tomographic picture of quantum mechanics with the integral Radon transform of the Wigner quasidistribution is discussed. The Wigner–Moyal equation for the Wigner function is presented in the form of kinetic equation for the tomographic probability distribution both in quantum mechanics and in the classical limit of the Liouville equation. The calculation of moments of physical observables in terms of integrals with the state tomographic probability distributions is constructed having a standard form of averaging in the probability theory. New uncertainty relations for the position and momentum are written in terms of optical tomograms suitable for directexperimental check. Some recent experiments on checking the uncertainty relations including the entropic uncertainty relations are discussed.
Can a quantum critical state represent a blackbody?
Chakravarty, Sudip; Kraus, Per
2018-01-01
The blackbody theory of Planck played a seminal role in the development of quantum theory at the turn of the past century. A blackbody cavity is generally thought to be a collection of photons in thermal equilibrium; the radiation emitted is at all wavelengths, and the intensity follows a scaling law, which is Planck's characteristic distribution law. These photons arise from non-interacting normal modes. Here we suggest that certain quantum critical states when heated emit ;radiation; at all wavelengths and satisfy all the criteria of a blackbody. An important difference is that the ;radiation; does not necessarily consist of non-interacting photons, but also emergent relativistic bosons or fermions. The examples we provide include emergent relativistic fermions at a topological quantum critical point. This perspective on a quantum critical state may be illuminating in many unforeseen ways.
Can a quantum critical state represent a blackbody?
Chakravarty, Sudip
2016-01-01
The blackbody theory of Planck played a seminal role in the development of quantum theory at the turn of the past century. A blackbody cavity is generally thought to be a collection of photons in thermal equilibrium; the radiation emitted is at all wavelengths, and the intensity follows a scaling law, which is Planck's characteristic distribution law. These photons arise from non-interacting normal modes. Here we suggest that certain quantum critical states when heated emit "radiation" at all wavelengths and satisfy all the criteria of a blackbody. An important difference is that the "radiation" does not necessarily consist of non-interacting photons, but also emergent relativistic bosons or fermions. The examples we provide include emergent relativistic fermions at a topological quantum critical point. This perspective on a quantum critical state may be illuminating in many unforeseen ways.
Creation, Storage, and On-Demand Release of Optical Quantum States with a Negative Wigner Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun-ichi Yoshikawa
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Highly nonclassical quantum states of light, characterized by Wigner functions with negative values, have been all-optically created so far only in a heralded fashion. In this case, the desired output emerges rarely and randomly from a quantum-state generator. An important example is the heralded production of high-purity single-photon states, typically based on some nonlinear optical interaction. In contrast, on-demand single-photon sources are also reported, exploiting the quantized level structure of matter systems. These sources, however, lead to highly impure output states, composed mostly of vacuum. While such impure states may still exhibit certain single-photon-like features such as antibunching, they are not nonclassical enough for advanced quantum-information processing. On the other hand, the intrinsic randomness of pure, heralded states can be circumvented by first storing and then releasing them on demand. Here, we propose such a controlled release, and we experimentally demonstrate it for heralded single photons. We employ two optical cavities, where the photons are both created and stored inside one cavity and finally released through a dynamical tuning of the other cavity. We demonstrate storage times of up to 300 ns while keeping the single-photon purity around 50% after storage. Our experiment is the first demonstration of a negative Wigner function at the output of an on-demand photon source or a quantum memory. In principle, our storage system is compatible with all kinds of nonclassical states, including those known to be essential for many advanced quantum-information protocols.
Lattice Gauge Quantum Simulation via State-Dependent Hopping
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salami Dehkharghani, Amin
2017-01-01
We develop a quantum simulator architecture that is suitable for the simulation of U(1) Abelian gauge theories such as quantum electrodynamics. Our approach relies on the ability to control the hopping of a particle through a barrier by means of the internal quantum states of a neutral or charged...... impurity-particle sitting at the barrier. This scheme is highly experimentally feasible, as the correlated hopping does not require fine-tuning of the intra- and inter-species interactions. We investigate the applicability of the scheme in a double well potential, which is the basic building block...
Ko, Heasin; Choi, Byung-Seok; Choe, Joong-Seon; Kim, Kap-Joong; Kim, Jong-Hoi; Youn, Chun Ju
2017-08-21
Most polarization-based BB84 quantum key distribution (QKD) systems utilize multiple lasers to generate one of four polarization quantum states randomly. However, random bit generation with multiple lasers can potentially open critical side channels that significantly endangers the security of QKD systems. In this paper, we show unnoticed side channels of temporal disparity and intensity fluctuation, which possibly exist in the operation of multiple semiconductor laser diodes. Experimental results show that the side channels can enormously degrade security performance of QKD systems. An important system issue for the improvement of quantum bit error rate (QBER) related with laser driving condition is further addressed with experimental results.
Quantum localized states in photonic flat-band lattices
Rojas-Rojas, S.; Morales-Inostroza, L.; Vicencio, R. A.; Delgado, A.
2017-10-01
The localization of light in flat-band lattices has been recently proposed and experimentally demonstrated in several configurations, assuming a classical description of light. Here we study the problem of light localization in the quantum regime. We focus on quasi-one-dimensional and two-dimensional lattices which exhibit a perfect flat band inside their linear spectrum. Localized quantum states are constructed as eigenstates of the interaction Hamiltonian with a vanishing eigenvalue and a well defined total photon number. These are superpositions of Fock states with probability amplitudes given by positive as well as negative square roots of multinomial coefficients. The classical picture can be recovered by considering Poissonian superpositions of localized quantum states with different total photon number. We also study the separability properties of flat-band quantum states and apply them to the transmission of information via multicore fibers, where these states allow for the total passive suppression of photon crosstalk and exhibit robustness against photon losses. At the end, we propose an on-chip setup for the experimental preparation of localized quantum states of light for any number of photons.
Macroscopic superposition states and decoherence by quantum telegraph noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abel, Benjamin Simon
2008-12-19
In the first part of the present thesis we address the question about the size of superpositions of macroscopically distinct quantum states. We propose a measure for the ''size'' of a Schroedinger cat state, i.e. a quantum superposition of two many-body states with (supposedly) macroscopically distinct properties, by counting how many single-particle operations are needed to map one state onto the other. We apply our measure to a superconducting three-junction flux qubit put into a superposition of clockwise and counterclockwise circulating supercurrent states and find this Schroedinger cat to be surprisingly small. The unavoidable coupling of any quantum system to many environmental degrees of freedom leads to an irreversible loss of information about an initially prepared superposition of quantum states. This phenomenon, commonly referred to as decoherence or dephasing, is the subject of the second part of the thesis. We have studied the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of a two-level system (qubit) subject to quantum telegraph noise which is the major source of decoherence in Josephson charge qubits. We are able to derive an exact expression for the time evolution of the reduced density matrix. (orig.)
Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states
Liu, Fenz; Lee, Christopher James; Chen, Juequan; Chen, J.; Louis, Eric; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Boller, Klaus J.; Bijkerk, Frederik
2012-01-01
We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar
Ellipsometry with random varying polarization state
Liu, Fenz; van Albada, B.; Lee, c; Bijkerk, Frederik
2012-01-01
We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar
Komnik, A; Saleur, H
2011-09-02
We verify the validity of the Cohen-Gallavotti fluctuation theorem for the strongly correlated problem of charge transfer through an impurity in a chiral Luttinger liquid, which is realizable experimentally as a quantum point contact in a fractional quantum Hall edge state device. This is accomplished via the development of an analytical method to calculate the full counting statistics of the problem in all the parameter regimes involving the temperature, the Hall voltage, and the gate voltage.
Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem.
Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady
2017-12-15
Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.
Realization of a Quantum Random Generator Certified with the Kochen-Specker Theorem
Kulikov, Anatoly; Jerger, Markus; Potočnik, Anton; Wallraff, Andreas; Fedorov, Arkady
2017-12-01
Random numbers are required for a variety of applications from secure communications to Monte Carlo simulation. Yet randomness is an asymptotic property, and no output string generated by a physical device can be strictly proven to be random. We report an experimental realization of a quantum random number generator (QRNG) with randomness certified by quantum contextuality and the Kochen-Specker theorem. The certification is not performed in a device-independent way but through a rigorous theoretical proof of each outcome being value indefinite even in the presence of experimental imperfections. The analysis of the generated data confirms the incomputable nature of our QRNG.
Continuous variables triple-photon states quantum entanglement
Gonzalez, E. A. Rojas; Borne, A.; Boulanger, B.; Levenson, J.A.; Bencheikh, K
2017-01-01
We investigate the quantum entanglement of the three modes associated with the three-photon states obtained by triple-photon generation in a phase-matched third-order nonlinear optical interaction. Although the second order processes have been extensively dealt with, there is no direct analogy between the second and third-order mechanisms. We show for example the absence of quantum entanglement between the quadratures of the three modes in the case of spontaneous parametric triple-photon gene...
On the density of states of circular graphene quantum dots
Chau Nguyen, H.; Nguyen, Nhung T. T.; Nguyen, V. Lien
2017-10-01
We suggest a simple approach to calculate the local density of states that effectively applies to any structure created by an axially symmetric potential on a continuous graphene sheet such as circular graphene quantum dots or rings. Calculations performed for the graphene quantum dot studied in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy measurement (Gutierrez et al 2016 Nat. Phys. 12 1069-75) show an excellent experimental-theoretical agreement.
Quantum radiation produced by a uniformly accelerating charged particle in thermal random motion
Oshita, Naritaka; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Zhang, Sen
2016-04-01
We investigate the properties of quantum radiation produced by a uniformly accelerating charged particle undergoing thermal random motion, which originates from the coupling to the vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Because the thermal random motion is regarded to result from the Unruh effect, the quantum radiation might give us hints of the Unruh effect. The energy flux of the quantum radiation is negative and smaller than that of Larmor radiation by one order in a /m , where a is the constant acceleration and m is the mass of the particle. Thus, the quantum radiation appears to be a suppression of the classical Larmor radiation. The quantum interference effect plays an important role in this unique signature. The results are consistent with the predictions of a model consisting of a particle coupled to a massless scalar field as well as those of the previous studies on the quantum effect on the Larmor radiation.
High-dimensional quantum state transfer through a quantum spin chain
Qin, Wei; Wang, Chuan; Long, Gui Lu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate a high-dimensional quantum state transfer protocol. An arbitrary unknown high-dimensional state can be transferred with high fidelity between two remote registers through an XX coupling spin chain of arbitrary length. The evolution of the state transfer is determined by the natural dynamics of the chain without external modulation and coupling strength engineering. As a consequence, entanglement distribution with a high efficiency can be achieved. Also the strong field and high spin quantum number can partly counteract the effect of finite temperature to ensure the high fidelity of the protocol when the quantum data bus is in the thermal equilibrium state under an external magnetic field.
Network-based Arbitrated Quantum Signature Scheme with Graph State
Ma, Hongling; Li, Fei; Mao, Ningyi; Wang, Yijun; Guo, Ying
2017-08-01
Implementing an arbitrated quantum signature(QAS) through complex networks is an interesting cryptography technology in the literature. In this paper, we propose an arbitrated quantum signature for the multi-user-involved networks, whose topological structures are established by the encoded graph state. The determinative transmission of the shared keys, is enabled by the appropriate stabilizers performed on the graph state. The implementation of this scheme depends on the deterministic distribution of the multi-user-shared graph state on which the encoded message can be processed in signing and verifying phases. There are four parties involved, the signatory Alice, the verifier Bob, the arbitrator Trent and Dealer who assists the legal participants in the signature generation and verification. The security is guaranteed by the entanglement of the encoded graph state which is cooperatively prepared by legal participants in complex quantum networks.
State hybridization shapes the photocurrent in triple quantum dot nanojunctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beltako, Katawoura; Cavassilas, Nicolas; Michelini, Fabienne [Universités Aix Marseille et Toulon, CNRS, IM2NP, UMR 7334, 13288 Marseille (France)
2016-08-15
We investigated a prototype of a quantum dot based photodetector made of a dot absorber interconnected with two lateral dot filters in contact with semiconducting leads. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function technique, we found that there are two opposite evolutions of the photocurrent in the vicinity of the tunnel resonance for such a kind of nanodevice. This evolution depends on where the strongest hybridization of states happens, and hence still reveals a quantum effect. If the filter states hybridize more with the absorber states than the ones of the leads, the photocurrent shows a maximum at the tunnel resonance, while it is minimized in the opposite case.
Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wade, Andrew Christopher James
2015-01-01
nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies...... and quantum technologies. By probing, the production of squeezed and entangled states of collective variables in a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. Thereafter, an atomic probe using the strong interactions between highly excited atomic states, manipulates the light-matter dynamics of an ultracold gas...
Continuous variable quantum key distribution with modulated entangled states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Lars S; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Lassen, Mikael
2012-01-01
based on coherent states and continuous variable measurements are resilient to high loss in the channel, but are strongly affected by small amounts of channel excess noise. Here we propose and experimentally address a continuous variable quantum key distribution protocol that uses modulated fragile...... entangled states of light to greatly enhance the robustness to channel noise. We experimentally demonstrate that the resulting quantum key distribution protocol can tolerate more noise than the benchmark set by the ideal continuous variable coherent state protocol. Our scheme represents a very promising...
Random magnetic field and quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates.
Ye, J
2001-01-08
By a singular gauge transformation, the quasiparticle transport in the mixed state of high- Tc cuprates is mapped into a charge-neutral Dirac moving in short-range correlated random scalar and long-range correlated vector potential. A fully quantum mechanical approach to longitudinal and transverse thermal conductivities is presented. The semiclassical Volovik effect is presented in a quantum mechanical way. The quasiparticle scattering from the random magnetic field which was completely missed in all the previous semiclassical approaches is the dominant scattering mechanism at sufficient high magnetic field. The implications for experiments are discussed.
Electron states in semiconductor quantum dots.
Dhayal, Suman S; Ramaniah, Lavanya M; Ruda, Harry E; Nair, Selvakumar V
2014-11-28
In this work, the electronic structures of quantum dots (QDs) of nine direct band gap semiconductor materials belonging to the group II-VI and III-V families are investigated, within the empirical tight-binding framework, in the effective bond orbital model. This methodology is shown to accurately describe these systems, yielding, at the same time, qualitative insights into their electronic properties. Various features of the bulk band structure such as band-gaps, band curvature, and band widths around symmetry points affect the quantum confinement of electrons and holes. These effects are identified and quantified. A comparison with experimental data yields good agreement with the calculations. These theoretical results would help quantify the optical response of QDs of these materials and provide useful input for applications.
Ghazaryan, E M; Sarkisyan, H A
2002-01-01
Electron states in spherical quantum dots are studied, taking into account boundary conditions. The threshold habit of level appearance inside the quantum dots is revealed. The electron energy dependences on the quantum dots radius and confinement potential height
Projected gradient descent algorithms for quantum state tomography
Bolduc, Eliot; Knee, George C.; Gauger, Erik M.; Leach, Jonathan
2017-10-01
Accurate quantum tomography is a vital tool in both fundamental and applied quantum science. It is a task that involves processing a noisy measurement record in order to construct a reliable estimate of an unknown quantum state, and is central to quantum computing, metrology and communication. To date, many different approaches to quantum state estimation have been developed, yet no one method fits all applications, and all fail relatively quickly as the dimensionality of the unknown state grows. In this work, we suggest that projected gradient descent is a method that can evade some of these shortcomings. We present three tomography algorithms that use projected gradient descent and compare their performance with state-of-the-art alternatives, i.e., the diluted iterative algorithm and convex programming. Our results find in favour of the general class of projected gradient descent methods due to their speed, applicability to large states, and the range of conditions in which they perform as well as providing insight into which variant of projected gradient descent ought to be used in various measurement scenarios.
On the initial state of the Universe in quantum cosmology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N.N. Gorobey
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the initial state of a quantum inflationary Universe. Considering the dynamics of the inflation scalar field at the beginning of the inflation stage in the context of semi-classical approximation, we have identified this field with a cosmic time parameter. The early Universe state was defined as an initial value of the inflation field. Other degrees of the Universe freedom, including the scale factor, are treated within the framework of the quantum theory. The initial state of quantum degrees of freedom at the beginning of the inflation must be defined as well. A principle of the least excitation of physical degrees of freedom for the Universe has been proposed to determine the initial state of the quantum Universe. A uniform anisotropic model of the Universe was considered where its size and the anisotropic parameters were quantum dynamical variables. Assuming that the Universe size is a radial variable in the configuration space of the theory, the definition of the Hamiltonian of the Universe is rendered more precise. A simple exponential form of the initial state of the Universe is suggested and the Universe initial size is estimated for this form.
Li, Ao; Chen, Tian; Zhou, Yiheng; Wang, Xiangbin
2016-05-01
Quantum blockades as a nonlinear quantum optical process have been well studied in recent years. Using the quantum trajectory method, we calculate and discuss the output photon number distributions of a single-photon blockade process in a Kerr nonlinear dissipative resonator, revealing that the probability of the single-photon state can be optimized. Then we show through numerical simulations that such a quasi-single-photon source can drastically raise the key rate in the decoy-state quantum key distribution.
ierarchies of non-classical states in quantum optics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
states of the quantised electromagnetic ﬁeld, and drawing out the experimental implica- tions of such classiﬁcation. In particular it is interesting to see how one can bring out as sharply as possible those features that show the nonclassical properties of radiation. Given a quantum mechanical state of radiation produced in ...
The Capacity of Quantum Channel with General Signal States
Holevo, A. S.
1996-01-01
It is shown that the capacity of a classical-quantum channel with arbitrary (possibly mixed) states equals to the maximum of the entropy bound with respect to all apriori distributions. This completes the recent result of Hausladen, Jozsa, Schumacher, Westmoreland and Wooters, who proved the equality for the pure state channel.
Greca, Ileana Maria; Freire, Olival
Teaching physics implies making choices. In the case of teaching quantum physics, besides an educational choice - the didactic strategy - another choice must be made, an epistemological one, concerning the interpretation of quantum theory itself. These two choices are closely connected. We have chosen a didactic strategy that privileges the phenomenological-conceptual approach, with emphasis upon quantum features of the systems, instead of searching for classical analogies. This choice has led us to present quantum theory associated with an orthodox, yet realistic, interpretation of the concept of quantum state, considered as the key concept of quantum theory, representing the physical reality of a system, independent of measurement processes. The results of the mplementation of this strategy, with three groups of engineering students, showed that more than a half of them attained a reasonable understanding of the basics of quantum mechanics (QM) for this level. In addition, a high degree of satisfaction was attained with the classes as 80% of the students of the experimental groups claimed to have liked it and to be interested in learning more about QM.
Photodissociation in quantum chaotic systems: Random-matrix theory of cross-section fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fyodorov, Y.V. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet-GH Essen, D-45117 Essen (Germany); Alhassid, Y. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)
1998-11-01
Using the random matrix description of open quantum chaotic systems we calculate in closed form the universal autocorrelation function and the probability distribution of the total photodissociation cross section in the regime of quantum chaos. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Compressively Characterizing High-Dimensional Entangled States with Complementary, Random Filtering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gregory A. Howland
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The resources needed to conventionally characterize a quantum system are overwhelmingly large for high-dimensional systems. This obstacle may be overcome by abandoning traditional cornerstones of quantum measurement, such as general quantum states, strong projective measurement, and assumption-free characterization. Following this reasoning, we demonstrate an efficient technique for characterizing high-dimensional, spatial entanglement with one set of measurements. We recover sharp distributions with local, random filtering of the same ensemble in momentum followed by position—something the uncertainty principle forbids for projective measurements. Exploiting the expectation that entangled signals are highly correlated, we use fewer than 5000 measurements to characterize a 65,536-dimensional state. Finally, we use entropic inequalities to witness entanglement without a density matrix. Our method represents the sea change unfolding in quantum measurement, where methods influenced by the information theory and signal-processing communities replace unscalable, brute-force techniques—a progression previously followed by classical sensing.
Quantum Harmonic Oscillator State Control in a Squeezed Fock Basis.
Kienzler, D; Lo, H-Y; Negnevitsky, V; Flühmann, C; Marinelli, M; Home, J P
2017-07-21
We demonstrate control of a trapped-ion quantum harmonic oscillator in a squeezed Fock state basis, using engineered Hamiltonians analogous to the Jaynes-Cummings and anti-Jaynes-Cummings forms. We demonstrate that for squeezed Fock states with low n the engineered Hamiltonians reproduce the sqrt[n] scaling of the matrix elements which is typical of Jaynes-Cummings physics, and also examine deviations due to the finite wavelength of our control fields. Starting from a squeezed vacuum state, we apply sequences of alternating transfer pulses which allow us to climb the squeezed Fock state ladder, creating states up to excitations of n=6 with up to 8.7 dB of squeezing, as well as demonstrating superpositions of these states. These techniques offer access to new sets of states of the harmonic oscillator which may be applicable for precision metrology or quantum information science.
Spatial quantum correlations induced by random multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodahl, Peter
2007-01-01
The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that ca...... only be described by a quantum mechanical theory for multiple scattering. The spatial quantum correlation is revealed in the fluctuations of the total intensity transmission or reflection through the multiple scattering medium.......The authors demonstrates that spatial quantum correlations are induced by multiple scattering of quadrature squeezed light through a random medium. As a consequence, light scattered along two different directions by the random medium will not be independent, but be correlated to an extent that can...
Optimal secure quantum teleportation of coherent states of light
Liuzzo-Scorpo, Pietro; Adesso, Gerardo
2017-08-01
We investigate quantum teleportation of ensembles of coherent states of light with a Gaussian distributed displacement in phase space. Recently, the following general question has been addressed in [P. Liuzzo-Scorpo et al., arXiv:1705.03017]: Given a limited amount of entanglement and mean energy available as resources, what is the maximal fidelity that can be achieved on average in the teleportation of such an alphabet of states? Here, we consider a variation of this question, where Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering is used as a resource rather than plain entanglement. We provide a solution by means of an optimisation within the space of Gaussian quantum channels, which allows for an intuitive visualisation of the problem. We first show that not all channels are accessible with a finite degree of steering, and then prove that practical schemes relying on asymmetric two-mode Gaussian states enable one to reach the maximal fidelity at the border with the inaccessible region. Our results provide a rigorous quantitative assessment of steering as a resource for secure quantum teleportation beyond the so-called no-cloning threshold. The schemes we propose can be readily implemented experimentally by a conventional Braunstein-Kimble continuous variable teleportation protocol involving homodyne detections and corrective displacements with an optimally tuned gain. These protocols can be integrated as elementary building blocks in quantum networks, for reliable storage and transmission of quantum optical states.
Optimal quantum error correcting codes from absolutely maximally entangled states
Raissi, Zahra; Gogolin, Christian; Riera, Arnau; Acín, Antonio
2018-02-01
Absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states are pure multi-partite generalizations of the bipartite maximally entangled states with the property that all reduced states of at most half the system size are in the maximally mixed state. AME states are of interest for multipartite teleportation and quantum secret sharing and have recently found new applications in the context of high-energy physics in toy models realizing the AdS/CFT-correspondence. We work out in detail the connection between AME states of minimal support and classical maximum distance separable (MDS) error correcting codes and, in particular, provide explicit closed form expressions for AME states of n parties with local dimension \
Dynamical topological quantum phase transitions for mixed states
Heyl, M.; Budich, J. C.
2017-11-01
We introduce and study the dynamical probes of band-structure topology in the postquench time evolution of quantum many-body systems initialized in mixed states. Our construction generalizes the notion of dynamical quantum phase transitions (DQPTs), a real-time counterpart of conventional equilibrium phase transitions in quantum dynamics, to finite temperatures and generalized Gibbs ensembles. The nonanalytical signatures hallmarking these mixed-state DQPTs are found to be characterized by observable phase singularities manifesting in the dynamical formation of vortex-antivortex pairs in the interferometric phase of the density matrix. Studying quenches in Chern insulators, we find that changes in the topological properties of the Hamiltonian can be identified in this scenario, without ever preparing a topologically nontrivial or low-temperature initial state. Our observations are of immediate relevance for current experiments aimed at realizing topological phases in ultracold atomic gases.
Influence of scattering processes on electron quantum states in nanowires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pozdnyakov Dmitry
2007-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractIn the framework of quantum perturbation theory the self-consistent method of calculation of electron scattering rates in nanowires with the one-dimensional electron gas in the quantum limit is worked out. The developed method allows both the collisional broadening and the quantum correlations between scattering events to be taken into account. It is an alternativeper seto the Fock approximation for the self-energy approach based on Green’s function formalism. However this approach is free of mathematical difficulties typical to the Fock approximation. Moreover, the developed method is simpler than the Fock approximation from the computational point of view. Using the approximation of stable one-particle quantum states it is proved that the electron scattering processes determine the dependence of electron energy versus its wave vector.
Deep Learning the Quantum Phase Transitions in Random Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
Ohtsuki, Tomoki; Ohtsuki, Tomi
2016-12-01
Random electron systems show rich phases such as Anderson insulator, diffusive metal, quantum Hall and quantum anomalous Hall insulators, Weyl semimetal, as well as strong/weak topological insulators. Eigenfunctions of each matter phase have specific features, but owing to the random nature of systems, determining the matter phase from eigenfunctions is difficult. Here, we propose the deep learning algorithm to capture the features of eigenfunctions. Localization-delocalization transition, as well as disordered Chern insulator-Anderson insulator transition, is discussed.
Quantum theory of the solid state
Callaway, Joseph
1991-01-01
This new edition presents a comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the concepts and methods in contemporary condensed matter physics, emphasizing topics that can be treated by quantum mechanical methods. The book features tutorial discussions of a number of current research topics.Also included are updated treatments of topics that have developed significantly within the past several years, such as superconductivity, magnetic impurities in metals, methods for electronic structure calculations, magnetic ordering in insulators and metals, and linear response theory. Advanced level graduate students
Local decoherence-resistant quantum states of large systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishra, Utkarsh; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in
2015-02-06
We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states, each of which consists of a “minuscule” and a “large” sector, against local noise. In particular, the content of entanglement and other quantum correlations in the minuscule to large partition is independent of the number of particles in their large sectors, when all the particles suffer passage through local amplitude and phase damping channels. The states of the large sectors are distinct in terms of markedly different amounts of violation of Bell inequality. In case the large sector is macroscopic, such states are akin to the Schrödinger cat. - Highlights: • We identify an effectively decoherence-free class of quantum states of large systems. • We work with local noise models. • Decay of entanglement as well as information-theoretic quantum correlations considered. • The states are of the form of the Schrödinger cats, with minuscule and large sectors. • The states of the large sector are distinguishable by their violation of Bell inequality.
Quantum non-Gaussian Depth of Single-Photon States.
Straka, Ivo; Predojević, Ana; Huber, Tobias; Lachman, Lukáš; Butschek, Lorenz; Miková, Martina; Mičuda, Michal; Solomon, Glenn S; Weihs, Gregor; Ježek, Miroslav; Filip, Radim
2014-11-28
We introduce and experimentally explore the concept of the non-Gaussian depth of single-photon states with a positive Wigner function. The depth measures the robustness of a single-photon state against optical losses. The directly witnessed quantum non-Gaussianity withstands significant attenuation, exhibiting a depth of 18 dB, while the nonclassicality remains unchanged. Quantum non-Gaussian depth is an experimentally approachable quantity that is much more robust than the negativity of the Wigner function. Furthermore, we use it to reveal significant differences between otherwise strongly nonclassical single-photon sources.
Quantum state transfer in a q-deformed chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
L' Innocente, Sonia [Dipartimento di Matematica ed Informatica, Universita di Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, 62032 Camerino (Italy)], E-mail: sonia.linnocente@unicam.it, E-mail: cosmo.lupo@unicam.it, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it
2009-11-27
We investigate the quantum state transfer in a chain of particles satisfying the q-deformed oscillators algebra. This general algebraic setting includes the spin chain and the bosonic chain as limiting cases. We study conditions for perfect state transfer depending on the number of sites and excitations on the chain. They are formulated by means of irreducible representations of a quantum algebra realized through Jordan-Schwinger maps. Playing with deformation parameters, we can study the effects of nonlinear perturbations or interpolate between the spin and bosonic chains.
Exotic quantum states for charmed baryons at finite temperature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiaxing Zhao
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The significantly screened heavy-quark potential in hot medium provides the possibility to study exotic quantum states of three-heavy-quark systems. By solving the Schrödinger equation for a three-charm-quark system at finite temperature, we found that, there exist Borromean states which might be realized in high energy nuclear collisions, and the binding energies of the system satisfy precisely the scaling law for Efimov states in the resonance limit.
Exotic quantum states for charmed baryons at finite temperature
Zhao, Jiaxing; Zhuang, Pengfei
2017-12-01
The significantly screened heavy-quark potential in hot medium provides the possibility to study exotic quantum states of three-heavy-quark systems. By solving the Schrödinger equation for a three-charm-quark system at finite temperature, we found that, there exist Borromean states which might be realized in high energy nuclear collisions, and the binding energies of the system satisfy precisely the scaling law for Efimov states in the resonance limit.
Quantum state generation via integrated frequency combs (Conference Presentation)
Roztocki, Piotr; Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Wetzel, Benjamin; Grazioso, Fabio; Little, Brent E.; Chu, Sai T.; Johnston, Tudor W.; Bromberg, Yaron; Caspani, Lucia; Moss, David J.; Morandotti, Roberto
2017-02-01
The on-chip generation of optical quantum states will enable accessible advances for quantum technologies. We demonstrate that integrated quantum frequency combs (based on high-Q microring resonators made from a CMOS-compatible, high refractive-index doped-glass platform) can enable the generation of pure heralded single photons, cross-polarized photon pairs, as well as bi- and multi-photon entangled qubit states over a broad frequency comb covering the S, C, L telecommunications band, with photon frequencies corresponding to standard telecommunication channels spaced by 200 GHz. Exploiting a self-locked, intra-cavity excitation configuration, a highly-stable source of multiplexed heralded single photons is demonstrated, operating continuously for several weeks with less than 5% fluctuations. The photon bandwidth of 110 MHz is compatible with quantum memories, and high photon purity was confirmed through single-photon auto-correlation measurements. In turn, by simultaneously exciting two orthogonal polarization mode resonances, we demonstrate the first realization of type-II spontaneous FWM (in analogy to type-II spontaneous parametric down-conversion), allowing the direct generation of orthogonally-polarized photon pairs on a chip. By using a double-pulse excitation, we demonstrate the generation of time-bin entangled photon pairs. We measure qubit entanglement with visibilities above 90%, enabling the implementation of quantum information processing protocols. Finally, the excitation field and the generated photons are intrinsically bandwidth-matched due to the resonant characteristics of the ring cavity, enabling the multiplication of Bell states and the generation of a four-photon time-bin entangled state. We confirm the generation of this four-photon entangled state through four-photon quantum interference.
Quantum teleportation and information splitting via four-qubit cluster state and a Bell state
Ramírez, Marlon David González; Falaye, Babatunde James; Sun, Guo-Hua; Cruz-Irisson, M.; Dong, Shi-Hai
2017-10-01
Quantum teleportation provides a "bodiless" way of transmitting the quantum state from one object to another, at a distant location, using a classical communication channel and a previously shared entangled state. In this paper, we present a tripartite scheme for probabilistic teleportation of an arbitrary single qubit state, without losing the information of the state being teleported, via a fourqubit cluster state of the form | ϕ>1234 = α|0000>+ β|1010>+ γ|0101>- η|1111>, as the quantum channel, where the nonzero real numbers α, β, γ, and η satisfy the relation j αj2 + | β|2 + | γ|2 + | η|2 = 1. With the introduction of an auxiliary qubit with state |0>, using a suitable unitary transformation and a positive-operator valued measure (POVM), the receiver can recreate the state of the original qubit. An important advantage of the teleportation scheme demonstrated here is that, if the teleportation fails, it can be repeated without teleporting copies of the unknown quantum state, if the concerned parties share another pair of entangled qubit. We also present a protocol for quantum information splitting of an arbitrary two-particle system via the aforementioned cluster state and a Bell-state as the quantum channel. Problems related to security attacks were examined for both the cases and it was found that this protocol is secure. This protocol is highly efficient and easy to implement.
Parisi symmetry of the many-body quantum theory of randomly interacting fermionic systems
Oppermann, R.; Rosenow, B.
1999-10-01
We show that fermion systems with random and frustrated interactions display a strong coupling between glassy order and fermionic correlations, which culminates in the implementation of Parisi replica permutation symmetry breaking (RPSB) in their zero-temperature quantum field theories. RPSB effects, setting in below fermionic de Almeida-Thouless (dAT) lines, become stronger as the temperature T decreases and play a crucial role for many physical properties within the entire low-T regime. The Parisi ultrametric structure is shown to determine the dynamic behavior of fermionic correlations (Green's functions) for large times and for the corresponding low-energy excitation spectra, which is predicted to affect transport properties in metallic (and superconducting) spin glasses. Thus we reveal the existence and the detailed form of a number of quantum-dynamical fingerprints of the Parisi scheme. These effects, being strongest as T-->0, are contrasted with the replica-symmetric nature of the critical field theory of quantum spin glass transitions at T=0, which display only small corrections at low T from RPSB. RPSB effects moreover appear to influence the loci of the ground state transitions at O(T0) and hence the phase diagrams. From explicit solutions for arbitrary T we find a representation of the Green's function in the T=0 limit. This leads to a map of the fermionic (insulating) spin glass solution to the local limit of a Hubbard model with random repulsive interaction. This map holds for any number of replica-symmetry-breaking steps K. We obtain the distribution of the Hubbard interaction U and its dependence on the order of RPSB. A generalized mapping between metallic spin glass and random U Hubbard model is conjectured. We also suggest that the new representation of the Green's function at T=0 can be used for generalizations to superconductors with spin glass phases. Further generalizations due to Coulomb effects including a crossover from four-state per site
Qu, Zhiguo; Wu, Shengyao; Wang, Mingming; Sun, Le; Wang, Xiaojun
2017-12-01
As one of important research branches of quantum communication, deterministic remote state preparation (DRSP) plays a significant role in quantum network. Quantum noises are prevalent in quantum communication, and it can seriously affect the safety and reliability of quantum communication system. In this paper, we study the effect of quantum noise on deterministic remote state preparation of an arbitrary two-particle state via different quantum channels including the χ state, Brown state and GHZ state. Firstly, the output states and fidelities of three DRSP algorithms via different quantum entangled channels in four noisy environments, including amplitude-damping, phase-damping, bit-flip and depolarizing noise, are presented, respectively. And then, the effects of noises on three kinds of preparation algorithms in the same noisy environment are discussed. In final, the theoretical analysis proves that the effect of noise in the process of quantum state preparation is only related to the noise type and the size of noise factor and independent of the different entangled quantum channels. Furthermore, another important conclusion is given that the effect of noise is also independent of how to distribute intermediate particles for implementing DRSP through quantum measurement during the concrete preparation process. These conclusions will be very helpful for improving the efficiency and safety of quantum communication in a noisy environment.
Wang, Qian; Quan, H. T.
2017-09-01
By analyzing the probability distributions of the Loschmidt echo (LE) and quantum work, we examine the nonequilibrium effects of a quantum many-body system, which exhibits an excited-state quantum phase transition (ESQPT). We find that depending on the value of the controlling parameter the distribution of the LE displays different patterns. At the critical point of the ESQPT, both the averaged LE and the averaged work show a cusplike shape. Furthermore, by employing the finite-size scaling analysis of the averaged work, we obtain the critical exponent of the ESQPT. Finally, we show that at the critical point of ESQPT the eigenstate is a highly localized state, further highlighting the influence of the ESQPT on the properties of the many-body system.
Nonadiabatic quantum state engineering driven by fast quench dynamics
Herrera, Marcela; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Duzzioni, Eduardo I.; Serra, Roberto M.
2014-02-01
There are a number of tasks in quantum information science that exploit nontransitional adiabatic dynamics. Such a dynamics is bounded by the adiabatic theorem, which naturally imposes a speed limit in the evolution of quantum systems. Here, we investigate an approach for quantum state engineering exploiting a shortcut to the adiabatic evolution, which is based on rapid quenches in a continuous-time Hamiltonian evolution. In particular, this procedure is able to provide state preparation faster than the adiabatic brachistochrone. Remarkably, the evolution time in this approach is shown to be ultimately limited by its "thermodynamical cost," provided in terms of the average work rate (average power) of the quench process. We illustrate this result in a scenario that can be experimentally implemented in a nuclear magnetic resonance setup.
On the Quantum Mechanical State of the Δ++ Baryon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Comay E.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The ++ and the baryons have been used as the original reason for the construction of the Quantum Chromodynamics theory of Strong Interactions. The present analy- sis relies on the multiconfiguration structure of states which are made of several Dirac particles. It is shown that this property, together with the very strong spin-dependent interactions of quarks provide an acceptable explanation for the states of these baryons and remove the classical reason for the invention of color within Quantum Chromody- namics. This explanation is supported by several examples that show a Quantum Chro- modynamics’ inconsistency with experimental results. The same arguments provide an explanation for the problem called the proton spin crisis.
On the Quantum Mechanical State of the Delta++ Baryon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Comay E.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The Delta++ and the Omega- baryons have been used as the original reason for the construction of the Quantum Chromodynamics theory of Strong Interactions. The present analysis relies on the multiconfiguration structure of states which are made of several Dirac particles. It is shown that this property, together with the very strong spin-dependent interactions of quarks provide an acceptable explanation for the states of these baryons and remove the classical reason for the invention of color within Quantum Chromodynamics. This explanation is supported by several examples that show a Quantum Chromodynamics' inconsistency with experimental results. The same arguments provide an explanation for the problem called the proton spin crisis.
Quantum phase fluctuations and density of states in superconducting nanowires
Radkevich, Alexey; Semenov, Andrew G.; Zaikin, Andrei D.
2017-08-01
We argue that quantum fluctuations of the phase of the order parameter may strongly affect the electron density of states (DOS) in ultrathin superconducting wires. We demonstrate that the effect of such fluctuations is equivalent to that of a quantum dissipative environment formed by soundlike plasma modes propagating along the wire. We derive a nonperturbative expression for the local electron DOS in superconducting nanowires which fully accounts for quantum phase fluctuations. At any nonzero temperature these fluctuations smear out the square-root singularity in DOS near the superconducting gap and generate quasiparticle states at subgap energies. Furthermore, at sufficiently large values of the wire impedance this singularity is suppressed down to T =0 in which case DOS tends to zero at subgap energies and exhibits the power-law behavior above the gap. Our predictions can be directly tested in tunneling experiments with superconducting nanowires.
Creating a bosonic fractional quantum Hall state by pairing fermions
Repellin, Cécile; Yefsah, Tarik; Sterdyniak, Antoine
2017-10-01
We numerically study the behavior of spin-1 /2 fermions on a two-dimensional square lattice subject to a uniform magnetic field, where opposite spins interact via an on-site attractive interaction. Starting from the noninteracting case where each spin population is prepared in a quantum Hall state with unity filling, we follow the evolution of the system as the interaction strength is increased. Above a critical value and for sufficiently low flux density, we observe the emergence of a twofold quasidegeneracy accompanied by the opening of an energy gap to the third level. Analysis of the entanglement spectra shows that the gapped ground state is the bosonic 1 /2 Laughlin state. Our work therefore provides compelling evidence of a topological phase transition from the fermionic quantum Hall state at unity filling to the bosonic Laughlin state at a critical attraction strength of the order of the one-body spectrum linewidth.
Quantifying non-Gaussianity of quantum-state correlation
Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jaehak; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul
2017-11-01
We consider how to quantify non-Gaussianity for the correlation of a bipartite quantum state by using various measures such as relative entropy and geometric distances. We first show that an intuitive approach, i.e., subtracting the correlation of a reference Gaussian state from that of a target non-Gaussian state, fails to yield a non-negative measure with monotonicity under local Gaussian channels. Our finding clearly manifests that quantum-state correlations generally have no Gaussian extremality. We therefore propose a different approach by introducing relevantly averaged states to address correlation. This enables us to define a non-Gaussianity measure based on, e.g., the trace-distance and the fidelity, fulfilling all requirements as a measure of non-Gaussian correlation. For the case of the fidelity-based measure, we also present readily computable lower bounds of non-Gaussian correlation.
Bound on local unambiguous discrimination between multipartite quantum states
Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei; Tian, Guo-Jing; Cao, Tian-Qing; Zuo, Hui-Juan; Wen, Qiao-Yan
2015-02-01
We investigate the upper bound on unambiguous discrimination by local operations and classical communication. We demonstrate that any set of linearly independent multipartite pure quantum states can be locally unambiguously discriminated if the number of states in the set is no more than , where the space spanned by the set can be expressed in the irreducible form and is the optimal local dimension of the party. That is, is an upper bound. We also show that it is tight, namely there exists a set of states, in which at least one of the states cannot be locally unambiguously discriminated. Our result gives the reason why the multiqubit system is the only exception when any three quantum states are locally unambiguously distinguished.
Memory-built-in quantum cloning in a hybrid solid-state spin register.
Wang, W-B; Zu, C; He, L; Zhang, W-G; Duan, L-M
2015-07-16
As a way to circumvent the quantum no-cloning theorem, approximate quantum cloning protocols have received wide attention with remarkable applications. Copying of quantum states to memory qubits provides an important strategy for eavesdropping in quantum cryptography. We report an experiment that realizes cloning of quantum states from an electron spin to a nuclear spin in a hybrid solid-state spin register with near-optimal fidelity. The nuclear spin provides an ideal memory qubit at room temperature, which stores the cloned quantum states for a millisecond under ambient conditions, exceeding the lifetime of the original quantum state carried by the electron spin by orders of magnitude. The realization of a cloning machine with built-in quantum memory provides a key step for application of quantum cloning in quantum information science.
Solid-State Source of Nonclassical Photon Pairs with Embedded Multimode Quantum Memory.
Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2017-05-26
The generation and distribution of quantum correlations between photonic qubits is a key resource in quantum information science. For applications in quantum networks and quantum repeaters, it is required that these quantum correlations be stored in a quantum memory. In 2001, Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) proposed a scheme combining a correlated photon-pair source and a quantum memory in atomic gases, which has enabled fast progress towards elementary quantum networks. In this Letter, we demonstrate a solid-state source of correlated photon pairs with embedded spin-wave quantum memory, using a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. We show strong quantum correlations between the photons, high enough for performing quantum communication. Unlike the original DLCZ proposal, our scheme is inherently multimode thanks to a built-in rephasing mechanism, allowing us to demonstrate storage of 11 temporal modes. These results represent an important step towards the realization of complex quantum networks architectures using solid-state resources.
State preparation for quantum information science and metrology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Samblowski, Aiko
2012-06-08
The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed
Unified quantum no-go theorems and transforming of quantum pure states in a restricted set
Luo, Ming-Xing; Li, Hui-Ran; Lai, Hong; Wang, Xiaojun
2017-12-01
The linear superposition principle in quantum mechanics is essential for several no-go theorems such as the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem and the no-superposing theorem. In this paper, we investigate general quantum transformations forbidden or permitted by the superposition principle for various goals. First, we prove a no-encoding theorem that forbids linearly superposing of an unknown pure state and a fixed pure state in Hilbert space of a finite dimension. The new theorem is further extended for multiple copies of an unknown state as input states. These generalized results of the no-encoding theorem include the no-cloning theorem, the no-deleting theorem and the no-superposing theorem as special cases. Second, we provide a unified scheme for presenting perfect and imperfect quantum tasks (cloning and deleting) in a one-shot manner. This scheme may lead to fruitful results that are completely characterized with the linear independence of the representative vectors of input pure states. The upper bounds of the efficiency are also proved. Third, we generalize a recent superposing scheme of unknown states with a fixed overlap into new schemes when multiple copies of an unknown state are as input states.
Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states.
Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng
2016-06-10
As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N.
Entanglement concentration of continuous variable quantum states
Fiurasek, Jaromir; Mista, Jr., Ladislav; Filip, Radim
2002-01-01
We propose two probabilistic entanglement concentration schemes for a single copy of two-mode squeezed vacuum state. The first scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a Rydberg atom with the cavity field while the second setup involves the cross Kerr interaction, auxiliary mode prepared in a strong coherent state and a homodyne detection. We show that the continuous-variable entanglement concentration allows us to improve the fidelity of teleportation of coherent states.
Single photon response in GaAs quantum transport devices for photon-spin quantum state transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kutsuwa, T. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Arai, K. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); ERATO-JST, Semiconductor Spintronics, Project, JST (Japan); Shigyo, H.; Kinjo, H.; Edamatsu, K. [Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Ono, K. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Low Temperature Physics Laboratory, RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Mitsumori, Y.; Kosaka, H. [CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0012 (Japan); Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)
2006-07-01
Quantum information can be stored and manipulated by an electron spin if its state was faithfully transferred from messenger photon qubit. Such a quantum state transfer needs to have a function of conversion from photon polarization to electron spin state and flagging the safe conversion without destroying the spin state. We have achieved single photon response by using a quantum dot as an electron trap and a quantum point contact as a charge sensor on GaAs/AlGaAs-based modulation doped structure. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Finite temperature quantum correlations in su(2)(c) quark states and quantum spin models
Hamieh, S; Tawfik, A
The entanglement at finite temperatures is analyzed by using thermal models for colored quarks making tip the hadron physical states. We have found that these quantum correlations entirely vanish at T-c >= m(q)/ln(1.5). For temperatures larger than T-c the correlations are classical. We have also
Quantum Separability Criteria for Arbitrary Dimensional Multipartite States
Li,Ming; Wang,Jing; Fei, Shao-Ming; Li-Jost, Xianqing
2014-01-01
We present separability criteria for both bipartite and multipartite quantum states. These criteria include the criteria based on the correlation matrix and its generalized form as special cases. We show by detailed examples that our criteria are more powerful than the positive partial transposition criterion, the realignment criterion and the criteria based on the correlation matrices.
Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tipsmark, Anders
2012-01-01
I dette projektarbejde med titlen “Generation of optical coherent state superpositions for quantum information processing” har målet været at generere optiske kat-tilstande. Dette er en kvantemekanisk superpositions tilstand af to koherente tilstande med stor amplitude. Sådan en tilstand er...
A quantum bound-state description of black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofmann, Stefan [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU-München, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Rug, Tehseen, E-mail: Tehseen.Rug@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, LMU-München, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 München (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany)
2016-01-15
A relativistic framework for the description of bound states consisting of a large number of quantum constituents is presented, and applied to black-hole interiors. At the parton level, the constituent distribution, number and energy density inside black holes are calculated, and gauge corrections are discussed. A simple scaling relation between the black-hole mass and constituent number is established.
Quantum states with continuous spectrum for a general time ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The time-dependent oscillators whose spectra of the wave function are continuous are not oscillatory. The wave function for ω2 < 0 is expressed in terms of the parabolic cylinder function. We applied our theory to the driven harmonic oscillator with strongly pulsating mass. Keywords. Quantum states with continuous ...
Test-state approach to the quantum search problem
Sehrawat, Arun; Nguyen, Le Huy; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2011-05-01
The search for “a quantum needle in a quantum haystack” is a metaphor for the problem of finding out which one of a permissible set of unitary mappings—the oracles—is implemented by a given black box. Grover’s algorithm solves this problem with quadratic speedup as compared with the analogous search for “a classical needle in a classical haystack.” Since the outcome of Grover’s algorithm is probabilistic—it gives the correct answer with high probability, not with certainty—the answer requires verification. For this purpose we introduce specific test states, one for each oracle. These test states can also be used to realize “a classical search for the quantum needle” which is deterministic—it always gives a definite answer after a finite number of steps—and 3.41 times as fast as the purely classical search. Since the test-state search and Grover’s algorithm look for the same quantum needle, the average number of oracle queries of the test-state search is the classical benchmark for Grover’s algorithm.
Experimental determination of the degree of polarization of quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kothe-Termén, Christian; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Andersen, Ulrik Lund
2013-01-01
We demonstrate experimental excitation-manifold-resolved polarization characterization of quantum states of light ranging from the few-photon to the many-photon level. In contrast to the traditional characterization of polarization that is based on the Stokes parameters, we experimentally determi...
Quantum information processing using designed defect states in
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger
2007-01-01
We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented. A p...
Commensurate and incommensurate states of topological quantum matter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Milsted, Ashley; Cobanera, Emilio; Burrello, Michele
2014-01-01
We prove numerically and by dualities the existence of modulated, commensurate and incommensurate states of topological quantum matter in systems of parafermions, motivated by recent proposals for the realization of such systems in mesoscopic arrays. In two space dimensions, we obtain the simplest...
Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing
Jones, Cody
2013-04-01
We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call multilevel distillation. When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity ɛ→0 for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity O(ɛ2r) approaches 2r+1, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in another investigation [Bravyi and Haah, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.86.052329 86, 052329 (2012)]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate ɛin=0.01 to ɛout in the range 10-5-10-40 is about 14log10(1/ɛout)-40; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below 10-7. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing and provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.
Quantum state tomography on long-coherent superconducting transmon qubit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schneider, Andre; Braumueller, Jochen; Schloer, Steffen; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-07-01
The state of a qubit is commonly measured by probing a readout resonator coupled to it with a readout tone and detecting the dispersive shift of the resonator. This measurement only gives access to the z-component of the qubit state. Quantum state tomography provides a measurement for all components of the Bloch vector by rotating the qubit state prior to the readout. We present a method of measuring the Bloch vector components. This method is demonstrated by measuring the time evolution for long-''living'' transmon qubits with T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} times in excess of 10 μs. By recording the decay trace of the qubit state after a slightly detuned ((π)/(2)){sup x} pulse, we detect decay and dephasing as well as Larmor precession of the qubit. Furthermore, we introduce a benchmark for measuring the qubit manipulation fidelity and optimize the envelopes of the qubit manipulation pulses. Quantum state tomography is a powerful tool to observe changes in the qubit quantum state under interactions with magnonic systems.
Superconducting Analogue of the Parafermion Fractional Quantum Hall States
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abolhassan Vaezi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Read-Rezayi Z_{k} parafermion wave functions describe ν=2+(k/kM+2 fractional quantum Hall (FQH states. These states support non-Abelian excitations from which protected quantum gates can be designed. However, there is no experimental evidence for these non-Abelian anyons to date. In this paper, we study the ν=2/k FQH-superconductor heterostructure and find the superconducting analogue of the Z_{k} parafermion FQH state. Our main tool is the mapping of the FQH into coupled one-dimensional chains, each with a pair of counterpropagating modes. We show that by inducing intrachain pairing and charge preserving backscattering with identical couplings, the one-dimensional chains flow into gapless Z_{k} parafermions when k<4. By studying the effect of interchain coupling, we show that every parafermion mode becomes massive except for the two outermost ones. Thus, we achieve a fractional topological superconductor whose chiral edge state is described by a Z_{k} parafermion conformal field theory. For instance, we find that a ν=2/3 FQH in proximity to a superconductor produces a Z_{3} parafermion superconducting state. This state is topologically indistinguishable from the non-Abelian part of the ν=12/5 Read-Rezayi state. Both of these systems can host Fibonacci anyons capable of performing universal quantum computation through braiding operations.
Extremal properties of conditional entropy and quantum discord for XXZ, symmetric quantum states
Yurischev, M. A.
2017-10-01
For the XXZ subclass of symmetric two-qubit X states, we study the behavior of quantum conditional entropy S_{cond} as a function of measurement angle θ \\in [0,π /2]. Numerical calculations show that the function S_{cond}(θ ) for X states can have at most one local extremum in the open interval from zero to π /2 (unimodality property). If the extremum is a minimum, the quantum discord displays region with variable (state-dependent) optimal measurement angle θ ^*. Such θ -regions (phases, fractions) are very tiny in the space of X-state parameters. We also discover the cases when the conditional entropy has a local maximum inside the interval (0,π /2). It is remarkable that the maxima exist in surprisingly wide regions, and the boundaries for such regions are defined by the same bifurcation conditions as for those with a minimum.
Quantum-disordered state of magnetic and electric dipoles in an organic Mott system.
Shimozawa, M; Hashimoto, K; Ueda, A; Suzuki, Y; Sugii, K; Yamada, S; Imai, Y; Kobayashi, R; Itoh, K; Iguchi, S; Naka, M; Ishihara, S; Mori, H; Sasaki, T; Yamashita, M
2017-11-28
Strongly enhanced quantum fluctuations often lead to a rich variety of quantum-disordered states. Developing approaches to enhance quantum fluctuations may open paths to realize even more fascinating quantum states. Here, we demonstrate that a coupling of localized spins with the zero-point motion of hydrogen atoms, that is, proton fluctuations in a hydrogen-bonded organic Mott insulator provides a different class of quantum spin liquids (QSLs). We find that divergent dielectric behavior associated with the approach to hydrogen-bond order is suppressed by the quantum proton fluctuations, resulting in a quantum paraelectric (QPE) state. Furthermore, our thermal-transport measurements reveal that a QSL state with gapless spin excitations rapidly emerges upon entering the QPE state. These findings indicate that the quantum proton fluctuations give rise to a QSL-a quantum-disordered state of magnetic and electric dipoles-through the coupling between the electron and proton degrees of freedom.
Entanglement entropy in excited states of the quantum Lifshitz model
Parker, Daniel E.; Vasseur, Romain; Moore, Joel E.
2017-06-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of an infinite class of excited states in the quantum Lifshitz model (QLM). The presence of a conformal quantum critical point in the QLM makes it unusually tractable for a model above one spatial dimension, enabling the ground state entanglement entropy for an arbitrary domain to be expressed in terms of geometrical and topological quantities. Here we extend this result to excited states and find that the entanglement can be naturally written in terms of quantities which we dub ‘entanglement propagator amplitudes’ (EPAs). EPAs are geometrical probabilities that we explicitly calculate and interpret. A comparison of lattice and continuum results demonstrates that EPAs are universal. This work shows that the QLM is an example of a 2 + 1d field theory where the universal behavior of excited-state entanglement may be computed analytically.
Photoinduced blinking in a solid-state quantum system
Berhane, Amanuel M.; Bradac, Carlo; Aharonovich, Igor
2017-07-01
Solid-state single-photon emitters (SPEs) are one of the prime components of many quantum nanophotonics devices. In this work, we report on an unusual, photoinduced blinking phenomenon of SPEs in gallium nitride. This is shown to be due to the modification in the transition kinetics of the emitter, via the introduction of additional laser-activated states. We investigate and characterize the blinking effect on the brightness of the source and the statistics of the emitted photons. Combining second-order correlation and fluorescence trajectory measurements, we determine the photodynamics of the trap states and characterize power-dependent decay rates and characteristic "off"-time blinking. Our work sheds light into understanding solid-state quantum system dynamics and, specifically, power-induced blinking phenomena in SPEs.
Quantum measurements without Schroedinger cat states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spehner, D [Institut Fourier, 100 rue des Maths, 38402 Saint-Martin d' Heres (France); Haake, F [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)
2007-10-15
We report and give an alternative derivation of some results on a model for a quantum measurement studied in [1]. The measured microscopic system is coupled to the position of a macroscopic pointer, which itself interacts with its environment via its momentum. The entanglement between the system and the pointer produced by their mutual interaction is simultaneous with the decoherence of distinct pointer readings resulting from leakage of information to the environment. After a discussion on the various time scales in the model we calculate the matrix elements of the system-pointer density operator between eigenstates of the measured observable with distinct eigenvalues. In general, the decay with time of these coherences is neither exponential nor gaussian. We determine the decoherence (decay) time in terms of the strength of the system-pointer and pointer-environment couplings. This decoherence time does not depend upon the details of the pointer-bath coupling as soon as it is smaller than the bath correlation time (non-Markov regime). In contrast, in the Markov regime it depends strongly on whether this coupling is Ohmic or super-Ohmic.
Passive states as optimal inputs for single-jump lossy quantum channels
De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Lloyd, Seth; Giovannetti, Vittorio
2016-06-01
The passive states of a quantum system minimize the average energy among all the states with a given spectrum. We prove that passive states are the optimal inputs of single-jump lossy quantum channels. These channels arise from a weak interaction of the quantum system of interest with a large Markovian bath in its ground state, such that the interaction Hamiltonian couples only consecutive energy eigenstates of the system. We prove that the output generated by any input state ρ majorizes the output generated by the passive input state ρ0 with the same spectrum of ρ . Then, the output generated by ρ can be obtained applying a random unitary operation to the output generated by ρ0. This is an extension of De Palma et al. [IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 62, 2895 (2016)], 10.1109/TIT.2016.2547426, where the same result is proved for one-mode bosonic Gaussian channels. We also prove that for finite temperature this optimality property can fail already in a two-level system, where the best input is a coherent superposition of the two energy eigenstates.
Experimental demonstration of squeezed-state quantum averaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Madsen, Lars Skovgaard; Sabuncu, Metin
2010-01-01
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a universal quantum averaging process implementing the harmonic mean of quadrature variances. The averaged variances are prepared probabilistically by means of linear optical interference and measurement-induced conditioning. We verify that the implemented...... harmonic mean yields a lower value than the corresponding value obtained for the standard arithmetic-mean strategy. The effect of quantum averaging is experimentally tested for squeezed and thermal states as well as for uncorrelated and partially correlated noise sources. The harmonic-mean protocol can...
Quantum Private Comparison Based on χ-Type Entangled States
Hong-Ming, Pan
2017-10-01
A two-party quantum private comparison (QPC) protocol is constructed with χ-type entangled states in this paper. The proposed protocol employs a semi-honest third party (TP) that is allowed to misbehave on his own but cannot conspire with the adversary. The proposed protocol need perform Bell basis measurements and single-particle measurements but neither unitary operations nor quantum entanglement swapping technology. The proposed protocol possesses good security toward both the outside attack and the participant attack. TP only knows the comparison result of the private information from two parties in the proposed protocol.
Spectrum of localized states in graphene quantum dots and wires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zalipaev, V.V. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Maksimov, D.N. [LV Kirensky Institute of Physics, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Linton, C.M. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom); Kusmartsev, F.V., E-mail: F.Kusmartsev@lboro.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, LE11 3TU (United Kingdom)
2013-01-03
We developed semiclassical method and show that any smooth potential in graphene describing elongated a quantum dot or wire may behave as a barrier or as a trapping well or as a double barrier potential, Fabry–Perot structure, for 1D Schrödinger equation. The energy spectrum of quantum wires has been found and compared with numerical simulations. We found that there are two types of localized states, stable and metastable, having finite life time. These life times are calculated, as is the form of the localized wave functions which are exponentially decaying away from the wire in the perpendicular direction.
Experimental entanglement distillation of mesoscopic quantum states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dong, Ruifang; Lassen, Mikael Østergaard; Heersink, Joel
2008-01-01
channel, the distribution of loss-intolerant entangled states is inevitably afflicted by decoherence, which causes a degradation of the transmitted entanglement. To combat the decoherence, entanglement distillation, a process of extracting a small set of highly entangled states from a large set of less...... entangled states, can be used(4-14). Here we report on the distillation of deterministically prepared light pulses entangled in continuous variables that have undergone non-Gaussian noise. The entangled light pulses(15-17) are sent through a lossy channel, where the transmission is varying in time similarly...
Use of dynamical coupling for improved quantum state transfer
Lyakhov, A. O.; Bruder, C.
2006-12-01
We propose a method to improve quantum state transfer in transmission lines. The idea is to localize the information on the last qubit of a transmission line by dynamically varying the coupling constants between the first and the last pair of qubits. The fidelity of state transfer is higher then in a chain with fixed coupling constants. The effect is stable against small fluctuations in the system parameters.
Use of dynamical coupling for improved quantum state transfer
Lyakhov, A. O.; Bruder, C.
2006-01-01
We propose a method to improve quantum state transfer in transmission lines. The idea is to localize the information on the last qubit of a transmission line, by dynamically varying the coupling constants between the first and the last pair of qubits. The fidelity of state transfer is higher then in a chain with fixed coupling constants. The effect is stable against small fluctuations in the system parameters.
Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.
Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2008-05-16
We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.
Huang, Liang; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ferry, David K
2013-02-27
Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed 'coexistence' of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices.
Discrimination of mixed quantum states. Reversible maps and unambiguous strategies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleinmann, Matthias
2008-06-30
The discrimination of two mixed quantum states is a fundamental task in quantum state estimation and quantum information theory. In quantum state discrimination a quantum system is assumed to be in one of two possible - in general mixed - non-orthogonal quantum states. The discrimination then consists of a measurement strategy that allows to decide in which state the system was before the measurement. In unambiguous state discrimination the aim is to make this decision without errors, but it is allowed to give an inconclusive answer. Especially interesting are measurement strategies that minimize the probability of an inconclusive answer. A starting point for the analysis of this optimization problem was a result by Eldar et al. [Phys. Rev. A 69, 062318 (2004)], which provides non-operational necessary and sufficient conditions for a given measurement strategy to be optimal. These conditions are reconsidered and simplified in such a way that they become operational. The simplified conditions are the basis for further central results: It is shown that the optimal measurement strategy is unique, a statement that is e.g. of importance for the complexity analysis of optimal measurement devices. The optimal measurement strategy is derived for the case, where one of the possible input states has at most rank two, which was an open problem for many years. Furthermore, using the optimality criterion it is shown that there always exists a threshold probability for each state, such that below this probability it is optimal to exclude this state from the discrimination strategy. If the two states subject to discrimination can be brought to a diagonal structure with (2 x 2)-dimensional blocks, then the unambiguous discrimination of these states can be reduced to the unambiguous discrimination of pure states. A criterion is presented that allows to identify the presence of such a structure for two self-adjoint operators. This criterion consists of the evaluation of three
Problems and solutions in quantum computing and quantum information
Steeb, Willi-Hans
2012-01-01
Quantum computing and quantum information are two of the fastest growing and most exciting research fields in physics. Entanglement, teleportation and the possibility of using the non-local behavior of quantum mechanics to factor integers in random polynomial time have also added to this new interest. This book supplies a huge collection of problems in quantum computing and quantum information together with their detailed solutions, which will prove to be invaluable to students as well as researchers in these fields. All the important concepts and topics such as quantum gates and quantum circuits, product Hilbert spaces, entanglement and entanglement measures, deportation, Bell states, Bell inequality, Schmidt decomposition, quantum Fourier transform, magic gate, von Neumann entropy, quantum cryptography, quantum error corrections, number states and Bose operators, coherent states, squeezed states, Gaussian states, POVM measurement, quantum optics networks, beam splitter, phase shifter and Kerr Hamilton opera...
Hamiltonian approach to Ehrenfest expectation values and Gaussian quantum states.
Bonet-Luz, Esther; Tronci, Cesare
2016-05-01
The dynamics of quantum expectation values is considered in a geometric setting. First, expectation values of the canonical observables are shown to be equivariant momentum maps for the action of the Heisenberg group on quantum states. Then, the Hamiltonian structure of Ehrenfest's theorem is shown to be Lie-Poisson for a semidirect-product Lie group, named the Ehrenfest group. The underlying Poisson structure produces classical and quantum mechanics as special limit cases. In addition, quantum dynamics is expressed in the frame of the expectation values, in which the latter undergo canonical Hamiltonian motion. In the case of Gaussian states, expectation values dynamics couples to second-order moments, which also enjoy a momentum map structure. Eventually, Gaussian states are shown to possess a Lie-Poisson structure associated with another semidirect-product group, which is called the Jacobi group. This structure produces the energy-conserving variant of a class of Gaussian moment models that have previously appeared in the chemical physics literature.
Niu, X. Y.; Huang, X. L.; Shang, Y. F.; Wang, X. Y.
2015-04-01
Superposition principle plays a crucial role in quantum mechanics, thus its effects on thermodynamics is an interesting topic. Here, the effects of superpositions of quantum states on isoenergetic cycle are studied. We find superposition can improve the heat engine efficiency and release the positive work condition in general case. In the finite time process, we find the efficiency at maximum power output in superposition case is lower than the nonsuperposition case. This efficiency depends on one index of the energy spectrum of the working substance. This result does not mean the superposition discourages the heat engine performance. For fixed efficiency or fixed power, the superposition improves the power or efficiency respectively. These results show how quantum mechanical properties affect the thermodynamical cycle.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alessandro Seri
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Quantum correlations between long-lived quantum memories and telecom photons that can propagate with low loss in optical fibers are an essential resource for the realization of large-scale quantum information networks. Significant progress has been realized in this direction with atomic and solid-state systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum correlations between a telecom photon and a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory. This is achieved by mapping a correlated single photon onto a spin collective excitation in a Pr^{3+}:Y_{2}SiO_{5} crystal for a controllable time. The stored single photons are generated by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion and heralded by their partner photons at telecom wavelength. These results represent the first demonstration of a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory for external quantum states of light. They provide an important resource for quantum repeaters and pave the way for the implementation of quantum information networks with distant solid state quantum nodes.
Seri, Alessandro; Lenhard, Andreas; Rieländer, Daniel; Gündoǧan, Mustafa; Ledingham, Patrick M.; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2017-04-01
Quantum correlations between long-lived quantum memories and telecom photons that can propagate with low loss in optical fibers are an essential resource for the realization of large-scale quantum information networks. Significant progress has been realized in this direction with atomic and solid-state systems. Here, we demonstrate quantum correlations between a telecom photon and a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory. This is achieved by mapping a correlated single photon onto a spin collective excitation in a Pr3 +:Y2SiO5 crystal for a controllable time. The stored single photons are generated by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion and heralded by their partner photons at telecom wavelength. These results represent the first demonstration of a multimode on-demand solid state quantum memory for external quantum states of light. They provide an important resource for quantum repeaters and pave the way for the implementation of quantum information networks with distant solid state quantum nodes.
Metal-to-insulator switching in quantum anomalous Hall states
Pan, Lei; Kou, Xufeng; Wang, Jing; Fan, Yabin; Choi, Eun Sang; Shao, Qiming; Zhang, Shou Cheng; Wang, Kang Lung
Quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) was recently achieved in magnetic topological insulator films as a form of dissipationless transport without external magnetic field. However, the universal phase diagram of QAHE and its relation with quantum Hall effect (QHE) remain to be investigated. Here, we report the experimental observation of the giant longitudinal resistance peak and zero Hall conductance plateau at the coercive field in the six quintuple-layer (Cr0.12Bi0.26Sb0.62)2 Te3 film, and demonstrate the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE plateau states up to 0.3 K. The universal QAHE phase diagram is further confirmed through the angle-dependent measurements. Our results address that the quantum phase transitions in both QAHE and QHE regimes are in the same universality class, yet the microscopic details are different.
Reconstructing quantum states from single-party information
Schilling, Christian; Benavides-Riveros, Carlos L.; Vrana, Péter
2017-11-01
The possible compatibility of density matrices for single-party subsystems is described by linear constraints on their respective spectra. Whenever some of those quantum marginal constraints are saturated, the total quantum state has a specific, simplified structure. We prove that these remarkable global implications of extremal local information are stable; i.e., they hold approximately for spectra close to the boundary of the allowed region. Application of this general result to fermionic quantum systems allows us to characterize natural extensions of the Hartree-Fock ansatz and to quantify their accuracy by resorting to one-particle information, only: The fraction of the correlation energy not recovered by such an ansatz can be estimated from above by a simple geometric quantity in the occupation number picture.
Quantum secret sharing based on Smolin states alone
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
He Guangping [School of Physics and Engineering and Advanced Research Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Z D; Bai, Yankui [Department of Physics and Center of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)], E-mail: hegp@mail.sysu.edu.cn, E-mail: zwang@hkucc.hku.hk, E-mail: ykbai@semi.ac.cn
2008-10-17
It was indicated (Yu 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 066301) that a previously proposed quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocol based on Smolin states (Augusiak 2006 Phys. Rev. A 73 012318) is insecure against an internal cheater. Here we build a different QSS protocol with Smolin states alone, and prove it to be secure against known cheating strategies. Thus we open a promising venue for building secure QSS using merely Smolin states, which is a typical kind of bound entangled states. We also propose a feasible scheme to implement the protocol experimentally.
Multiconfigurational quantum propagation with trajectory-guided generalized coherent states.
Grigolo, Adriano; Viscondi, Thiago F; de Aguiar, Marcus A M
2016-03-07
A generalized version of the coupled coherent states method for coherent states of arbitrary Lie groups is developed. In contrast to the original formulation, which is restricted to frozen-Gaussian basis sets, the extended method is suitable for propagating quantum states of systems featuring diversified physical properties, such as spin degrees of freedom or particle indistinguishability. The approach is illustrated with simple models for interacting bosons trapped in double- and triple-well potentials, most adequately described in terms of SU(2) and SU(3) bosonic coherent states, respectively.
Quantum state readout of individual quantum dots by electrostatic force detection.
Miyahara, Yoichi; Roy-Gobeil, Antoine; Grutter, Peter
2017-02-10
Electric charge detection by atomic force microscopy (AFM) with single-electron resolution (e-EFM) is a promising way to investigate the electronic level structure of individual quantum dots (QDs). The oscillating AFM tip modulates the energy of the QDs, causing single electrons to tunnel between QDs and an electrode. The resulting oscillating electrostatic force changes the resonant frequency and damping of the AFM cantilever, enabling electrometry with a single-electron sensitivity. Quantitative electronic level spectroscopy is possible by sweeping the bias voltage. Charge stability diagram can be obtained by scanning the AFM tip around the QD. e-EFM technique enables to investigate individual colloidal nanoparticles and self-assembled QDs without nanoscale electrodes. e-EFM is a quantum electromechanical system where the back-action of a tunneling electron is detected by AFM; it can also be considered as a mechanical analog of admittance spectroscopy with a radio frequency resonator, which is emerging as a promising tool for quantum state readout for quantum computing. In combination with the topography imaging capability of the AFM, e-EFM is a powerful tool for investigating new nanoscale material systems which can be used as quantum bits.
Small-scale quantum computers: current state of the art and applications
Lloyd, Seth
This talk discusses the various applications of small scale quantum computers consisting of a few hundred qubits and capable of performing a few thousand quantum logic operations reliably without error corrections. Such small scale quantum computers could perform useful quantum simulations of many-body quantum systems, including processes of many body localization and scrambling. I will show that such small scale quantum computers could also be useful for quantum machine learning, revealing patterns in quantum states and in classical data that could not be revealed by even the most powerful classical supercomputer.
Minimal-excitation states for electron quantum optics using levitons.
Dubois, J; Jullien, T; Portier, F; Roche, P; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Wegscheider, W; Roulleau, P; Glattli, D C
2013-10-31
The on-demand generation of pure quantum excitations is important for the operation of quantum systems, but it is particularly difficult for a system of fermions. This is because any perturbation affects all states below the Fermi energy, resulting in a complex superposition of particle and hole excitations. However, it was predicted nearly 20 years ago that a Lorentzian time-dependent potential with quantized flux generates a minimal excitation with only one particle and no hole. Here we report that such quasiparticles (hereafter termed levitons) can be generated on demand in a conductor by applying voltage pulses to a contact. Partitioning the excitations with an electronic beam splitter generates a current noise that we use to measure their number. Minimal-excitation states are observed for Lorentzian pulses, whereas for other pulse shapes there are significant contributions from holes. Further identification of levitons is provided in the energy domain with shot-noise spectroscopy, and in the time domain with electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel noise correlations. The latter, obtained by colliding synchronized levitons on a beam splitter, exemplifies the potential use of levitons for quantum information: using linear electron quantum optics in ballistic conductors, it is possible to imagine flying-qubit operation in which the Fermi statistics are exploited to entangle synchronized electrons emitted by distinct sources. Compared with electron sources based on quantum dots, the generation of levitons does not require delicate nanolithography, considerably simplifying the circuitry for scalability. Levitons are not limited to carrying a single charge, and so in a broader context n-particle levitons could find application in the study of full electron counting statistics. But they can also carry a fraction of charge if they are implemented in Luttinger liquids or in fractional quantum Hall edge channels; this allows the study of Abelian and non-Abelian quasiparticles in the
Quantum cryptography using entangled photons in energy-time bell states
Tittel; Brendel; Zbinden; Gisin
2000-05-15
We present a setup for quantum cryptography based on photon pairs in energy-time Bell states and show its feasibility in a laboratory experiment. Our scheme combines the advantages of using photon pairs instead of faint laser pulses and the possibility to preserve energy-time entanglement over long distances. Moreover, using four-dimensional energy-time states, no fast random change of bases is required in our setup: Nature itself decides whether to measure in the energy or in the time base, thus rendering eavesdropper attacks based on "photon number splitting" less efficient.
Quantum transport in randomly diluted quantum percolation clusters in two dimensions
Cuansing, Eduardo; Nakanishi, Hisao
2008-02-01
We study the hopping transport of a quantum particle through finite, randomly diluted percolation clusters in two dimensions. We investigate how the transmission coefficient T behaves as a function of the energy E of the particle, the occupation concentration p of the disordered cluster, the size of the underlying lattice, and the type of connection chosen between the cluster and the input and output leads. We investigate both the point-to-point contacts and the busbar type of connection. For highly diluted clusters we find the behavior of the transmission to be independent of the type of connection. As the amount of dilution is decreased we find sharp variations in transmission. These variations are the remnants of the resonances at the ordered, zero-dilution, limit. For particles with energies within 0.25≤E≤1.75 (relative to the hopping integral) and with underlying square lattices of size 20×20, the configurations begin transmitting near pα=0.60 with T against p curves following a common pattern as the amount of dilution is decreased. Near pβ=0.90 this pattern is broken and the transmission begins to vary with the energy. In the asymptotic limit of very large clusters we find the systems to be totally reflecting in almost all cases. A few clear exceptions we find are when the amount of dilution is very low, when the particle has energy close to a resonance value at the ordered limit, and when the particle has energy at the middle of the band. These three cases, however, may not exhaust all possible exceptions.
Quantum Key Distribution with High Order Fibonacci-like Orbital Angular Momentum States
Pan, Ziwen; Cai, Jiarui; Wang, Chuan
2017-08-01
The coding space in quantum communication could be expanded to high-dimensional space by using orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of photons, as both the capacity of the channel and security are enhanced. Here we present a novel approach to realize high-capacity quantum key distribution (QKD) by exploiting OAM states. The innovation of the proposed approach relies on a unique type of entangled-photon source which produces entangled photons with OAM randomly distributed among high order Fiboncci-like numbers and a new physical mechanism for efficiently sharing keys. This combination of entanglement with mathematical properties of high order Fibonacci sequences provides the QKD protocol immunity to photon-number-splitting attacks and allows secure generation of long keys from few photons. Unlike other protocols, reference frame alignment and active modulation of production and detection bases are unnecessary.
Investigating Anisotropic Quantum Hall States with Bimetric Geometry
Gromov, Andrey; Geraedts, Scott D.; Bradlyn, Barry
2017-10-01
We construct a low energy effective theory of anisotropic fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states. We develop a formalism similar to that used in the bimetric approach to massive gravity, and apply it to describe Abelian anisotropic FQH states in the presence of external electromagnetic and geometric backgrounds. We derive a relationship between the shift, the Hall viscosity, and a new quantized coupling to anisotropy, which we term anisospin. We verify this relationship by numerically computing the Hall viscosity for a variety of anisotropic quantum Hall states using the density matrix renormalization group. Finally, we apply these techniques to the problem of nematic order and clarify certain disagreements that exist in the literature about the meaning of the coefficient of the Berry phase term in the nematic effective action.
Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations.
Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2017-07-28
Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.
Simulating quantum systems on classical computers with matrix product states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleine, Adrian
2010-11-08
In this thesis, the numerical simulation of strongly-interacting many-body quantum-mechanical systems using matrix product states (MPS) is considered. Matrix-Product-States are a novel representation of arbitrary quantum many-body states. Using quantum information theory, it is possible to show that Matrix-Product-States provide a polynomial-sized representation of one-dimensional quantum systems, thus allowing an efficient simulation of one-dimensional quantum system on classical computers. Matrix-Product-States form the conceptual framework of the density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG). After a general introduction in the first chapter of this thesis, the second chapter deals with Matrix-Product-States, focusing on the development of fast and stable algorithms. To obtain algorithms to efficiently calculate ground states, the density-matrix renormalization group is reformulated using the Matrix-Product-States framework. Further, time-dependent problems are considered. Two different algorithms are presented, one based on a Trotter decomposition of the time-evolution operator, the other one on Krylov subspaces. Finally, the evaluation of dynamical spectral functions is discussed, and a correction vector-based method is presented. In the following chapters, the methods presented in the second chapter, are applied to a number of different physical problems. The third chapter deals with the existence of chiral phases in isotropic one-dimensional quantum spin systems. A preceding analytical study based on a mean-field approach indicated the possible existence of those phases in an isotropic Heisenberg model with a frustrating zig-zag interaction and a magnetic field. In this thesis, the existence of the chiral phases is shown numerically by using Matrix-Product-States-based algorithms. In the fourth chapter, we propose an experiment using ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices, which allows a well controlled observation of the spin-charge separation (of
Statistical tests for quantum state reconstruction I: Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Moroder, Tobias [Naturwissenschaftlich-Technische Fakultaet, Universitaet Siegen (Germany); Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Monz, Thomas; Schindler, Philipp [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik; Blatt, Rainer [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik
2012-07-01
In quantum state tomography and similar schemes, the measured data is usually not used directly but rather becomes subject of a sophisticated reconstruction procedure that squeezes the data into a quantum state. In general such techniques are only admissible if the statistical error - as due to low sampling - dominates over the systematical errors, such as misaligned measurement bases. We here present tests that allow to detect situations in which a state reconstruction will become statistically inadmissible. In particular, the positivity of the density operator and the linear dependencies that occur in overcomplete tomography lead to strong conditions on the measured data. Furthermore, we argue, that certain unphysical properties of naive reconstruction schemes are merely statistical effects and hence can be safely ignored in many situations.
Yuen, H. P.; Shapiro, J. H.
1978-01-01
To determine the ultimate performance limitations imposed by quantum effects, it is also essential to consider optimum quantum-state generation. Certain 'generalized' coherent states of the radiation field possess novel quantum noise characteristics that offer the potential for greatly improved optical communications. These states have been called two-photon coherent states because they can be generated, in principle, by stimulated two-photon processes. The use of two-photon coherent state (TCS) radiation in free-space optical communications is considered. A simple theory of quantum state propagation is developed. The theory provides the basis for representing the free-space channel in a quantum-mechanical form convenient for communication analysis. The new theory is applied to TCS radiation.
Quantum entanglement between an optical photon and a solid-state spin qubit.
Togan, E; Chu, Y; Trifonov, A S; Jiang, L; Maze, J; Childress, L; Dutt, M V G; Sørensen, A S; Hemmer, P R; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D
2010-08-05
Quantum entanglement is among the most fascinating aspects of quantum theory. Entangled optical photons are now widely used for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and applications such as quantum cryptography. Several recent experiments demonstrated entanglement of optical photons with trapped ions, atoms and atomic ensembles, which are then used to connect remote long-term memory nodes in distributed quantum networks. Here we realize quantum entanglement between the polarization of a single optical photon and a solid-state qubit associated with the single electronic spin of a nitrogen vacancy centre in diamond. Our experimental entanglement verification uses the quantum eraser technique, and demonstrates that a high degree of control over interactions between a solid-state qubit and the quantum light field can be achieved. The reported entanglement source can be used in studies of fundamental quantum phenomena and provides a key building block for the solid-state realization of quantum optical networks.
Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state
Jacobson, N. Tobias; Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Zanardi, Paolo
2011-08-01
In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.
Unitary equilibration after a quantum quench of a thermal state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jacobson, N. Tobias [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Venuti, Lorenzo Campos [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy); Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484 (United States); Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Torino (Italy)
2011-08-15
In this work we investigate the equilibration dynamics after a sudden Hamiltonian quench of a quantum spin system initially prepared in a thermal state. To characterize the equilibration we evaluate the Loschmidt echo, a global measure for the degree of distinguishability between the initial and time-evolved quenched states. We present general results valid for small quenches and detailed analysis of the quantum XY chain. The result is that quantum criticality manifests, even at small but finite temperatures, in a universal double-peaked form of the echo statistics and poor equilibration for sufficiently relevant perturbations. In addition, for this model we find a tight lower bound on the Loschmidt echo in terms of the purity of the initial state and the more easily evaluated Hilbert-Schmidt inner product between initial and time-evolved quenched states. This bound allows us to relate the time-averaged Loschmidt echo with the purity of the time-averaged state, a quantity that has been shown to provide an upper bound on the variance of observables.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Filsinger, Frank; Küpper, Jochen; Meijer, Gerard
2009-01-01
Supersonic beams of polar molecules are deflected using inhomogeneous electric fields. The quantum-state selectivity of the deflection is used to spatially separate molecules according to their quantum state. A detailed analysis of the deflection and the obtained quantum-state selection...
Quantum tele-amplification with a continuous-variable superposition state
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas S.; Eto, Yujiro; Lee, Chang-Woo
2013-01-01
Optical coherent states are classical light fields with high purity, and are essential carriers of information in optical networks. If these states could be controlled in the quantum regime, allowing for their quantum superposition (referred to as a Schrödinger-cat state), then novel quantum...
Random operators disorder effects on quantum spectra and dynamics
Aizenman, Michael
2015-01-01
This book provides an introduction to the mathematical theory of disorder effects on quantum spectra and dynamics. Topics covered range from the basic theory of spectra and dynamics of self-adjoint operators through Anderson localization-presented here via the fractional moment method, up to recent results on resonant delocalization. The subject's multifaceted presentation is organized into seventeen chapters, each focused on either a specific mathematical topic or on a demonstration of the theory's relevance to physics, e.g., its implications for the quantum Hall effect. The mathematical chapters include general relations of quantum spectra and dynamics, ergodicity and its implications, methods for establishing spectral and dynamical localization regimes, applications and properties of the Green function, its relation to the eigenfunction correlator, fractional moments of Herglotz-Pick functions, the phase diagram for tree graph operators, resonant delocalization, the spectral statistics conjecture, and rela...
Realistic Many-Body Quantum Systems vs. Full Random Matrices: Static and Dynamical Properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo Jonathan Torres-Herrera
2016-10-01
Full Text Available We study the static and dynamical properties of isolated many-body quantum systems and compare them with the results for full random matrices. In doing so, we link concepts from quantum information theory with those from quantum chaos. In particular, we relate the von Neumann entanglement entropy with the Shannon information entropy and discuss their relevance for the analysis of the degree of complexity of the eigenstates, the behavior of the system at different time scales and the conditions for thermalization. A main advantage of full random matrices is that they enable the derivation of analytical expressions that agree extremely well with the numerics and provide bounds for realistic many-body quantum systems.
Deterministic quantum state transfer between remote qubits in cavities
Vogell, B.; Vermersch, B.; Northup, T. E.; Lanyon, B. P.; Muschik, C. A.
2017-12-01
Performing a faithful transfer of an unknown quantum state is a key challenge for enabling quantum networks. The realization of networks with a small number of quantum links is now actively pursued, which calls for an assessment of different state transfer methods to guide future design decisions. Here, we theoretically investigate quantum state transfer between two distant qubits, each in a cavity, connected by a waveguide, e.g., an optical fiber. We evaluate the achievable success probabilities of state transfer for two different protocols: standard wave packet shaping and adiabatic passage. The main loss sources are transmission losses in the waveguide and absorption losses in the cavities. While special cases studied in the literature indicate that adiabatic passages may be beneficial in this context, it remained an open question under which conditions this is the case and whether their use will be advantageous in practice. We answer these questions by providing a full analysis, showing that state transfer by adiabatic passage—in contrast to wave packet shaping—can mitigate the effects of undesired cavity losses, far beyond the regime of coupling to a single waveguide mode and the regime of lossless waveguides, as was proposed so far. Furthermore, we show that the photon arrival probability is in fact bounded in a trade-off between losses due to non-adiabaticity and due to coupling to off-resonant waveguide modes. We clarify that neither protocol can avoid transmission losses and discuss how the cavity parameters should be chosen to achieve an optimal state transfer.
Matrix product state calculations for one-dimensional quantum chains and quantum impurity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muender, Wolfgang
2011-09-28
This thesis contributes to the field of strongly correlated electron systems with studies in two distinct fields thereof: the specific nature of correlations between electrons in one dimension and quantum quenches in quantum impurity problems. In general, strongly correlated systems are characterized in that their physical behaviour needs to be described in terms of a many-body description, i.e. interactions correlate all particles in a complex way. The challenge is that the Hilbert space in a many-body theory is exponentially large in the number of particles. Thus, when no analytic solution is available - which is typically the case - it is necessary to find a way to somehow circumvent the problem of such huge Hilbert spaces. Therefore, the connection between the two studies comes from our numerical treatment: they are tackled by the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) and the numerical renormalization group (NRG), respectively, both based on matrix product states. The first project presented in this thesis addresses the problem of numerically finding the dominant correlations in quantum lattice models in an unbiased way, i.e. without using prior knowledge of the model at hand. A useful concept for this task is the correlation density matrix (CDM) which contains all correlations between two clusters of lattice sites. We show how to extract from the CDM, a survey of the relative strengths of the system's correlations in different symmetry sectors as well as detailed information on the operators carrying long-range correlations and the spatial dependence of their correlation functions. We demonstrate this by a DMRG study of a one-dimensional spinless extended Hubbard model, while emphasizing that the proposed analysis of the CDM is not restricted to one dimension. The second project presented in this thesis is motivated by two phenomena under ongoing experimental and theoretical investigation in the context of quantum impurity models: optical absorption
Excited-state entanglement and thermal mutual information in random spin chains
Huang, Yichen; Moore, Joel E.
2014-12-01
Entanglement properties of excited eigenstates (or of thermal mixed states) are difficult to study with conventional analytical methods. We approach this problem for random spin chains using a recently developed real-space renormalization group technique for excited states ("RSRG-X"). For the random XX and quantum Ising chains, which have logarithmic divergences in the entanglement entropy of their (infinite-randomness) critical ground states, we show that the entanglement entropy of excited eigenstates retains a logarithmic divergence while the mutual information of thermal mixed states does not. However, in the XX case the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence extends from the universal ground-state value to a universal interval due to the degeneracy of excited eigenstates. These models are noninteracting in the sense of having free-fermion representations, allowing strong numerical checks of our analytical predictions.
Quantum states for quantum processes: A toy model for ammonia inversion spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arteca, Gustavo A. [Departement de Chimie et Biochimie and Biomolecular Sciences Programme, Laurentian University, Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada P3E 2C6 (Canada); Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University, A ring ngstroemlaboratoriet, Box 259, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden); Tapia, O. [Department of Physical Chemistry, Uppsala University, A ring ngstroemlaboratoriet, Box 259, S-751 05 Uppsala (Sweden)
2011-07-15
Chemical transformations are viewed here as quantum processes modulated by external fields, that is, as shifts in reactant to product amplitudes within a quantum state represented by a linear (coherent) superposition of electronuclear basis functions; their electronic quantum numbers identify the ''chemical species.'' This basis set can be mapped from attractors built from a unique electronic configurational space that is invariant with respect to the nuclear geometry. In turn, the quantum numbers that label these basis functions and the semiclassical potentials for the electronic attractors may be used to derive reaction coordinates to monitor progress as a function of the applied field. A generalization of Feynman's three-state model for the ammonia inversion process illustrates the scheme; to enforce symmetry for the entire inversion process model and ensure invariance with respect to nuclear configurations, the three attractors and their basis functions are computed with a grid of fixed floating Gaussian functions. The external-field modulation of the effective inversion barrier is discussed within this conceptual approach. This analysis brings the descriptions of chemical processes near modern technologies that employ molecules to encode information by means of confinement and external fields.
Entanglement in valence-bond-solid states and quantum search
Xu, Ying
The present dissertation covers two independent subjects: (i) The quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid states, and (ii) quantum database search algorithms. Both subjects are presented in a self-contained and pedagogical way. (i) The first chapter is a through introduction to the subject of quantum entanglement in Valence-Bond-Solid (VBS) states defined on a lattice or graph. The VBS state was first introduced as the ground state of the celebrated Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki (AKLT) spin chain model in statistical mechanics. Then it became essential in condensed matter physics, quantum information and measurement-based quantum computation. Recent studies elucidated important entanglement properties of the VBS state. We start with the definition of a general AKLT model and the construction of VBS ground states. A subsystem is introduced and described by the density matrix. Exact spectrum properties of the density matrix are proved and discussed. Density matrices of 1-dimensional models are diagonalized and the entanglement entropies (the von Neumann entropy and Renyi entropy) are calculated. The entropies take saturated value and the density matrix is proportional to a projector in the large subsystem limit. (ii) The second chapter is a detailed introduction to the subject of quantum database search algorithms. The problem of searching a large database (a Hilbert space) for a target item is performed by the famous Grover algorithm which locates the target item with probability 1 and a quadratic speed up compared with the corresponding classical algorithm. If the database is partitioned into blocks and one is searching for the block containing the target item instead of the target item itself, then the problem is referred to as partial search. Partial search trades accuracy for speed and the most efficient version is the Grover-Radhakrishnan-Korepin (GRK) algorithm. The target block can be further partitioned into subblocks so that GRK can be performed in a
Hierarchy of graph-diagonal states based on quantum discord and entanglement classification
Jafarizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Karimi, Naser; Sahlan, Davood Amidi; Heshmati, Ahmad; Yahyavi, Marziyeh
2017-10-01
For the relative entropy-based measure of quantum discord the key idea is to find the closest classical state (CCS) for a given state ρ, which is in general a more complicated problem. In this work, we study three and four qubit graph-diagonal states and give the explicit expressions of CCS for these states. Using the CCS, we compute the quantum discord of graph-diagonal states of three and four qubit systems and show that there is a hierarchy for the quantum discord of graph-diagonal states of any three and four qubit systems. Then we classify the entanglement of graph-diagonal states of three and four qubit systems and draw the hierarchy of entanglement of these graph-diagonal states. Finally, we compare the hierarchy of quantum discord and quantum entanglement of the these graph-diagonal states and show that the hierarchy of quantum entanglement is at least in equivalence of quantum discord.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup; Stobbe, Søren
2011-01-01
of the spontaneous emission decay rate by up to a factor 15 and an efficiency of channeling single photons into Anderson-localized modes reaching values as high as 94%. These results prove that disordered photonic media provide an efficient platform for quantum electrodynamics, offering a novel route to quantum......We demonstrate that the spontaneous emission decay rate of semiconductor quantum dots can be strongly modified by the coupling to disorder-induced Anderson-localized photonic modes. We experimentally measure, by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy, the enhancement...
Inducing superconducting correlation in quantum Hall edge states
Lee, Gil-Ho; Huang, Ko-Fan; Efetov, Dmitri K.; Wei, Di S.; Hart, Sean; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Yacoby, Amir; Kim, Philip
2017-07-01
The quantum Hall (QH) effect supports a set of chiral edge states at the boundary of a two-dimensional system. A superconductor (SC) contacting these states can provide correlations of the quasiparticles in the dissipationless edge states. Here we fabricated highly transparent and nanometre-scale SC junctions to graphene. We demonstrate that the QH edge states can couple via superconducting correlations through the SC electrode narrower than the superconducting coherence length. We observe that the chemical potential of the edge state exhibits a sign reversal across the SC electrode. This provides direct evidence of conversion of the incoming electron to the outgoing hole along the chiral edge state, termed crossed Andreev conversion (CAC). We show that CAC can successfully describe the temperature, bias and SC electrode width dependences. This hybrid SC/QH system could provide a novel route to create isolated non-Abelian anyonic zero modes, in resonance with the chiral edge states.
Quantum Probability Cancellation Due to a Single-Photon State
Ou, Z. Y.
1996-01-01
When an N-photon state enters a lossless symmetric beamsplitter from one input port, the photon distribution for the two output ports has the form of Bernouli Binormial, with highest probability at equal partition (N/2 at one outport and N/2 at the other). However, injection of a single photon state at the other input port can dramatically change the photon distribution at the outputs, resulting in zero probability at equal partition. Such a strong deviation from classical particle theory stems from quantum probability amplitude cancellation. The effect persists even if the N-photon state is replaced by an arbitrary state of light. A special case is the coherent state which corresponds to homodyne detection of a single photon state and can lead to the measurement of the wave function of a single photon state.
Random matrix theory and critical phenomena in quantum spin chains
Hutchinson, J.; Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.
2015-09-01
We compute critical properties of a general class of quantum spin chains which are quadratic in the Fermi operators and can be solved exactly under certain symmetry constraints related to the classical compact groups $U(N)$, $O(N)$ and $Sp(2N)$. In particular we calculate critical exponents $s$, $\
An effective Hamiltonian approach to quantum random walk
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-02-09
Feb 9, 2017 ... We showed that in the case of two-step walk, the time evolution operator effectively can have multiplicative form. In the case of a square lattice, quantum walk has been studied computationally for different coins and the results for both the additive and the multiplica- tive approaches have been compared.
Sun, Wen-Yang; Wang, Dong; Ding, Zhi-Yong; Ye, Liu
2017-12-01
In this letter, we mainly investigate the dynamic behavior of quantum steering and how to effectively recover the lost steerability of quantum states within non-Markovian environments. We consider two different cases (one-subsystem or all-subsystem interaction with dissipative environments), and find that the dynamical interaction between a system initialized by a Werner state and a non-Markovian environment can induce quasi-periodic quantum entanglement (concurrence) resurgence, however, quantum steering cannot be retrieved in such a condition. We also find that the resurgent quantum entanglement cannot be utilized to achieve quantum steering. Subsequently, we put forward a feasible physical scheme for recovering the steerability of quantum states within non-Markovian noises by prior weak measurement on each subsystem before interaction with dissipative environments, followed by post weak measurement reversal. It is shown that the steerability of quantum states and fidelity can be effectively restored. Furthermore, the results show that the larger the weak measurement strength, the better the effectiveness of the scheme. Consequently, our investigations might be beneficial to recover the lost steerability of quantum states within non-Markovian regimes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus
2009-01-01
We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum...... and the classical correlations and we relate our quantitative finding to the so-called classical correlation locked in a quantum state. We derive upper bounds for the sum of classical correlation obtained by measurements in different mutually unbiased bases and we show that the complementarity gap is also present...... in the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit....
Knowledge-Concealing Evidencing of Knowledge About a Quantum State
Adlam, Emily; Kent, Adrian
2018-01-01
Bob has a black box that emits a single pure state qudit which is, from his perspective, uniformly distributed. Alice wishes to give Bob evidence that she has knowledge about the emitted state while giving him little or no information about it. We show that zero-knowledge evidencing of such knowledge is impossible in quantum relativistic protocols, extending a previous result of Horodecki, Horodecki, and Horodecki. We also show that no such protocol can be both sound and complete. We present a new quantum relativistic protocol which we conjecture to be close to optimal in security against Alice and which reveals little knowledge to Bob, for large dimension d . We analyze its security against general attacks by Bob and restricted attacks by Alice.
Quantum Decoherence Timescales for Ionic Superposition States in Ion Channels
Salari, V; Fazileh, F; Shahbazi, F
2014-01-01
There are many controversial and challenging discussions about quantum effects in microscopic structures in neurons of the human brain. The challenge is mainly because of quick decoherence of quantum states due to hot, wet and noisy environment of the brain which forbids long life coherence for brain processing. Despite these critical discussions, there are only a few number of published papers about numerical aspects of decoherence in neurons. Perhaps the most important issue is offered by Max Tegmark who has calculated decoherence times for the systems of "ions" and "microtubules" in neurons of the brain. In fact, Tegmark did not consider ion channels which are responsible for ions displacement through the membrane and are the building blocks of electrical membrane signals in the nervous system. Here, we would like to re-investigate decoherence times for ionic superposition states by using the data obtained via molecular dynamics simulations. Our main approach is according to what Tegmark has used before. I...
Construction of state-independent proofs for quantum contextuality
Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia
2017-12-01
Since the enlightening proofs of quantum contextuality first established by Kochen and Specker, and also by Bell, various simplified proofs have been constructed to exclude the noncontextual hidden variable theory of our nature at the microscopic scale. The conflict between the noncontextual hidden variable theory and quantum mechanics is commonly revealed by Kochen-Specker sets of yes-no tests, represented by projectors (or rays), via either logical contradictions or noncontextuality inequalities in a state-(in)dependent manner. Here we propose a systematic and programmable construction of a state-independent proof from a given set of nonspecific rays in C3 according to their Gram matrix. This approach brings us a greater convenience in the experimental arrangements. Besides, our proofs in C3 can also be generalized to any higher-dimensional systems by a recursive method.
Cornering Gapless Quantum States via Their Torus Entanglement.
Witczak-Krempa, William; Hayward Sierens, Lauren E; Melko, Roger G
2017-02-17
The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ. Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs. Our numerical lattice calculations show that the Ansätze are highly accurate. Finally, we discuss how the torus EE can act as a fingerprint of exotic states such as gapless quantum spin liquids, e.g., Kitaev's honeycomb model.
Cornering Gapless Quantum States via Their Torus Entanglement
Witczak-Krempa, William; Hayward Sierens, Lauren E.; Melko, Roger G.
2017-02-01
The entanglement entropy (EE) has emerged as an important window into the structure of complex quantum states of matter. We analyze the universal part of the EE for gapless systems on tori in 2D and 3D, denoted by χ . Focusing on scale-invariant systems, we derive general nonperturbative properties for the shape dependence of χ and reveal surprising relations to the EE associated with corners in the entangling surface. We obtain closed-form expressions for χ in 2D and 3D within a model that arises in the study of conformal field theories (CFTs), and we use them to obtain Ansätze without fitting parameters for the 2D and 3D free boson CFTs. Our numerical lattice calculations show that the Ansätze are highly accurate. Finally, we discuss how the torus EE can act as a fingerprint of exotic states such as gapless quantum spin liquids, e.g., Kitaev's honeycomb model.
Quantum secret sharing using orthogonal multiqudit entangled states
Bai, Chen-Ming; Li, Zhi-Hui; Liu, Cheng-Ji; Li, Yong-Ming
2017-12-01
In this work, we investigate the distinguishability of orthogonal multiqudit entangled states under restricted local operations and classical communication. According to these properties, we propose a quantum secret sharing scheme to realize three types of access structures, i.e., the ( n, n)-threshold, the restricted (3, n)-threshold and restricted (4, n)-threshold schemes (called LOCC-QSS scheme). All cooperating players in the restricted threshold schemes are from two disjoint groups. In the proposed protocol, the participants use the computational basis measurement and classical communication to distinguish between those orthogonal states and reconstruct the original secret. Furthermore, we also analyze the security of our scheme in four primary quantum attacks and give a simple encoding method in order to better prevent the participant conspiracy attack.
Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.
Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad
2016-11-12
We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.
Simple variational ground state and pure-cat-state generation in the quantum Rabi model
Leroux, C.; Govia, L. C. G.; Clerk, A. A.
2017-10-01
We introduce a simple, physically motivated variational ground state for the quantum Rabi model and demonstrate that it provides a high-fidelity approximation of the true ground state in all parameter regimes (including intermediate- and strong-coupling regimes). Our variational state is constructed using Gaussian cavity states and nonorthogonal qubit pointer states and contains only three variational parameters. We use our state to develop a heuristic understanding of how the ground state evolves with increasing coupling and find a parameter regime where the ground state corresponds to the cavity being in a nearly pure Schrödinger cat state.
Initial-State Graviton Radiation in Quantum Black Hole Production
AUTHOR|(CDS)2262067
2017-01-01
Monte Carlo simulation of quantum black hole production in the ATLAS experiment that allows for graviton radiation in the initial state is discussed and studied. It is concluded that, using trapped surface calculations and graviton emission, a black hole signal would be significant for Planck scales up to 4.5 TeV given a proton-proton luminosity of 37 fb$^{-1}$ in the 13 TeV LHC configuration.
A quantum bound-state description of black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefan Hofmann
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A relativistic framework for the description of bound states consisting of a large number of quantum constituents is presented, and applied to black-hole interiors. At the parton level, the constituent distribution, number and energy density inside black holes are calculated, and gauge corrections are discussed. A simple scaling relation between the black-hole mass and constituent number is established.
On the convergence of quantum resonant-state expansion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, J. M.; Bahl, A. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Jakobsen, P. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, Tromsø (Norway); Moloney, J. V.; Kolesik, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, 1630 East University Boulevard, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Arizona Center for Mathematical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)
2016-03-15
Completeness of the system of Stark resonant states is investigated for a one-dimensional quantum particle with the Dirac-delta potential exposed to an external homogeneous field. It is shown that the resonant series representation of a given wavefunction converges on the negative real axis while the series diverges on the positive axis. Despite the divergent nature of the resonant expansion, good approximations can be obtained in a compact spatial domain.
Theoretical Study of Solid State Quantum Information Processing
2013-08-28
Implementing a topological quantum model using a cavity lattice , Science China Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy, (07 2012): 0. doi: 10.1007/s11433... Rabi frequency as a function of the magnetic field for sufficiently large Zeeman energies, which can alternatively be interpreted as the magnetic...DQD), where coherent Rabi oscillations between the singlet and triplet states are induced by jittering the inter-dot distance at the resonance
Quasi-Superradiant Soliton State of Matter in Quantum Metamaterials
Asai, H.; Kawabata, S.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Savel'ev, S. E.
2016-01-01
Strong interaction of a system of quantum emitters (e.g., two-level atoms) with electromagnetic field induces specific correlations in the system accompanied by a drastic insrease of emitted radiation (superradiation or superfluorescence). Despite the fact that since its prediction this phenomenon was subject to a vigorous experimental and theoretical research, there remain open question, in particular, concerning the possibility of a first order phase transition to the superradiant state fro...
Asymptotic estimation of shift parameter of a quantum state
Holevo, A. S.
2003-01-01
We develop an asymptotic theory of estimation of a shift parameter in a pure quantum state to study the relation between entangled and unentangled covariant estimates in the analytically most transparent way. After recollecting basics of estimation of shift parameter in Sec. 2, we study the structure of the optimal covariant estimate in Sec. 3, showing how entanglement comes into play for several independent trials. In Secs. 4,5 we give the asymptotics of the performance of the optimal covari...
Resource theory of quantum states out of thermal equilibrium.
Brandão, Fernando G S L; Horodecki, Michał; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Renes, Joseph M; Spekkens, Robert W
2013-12-20
The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here, we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.
Coherent states and parasupersymmetric quantum mechanics
Debergh, Nathalie
1992-01-01
It is well known that Parafermi and Parabose statistics are natural extensions of the usual Fermi and Bose ones, enhancing trilinear (anti)commutation relations instead of bilinear ones. Due to this generalization, positive parameters appear: the so-called orders of paraquantization p (= 1, 2, 3, ...) and h sub 0 (= 1/2, 1, 3/2, ...), respectively, the first value leading in each case to the usual statistics. The superpostion of the parabosonic and parafermionic operators gives rise to parasupermultiplets for which mixed trilinear relations have already been studied leading to two (nonequivalent) sets: the relative Parabose and the relative Parafermi ones. For the specific values p = 1 = 2h sub 0, these sets reduce to the well known supersymmetry. Coherent states associated with this last model have been recently put in evidence through the annihilation operator point of view and the group theoretical approach or displacement operator context. We propose to realize the corresponding studies within the new context p = 2 = 2h sub 0, being then directly extended to any order of paraquantization.
Many Worlds, the Cluster-state Quantum Computer, and the Problem of the Preferred Basis
Cuffaro, Michael
2011-01-01
I argue that the many worlds explanation of quantum computation is not licensed by, and in fact is conceptually inferior to, the many worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics from which it is derived. I argue that the many worlds explanation of quantum computation is incompatible with the recently developed cluster state model of quantum computation. Based on these considerations I conclude that we should reject the many worlds explanation of quantum computation.
A New Quantum Proxy Multi-signature Scheme Using Maximally Entangled Seven-Qubit States
Cao, Hai-Jing; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Liu, Jian; Li, Zeng-You
2016-02-01
In this paper, we propose a new secure quantum proxy multi-signature scheme using seven-qubit entangled quantum state as quantum channels, which may have applications in e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. This scheme is based on controlled quantum teleportation. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to guarantee its anonymity, verifiability, traceability, unforgetability and undeniability.
Tunable refraction in a two-dimensional quantum-state metamaterial
Everitt, M. J.; Samson, J. H.; Savel'ev, S. E.; Wilson, R.; Zagoskin, A. M.; Spiller, T. P.
2014-08-01
In this paper we consider a two-dimensional quantum-state metamaterial comprising an array of qubits (two-level quantum objects). Here we propose that it should be possible to manipulate the propagation of quantum information. We show that a quantum metamaterial such as the one considered here exhibits several different modes of operation, which we have termed Aharonov-Bohm, intermediate, and quantum-Zeno. We also see interesting behavior which could be thought of as either quantum birefringence (where the material acts like a beam splitter) as well as the emergence of quantum correlations in the circuit's measurement statistics. Quantum-state metamaterials as proposed here may be fabricated from a variety of technologies from superconducting qubits to quantum dots and would be readily testable in existing state-of-the-art laboratories.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2017-04-11
We propose a dressed-state scheme to achieve shortcuts to adiabaticity in atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics for speeding up adiabatic two-atom quantum state transfer and maximum entanglement generation. Compared with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the dressed-state scheme greatly shortens the operation time in a non-adiabatic way. By means of some numerical simulations, we determine the parameters which can guarantee the feasibility and efficiency both in theory and experiment. Besides, numerical simulations also show the scheme is robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the photon leakages from the cavity.
Wu, Jin-Lei; Ji, Xin; Zhang, Shou
2017-04-01
We propose a dressed-state scheme to achieve shortcuts to adiabaticity in atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics for speeding up adiabatic two-atom quantum state transfer and maximum entanglement generation. Compared with stimulated Raman adiabatic passage, the dressed-state scheme greatly shortens the operation time in a non-adiabatic way. By means of some numerical simulations, we determine the parameters which can guarantee the feasibility and efficiency both in theory and experiment. Besides, numerical simulations also show the scheme is robust against the variations in the parameters, atomic spontaneous emissions and the photon leakages from the cavity.
Mixed-state certification of quantum capacities for noisy communication channels
Macchiavello, Chiara; Sacchi, Massimiliano F.
2018-01-01
We extend a recent method to detect lower bounds to the quantum capacity of quantum communication channels by considering realistic scenarios with general input probe states and arbitrary detection procedures at the output. Realistic certification relies on a bound for the coherent information of a quantum channel that can be applied with arbitrary bipartite mixed input states and generalized output measurements.
Andreev bound states probed in three-terminal quantum dots
Gramich, J.; Baumgartner, A.; Schönenberger, C.
2017-11-01
Andreev bound states (ABSs) are well-defined many-body quantum states that emerge from the hybridization of individual quantum dot (QD) states with a superconductor and exhibit very rich and fundamental phenomena. We demonstrate several electron transport phenomena mediated by ABSs that form on three-terminal carbon nanotube (CNT) QDs, with one superconducting (S) contact in the center and two adjacent normal-metal (N) contacts. Three-terminal spectroscopy allows us to identify the coupling to the N contacts as the origin of the Andreev resonance (AR) linewidths and to determine the critical coupling strengths to S, for which a ground state (or quantum phase) transition in such S-QD systems can occur. In addition, we ascribe replicas of the lowest-energy ABS resonance to transitions between the ABS and odd-parity excited QD states, a process we call excited state ABS resonances. In the conductance between the two N contacts we find a characteristic pattern of positive and negative differential subgap conductance, which we explain by considering two nonlocal processes, the creation of Cooper pairs in S by electrons from both N terminals, and a transport mechanism we call resonant ABS tunneling, possible only in multiterminal QD devices. In the latter process, electrons are transferred via the ABS without effectively creating Cooper pairs in S. The three-terminal geometry also allows spectroscopy experiments with different boundary conditions, for example by leaving S floating. Surprisingly, we find that, depending on the boundary conditions and the device parameters, the experiments either show single-particle Coulomb blockade resonances, ABS characteristics, or both in the same measurements, seemingly contradicting the notion of ABSs replacing the single-particle states as eigenstates of the QD. We qualitatively explain these results as originating from the finite time scale required for the coherent oscillations between the superposition states after a single
Simple scheme for expanding photonic cluster states for quantum information
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kalasuwan, P.; Laing, A.; Coggins, J.; Callaway, M.; O' Brien, J. L. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Mendoza, G. [Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol, BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Nagata, T.; Takeuchi, S. [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Mihogaoka 8-1, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Stefanov, A. [Federal Office of Metrology METAS, Laboratory Time and Frequency, Lindenweg 50, 3084 Wabern (Switzerland)
2010-06-15
We show how an entangled cluster state encoded in the polarization of single photons can be straightforwardly expanded by deterministically entangling additional qubits encoded in the path degree of freedom of the constituent photons. This can be achieved using a polarization-path controlled-phase gate. We experimentally demonstrate a practical and stable realization of this approach by using a Sagnac interferometer to entangle a path qubit and polarization qubit on a single photon. We demonstrate precise control over phase of the path qubit to change the measurement basis and experimentally demonstrate properties of measurement-based quantum computing using a two-photon, three-qubit cluster state.
Quantum State Discrimination Using the Minimum Average Number of Copies.
Slussarenko, Sergei; Weston, Morgan M; Li, Jun-Gang; Campbell, Nicholas; Wiseman, Howard M; Pryde, Geoff J
2017-01-20
In the task of discriminating between nonorthogonal quantum states from multiple copies, the key parameters are the error probability and the resources (number of copies) used. Previous studies have considered the task of minimizing the average error probability for fixed resources. Here we introduce a new state discrimination task: minimizing the average resources for a fixed admissible error probability. We show that this new task is not performed optimally by previously known strategies, and derive and experimentally test a detection scheme that performs better.
2D Multipartite Valence Bond States in Quantum Antiferromagnets
Rico, E
2007-01-01
A quantum anti-ferromagnetic spin-1 model is characterised on a 2D lattice with the following requirements: i) The Hamiltonian is made out of nearest neighbour interactions. ii) It is homogeneous, translational and rotational invariant. iii) The ground state is a real singlet state of SU(2) (non-chiral). iv) It has a local spin-1 representation. Along the way to characterise the system, connections with classical statistical mechanics and integrable models are explored. Finally, the relevance of the model in the physics of low dimensional anti-ferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulators is discussed.
Quantum blind signature based on Two-State Vector Formalism
Qi, Su; Zheng, Huang; Qiaoyan, Wen; Wenmin, Li
2010-11-01
Two-State Vector Formalism (TSVF) including pre- and postselected states is a complete description of a system between two measurements. Consequently TSVF gives a perfect solution to the Mean King problem. In this paper, utilizing the dramatic correlation in the verification, we propose a quantum blind signature scheme based on TSVF. Compared with Wen's scheme, our scheme has 100% efficiency. Our scheme guarantees the unconditional security. Moreover, the proposed scheme, which is easy to implement, can be applied to E-payment system.
A weak energy stationary action principle for quantum state evolution
Parks, A. D.
2003-06-01
It is shown that the actual paths in Hilbert space followed by a finite set of n geq 2 quantum states evolving between initial and final end point configurations are such that an associated weak energy functional defined by Pancharatnam phases and state separation distances in projective Hilbert space determined by the generalized Fubini-Study metric is stationary for all variations of these phases, separations and time which vanish at the end points. Noether's theorem is used to identify two weak energy conservation laws which are shown to be the analogues of the momentum and energy conservation laws of Langrangian mechanics.
A weak energy stationary action principle for quantum state evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parks, A D [Quantum Processing Group, Systems Research and Technology Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Dahlgren, VA 22448 (United States)
2003-06-27
It is shown that the actual paths in Hilbert space followed by a finite set of n {>=} 2 quantum states evolving between initial and final end point configurations are such that an associated weak energy functional defined by Pancharatnam phases and state separation distances in projective Hilbert space determined by the generalized Fubini-Study metric is stationary for all variations of these phases, separations and time which vanish at the end points. Noether's theorem is used to identify two weak energy conservation laws which are shown to be the analogues of the momentum and energy conservation laws of Langrangian mechanics.
From quantum stochastic differential equations to Gisin-Percival state diffusion
Parthasarathy, K. R.; Usha Devi, A. R.
2017-08-01
Starting from the quantum stochastic differential equations of Hudson and Parthasarathy [Commun. Math. Phys. 93, 301 (1984)] and exploiting the Wiener-Itô-Segal isomorphism between the boson Fock reservoir space Γ (L2(R+ ) ⊗(Cn⊕Cn ) ) and the Hilbert space L2(μ ) , where μ is the Wiener probability measure of a complex n-dimensional vector-valued standard Brownian motion {B (t ) ,t ≥0 } , we derive a non-linear stochastic Schrödinger equation describing a classical diffusion of states of a quantum system, driven by the Brownian motion B. Changing this Brownian motion by an appropriate Girsanov transformation, we arrive at the Gisin-Percival state diffusion equation [N. Gisin and J. Percival, J. Phys. A 167, 315 (1992)]. This approach also yields an explicit solution of the Gisin-Percival equation, in terms of the Hudson-Parthasarathy unitary process and a randomized Weyl displacement process. Irreversible dynamics of system density operators described by the well-known Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad master equation is unraveled by coarse-graining over the Gisin-Percival quantum state trajectories.
Xu, Kebiao; Xie, Tianyu; Li, Zhaokai; Xu, Xiangkun; Wang, Mengqi; Ye, Xiangyu; Kong, Fei; Geng, Jianpei; Duan, Changkui; Shi, Fazhan; Du, Jiangfeng
2017-03-31
The adiabatic quantum computation is a universal and robust method of quantum computing. In this architecture, the problem can be solved by adiabatically evolving the quantum processor from the ground state of a simple initial Hamiltonian to that of a final one, which encodes the solution of the problem. Adiabatic quantum computation has been proved to be a compatible candidate for scalable quantum computation. In this Letter, we report on the experimental realization of an adiabatic quantum algorithm on a single solid spin system under ambient conditions. All elements of adiabatic quantum computation, including initial state preparation, adiabatic evolution (simulated by optimal control), and final state read-out, are realized experimentally. As an example, we found the ground state of the problem Hamiltonian S_{z}I_{z} on our adiabatic quantum processor, which can be mapped to the factorization of 35 into its prime factors 5 and 7.
Quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond
Hou, P.-Y.; Huang, Y.-Y.; Yuan, X.-X.; Chang, X.-Y.; Zu, C.; He, L.; Duan, L.-M.
2016-01-01
With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Here, building on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6±1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science. PMID:27240553
Liu, Tang-Kun; Tao, Yu; Shan, Chuan-Jia; Liu, Ji-bing
2017-10-01
Using the three criterions of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord, we investigate the quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics of two two-level atoms interacting with the coherent state optical field. We discuss the influence of different photon number of the mean square fluctuations on the temporal evolution of the concurrence, the negative eigenvalue and the geometric quantum discord between two atoms when the two atoms are initially in specific three states. The results show that different photon number of the mean square fluctuations can lead to different effects of quantum entanglement and quantum correlation dynamics.
Quantum renormalization group for ground-state fidelity
Langari, A.; Rezakhani, A. T.
2012-05-01
Ground-state fidelity (GSF) and quantum renormalization group (QRG) theory have proven to be useful tools in the study of quantum critical systems. Here we lay out a general, unified formalism of GSF and QRG; specifically, we propose a method for calculating GSF through QRG, obviating the need for calculating or approximating ground states. This method thus enhances the characterization of quantum criticality as well as scaling analysis of relevant properties with system size. We illustrate the formalism in the one-dimensional Ising model in a transverse field (ITF) and the anisotropic spin-1/2 Heisenberg (XXZ) model. Explicitly, we find the scaling behavior of the GSF for the ITF model in both small- and large-size limits, the corresponding critical exponents, the exact value of the GSF in the thermodynamic limit and a closed form for the GSF for arbitrary size and system parameters. In the case of the XXZ model, we also present an analytic expression for the GSF, which captures well the criticality of the model, hence excluding doubts that GSF might be an insufficient tool for signaling criticality in this model.
Toward quantum state tomography of a single polariton state of an atomic ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, S.L.; Béguin, J.B.; Sørensen, H.L.
2013-01-01
We present a proposal and a feasibility study for the creation and quantum state tomography of a single polariton state of an atomic ensemble. The collective non-classical and non-Gaussian state of the ensemble is generated by detection of a single forward-scattered photon. The state is subsequen...... the feasibility of the proposed method for the detection of a non-classical and non-Gaussian state of the mesoscopic atomic ensemble. This work represents the first attempt at hybrid discrete-continuous variable quantum state processing with atomic memories....... is subsequently characterized by atomic state tomography performed using strong dispersive light-atom interaction followed by a homodyne measurement on the transmitted light. The proposal is backed by preliminary experimental results showing projection noise limited sensitivity and a simulation demonstrating...
States of Physical Systems in Classical and Quantum Mechanics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
quantum information theory. 3 R Simon research interests are in quantum information science and quantum optics. 4 N Mukunda interests are in classical and quantum ... Introduction. The basic mathematical structures encountered in clas- sical and in quantum mechanics are very different from one another, so it is probably ...
Efficient Biologically Inspired Photocell Enhanced by Delocalized Quantum States
Creatore, C.; Parker, M. A.; Emmott, S.; Chin, A. W.
2013-12-01
Artificially implementing the biological light reactions responsible for the remarkably efficient photon-to-charge conversion in photosynthetic complexes represents a new direction for the future development of photovoltaic devices. Here, we develop such a paradigm and present a model photocell based on the nanoscale architecture and molecular elements of photosynthetic reaction centers. Quantum interference of photon absorption and emission induced by the dipole-dipole interaction between molecular excited states guarantees an enhanced light-to-current conversion and power generation for a wide range of electronic, thermal, and optical parameters for optimized dipolar geometries. This result opens a promising new route for designing artificial light-harvesting devices inspired by biological photosynthesis and quantum technologies.
Solid state photoluminescence thermoplastic starch film containing graphene quantum dots.
Javanbakht, Siamak; Namazi, Hassan
2017-11-15
Fluorescent polymer films, a matrix of thermoplastic starch (TPS) based bio-polymer and graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were fabricated by a casting method. The GQDs provide solid state fluorescent properties to the prepared thermoplastic starch graphene quantum dots (TPS/GQD). The fluorescent, thermal, mechanical and optical properties of TPS/GQD were investigated. High optical transparency (88-91%) and well dispersion of GQDs (1-17wt%) in the polymeric matrix of TPS/GQD nanocomposite was observed. The maximum photoluminescence intensity of materials has been obtained at 50wt% of GQD content. These materials have great potential to use in flexible electronic displays, light emitting diodes (LED), GQD-LED packaging and other optoelectronics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.